WorldWideScience

Sample records for spotlight school status

  1. School Shootings in Policy Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

  2. American high school students shine a spotlight on CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Between 2 and 7 April eighteen American high school students were let loose at CERN armed with video cameras. Their mission? To take on the role of broadcast journalists and inspire their peers across the US with short documentaries and blogs illuminating the work happening at the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. Members of the teams of budding physicists and broadcast journalists pose in front of the ATLAS detector.Following in the footsteps of professional journalists around the world, six teams of American high school students recently travelled to CERN to experience the increasing excitement in the run-up to the switch-on of the LHC. The six teams are from five states across the US and were the winners of a competition sponsored and funded by the US Department of Energy’s Office of Science and the National Science Foundation. Each team consists of three students plus a teacher, who combine their knowledge of ph...

  3. Spotlight on Schools. AMAL Aleph Arts and Sciences Technological High School, Petach Tikva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Dina

    1998-01-01

    Israel's AMAL Aleph High School combines advanced technology with regular high school academic studies. This article describes how one English-as-a-Second-Language teacher joined a project to develop an online English student magazine for the Center for Educational Technology Internet site, then used to the project to improve students' English…

  4. Spotlight on RESA 6: Regional Implementation of the Learning School Initiative. Catalyst Schools Research Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    2016-01-01

    West Virginia's Regional Education Service Agency 6 (RESA 6) serves five districts in the northern panhandle of the state--Brooke, Hancock, Marshall, Ohio, and Wetzel--which together are home to 51 schools. RESA 6 joined the pilot implementation of the Learning School approach in the summer of 2015, as part of the second cohort. RESA 6's group…

  5. Spotlight on RESA 2: Regional Implementation of the Learning School Initiative. Catalyst Schools Research Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    2016-01-01

    West Virginia's Regional Education Service Agency 2 (RESA 2) serves six districts in the southwestern part of the state--Cabell, Lincoln, Logan, Mason, Mingo, Wayne--which together have 95 schools. RESA 2 was one of two RESAs to pilot implementation of the Learning School approach, beginning in the summer of 2014. RESA 2's first cohort included…

  6. THE CURRENT STATUS OF MAPPING IN THE WORLD – SPOTLIGHT ON OCEANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Trinder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A summary is presented of the results of questionnaires sent to mapping agencies in Oceania, covering Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Island countries, to investigate the status of mapping in those countries. After World War II, the Australian Federal Government funded the initial small scale mapping of the whole country leading to increased percentages of map coverage of Australia. Mapping at larger scales is undertaken by the states and territories in Australia, including cadastral mapping. In New Zealand mapping is maintained by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ at 1:50,000 scale and smaller with regular updating. The results of the questionnaires also demonstrate the extent of map coverage in six Pacific Islands, but there is little information available on the actual percent coverage. Overall there are estimated to be an increases in the percentages of coverage of most map scales in Oceania. However, there appear to be insufficient professionals in most Pacific Island countries to maintain the mapping programs. Given that many Pacific Island countries will be impacted by rising sea level in the future, better mapping of these countries is essential. The availability of modern technology especially satellite images, digital aerial photography and airborne lidar data should enable the Pacific Island countries to provide better map products in future, but this would depend on foreign aid on many occasions.

  7. Black Achievers' Experiences with Racial Spotlighting and Ignoring in a Predominantly White High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter Andrews, Dorinda J.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Despite a history of racial oppression and degradation in U.S. schools, African Americans have responded to racism and discrimination in ways that promote educational attainment and school success. Many Black adolescents have been empowered to succeed academically partly because of their awareness of racist practices in…

  8. Course Placement Series: Spotlight on High School Math Course Enrollment. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Tennessee Department of Education explored course enrollment patterns in an effort to better understand in which courses students are enrolling and whether course enrollment policies and procedures are promoting students' interests. This report focuses on math course enrollment patterns throughout high school by following the 2013-14 twelfth…

  9. Factors Associated with High School Learners' Poor Performance: A Spotlight on Mathematics and Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makgato, Moses; Mji, Andile

    2006-01-01

    This study, using a non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive method, established learners' and educators' views about factors that contribute to poor performance in mathematics and physical science. Participants were purposefully selected from seven schools with poor pass rates in District 3 of Tshwane North. Focused group interviews with ten…

  10. Spotlight: Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriquin, W

    1988-04-01

    In Zimbabwe, a reproductive health survey conducted in 1984 revealed the highest rate of contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa -- 38% of currently married women were using some form of family planning and 27% a modern contraceptive method. The majority of Zimbabwe's population, a country formerly known a Rhodesia, is African, but there also are about 100,000 whites, 20,000 persons of mixed race, and 10,000 Asians. Robert Mugabe formed the 1st government of Zimbabwe as a result of elections held in February 1980. Since independence, rifts have developed between the black nationalist leaders -- Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo -- and continues. Some guerrilla activity has occurred in rural areas and antigovernment dissidence creating security and economic problems. Zimbabwe has a broad range of natural resources -- large mineral deposits including coal, asbestos, copper, nickel, gold, and iron ore. In addition to a well-developed electrical power network, there is a good infrastructure of paved roads and a vital railroad link with neighboring South Africa. Due to the trade sanctions imposed between 1965 and independence, the country has had to look inward for production. The manufacturing sector is well developed as is agriculture. The government identifies the country's most urgent problems as the resettlement of displaced persons and reconstruction of roads, health establishments, and schools destroyed during guerrilla activity.

  11. Spotlight: Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, J C

    1988-05-01

    Afghanistan is a landlocked country approximately the size of Texas with an estimated population of 14.5 million. The fertility level (6.7 children per women) is estimated to be very high, as is the mortality rate (183 infant deaths/1,000 live births). Demographic data sources are scarce, and current estimates are based on a 1972-1974 series of surveys and a 1979 census which enumerated only 55-60% of the population. The government of Afghanistan, a Marxist state, has asked for international aid to improve data collection and analysis. Compounding the problems of accurate data collection is the state of civil war that has existed in Afghanistan since the Marxist coup in in 1978 and Soviet occupation in 1979. The war impelled the emigration of 5 million refugees, who live in camps in neighboring Pakistan and Iran. Although the population decline that resulted from this emigration is significant, the repatriation of the refugees will play a role in determining the population dynamics for the next decade, as will the withdrawal of Soviet troops -- expected in 1990. Because of Afghanistan's central-Asia location, there is a unique ethnic and linguistic mixture of tribes. The largest group is the Pushtus, who make up 40% of the population. Afghan Persian and Pushtu are the dominant languages, and 98% of all Afghans are Moslem. The economy is largely agricultural and half the cultivated land must be irrigated. 85% of the population live in rural areas and another 2.5 million are nomads. The low status of women and female children, low levels of health care, and high fertility contribute to the lower life expectancy of females over males. Although the government supports contraceptive services, such services are inadequate, and sterilization is illegal. The withdrawal of Soviet troops and the possible end to civil war between the Kabul government and the rebel factions, and the effects of repatriation of refugees will determine the direction of Afghanistan's future

  12. Spotlight: Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriquin, W

    1988-03-01

    Focus is on Malaysia -- its population and land area, its total fertility rate and mortality rate, economic development, contraceptive usage, and population policy. In 1987 Malaysia's population was estimated to be 16.1 million with births 31/1000 population and deaths 7/1000 population. The rate of natural increase is 2.4%, the total fertility rate 3.9 children/woman, and the infant mortality rate 30/1000 live births. Ethnically, Malaysia is made up of several distinct groups. Indigenous Malays are the most numerous -- about 50% of the population. Their unique characteristics include that they are Moslem, rural, and usually of lower economic status. Chinese make up the 2nd largest group of Malaysians, nearly 1/3 of the population. This group is active in trade, business, and finance and possesses considerable economic power. About 10% of the population is of Indian descent. Malaysia has experienced much economic growth. Traditional exports grew in volume and value during the 1970; the petroleum sector expanded so rapidly it accounts for 1/4 of all exports. One reason for Malaysia's rapid economic growth is the government's promotion of industrialization and foreign investment. According to the 1982 contraceptive prevalence survey, 42% of currently married women 15-44 years were using contraception. The government considers the current rate of national increase to be satisfactory, but in 1984 it adopted a population policy to more than quadruple its population in 2100 to 70 million. It intends to accomplish this by instituting pronatalist incentives to help the fall in the national growth rate. The government's rationale for more population growth is that a larger domestic population could better support industrial growth that otherwise might be stymied by "protectionist policies practiced by developed countries." Incentives to encourage fertility include income-tax deductions and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children.

  13. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  14. NEUTRINOS: Moriond spotlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcov, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The regular 'Rencontres de Moriond' meetings in the French Alps, which celebrate their 25th anniversary this year, have a strong tradition of reflecting new trends in physics thinking and January's session on 'Tests of Fundamental Laws in Physics' was no exception. The spotlight this time fell on the neutrino sector, a branch of physics frequently in evolution, if not controversial

  15. Dental school finances: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, W H

    1986-05-01

    Total expenditures and revenues of 58 US dental school were derived from reports of the ADA Division of Educational Measurements. These financial data were studied by type of dental school (public, state-related private, and private) and by expenditure/revenue categories. Dental schools showed little diversity in expenditures: most were directed toward instruction; few were directed toward research or continuing education. Several distinctive patterns among the three types of dental schools in revenues were observed. Two configurations emerged: public and state-related private dental schools receive more than 75% of their revenues from government and tuition, and private dental schools, more than 50%.

  16. Tax Exempt Status of Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manville, Phyllis

    1982-01-01

    Recounts actions of the Internal Revenue Service and the federal government from 1965 to 1982 involving tax exempt status and racially discriminatory schools. Traces federal court decisions on the issue since 1970, including "Green v. Connally" and current Supreme Court cases involving Bob Jones University (South Carolina) and Goldsboro…

  17. Living in the spotlight

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Just a few weeks ago, we celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. It gave me my first opportunity since taking up my mandate to see first hand what CERN’s newfound public profile means in practice. There were over 60 media from around the world present at CERN for the event, and some 900 reports in the media over the following days. Some weeks before, Sony pictures held a press event for their upcoming movie, Angels and Demons, part of which takes place at CERN. That happened during the same week that we published the new LHC schedule, and it was the LHC that got the most media coverage. So what does this mean for how we carry out our daily work? Particle physics has always operated in a fully open and transparent way. It’s in our DNA to do so. Meetings are open to all comers, and it is important that we continue to foster such a culture of transparency. Nevertheless, we need to be aware that we are much more in the public spotlight than ever before....

  18. Status of Secondary School Libraries under the Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken in Dodoma Municipal, Tanzania in order to assess the development and status of school library services under the Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP). The study involved 44 secondary schools, 186 teachers, 44 heads of schools, 16 school librarians, one Regional Education Officer, ...

  19. Spotlight on Spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin County Board of Education, Elizabethtown, KY.

    Word lists and class activities are suggested for improving the spelling of elementary school students. The word lists contain rhyming words, antonyms, synonyms, homonyms, 100 spelling demons, look-alike words that are easily confused, and content area words (for geography, mathematics, science, sports, music, social studies). The suggested…

  20. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • Evaluation and modeling of light water reactor accident tolerant fuel concepts • Status and results of recent TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiations, post-irradiation examinations, high-temperature safety testing to demonstrate the accident performance of this fuel system, and advanced microscopy to improve the understanding of fission product transport in this fuel system. • Improvements in and applications of meso and engineering scale modeling of light water reactor fuel behavior under a range of operating conditions and postulated accidents (e.g., power ramping, loss of coolant accident, and reactivity initiated accidents) using the MARMOT and BISON codes. • Novel measurements of the properties of nuclear (actinide) materials under extreme conditions, (e.g. high pressure, low/high temperatures, high magnetic field) to improve the scientific understanding of these materials. • Modeling reactor pressure vessel behavior using the GRIZZLY code. • New methods using sound to sense temperature inside a reactor core. • Improved experimental capabilities to study the response of fusion reactor materials to a tritium plasma. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at Idaho National Laboratory, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  1. Evaluation of Environmental Status in Schools of Punjab, India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Environmental Status in Schools of Punjab, India through Conducting Self Environmental Audit. ... The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the existing environmental status in schools of Punjab with respect of water, air, land, energy and waste. ... Keywords: Environmental audit, pollution, awareness ...

  2. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutrition. Studies done in Honduras showed that the academic performance and mental ability of learners with good nutritional status were significantly higher than those of learners with poor nutritional status, irrespective of the level of family income, school quality and teacher ability.[3] School feeding alleviates short-term.

  3. Status of Higher Secondary School Libraries in Thiruvallur District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasan, M.; Kumar, N. Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Libraries are the main sources of knowledge. They play a major role in fostering reading habit among school children. Hence, it is deemed interactive to study the status of higher secondary school libraries in Thiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu. For the Analysis 50 Higher Secondary Schools were selected randomly comprising of Government Higher…

  4. Physics in the Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    initiative of the EC to raise public awareness of science and technology. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). European Commissioner Busquin to Visit Physics On Stage On Thursday, November 9, Philippe Busquin , Commissioner for Research, European Commission, Prof. Luciano Maiani , Director-General of CERN, Antonio Rodota , Director-General of ESA, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director-General of ESO, and Dr. Achilleas Mitsos , Director-General of the Research DG in the European Commission, will participate in the activities of the Physics on Stage Festival. On this occasion, Commissioner Busquin will address conference delegates and the Media on the importance of Science and of innovative science and technology education. The Festival Each of the more than 400 delegates of the festival has been selected during the course of the year by committees in each of the 22 countries for outstanding projects promoting science. For example, a group of Irish physics teachers and their students will give a concert on instruments made exclusively of plumbing material, explaining the physics of sound at the same time. A professional theatre company from Switzerland stages a play on antimatter. Or two young Germans invite spectators to their interactive physics show where they juggle, eat fire and perform stunning physics experiments on stage. The colourful centrepiece of this week is the Physics Fair. Every country has its own stands where delegates show their projects, programmes or experiments and gain inspiration from the exhibits from other countries. Physics on Stage is a unique event. Nothing like it has ever happened in terms of international exchange, international collaboration and state of the art science and technology education methods. The Nobel prizewinners of 2030 are at school today. What ideas can Europe's teachers put forward to boost their interest in science? An invitation to the media We invite

  5. Graduation Rates in South Carolina Public High Schools: The Effect of School Size and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Thomas E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a comparison of the graduation rates among high schools in South Carolina closely analyzing school size and socioeconomic status. The purpose for the study was to answer two questions: What patterns and relationships exist between school size and graduation rates at high schools in South Carolina? What patterns and…

  6. The Status of School Psychology in Ontario School Boards: 2016 Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Debra

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the status of school psychology in Ontario. School psychology practice in Ontario has continued to evolve since the previous report was published in 2001. School psychologists have varied roles, and although the most prominent one remains as assessing students for entry into certain special education services, school-based…

  7. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary patterns and school attendance were determined. Children were interviewed to assess their nutritional status using a validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations (SDs) and ranges were used for socioeconomic ...

  8. Impact of school lunch programmes on nutritional status of children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School feeding Programmes (SFP), which have been initiated in many countries including Kenya, have been shown to improve academic performance and nutritional status in developing and industrialized countries. However, the effects of School Lunch programmes (SLP) in Vihiga District have not been evaluated.

  9. Employment Status among Parenting Teenage Mothers Enrolled in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many programs emphasize subsequent pregnancy prevention and high school graduation among teenage mothers; however, less is known about their ability to increase financial earnings from employment opportunities while concurrently enrolled in school. This study evaluates factors influencing employment status among teenage mothers after…

  10. The status of music in contemporary Nigerian school programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the status of music in Nigeria's Secondary school system. Necessary data were collected, analyzed and discussed to bring out the true picture of how music stands when compared with other secondary school subjects. The findings showed that out of the forty different subjects offered in Nigerian ...

  11. Status of Clinical Supervision among School Counselors in Southeast Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Anna Lila; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Bergin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the role of clinical supervision in school counseling practice. This research explored the status and meaning of clinical supervision to school counselors employed in two southeastern Georgia counties. Results indicate that participants value clinical supervision even though their employers did not necessarily…

  12. Identity Status in High School Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    1978-01-01

    Marcia's ego identity status index of Erikson's developmental stages was used to explore these stages and their correlates. Subjects were classified as Moratorium, Foreclosure, or Diffusion status according to their openness and commitment on future plans, religion and politics. Types were compared on social class, intellectual, and personality…

  13. Current status of research on school refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido J. Inglés

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School refusal behavior refers to the avoidance of a child attending school and/or persistent difficulty staying in the classroom throughout the school day. Based on a review of the scientific literature, the aim of this study is to describe the current state of research on school refusal, differentiating between the findings and progress made in Spain from those achieved in the international field. For this purpose, the significance of this phenomenon, in addition to associated risk factors and variables, will be reviewed in the child and youth population. In turn, the commonly used assessment methods and most recommended treatment proposals, mainly based on cognitive behavioral therapy, are discussed. The results reveal several gaps and subjects for debate in some areas of knowledge about school refusal behavior, with differences being found between Spanish and international studies. In conclusion, future studies and challenges in this field are required.

  14. Immigrant Status, Gender, and School Burnout in Finnish Lower Secondary School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Minkkinen, Jaana; Kinnunen, Jaana M.; Rimpelä, Arja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study among 9223 students from grade 7 and grade 9 (age 13-14 and 15-16) was to assess whether immigrant status and gender are associated with the level and change (slope) in school burnout among lower secondary school students in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Ninety-seven percent of the variation in school burnout…

  15. Current Status of Operation and Management of Dental School Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, John W

    2017-08-01

    This article summarizes the current status of the operation and management of dental school clinics as schools strive to provide excellent patient-centered care in an environment that is educationally sound, efficient, and financially strong. Clinical education is a large component of dental education and an area in which many dental schools have an opportunity to enhance revenue. Clinical efficiencies and alternative models of clinical education are evolving in U.S. dental schools, and this article describes some of those evolutionary changes. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  16. School quality, economic status and school dropout rates among Mexican teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Danitza Vargas Valle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between dropping out of school and the perceived quality of the last school that Mexican teenagers attended, and examine the interaction between this educational factor and the economic status of this population. Based on the 2010 National Youth Survey, the researchers used the life table to describe this relationship, and Cox regression models to analyze it, including individual, family-related and educational co-variables. The results show that the risk of dropping out of school is indirectly linked to school quality and, to a greater degree, to economic status; and that the gap between students dropping out based on school quality is slightly wider among adolescents of low academic status than among those of high status.

  17. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.

  18. Subjective social status and premedical students' attitudes towards medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Matthew K

    2017-07-01

    Although students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to depart from the medical education pipeline, little is known about how premedical students' social origins influence the adversities they face, the resources they possess, or the internal struggles they confront in deciding whether or not to pursue a career in medicine. Using original data collected from premedical students at a flagship state university in the Midwest (N = 364), this study explores how subjective social status shapes students' reservations about medical school attendance and their perceptions of external pressure to pursue a career in medicine. Status-based discrepancies in financial strains, social capital, and interpersonal stressors-and the degree to which variation across these measures mediates status differences in medical school outlook-are also explored. Net of objective measures of social class, results suggest that doubts about attending medical school and feeling that not attending medical school will let down one's community are more prevalent among premeds who identify as lower status. These group differences are explained-at least in part-by lower status premedical students' perceptions of financial hardships, more limited reserves of social capital, and more frequent encounters with class-based discrimination and with educators who discourage their career aspirations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Status of neurology medical school education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran I.; Isaacson, Richard S.; Safdieh, Joseph E.; Finney, Glen R.; Sowell, Michael K.; Sam, Maria C.; Anderson, Heather S.; Shin, Robert K.; Kraakevik, Jeff A.; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. Methods: A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Results: Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied,” but more than half experienced “burnout” and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Conclusion: Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. PMID:25305155

  20. Nutritional status of primary school children in Enugu, Nigeria using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition in children can co-exist as under- and over-nutrition in the same population with varying attendant medical risks. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional status of primary school children in Enugu North LGA, using anthropometry. Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study ...

  1. Changes in the Nutritional Status of School Children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing worldwide with significant health and social consequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the current nutritional status and its changes between 1983 and 2006 among school children and adolescents in a South ...

  2. Parenting, Race, and Socioeconomic Status: Links to School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Pungello, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and school readiness, testing whether parenting (maternal sensitivity and negative behavior/intrusiveness) and financial stress mediated this association and if race moderated these paths. Participants included 164 mother-child dyads from African American and European American…

  3. Nutritional status of primary school children in Abbottabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Saadia; Ayub, Muhammad; Shore, Najla; Tariq, Usman; Zaman, Shakila

    2013-01-01

    In Abbottabad district, with the vast poverty stricken rural majority and 80% literacy rate, primary-level education faces great influx of students. This study was carried out to see the nutritional status of children 5-10 years of age attending primary schools of Abbottabad. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out in June 2009 on 400 schoolchildren of 5-10 years of age from three randomly selected primary schools of Abbottabad. After informed consent by the parents/ teachers, a semi-structured Performa/questionnaire was filled for each child. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Correlation of age of the child with height, and weight was calculated. The nutritional status of the study children was particularly optimum; 90% children were in optimal nutritional status and had sound skeletal growth irrespective of their socioeconomic background. There was a significant correlation of nutritional status and skeletal growth of children with parents socioeconomic status. There was a direct correlation between height and weight of children, and their age. Anthropometric measurements indicate a high majority of children in healthy status despite the overall poor setup.

  4. Holding a spotlight to an ageing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Paul

    2008-07-01

    In May 2008 Help the Aged published its 3rd annual Spotlight Report. The report highlights the stark realities facing older people in the UK today and gives detailed statistical data on how the lives of some have improved but many are still being left behind.

  5. Status of School Safety and Security among Elementary Schools in the Fifth Class Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cresente E. Glariana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the status of school safety and security in terms of the school sites, school playground, school canteen services, water safety, fire safety, campus security, building security, and sanitary facilities situation in eight (8 elementary schools in Libertad town. The descriptive survey was used to find out the status of school safety and security in the elementary schools of Libertad, Misamis Oriental. A checklist on the standards of facilities as implemented by the Department of Education was used to gather the data. Checklist was based from the 2010 Educational Facilities Manual. Evaluation based on the checklist showed that some of standards on 2010 Educational Facilities Manual were not observed. The schools have not complied with the requirements and specifications. The evaluation showed further that most of the schools did not comply within the standards set by the 2010 Educational Facilities Manual. School authorities may review the standards in the 2010 Educational Facilities Manual. The school should try to meet the standard to ensure safety and security of the pupils. Action plan may be prepared to be implemented in case of emergency.

  6. Minority status and schooling of the Hmong in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Phuong Luong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the disproportionately poor academic performance of the Hmong among the minorities in Vietnam by using Ogbu’s cultural ecological theory (Ogbu, 2003. Societal and school factors have been assumed by many policy makers and scholars to affect minorities’ equally, but the paper argues that may not be the case when minority status is taken into account. “Community forces”are pointed to as the putative cause of the Hmong’s differential academic performance. “Community forces” of each ethnic group are related to their status as a minority group,which orients their interpretations and responses to schooling. In this paper, the minority status of the Hmong is explained through their group development history, settlement patterns, livelihoods and economic adaptive strategies and political participation through a review of the scholarly literature on the Hmong. Additionally, field research was conducted in Vietnam using a grounded theory approach to ethnography to understand how minority status influences community forces, and in turn, how these community forces affect the schooling of Hmong students.

  7. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jui Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  8. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-08-23

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  9. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  10. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  11. Efficient sliding spotlight SAR raw signal simulation of extended scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Pingping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sliding spotlight mode is a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging scheme with an achieved azimuth resolution better than stripmap mode and ground coverage larger than spotlight configuration. However, its raw signal simulation of extended scenes may not be efficiently implemented in the two-dimensional (2D Fourier transformed domain. This article presents a novel sliding spotlight raw signal simulation approach from the wide-beam SAR imaging modes. This approach can generate sliding spotlight raw signal not only from raw data evaluated by the simulators, but also from real data in the stripmap/spotlight mode. In order to obtain the desired raw data from conventional stripmap/spotlight mode, the azimuth time-varying filtering, which is implemented by de-rotation and low-pass filtering, is adopted. As raw signal of extended scenes in the stripmap/spotlight mode can efficiently be evaluated in the 2D Fourier domain, the proposed approach provides an efficient sliding spotlight SAR simulator of extended scenes. Simulation results validate this efficient simulator.

  12. [Status of health psychology teaching in Chilean schools of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Jaime T; Pinedo, José P; Repetto, Paula L

    2012-07-01

    Physicians should be exposed, during their training to basic concepts in psychology. To describe the current status of the formal teaching of health psychology or medical psychology in Chilean medical schools. We reviewed the programs of the courses including topics of Medical Psychology, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine at 18 medical schools in Chile, using a focused coding method. The contents and the time spent on these courses were considered and analyzed. Eighty three percent of medical schools have a Medical Psychology or related program, 56.3% are carried out during the first year of medical School teaching and the weekly load has an average of 4 hours. The contents are mixed and predominantly concerning general and developmental psychology, but also address specific issues of Medical Psychology in most cases. There is little clarity about the training issues to be addressed in medical psychology for medical students in Chile. It is necessary to define the minimum content that all medical graduates should learn.

  13. Nutritional Status of Semi-Urban Nigerian School Children using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is paucity of data on the nutritional status of school-age children in Sagamu town of Southwestern Nigeria. Objective: To determine the nutritional status of primary school children in Sagamu Local Government Area, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged 6 to 10 years ...

  14. Sliding Spotlight Mode Imaging with GF-3 Spaceborne SAR Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjun Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar (SAR sliding spotlight work mode can achieve high resolutions and wide swath (HRWS simultaneously by steering the radar antenna beam. This paper aims to obtain well focused images using sliding spotlight mode with the Chinese Gaofen-3 SAR sensor. We proposed an integrated imaging scheme with sliding spotlight echoes. In the imaging scheme, the two-step approach is applied to the spaceborne sliding spotlight SAR imaging algorithm, followed by the Doppler parameter estimation algorithm. The azimuth spectral folding phenomenon is overcome by the two-step approach. The results demonstrate a high Doppler parameter estimation accuracy. The proposed imaging process is accurate and highly efficient for sliding spotlight SAR mode.

  15. Spotlight on GME/GHSE Supported Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-07

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From- To) 12/07/2017 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Spotlight on GME/GHSE-Supported Research Sb...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 59th Clinical Research Division REPORT NUMBER 1100 Willford Hall Loop, Bldg 4430 JBSA... Research Division 1100 Willford Hall Loop, Bldg 4430 JBSA-Lack:land, TX 78236-9908 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT 210-292-7141 NUMBER(S) 12

  16. A Status Quo of Segregation: Racial and Economic Imbalance in New Jersey Schools, 1989-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, Greg

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey has a curious status regarding school desegregation. It has had the nation's most venerable and strongest state law prohibiting racially segregated schooling and requiring racial balance in the schools whenever feasible. Yet, it simultaneously has had one of the worst records of racially imbalanced schools. Against the legal and…

  17. The Benefits of High School Experiences on Growth in Occupational Status in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Nyun; Passmore, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated high school graduates' school-to-work transition by considering their post-school occupational skill levels. Using an ordinal growth model analysis, occupational status increased in an arch-shaped curve as the number of years after high school graduation also increased. This growth trajectory was further related to…

  18. [Investigation on sleep status of college and high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shen, Yue-di; Chen, Rong; Ding, Guo-xian

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the sleep status of college and high schools students. Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and self-manufactured questionnaires about siesta habits were used as tools. Three groups of students from medical college (MC), senior high school (SS) and junior high school (JS) were surveyed. In the group MC, SS and JS, the occurrence rates of sleep disorders were 27%, 62% and 54%, respectively, and in which the appearance rates of insomnia were 17%, 19% and 19%, longing for sleep were 10%, 43% and 35% respectively. And there were no significant difference between schoolboy and schoolgirl. The occurrence rates of slack breathing were different (5/155, 1/154) significantly between group SS and JS. The distinct differences also were found in group JS and MC, in which students felt hot (10/155, 1/122) and in all the three groups, in which students felt sleepy (55/155, 62/154, 13/122) whereas the difference of sleepy between group SS and JS was comparatively distinct (55/155, 62/154). Significant differences were also found between group JS and SS, MC in average sleep time of (7.65 +/- 0.87) hours, (7.16 +/- 0.83) hours, and (7.10 +/- 0.57) hours. The time of falling asleep (median 15 min, 10 min, 20 min) and siesta habit (8/155, 19/154, 75/122) among group MC and SS, JS were different respectively and markedly, whereas siesta habit differences between group SS and JS were comparatively distinct (8/155, 19/154). Students in high school showed higher rate of longing for sleep, and this implicated they fall short of sleep time greatly and siesta could improve their sleepy signs.

  19. Oral health status of school children in Mbarara, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batwala, V; Mulogo, E M; Arubaku, W

    2007-12-01

    Despite the need for oral health morbidity surveys to aid in reviewing of the oral health services, dental data of Ugandan children is scanty. To describe the magnitude and distribution of selected oral health conditions among primary school children in Mbarara, Uganda. A stratified two-stage cluster sample of 437 children aged 5-6, 8-9 and 11-12 was enrolled. The selected conditions included: dental caries, plaque, calculus, gingivitis, fluorosis and malocclusion (maxillary overjet). These conditions were diagnosed and scored in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. The mean decayed, missing, filled permanent teeth (DMFT) was 1.5(±0.8 SD). Females had higher DMFT (1.6±0.8SD) than males (1.3±0.8SD). Decayed, filled milk teeth (dt) was 2.7(±1.8SD) but more in males 3.1(±2.1SD) than in females 2.4(±1.6SD). Children in private schools were likely to have more caries in both permanent teeth (DMFT: 1.6±0.9SD) and milk teeth (dt: 3.0±1.9SD). Day-scholars were likely to have more caries in permanent teeth (DFMT: 1.50.8SD). Those in boarding were likely to have more caries in milk teeth (dt: 3±2.2SD). Milk teeth caries decreased with age (pgingivitis. The oral hygiene of school children was poor with high plaque prevalence demonstrating a lack of established oral hygiene practices. A comprehensive community-focused oral health care intervention that includes oral health education in homes and the strengthening of school health programme is needed to improve the oral health status of children in Mbarara.

  20. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. J. van Rooyen,; T. M. Lillo; Y. Q. WU; P.A. Demkowicz; L. Scott; D.M. Scates; E. L. Reber; J. H. Jackson; J. A. Smith; D.L. Cottle; B.H. Rabin; M.R. Tonks; S.B. Biner; Y. Zhang; R.L. Williamson; S.R. Novascone; B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; D.R. Gaston; C.J. Permann; D. Anders; S.L. Hayes; P.C. Millett; D. Andersson; C. Stanek; R. Ali; S.L. Garrett; J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; J. Palmer; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; G. Kohse; P. Ramuhali; H.T. Chien; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; D.W. Nigg; G. Imel; J. T. Harris

    2014-04-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • The first identification of silver and palladium migrating through the SiC layer in TRISO fuel • A description of irradiation assisted stress corrosion testing capabilities that support commercial light water reactor life extension • Results of high-temperature safety testing on coated particle fuels irradiated in the ATR • New methods for testing the integrity of irradiated plate-type reactor fuel • Description of a 'Smart Fuel' concept that wirelessly provides real time information about changes in nuclear fuel properties and operating conditions • Development and testing of ultrasonic transducers and real-time flux sensors for use inside reactor cores, and • An example of a capsule irradiation test. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps to spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at INL, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  1. NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN BLIND CHILDREN: ISFAHAN ABABASIR BOARDING SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAJAI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inadequate dietary intake causes malnutrition associated with poor physical and mental development, specially in children. This study evaluated the nutritional status in blind children in Ababasir Boarding Center (a boarding school in Isfahan city. Methods: A 72 hours food regimen survey was measured in 50 subjects (boys and girls by weighting method. The anthropometric data was collected to compare with NCHS normal data. Results: Energy intake was less than 75 percent RDA in all the subjects and the amounts of animal protein intake was also little. Chronic malnutrition was more prevalent. Discussion: Althought the energy intake was lower than RDA, but it did not cause under weight among them probably because of reduced physical activity due to their disability and inadequate high quality protein and other nutrients probably could be the major cause in chronic malnutrition.

  2. [Relationship between nutritional status and school absenteeism among students in rural schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Escobar, Gilma; Vargas-Cruz, Sandra L; Ibáñez-Pinilla, Edgar; Matiz-Salazar, María I; Jörgen-Overgaard, Hans

    2015-12-01

    Objective To determine the nutritional status and prevalence of malnutrition and overweight in students in rural schools and their relationship with school absence rates. Methods Descriptive study carried out in 34 rural schools in Anapoima and La Mesa in 2013. A sample of 785 (82.4 %) students was selected by convenience sampling. The inclusion criteria were students registered for the period 2013 in grades 0-5 (ages 5-16) with parental consent and student assent. Weight and height of all subjects were taken. Overall absence rates and illness-related absence rates were recorded. Results 422 pupils were male (53.8 %) and 524 (66.8 %) had between 5-9 years old. A lower than average height for age occurred in 10.1 %(n=79) of the students. The thinness was recorded at 1.75 %(n=13), the overweight at 14.3 %(n=112) and the obesity at 4.5 %(n=45) of the students. The number of absence episodes per child per year due to any reason and due to disease was 5.7 and 1.4, respectively. Stunted growth and overweight students had a significantly higher number of absence days compared to students with adequate nutritional status (p school absence days (both general and illness-related) and stunting and overweight in students.

  3. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF EDENTULOUS INDIVIDUALS TREATED IN UFBA DENTAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samilly Evangelista Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With increasing life expectancy, the elderly population is growing around the world. However, even with the development of preventive dentistry in recent decades and the advent of dental implants, you can still find people who need rehabilitation wearers. Whereas the risk of malnutrition may be associated with the condition of edentulism, the objective is evaluate the nutritional profile of 50 edentulous that rehabilitated in the discipline of Complete Denture, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia. The individuals were assessed using cross-sectional study by questionnaire to assess nutritional status - MNA *. The average age of patients was 67.3 (+ 6.7 years, 86% women. Among respondents, 50% are edentulous for more than 20 years (p <0.05, caries (42% and periodontal disease (28% as main factors of Perfil nutricional de indivíduos desdentados tooth loss (p = 0.33. The results showed that the MNA 82% of patients had normal nutritional status, 16% were at risk of malnutrition and only 2% were malnourished, with statistically significant differences between groups. It was concluded that in edentulous subjects evaluated, malnutrition is not associated with loss of natural teeth.

  4. Nutritional status of edentulous individuals treated in UFBA dental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samilly Evangelista Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing life expectancy, the elderly population is growing around the world. However, even with the development of preventive dentistry in recent decades and the advent of dental implants, you can still find people who need rehabilitation wearers. Whereas the risk of malnutrition may be associated with the condition of edentulism, the objective is evaluate the nutritional profile of 50 edentulous that rehabilitated in the discipline of Complete Denture, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia. The individuals were assessed using cross-sectional study by questionnaire to assess nutritional status - MNA *. The average age of patients was 67.3 (+ 6.7 years, 86% women. Among respondents, 50% are edentulous for more than 20 years (p <0.05, caries (42% and periodontal disease (28% as main factors of tooth loss (p = 0.33. The results showed that the MNA 82% of patients had normal nutritional status, 16% were at risk of malnutrition and only 2% were malnourished, with statistically significant differences between groups. It was concluded that in edentulous subjects evaluated, malnutrition is not associated with loss of natural teeth

  5. Nutritional Status of School Children Aged 8-12 Years in Deprived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the nutritional status of school children in deprived areas of Mauritius and determined whether specific socio-economic factors were associated with poor nutritional status among children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 240 primary school children aged 8-12 years old. Out of 27 ...

  6. Spotlight on Psoriasis: Preventing Patches of Itchy, Sore Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Spotlight on Psoriasis Preventing Patches of Itchy, Sore Skin En español ... Sun Damage Sun and Skin Wise Choices Avoid Psoriasis Triggers Factors that may trigger psoriasis or make ...

  7. Associations between food environment around schools and professionally measured weight status for middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuyang; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Abbott, Joshua K; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Tulloch, David L; Lloyd, Kristen; Yedidia, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity rates among school-age children remain high. Access to energy-dense foods at home, in schools, in stores, and restaurants around homes and schools is of concern. Research on the relationship between food environment around schools and students' weight status is inconclusive. This study examines the association between weight status of middle and high school students and proximity to a comprehensive set of food outlets around schools. Deidentified nurse-measured heights and weights data were obtained for 12,954 middle and high school students attending 33 public schools in four low-income communities in New Jersey. Geocoded locations of supermarkets, convenience stores, small grocery stores, and limited-service restaurants were obtained from commercial sources. Random-effect regression models with robust standard errors were developed to adjust for unequal variances across schools and clustering of students within schools. Proximity to small grocery stores that offered some healthy options (e.g., five fruits, five vegetables, and low-fat/skim milk) and supermarkets was associated with healthier student weight status. Having a small grocery store within 0.25 mile of school and an additional such store within that radius was associated with a lower BMI z-score (pschools was associated with a lower probability of being overweight/obese (pImproving access to healthy food outlets, such as small stores, that offer healthy food options and supermarkets around middle and high schools is a potential strategy for improving weight outcomes among students.

  8. Oral Health Status Of Handicapped Primary School Pupils In Dar Es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is hardly any information regarding oral health status of handicapped primary school pupils in Tanzania. Determination of their oral health status could help in planning sustainable intervention programmes for this disadvantaged group. Objectives: To determine caries and periodontal status and ...

  9. Adolescent Weight Status and Self-Reported School Performance in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kyung Do

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a nationally representative sample of 142 783 middle school (13–15 years old and high school (16–18 years old students in South Korea, this study examined whether (1 overweight and obesity are more likely to be associated with lower self-reported school performance; (2 overweight and obese students are more likely to enrol in a vocational high school as opposed to a general high school; (3 the association between obesity and poorer self-reported school performance is mediated through body image stress and health status. We found that excess weight was negatively associated with self-reported school performance among middle and general high school students, and that obese students had a higher probability of being enrolled in a vocational over a general high school. We did not find strong evidence on the mediating role of body image stress and health status.

  10. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools.

  11. Dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Pre-schools in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Three hundred and four pre-school children (149 males and 155 females) aged three to five years were assessed. Results: About 96% ...

  12. Association of School-Based Physical Activity Opportunities, Socioeconomic Status, and Third-Grade Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Ben D.; Graber, Kim C.; Shen, Sa; Hillman, Charles H.; McLoughlin, Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) is the most accurate predictor of academic performance in US schools. Third-grade reading is highly predictive of high school graduation. Chronic physical activity (PA) is shown to improve cognition and academic performance. We hypothesized that school-based PA opportunities (recess and physical education)…

  13. Status And Visions For The School Health Service As Reported By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Status And Visions For The School Health Service As Reported By Local Health Care Workers In Northern Tanzania. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Objective: The World Health Organization\\'s (WHO) Global School Health Initiative provides a strategy to utilize schools to promote health and reduce the burden of ...

  14. Summerhill in Crisis: An Update on the Status of the Paradigmatic Democratic Free School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    Summerhill School has recently come under fire from England's educational bureaucracy, who are calling for its closure for noncompliance with the British national curriculum. The school has responded that it will not change its noncompulsory status nor any aspect of its educational philosophy that distinguishes it as a democratic, free school. (LP)

  15. Effects of Daily Physical Education on Physical Fitness and Weight Status in Middle School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfle, Stephen E.; Gamble, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Pennsylvania Department of Health developed the Active Schools Program (ASP) which required 30?minutes of daily physical education (PE) in middle schools to reduce childhood obesity. This investigation evaluated the ASP effects on physical fitness and weight status in middle school adolescents throughout 1 academic year.…

  16. School achievement of children with intellectual disability: the role of socioeconomic status, placement, and parents' engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Grzegorz; Karwowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the selected conditions for school achievement of students with mild intellectual disabilities from Polish elementary schools. Participants were 605 students with mild disabilities from integrative, regular, and special schools, and their parents (N=429). It was found that socioeconomic status (SES) was positively associated with child placement in integrative and regular schools rather than special schools, as well as with higher parental engagement in their children's studies. Parental engagement mediated the positive effects of SES and placement in regular and integrative schools on school achievement. The results are discussed in the context of inclusive education theory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The status of school sanitation facilities in some selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a growing demand on school hygiene and sanitation facilities given the growing number of school enrolment in Ethiopia. A safe school environment plays a key role in facilitating education and enduring pupils with improved life skills. Although there is much attention given for the expansion of schools ...

  18. Health status of school children during questionnaire survey in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  19. The impact of school socioeconomic status on student lunch consumption after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...

  20. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student Lunch Consumption after Implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…

  1. Socio- Emotional Intelligence Status of some Nigerian in- School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school pre-adolescents in selected Nigerian primary and junior secondary schools .This is with a view to making concerned people understand and appreciate the perennial reports of poor socio-emotional responses of Nigerian adolescents ...

  2. The Status of School Psychology in China at the Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    The discipline of psychology is emerging as a recognized and respected profession in China just as the need to address children's increased difficulties in academics and school function has become evident. The evolution of school psychology in China is traced and parallels are drawn to how school psychology developed in the United States in a…

  3. The impact of school socioeconomic status on student lunch consumption after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B; Fithian, Ashley R

    2009-11-01

    This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the Texas policy. Students recorded amount and source of foods/beverages consumed. Two-way analyses of variance with year and school SES as factors were performed to compare consumption by school SES before and after implementation of the Texas policy. Regardless of year, the low SES group consumed less fat, sweetened beverages, and candy and more vitamin C and calcium than the middle SES group. There were more significant improvements in dietary patterns for the middle SES school students post-policy, particularly from the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) meal. The middle SES school students reported significantly higher percentages of less healthy items from home post-policy. Overall, low SES school students consumed more healthy lunches at school compared with middle SES school students, and the Texas policy improved middle SES school student dietary intakes. Whether the dietary behaviors in school influence dietary intake for the entire day is unknown.

  4. 277 A Survey of the Status of School Physical Education in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    the Nigerian school sports procedures and management. Specifically, the essence here is the importance of conducting benchmarks with a view to describing the status of physical education in primary schools in Nigeria as a guide to seeking improvement. It is in this wise that White (2002) has described benchmarking as ...

  5. Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong: Does Family Socioeconomic Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and children's physical activity (PA) behaviour during after-school hours. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Participants included 663 schoolchildren (aged between 10 and 13 years) and their parents from nine primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  6. Assessment of nutritional status of school children in Oyo West Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of primary school children in Oyo West Local Government Area of Oyo State. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was among 499 primary school children. The study instrument was a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire.

  7. Status of Health Appraisal Services for Primary School Children in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item…

  8. hair zinc status and its correlation with height indicator in pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 81 No. 1 January 2004. HAIR ZINC STATUS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH HEIGHT INDICATOR IN PRE-SCHOOL AND SCHOOL CHILDREN FROM A MIXED INCOME,. LOW DENSITY (MILD) COMMUNITY IN SOUTHERN GHANA. E. E. K. Takyi, B.Sc., M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D., Senior ...

  9. A Quantitative Examination of the Educational Technology Characteristics of Ohio Schools and Their Blue Ribbon Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from Ohio schools and the frequency of use of educational technology, a teacher's comfort level using technology, and a teacher's beliefs about the effect of educational technology on teaching and learning based upon the school's Blue Ribbon award status. The study used an ex-post facto, quantitative…

  10. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

  11. Analysis of Ego Identity Status of School of Physical Education and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Mehmet Behzat; Koç, Kenan; Karaoglu, Baris

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze ego identity status of the candidates who studied in school of physical education and sports. For this purpose, randomly selected 651 individuals, who attended to Kayseri Erciyes University, school of physical education and sports, were included to this study. In this research, Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity…

  12. From Social Class to Self-Efficacy: Internalization of Low Social Status Pupils' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Darnon, Céline; Chazal, Sébastien; Guimond, Serge; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has largely documented that socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong and consistent predictor of pupils' school performance in several countries. In this research, we argue that children internalize the SES achievement gap in the form of a lower/higher sense of school self-efficacy. In two studies, teenaged students' (Study 1) and…

  13. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  14. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  15. Beyond the Tipping Point: Issues of Racial Diversity in Magnet Schools Following Unitary Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This article uses qualitative case study methodology to examine why the racial composition of magnet schools in Nashville, Tennessee, has shifted to predominantly African American in the aftermath of unitary status. The article compares the policy contexts and parents' reasons for choosing magnet schools at two points in time--under court order…

  16. Student Socioeconomic Status and Gender: Impacts on School Counselors' Ratings of Student Personal Characteristics and School Counselors' Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glance, Dorea E.

    2012-01-01

    This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as…

  17. The status of school sanitation facilities in some selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The access to drinking water facilities. (water taps) and hand washing facilities were very much limited to the extent not conforming to the standard. The presence of school-based water, sanitation, and hygiene committee and clubs was unheard. Conclusion: The inadequate sanitation facility in schools poses a health risk ...

  18. Status Of Strategic Management Practices Of Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which principals practice strategic management skills in students' administration in secondary schools in Anambra State. All the two hundred and fifty-nine (259) secondary school principals of the six education zones of Anambra State were used for the study.

  19. Oral Health Status in Southern Malawian School Children: Part I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gramme using this survey as baseline data and incorporating two schools as control groups. The results of this survey demonstrate the trend of dental caries and periodontal disease in six and twelve year old primary school children in these areas. Methods. The 7 districts selected had a dental assistant in post at the district ...

  20. International Survey of the Status of Waldorf Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    This international survey study was the first to examine the Waldorf School movement worldwide and focused on the teaching practices, curricula, educational outcomes, and positive program features of Waldorf schools, as well as problems encountered by Waldorf staff. The role of Rudolf Steiner's philosophy, anthroposophy, and its esoteric aspects…

  1. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  2. original article evaluation of environmental status in schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-15

    Feb 15, 2011 ... to be noticed that Greece has given serious consideration to the quality of air in classrooms, green lofts and “smart buildings”, as well as to the use of solar energy (www.oecd.org). Out of 19 schools studied, 41.11% are using eco-friendly vehicles like bicycle and tricycle. Some schools are developing ...

  3. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among 10-14year old children (56.1%) than 5-9 year olds (34.6%). Conclusion: There is urgent need for nutrition intervention targeted at rural school age children inEbonyi State. Keywords: School age children, dietary habits, hemoglobin levels, stunting, overweight, underweight, ...

  4. Rural School Employees' Status, Awareness, and Perceptions of Adult Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Thornton, Eli; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Macintosh, Janelle; Lakin, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    As key members of the school environment, it is important for school employees to be vaccinated. Employees are in direct contact with children in close quarters for long periods of time and such an environment can easily serve as an outbreak center for vaccine-preventable communicable diseases such as measles. Despite the fact that most school…

  5. Relationship between High School Students' Facebook Addiction and Loneliness Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakose, Turgut; Yirci, Ramazan; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to analyze the relation between high school students' Facebook addiction and loneliness levels. The study was conducted with the relational screening model. The sample of the study consists of 712 randomly selected high school students. The data was collected using the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS) to…

  6. Language and social status differences in two urban schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck

    of a connection between the prevalent focus on ethnicity in public debates on schooling and social class relations and then the interplay between these relations of power and prestige and the practices that I analyze. Key words: School children, youth, social interaction, linguistic and social difference, social...... class, power relations, discursive positionings, multicultural urban environments....

  7. Assessment of mental health status among school going adolescents in North East India: A cross sectional school based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U, Harikrishnan; Arif, Ali; H, Sobhana

    2017-12-01

    Adolescent emotional responses and behaviors are often passed off as growth pangs and academic stress, thereby missing those that need deeper understanding and mental health interventions. The aim of the study is to understand mental health status among the school adolescents in Tezpur, Assam. The present study was a cross sectional study that used convenience sampling in selection of the schools. A total of 10 schools were selected for the purpose of the study. 1403 Adolescents were selected for data analysis. Socio-Demographic Performa and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ] were administered to the participants. The results indicated that five predictors (gender, education, family type, academic performance, socio economic status in the family) explained 9.79% of the variance (F=5.040, Pconcern. Schools should have standing operation procedures in place to periodically screen adolescents for mental health related issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The nutritional status of school-aged children: why should we care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Cora; Neufingerl, Nicole; van Geel, Laura; van den Briel, Tina; Osendarp, Saskia

    2010-09-01

    The nutritional status of school-aged children impacts their health, cognition, and subsequently their educational achievement. The school is an opportune setting to provide health and nutrition services to disadvantaged children. Yet, school-aged children are not commonly included in health and nutrition surveys. An up-to-date overview of their nutritional status across the world is not available. To provide a summary of the recent data on the nutritional status of school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition and identify issues of public health concern. A review of literature published from 2002 to 2009 on the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 12 years from Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean region was performed. Eligible studies determined the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies or child under- and overnutrition using biochemical markers and internationally accepted growth references. A total of 369 studies from 76 different countries were included. The available data indicate that the nutritional status of school-aged children in the reviewed regions is considerably inadequate. Underweight and thinness were most prominent in populations from South-East Asia and Africa, whereas in Latin America the prevalence of underweight or thinness was generally below 10%. More than half of the studies on anemia reported moderate (> 20%) or severe (> 40%) prevalence of anemia. Prevalences of 20% to 30% were commonly reported for deficiencies of iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A. The prevalence of overweight was highest in Latin American countries (20% to 35%). In Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, the prevalence of overweight was generally below 15%. The available data indicate that malnutrition is a public health issue in school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition. However, the available data, especially data on micronutrient status, are limited. These findings emphasize

  9. Between-school variation and student characteristics associated with the accuracy of weight status perception among students: does the school a student attends impact his/her weight status perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisic, Andriana; Leatherdale, Scott T; Sendzik, Taryn

    2014-06-01

    Research has identified that perceived weight status is a better predictor of weight control behavior than actual weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the accuracy of weight status perception varies across schools, and to identify the student-level characteristics associated with inaccurate weight status perception among 25,060 grade 9 to 12 students attending 76 schools in Ontario, Canada. Although the majority of adolescents (60.4%) had accurate weight status perceptions, multi-level logistic regression analyses revealed significant between-school variability in the accuracy of weight status perceptions for both males and females. School location and school-level socioeconomic status were the school-level variables analyzed. We identified that males attending urban or suburban schools were more likely to overestimate their weight status compared with males attending rural schools. Important student-level characteristics included grade, weight status, sports participation and social influences. Additional research is required to better understand both the school- and student-level characteristics associated with the accuracy of weight status perceptions among adolescents.

  10. School feeding program has resulted in improved dietary diversity, nutritional status and class attendance of school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebe, Mastewal; Gebremedhin, Samson; Henry, Carol J; Regassa, Nigatu

    2018-01-23

    School Feeding Program (SFP) is a targeted safety net program designed to provide educational and health benefits to vulnerable children. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effect of the intervention on the nutritional status and school attendance of children. The study is aimed at examining the effects of SFP on dietary diversity, nutritional status and class attendance of school children in Boricha district, Southern Ethiopia. The study was conducted based on a representative data collected from 290 students drawn from the district. A school-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on school children aged 10-14 years. Data were collected using structured pretested questionnaire. The effects of SFP on dietary diversity score (DDS), class attendance rate, body-mass-index for age (BAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) Z-scores were assessed using multivariable linear regression model. The finding showed significantly higher mean (±SD) of DDS in SFP beneficiaries (5.8 ± 1.1) than the non-beneficiaries (3.5 ± 0.7) (P nutritional status, and class attendance of school children, we strongly recommend scaling up the program to other food insecure areas.

  11. Students as Active Historians. Spotlight Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopke-Wilson, MariRae

    2006-01-01

    Coming up with interesting information literacy lessons can be challenging for the high school librarian. If school librarians have taught their upper class students well, most are prepared to navigate their way successfully through libraries and Internet resources. In this article, the author explores a unique high school project that resulted in…

  12. School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3rd to 7th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and ...

  13. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aryati; Zulaily, Nurzaime; Abdul Manan, Nor Saidah; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah Wafa; Mohd Amin, Rahmah; Syed Abdullah, Engku Fadzli Hasan; Ahmed, Amran

    2017-01-05

    Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI) status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body weight status of the whole population of school adolescents in all seven districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK) assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS). From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p population demand further investigation.

  14. Sustainability Education in Indian Business Schools: A Status Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PD JOSE

    Full Text Available Sustainability issues, given their potential scale of impact and urgency, have captured the imagination of both corporations and academic institutions everywhere. This paper examines how such problems and their potential solutions have been incorporated into higher education, particularly business school education in India. With over 3,600 business schools in the public and private sector, business education in India has proliferated. However, students by and large still remain unexposed to sustainability and disaster management concepts in their curriculum. The underlying factors for this include, lack of institutional capacity, issues related to faculty motivation and incentives, lack of recruiter interest and limited availability to high quality resource material. Further, while several schools in India focus on sectors relevant to sustainability, inter-organizational linkages have not developed and business school generally operate independently. This paper examines the way forward to deeply integrate sustainability principles into the core curriculum of business schools. Measures suggested include creating communities of practice among academia and industry, building a resource base of teaching materials for easy access by faculty, and several measures to strengthen institutional capacity.

  15. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school : Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.W.; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, J; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods

  16. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline); V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); A. Dommisse-Van Berkel (Anke); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); J. van der Ende (Jan); R. Veenstra (René); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W. Jansen (Wilma); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school

  17. Asthma status and severity affects missed school days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonie, Sheniz A; Sterling, David A; Figgs, Larry; Castro, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Excessive school absence disrupts learning and is a strong predictor of premature school dropout. School-aged children with asthma are absent more often compared to their healthy peers without asthma; yet, the causes are inadequately documented. We sought to determine the difference in mean absence days between children with and without asthma, the relationship between asthma severity and missed days from school, and if incident absences were due to asthma in a predominantly African American urban school district in the Midwestern United States. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 9014 students (grades K-12) followed for absenteeism over the 2002-2003 academic year. A subset of 543 students with asthma was assessed for asthma severity and cause of absence. Those with asthma (9.7% of students) were absent (mean = 9.2 days) approximately 1.5 more days compared to those without asthma (mean = 7.9 days) (p = .006). In the analysis comparing asthma severity and absenteeism, after adjusting for demographic variables and enrollment time, mean days absent increased with increasing asthma severity level: mild intermittent (mean = 8.5 days), mild persistent (mean = 11.3 days), moderate persistent (mean = 10.3 days), and severe persistent (mean = 11.6 days) (p = .001). Out of 1537 tracked absences that resulted from illness, 478 (31%) were due specifically to asthma-related symptoms. Children with asthma are absent from school more often compared to their healthy peers and this appears to be driven by the underlying severity of symptoms. (J Sch Health. 2006;76(1):18-24).

  18. Does childhood schooling affect old age memory or mental status? Using state schooling laws as natural experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glymour, M M; Kawachi, I; Jencks, C S; Berkman, L F

    2008-06-01

    The association between schooling and old age cognitive outcomes such as memory disorders is well documented but, because of the threat of reverse causation, controversy persists over whether education affects old age cognition. Changes in state compulsory schooling laws (CSL) are treated as natural experiments (instruments) for estimating the effect of education on memory and mental status among the elderly. Changes in CSL predict changes in average years of schooling completed by children who are affected by the new laws. These educational differences are presumably independent of innate individual characteristics such as IQ. CSL-induced changes in education were used to obtain instrumental variable (IV) estimates of education's effect on memory (n = 10,694) and mental status (n = 9751) for white, non-Hispanic US-born Health and Retirement Survey participants born between 1900 and 1947 who did not attend college. After adjustment for sex, birth year, state of birth and state characteristics, IV estimates of education's effect on memory were large and statistically significant. IV estimates for mental status had very wide confidence intervals, so it was not possible to draw meaningful conclusions about the effect of education on this outcome. Increases in mandatory schooling lead to improvements in performance on memory tests many decades after school completion. These analyses condition on individual states, so differences in memory outcomes associated with CSL changes cannot be attributed to differences between states. Although unmeasured state characteristics that changed contemporaneously with CSL might account for these results, unobserved genetic variation is unlikely to do so.

  19. The effect of special health care needs and health status on school functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Cynthia A; Pastor, Patricia N

    2013-10-01

    Past studies have shown that specific child conditions are associated with poor school outcomes. A national health survey with noncategorical measures of health and indicators of school functioning offers the opportunity to examine this association. To compare links between two health measures (children with special health care needs and general health status) and multiple school outcomes. The analysis was based on 59,440 children aged 6-17 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Child health was assessed using the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) screener and a question on general health status. CSHCN were classified by the complexity of their health care needs. Indicators of school functioning included special education use, many problem reports, repeated a grade, lack of school engagement, and many missed school days. Overall 22% of children were identified as CSHCN: 13% with more complex needs (C-CSHCN) and 9% with medication use only (CSHCN-RX). Approximately 17% of children were in less than optimal health. After controlling for a child's sociodemographic characteristics C-CSHCN had an increased risk of all of the negative school outcomes compared to children without SHCN, while CSHCN-RX had an increased risk of only one school outcome (many missed school days). Children in less than optimal health were at an increased risk of all negative school outcomes compared to children in optimal health. The CSHCN screener and health status question identify related, but distinct, groups of children with worse outcomes on the indicators of school functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Nutrition and Goiter Status of Primary School Children in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    Faisalabad District, Pakistan. Rural Remote Health. 3(1):130. Amigo H, Erazo M and Bustos P (2000) Heights of childean parents and their children from different ethnicity and social status. Salud Publica Mexico. 42:504-510. Brahmbhatt SR, Brahmbhatt RM, Boyages SC. (2001). Impact of Protein-Energy Malnutrition on.

  1. Relationship between vitamin A status and anaemia among school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are two major public health problems affecting many developing countries world-wide. Vitamin A deficiency, in addition to other health problems, can contribute to anaemia. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the relationship between vitamin A status and ...

  2. A restrospective study of the nutritional status of primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnourished children may grow up to become adults with reduced physical and cognitive capacity. Knowledge of trends of children's nutritional status over time is important to raise awareness, guide resource allocation as well as develop nutrition-related interventions for communities. A retrospective study was conducted ...

  3. Police at School: A Brief History and Current Status of School Resource Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Spencer C.; Cray, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The school resource officer (SRO) program began in the United States in the early to mid-1950s, however, the program did not gain prominence until the 1990s in response to various school shootings. According to national data, SROs can be found in 35 percent of school across America, regardless of level (elementary, middle, or high school),…

  4. School Violence Roles and Sociometric Status among Spanish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, R.; Martin Seoane, G.; Diaz Aguado, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relation between the social adjustment in the classroom and the role of aggressor or victim, in school violence situations. Participants were 1,635 students (aged 14-18 years old), from a representative sample, with different levels (compulsory secondary education, specific/initial training courses and vocational programs).…

  5. Nutritional status and associated factors among school going ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a major challenge in developing world with children less than ten years bearing most of these conditions. In Kenya malnutrition is the greatest contributor to child mortality at 53%. Malnutrition among school age children is due to inadequacies in one or more of the three main pre-conditions for ...

  6. Oral health status of school children in Mbarara, Uganda | Batwala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the need for oral health morbidity surveys to aid in reviewing of the oral health services, dental data of Ugandan children is scanty. Objectives: to describe the magnitude and distribution of selected oral health conditions among primary school children in Mbarara, Uganda. Methods: A stratified ...

  7. Dietary fat intake and nutritional status indicators of primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine growth indicators, serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as dietary fat intakes usually associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy primary school children.

  8. Nutrition and Goiter Status of Primary School Children in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that 42.2% of the school children had palpable goiter, 21.2% were stunted, 15.1% were underweight and 3.7% were wasted. There was no significant gender difference observed for goiter, stunting, wasting and underweight. It was observed that, only goiter and stunting were significantly associated (p<0.05) ...

  9. Grover Cleveland School, Boston, Massachusetts. Refurbishment and Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co., Philadelphia, PA.

    The solar heating system is a retrofit installation on the roof of the Grover Cleveland Middle School in Boston. The system includes 4,600 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 2,000 gallon solar energy storage tank, plus the required structural steel, piping, insulation, pumps, heat exchangers, and controls to heat the air supplied by two…

  10. The relationship between school absence, academic performance, and asthma status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonie, Sheniz; Sterling, David A; Figgs, Larry W; Castro, Mario

    2008-03-01

    Children with asthma experience more absenteeism from school compared with their nonasthma peers. Excessive absenteeism is related to lower student grades, psychological, social, and educational adjustment. Less is known about the relationship between the presence of asthma and the academic achievement in school-aged children. Since students with asthma miss more days from school, this may negatively impact their academic achievement. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between absenteeism, presence of asthma, and asthma severity level with standardized test level performance in a predominantly African American urban school district. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 3812 students (aged 8-17 years) who took the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) standardized test during the 2002-2003 academic year. After adjustment for covariates, a significant inverse relationship was found between absenteeism and test level performance on the MAP standardized test in all children (F = 203.9, p achievement between those with and without asthma (p = .12). Though not statistically different, those with persistent asthma showed a modestly increased likelihood of scoring below Nearing Proficient compared with those with mild intermittent asthma (adjusted odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence intervals = 0.93-4.01, p = .08). A negative impact of absenteeism on standardized test level achievement was demonstrated in children from an urban African American school district. Children with asthma perform the same academically as their nonasthma peers. However, those with persistent asthma show a trend of performing worse on MAP standardized test scores and have more absence days compared with other students. More research is warranted on the effects of persistent asthma on academic achievement.

  11. Philosophy in Schools: A Catholic School Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sean

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on the recent Special Interest issue of this journal on "Philosophy for Children in Transition" (2011) and the way that the debate about philosophy in schools has now shifted to whether or not it ought to be a compulsory part of the curriculum. This article puts the spotlight on Catholic schools in order to present a…

  12. Prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status among school going children: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, P L; Jayapalan, C S; Gondhalekar, Rajesh V; Krishna, B Jaya; Shaloob, K M Muhamed; Ummer, P Fajar

    2013-07-01

    Oral health is an important part of general health of body. Oral hygiene determines oral health status. Thus, oral hygiene is most important for good health in general. Poor oral hygiene can be source of many diseases. By maintaining the good oral hygiene, we can prevent occurrence of many disease. A survey was carried out to assess oral hygiene status and to find out caries prevalence rate among school going children of age 6 to 12 years. 957 healthy subjects including 567 boys and 390 girls from four different schools were examined in broad day light with the help of mouth mirror and explorer.

  13. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-An Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. Methods This is a secondary analysis of 1651 elementary school children with complete biannual longitudinal data from kindergarten to the beginning of 5th grade. Heights and weights were measured by trained school nurses using standard procedures at the beginning and end of each school year for 11 consecutive assessments. Group-based trajectory clustering and multinomial logit modeling were conducted. Results When using BMIz score, six trajectory groups were identified revealing substantial consistency in BMIz score across time. When using a categorical variable separating overweight/obese children (BMI ≥ 85%ile from the rest, five developmental trajectories (persistently non-overweight/obese weight: 51.1 %; early-onset overweight/obese: 9.2 %; late-onset overweight/obese: 9.7 %; becoming healthy weight: 8.2 %; and chronically overweight/obese: 21.8 % were identified. When using a categorical variable separating obese children (BMI ≥ 95%ile from the rest, three trajectories (persistently non-obese: 74.1 %, becoming obese: 12.8 %; and chronically obese: 13.2 % were identified. For both cutoffs (≥ BMI percentile 85 % or 95 %, girls were more likely than boys to be classified in the persistently non-overweight and/or obese group (odds ratios (OR ranged from 0.53 to 0.67; and Hispanic children and non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to be chronically overweight and/or obese than non-Hispanic White children (OR ranged from 1.57 to 2.44. Hispanic children were also more likely to become obese (OR: 1.84 than non-Hispanic White children when ≥ BMI percentile 95 % was used. Conclusions Boys, Hispanic

  14. The relationship of five boarding school experiences and physical health status among Northern Plains Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running Bear, Ursula; Croy, Calvin D; Kaufman, Carol E; Thayer, Zaneta M; Manson, Spero M

    2018-01-01

    American Indian (AI) boarding school attendance is related to poor physical health status; however, little is known about how specific aspects of this experience contribute to poor health. Five experiences (age of first attendance, limited family visits, forced church attendance, prohibition on practicing AI culture and traditions, and punishment for use of AI language) may be independently associated with physical health status in adulthood. We expected the effect to be greater for those who began boarding school at older ages. Data on AI boarding school attenders (n = 771) came from the AI-Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project. Multiple linear regression models examined the association of these five experiences with physical health status. Additionally, we conducted a separate set of regressions to test for an interaction effect of age of first attendance. Each of the five experiences noted above were independently associated with poorer physical health status compared to those who did not have these experiences. An interaction effect for those punished for use of AI language and who were aged 8 or older was confirmed. Findings are consistent with reports that boarding school attendance is related to poor AI adult health. To inform AI health programs, the relationship of specific diseases and boarding school attendance should be considered.

  15. Sedentary behavior during school-time: Sociodemographic, weight status, physical education class, and school performance correlates in Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno G G; da Silva, Kelly S; George, Amanda M; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether sedentary behavior during school-time is associated with gender, age, mother's education, having physical education classes, weight status, and academic performance. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 571 children (7-12 years old) from five elementary schools in Florianopolis, South Brazil had their height and weight measured, and wore accelerometers during class time. Teachers completed a form to evaluate children's reading and writing skills. Parents provided sociodemographic and educational information. Data was analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. Children spent an average of 132min in sedentary behavior during school-time (64% of total school-time). Girls (137.5min), obese children (138.1min), older children (144.2min), and those who did not have physical education classes (140.2min) spent more time engaged in sedentary activities than their peers. Academic performance and mother's education were not associated with sedentary behaviors. Children spent most of their school-time in sedentary activities, with girls, older students, and obese students being even more sedentary than their peers. Physical education classes were a protective factor against excessive sedentary behavior in school. Interventions for reducing sedentary behavior during school-time could employ additional strategies to benefit the at risk groups. In addition, encouraging student's participation in physical education classes could minimize the time spent in sedentary behavior during school hours. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association Between Snack Habit And Nutrition Status In Elementary School In Sungai Rambutan, Ogan Ilir District

    OpenAIRE

    Febry, Fatmalina; Mutahar, Rini

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds: One of the factors that influence the determinants of nutritional status of primary school's pupils is the habit of eating snacks besides the other factors that breakfast habits. One of the factors that associate with the consumption patterns of elementary school ‘s students-grade 4-6 is the habit of eating snacks. Methods: This study is an observational cross-sectional approach. Aim of this research is to identify association between the snack habits and the nutritional sta...

  17. Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, N.F.; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)

  18. A snapshot of the status of problem-based learning (PBL) in Chinese medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Angela Pei-Chen; Kosik, Russell O; Tsai, Thomas Chen-Chia; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Guo, Li; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Chen, Qi

    2014-07-01

    In North America, where it was born, problem-based learning (PBL) has seen dips and rises in its popularity, but its inherent strengths have led to its spread to medical schools all over the world. Although its use at medical schools in some Western countries has already been examined, no one has looked at its status in many other countries, including China. The aim of this study is to determine the number of schools currently using PBL in China, the degree to which they use it, and the reasoning behind such usage. We used survey and internet search to examine PBL usage at Chinese medical schools. We were able to collect data from 43 first-class Chinese medical schools that are geographically diverse and thus representative of medical schools all across China. 34 (79.1%) of the 43 medical schools use PBL in the preclinical curriculum. Of the 34, data were collected from 24 (70.6%) medical schools regarding the extent of their PBL usage. Nine (37.5%) schools use PBL for less than 10% of preclinical hours, 14 (58.3%) schools use PBL for 10-50% of preclinical hours, and one (4.2%) school uses PBL for more than 50% of preclinical hours. In our sample of Chinese medical institutions, a large majority of schools use PBL, however, most schools use it for less than 50% of total preclinical curricular hours. Our results suggest that schools are interested in increasing the number of curricular hours devoted to PBL but are constrained by resources.

  19. Assessing the Status of Environmental Education in Illinois Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Young

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available One-thousand Illinois elementary teachers received a survey intended to assess the amount and manner in which they included environmental education in the classroom during the 2005 academic year. Over 91% of respondents (n = 234 said that they taught about the environment at least once during the school year, yet most students were only exposed to 22 to 100 minutes during that year. Of the teachers that included environmental education, 49% said they did so because of personal interest in the environment; 47% of the teachers that excluded it said the reason was because of a lack of class time.

  20. Assessing the status of environmental education in illinois elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rebecca M; Lafollette, Sharron

    2009-11-09

    One-thousand Illinois elementary teachers received a survey intended to assess the amount and manner in which they included environmental education in the classroom during the 2005 academic year. Over 91% of respondents (n = 234) said that they taught about the environment at least once during the school year, yet most students were only exposed to 22 to 100 minutes during that year. Of the teachers that included environmental education, 49% said they did so because of personal interest in the environment; 47% of the teachers that excluded it said the reason was because of a lack of class time.

  1. Comparison of oral hygiene status among 6-14 year old students of public and private schools of Rajbiraj, Saptari, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    TK Bhagat; A Shrestha; TN Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the oral hygiene status of 6-14 years old school children in Rajbiraj, Nepal. Materials and Methods Three hundred school children from public and private schools were examined for oral hygiene status using OHI(S). Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests were done. Results There was no significant difference in the oral hygiene status among gender, but the oral hygiene status of the children in private schools was better than that of the public school. Conclusion...

  2. Research on Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing for the Spaceborne Sliding Spotlight Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Shijian Shen; Xin Nie; Xinggan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Gaofen-3 (GF-3) is China’ first C-band multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite, which also provides the sliding spotlight mode for the first time. Sliding-spotlight mode is a novel mode to realize imaging with not only high resolution, but also wide swath. Several key technologies for sliding spotlight mode in spaceborne SAR with high resolution are investigated in this paper, mainly including the imaging parameters, the methods of velocity estimation and ambiguity elimina...

  3. Nutritional status of in-school children and its associated factors in Denkyembour District, eastern region, Ghana: comparing schools with feeding and non-school feeding policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwabla, Mavis Pearl; Gyan, Charlotte; Zotor, Francis

    2018-01-12

    Childhood malnutrition still remains a major public health problem impacting negatively on the academic aptitude of school-aged children (SAC) particularly in limited resource countries. The Government of Ghana in collaboration with the Dutch Government introduced the school feeding programme (SFP) to boost the nutritional status of SAC in the country. This study sought to compare the nutritional status of SAC enrolled in schools with the SFP and SAC enrolled in schools without the SFP in place for the purpose of identifying which group has the higher rate of malnutrition. A multi-stage sampling was used to select 359 SAC between 5 and 12 years who are enrolled in primary one to six. Twelve public schools were selected, of which 6 schools benefit from the SFP and the other six do not. Anthropometric measurements were conducted for the subjects and SPSS version 20.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Chi square test was carried out to determine the difference between the two groups of schools. Of the total of 359 subjects, 55.1% were from schools that do not implement the SFP and 44.9% were from schools that implement the SFP. The prevalence of stunting among children in schools on the SFP was 16.2% compared with 17.2% among children in schools that do not implement the SFP. The prevalence of thinness was two times higher (9.3%) among children in schools on the SFP than in children in schools that do not implement the SFP (4.6%) (p = 0.028). The prevalence of overweight among children in schools on the SFP was 1.9% and 0.0% for children in schools that do not implement the SFP. Sub district, sex, age of pupil, area of residence and community type were significantly associated with stunting (p = 0.002), (p = 0.008), (p = 0.008), (p < 0.001) and (p = 0.007) respectively. Overweight and thinness were higher among children in schools on SFP than in children in schools without SFP. An evaluation of the implementation of the school feeding

  4. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of School Teachers in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita A Mary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of school teachers in Chennai. Materials & Method: The cluster sampling methodology was used to select the samples. The selection of a school was done in such a way that the particular school type was present in adequate numbers in all the zones. The final sample consisted of 1059 school teachers who were examined from various zones of Chennai. Results: The shallow pockets were seen in 15.8% whereas deep pockets were almost negligible (0.3%; 73.7% had carious lesions with mean DMFT being 4.63±4.04.The most commonly needed treatment modalities were one surface restorations and extraction in 55.2% and 31.4% of subjects respectively. Conclusions: The school teachers had a wide variety of dental diseases/conditions, the most prevalent being periodontal disease and dental caries which increased with age.

  5. Evaluation of nutritional status among school-aged children in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric indices of heights and weights were obtained from 411 school- aged children, (5-12 years old) in 5 villages (Asakraka, Awiseasu, Miaso, Oframase and Oworobong) during June 2012. Anthropometric parameters and influences that contributed to nutritional status (environmental, health facilities, availability ...

  6. A Survey of the Status of School Physical Education in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the status of school P. E. Against this backdrop, four research questions were raised in the areas of scope of activities, sports facilities/equipment and sports personnel to establish benchmark for the study. A total of 486 sample sizes were selected proportionately from a population of ...

  7. Exploring the Causes of Low Immunization Status in School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Inamdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a definitive immunization program has been advocated for children in our country, the immunization coverage is far from satisfactory. There is paucity of survey studies related to immunization pattern. Objective: This study has been undertaken to explore the social and attitudinal factors with parents resulting into adverse immunization. Material and Methods: The study was school based cross-sectional study conducted in 50 schools of Indore district selected by random sampling from three groups. Information was collected from parents by providing pre-tested questionnaire. Result: Association of parent’s literacy and socioeconomic status with successful immunization could be established. Overall coverage rate with vaccines was poor in school going girls as compared to the boys; proving thereby that gender discrimination exists putting girls in disadvantageous position. Conclusion: It can be expected that the immunization status of school children will improve if identified risk factors such as parental education, socioeconomic status, awareness status are improved and attitudinal gender discrimination is curbed.

  8. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student-Generated Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses ordinary least squares, logit and probit regressions, along with chi-square analysis applied to nationwide data from the New Zealand ratemyteacher website to establish if there is any correlation between student ratings of their teachers and the socioeconomic status of the school the students attend. The results show that students…

  9. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  10. Undermatched? School-Based Linguistic Status, College Going, and the Immigrant Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca M.; Humphries, Melissa H.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research investigates the immigrant advantage--the academic benefit first- and second-generation students experience relative to native-born peers. However, little work examines how school-based linguistic status may influence this advantage. Contradictory patterns exist: Research identifies both an immigrant advantage and a language…

  11. The Status of High School Online Physical Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, David Newman; Buschner, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Online learning is changing the educational landscape despite the limited empirical research and conflicting results about its effectiveness to produce student learning. The purpose of this study was to describe the status of online physical education (OLPE) in the United States. Surveys were sent to forty-five high school online physical…

  12. The International Status of English for Intercultural Understanding in Taiwan's High School EFL Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ya-Chen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate linguistic and cultural issues around the status of English as a lingua franca and intercultural understanding as presented in one set of Taiwan's (English as a Foreign Language (EFL) high school textbooks. The methodology centres on the analysis of textbook content as categorized in three central themes:…

  13. Native Plant Naming by High-School Students of Different Socioeconomic Status: Implications for Botany Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M. A.; Díaz, Sandra; De Longhi, Ana L.

    2018-01-01

    People's diminished awareness of plants, affected by anthropogenic environmental deterioration, has challenged science education to overcome the obstacles impeding a better understanding of their meaning and value. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the socioeconomic status of high-school students, as indicated by their…

  14. Physiologists at US Medical Schools: Education, Current Status, and Trends in Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, Marsha Lakes; Frank, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes data concerning the status of faculty at American medical schools who hold Ph.D. degrees in physiology and faculty members with appointments in departments of physiology. Data show a decline in numbers of Ph.D.s in animal and human physiology awarded to Americans since 1980. Discusses programs and initiatives to increase student interest…

  15. Determination of the nutritional status of a population of school-age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutrition assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce the morbidity and mortality that are associated with malnutrition. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the nutritional status of a population of school-age children in ...

  16. The Association between Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge and Weight Status of Primary School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Steyn, Nelia P.; de Villiers, Anniza; Fourie, Jean M.; Hill, Jillian; Lambert, Estelle V.; Draper, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate primary school educators' health status, knowledge, perceptions and behaviour regarding nutrition and physical activity. Thus, nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and risk factors for the development of non-communicable diseases of 155 educators were assessed in a…

  17. Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Nabeela Fazal; Muzaffar, Rizwana; Khan, Muhammad Athar; Imdad, Seema

    2010-01-01

    Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children.

  18. Orthopaedic health status of horses from 8 riding schools - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egenvall Agneta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthopaedic injury is the most common reason for lameness and wastage in sport and leisure horses. Studies on racehorses have shown differences in injury risk between trainers and training strategies. The aim was to study between riding school variation in orthopaedic health status by clinical examination and horses age, and control for change of examiner, in schools with previous high (n = 4 and low (n = 4 insurance utilisation. Methods Horses (n = 99 at 8 riding schools were examined for conformation, movement in all gaits, standing flexion tests and palpation by two veterinary surgeons (in some schools only one. Indexes of findings were created for total health, movements, limbs, conformation and back palpation. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that findings increased with age (walk, trot, canter, conformation left hind limb, palpation fore limbs, hooves and flexion tests or decreased with age (conformation right fore limb. Significant differences in findings were found between riding schools and examiner for seven and eight criteria each (partly overlapping. Increasing indexes were significantly associated with one examiner (total health, movements, back palpation, increasing age (total health, movements or more time at the school (limbs. The back palpation index was highest at 5 Conclusion The age distribution differed markedly between riding schools and age affected several types of findings. This, combined with the two opposite groups of insurance use, shows that schools with low insurance utilisation had previously been able to "avoid" using the insurance, maybe even on similar types of cases if these were more promptly/differently handled indicating differential coverage of disease data in the insurance database. The examiner effect was clearly demonstrated. For some findings, the amount of clinical observations differed by school, even when examiner and age was adjusted for. Most findings were of minor

  19. MMR vaccination status of children exempted from school-entry immunization mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Sethuraman, Karthik; Omer, Saad B; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Levy, Michael Z; Salmon, Daniel

    2015-11-17

    Child immunizations are one of the most successful public health interventions of the past century. Still, parental vaccine hesitancy is widespread and increasing. One manifestation of this are rising rates of nonmedical or "personal beliefs" exemptions (PBEs) from school-entry immunization mandates. Exemptions have been shown to be associated with increased risk of disease outbreak, but the strength of this association depends critically on the true vaccination status of exempted children, which has not been assessed. To estimate the true measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination status of children with PBEs. We use administrative data collected by the California Department of Public Health in 2009 and imputation to estimate the MMR vaccination status of children with PBEs under varying scenarios. Results from 2009 surveillance data indicate MMR1/MMR2 coverage of 18-47% among children with PBEs at typical schools and 11-34% among children with PBEs at schools with high PBE rates. Imputation scenarios point to much higher coverage (64-92% for MMR1 and 25-58% for MMR2 at typical schools; 49-90% for MMR1 and 16-63% for MMR2 at high PBE schools) but still below levels needed to maintain herd immunity against measles. These coverage estimates suggest that prior analyses of the relative risk of measles associated with vaccine refusal underestimate that risk by an order of magnitude of 2-10 times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Race and socioeconomic status in medical school choice and indebtedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, G J; Adams, E K; Thran, S L

    1986-04-01

    Current and proposed cutbacks in student financial assistance may significantly reduce the likelihood that low-income and minority individuals will be able to pursue a medical career. In order to estimate the magnitude of the potential effects of these cutbacks, the authors of the study reported here examined the effectiveness of the federal health manpower programs of the 1960s and 1970s in increasing access to medical education. The results suggest that regardless of race or ethnic background individuals from families with small resources were able to enter even the most expensive medical schools without incurring substantially greater debt than individuals with more family resources. In addition, the debt burden of the minority physicians examined was not very different from that of nonminority physicians. Thus, the health manpower programs appear to have been very effective, and their elimination should have a larger adverse effect on low-income individuals than on high-income persons.

  1. Transforming Low Socioeconomic Status Schools to Learning for Well-Being Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the initial finding about the complexity of dealing with a transformation of a low socioeconomic school into a learning for well-being school. The article looks at the problem through the lens of complexity theory to discuss the different components, subsystems and the diffe......This article presents the initial finding about the complexity of dealing with a transformation of a low socioeconomic school into a learning for well-being school. The article looks at the problem through the lens of complexity theory to discuss the different components, subsystems...

  2. What is the status of food literacy in Australian high schools? Perceptions of home economics teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The high school setting has been identified as an ideal setting to teach adolescents about healthy dietary behaviours. This study explored home economics teachers' (HETs) views on the role of high schools in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and promoting healthy dietary behaviours. Semi-structured interviews with 22 HETs were conducted. The interview questions focused on the perceived strengths/opportunities and the limitations/barriers in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and healthy dietary behaviours in Australian high schools. Thematic data analysis was used to identify five key themes from the interview transcripts: (1) the standing of food-related life skills; (2) food literacy in the Australian school curriculum; (3) emphasis on resources; (4) learning through school canteens; and (5) building a school to home and community nexus. Overall, HETs reported that home economics was regarded by parents and other school staff to be less important than Maths or English for adolescents to learn in Australian high schools. Some teachers indicated that their schools offered one year compulsory teaching of food related studies which is typically delivered in the leaning areas of Technologies or Health and Physical Education (HPE). However, HETs stated that the time was insufficient to develop sustainable food-related life skills and introduce broader concepts of food literacy such as environmental sustainability. The lack of financial resources and non-supportive school food environments, including school canteens, were reportedly major factors that prevented food literacy education and healthy dietary behaviours of adolescents. Increasing the status of food literacy education in schools would support adolescents to develop food-related life skills and mobilise them as agents of dietary behaviour change in the home setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High school physics enrollments by socioeconomic status and type of class

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Since September, we have been examining the relationship between high school physics enrollments by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. We have seen that the number of seniors and the number of physics teachers is roughly evenly divided into each type of school: those where students are typically better off economically than their peers at other schools in the area, those where students' economic status is typical for the area, and those where students are worse off. We have seen that even though the number of seniors and the number of physics teachers is roughly equal, the number of students taking physics is not. As we see in the figure, the enrollments in various types of physics classes are not equivalent either. While the total number of students taking Physics First or conceptual physics is about the same, the number of students in advanced classes—honors, AP, or second-year physics—is heavily skewed toward the better off schools. It is hard to know the direction of any cause and effect, but it is clear the students attending better off schools are more likely to take physics and are more likely to take more advanced physics classes in high school.

  4. Health status of school children in rural area of coastal Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar M Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are the foundation of a strong and healthy nation. Morbidity among school-going children adversely affects their normal growth and development and hence is a major public health concern. School health program was started as an important component of total health care delivery system in the country with a purpose of addressing the health needs of children. Aim: To assess the morbidity pattern and nutritional status among school children. Materials and Methods: Study design: A cross-sectional study. Study period: 1-year from 1 st July 2012 to 30 th June 2013. Study setting: 14 schools with a total strength of 909 children in a rural area of coastal Karnataka. Data collection: Health examination of the school children was carried out by a trained team. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, refractory error, medical problems and minor ailments were collected using a predesigned proforma. Results: A total of 797 children were examined. Dental caries was the most common ailment observed in 31.86% of children 43.32% of the children were underweight, 53.03% were normal, and 3.65% were overweight for age. Conclusion: The school health program provides a good opportunity to screen, identify and impart education regarding health related issues. The common morbidities found were dental caries, pallor, upper respiratory tract infection and refractory error. Overweight was also observed in the school children and needs to be addressed. There is a scope of providing comprehensive school health services by incorporating dental care.

  5. HEALTH STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES IN DOIWALA BLOCK, DEHRADUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kakkar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background -The introduction of school health services in India dates back to 1909, when school children in the city of Baroda were given the first medical examination. School Health programme ,promoting basic check up of school children for a variety of health related problems, is a systematic effort in raising awareness about health issues among school children and their families. Good health increases enrollment and reduces absenteeism. It also ensures attendance of the poorest and most disadvantaged children to school, many of whom are girls. Aim- To study the morbidity status of the school children & elicit relationship of healthy habits with morbidity pattern. Study Type- Observational study Methodology- A cross sectional survey to find out the morbidity pattern was conducted on 757 school children (340 boys and 417girls, aged 5-16 years studying in class I-VIII in five different schools of Doiwala, Dehradun under Rural Health training centre, Rajeev Nagar. Results- Overall students attendance was 78.2%. Clinical anaemia was higher in Girls (46.7% as compared to Boys (34.1%. Worm infestation was higher in boys (65.1% as compared to Girls(57.3%. Over all abnormal Visual acquity(8.5% or eye abnormality (14% was noticed among study subjects. Dental Caries (53.1% and dermatitis (16.3% were more in boys. Healthy habits like daily bathing (82.6%, daily teeth brushing (61.1%, mouth rinsing after meal (53% and hair clean/combed (80.2% were more in girls as compared to boys while trimmed nail was equally (55% noticed among both the groups. Conclusion- Morbidities found amongst students are basically due to low awareness & negligent behaviour about personal hygiene are the key areas of concern and by active involvement of school teachers improvement in personal hygiene of school children and reduction in related morbidities can be achieved.

  6. Mobbing in Schools and Hospitals in Uruguay: Prevalence and Relation to Loss of Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, Abraham P; Franco, Silvia; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Zurriaga, Rosario

    2016-01-19

    In the present study in secondary schools and hospitals in Uruguay (N = 187), we examined the relationship between feeling the victim of mobbing and a perceived loss of status. Nearly all forms of mobbing were more prevalent among hospital employees than among school employees. Among hospital employees, 40.4%, and among school employees, 23.9% reported being the victim of mobbing at least once a week. Being the victim of mobbing was, in both hospitals and schools, more prevalent among older employees, and in hospitals, among employees who were more highly educated and who had been employed for a longer time. Men and women did not differ in reporting that one was a victim of mobbing, but men reported more perceived loss of status than women. However, among women, being the victim of mobbing was much more strongly related to experiencing a loss of status than among men. Several explanations for this gender difference and the practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan K Desai

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test, demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05. After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score, children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1 * min(-1 had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively. This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their

  8. Nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bhandari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available School Health has been regarded as a high priority intervention in developing countries. However it has not been prioritized in Nepal for many years. The objectives of the study are to find out the nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children. To arouse importance of personal hygiene and healthful surrounding through information, education and communication (IEC. This cross-sectional study was administered in two schools located in Bolde phedeche and Mahure of Kavrepalanchowk. From the selected schools, a total number of 160 students studying from Grade 1 to V were enumerated in the study using census survey method. Among 160 students, the most important three problems were pediculosis 42(26.2 %, dental caries 29(18.1%, and waxy ear 27(17.1 %. Thus the school health education should put more emphasis on oral care, nutrition, personal hygiene and others. Applying classification of Indian Academy of Pediatrics: based on weight for age, 36(55.3% boys and 34(35.8% girls fall under 1st degree malnutrition and 15(23.07% boys and 44(46.3% girls fall under IInd degree malnutrition, 7(7.2 % girls fall under IIIrd degree malnutrition.The health and nutritional standards of school children in this study were found to be unsatisfactory. Among different morbidity pediculosis is found more in girls. The present study put more emphasis on the need for initiation of school health program in the school with more on improving personal hygiene, prevention of disease like parasitic infection/infestation and improvement of their nutritional status. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-2, 12-16 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i2.6832

  9. Childhood socio-economic status, school failure and drug abuse: a Swedish national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffin, Karl; Vinnerljung, Bo; Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten; Hjern, Anders

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether socio-economic status (SES) in childhood and school failure at 15 years of age predict illicit drug abuse in youth and young adulthood. Register study in a Swedish national cohort born 1973-88 (n = 1,405,763), followed from age 16 to 20-35 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for any indication of drug abuse. Our outcomes were hospital admissions, death and criminality associated with illicit drug abuse. Data on socio-demographics, school grades and parental psychosocial problems were collected from censuses (1985 and 1990) and national registers. School failure was defined as having mean school grades from the final year in primary school lower than -1 standard deviation and/or no grades in core subjects. School failure was a strong predictor of illicit drug abuse with an HR of 5.87 (95% CI: 5.76-5.99) after adjustment for age and sex. Childhood SES was associated with illicit drug abuse later in life in a stepwise manner. The lowest stratum had a HR of 2.28 (95% CI: 2.20-2.37) compared with the highest stratum as the reference, when adjusted for other socio-demographic variables. In the fully adjusted model, the effect of SES was greatly attenuated to an HR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.19-1.28) in the lowest SES category, while the effect of school failure remained high with an HR of 4.22 (95% CI: 4.13-4.31). School failure and childhood socio-economic status predict illicit drug abuse independently in youth and young adults in Sweden. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Education and micronutrient deficiencies: an ecological study exploring interactions between women's schooling and children's micronutrient status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kassandra L; Aguayo, Victor M; Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick

    2018-04-10

    Formal education can be a nutrition-sensitive intervention that supports the scale-up and impact of nutrition-specific actions. Maternal education has long been linked to child survival, growth, and development while adult earnings and nutrition are tied to years in school as a child. However, less is known about the relationship between maternal education and the micronutrient status of children, women and the general population. Using country-level data and an ecological study design, we explored the global associations between women's educational attainment and: a) anemia and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in children aged 6-59 months; b) anemia in non-pregnant women; and c) zinc deficiency, urinary iodine excretion (UIE), and the proportion of infants protected against iodine deficiency in the general population Cross-sectional relationships (2005-2013) were assessed using linear regression models. Percentage of women without schooling was negatively associated with all outcomes. Number of years of schooling among women was positively associated with all outcomes except for UIE and the proportion of infants protected against iodine deficiency. Income level was a significant effect modifier of the effect of years of women's schooling on child anemia as well as of the proportion of women without formal education on zinc deficiency in the population. The relationship was strongest in low-income countries for child anemia, and was not significant in upper middle-income countries. For zinc deficiency, the relationship was not significant in low or lower middle income countries, which may suggest that a minimum threshold of resources needs to be reached before education can influence zinc status. While relationships between maternal schooling and micronutrient outcomes vary around the globe, more schooling is generally linked to lower rates of deficiency. These findings draw policy-relevant connections between formal education and anemia and micronutrient status

  11. Academic Interventions for Elementary and Middle School Students with Low Socioeconomic Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is a major predictor of educational achievement. This systematic review and meta-analysis seeks to identify effective academic interventions for elementary and middle school students with low socioeconomic status. Included studies have used a treatment-control group design......, were performed in OECD and EU countries, and measured achievement by standardized tests in mathematics or reading. The analysis included 101 studies performed during 2000-2014, 76 percent of which were randomized controlled trials. The effect sizes (ES) of many interventions indicate...

  12. The Financial Management System: A Pivotal Tool for Fiscal Viability. CDS Spotlight. ECAR Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Leah; Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This spotlight focuses on data from the 2013 CDS to better understand how higher education institutions approach financial management systems. Information provided for this spotlight was derived from Module 8 of Core Data Service (CDS), which asked several questions regarding information systems and applications. Responses from 525 institutions…

  13. BI Reporting, Data Warehouse Systems, and Beyond. CDS Spotlight Report. Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Leah; Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This Spotlight focuses on data from the 2013 Core Data Service [CDS] to better understand how higher education institutions approach business intelligence (BI) reporting and data warehouse systems (see the Sidebar for definitions). Information provided for this Spotlight was derived from Module 8 of CDS, which contains several questions regarding…

  14. Maximize Institutional Relationships with CRMs. CDS Spotlight Report. ECAR Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Leah; Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This Spotlight focuses on data from the 2013 Core Data Service (CDS) to better understand how higher education institutions approach customer relationship management (CRM) systems. Information provided for this Spotlight was derived from Module 8 of the Core Data survey, which asked several questions regarding information systems and applications.…

  15. ¿Y ahora qué? Anticipated immigration status barriers and Latina/o high school students' future expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; Ramos, Karina; Medina, Cynthia

    2013-07-01

    Latina/o high school students without documentation face a challenging situation when they graduate from high school, with pathways to work and postsecondary education stymied by their immigration status. We examined the effects of anticipated barriers associated with immigration status, age, and sex on the dependent variables of vocational outcome expectations, anticipated external and internal barriers, and postsecondary schooling plans in a sample of 475 Latina/o high school students. Findings include that students anticipating immigration status problems had lower vocational outcome expectations and anticipated more external barriers to pursuing their postsecondary plans. Latina girls and older high school students anticipating immigration status problems were more likely to plan to attend 2-year rather than 4-year colleges, and less likely to plan on postsecondary education, respectively. Implications for practice, policy, and research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY FROM VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the nutritional status of primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what factors are associated with malnutrition? Objective: To assess the nutritional status of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates of nutritional status. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were involved in the study. Results: Out of total 816 study subjects 429 or 52.6% (201 boys and 228 girls were underweight and 75 or 9.2% (39 boys and 36 girls were stunted. Educational status of the parents was found to be significantly associated with the nutritional status of school children Conclusion: As the literacy status of the parents has been revealed to be strongly associated with nutritional status of children, there is an increasing need to focus the efforts towards the parents to improve the nutritional status of primary school children.

  17. School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-02-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3 rd to 7 th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and 75.9% of the between-school differences in NI and BMI, respectively. Grade-specific HLM yielded higher between-school variation of NI (41%) and BMI (14.6%) for students in grade 3 compared to grades 4 to 7. School factors showed a differential pattern of associations with NI and BMI across grades. The distance to a health post and teacher's teaching experience were the strongest predictors of NI (particularly in grades 4, 6 and 7); the presence of a preschool was linked to lower BMI in grades 4 to 6. Implications for improving access and quality of education in rural Zambia are discussed.

  18. Effectiveness Of A School-Based Multicomponent Intervention On Nutritional Status Among Primary School Children In Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Nattapon; Panza, Alessio; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Kumar, Ramesh; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adults and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thais is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills, multicomponent, school-based intervention on child nutritional status. A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The interventions included education, diet, physical activity (PA), food-environment, school builtenvironment, and life-skills components. Subjects were measured at baseline and at 6 months post-treatment. The intervention group had significant differences in overall healthy practices (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048), dietary habits, physical activity, lower total cholesterol (TC) levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019) and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to the control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetables increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fast foods decreased in children after the intervention. This study indicated that a multidisciplinary approach in school-based interventions is most likely to be effective in preventing children from becoming overweight in the long term. More research should be conducted on school-based interventions with longer intervention periods and higher sustainability.

  19. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, Jan; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-07-02

    Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5-6 years. One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  20. Is an Iranian Health Promoting School status associated with improving school food environment and snacking behaviors in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Omidvar, Nasrin; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-08-29

    The Iranian Health Promoting Schools (IHPS) program was first piloted and then formally established in Iran in 2011 as a framework to promote healthy environment and behaviors such as proper dietary practice among adolescents. This study examined the role of IHPS in improving the school food environment and snacking behaviors among adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, 1320 eighth grade students from 40 middle schools with IHPS and non-IHPS program were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified 55-item qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks in the studied adolescents. Mixed effect negative binomial regression models were used to analyze the data. The association was also adjusted for individual variables, including gender, socio-economic status, pocket money, family structure and nutritional knowledge level. No significant difference was observed between the average of healthy and unhealthy snack items in IHPS and non-IHPS schools (p > 0.05). On the basis of adjusted analysis, being from/in IHPS was not associated with weekly frequency consumption of unhealthy [prevalence rate ratio (PRR) = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.85-1.16] and healthy (PRR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.96-1.2) snacks among the adolescents. There was no difference regarding school food environment and snacking behaviors in IHPS and non-IHPS schools. This might indicate that there has been a weakness in institutionalizing the comprehensive concepts of the HPS approach in the studied schools. Addressing the proper understanding of HPS approach and the need for development of HPS through matching and adaptability with health promotion actions to reach defined standards, is necessary. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:22747880

  2. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  3. Effectiveness of a school-based multicomponent intervention on children nutritional status among primary school children in bangkok, thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, N.; Panza, A.; Kumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adult and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thai is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a life skills multicomponent school-based intervention on children's nutritional status. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The intervention included education, dietary, physical activity, food-environment, school built-environment, and life skills components. Outcomes were measured at baseline and post-treatment measured after 6 months. Results: The intervention group had significant improvements in healthier practice (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048) on dietary habits and physical activity, lowered cholesterol levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019), and higher HDL levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetable increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fasts food decreased in children after the intervention. Conclusion: Childhood overweight and obesity is a serious public health problem based on its increasing rates and the associated health risks. This study indicated that multidisciplinary approach on school-based interventions is likely most effective to prevent children becoming overweight in long term. More research should be conducted on school-based intervention with longer intervention periods with higher sustainability. (author)

  4. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city - An epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh Kumar P; Joseph T; Varma R; Jayanthi M

    2005-01-01

    India, a developing country, faces many challenges in rendering oral health needs. The majority of Indian population resides in rural areas of which more than 40% constitute children. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city. The study population consisted of 1200 school children of both the sexes (600 private and 600 corporation school children) in 30 schools, which had been selected randomly. The surv...

  5. Dental caries status of students from migrant primary schools in Shanghai Pudong New Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Jun; Zhou, Wei; Feng, Xue-Shan

    2016-03-05

    In China, there is a large migrant population. A significant proportion of children of the migrant population in China are not able to attend public schools due to the lack of local household registration (HuKou). They turn to privately-operated migrant schools, which are usually under-funded, have bad environmental facilities and are inadequately staffed compared to public schools. This study aims to describe the dental caries status of students from migrant primary schools in Shanghai Pudong New Area and factors that influence their caries status. Children (7-12 years old) from migrant primary schools in Shanghai Pudong New Area were randomly selected through a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Following the recommendation of the World Health Organization, caries experiences were recorded using the dmft index. A questionnaire to survey the children's socio-demographic characteristics and oral health-related behaviours was completed by the children's parents or guardians. A total of 1385 children in migrant primary schools were invited, of which 1323 joined the survey (95.5 %). Among all the surveyed subjects, the prevalence rate of dental caries was 74.7 % (65.7 % for primary teeth and 28.1 % for permanent teeth). The mean (SD) dmft scores were 3.17 (3.12), 2.74 (3.02) for the primary teeth and 0.44 (0.84) for the permanent teeth, and 99.5 % of the carious teeth received no treatment. Students from migrant primary schools in Shanghai Pudong New Area had bad conditions of dental caries and most of the carious teeth were left untreated. The caries experience was associated with tooth brushing habits, snacking habits, dental visit and gender.

  6. Nutritional Status And Its Association With Diabetes Mellitus In School Children, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muninarayana C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor health and nutrition may impair both the growth and intellectual development of school children. Incidence of malnutrition related childhood diabetes mellitus has increased and continues to be on the rise.Objectives: To assess the nutritional status by anthropometry and to screen for diabetes by capillary blood examination of school children. Design: Longitudinal study Setting: The study was carried out at Sri R.L.Jalappa Central School, Kolar from August 2008 to December 2009. Methods: All the school children were interviewed with pre-designed and pre-tested proforma. Height, Weight was measured by standard procedures. The nutritional status was analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI for age. The school children were also screened for diabetes mellitus by Finger stick capillary random plasma glucose testing. The children were followed up for any major medical problems during the study period.Participants: All the students studying in the school during study period.Results: Mean height and weight of children were found comparable to the ICMR pooled data. However, compared to NCHS standards and affluent Indian children the mean height and weight were found to be much inferior at all ages. According to BMI for age as per NCHS most of the children were undernourished (79.2% and 3 children (0.6% were overweight. Out of 495 children screened for diabetes 14 children had hyperglycaemia (>160mg/dl. These 14 children were further tested by oral glucose tolerance test and found to have normal blood sugars levels. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The magnitude of malnutrition among school going children was found to be 79%. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus, hence under nutrition was associated with diabetes mellitus.

  7. Association Between Nutritional Status and Intelligence Quotient of Junior High School Students in Denpasar

    OpenAIRE

    Septiari Maryani Ardi, N.M; Eka Putra, I.W.G. Artawan; Indraguna Pinatih, G.N

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: The prevalence of obesity among youth in Indonesia was increasing. Obese young people have risk of having non-communicable disease and also affect the intelligence quotient. This study aimed to determine the association between nutritional status and intelligence quotient among junior high school students.Methods: Study was cross sectional with a sample of 176 respondents determined by simple random sampling. Data were collected through an IQ test using Standard Progre...

  8. Schools? Cafeteria Status: Does it Affect Snack Patterns? A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Esfarjani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Roustaee, Roshanak; Hajifaraji, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of students′ snacks habits regarding to their schools′ cafeteria status in Tehran by focus group discussion (FGD) technique. Methods: Participants were 240 students (12-15 years old), selected from12 middle-schools in Tehran. The field study consisted of 24 FGDs sessions; involving 8-10 participants. Collected data were coded, categorized and analyzed using constant comparative method. Results: Over half of the students belie...

  9. A Test in the High School Context of Berdahl's Status Theory of Sex-Based Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Rosalyn H

    2017-10-01

    This study, carried out in the high school context, is the first direct test of Berdahl's status theory of sex-based harassment. The theory covers not just male harassment of females, but female harassment of males and same-sex harassment. Participants were 771 males and 679 females, from Years 8 to 10, in five co-educational lower socioeconomic status (SES) Australian city schools, participating in a wider study of peer victimization. They indicated on a 5-point scale (from never to almost every day) how frequently they had experienced each of six sex-based harassment behaviors over the previous year, from same-sex and from opposite-sex peers, and responded to a question about sense of safety at school. Nonparametric analyses supported five of seven hypotheses derived from the theory: boys harassed others most often, girls were harassed most often, boy-to-girl harassment was the most frequent, girls harassed girls more than they did boys, and girl-to-boy harassment was the least frequent. However, contrary to the theory, boys' same-sex harassment was no more frequent than that between girls, and girl-to-girl harassment was just as threatening to victims' sense of safety as boy-to-boy harassment. The study largely supports Berdahl's theory. The unexpected results can be understood in terms of the intimate nature of adolescent girls' groups in high schools and their centrality for identity formation. In this context, girls are highly motivated to defend their status in terms of stereotypically feminine standards regarding appearance, sexual activity, and access to high-status boys. The theory implies that structural changes to reduce the salience of sex differences and sex stereotyping will be crucial to efforts to address sex-based harassment.

  10. [Family characteristics associated with the nutritional status of schools children in the city of Cartagena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pastrana, Yina; Díaz-Montes, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Objective To determine the family characteristics associated with the nutritional status of school children in the city of Cartagena. Method A cross-sectional study involving a population of 104 384 children aged 6 to 10 in the city of Cartagena. Confidence levels were 95 % and prevalence levels were 5.8 % with 2 % error. The sample was 544 students. The schools were selected by proportional affixation in each of the three locations in the city, for a total of 21 schools. Later, the number of classrooms and the list of the students were requested. Children from these classrooms were randomly selected to complete the sample in each school. The tab and the family APGAR were the instruments used to assess the family characteristics as well as their family functionality. For nutritional status, anthropometric measurements were taken and evaluated in the WHO Anthro Plus program. The information was processed in the statistical package Epi info 7. Results 53.9 % of students had adequate nutritional status and 46.1 % malnutrition. The family characteristics associated with the child malnutrition by excess are: the number of family members OR 0.65 (CI: 0.4 -0.9) and family income OR 0.53 (CI: 0.3 -0.7). Meanwhile, the malnutrition by deficit was associated only with family income OR 2.08 (CI: 1.1 -3.9). Conclusion The variables that showed association with nutritional status were: income equal to or less than the minimum wage and number of family members.

  11. Community well-being and growth status of indigenous school children in rural Oaxaca, southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria Eugenia Peña; Chavez, Guillermo Bali; Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the relationship between community well-being based on an index of marginalization and growth status of indigenous rural school children in Oaxaca. Heights and weights of a cross-sectional sample of 11,454 children, 6-14 years, from schools for indigenous rural children (escuelas albergue) in 158 municipios in Oaxaca were measured in 2007. Tertiles of an index of marginalization were used to classify the 158 municipios into three categories of community well-being: lowest (highest marginalization), low, and moderate (lowest marginalization). Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for age, relative isolation and population size, was used to compare body size of children by category of community well-being. Contributions of marginalization, isolation and population size to variation in body size were estimated with sex-specific linear regression. Children from municipios lowest in well-being were shorter and lighter than children from municipios low and moderate in well-being. Marginalization and relative isolation accounted for 23% (boys) and 21% (girls) of the variance in height and for 21% of the variance in weight of girls. Marginalization was the predictor of weight in boys (23%). Community well-being was reflected in the growth status of rural indigenous school children. Compromised growth status was consistent with poor health and nutritional conditions that were and are characteristic of rural areas in the state of Oaxaca. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological assessment of military professional adaptation and organism functional status of higher military schools resident students

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    Kondrashov V.V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of organism functional status of resident students of military medical higher schools in different situations and modes of professional education (during their study day, round-the clock shifts in a clinic, duties, and an examination period in the process of military professional adaptation have been analyzed. The technique of functional body status optimization which takes into account both psycho-physiological specificity of military professional training as well as the regularities of psycho-physiologic reserve-capacity changes and military professional adaptation has been worked out. It constitutes the sum total of physiologically proved structural and functional components such as adaptation improvements, correction and recreation of functional body status

  13. Associations of out of school physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and socioeconomic status with weight status and adiposity of Cameroon children.

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    Navti, Lifoter K; Atanga, Mary B; Niba, Loveline L

    2017-01-01

    Low physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle are contributing to overweight/obesity in children. This study aims to explore relationships between out of school physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and socioeconomic status indicators with children's weight status and adiposity. Five hundred twenty-two children of ages 5 to 12 years were randomly selected in a school-based cross sectional study in Bamenda, Cameroon. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. These variables were standardized for age and gender. Socioeconomic variables and proxy measures of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle of children were reported by parents using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios.Quantile regression was used to compare median values of triceps skinfold thickness across the different factors. In bivariate analysis, physical activity > 4 - 7 times/week was significantly ( p  = 0.010) associated with a lower prevalence (5.9%) of overweight/obesity. In multivariable analysis, physical activity > twice a week (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.05 - 0.3), sedentary lifestyle > 3 h/day (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2 - 4.3) and being in the high occupation class (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.2 - 8.1) independently predicted overweight/obesity. With quantile regression, physical activity > 4 - 7 times/week was significantly ( p  = 0.023) associated with a 1.36 mm decrease in median triceps skinfold thickness, while sedentary lifestyle (> 3 h/day) ( p  = 0.026) and being in the high occupation class ( p  = 0.007) were significantly associated with a 1.37 mm and 1.86 mm increase in median triceps skinfold thickness respectively. Physical activity is inversely related to BMI-defined overweight/obesity and triceps skinfold thickness. Also, a high sedentary lifestyle and a high occupation class were associated with overweight/obesity and had the largest significant relationship with triceps skinfold thickness

  14. Health status of young athletes — pupils of the school of physical culture

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    S.L. Nyankovskyy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Health status of young athletes — pupils of the schools of physical culture — remains unexplored. The purpose of the study was a comparative assessment of health status of young athletes, depending on their age, gender and sport. Materials and methods. Health status of 499 pupils of the school of physical culture (330 boys and 169 girls aged 12–19 years old, representatives of 14 sports was studied according to medical examination results and records in dispensary observation cards. Results. 72 % of pupils had electrocardiographic (ECG deviations from norm, 65 % — somatic and infectious diseases, 48 % — musculoskeletal system diseases, 35 % — traumatic injuries, 14 % — health status complaints, the incidence of which usually depended on children’s age and gender. Specificity of sport direction significantly affected the incidence of ECG abnormalities, less significantly influenced the rate of musculoskeletal system pathology and traumatic injuries, almost did not affect the incidence of other somatic and infectious diseases. Conclusions. The higher incidence of ECG abnormalities, diseases and traumatic injuries was observed in representatives of cyclic, technical sports, wrestling and pentathlon.

  15. Research Skills for the Future: Research Workforce Under the Spotlight

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    Eva Dobozy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and training needs of the future research workforce is under the spotlight. In this article, I take up Ulrich and Dash's (2013 somewhat provocative invitation to engage in discussion and debate about current and future research. In my three-tiered response, I first discuss Ulrich and Dash's article, followed by my own observations about the APEC/Deloitte (2010 research report: "Skills and Competencies Needed in the Research Field: Objectives 2020," and finally, I explore, in some detail, challenges of building a twentyfirst-century research workforce.

  16. School- and Individual-level Predictors of Weight Status Misperception among Korean Adolescents: A National Online Survey.

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    Yongjoo Kim

    Full Text Available Growing body of literature has reported that weight status estimation pattern, including accurate-, under-, and overestimation, was associated with weight related behaviors and weight change among adolescents and young adults. However, there have been a few studies investigating the potential role of school contexts in shaping adolescents' weight status estimation pattern among Korea adolescents.The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between weight status misperception patterns and factors at individual-, family-, and school-level, simultaneously, and whether there was significant between schools variation in the distribution of each weight status misperception pattern, underestimation and overestimation respectively, among Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years.Data from the Eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS, 2012, a nationally representative online survey of 72,228 students (boys = 37,229, girls = 34,999 from a total of 797 middle and high schools were used. Sex stratified multilevel random intercept multinomial logistic models where adolescents (level 1 were nested within schools (level 2 were performed.At the school level, attending a school with higher average BMI (kg/m2 was positively associated with weight status underestimation, and inversely associated with weight status overestimation among boys and girls. Single-sex schooling was positively associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At the family level, higher household income (high/middle versus low was inversely associated with both weight status under- and overestimation among boys and girls. Higher maternal education (equal to or more than college graduate versus equal to or less than high school graduate was positively associated with weight status overestimation among boys, and living with both parents (compared to not living with both parents was inversely associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At

  17. The status of mineral trioxide aggregate in endodontics education in dental schools in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanalp, Jale; Karapinar-Kazandag, Meriç; Ersev, Handan; Bayirli, Gündüz

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current status of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an educational material in dental schools in Turkey. A survey was sent to senior members of the endodontic departments of seventeen dental schools; fourteen responded. All respondents reported that they used MTA in their clinical practice, with apexification, perforations, retrograde fillings, and root resorptions being the most frequently occurring treatment procedures. All reported that information was given to students regarding MTA mainly as part of the curriculum. The third and fourth years were the periods when MTA was introduced to students in most of the schools. Twelve schools reported that students had the opportunity to observe procedures in which MTA was used, but students had the chance to use the material in a very minor proportion of the schools, mainly under the supervision of clinical instructors. Ten schools agreed that MTA should be included in the regular endodontic curriculum. Financial constraints seemed to be the predominant reason for those who answered this question negatively, followed by difficult handling properties and low radiopacity of the material. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that ways should be sought to prevent financial difficulties from depriving dental students of the opportunity to receive information about contemporary methodologies such as MTA utilization.

  18. Schools' Cafeteria Status: Does it Affect Snack Patterns? A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfarjani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Roustaee, Roshanak; Hajifaraji, Majid

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of students' snacks habits regarding to their schools' cafeteria status in Tehran by focus group discussion (FGD) technique. Participants were 240 students (12-15 years old), selected from12 middle-schools in Tehran. The field study consisted of 24 FGDs sessions; involving 8-10 participants. Collected data were coded, categorized and analyzed using constant comparative method. Over half of the students believed that snack consumption is necessary. Although, majority of students believed that their schools' cafeterias are not acceptable, they noted them as one of the necessary parts of school. Nearly half of the children were complaining of unvaried and expensive food items. The most purchased items were: Cookies, sandwiches with mayonnaise and ketchup, soft drinks and chocolate milk. Most of the students were interested in having roles in their cafeterias. Schools' cafeteria are significant sources of supplying adolescents' snacks, so developing hygienic stores containing healthy and nutritious food items is a key element to affect their snack selection positively. Reaching this goal requires a multi disciplinary approach through participation of students, school staff, parents, and the support of community and media.

  19. Nutrition status and associated factors among children in public primary schools in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaniki, E W; Makokha, A N

    2013-03-01

    Malnutrition among school-age children is due to inadequacies in one or more of the three main preconditions for good nutrition: food, care and health. Children stunted at school age are likely to have been exposed to poor nutrition since early childhood. Interventions for school age children can supplement efforts to reduce levels of stunting in the preschool years. To assess the nutrition status and associated risk factors of children in selected public primary schools in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi. Descriptive cross sectional design was used. 208 students aged 4-11years of both gender were randomly selected from four public primary schools in Dagoretti Division. Data was collected from school registers and directly questioning the students, parents /guardians. Among the children surveyed, 24.5% were stunted, 14.9% underweight and 9.7% were wasted. There were more boys than girls who were stunted. Breakfast contributed 10.2% of the daily energy intake. Few children consumed foods from more than four food groups. Incidence of diarrhea, colds/coughs increased the risk of stunting and underweight. Consumption of food which is inadequate in required calories and from less than four varieties of food groups by the children were important predictors of malnutrition.

  20. Status of X-ray CT photography in the radiology department of our school of dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokari, Seishi; Takahashi, Nobutoshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Shirai, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Hidehiko; Okumura, Yasuhiko

    1999-01-01

    Aided by the significant increase in its performance and reduction in cost, the X-ray CT, which originated from the EMI scanner of the 1970's, has become an essential tool in the field of diagnostic X-ray images in medicine. To comprehend in detail the status of X-ray CT photography used in a special diagnostic situation of an adjust hospital of a school of dentistry is beneficial for evaluating the use of exploratory X-ray photography to obtain useful diagnostic information as well as routine photography format. Also, knowledge of its status is necessary to address the issues of justification and optimization of X-ray examinations. Therefore, we conducted research and evaluation on various items, such as the number of cases photographed, number of contrast enhanced, and male to female ratio, over a six-years period to assess the status of photography conducted with a Toshiba CT Scanner TCT-700S, which was introduced to the Radiology Department of our school in September 1991. The following are part of our findings; 1. Status of photography in total. 1) The total number of cases photographed was 5,346 cases. 2) The number of cases contrast enhanced was 903 cases. 3) Contrast enhanced cases ratio was 16.9%. 4) Male to female ratio was 55.4: 44.6%. 2. Status of case photography by different department was: dentistry, 73.3%; medicine, 26.7%. In order to descending case frequency was oral surgery, 53.0%; internal medicine, 19.4%; and radiology 15.0%. 3. Status of case photography by age was, in order of descending frequency, 50s, 40s, and 60s. (author)

  1. EFFECTS OF OUTSCHOOL BODY ACTIVITIES ON QUALITATIVE CHANGES OF MOTORICAL STATUS PUPILS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STRATURE

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    Izudin Tanović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Population of pupil high classes primary school present one of cariks in chain of complex education and systematic social influence in body and health education, which are used a new generations (Mikić,1991. Including that we have a very sensibility population in way of strature and development in phase of adolescental period, it is necessary that throw the classes body education and extra outschool activities, give enough quantity of motorical activities, which will completly satisfied necessy of children this strature and also completly give them normal biopsychosocial growth. Explorations of effects extra outschool activities in frame of school sport sections pupils of primary school tell us that with a correct planning and programming work, which understand correctly choice adequate methods and operators of work could been very significant transformations of anthropological status of pupils (Malacko 2002. The basic target of this explorations was that confirm influence of outschool body activities on level qualitative changes of structure motorical space of pupils primary school strature, under influence applying programme of outschool activities. With help of factory analise, but also of method of congruation, it was explored structure of motorical space in the start but also at the end of this applying experimental programme of outschool body activities , and we concluded that changes which was appear in structure of explored motorical space, tell us on positive influence outschool body activities in sense transformation and progressing of motorical status of explorated sample.

  2. Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leite, João; Keating, Elisa; Pestana, Diogo; Cruz Fernandes, Virgínia; Maia, Maria Luz; Norberto, Sónia; Pinto, Edgar; Moreira-Rosário, André; Sintra, Diana; Moreira, Bárbara; Costa, Ana; Silva, Sofia; Costa, Vera; Martins, Inês; Castro Mendes, Francisca; Queirós, Pedro; Peixoto, Bruno; Carlos Caldas, José; Guerra, António; Fontoura, Manuel; Leal, Sandra; Moreira, Roxana; Palmares Carvalho, Irene; Matias Lima, Rui; Martins, Catia; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Almeida, Agostinho; Azevedo, Luís; Calhau, Conceição

    2017-05-05

    The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6-12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. A total of 2018 participants were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional survey in northern Portugal. Children's urine and salt samples from households and school canteens were collected. A lifestyle questionnaire was completed by parents to assess children's eating frequency of iodine food sources. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median UIC was 129 µg/L which indicates the adequacy of iodine status and 32% of the children had UIC salt policy and only 2% of the households were using iodised salt. Lower consumption of milk, but not fish, was associated with a higher risk of iodine deficiency. Estimation of sodium intake from spot urine samples could be an opportunity for adequate monitoring of population means. Implementation of iodine deficiency control policies should include a monitoring program aligned with the commitment of reducing the population salt intake.

  3. Nutritional status, food consumption and physical activity among Chilean school children: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, S; Kain, J; Lera, L; Pizarro, F; Vio, F; Morón, C

    2004-09-01

    To assess the nutritional status, food consumption and physical activity (PA) habits of Chilean school children, as a baseline for developing an educational intervention. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1701 children from 3rd to 7th grade in nine schools located in three geographical regions. We determined body mass index, food consumption (quantified FFQ which we categorised into five groups), PA in terms of TV viewing and frequency of after school PA. The data were analysed according to age, nutritional status and gender. A logistic regression analysis was performed using obesity as outcome. Obesity was higher among boys; younger children presented higher prevalence in both genders. Daily intake of dairy products varied between 240 and 308 g, fruits/vegetables, between 197 and 271 g, energy-dense foods between 343 and 460 g. In all, 22.3 and 47% of the children watched over 3 h of TV during the week and weekend, respectively. Older children watched significantly more TV during the week, while on weekends all children increased this time significantly. Boys were more active than girls after school. The logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between obesity and low intake of dairy products. Prevalence of obesity among Chilean children is high. Although TV time, intake of energy dense foods and fruits/vegetables appeared as risk factors for obesity, only dairy consumption was significantly associated with obesity. FAO Copyright 2004 Nature Publishing Group

  4. [Nutritional status of Mexican school age children, living in the frontier with United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviña-Barrera, Mariel A; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Perales-Torres, Adriana; Aleman-Castillo, Sanjuana

    2016-03-01

    Undernutrition and obesity coexist among Mexican children due to poverty, sedentariness and inadequate food intake. To assess the nutritional status of school age children in a Mexican city located in the frontier with United States. Cross sectional assessment of children from 28 basic schools in 2005, 2008 and 2013. Using a cluster sampling methodology, 5 children per course were selected in each school, reaching a final sample 840 children aged 7 to 12 years old. Body mass index z scores were calculated. The pre valence of overweight and obesity among these children was 49, 54 and 45% in the assessments performed in 2005, 2008 and 2013 respectively. There is a trend towards a decrease in the frequency of obesity in these children from 2005 to 2013.

  5. School Breakfast Scorecord, 2002. Twelfth Annual Status Report on the School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Doug; Woo, Nicole; Phelps, Anne; Parker, Lynn; Weill, Jim

    The School Breakfast Program provides breakfast to millions of children from low-income families who otherwise might go hungry in the morning and be less ready to learn. This report is the eleventh from the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) to examine the program, its benefits, and the performance of the nation and of each state in reaching…

  6. School Breakfast Scorecard, 2003: Thirteenth Annual Status Report on the School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Nicole; Parker, Lynn; Weill, Jim; Vuong, Bi; Hess, Doug; Weinstein-Tull, Justin; Putney, Wanda

    The School Breakfast Program provides breakfast to millions of children from low-income families who otherwise might go hungry in the morning and be less ready to learn. This report is the thirteenth from the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) to examine the program, its benefits, and the performance of the nation and of each state in reaching…

  7. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bemnet; Moges, Beyene; Fantahun, Bereket; Tafess, Ketema; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Yismaw, Gizachew; Ayane, Tilahun; Yabutani, Tomoki; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Kassu, Afework

    2012-12-13

    Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and 18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl), 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl), 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl), 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl), 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl), 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl), and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl), respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01) and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05). Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that appropriate and beneficial strategies for micronutrient

  8. Effect of Training School Teachers on Oral Hygiene Status of 8-10 Years Old Government School Children of Udaipur City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sandeep; Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Singh, Anukriti; Shinde, Kushal; Gandhi, Neha; Doshi, Astha

    2016-08-01

    Provision of oral health knowledge to the children by their teachers at the school level can prove to be more fruitful because it is the time period during which the children begin to learn the basic oral hygiene practices and are most prone to dental caries. This study was carried out to assess the effect of training school teachers on oral hygiene status of 8-10 years old government school children of Udaipur city, India. A total of nine school teachers and 279, 8-10 year old school children from two government schools were included in the study. The questionnaire on oral health knowledge and practice contained 17 questions to evaluate the knowledge and practice of children towards oral hygiene before and after the teachers training program. Baseline and six months post training data on oral health knowledge and practice was obtained by the questionnaire method. Baseline and six months post training data on oral hygiene status was obtained by OHI-S Index. Statistical analysis was done using software SPSS 22, the test used were McNemar's test, paired t-test. Pre and post training data were compared and it was found that there was a significant improvement in oral health knowledge and practices of school teachers and children. Also oral hygiene status of school children was significantly improved after the program. Results of the present study suggest that experiential learning is an effective school based oral health education method for improvement of oral hygiene in primary school children.

  9. A Study on Nutritional Status of Rural School going Children in Kavre District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, D I; Haque, M K; Sharma, K; Mehta, D K; Shakya, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood is a time of active growth in terms of physical size, mental, emotional and psychological development. Normal growth is dependent on adequate nutrition and encompasses major transformations from birth to adulthood. Nutrition is a focal point for health and well being; and has special significance in countries with disadvantages in socioeconomic and hygienic standards. Objective The objective of the present study was to assess the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among rural school going children. Method The present study was cross-sectional study, conducted on 438 rural school going children (169 male and 259 female) with the age group 4-16 years, during the period from April 2014 to July 2014. Age was recorded in year; height and weight were measured in centimeter and kilogram respectively. BMI was calculated by using standard equation. Result The present study concluded that the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were found to be 30.85%, 24.54% and 10.05% respectively among rural school going children of Kavre district. It was revealed that 37.87% was underweight, 29.59% was stunted and 11.25% was thinness among male children whereas in female children, 26.27% was underweight, 21.24% was stunted and 9.27% was thinness. Hence, high prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were observed in male than in female children. Conclusion The present study has successfully documented the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among the rural school going children of Kavre district. The results of the present study will be useful for policy makers in their endeavor to formulate various developmental and health care programs.

  10. Voicing Others’ Voices: Spotlighting the Researcher as Narrator

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    Dan O’SULLIVAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As qualitative research undertakings are not independent of the researcher, the “indissoluble interrelationship between interpreter and interpretation” (Thomas & James, 2006, p. 782 renders it necessary for researchers to understand that their text is a representation, a version of the truth that is the product of writerly choices, and that it is discursive. Endlessly creative, artistic and political, as there is no single interpretative truth, the interpretative process facilitates the refashioning of representations, the remaking of choices and the probing of discourses. As a consequence of the particularity of any researcher’s account, issues pertaining to researcher identity and authorial stance always remain central to research endeavours (Kamler & Thomson, 2006, p. 68; Denzin & Lincoln 2011, pp. 14-15. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to be reflexive about their analyses and research accounts (Elliott, 2005, p. 152, as reflexivity helps spotlight the role of the researcher as narrator. In turn, spotlighting the researcher as narrator foregrounds a range of complex issues about voice, representation and interpretive authority (Chase, 2005, p. 657; Genishi & Glupczynski, 2006, p. 671; Eisenhart, 2006. In essence, therefore, this paper is reflective of the challenges of “doing” qualitative research in educational settings. Its particular focus-the shaping of beginning primary teachers’ identities, in Ireland, throughout the course of their initial year of occupational experience, post-graduation- endeavours to highlight issues pertaining to the researcher as narrator (O’Sullivan, 2014.

  11. Spotlighting quantum critical points via quantum correlations at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werlang, T.; Ribeiro, G. A. P.; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    We extend the program initiated by T. Werlang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 095702 (2010)] in several directions. Firstly, we investigate how useful quantum correlations, such as entanglement and quantum discord, are in the detection of critical points of quantum phase transitions when the system is at finite temperatures. For that purpose we study several thermalized spin models in the thermodynamic limit, namely, the XXZ model, the XY model, and the Ising model, all of which with an external magnetic field. We compare the ability of quantum discord, entanglement, and some thermodynamic quantities to spotlight the quantum critical points for several different temperatures. Secondly, for some models we go beyond nearest neighbors and also study the behavior of entanglement and quantum discord for second nearest neighbors around the critical point at finite temperature. Finally, we furnish a more quantitative description of how good all these quantities are in spotlighting critical points of quantum phase transitions at finite T, bridging the gap between experimental data and those theoretical descriptions solely based on the unattainable absolute zero assumption.

  12. Vitamin D status in pre-school children in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, Diana; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Gundersen, Thomas E; Madar, Ahmed A

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D plays a major role in Ca and bone metabolism, and its extraskeletal functions are being appraised. Although inadequate vitamin D concentrations have been reported in populations worldwide, too little is known about vitamin D status and its determinants among children in developing countries. We aimed to determine vitamin D status and its determinants in Nepalese children of pre-school age. A community-based, cross-sectional study. Rural Nepal at latitude 27.39° N. Healthy children (n 280) aged 12-60 months, selected randomly from the records of a vitamin A supplementation programme. Blood samples were collected using the dried blood spot technique and analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentration using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ca intake and background variables were assessed with a structured questionnaire. Hypovitaminosis D, defined as s-25(OH)D concentration less than 50 nmol/l, was found in 91.1% of the children. S-25(OH)D concentration was not related to gender, socio-economic indicators, sun exposure or nutritional status. Currently breast-fed children had higher s-25(OH)D concentrations (36.4 (sd 13.2) nmol/l) than those who were not (28.6 (sd 9.8) nmol/l, Pvitamin D deficiency among pre-school children in a rural area of Nepal. In our sample, sociodemographic factors did not affect the vitamin D status of children, but prolonged breast-feeding was associated with higher s-25(OH)D concentrations. Further research is required to investigate the health consequences of poor vitamin D status for this population.

  13. Fundamental movement skills and weight status in British primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth S; Duncan, Michael J; Birch, Samantha L

    2014-01-01

    Weight status has been shown to have a negative impact on children's competence in performing fundamental movement skills (FMSs). Following ethics approval and informed consent, 281 children in years 2-6 from a school in central England volunteered to participate. Each child performed eight FMSs (run, hop, gallop, jump, balance, kick, throw and catch) three times, all attempts were video-recorded. Video analysis was performed (Quintic Biomechanics software) using the Process Orient Checklist (subjective measurement). Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and weight status was determined. Results highlighted that year group (age) had a significant effect on seven out of the eight skills (not kick). Year 4 (aged 8-9 years) significantly scored lower in all three locomotor skills (run, hop and gallop) at this age, whereas Year 5 (aged 9-10 years) all significantly peaked at the object control skills (catch and throw) at this age. Weight status (BMI) significantly affected the run, identifying that a child with a larger BMI will have a lower mastery level of the run. Gender significantly affected the kick, throw and balance, with girls outperforming in the balance and the boys in the kick and throw. By highlighting that children at different ages will have a lower score in different skills, the effect of BMI and gender on certain FMS is important knowledge for the target of intervention in primary school children.

  14. Refractive status and prevalence of refractive errors in suburban school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Lian-Hong; Chen, Lin; Liu, Qin; Ke, Ning; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Xiao, Jun; Ye, Wei-Jiang; Xiong, Yan; Shi, Hui; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2010-10-18

    This study investigated the distribution pattern of refractive status and prevalence of refractive errors in school-age children in Western China to determine the possible environmental factors. A random sampling strategy in geographically defined clusters was used to identify children aged 6-15 years in Yongchuan, a socio-economically representative area in Western China. We carried out a door-to-door survey and actual eye examinations, including visual acuity measurements, stereopsis examination, anterior segment and eyeball movements, fundus examinations, and cycloplegic retinoscopy with 1% cyclopentolate. A total of 3469 children living in 2552 households were selected, and 3070 were examined. The distributions of refractive status were positively-skewed for 6-8-year-olds, and negatively-skewed for 9-12 and 13-15-year-olds. The prevalence of hyperopia (≥+2.00 D spherical equivalent [SE]), myopia (≤-0.50 D SE), and astigmatism (≥1.00 diopter of cylinder [DC]) were 3.26%, 13.75%, and 3.75%, respectively. As children's ages increased, the prevalence rate of hyperopia decreased (PChildren in academically challenging schools had a higher risk of myopia (Prefractive status changes gradually from positively-skewed to negatively-skewed distributions as age increases, with 9-year-old being the critical age for the changes. Environmental factors and study intensity influence the occurrence and development of myopia.

  15. Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in High School Girls in Ilam, West Iran

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    Fatemeh Jamalikandazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations.

  16. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Parental Involvement in Turkish Primary Schools: Perspective of Teachers

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    Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Gumus, Sedat

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study investigates the effects of socio-economic status on parental involvement in public primary schools in Turkey. The study aims to examine how teachers in these schools present the scope of current parental involvement, to what factors teachers ascribe the barriers to parental involvement, and whether teachers'…

  17. The Effect of Socioeconomic Status and Gender on High School Student Perceptions about Career and Technical Education

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    Chadwell, Briael Marie

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study examines the perceptions of career and technical education (CTE) among high school students based on their socioeconomic status and gender, and the interaction between the two. The study used a convenience sample of 207 students from four coastal South Carolina high schools. The data was collected using the Image of…

  18. The Art of the Reveal: Undocumented High School Students, Institutional Agents, and the Disclosure of Legal Status

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    Murillo, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    For many undocumented youth, the end of high school and transition to adulthood is the first time they grapple with being undocumented. Given the negative social stigma attached to being undocumented, many youth may hesitate to reveal their legal status to a teacher or other school personnel. The purpose of this study was to identify the contexts…

  19. How Family Socioeconomic Status, Peer Behaviors, and School-Based Intervention on Healthy Habits Influence Adolescent Eating Behaviors

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    Moreno-Maldonado, Concepción; Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Psychologists in schools can play an important role in developing policies and programs to promote healthy eating habits. This study analyses the contributions of family socioeconomic status, peer influence (schoolmates' food consumption), and school-based nutrition interventions to explain adolescent eating behaviors. Data were obtained from the…

  20. The Status of Corporal Punishment in Jordanian Primary Schools from the Perspectives Of: Teachers, Students, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateeb, Linda Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the status of corporal punishment in Jordanian Primary schools from the perspectives of: Teachers, students, and parents. The corpus of the study comprises (95) Male and female teachers, (135) male and female students form Jordanian primary schools. Two questionnaire forms were used in this study: one for teachers and…

  1. Using frequency-scaling approach to process squint-mode spotlight SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinping; Mao, Shiyi; Liu, Zhongkan; Hong, Wen Q.

    2001-08-01

    Frequency scaling approach is a new spotlight SAR image formation algorithm. It precisely performs the range cell migration correction for dechirped raw data without interpolation by using a novel frequency scaling operation while residual video phase is corrected simultaneously. The computation requirements are lower than the other spotlight SAR image formation approaches such as polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm. In this paper, frequency scaling algorithm is applied to process high squint spotlight data. The new squint illumination geometry is defined and some modifications to the basic algorithm are presented. Point target simulations up to 45 deg squint angle are carried out to show the validity of the algorithm.

  2. The status of safety in the public high school chemistry laboratories in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Sarah Louise Trotman

    Since laboratory-based science courses have become an essential element of any science curriculum and are required by the Mississippi Department of Education for graduation, the chemistry laboratories in the public high schools in Mississippi must be safe. The purpose of this study was to determine: the safety characteristics of a high school chemistry laboratory; the perceived safety characteristics of the chemistry laboratories in public high schools in Mississippi; the basic safety knowledge of chemistry teachers in public high schools in Mississippi, where chemistry teachers in Mississippi gain knowledge about laboratory safety and instruction; if public high school chemistry laboratories in Mississippi adhere to recommended class size, laboratory floor space per student, safety education, safety equipment, and chemical storage; and the relationship between teacher knowledge of chemistry laboratory safety and the safety status of the laboratory in which they teach. The survey instrument was composed of three parts. Part I Teacher Knowledge consisted of 23 questions concerning high school chemistry laboratory safety. Part II Chemistry Laboratory Safety Information consisted of 40 items divided into four areas of interest concerning safety in high school chemistry laboratories. Part III Demographics consisted of 11 questions relating to teacher certification, experience, education, and safety training. The survey was mailed to a designated chemistry teacher in every public high school in Mississippi. The responses to Part I of the survey indicated that the majority of the teachers have a good understanding of knowledge about chemistry laboratory safety but need more instruction on the requirements for a safe high school chemistry laboratory. Less than 50% of the responding teachers thought they had received adequate preparation from their college classes to conduct a safe chemistry laboratory. According to the responses of the teachers, most of their high school

  3. Effect of a School-based Nutrition Education Program on the Nutritional Status of Primary School Children

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    Parisa Keshani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions carried out through one year for children, using active learning methods. Mothers’ education was carried out in person in both lecture and question-answer sessions also via sending text messages and pamphlets. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC of children were measured before and after the intervention. Also a 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed. Two separate nutrition knowledge questionnaires were filled up by children and their mothers. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: 171 children (83 in the case and 88 in the control group, aged 9.5-10.5 years, completed the study. Anthropometric and nutritional knowledge of the participants in both the intervention and control groups was significantly increased. Weight, height, WC and nutritional knowledge increased significantly more in the intervention group compared to the controls. Consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased in the intervention group while plain sugar and fast foods intake increased among the controls. There were no significant differences between the changes in the intake of any of the food groups in the two groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, the designed nutrition education program could increase students’ nutritional knowledge, and lead to a non-significant change towards reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods such as fast foods, sweets and salty snacks.

  4. Education Status of Oral Genetics at the Fourth Military Medical University and other Chinese Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan Li; Wang, Chang Ning; Fan, Zhi Peng; Jiao, Yang; Duan, Xiao Hong

    To investigate the current state of genetics education at the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU) and compare it with other dental schools of China. Detailed information about the history and current education status of Oral Genetics in the FMMU were collected and questionnaires were completed to acquire the feedback of twenty-seven students on the course. In the other thirty-five dental schools including the capitals of twenty-five provinces and four municipalities in China, information about the oral genetic course were collected by a telephone survey. The contents of survey included whether or not the Oral Genetic course is offered and some basic information about the curriculum (such as the content, hours, teachers' background and teaching methods). Among a total of thirty-six dental schools investigated, six of them (16.7%) offered the Oral Genetic course or related lectures/seminars. The length and contents of the curriculum vary among these schools. The FMMU offered the oral genetic curriculum both to undergraduates and graduated students. Their teachers had a broad range of backgrounds, such as dentistry, biology, genetics, and biochemistry. The students considered the Oral Genetics course to be helpful for their future professional careers. Genetic education in dentistry in China is still at a preliminary stage. More effort must be paid to spread the knowledge of Oral Genetics in China. In addition, domestic and international communications and networks for Oral Genetics should be set up in the near future.

  5. Physical fitness, academic achievement, and socioeconomic status in school-aged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C; Peddie, Heather

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the assessments. Fitness was assessed using FITNESSGRAM (aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition). Results were used to determine individual fitness scores. Academic achievement was measured by standardized tests for Math (all grades), English (all grades), and Social Studies (sixth and ninth grades only). The SES was determined using eligibility for free and reduced lunch program. There were no significant differences between fitness groups for Math and English in third-grade students. Sixth- and ninth-grade students with high fitness scored significantly better on Math and Social Studies tests compared with less fit students. Lower SES students scored significantly worse on all tests. Muscular strength and muscular endurance were significantly associated with academic achievement in all grades. Compared with all other variables, SES appears to have the strongest association with academic achievement. However, it also appears that high fitness levels are positively associated with academic achievement in school-aged youth. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  6. Nutritional status of indigenous children at boarding schools in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monárrez-Espino, J; Martínez, H; Martínez, V; Greiner, T

    2004-03-01

    To assess the nutritional status of Tarahumara children at indigenous boarding schools. Cross-sectional comprehensive nutritional survey. The schools sampled were located in indigenous municipalities of the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. The study was carried out in 2001 among 331 children aged 6-14 y from a sample of five schools. Anthropometric measurements, a thyroid exam and capillary haemoglobin levels were obtained from the children. Serum concentrations of ferritin, iron, total iron-binding capacity, vitamin B(12), folic acid and zinc were collected from a subsample of 100 children. The prevalence of wasting and overweight (children 6-9 y) was 1.1 and 4.6%, respectively, and of underweight, risk of overweight and overweight (10-14 y) was 3.2, 5.1 and 0.6%, respectively. Stunting (6-12 y) was present in 22.3% of the children. The total goitre rate was 5.4%. The prevalence of anaemia was 13% (boys 11.4, girls 14.5%). Overall, 24.2% of the children were iron deficient (depletion 11.1%, deficient erythropoiesis 3%, iron deficiency anaemia 10.1%). No child had folic acid values Tarahumara children attending boarding schools may be the better-off children from these extremely poor and marginalized areas. Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries and the Mexican Social Security Institute.

  7. Comparative study of nutritional status of urban and rural Nigerian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oninla, S O; Owa, J A; Onayade, A A; Taiwo, O

    2007-02-01

    Nutritional assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with under-nutrition. The study was, therefore, carried out to determine and compare the nutritional status of children attending urban and rural public primary schools in Ife Central Local Government Area (ICLGA) of Nigeria. The schools were stratified into urban and rural, and studied schools were selected by balloting. Information obtained on each pupil was entered into a pre-designed proforma. The weight and height were recorded for each pupil, and converted to nutritional indices (weight for age, weight for height, height for age). A total of 749 pupils (366 and 383 children from the rural and urban communities, respectively) were studied. The overall prevalent rates of underweight, wasting and stunting were 61.2, 16.8 and 27.6%, respectively. In the rural area these were 70.5, 17.8 and 35.8%, while in the urban they were 52.2, 15.9 and 19.8%, respectively. The mean nutritional indices (Weight for Age, Weight for Height and Height for Age) were found to be significantly lower among the rural pupils than urban pupils (P school children in Nigeria. This is particularly so in the rural areas. Therefore, prevention of malnutrition should be given a high priority in the implementation of the ongoing primary health care programmes with particular attention paid to the rural population.

  8. Weight status and weight-related behaviors of children commencing school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Hector, Debra; Lloyd, Beverley

    2012-11-01

    To describe the weight status and weight-related behaviors of children commencing school. This study is a representative cross-sectional survey of Australian children in their first year of schooling (n=1141) in 2010. Height and weight were measured, and parents reported their child's diet, physical activity and screen-time. 18.7% of children were overweight/obese. Compared with non-overweight/obese peers, overweight/obese boys were 1.73 times (95% CI 1.08, 2.79) as likely to exceed recommended screen time and 2.07 times (95% CI 1.11, 3.87) as likely to eat dinner three or more times/week in front of the TV. Overweight/obese girls were twice as likely to have a TV in their bedroom (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.12, 3.59) and usually be rewarded with sweets for good behavior (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.09, 3.51) and were 1.65 times as likely to be inactive (95% CI 1.08, 2.55). We showed that many children begin school with established weight-related behaviors that occur in the home environment. The inclusion of parents and the home environment in intervention strategies will be important to support changes to reduce childhood obesity. The weight status and weight-related behaviors of children entering school may potentially be a general indicator of the overall effectiveness of obesity prevention interventions among preschool-aged children. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Socio-economic status and feeding habits of students in lower secondary schools in Bytom

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    Agata Wypych-Ślusarska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating habits are formed in childhood and adolescence.. Economic issues including social and demographic factors influence the choice and quality of products consumed. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the impact of socio-economic status (SES on eating habits of students in lower secondary schools. Material and methods: At the turn of 2011 and 2012, an epidemiological cross-sectional study on 1,099 students in lower secondary schools from Bytom was conducted. The questionnaire was based on the form used in Health Behaviour in School – aged Children study (HBSC. The socio-economic status of students was determined according to the Family Affluence Scale (FAS and the mother’s level of education. The statistical analysis was conducted using Statistica 10.0 software. The significance level was set at p40.05. Results: 1,099 students in lower secondary school took part in the study (55.6% females and 44.4% males. 59% of students skip vegetables in their daily diet, (58.5% fruits and (49.4%. milk but 59.7% have breakfast every day. Nevertheless the high percentage of children eating sweets every day or several times a day (37.2% is worrying. Those children whose mothers declared secondary education and high level of FAS have proper eating habits. Children eating sweets at least once a day come mostly from families with low level of FAS. Conclusions: Bad eating habits are mostly among children whose mothers are of primary or vocational education and a low level of FAS.

  10. Influence of sports, physical education, and active commuting to school on adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Keith M; Beach, Michael L; Longacre, Meghan R; Mackenzie, Todd; Titus, Linda J; Rundle, Andrew G; Dalton, Madeline A

    2012-08-01

    To compare the associations between weight status and different forms of physical activity among adolescents. We conducted telephone surveys with 1718 New Hampshire and Vermont high school students and their parents as part of a longitudinal study of adolescent health. We surveyed adolescents about their team sports participation, other extracurricular physical activity, active commuting, physical education, recreational activity for fun, screen time, diet quality, and demographics. Overweight/obesity (BMI for age ≥ 85th percentile) and obesity (BMI for age ≥ 95 percentile) were based on self-reported height and weight. Overall, 29.0% (n = 498) of the sample was overweight/obese and 13.0% (n = 223) were obese. After adjustments, sports team participation was inversely related to overweight/obesity (relative risk [RR] = 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 0.87] for >2 sports teams versus 0) and obesity (RR = 0.61 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.81] for >2 sports teams versus 0). Additionally, active commuting to school was inversely related to obesity (RR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.99] for >3.5 days per week versus 0). Attributable risk estimates suggest obesity prevalence would decrease by 26.1% (95% CI: 9.4%, 42.8%) if all adolescents played on 2 sports teams per year and by 22.1% (95% CI: 0.1%, 43.3%) if all adolescents walked/biked to school at least 4 days per week. Team sport participation had the strongest and most consistent inverse association with weight status. Active commuting to school may reduce the risk of obesity, but not necessarily overweight, and should be studied further. Obesity prevention programs should consider strategies to increase team sport participation among all students.

  11. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and potential academic benefits.

  12. Upper arm composition and nutritional status of school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senbanjo, Idowu Odunayo; Oshikoya, Kazeem Adeola; Njokanma, Olisamedua Fidelis

    2014-11-01

    Upper arm composition is a reflection of body protein and calorie reserves. However, there is a paucity of data on upper arm composition of children from African countries, including Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the composition of upper arm and nutritional status of school children in Abeokuta, Nigeria and to compare with international reference standards. The sensitivity and specificity of upper arm muscle area by height (UAMAH) as a nutritional assessment tool was also determined. Five hundred and seventy children aged 5 to 19 years were selected from seven schools using multistage random sampling. Weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) were measured. Body mass index, upper arm muscle area (UAMA), upper arm fat area (UAFA), fat percentage and UAMAH were derived. The TSF, UAFA and fat percentage were significantly higher in females than males at each age group. MUAC and UAMA were significantly higher in female children aged 10-14 years, whereas UAMA was significantly higher in male children aged 15-19 years. UAMA and UAFA of the children were lower than those of Americans but similar to those of Zimbabweans, and higher than those of Indians. The sensitivity and specificity of UAMAH for detecting wasting were 80.8% and 63.9%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for stunting were 32.2% and 58.2%, respectively. The school children studied have a combination of poor calorie and protein reserve. UAMAH may be a valuable tool for complete evaluation of the nutritional status of school children.

  13. Body mass status of school children and adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Foong Ming; Gan, Chong Ying; Zaleha, Mohd Kassim Siti

    2004-01-01

    Lifestyle and disease patterns in Malaysia have changed following rapid economic development. It is important to find out how these changes have affected the nutritional status and health behaviour of the population, especially school children and adolescents. Therefore a survey on school children's and adolescents' health behaviours and perception in Kuala Lumpur was initiated. This paper only reports the observed body mass status of the school children. A total of 3620 school children were selected in this survey using the method of multi-stage sampling. The students were surveyed using pre-tested questionnaires while weight and height were measured by the research team in the field. Using the cut-off of BMI-for-age >or= 95th percentile and <5th percentile for overweight and underweight respectively, there were a total of 7.3% of overweight students and 14.8% of underweight students. When analysed by gender; 7.5% of boys and 7.1% girls were overweight, while 16.2% of the boys and 13.3% of the girls were underweight. The youngest age group (11 years old) had the highest prevalence of underweight as well as overweight. With increasing age, the prevalence of underweight and overweight decreased and more children were in the normal weight range. The overall prevalence of overweight among the three ethnic groups was similar. However the prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indian students (24.9%), followed by Malays (18.9%) and Chinese (9.5%) (P <0.001). The results showed that both the problems of under- and over-nutrition co-exist in the capital city of Malaysia. The promotion of healthy eating and physical activities is required to address the problems of under- and over-nutrition in order to build up a strong and healthy nation in the future.

  14. Research on Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing for the Spaceborne Sliding Spotlight Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijian Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaofen-3 (GF-3 is China’ first C-band multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite, which also provides the sliding spotlight mode for the first time. Sliding-spotlight mode is a novel mode to realize imaging with not only high resolution, but also wide swath. Several key technologies for sliding spotlight mode in spaceborne SAR with high resolution are investigated in this paper, mainly including the imaging parameters, the methods of velocity estimation and ambiguity elimination, and the imaging algorithms. Based on the chosen Convolution BackProjection (CBP and PFA (Polar Format Algorithm imaging algorithms, a fast implementation method of CBP and a modified PFA method suitable for sliding spotlight mode are proposed, and the processing flows are derived in detail. Finally, the algorithms are validated by simulations and measured data.

  15. Research on Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing for the Spaceborne Sliding Spotlight Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shijian; Nie, Xin; Zhang, Xinggan

    2018-02-03

    Gaofen-3 (GF-3) is China' first C-band multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite, which also provides the sliding spotlight mode for the first time. Sliding-spotlight mode is a novel mode to realize imaging with not only high resolution, but also wide swath. Several key technologies for sliding spotlight mode in spaceborne SAR with high resolution are investigated in this paper, mainly including the imaging parameters, the methods of velocity estimation and ambiguity elimination, and the imaging algorithms. Based on the chosen Convolution BackProjection (CBP) and PFA (Polar Format Algorithm) imaging algorithms, a fast implementation method of CBP and a modified PFA method suitable for sliding spotlight mode are proposed, and the processing flows are derived in detail. Finally, the algorithms are validated by simulations and measured data.

  16. STATUS GIZI BERDASARKAN POLA MAKAN ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR DI KECAMATAN RAJEG TANGERANG (NUTRITIONAL STATUS BASED ON PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENT’S DIETARY INTAKE IN RAJEG DISTRICT TANGERANG CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Suci Anzarkusuma

    2014-12-01

    RISKESDAS 2010 showed the prevalence of food consumption below 70% of Recommended Daily Intake (RDI 2004 was 40.6% while among school-age children was about 41.2 %. The prevalence of underweight (Body-Mass-Index for age = BMI/A was 7.6%; in Banten province was about 9.5%. This study aims to determine the differences of nutritional status among school aged children in relation to their dietary pattern in a primary school, District of Rajeg, Tangerang, Banten. This is a cross-sectional study. The population is a primary school children, with total respondent of 124 children. Dietary patterns and anthropometric measurements were conducted by trained junior nutritionists. Independent t-test, correlation and one-way Anova were employed to answer research questions. Most of respondent are male (53.2 % with an average 10 years of age and in mostly in 5th grade (62.1 %. Average value of Z –score BMI/Age was (-0.4 ± 1.8. About 53.2% have 3 meals a day, 94.4 % having breakfast, and if there is no breakfast at home (79% those students get their pocket money about 3200 ± 1400 rupiah/day. There is a difference OF nutritional status based on the frequency of meals (p< 0.05. There were no difference in nutritional status by sex, age, having breakfast at home, and no correlation with nominal allowances (p ≥ 0.05. Intensive counseling and nutrition education for school children should be given by teacher, especially information regarding the importance of breakfast or habit of bringing food or healthy snack, sanitation and personal hygiene. Keywords: Nutritional Status, Dietary Pattern, School Aged-children

  17. A Model for Healthy Change in Our Nation's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddis, Alicia M.

    2011-01-01

    The general health of school-age children is in the national spotlight, and school lunches are falling under scrutiny. Many of the food options that schools offer seem to be contributing to the obesity problem. Schools can play a critical role in promoting healthier eating habits through their wellness policies and participation in the National…

  18. Convolution backprojection image reconstruction for spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M D; Jenkins, W K

    1992-01-01

    Convolution backprojection (CBP) image reconstruction has been proposed as a means of producing high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images by processing data directly in the polar recording format which is the conventional recording format for spotlight mode SAR. The CBP algorithm filters each projection as it is recorded and then backprojects the ensemble of filtered projections to create the final image in a pixel-by-pixel format. CBP reconstruction produces high-quality images by handling the recorded data directly in polar format. The CBP algorithm requires only 1-D interpolation along the filtered projections to determine the precise values that must be contributed to the backprojection summation from each projection. The algorithm is thus able to produce higher quality images by eliminating the inaccuracies of 2-D interpolation, as well as using all the data recorded in the spectral domain annular sector more effectively. The computational complexity of the CBP algorithm is O(N (3)).

  19. Determinants of nutritional status of pre-school children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the spatial distribution of nutritional status of children of less than three years through Z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height using data collected by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99), India. The nutritional status of pre-school children was regressed on different socio-demographic factors after eliminating the effect of age. The data show that there are gender differences and spatial variations in the nutritional status of children in India. Gender difference is not very pronounced and almost disappears when the effects of age and socio-demographic variables are removed. The spatial difference, especially the rural-urban difference, was found to be very large and decreased substantially when the effects of age and socioeconomic variables were removed. However, the differences were not close to zero. All the variables were found to affect significantly the nutritional status of children. However, the literacy of mothers did not affect height-for-age significantly. The weight-for-age and height-for-age scores showed a dismal picture of the health condition of children in almost all states in India. The worst affected states are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Assam and Rajasthans are also lagging behind. Weight-for-height scores do not give a clear picture of state-wise variation. Goa, Kerala and Punjab are the three most developed states in India and also have the lowest percentages of underweight children according to the Z-scores. Along with these three states come the north-eastern states where women are well educated. Thus overall development, enhancement of level of education and low gender inequality are the key factors for improvement in the health status of Indian children.

  20. Comparative survey of environmental health status of schools have health trainer and without health trainer in Bushehr province

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    Bahman Ramavandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: School, as a reliable place in student's education, has an important role in training. If health principles do not comply with in schools, students may be suffering from infectious diseases. Health trainer can be effective in improving school health. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of health trainer on environmental health level of schools in Bushehr province. Material and Methods This study was a descriptive - analytic study. A total of 20 samples were selected from each of the elementary schools have and not have health trainer using the method of stratified random sampling in the Bushehr province in the year 91-92. Data collected by researcher direct observation and using an assessment form of school environmental health contains 30 questions in 9 different sections. The statistical method used to analyze and test questions in this study were the chi square and Fisher exact test. Results: Based on findings of this research, between the environment health situation in schools with and without health trainer in 19 cases of health variables the significant difference was observed. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between health status of toilets (p<0.005, drinking water taps and buffet (p<0.001, yard and corridors (p<0.01, and solid waste disposal (p<0.025 in schools with and without health trainer in the year 91-92. Conclusion: Overall, the results indicate that the presence of health trainers in schools can lead to improved health status of the school. The schools without health trainer had very poor health status this issue required further try of concerned authorities to employee health trainers in schools.

  1. Visual status and prevalence of eye disorders among school-age children in southern Nigeria

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    Bernadine N. Ekpenyong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the types and prevalence of eye problems among school-age children in Cross River State (CRS, Nigeria. Method: The study design was a cross-sectional analytic survey of 2418 school children aged 6–17 years from seven public and three private schools in CRS, selected using the multistage random sampling technique. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Committee, CRS Ministry of Health, Nigeria. The following tests were carried out on all children enrolled in the study: researcher-administered semi-structured questionnaires, LogMAR visual acuity measurements, external and internal eye examinations, non-cycloplegic auto-refractions, retinoscopy and subjective refractions. Quality assurance was carried out to validate the data collected, and data were analysed using SPSS and EPI info. Results: A total of 2418 school children were enumerated, and 2110 (87.3% were examined; 1117 (52.9% were girls, and 1250 (59.2% were 6–11 years old, while 860 (40.8% were 12–17 years old, and 77% attended public schools. The majority, 1895 (89.9% of the children examined, had never had an eye examination. The prevalence of eye diseases among the school children was 32.1%, and the major causes were conjunctivitis 397 (18.8%; confidence interval [CI] 19.2–13.0, refractive error 243 (11.5%; CI 10.2–13.0, glaucoma suspects 52 (2.5%; CI 1.9–3.2, amblyopia 7 (0.3%; CI 0.0–0.7 and corneal opacity 4 (0.2%; CI 0.1–0.5. Analysis using chi-square tests and logistic regression shows a positive higher association of refractive error in private (16.7% than public schools (9.9% (crude odds ratio [COR] 1.8150; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.9129, p < 0.001, higher socio-economic status of parents (COR 2.3402, AOR 1.9819, p < 0.001, older age group (COR 1.7258, AOR 1.8202, p < 0.001 and girls (13.1% versus boys (9.8% (COR 0.7200, AOR 0.7144, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Physical and eye health examination of children before school entry is

  2. Weight status of adolescents in secondary schools in port Harcourt using Body Mass Index (BMI

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    Adesina Adesuwa F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent weight status is a cumulative effect of health and nutritional problems. Adolescent weight problems often go unnoticed as weight assessment is not considered a priority in adolescents. Objectives To determine the weight status of adolescents using BMI and to identify the contributing factors to adolescent weight problems. Methods In April 2010, 960 adolescents aged 10–19 years in secondary schools in Port Harcourt were selected for the study using a stratified multi-staged sampling method. Structured questionnaires were filled by the investigators while weight and height were measured. BMI was calculated using the formula weight/height2 (kg/m2. Results The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting were 6.4%, 6.3%, 1.8% and 5.4% respectively. Factors which were commoner in overweight adolescents were high socioeconomic class, higher maternal education, spending > 3 hours a day watching television and frequent ingestion of snacks. Conclusion There is a need for periodic weight assessment of adolescents and health education to promote healthy eating habits and regular physical exercise as part of the School Health Programme.

  3. HEALTH INDICATORS IN SCHOOL: ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND MOTOR PERFORMANCE

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    Andressa Ribeiro Contreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship among motor performance and nutritional status in students. Methods: Attended by 27 adolescents of both sexes, aged between 11-13 years (average 11.74 ± 0.70 years from a private school in Florianópolis/SC. The motor performance was assessed using the MABC-2. For assess the nutritional status was used the BMI calculus. Results: Among 27 participants, 6 had a risk / indicative of motor difficulties and 9 had overweight. The vast majority of participants had adequate height for age. There was negative significant statistically correlation, but moderate, among BMI and total performance in the MABC-2, indicating that as higher the BMI, worse is the motor performance. Conclusion: Based on these results and the literature, it is suggested that in addition to the identification of children with overweight and motor difficulties, programs targeted physical activity and motor interventions are implemented, especially in the school environment, aiming to maintain the health conditions.

  4. Sexuality education in North American medical schools: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W; Parish, Sharon J

    2013-01-01

    Both the general public and individual patients expect healthcare providers to be knowledgeable and approachable regarding sexual health. Despite this expectation there are no universal standards or expectations regarding the sexuality education of medical students. To review the current state of the art in sexuality education for North American medical students and to articulate future directions for improvement. Evaluation of: (i) peer-reviewed literature on sexuality education (focusing on undergraduate medical students); and (ii) recommendations for sexuality education from national and international public health organizations. Current status and future innovations for sexual health education in North American medical schools. Although the importance of sexuality to patients is recognized, there is wide variation in both the quantity and quality of education on this topic in North American medical schools. Many sexual health education programs in medical schools are focused on prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. Educational material on sexual function and dysfunction, female sexuality, abortion, and sexual minority groups is generally scant or absent. A number of novel interventions, many student initiated, have been implemented at various medical schools to improve the student's training in sexual health matters. There is a tremendous opportunity to mold the next generation of healthcare providers to view healthy sexuality as a relevant patient concern. A comprehensive and uniform curriculum on human sexuality at the medical school level may substantially enhance the capacity of tomorrow's physicians to provide optimal care for their patients irrespective of gender, sexual orientation, and individual sexual mores/beliefs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of children attending primary schools in Wakiso District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwanga, Francis; Francis, Lwanga; Kirunda, Barbara Eva; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6-14 years were randomly selected from 23 schools. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, MUAC were undertaken and analyzed using AnthroPlus software. Stool samples were examined using a Kato-Katz method. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was 22.5%, 5.3% and 18.5% respectively. Males had a threefold risk of being underweight (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.17-9.4, p = 0.011) and 2 fold risk of suffering from MAM (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.48, p = 0.004). Children aged 10-14 years had a 2.9 fold risk of stunting (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.37-6.16, p = 0.002) and 1.9 risk of MAM (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.07-3.44, p = 0.019). Attending urban slum schools had 1.7 fold risk of stunting (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03-2.75, p = 0.027). Rural schools presented a twofold risk of helminth infection (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.12-3.32, p = 0.012). The prevalence of helminth infections was (10.9%), (3.1%), (1.9%), (0.2%) for hookworm, Trichuriatrichiura, Schistosomamansoni and Ascarislumbricoides, respectively. The study revealed that 26.6%, 46% and 10.3% of incidences of stunting, underweight and MAM respectively were attributable to helminth infections.

  6. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in Northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. Methods A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction. Result A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n = 80) and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n = 20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z = −0.198, P > 0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this

  7. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bemnet; Ali, Jemal; Moges, Beyene; Yismaw, Gizachew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Gebretsadik, Simon; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tafess, Ketema; Abate, Ebba; Endris, Mengistu; Tegabu, Desalegn; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Fantahun, Bereket; Kassu, Afework

    2013-01-12

    Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction. A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117-2076, n=80) and 610 IU/ml (143-1833, n=20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z=-0.198, P>0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the

  8. Nutritional status of adolescents attending the Iranian secondary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Maryam; Msl, Huang; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Zarei, Fatemeh

    2014-07-29

    The aim or this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status among Iranian adolescents in the two Secondary Schools run by the Embassy in Kuala Lumpur. A self administered questionnaire was used to assess socio demographic characteristics, physical activity, and body image. Dietary intake was recorded through individual interviews with the researcher. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for children (PAQ-C) was used to evaluate levels of physical activity of the adolescents. One-third (32.2%) of respondents were of normal weight, 14.5% and 11.1% were overweight and obese respectively, while 18.6% and 23.6% were severe thinness and thinness respectively. While the distribution of obese respondents by gender was almost the same, overweight females (16.4%) exceeded overweight males (12.7%) and although more females were in the thinness category (24.7% compared to 22.7%), more males were severely thin (20.0%) compared to 17.1% of the females. Body weight status was significantly associated with age (p design intervention programs to improve the body weight status of their students.

  9. Comparison of oral hygiene status among 6-14 year old students of public and private schools of Rajbiraj, Saptari, Nepal

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    TK Bhagat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine the oral hygiene status of 6-14 years old school children in Rajbiraj, Nepal. Materials and Methods Three hundred school children from public and private schools were examined for oral hygiene status using OHI(S. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests were done. Results There was no significant difference in the oral hygiene status among gender, but the oral hygiene status of the children in private schools was better than that of the public school. Conclusion Large number of public school children had poor oral hygiene compared to private school children. Hence, oral health education programs should be conducted on a frequent basis to improve their oral hygiene status. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i1.12763 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(1; 17-21

  10. Investigation of Nutritional Status in Elementary School Students of South Khorasan Province:East of Iran

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    A. Zarban

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesChildren have greater nutritional needs than adults in order to maintain their growth. It has been determined that about 70% of all malnourished children in the world live in Asia. This study evaluates nutritional status of elementary students in south khorasan province and some effective factors on it. MethodsThe height and weight of 1303 elementary school students ages between 7 to 12 years old which were selected by multistage random sampling from urban and rural areas of the South Khorasan province were measured. Data for this study was collected for a period of six months from September 2006 to February 2007. Nutritional habits of these students and its relation to demographic factors were evaluated using Gomes (weight – for – age, Maclaren-ride (weight to height for age and Waterlow (height – for – age criteria. ResultsBased on the finding of this study, 69.8% of the students were underweight, 30.9% were wasted and 43.6% were stunted. The effects of malnutrition in this group were mild and severe cases of malnutrition effects were rare. The adverse effects of malnutrition were more widespread with the increase in the age of the students. These adverse effects were also more persistence with increased level of illiteracy among the parents of these students. The number of underweight students was significantly larger in the rural areas than in the urban areas. Heights of the students were directly correlated to the order of their birth. The higher the birth orders the higher the prevalence of being shorter Being stunted was more widespread among female students with less educated mothers.ConclusionIn order to improve high prevalence of malnutrition in elementary school students of South Khorasan province, we recommend improvement of the level of literacy, nutritional education of mothers, and students. We also suggest improvement of quality of students’ free meal in schools. Keywords: Underweight; Wasting

  11. Study Of Diet And Nutritional Status Of School Going Rural Adolescent Boys In Allahabad

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    Surya Bali

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of malnutrition among school going rural adolescent boys?Objective: To assess the diet and nutritional status of school going rural adolescent boys.Study design: Cross sectional study.Setting: Rural Intermediate Colleges.Participants: 660 study subjects (adolescents boys. 10-19 years, of classes 6th to 12th from 8 rural intermediate colleges in two blocks of Allahabad.Study period: One year (From April 2002 to May 2003.Statistical Analysis: Chi square lestResults: Overall mean height. BM1 and Haemoglobin level of adolescents were 1 56.97+9.84cm. 18.59+2.20 kg/m2 and 12.12+1.31 gm/dl respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition in terms of Stunting (24.1 % Thinness (10.5% and Overweight (1.4% was observ ed. Maximum calorie deficit was seen in thirteen-year-old boys, it was 42.5% below the RDA and minimum deficit (25.7% was observed among nineteen-year-old boys. Overall mean caloric deficit among 10 to 19 years’ adolescents was 839.57 Kcal/day. Prevalence of anaemia was observed in 371(56.3% adolescent boys. Prevalence of Vit. A deficiency. Vitamin B - complex and Vitamin C deficiency were found to be 3.5%. 25.3% and 6.8% respectively.Conclusion: Nutritional status of school going adolescent boys in rural areas of Allahabad is not satisfactory and there is a strong need for a programme especially for adolescent boys to fulfill their nutritional needs.

  12. Comparison of Nutritional Status Among, Flood Affected and Unaffected School Aged Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, S.N.; Aasim, M.; Ghous, R.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Natural disasters like floods affect large human populations by not only displacing them temporarily but also poses nutritional issues to women and children. Objectives: To determine the long term effects of floods, on the nutritional status of school going children in Pakistan. Study design, settings and duration: A cross sectional study which was conducted in public schools of district Nowshera which is a large district of province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from February 2012 to March 2014. Subjects and Methods: A total of 353 children aged 6-14 years were enrolled. There were 190 children from flood affected areas and 163 controls from unaffected areas. Using height, weight, age and gender, malnutrition indicators like acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition and underweight were calculated to evaluate effect of flood on these children after 20 months of the calamity. Weight for age (WAZ) was used to measure underweight, height for age (HAZ) to measure stunted growth, and weight for height (WHZ) to measure wasting or acute malnutrition. The malnutrition indicators which were positively associated with floods were further evaluated for associated factors. Results The frequency of acute malnutrition or wasting (WHZ) among flood affected children was 23.7 percent as compared to 16.5 percent among unaffected children while the frequency of underweight (WAZ) in flood affected areas was 42.1 percent as against 36.8 percent in unaffected areas (both were not significant). The frequency of chronic malnutrition or stunting (AZ) was 35.8 percent in affected and 27.6 percent in unaffected children (p< 0.041) and was the only positively associated indicator with exposure to floods. Factors associated with chronic malnutrition were age of the child, maternal education, history of fever, administration of de-worming medication and diarrhea. Conclusion: Floods had a long term effect on nutritional status of school aged children as shown by chronic malnutrition

  13. Status of teaching elementary science for English learners in science, mathematics and technology centered magnet schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Alyson Kim

    According to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (2001), one in three students speaks a language other than English. Additionally, the Commission stated that a student is considered to be an English learner if the second language acquisition is English. In California more than 1.4 million English learners enter school speaking a variety of languages, and this number continues to rise. There is an imminent need to promote instructional strategies that support this group of diverse learners. Although this was not a California study, the results derived from the nationwide participants' responses provided a congruent assessment of the basic need to provide effective science teaching strategies to all English learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of elementary science teaching practices used with English learners in kindergarten through fifth grade in public mathematics, science, and technology-centered elementary magnet schools throughout the country. This descriptive research was designed to provide current information and to identify trends in the areas of curriculum and instruction for English learners in science themed magnet schools. This report described the status of elementary (grades K-5) school science instruction for English learners based on the responses of 116 elementary school teachers: 59 grade K-2, and 57 grade 3-5 teachers. Current research-based approaches support incorporating self-directed learning strategy, expository teaching strategy, active listening strategies, questioning strategies, wait time strategy, small group strategy, peer tutoring strategy, large group learning strategy, demonstrations strategy, formal debates strategy, review sessions strategy, mediated conversation strategy, cooperative learning strategy, and theme-based instruction into the curriculum to assist English learners in science education. Science Technology Society (STS) strategy, problem-based learning strategy, discovery learning

  14. School sport participation under two school sport policies: comparisons by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanters, Michael A; Bocarro, Jason N; Edwards, Michael B; Casper, Jonathan M; Floyd, Myron F

    2013-02-01

    School-based extracurricular sport remains an effective strategy to increase physical activity. However, school sport is often limited to a small number of elite athletes. Few schools provide more inclusive sport programs that offer a wider array of activities regardless of ability. The aim of this study was to examine school sport participation in middle schools (ages 11-14) with contrasting school sport delivery strategies (intramural vs. interscholastic). Data were obtained through an online survey administered to students at four public middle schools (grades 6-8) in a southeastern US city (n = 2,582). More students participated in school sports at intramural schools. Boys were more likely to participate in after-school sports at intramural schools. Low-income and Black children, two groups at greater risk of physical inactivity and other negative outcomes, had greater participation in intramural programs. After-school intramural sports in middle school is a promising strategy for increasing sport participation.

  15. Agriculture, nutrition and education: On the status and determinants of primary schooling in rural Mali before the crises of 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gelli, Aulo; Masset, Edoardo; Diallo, Amadou Sekou; Assima, Amidou; Hombrados, Jorge; Watkins, Kristie; Drake, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the status and the determinants of primary education in food insecure areas of Mali. Net and gross enrolment ratios in primary school were between 0.3 and 0.4 for both girls and boys and well below national levels, highlighting a critical gap in terms of access to primary education. Schooling was found to respond to a broad range of determinants, including child's age and nutrition status, as well as on household consumption, on farm labour, teacher availab...

  16. Malnutrition and poor oral health status are major risks among primary school children at Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustufa, Muhammad Ayaz; Jamali, Abdul Karim; Sameen, Ifra; Burfat, Fateh Muhammad; Baloch, Mir Yousaf; Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Baloch, Ghulam Rasool; Lashari, Shazia Kulsoom; Ayaz, Sobiya Mohiuddin; Baloch, Muhammad Younus

    2017-05-19

    This survey was focusing on health and oral hygiene status of primary school children at Lasbela district considering the comparatively less developed and socio demographically deprived part of the Country. A cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the health status of primary school children in seven tehseels of district Lasbela, Balochistan after applying proportionate sampling technique from March 2015 to July 2015. Field teams visited assigned schools to screen children and collect health related data on predesigned and pre coded proforma. Out of 200 schools, 196 schools found opened, while 2% of schools (04) remained closed. A total of 6363 students were clinically screened. About 45% of the school children had normal body mass index (BMI) and rest were falling in different categories of malnutrition. More than 19% had ear, nose and throat (ENT) problems and around 19% presented with clinical anemia. Less than 50% of children had scar of BCG vaccination and 4% informed about use of gutka/supari chewing (smokeless tobacco use). In conclusion, we estimated high prevalence of malnutrition, poor oral health including smokeless tobacco use, and low BCG coverage among primary school children at Lasbela. Current scenario suggests immediate and contextually focused interventions to confine existing public health risks and avoid future burden of disease.

  17. School Smoking Policy Characteristics and Individual Perceptions of the School Tobacco Context: Are They Linked to Students? Smoking Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10?11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-le...

  18. DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR STATUS OF CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SEX IN SCHOOL VOLLEYBALL

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    Maja Batez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On a sample of 45 children (25 girls and 20 boys age of 9 to 11, who have been training volleyball (one to three years in the club "Sportisimo pajp" in Novi Sad, were applied four motor tests. The aim of this research was to determine differences in the motor status of children of different sex in the school volleyball. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA determined a statistically significant difference in the whole system of analyzed motor variables depending on the sex on studied sample of child¬ren. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that girls had better results in va¬riables of flexibility and agility. Boys are better in standing long jump, while sta¬tistically significant differences between means in the speed of alternative movements between girls and boys the not found.

  19. A study on nutritional status of school-going adolescents in Aligarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizi, Nafis; Khan, Zulfia; Khan, Iqbal M; Amir, Ali; Azmi, Suhail A; Khalique, Najam

    2017-07-01

    Adolescence is a highly vulnerable period for malnutrition. This study was based on a Global School Health Survey methodology in the 13-15-year age group; employing WHO AnthroPlus to evaluate the nutritional status, find the prevalence of both extremes of malnutrition, compare with the growth curves and to find its sociodemographic correlates. A total of 1456 students were sampled and the mean BMI for age Z score was found to be -0.11. The prevalence of overweight and obese were 11.95% and 2.27%, respectively, whereas 2.75% suffered from thinness, defined as BMI for age business. The evident double burden of malnutrition presages a large public health burden in future, requiring interventional attention.

  20. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city - An epidemiological study

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    Mahesh Kumar P

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available India, a developing country, faces many challenges in rendering oral health needs. The majority of Indian population resides in rural areas of which more than 40% constitute children. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city. The study population consisted of 1200 school children of both the sexes (600 private and 600 corporation school children in 30 schools, which had been selected randomly. The survey is based on WHO, 1999 Oral Health Assessment, which has been modified by including gingival assessment, enamel opacities/ hypoplasia for 5 years. Evaluation of the oral health status of these children revealed, dental caries is the most prevalent disease affecting permanent teeth, more than primary teeth and more in corporation than in private schools, thereby, correlating with the socioeconomic status. It may be concluded that the greatest need of dental health education is at an early age including proper instruction of oral hygiene practices and school based preventive programs, which would help in improving preventive dental behaviour and attitude which is beneficial for life time.

  1. [Trends in diet and nutritional status in elementary school children in the Tuzla Canton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusupović, Fatima; Beslagić, Zijad; Hadzihalilović, Jasminka; Osmić, Munevera; Dropić, Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Harmonious physical and mental development of children and youngsters depend on the proper diet as one of the basic conditions of growth and development. Feeding to a great extent effects children's health and their future working capability. Feeding process can be perceived through nutritive status whose most valuable and accessive data are on body mass, height and thickness of skin wrinkles. On the basis of BMI, i.e. its centile values, critical values of overweight and obesity can be easily determined. The research aim was to see nutritional status and habits in the secondary school children in Tuzla Canton, then to analyze anthropometric parameters (body weight, body height); to determine BMI values, to standardize curves, to establish obesity frequency in children. The research was performed on the sample of 1544 children both sexes, in the first, third and seventh class involving four Tuzla-Canton municipalities: Tuzla, Lukavac, Gracanica and Kladanj. The research was performed by a questionnaire and anthropometric measurements in respect to IBP (International Biological Programme). Presence of brown bread in the primary school pupils' food is insufficient (5.8-10.7%). They consume fruit and vegetables mostly two times a day, milk is not consumed by 7.5-12.3% of boys and 8.4-28.4% of girls. As for meat, chicken is mostly consumed, fish a little and insufficient. Period between the third and seventh class is characterized by expressive increase in height and weight, what is the outcome of the adolescent jump. BMI value increases with age and exceeds limits of normal weight, thus obesity increases with age. In the seventh class obesity is present in 48.35% of boys and in 30.77% of girls. The above discussed trends in nutrition and obesity presence as the risk factors, require an urgent pass of the Action Programme for food and feeding on the state level, which would give a special importance to health promotion from this point of view.

  2. Socio-economic and schooling status of dental undergraduates from six French universities.

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    Hennequin, M; Tubert, S; Devillers, A; Müller, M; Michaïlesco, P; Peli, J F; Pouëzat, J

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the socio-economic status of French undergraduate dental students. A 46-item questionnaire was completed by the dental students of six universities between 1992 and 1995. Subjects related to family background, housing, schooling, income, expenditure and participation in student life were investigated. A total of 1192 out of 1207 questionnaires were returned. Both genders had equal access to dental training. The average overall cost of the four last years of the dental course was 30,302 French francs and varied greatly between faculties, as did the number of hours spent at the faculty for lectures, tutorials and practicals, and clinical work. Overall, the majority of students came from a well off social background, and had a relatively high quality of life while a small minority received no support from their families. Thirty-four per cent of students had never worked. One third of students smoked and one third regularly consumed medication of some sort. A third did not participate in any sport. Only 25% students bought dental text books and 42% of the students reported using the library regularly. This study offers an accurate description of the socio-economic status of French dental students that could be used as a reference for comparable studies in other European countries.

  3. Oral hygiene status in relation to sociodemographic factors of children and adults who are hearing impaired, attending a special school.

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    Kumar, Santhosh; Dagli, Rushabh Jayesh; Mathur, Anmol; Jain, Manish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the oral hygiene levels and periodontal status in a group of children and adults with hearing impairment attending a special school in Udaipur, India. Oral hygiene status was assessed by the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) of Greene and Vermillion and periodontal status by the Community Periodontal Index. An analysis using a bivariate analysis revealed that all the oral hygiene variables varied significantly with age, economic status, and education of the parents. A multiple regression analysis showed that the education of the mother was the single best predictor for oral hygiene status and explained 92% of the variance. These findings show that children with hearing impairment have poor oral hygiene and high levels of periodontal disease. This may be due to a lack of communication; hence, appropriate oral health education should be tailored to the needs of these students with the support of their teachers and their parents.

  4. Vocabulary knowledge mediates the link between socioeconomic status and word learning in grade school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Mandy J; Schneider, Julie M; Middleton, Anna E; Ralph, Yvonne; Lopez, Michael; Ackerman, Robert A; Abel, Alyson D

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between children's slow vocabulary growth and the family's low socioeconomic status (SES) has been well documented. However, previous studies have often focused on infants or preschoolers and primarily used static measures of vocabulary at multiple time points. To date, there is no research investigating whether SES predicts a child's word learning abilities in grade school and, if so, what mediates this relationship. In this study, 68 children aged 8-15 years performed a written word learning from context task that required using the surrounding text to identify the meaning of an unknown word. Results revealed that vocabulary knowledge significantly mediated the relationship between SES (as measured by maternal education) and word learning. This was true despite the fact that the words in the linguistic context surrounding the target word are typically acquired well before 8 years of age. When controlling for vocabulary, word learning from written context was not predicted by differences in reading comprehension, decoding, or working memory. These findings reveal that differences in vocabulary growth between grade school children from low and higher SES homes are likely related to differences in the process of word learning more than knowledge of surrounding words or reading skills. Specifically, children from lower SES homes are not as effective at using known vocabulary to build a robust semantic representation of incoming text to identify the meaning of an unknown word. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral health status of intellectually disabled school children and adolescents, in a Chilean population, 2012.

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    Carolina Garcés

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the oral health status of intellectually disabled (ID children and adolescents from state schools, Valdivia, Chile, 2012. Design: Descriptive study. A sample of students from state schools was assessed for caries history (Decayed, Missing, Filled permanent Teeth (DMFT/decayed, extracted, filled temporal teeth (deft, quality of oral hygiene (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, OHI-S and gingival health (Gingival Index, GI. In addition, questions were asked about dental care habits, degree of ID, presence of systemic disease and medicine use. Results: 195 students with slight to moderate ID and aged from 6 to 21 years were assessed. The average DMFT/deft was 2.19/1.33 for female students and 1.59/1.93 for male students. The OHI-S in 75.9% of participants was moderate, with poorer oral hygiene found in participants with moderate ID. Only 2.6% showed code 0 for GI, reflecting poor oral hygiene. Most participants possessed their own toothbrush (88.2% and could clean their teeth unaided (96.4%.Conclusion: The state of oral health in the assessed population is deficient. The quality of oral hygiene is normal or poor, which leads to poor gingival health.

  6. Effect of a school feeding programme on nutritional status and anaemia in an urban slum: a preliminary evaluation in Kenya.

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    Neervoort, Femke; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Bongers, Karlien; Demetriades, Matthew; Shacola, Marina; Wolffers, Ivan

    2013-06-01

    To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding programme in the slums of Nairobi (Kenya) on anaemia and nutritional status, together with an investigation for socioeconomic determinants that may overrule this effect. Sixty-seven children at the St. George primary school in Kibera participated in the school feeding programme for 1 year and data concerning anaemia rate, nutritional status and socioeconomic status were collected during a medical health check. Data were compared with a control group of children attending the same school, of the same age and with the same gender distribution without participation in a feeding programme. Data were analyzed with statistical software (SPSS 17.0). Children participating in the school feeding programme were less stunted (p = 0.02) and wasted (p = 0.02) than children in the control group, and levels of anaemia were lower (p = 0.01). Having no father (p = 0.01) and living in small families (p = 0.003) overruled the effect of the feeding programme. Also, the higher the mother's education, the more wasting was seen (p = 0.04) despite participation in the programme. The programme reduced anaemia and malnutrition and has improved child growth in our study group greatly, but we found that education level of the mother, family size and absence of a father overruled the effect of the school feeding programme. Because sample size of our study is small, we encourage further large-scaled research on reviewing programmatic interventions to develop optimal feeding strategies and improve nutritional status of children.

  7. Present Status of Experimental Aircraft Construction in the High School with Implications for the Industrial Arts Program.

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    Schmidt, Howard Raymond

    The primary purpose of this study was to collect data to provide information relating to the present status of high school programs in which experimental aircraft construction had taken place. A card and two questionnaires were utilized to obtain the data necessary to answer the questions posed in the study. The study covered the areas of…

  8. Content Analysis of the Status and Place of Sexuality Education in the National School Policy and Curriculum in Tanzania

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    Mkumbo, Kitila A.

    2009-01-01

    In Tanzania, sexuality education in schools is not provided as a standalone subject; rather it is mainstreamed in other subjects, namely Social Studies, Science, Civics and Biology. However, it is not clear how much sexuality education is covered in these subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of sexuality education in the…

  9. State-Level School Competitive Food and Beverage Laws Are Associated with Children's Weight Status

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    Hennessy, Erin; Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Perna, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as "competitive foods") are associated with children's weight status. Methods: We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School…

  10. Interracial and Intraracial Contact, School-Level Diversity, and Change in Racial Identity Status among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Among 224 African American adolescents (mean age = 14), the associations between interracial and intraracial contact and school-level diversity on changes in racial identity over a 3-year period were examined. Youths were determined to be diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, or achieved, and change or stability in identity status was examined.…

  11. Self-Concept and Social Status of Accelerated and Nonaccelerated Students in the First 2 Years of Secondary School in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, A.J.M.; Hell, J.G. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the self-concept and social status of accelerated and nonaccelerated students in their first 2 years of secondary school in the Netherlands. In 357 students from 18 secondary schools, we measured self-concept, sociometric status, and behavior reputations at three times.

  12. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition Programme in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    F Malongane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, andprovide incomes to families.Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP inCapricorn Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Methods. The setting was 18 randomly selected schools on the NSNP in Capricorn District. The total sample comprised 602 randomlyselected schoolchildren from grades 4 to 7, aged 10 (26.6%, 11 (35.4% and 12 (35.4%. Socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometricmeasurements, dietary patterns and school attendance were determined. Children were interviewed to assess their nutritional status using avalidated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations (SDs and ranges were used for socioeconomic parametersand dietary patterns, and z-scores for anthropometric data.Results. The results showed that boys (9.5% and girls (7.8% were underweight. The prevalence of stunting in the sample was 11.3% forboys and 7.4% for girls, whereas boys (3.6% and girls (4.2%were wasted, with az-score of –2 SD. School attendance was good.Conclusion. The nutritional status of most subjects in the study was within the acceptable range as indicated by the assessment of growthusing anthropometric measurements.

  13. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Distance in Examining the Association Between Active Commuting to School and Students' Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Robin; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2015-09-01

    Active commuting to school (ACS) increases students' daily physical activity, but associations between student weight and ACS are inconsistent. Few studies examining ACS and weight account for distance commuted. This study examines the association between students' weight status and ACS, taking into account distance to school. In 2009-10 a random digit-dial household survey conducted in low-income minority cities collected information about ACS for 1 randomly selected school-going student per household. Parents provided measured heights and weights. Distance commuted was obtained using geocoded home and school addresses. Multivariate regression analyses assessed associations of ACS and distance commuted with weight status. 36.6% of students were overweight/obese; 47.2% engaged in ACS. Distance walked/biked to school was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88- 0.99). Without distance commuted in the model, ACS was not associated with students' weight status. Compared with no ACS, ACS greater than a half-mile was associated with 65% lower odds of a student being overweight/obese (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16- 0.78); ACS less than a half-mile was not. ACS is significantly inversely associated with overweight/obesity among students who commute beyond a one-half mile threshold.

  15. Ocular Health Status and Causes of Enrolment into Special Schools in Osun State, Nigeria

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    Michaeline Isawumi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Knowledge of the status of eye diseases among students’ enrolled in the special schools would assist in planning preventive and treatment strategies. Objectives To determine the types and causes of ocular morbidity leading to enrolment of students in special schools of Osun state. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study by utilizing a total-sampling-technique on students attending all 8 special primary and integrated secondary schools to find out the common ophthalmic diseases between July and September 2013. Teachers’ registers, oral interview and clinical examination were used to obtain data. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics through SPSS 17 software. Results Four hundred and seventy-two (472 students between the ages of 4 and 36 years with mean of 13.7 ± 4.7 were examined. Two hundred and seventy-six (58.5% were males and one hundred-ninety- six were females. Fathers’ occupation were mostly farmers 142 (30.1% and Artisans 133 (28.2%. Abnormal ocular findings were seen in 9.9% of students. The prevalence of blindness was 4.7% [95% Confidence Interval (CI 2.7 - 6.6]. Anatomical causes of blindness were corneal scarring (2.1% especially post measles keratopathy, whole globe disorders (1.1%, toxoplasma chorioretinal scars and maculopathies (0.6%, amblyopia/uncorrected refractive errors (0.4% and cortical visual impairment (0.2% . The prevalence of visual impairment was 1.4% [CI 0.0 -1.7], with cataracts and refractive error being the most common causes. Other findings included nystagmus (0.2%, vernal conjunctivitis (0.4%, and pigmentary retinopathy (4.2%. Ocular pathologies occurred most frequently among the lower socio-economic group (χ2 169.69, P < 0.001. Conclusions The common causes of ocular diseases leading to enrolment are avoidable. Mandatory eye examination at birth, preschool years and school age is needed for early detection and intervention. Health education, adequate nutrition, and immunization

  16. School smoking policy characteristics and individual perceptions of the school tobacco context: are they linked to students' smoking status?

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    Sabiston, Catherine M; Lovato, Chris Y; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K Stephen

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10-11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-level modeling results revealed that the school a student attended was associated with his/her smoking behavior. Individual-level variables that were associated with student smoking included lower school connectedness, a greater number of family and friends who smoked, higher perceptions of student smoking prevalence, lower perceptions of student smoking frequency, and stronger perceptions of the school tobacco context. School-level variables associated with student smoking included weaker policy intention indicating prohibition and assistance to overcome tobacco addiction, weaker policy implementation involving strategies for enforcement, and a higher number of students smoking on school property. These findings suggest that the school environment is important to tobacco control strategies, and that various policy dimensions have unique relationships to student smoking. School tobacco policies should be part of a comprehensive approach to adolescent tobacco use.

  17. School Children's Intestinal Parasite and Nutritional Status One Year after Complementary School Garden, Nutrition, Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismann, Séverine; Diagbouga, Serge; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Gerold, Jana; Leuenberger, Andrea; Shrestha, Akina; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-09-01

    The potential health benefits of combined agricultural, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether complementary school garden, nutrition, and WASH interventions reduce intestinal parasites and improve school children's nutritional status in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Plateau Central and Center-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. A total of 360 randomly selected children, aged 8-15 years, had complete baseline and end-line survey data. Mixed regression models were used to assess the impact of the interventions, controlling for baseline characteristics. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections decreased both in intervention and control schools, but the decrease was significantly higher in the intervention schools related to the control schools (odds ratio [OR] of the intervention effect = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.5). Indices of undernutrition did not decrease at end-line in intervention schools. Safe handwashing practices before eating and the use of latrines at schools were significantly higher in the intervention schools than in the control schools at end-line (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.4-34.4, and OR = 14.9, 95% CI = 1.4-153.9, respectively). Parameters of water quality remained unchanged. A combination of agricultural, nutritional, and WASH-related interventions embedded in the social-ecological systems and delivered through the school platform improved several child health outcomes, including intestinal parasitic infections and some WASH-related behaviors. Sustained interventions with stronger household and community-based components are, however, needed to improve school children's health in the long-term.

  18. School region socio-economic status and geographic locale is associated with food behaviour of Ontario and Alberta adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; McCargar, Linda; Lambraki, Irene; Jessup, Linda; Driezen, Pete; Calengor, Kate; Hanning, Rhona M

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate broader determinants of adolescent dietary intake and habits, food intakes and selected food behaviours of grades 9 and 10 students from Ontario and Alberta were examined according to school region socio-economic status and urban/rural locale. Using a stratified random sample framework, 53 high schools from 28 school boards were recruited (45 public and 8 private; 33 urban and 20 rural). Median family income for Canada Post's forward sortation area of the school was used to define school region SES. Public and private schools were compared as a proxy measure of SES. A web-based survey of food intake and behaviours, including a 24-hour diet recall and food frequency questionnaire, was completed by 2,621 students in grades 9 and 10. Comparison of intakes and behaviours by school designation as urban/rural, public/private or regional SES (generalized linear model procedure) controlled for student gender and grade distribution and number of participants within schools. School region SES ranged from dollars 40,959 to dollars 85,922/year. Vegetable and fruit consumption (p breakfast consumption (p students had lower intakes of sweetened drinks (p students reported higher mean intakes of calcium (1106 vs. 995 mg/day, respectively, p = 0.03) and milk products (2.7 vs. 2.3 servings/day, p students. Selected food behaviours of youth from Ontario and Alberta improve with increasing school SES and vary with rural/urban school locale. Identifying regional demographics may be useful in tailoring healthy eating programs to the specific school.

  19. Effects of nutritional status on academic performance of Malaysian primary school children.

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    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    Numerous factors are known to affect the academic performance of students. These include prenatal conditions, birth conditions, postnatal events, nutritional, socio-economic factors and environmental factors. This paper examines the nutritional status and its relationship with academic performance of 9-10 years old primary school children recruited randomly in Selangor, Malaysia. A standard self-administered questionnaire was utilized to obtain pertinent information and a face-to-face interview was also conducted with the parents. Results of the academic performances were extracted from the students' report cards. The intellectual performance was assessed using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. Physical examination was also conducted on these students by doctors. Overall 1,405 students and 1,317 parents responded to the survey. Of these 83.6% were Malays, 11.6% Indians, and 4.2% Chinese. The majority of them (82.9%) were from urban areas. The female: male ratio was 51:49; mean age was 9.71 years. The mean height and weight were 32.3 kg and 135.2 cm respectively. Their mean BMI was 17.42 kg/cm2, with 0.9% underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight, and 6.3% obese. Academic performance was significantly correlated with breast feeding, income and educational level of their parents, BMI, and whether they have been taking breakfast. There was a weak correlation between presence of anaemia and intellectual performance. Improving the socio-economic status of the parents will lend a helping hand in the academic performance of the students. Since breast feeding is associated with better academic and intellectual performance it must be emphasized, particularly to expectant mothers in the antenatal clinics.

  20. Canteen purchasing practices of year 1-6 primary school children and association with SES and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Meghan; Sutherland, Rachel; Harrison, Michelle; Collins, Clare

    2006-06-01

    To identify sources of food eaten during the school day, the types of foods and frequency of purchases from the canteen and association with SES and weight status in primary school-aged children. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Hunter region of New South Wales. Primary schools were randomly selected from a list of government schools and 5,206 students in years 1-6 from the 16 participating schools were invited to participate in the study. Findings show the majority of children in the study bring their recess snack and lunch from home. However, the majority of children do use the school canteen and less healthy foods and high-sugar drinks are commonly purchased. This study confirms the relevance of the school canteen as a means of affecting children's eating habits. Improvement in the foods sold through schools provides an important contribution to model supportive environments for healthy food choices. Strategies should also be directed towards affecting the content of lunchboxes and the home environment.

  1. Oral Health Status among 12- and 15-Year-Old Children from Government and Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhabogi, J R; Shekar, Cbr; Hameed, Ia; Ramana, Iv; Sandhu, G

    2014-09-01

    The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio-economic background. The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between children from government and private schools in Andhra Pradesh, India. A combination of cluster and stratified random sampling was employed to select the study participants. Oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience was assessed and compared among 12- and 15-year-old children from three government and private schools each. The examination was carried out by three trained and calibrated investigators using a mouth mirror and explorer under natural daylight. A total of 604 children (331 government and 273 private) were examined in the study. The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) was higher among government school children (2.9 [1.1]) compared private school children (0.6 [0.4]). The mean gingival score and mean decayed missing filled teeth were also higher among government school children compared with private school children. A significantly higher number of children in the government schools had poor oral hygiene status, moderate to severe gingivitis and caries experience. The prevalence of oral diseases was relatively less among children from private schools in comparison with those from government schools. Hence, the children from government schools should be given the priority compared with private school children in any school dental health programs planned on a statewide basis.

  2. Body mass status of school children of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Muhammad; Ali, Irshad; Khan, Abdus Salam

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic involving both developed and developing countries. It is a stare of over-nutrition with long-term complications such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and coronary artery disease and type-2 diabetes. Underweight is the result of under nutrition leading to reduction in growth and development of every body organ especially the Central Nervous System. Long-term under-nutrition causes failure in linear growth (height) of the child. Growth is further retarded by the repeated attacks of respiratory infections, diarrhea and anemia as a result of reduced immunity. This study was carried, out eight primary schools of Dera Ismail Khan (Private, semi government organizations, and welfare foundations) having mixed population with some of the wards belonging to high socioeconomic group. Thorough clinical examination excluded those suffering from chronic heath problems. Height and weight of each one was taken body mass index of determined according to 'Quatelet's' index. Body mass index number was plotted on the CDC S age and gender specific growth charts 2-20 years for BMI-for age percentile and body mass status (underweight, normal weight, overweight/at the risk of overweight and obese/overweight. Total 1338 school going children (6-11 years) were examined with 865 (67.75%) boys and 471 (35.25%) as girls. 13.39%, 72.15%, 8.83% and 5.61% as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese respectively. Percentage of underweight was higher in girls (25%) than boys (13.22). Percentage of obesity was higher (5.17%) in boys than girls (1.39%). Awareness about balanced diet, improvement in the level of education and socioeconomic conditions, easy access to health facilities and prevention of the gender discrimination, are the remedial measures to be taken to redress the situation.

  3. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study.

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    Karen E Peterson

    Full Text Available Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting.Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC, a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity.We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools' socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components.Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students.Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV, watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA on most days.1 School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2 individual odds of overweight/obesity.The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001, TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003 and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02, adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016. Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.98.The HC multi-component intervention

  4. The Current Status of Development and Implementation of Medical Emergency Response Plan in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Kinoshita, Rie; Kubota, Yoshie; Paul, Moses; Hiraide, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have been widely distributed at schools in Japan. We have demonstrated that ventricular fibrillation accounted for 68% of nontraumatic sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in schools, suggesting that a well-prepared medical emergency response plan (MERP) for schools would improve the outcomes of SCA patients. However, it is uncertain if the MERP has been well developed or implemented in Japanese schools. We conducted a cross-sectional study of schools in Osaka using a postal questionnaire. Survey items included type of school, number of students, school staff and teaching staff, number of AEDs used and the place of installation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training to school staff, MERP development and implementation, and the number of SCA cases they experienced. The response rate to this survey was 44% (764 of 1728 schools). Every school except for 4 have installed at least 1 AED. Thirty-six percent of schools, however, have not yet developed and implemented a MERP for SCA. Moreover, 49% of schools surveyed have not conducted a rehearsal training session for SCA in the previous 3 years, although 95% of schools provided CPR training courses to school staff. A total of 15 schools have experienced 16 presumed or actual SCA cases in the study period. Of the 15 schools, 6 schools reported that bystanders experienced psychological stress. A MERP for SCA has not yet been fully developed and implemented in the schools surveyed in our study despite widely distributed AEDs and CPR training.

  5. Religious Affiliation Influences on the Health Status and Behaviours of Students Attending Seventh-Day Adventist Schools in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Bevan Adrian; Morton, Darren Peter; Kent, Lillian Marton; Gane, Alva Barry; Butler, Terry Leslie; Rankin, Paul Meredith; Price, Kevin Ross

    2017-09-14

    Students attending Seventh-day Adventist (Adventist) schools in Australia have been shown to have better health status and behaviours compared to secular norms, yet these schools cater for a high percentage of non-Adventist students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of religious affiliation (Adventist/non-Adventist) on the health status and behaviours of students attending Adventist secondary schools in Australia. The sample included 1734 students who responded to a health and lifestyle survey that captured demographic details, self-reported height and weight, self-reported health status, mental health and select health behaviours. Students who identified themselves as Adventist reported significantly better health behaviours than the non-Adventist students in several behavioural domains, especially among the male students. However, this did not translate to a difference in health status. Further research is needed to understand the causal mechanisms responsible for the potential health advantage of Adventist students, which may include family or church religious influences.

  6. Investigation of Nutritional Status in Elementary School Students of South Khorasan Province:East of Iran

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    A Fesharakinia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Children have greater nutritional needs than adults in order to maintain their growth. It has been determined that about 70% of all malnourished children in the world live in Asia. This study evaluates nutritional status of elementary students in south khorasan province and some effective factors on it.

     

    Methods

    The height and weight of 1303 elementary school students ages between 7 to 12 years old which were selected by multistage random sampling from urban and rural areas of the South Khorasan province were measured. Data for this study was collected for a period of six months from September 2006 to February 2007. Nutritional habits of these students and its relation to demographic factors were evaluated using Gomes (weight – for – age, Maclaren-ride (weight to height for age and Waterlow (height – for – age criteria.

     

    Results

    Based on the finding of this study, 69.8% of the students were underweight, 30.9% were wasted and 43.6% were stunted. The effects of malnutrition in this group were mild and severe cases of malnutrition effects were rare. The adverse effects of malnutrition were more widespread with the increase in the age of the students. These adverse effects were also more persistence with increased level of illiteracy among the parents of these students.

    The number of underweight students was significantly larger in the rural areas than in the urban areas. Heights of the students were directly correlated to the order of their birth. The higher the birth orders the higher the prevalence of being shorter Being stunted was more widespread among female students with less educated mothers.

     

    Conclusion

    In order to improve high prevalence of malnutrition in elementary school students of South Khorasan province, we recommend improvement of the level

  7. Nutritional status of in-school adolescents in Ekiti state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akingbade Ayowale Kelvin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity which are indices of nutritional status with their health complications are on the increase, and obesity has been reported as a potential health problem in developing countries despite the prevailing poor socio-economic situation. Objective This study was designed to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among in-school adolescents in Ekiti State. Methodology A descriptive cross sectional study design involving a 4-stage sampling technique was used to select 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs randomly from each of the 3 senatorial districts in Ekiti state .The LGAs selected were Ido/Osi, Oye, Ado, Ekiti west, Ikere and Ise/Orun, 2 wards from each LGA, 16 secondary schools and 789 students. Data on demographic, socio-economic characteristics and family composition were obtained using pre tested interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Dietary intake of respondents was assessed using 24-hour dietary recall. WHO Body Mass Index-for-age (BMI-for-age chart was used to determine the BMI-for-age and adapted Total Diet Assessment (TDA software was used to estimate nutrient intake of respondents. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Chi-square test were used for data analysis, and level of significance was set at 5.0%. Results Age, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, and BMI-for-age of the respondents were 14.4±1.9 years, 0.8±0.1m, 0.7±0.1m, 0.9±0.1, and 45.1percentile respectively. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity were 11.7%, 8.7% and 4.9% respectively. Respondents at risk of abdominal obesity were 1.4% and 21.2% for males and females respectively. The energy, protein, carbohydrates and fat intakes of participants were 2004.73±1301.02kcal, 57.23±39.43, 328.21±165.39g and 16.06±13.33g respectively. Female respondents have higher mean dietary intakes compared with the male’s respondents. Nutrient intake adequacy did not have

  8. Long-term effects of comprehensive school health on health-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, health behaviours and weight status of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, Nicole Naadu; Ekwaru, John Paul; Bastian, Kerry Ann; Loehr, Sarah A; Storey, Kate; Spence, John C; Veugelers, Paul J

    2018-04-18

    APPLE Schools is a Comprehensive School Health (CSH) project, started in schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas where dietary habits are poor, physical activity (PA) levels are low, and obesity rates are high. Earlier research showed program effects whereby energy intake, PA and weight status of students in APPLE Schools had reached similar levels as that of students in other schools. However, it is unknown whether the effects of CSH are sustained when children grow into adolescents. Effects of APPLE Schools on health-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, diet, PA, and weight status, seven years after the start of the project, when students were in junior high and high school were assessed. We hypothesised that APPLE School graduates and comparison school graduates will remain at similar levels for these indicators. In the 2015/16 school year, junior high and high school graduates (grades 7-12) in Northern Alberta, Canada participated in a Youth Health Survey. Participants included graduates from APPLE elementary schools (n = 202) and comparison elementary schools (n = 338). Health-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, diet (24-h dietary recall), PA (pedometer step count) and weight status were assessed. Mixed effects regression was employed to assess differences in these outcomes between APPLE School graduates and comparison school graduates. Comparisons between elementary school (2008/09) and junior high/high school (2015/16) of self-efficacy, PA and weight status were also conducted. APPLE School graduates did not significantly differ from comparison school graduates on any outcomes (i.e. knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, diet, PA, and weight status). Additionally, no significant differences existed in the comparisons between 2008/09 and 2015/16. Our findings of no difference between the APPLE School graduates and comparison school graduates suggest that the effects of APPLE Schools may continue into adolescence or the new

  9. Oral health status of 16-year-old school children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik-Hussein, Nik Noriah; Abdul Muttalib, Khairiyah; Junid, Nooral Zeila; Wan, Mohamed Nasir Wan Othman; Abang, Ahmad

    2004-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the oral health status of 16-year-old Malaysian school children. The prevalence of caries was 75.5%. More than 60% of subjects had caries experience by teeth (DMFT) scores of 0-3. The largest component of the DMFT and caries experience by surface index was the filled component. Females had higher caries prevalence and caries scores than males. The mouth and tooth prevalences of enamel defects were 56% and 21.8%, respectively. The most common type of enamel defects observed were diffuse opacities, affecting 95.5% of affected subjects and 92.1% of affected teeth. One-third of subjects had healthy gingival conditions, 8.6% had bleeding gingivae, 55.1% had calculus and 3% had pockets. Less than 1% of subjects wore or required dentures. Cleft lip and/or palate was uncommon. This study shows that the prevalence of caries and DMFT scores have declined over the last 30 years.

  10. Vitamin D status and association to bone health in 781 healthy 8–11 years old Danish school children: preliminary results from the Opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.

    2013-01-01

    the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, including 3rd and 4th graders from nine public schools. In autumn 2011, fasting blood samples were drawn and serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH analysed. Background interviews were...... status and childhood bone health are needed. Objective: To evaluate the status of serum 25(OH)D in autumn and the association between 25(OH)D concentrations and bone health in 781 healthy 8–11 years old Danish children (55°N). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using baseline data from...... a significant association with iPTH, no overt association between serum 25(OH)D and bone health was established. The OPUS project (optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) is supported by a grant from the Nordea Foundation....

  11. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen E.; Spadano-Gasbarro, Jennifer L.; Greaney, Mary L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Mezgebu, Solomon; Hunt, Anne T.; Blood, Emily A.; Horan, Chrissy; Feldman, Henry A.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Bettencourt, Maria F.; Richmond, Tracy K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting. Objective Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC), a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity. Methods We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools’ socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components. Setting/Participants Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students. Intervention Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV), watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV) and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA) on most days Main Outcome Measures 1) School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2) individual odds of overweight/obesity. Results The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001), TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003) and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02), adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016). Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower

  12. Nutritional Status Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-School Children in the City of Montes Claros - Mg, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Igor Raineh Durães; Mourão Daniella Mota; Freitas Daniel Antunes; Souza Andrey George Silva; Pereira Alessandra Ribeiro; Aidar Felipe José; Carneiro André Luiz Gomes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in middle-school students in the city of Montes Claros - MG. The sample consisted of 382 students, aged 10?16 years. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined as the presence of two or more criteria in accordance with definition of the International Diabetes Federation. The overall prevalence of MS was 7.9%. 9...

  13. Link between perceived smoking behaviour at school and students smoking status: a large survey among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, I; D'Egidio, V; Grassucci, D; Gelardini, M; Ardizzone, C; La Torre, G

    2017-10-01

    To investigate a possible link between sociodemographic factors, the perception of smoking habits at school and smoking status of Italian adolescents attending secondary school. The study was a cross-sectional study. An anonymous online survey was employed to gather information on age, gender, smoking status and to examine the perception of smoking behaviour on the school premises. Chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed for the univariate analysis and logistic and multinomial regressions for the multivariate analysis. The statistical analyses included 1889 students. Univariate analysis showed significant differences concerning knowledge between smoker and non-smoker concerning the harmfulness of smoking (P smoking at school (odds ratio: 1.54 [95% confidence interval 1.26-1.89]). Students older than 19 years most often begin smoking because their friends smoke compared with younger students (adjusted odds ratio: 1.18 [95% confidence interval 0.48-2.89]). School environment and behaviour of role models play a crucial part in student smoking. To prevent and reduce youth tobacco smoking, not merely the presence of preventive measures is important but greater attention needs to be placed on the enforcement of smoking policies. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Beyond Socioeconomic Status: The Impact of Principal Leadership in Urban and High-Poverty Turnaround Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejumo, Mojisola

    2017-01-01

    The quest to transform failing urban and high-poverty schools in America has been a slippery uphill battle since the banner of war was raised against the many schools serving impoverished children. As battle rages, a few are schools leading their students, teachers, parents, and community to victory by turning their once-failing schools into…

  15. Elementary School Computer Access, Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, and Grade 5 Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the current school computer access rates of elementary school students and to determine the extent to which school computer access relates to academic achievement among Grade 5 students in the state of Texas. Specifically, the relationship of school computer access to student passing rates on the…

  16. [Effect of student knowledge in gastronomy schools and origin of residence on their nutritional habits and nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalcarz, W; Klemczak, L; Krajewski, P

    1991-01-01

    Nutritional habits and nutritional status of 142 pupils of a Gastronomic School Complex were examined from the standpoint of the year of school, school marks and place of residence. It was found that the year of school and place of residence exerted an effect on the nutritional habits of pupils. These young people failed to prefer dishes and food products recommended in the prophylaxis of civilization diseases. In all subjects the levels of total lipids and beta-lipoproteins exceeded the upper range of the norm. Hemoglobin concentration fluctuated within the lower range of the norm, and that of glucose--within the upper range of the norm. When completing school, the pupils displayed a lowered protein level and elevated glucose level. Pupils inhabiting the school boarding house ought to take part in the decisions on the menu and on food purchases. Recommendations concerning nutrition in the prophylaxis of civilization diseases ought to be as soon as possible introduced into the teaching program of the Gastronomic School Complex.

  17. The Impact of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support on Number of Office Discipline Referrals and the Financial Impact on the Allocation of Funds in Both High and Low Socioeconomic Status School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsley, Sean Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of participation in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support on the number of office discipline referrals written and the financial impact it had on the allocation of funds in both high and low socioeconomic status schools in the selected school district. The top 10 percent of elementary schools…

  18. Location of food stores near schools does not predict the weight status of Maine high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David E; Blum, Janet Whatley; Bampton, Matthew; O'Brien, Liam M; Beaudoin, Christina M; Polacsek, Michele; O'Rourke, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    To examine the relationship between stores selling calorie-dense food near schools and student obesity risk, with the hypothesis that high availability predicts increased risk. Mail surveys determined height, weight, and calorie-dense food consumption for 552 students at 11 Maine high schools. Driving distance from all food stores within 2 km (1.24 miles) of schools (or the closest store) was computed, and the impact of food store density and proximity to schools on student body mass index was determined by logistic regression. Ten schools had ≥ 1 store selling soda, and 8 schools had ≥1 fast-food restaurant within 1 km (0.62 miles). There were no significant relationships between the proximity or density of food stores around schools and student obesity risk. Students obtained sugar-sweetened beverages in many locations including at school. Unhealthful food choices are ubiquitous. Consequently, stores selling these food items near schools have no significant affect on student obesity. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Differences in health status of students from vocational education schools in the Katowice province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepka, J; Zdunkiewicz, L

    1991-01-01

    Based on secondary statistical data, an analysis was made of health condition of vocational schools students remaining under medical care of industrial physicians in the Katowice province. Twenty-six thousand students schooled in 1985/86 and 1986/87 were examined. Six groups of schools were distinguished: mechanical, chemical, metallurgical, building and food processing. It was observed that 59% of students from the Katowice province vocational schools were healthy, 23% showed certain health disorders, and 18% remained under special observation. In the particular kinds of vocational schools percentage of students who did not need continual medical care varied between 47% in mechanical schools and 68% in building schools. The greatest number of students with health problems was found in mechanical schools (28%) and the smallest (17%)--in building and food processing schools.

  20. Socio-demographic analysis of status and level of nutrition and physical activity in two schools in Granada (Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Tovar-Galvez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Currently, nutritional habits and the lifestyle of Spanish schoolchildren have undergone important changes. This study aimed to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics, eating habits and physical activity of schoolchildren of two different schools and determine possible differences in nutritional status and body composition, as well as nutrition and physical activity level of school children. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 114 schoolchildren between 8 and 13 years old, from Granada, Spain. An assessment of the nutritional status was performed by anthropometry and an analysis of body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Two questionnaires were used, one ad hoc about sociodemographic and nutritional data and the Krece-Plus test to assess nutritional status and physical activity. Results: There are no noteworthy significant differences in the nutritional habits of schoolchildren in both centers, most performed five daily meals. There are significant differences in the use of transport to go to school; schoolchildren of the Albayzín attend to school walking everyday, with a higher prevalence of low weight and ideal fat percentage lower than recommended. On the other hand, the schoolchildren in the center of the capital have low regular physical activity and nutritional status. There are sociodemographic differences between the two populations of students, both comply with the recommendations on the number of daily intakes. Conclusion: Students who reside in the center of Granada are more sedentary than their counterparts in the Albayzín and have a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. Students of the Albayzín have better nutrition and physical activity level.

  1. Eating habits, physical activity, nutrition knowledge, and self-efficacy by obesity status in upper-grade elementary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Seong Ah; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, Kyung A; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun; Kim, Kyung Won

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Childhood obesity has increased in recent decades in Korea. This study was designed to examine differences in the eating habits, physical activity (PA), nutrition knowledge, and self-efficacy of children by obesity status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Subjects were 5th-grade children from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. Two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. Survey questionnaire included items related to general characteristics, eating habits, PA, nutriti...

  2. Diarrhea & Child Care: Controlling Diarrhea in Out-of-Home Child Care. NCEDL Spotlights, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Robin B.; Pickering, Larry K.

    This report, the fourth in the National Center for Early Development and Learning's (NCEDL) "Spotlights" series, is based on excerpts from a paper presented during a "Research into Practice in Infant/Toddler Care" synthesis conference in fall 1997. The report addresses controlling diarrhea in out-of-home child care. The report…

  3. Location of Food Stores Near Schools Does Not Predict the Weight Status of Maine High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David E.; Blum, Janet Whatley; Bampton, Matthew; O'Brien, Liam M.; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Polacsek, Michele; O'Rourke, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between stores selling calorie-dense food near schools and student obesity risk, with the hypothesis that high availability predicts increased risk. Methods: Mail surveys determined height, weight, and calorie-dense food consumption for 552 students at 11 Maine high schools. Driving distance from all food…

  4. Early nutrition transition in Haiti: linking food purchasing and availability to overweight status in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Alexandra B; Becker, Haley V; Delnatus, Jacques Raymond; Wolff, Patricia B; Iannotti, Lora L

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim was to examine the association of socio-economic factors and diet with overweight (including obesity) among school-aged children in Haiti. The secondary aim was to describe food availability and the physical activity built environment in participating schools. This cross-sectional study examined baseline data from the intervention Mamba study assessing the effectiveness of a fortified peanut butter paste in school-aged children. Logistic regression modelling was used to test hypothesized factors in association with overweight status. Six primary schools in Cap-Haitien, the second largest city in Haiti. Children (n 968) aged 3-13 years, in good health and enrolled in a participating school for the 2012/13 school year. Child age (adjusted OR (AOR); 95 % CI=0·25; 0·12, 0·56), child age squared (1·08; 1·03, 1·13), always purchasing food at school (3·52; 1·12, 11·08), mother's BMI (1·10; 1·04, 1·16) and household ownership of a bicycle (0·28; 0·11, 0·71) were significantly associated with overweight (likelihood ratio=36, Poverweight children in the binary analysis (P=0·033) and improved the fit of the model. Schools had limited time and space for physical activity and foods sold by vendors were predominantly high in sugar or fat. To our knowledge the present study is the first to examine the covariates of childhood overweight or describe school food availability and physical activity built environments in Haiti. Further research is necessary to identify intervention targets and feasible, cost-effective approaches for prevention of obesity in Haiti children.

  5. Effort-Reward Imbalance at School and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Family Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Yang, Wenjie; Cao, Ying; Li, Jian; Siegrist, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53–12.89) compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES). A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56–3.32). The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups. PMID:24919130

  6. Effort-Reward Imbalance at School and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Family Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53–12.89 compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES. A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56–3.32. The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups.

  7. Effort-reward imbalance at school and depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents: the role of family socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Yang, Wenjie; Cao, Ying; Li, Jian; Siegrist, Johannes

    2014-06-10

    Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7-12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53-12.89) compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES). A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56-3.32). The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups.

  8. Ocular and visual status among children in special schools in Wales: the burden of unrecognised visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, J Margaret; Davies, Nathan; McAvinchey, Aideen; Ryan, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    The high prevalence of visual defects among children with special needs is well reported and guidelines for vision screening are in place. However, recent research has suggested that vision care for such children is neglected. This study set out to evaluate the current status of vision screening and eye care in special schools in Wales. In phase 1, all 44 special schools in Wales received a questionnaire on current vision screening practices. In phase 2, full eye examinations were conducted with 173 pupils of five schools with no screening service; the pupils were aged 2-21 years. In phase 3, feedback about the service was obtained from all schools and from 15 parents whose children took part. In phase 1, vision screening was patchy and inconsistent among the 39 schools responding. In phase 2, there is a high proportion of pupils (42%) reporting no previous eye examination. Overall, 17% of the pupils in the five schools presented with low vision (WHO definition, poorer than 0.3 LogMAR), 50% needed a first-time or updated spectacle prescription and 51% had some ocular abnormality that was either sight-limiting or warranted action to prevent risk to sight. In phase 3, school staff and parents reported that school-based eye examinations were valuable and, for those children with previous experience, likely to be more successful than clinic-based or practice-based examinations for this particular population. There is an urgent need for a school-based optometric service for this vulnerable group of children and young people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Sudanese Primary School Pupils in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators.

  10. It counts who counts: an experimental evaluation of the importance of observer effects on spotlight count estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Jessen, Lonnie

    2013-01-01

    Spotlight surveys conducted by volunteers is a promising method to assess the abundance of nocturnally active mammals, but estimates are subject to bias if different observer groups differ in their ability to detect animals in the dark. We quantified the variation amongst volunteer spotlight...... observers with respect to their ability to detect and estimate distance to realistic animal silhouettes at different distances. Detection probabilities were higher for observers experienced in spotlighting mammals than for inexperienced observers, higher for observers with a hunting background compared...

  11. Interaction of sedentary behaviour, sports participation and fitness with weight status in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-01-01

    Even though the effect of single components contributing to weight gain in children have been addressed only limited research is available on the combined association of sports participation, physical fitness and time spent watching TV with body weight in children. Baseline data from 1594 children (809 male; 785 female), 7.1 ± 0.6 years of age participating in a large school-based intervention in southern Germany was used. Height and weight was measured and body mass index (BMI) percentiles (BMIPCT) were determined accordingly. Sports participation and time spent watching TV was assessed via parent questionnaire while fitness was determined via a composite fitness test. Combined and single associations of sports participation, TV time and fitness with BMIPCT and weight status were assessed via ANCOVA as well as logistic regression analysis, controlling for age and sex. A significant interaction of TV time, sports participation and fitness on BMIPCT occurred, despite low correlations among the three components. Further, there was a combined association of sports participation and TV time on BMIPCT. TV time and fitness were also independently associated with BMIPCT. Similarly, only increased TV time and lower fitness were associated with a higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity. These results underline the complex interaction of TV time, sports participation and fitness with BMIPCT. In children, TV time and fitness have a stronger influence on BMIPCT compared to sports participation. Sports participation, however, may not reflect overall activity levels of children appropriately. More research is necessary to examine the complex interaction of various behaviours and fitness with BMIPCT.

  12. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Lin Siew; Chin, Yit Siew; Gan, Wan Ying; Nasir, Mohd Taib Mohd

    2017-03-01

    To determine the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children. Using a stratified multi-stage sampling, a total of 816 children (282 boys and 534 girls) aged 10 to 11 years from 12 selected primary schools in the state of Selangor, participated in this study. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status and disordered eating behaviors. The Pubertal Development Scale and the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) were used to assess pubertal status and disordered eating, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors of disordered eating. The prevalence of disordered eating was 30.8% (32.8% in boys and 29.7% in girls). However, the sex difference in the prevalence was not statistically significant. Age, ethnicity and pubertal status were significantly associated with disordered eating in univariate logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among boys, being either in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=8.64) and older age group (adjusted OR=2.03) were risk factors of disordered eating. However, among girls, being a Malay (adjusted OR=3.79) or Indian (adjusted OR=5.04) in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=2.34) and older age group (adjusted OR=1.53) were risk factors of disordered eating. This study found one in three children had disordered eating. Since ethnicity and pubertal status were identified as risk factors, ethnicity-specific intervention programs on the prevention of disordered eating among children should take into consideration their pubertal status.

  13. Academic status of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in public schools: student, home, and service facilitators and detractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Susanne; Antia, Shirin D; Kreimeyer, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    We examined facilitators and detractors of academic success of 25 deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) students selected from a pool of 187 students attending general education classes and enrolled in a study of academic progress. Interviews with their teachers of DHH, general education teachers, principals, parents, interpreters, and students themselves were analyzed for child, family, and school facilitators and detractors of academic status. Facilitators included student self-advocacy and motivation, high family and school expectations, families' ability to help with homework, and good communication between professionals. Detractors included additional disabilities and poor family-school communication. A comparison of above- and below-average students revealed no single distinguishing facilitator or detractor. Each above-average student had many facilitators, whereas each below-average student had several significant detractors.

  14. An investigation into the basic safety and security status of schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safety at schools is beginning to receive attention in South Africa as articulated in various media reports. Schools as sites of teaching and learning can deliver their educational mandate only in safe and secure conditions, free from injuries, crime, and violence. Basic school safety and security features are therefore essential ...

  15. Federal Support for School Integration: A Status Report. Issue Brief No. 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeler, Philip; Ramesh, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    The Secretary of Education has expressed strong support for school diversity and reduction of racial isolation in speeches and in the Joint Guidance on Voluntary School Integration, and the Department of Education (DOE) has included a general preference for school integration among its permissible funding preferences. However, this support for…

  16. An Evaluation of the Health Status of the School Environment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The provision of a Healthful School Environment is a prerequisite for the protection and promotion of the health of learners and attainment of Millennium Development Goal 2. This study sought to evaluate the availability of components of a healthful school environment in public primary schools in Bonny Local ...

  17. Growth performance and iron status of rural Beninese school-age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A better nutrition in schoolage children is associated with increased school performances and a better school achievement. School-age children are dependent on their parents for access to adequate foods and nutrition but, in areas characterised by a unimodal climate with only one rainy season and one dry season, ...

  18. Comparison of caries and oral hygiene status of child laborers and school children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchal Gangwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child labor is recognized as a global health problem and child laborers are exposed to unique living, working conditions and face such events in life, which are not usually faced by other children. Research on its health impact and oral health impact has been very limited and inconsistent. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare dental caries and oral hygiene status of child laborers and school children of Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 child laborers by snowball sampling technique and 400 school children by random sampling technique were included in the study. A specially designed pretested proforma was used to collect data related to the sociodemographic profile, adverse habits and frequency of dental visits. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S were used. Results: The mean age of child laborers and school children was 13.07 ± 1.3 and 13.03 ± 1.5. The majority of child laborers (82.8% had no mouth rinsing habit. Tobacco-related habits were found among 37.8% of child laborers. Most of the child laborers (91% never visited dentists. The mean DMFT was 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.9 ± 1.6 for child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05. The mean OHI-S score was 2.3 ± 0.70 and 2.1 ± 0.9 in child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the child laborers have poorer oral health status with respect to dental caries and oral hygiene compared to school children.

  19. Advertising in the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and examines the nature of commercial messages directed toward children in public schools. Because of the increase in children's spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. Advertising…

  20. Adolescent reserve capacity, socioeconomic status and school achievement as predictors of mortality in Finland - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acacio-Claro, Paulyn Jean; Koivusilta, Leena Kristiina; Borja, Judith Rafaelita; Rimpelä, Arja Hannele

    2017-12-28

    Despite robust evidence on the inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality, deviations from expected results have been observed likely due to school achievement and psychosocial resources, termed as "reserve capacity." Since adolescence is a critical period in developing sound psychological and behavioural patterns and adolescent markers of SES were seldom used, we determine if family SES in adolescence predicts later mortality. We also study how reserve capacity (perceived health, health-promoting behaviour and social support) and school achievement modify this relationship and reduce the negative effects of low SES. A longitudinal study was designed by linking baseline data on 12 to 18 year-old Finns in 1985-95 (N = 41,833) from the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Surveys with register data on mortality and SES from Statistics Finland. Average follow-up time was 18.4 years with a total of 770,161 person-years. Cox regression models, stratified by sex, were fitted to determine the effects of variables measured during adolescence: family SES, reserve capacity and school achievement on mortality risk. All reserve capacity dimensions significantly predicted mortality in boys. Perceived health and social support predicted that in girls. Adolescents with the lowest school achievement were more than twice at risk of dying compared to those with better school performance. Low SES increased the risk of death in boys (Hazard ratios: 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) but not in girls. Reserve capacity and school achievement weakened the effects of low SES on boys' risk of death. High reserve capacity and good school achievement in adolescence significantly reduce the risk of mortality. In boys, these also mitigate the negative effect of low SES on mortality. These findings underscore the roles of reserve capacity and school achievement during adolescence as likely causal or modifying factors in SES-health inequalities.

  1. Injury surveillance and associations with socioeconomic status indicators among youth/young workers in New Jersey secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolico, Alexsandra A; Shendell, Derek G

    2016-02-16

    Injuries involving career-technical-vocational education (CTE) are reported to the New Jersey Safe Schools Program online reporting system, the only U.S. State law-based surveillance data for young workers (ages twenty-one and younger), a susceptible, vulnerable adolescent sub-population. We examined potential associations between socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and high school student injuries reported between 12/1998-12/2013, excluding injuries acquired by staff members. Associations between DFG score-a proxy for school/district SES-and variables relating to reported injuries, including severity, injury type, injury cause, body parts injured, injury treatment setting and demographics were examined with chi square test (X(2)) for independence and logistic regression. To assess potential associations between SES and personal protective equipment (PPE), data were stratified by 2003-2008 and 2008-2013, given mandated payment by employers of PPE for employees. Statistically significant associations were found between SES and injury cause [X(2) = (7, 14.74), p = 0.04] and SES and injury treatment setting [X(2) = (1, 4.76), p = 0.03]. Adjusted odds ratio suggested students from low SES schools were at a higher odds of being treated at a hospital emergency department (ED) than students from high SES schools (95 % CI 1.3-4.3, p schools/districts have increased odds of being treated at ED, after controlling for injury severity. Future research should focus on implications such associations have on health care access and insurance for young workers and their families. With small sample sizes representing lower DFG scoring (SES) schools/districts, additional efforts should be enacted to increase injury reporting in these schools/districts.

  2. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Bhowal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among  300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years  studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations.  Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.

  3. Assessment of the relationship among the oral health status, oral hygiene practices, and habits of school teachers in Mangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, teachers play an important role in providing long-term health education and changes in behavior. Aim: To assess the relationship among the oral health status, oral hygiene practices, and habits of primary and middle school teachers in Mangalore city. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was carried out for 1½ months on 241 primary and middle school teachers in Mangalore city. Oral hygiene practices and habits were assessed using a questionnaire. The oral health status of the teachers was examined using simplified oral hygiene index, gingival index, and caries experience was scored using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were done. P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: A total of 241 school teachers were included in the study. The majority of the males and females were in the age group of 30-39 years and 40-49 years, respectively. The increase in the gingival score in subjects was not statistically significant with the use of indigenous methods along with the brush. With respect to caries experience and oral hygiene practices, as the frequency of brushing increase, there was a decrease in the number of decayed and missing teeth and increase in the number of filled teeth (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight the importance of proper oral hygiene habits and its relationship of oral health status and recommend the continuous implementation of school-based programs to promote the oral health.

  4. Social Adjustment of Deaf Early Adolescents at the Start of Secondary School: The Divergent Role of Withdrawn Behavior in Peer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of deaf adolescents' peer status in Grade 8 from Grade…

  5. The present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed

    The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend

  6. Impact of parental weight status on a school-based weight management programme designed for Mexican-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J P; Johnston, C A; Hernandez, D C; LeNoble, J; Papaioannou, M A; Foreyt, J P

    2016-10-01

    While overweight and obese children are more likely to have overweight or obese parents, less is known about the effect of parental weight status on children's success in weight management programmes. This study was a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial and investigated the impact of having zero, one or two obese parents on children's success in a school-based weight management programme. Sixty-one Mexican-American children participated in a 24-week school-based weight management intervention which took place in 2005-2006. Children's heights and weights were measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Parental weight status was assessed at baseline. Repeated measures anova and ancova were conducted to compare changes in children's weight within and between groups, respectively. Within-group comparisons revealed that the intervention led to significant decreases in standardized body mass index (zBMI) for children with zero (F = 23.16, P weight management programme appears to be most efficacious for children with one or no obese parents compared to children with two obese parents. These results demonstrate the need to consider parental weight status when engaging in childhood weight management efforts. © 2015 World Obesity.

  7. Schistosoma haematobium infection, health and nutritional status in school-age children in a rural setting in Northern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Simona; Macario, Marina; Iacovone, Giuliano; Dussey-Comlavi, Kodjo J; Narcisi, Paolo; Ndiaye, Amadou T; Moramarco, Stefania; Alvaro, Rosaria; Palombi, Leonardo; Buonomo, Ersilia

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of urinary schistosomiasis in school children in a rural village of Northern Senegal, and to evaluate the impact of this parasitic infection on children's health, growth, and nutritional status. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 465 children resident in the village of Kassak Nord, in Senegal, in an area which is highly endemic for Schistosoma haematobium. Data on health, nutritional status and urinary schistosomiasis were collected. The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in school children in Kassak was 47.4%. As for malnutrition, 29.7% of children were malnourished (BMI-for-age Z-score [BAZ] Children with urinary schistosomiasis showed lower mean BAZ and HAZ than uninfected children (HAZ positives -0.7±1.4 vs. HAZ negatives -0.4±1.4, P=0.004; BAZ positives -1.5±1 vs. BAZ negatives -1.3±1.1, P=0.03). It was also found that infected children were at greater risk of malnutrition (BAZnutritional status and are of importance for planning intervention aimed to monitoring and control Urinary Schistosomiasis and malnutrition.

  8. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES PRACTICE OF HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OF THIRUVANANTHAPURAM DISTRICT: A STATUS RESEARCH.

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja. S.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the awareness of Higher Secondary School English teachers on Multiple Intelligences. Each teacher needs to be aware of different forms of intelligences. The objectives of the study are to find out the level of awareness of Higher Secondary School teachers on Multiple Intelligences and to compare the awareness on Multiple Intelligences among Higher Secondary School teachers based on gender and locality. Survey method is used for collecting data from 150 highe...

  9. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years old school going children in rural Gurgaon, India: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Hardly any information is available on the oral health status of children in Gurgaon. Thus, the present study was conducted among 5-year-old and 12-years-old children in schools in rural Gurgaon. Materials and Methods: A total of 1003 children were examined of which 619 were in 5 years age group and 384 in 12 years group. The prevalence of dental caries was studied using dentition status and treatment needs index. For dental calculus criteria of Community Periodontal and for dental fluorosis Dean′s index was used. Results: In 5 years age group prevalence of dental caries was 68.5%, dental fluorosis was 22.5% and treatment needs were 63.7%. In 12 year age group prevalence of dental caries was 37.5%, dental fluorosis was 76.04%, highest community periodontal index score was 2, seen in 80.2% and overall treatment needs were 44.3%. Conclusion: Preventive approaches seem to be a viable alternative to tackle the overwhelming problem of dental caries and other oral diseases. Provision of oral health education in schools and school based preventive programs are important for improvement of this situation.

  10. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A and B and vaccination status in staff at German schools for the handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Matthias; Kimbel, Renate; Schöne, Klaus; Letzel, Stephan; Rose, Dirk-Matthias

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to assess serostatus and vaccination status of hepatitis A and B among staff at schools for the handicapped. We also wanted to investigate factors associated with serostatus, number of infections with hepatitis A/hepatitis B at work, and factors influencing being vaccinated or not. The cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2010 and August 2012 at 13 German schools for severely handicapped. Data were analyzed using blood samples, vaccination documents, and questionnaires. A total of 395 persons participated in our study (response: 59.7%), information on 367 could be used for analysis. Two respondents have been infected with HAV at work, 53.4% were anti-HAV seropositive. Vaccination against hepatitis A was influenced by information about infectious diseases before starting to work, level of education, and marital status. One person got infected with hepatitis B during work, 53.2% were anti-HBs-seropositive. Vaccination against hepatitis B depended on perceived burden by nursing activities, and vaccination costs being paid by employer. Immunity to hepatitis A and B in our sample is insufficient and does not correspond to the infectious risks. Two persons got infected with hepatitis A and one person with hepatitis B during work at school, indicating an urgent need for preventive actions. J. Med. Virol. 89:825-833, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  12. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Achievement of High School Students Participating in a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weers, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of socioeconomic status on the achievement of high school students participating in a one-to-one laptop computer program. Students living in poverty struggle to achieve in schools across the country, educators must address this issue. The independent variable in this study is socioeconomic…

  13. How Medical School Applicant Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status Relate to Multiple Mini-Interview-Based Admissions Outcomes: Findings From One Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Fancher, Tonya; Fenton, Joshua J; Fiscella, Kevin; Sousa, Francis; Franks, Peter; Henderson, Mark

    2015-12-01

    To examine associations of medical school applicant underrepresented minority (URM) status and socioeconomic status (SES) with Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) invitation and performance and acceptance recommendation. The authors conducted a correlational study of applicants submitting secondary applications to the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, 2011-2013. URM applicants were black, Southeast Asian, Native American, Pacific Islander, and/or Hispanic. SES from eight application variables was modeled (0-1 score, higher score = lower SES). Regression analyses examined associations of URM status and SES with MMI invitation (yes/no), MMI score (mean of 10 station ratings, range 0-3), and admission committee recommendation (accept versus not), adjusting for age, sex, and academic performance. Of 7,964 secondary-application applicants, 19.7% were URM and 15.1% self-designated disadvantaged; 1,420 (17.8%) participated in the MMI and were evaluated for acceptance. URM status was not associated with MMI invitation (OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.33), MMI score (0.00-point difference, CI -0.08 to 0.08), or acceptance recommendation (OR 1.08; CI 0.69 to 1.68). Lower SES applicants were more likely to be invited to an MMI (OR 5.95; CI 4.76 to 7.44) and recommended for acceptance (OR 3.28; CI 1.79 to 6.00), but had lower MMI scores (-0.12 points, CI -0.23 to -0.01). MMI-based admissions did not disfavor URM applicants. Lower SES applicants had lower MMI scores but were more likely to be invited to an MMI and recommended for acceptance. Multischool collaborations should examine how MMI-based admissions affect URM and lower SES applicants.

  14. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Elementary Student Achievement in Rural South Texas Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Educational inequalities that exist due to socioeconomic status impact the academic achievement of students and contribute to the achievement gap. This study attempted to examine how the predictors of grade level and socioeconomic status impact the passing of state standardized reading and mathematics exams. The 2012-2013 State of Texas Academic…

  15. Moral Reasoning, Classroom Behavior, and Sociometric Status among Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Rys, Gail S.

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relations among moral reasoning, classroom behavior, and sociometric status. Among boys, hedonistic moral reasoning was associated with lack of social competencies, acting-out behavior, and low social preference. Moral reasoning influenced sociometric status indirectly through social behavior, and explained variance in sociometric…

  16. Schools Which Are Named, Shamed and Blamed by the Media: School Accountability in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Eyvind

    2009-01-01

    Since Norway introduced tests and other types of measurements the press, with a negative bias, has placed the spotlight on those schools which performed badly in attainment measurements. The press reconstructs from public sources "league tables" of aggregated student achievements but at present the official position opposes the public…

  17. School Guidance and Counseling in Kenya: Historical Development, Current Status, and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambu, Grace W.; Fisher, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the government's emphasis on guidance and counseling program implementation in Kenyan schools and a rapid increase in the number of trained school counselors, lack of standardized training curriculums, ethical standards, counseling models, and role ambiguity persist. This article reviews the historical development of guidance and…

  18. Library School Faculty Member Perceptions Regarding Faculty Status for Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Paul Alan

    2010-01-01

    The faculties of the library schools listed as ALA-accredited are directly involved in setting the direction of the education provided to academic librarians through curriculum development and teaching. The curricula and teaching at ALA-accredited library schools revolve around aspects of librarianship such as providing research assistance at a…

  19. Predictors of Cyberbullying Intervention among Elementary School Staff: The Moderating Effect of Staff Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Anne; Depaolis, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying behavior among youth has become a growing concern among parents, educators, and policymakers due to emerging evidence documenting its harmful consequences on youths' development. As such, schools are increasingly required to address to this form of bullying. Thus, effective responses by school staff are needed. However, no study to…

  20. Career Status of Secondary Principals in Small Schools in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Edward H.

    1985-01-01

    A random sample of 559 secondary small school principals in Arkansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas revealed that 73 percent of the principals were actively seeking new positions or were leaving school administration. The findings have implications for selection procedures, salary/fringe benefit packages, principal autonomy, evaluation…

  1. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  2. Current Status of the St. Louis Plan: The Magnet School Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libros, Tracy

    1987-01-01

    The results and prospects of the magnet school component of desegregation efforts in St. Louis are presented. Demand for magnet seats is outstripping the supply, and thus, the pace of desegregation is limited. But these schools offer an improved educational program and provide more educational choices for families. (VM)

  3. An Evaluation of the Health Status of the School Environment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    environment described in this study put the teachers at risk of liability based on the law of Tort; which include: malfeasance-. Table VI: Reasons for lack of adequate emotional climate in schools in Bonny LGA. Reasons for lack of adequate emotional climate. No of schools (%). None payment of teachers salaries as at when ...

  4. Iodine Status of School-Aged Children in Urue Offong/Oruko Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency of school aged children in Urue Offong Oruko local government area of Akwa Ibom State using recommended quantifiable indicators. Subject and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 1800 school ...

  5. Nutritional Status Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-School Children in the City of Montes Claros - MG, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Igor Raineh Durães; Mourão, Daniella Mota; Freitas, Daniel Antunes; Souza, Andrey George Silva; Pereira, Alessandra Ribeiro; Aidar, Felipe José; Carneiro, André Luiz Gomes

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in middle-school students in the city of Montes Claros - MG. The sample consisted of 382 students, aged 10-16 years. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined as the presence of two or more criteria in accordance with definition of the International Diabetes Federation. The overall prevalence of MS was 7.9%. 9.7% of students with MS were overweight and 72.4% were obese. Therefore, it can be inferred that carrying excess weight considerably increases the chances for a child to develop MS, and concomitantly increases the child's risk for developing cardiovascular disease.

  6. Nutritional Status Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-School Children in the City of Montes Claros - Mg, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Igor Raineh Durães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in middle-school students in the city of Montes Claros - MG. The sample consisted of 382 students, aged 10-16 years. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Body Mass Index (BMI. Metabolic syndrome (MS was defined as the presence of two or more criteria in accordance with definition of the International Diabetes Federation. The overall prevalence of MS was 7.9%. 9.7% of students with MS were overweight and 72.4% were obese. Therefore, it can be inferred that carrying excess weight considerably increases the chances for a child to develop MS, and concomitantly increases the child’s risk for developing cardiovascular disease.

  7. [Evaluation of nutritional status of school-age children after implementation of "Nutrition Improvement Program" in rural area in Hunan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhu-Juan; Mao, Guang-Xu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nutritional status of school-age children in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area" (hereinafter referred to as "Nutrition Improvement Program"). The nutritional status of school-age children aged 6-14 years was evaluated after the implementation of the "Nutrition Improvement Program" and the changing trend of the children's nutritional status was analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed on the monitoring data of the school-age children aged 6-14 years in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015, which came from "The Nutrition and Health Status Monitoring and Evaluation System of Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area". In 2015, female students aged 6-7 years in rural area in Hunan, China had a significantly greater body length than the rural average in China (PNutrition Improvement Program", the prevalence rate of growth retardation decreased (PNutrition Improvement Program" has achieved some success, but the nutritional status of school-age children has not improved significantly. Overweight/obesity and malnutrition are still present. Therefore, to promote the nutritional status of school-age children it is recommended to improve the measures for the "Nutrition Improvement Program".

  8. Nutrient intake and nutritional status indicators of participant and nonparticipant pupils of a parent-supported school lunch program in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walingo, Mary K; Musamali, Betty

    2008-01-01

    To compare nutrient intake and indicators of nutritional status of western Kenyan pupil participants and nonparticipants of a parent-supported school lunch program. Pupils and their caregivers were interviewed to assess their 24-hour dietary intake and the socioeconomic status of the family. Pupils' weights and heights were measured. Eight randomly selected schools with parent-supported school lunch programs in Emuhaya, western Kenya. 320 pupils aged between 10 and 12 years in Standard 5 and Standard 6 were disaggregated into school lunch participants (n = 160) and nonparticipants (n = 160). Pupils' energy and protein intake; nutritional status indicators; household socioeconomic characteristics. Independent t test for comparison of group means; chi-square for socioeconomic characteristics. Level of significance was P = .05. Energy and protein consumption of participants was higher than that of the nonparticipants. Severe underweight, severe stunting, and severe wasting were significantly higher among the nonparticipants. Hunger and a higher absenteeism rate from school were more commonly reported among the nonparticipants. This study demonstrates the interaction of poverty, nutrition status, and education. To improve the nutritional status and academic performance of the students whose parents cannot afford to participate in school lunch programs, funding from external sources is essential.

  9. Associations between weight-related teasing and psychosomatic symptoms by weight status among school-aged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, T; Borghese, M M; Janssen, I

    2017-03-01

    Weight-related teasing (WT) is associated with poor mental health. This study examined whether weight status moderates the relationship between WT and psychosomatic symptoms within a representative sample of school-aged youth. Data are from the Canadian 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey, a nationally representative sample of youth in Grades 6-10. WT, psychosomatic symptoms and body mass index (BMI) were self-reported. The final sample consisted of 20,277 youth (mean age = 14.2 years; 50.2% female). The prevalence who reported being WT at least once a week was 4.6%, 8.1% and 17.3% among youth with normal weight, overweight, and obesity, respectively ( p  psychosomatic symptoms ( p  psychosomatic symptom z -scores were significantly ( p  psychosomatic symptoms independent of BMI category; however, BMI category did not moderate the association between WT and psychosomatic symptoms.

  10. Raw Data-Based Motion Compensation for High-Resolution Sliding Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Niu, Shilin; Guo, Zhengwei; Liu, Yabo; Chen, Jiaqi

    2018-03-12

    For accurate motion compensation (MOCO) in airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, a high-precision inertial navigation system (INS) is required. However, an INS is not always precise enough or is sometimes not even included in airborne SAR systems. In this paper, a new, raw, data-based range-invariant motion compensation approach, which can effectively extract the displacements in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction, is proposed for high-resolution sliding spotlight SAR mode. In this approach, the sub-aperture radial accelerations of the airborne platform are estimated via a well-developed weighted total least square (WTLS) method considering the time-varying beam direction. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by two airborne sliding spotlight C band SAR raw datasets containing different types of terrain, with a high spatial resolution of about 0.15 m in azimuth.

  11. Accommodation and vergence status among the 3rd and 4th graders in a mainstream school in Gauteng*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Metsing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The data presented in this paper is obtained from the study on the prevalence of visual deficien-cies in mainstream and learning disabled schools which revealed no difference in the prevalence of visual deficiencies in both schools. One of the objectives of this study was to determine the visual status of each learner in each of the two groups (mainstream and learning disabled. The findings of the study revealed that both groups presented with different visual deficiencies including accommodation, vergence deficiencies and poor ocular motilities which can contribute towards influencing the children’s learning skills negatively. The visual profile on the accommodative and vergence systems of the children from the mainstream school is further analysed in this paper to determine the prevalence of deficiencies in the 8-13 year-olds, and to support inclusion of the evaluation of these visual skills in the school vision screening protocol. Method: One hundred and twelve (112 children had an expanded vision screening, with eighty (80 from the mainstream school in Johannesburg aged 8-13 years. The expanded vision screeningincluded the measurement of visual acuity (Snellen Acuity, refractive error (static retinoscopy, accommodation (accuracy, facility and amplitude, evaluation of the vergence system (accuracy, facility and amplitude and ocular motilities (direct ob-servation. Of the 80 children from the mainstream school, only 73 children’s results were consideredlearning performance of children, especially those of school-going-age. The study therefore supports the expanded vision screening of all school-going-children in South Africa to include visual efficiency skills (accommodation and vergence systems for appropriate and early identification of the barriers and seven subjects were excluded due to their poor responses to the tests.Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was utilized to assess the normality of distribution of accommodative and vergence

  12. Comparison of nutritional status of rural and urban school students receiving midday meals in schools of Bengaluru, India: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C N Shalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the mid day meal program by assessing the nutritional status of school students aged 5-15 years receiving midday meals in rural schools and compare them with those in urban schools in Bengaluru, India. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study involved a sample of 4378 students from government and aided schools. Weight and height were measured and compared with ′′means′′ and ′′percentiles′′ of expected standards as endorsed by the Indian Association of Pediatrics. Regression coefficients were also estimated to assess the rate of growth. Results: In all age groups and in both sexes, the observed mean weight and height were below the expected standards. The study findings showed that 13.8% and 13.1% of the studied students were underweight and stunted, respectively (below the third percentile for weight and height for age. A higher proportion of rural students were below the third percentile for both weight and height compared with urban students (weight: 16.3% and 11.5%; height: 17.0% and 10.0%; P < 0.05 for both weight and height. Only 2.4% and 3.1% were above 97 th percentile for weight and height. The rate of growth of height for weight showed a declining trend with increasing age in all the groups. Discussion: The authors believe that the magnitude of the burden of undernourished students as seen in this study would have been much greater in the absence of the midday meal program. Conclusion: Greater involvement of the private sector to assist the government would help augment nutrition in children and indirectly impact school performance, attendance and literacy.

  13. Generalized Chirp Scaling Combined with Baseband Azimuth Scaling Algorithm for Large Bandwidth Sliding Spotlight SAR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tianzhu; He, Zhihua; He, Feng; Dong, Zhen; Wu, Mnaqing

    2017-05-29

    This paper presents an efficient and precise imaging algorithm for the large bandwidth sliding spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The existing sub-aperture processing method based on the baseband azimuth scaling (BAS) algorithm cannot cope with the high order phase coupling along the range and azimuth dimensions. This coupling problem causes defocusing along the range and azimuth dimensions. This paper proposes a generalized chirp scaling (GCS)-BAS processing algorithm, which is based on the GCS algorithm. It successfully mitigates the deep focus along the range dimension of a sub-aperture of the large bandwidth sliding spotlight SAR, as well as high order phase coupling along the range and azimuth dimensions. Additionally, the azimuth focusing can be achieved by this azimuth scaling method. Simulation results demonstrate the ability of the GCS-BAS algorithm to process the large bandwidth sliding spotlight SAR data. It is proven that great improvements of the focus depth and imaging accuracy are obtained via the GCS-BAS algorithm.

  14. [Hygienic evaluation of educational conditions and health status in junior pupils from rural schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, I K; Sergeeva, A A; Chubarovskiĭ, V V

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological examinations were made in rural junior (8-10-year-old) schoolchildren from the Vyazma District, Smolensk Region. The clinical findings were compared with the results of evaluation of sanitary-and-hygienic school welfare (SGW), made by the regional branch of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, and with those of a sociological survey of school directors and teachers. In the rural schools referred to as Group III morbidity, the incidence of diseases was ascertained to be significantly higher and their patterns had its peculiarities as compared to good hygienic and social educational institutions. There was evidence that the worse schooling conditions, the more children suffered from chronic diseases, chronic mental diseases and physical malformations in particular.

  15. Status of implementation of the ICT Curriculum in Ghanaian Basic Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Yaw Sekyi Acquah

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the study was to ascertain the extent to which the ICT curriculum is effectively being implemented in basic schools. The aim was to find out teachers’ perception about the introduction of ICT at the basic school level; the availability of facilities for teaching the subject; teachers’ acquired content knowledge as well as their preferred in-service training methods. The study adopted a simple cross sectional survey design which employed descriptive statics for data analysis. A qu...

  16. Status of implementation of the ICT Curriculum in Ghanaian Basic Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Yaw Sekyi Acquah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study was to ascertain the extent to which the ICT curriculum is effectively being implemented in basic schools. The aim was to find out teachers’ perception about the introduction of ICT at the basic school level; the availability of facilities for teaching the subject; teachers’ acquired content knowledge as well as their preferred in-service training methods. The study adopted a simple cross sectional survey design which employed descriptive statics for data analysis. A questionnaire was the main survey instrument. A representative sample of 63 public primary schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis was randomly selected, and all ICT teachers (84 in the selected schools were involved in the study. It was revealed that teachers had a positive perception about the teaching of ICT in primary schools. ICT facilities were woefully inadequate for the teaching of the subject in basic schools; the majority of teachers appeared to be knowledgeable in the use of computers and other peripheral devices; and, most of the teachers preferred workshops as a means of acquiring more knowledge and skills in the teaching of ICT.

  17. LEVEL OF NUTTRITION ADEQUACY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF YOUNG MEN ATHLETES SOCCER SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN DENPASAR 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Gede Karyamitha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is a favorite sport for  people around the world including in Indonesia. Not only the method of training or talent that will determine the achievement, but the intake of daily nutrients directly proper also provide a positive influence on performance and achievements of athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of nutrition, physical activity, and nutritional status of young men athletes soccer. This study useds cross-sectional method. The number of samples taken as much as 96 athletes from all senior high schools in Denpasar and selected systematic random sampling. Results showed the average level of nutritional adequacy of athletes still in the category of less (<80%. Respectively for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 75.95%, 77.24%, 78.96% and 75.83%. If seen the proportion of athletes that sufficient levels of nutrients in enough categories, then each for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 58.3%, 57.3%, 51%, and 53.1%. Level of physical activity in athletes only low (56.3% and moderate category (43.8%. Most athletes have normal nutritional status (94.8%, there was only 1% having thin status, and 4.2% had nutritional status of overweight. The advice can be given to provide knowledges that related with intake of nutrients for the coaches and athletes, increasing physical activity for athletes who have low physical activity, and can be the nutritional status as a selection soccer athletes. However, further research can be done is to measure the physical endurance athletes associated with the intake of nutrients or physical activity.

  18. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children's Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-03-15

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH-South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children's reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores.

  19. Development and Use of Early Warning Systems. SLDS Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Jenny; Hurwitch, Bill; Olson, Tom

    2012-01-01

    An early warning system is a data-based tool that helps predict which students are on the right path towards eventual graduation or other grade-appropriate goals. Through such systems, stakeholders at the school and district levels can view data from a wide range of perspectives and gain a deeper understanding of student data. This "Statewide…

  20. Current Status of Soil-Transmitted Helminths among School Children in Kakamega County, Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonjo, Teresia; Okoyo, Collins; Andove, Julius; Simiyu, Elses; Lelo, Agola Eric; Kabiru, Ephantus; Kihara, Jimmy; Mwandawiro, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background. School age children are at high risk of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) worldwide. In Kenya, STH infections in children remain high despite the periodic administration of anthelmintic drugs. Our study assessed the prevalence and intensity of STH in primary school-aged children in Kakamega County, western Kenya. Methodology. We carried out a cross-sectional study on a population of 731 children attending 7 primary schools in March 2014. Children aged 4-16 years were examined for STH by the quantitative Kato-Katz technique. Infection intensities were expressed as eggs per gram (epg) of faeces. Findings. Among 731 school children examined for STH, 44.05% were infected. Highest prevalence of STH was in Shitaho primary school where 107 participants were examined and 62.6% were infected with mean intensity of 11667 epg. Iyenga had the least prevalence where 101 participants were examined and 26.7% were infected with mean intensity of 11772 epg. A. lumbricoides was the most prevalent STH species with 43.5% infected, while hookworm infections were low with 1.8% infected. Conclusion. Prevalence of STHs infections in Kakamega County remains high. We recommend guidelines and other control strategies to be scaled up to break transmission cycles.

  1. [The teaching of pharmacology in medical schools: current status and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carranza, Rodolfo; Vidrio, Horacio; Campos-Sepúlveda, Efraín

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacology is a core course in all medical school curricula. In most medical schools, pharmacology is taught during the second year and teaching covers both basic aspects and useful drugs for the treatment of human diseases. It is assumed that relevant pharmacologic knowledge is revisited during the clinical clerkships and that students are adequately trained to prescribe drugs upon graduation. However, for many years it has been noted that pharmacological training is sometimes insufficient and that inadequate and irrational prescription of drugs is a very common problem in clinical settings. Information overload and proliferation of new drugs have been recognized as two of the major contributing factors. To address this issue, many authors have recommended the development of a core curricula in pharmacology which all students would have to complete coupled with a restricted list of drugs. Based on our own teaching experience we have identified what should constitute the core content of pharmacology courses in medical schools and have written a study guide for this discipline. Both documents provide an organizational framework to help second year medical students ascertain what part of the vast knowledge in pharmacology they need to learn. The number of drugs that students have to manage is limited to 168. Our program constitutes the first effort to medicalize the teaching of pharmacology in medical schools. We expect that most medical schools will follow our guidelines as our program is applicable to all curricula modalities.

  2. The status of undergraduate implant education in dental schools outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckinger, R J; Weintraub, A M; Berthold, P; Weintraub, G S

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the incorporation of implant dentistry into academia has been documented in some detail for North American dental schools but has not been pursued on an international level. In June of 1993, we surveyed 51 dental schools outside of the United States affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine's Office of International Relations concerning their teaching involvement with implant dentistry. Results from the 44 (86 percent) responding schools suggest that implant dentistry is being incorporated into predoctoral curriculums. Industrialized countries were more inclined to provide implant education. Insufficient time and the thought that the predoctoral level was not the place for implant dentistry were cited as some of the reasons for not incorporating implant dentistry into the curriculum. Oral surgery, prosthodontics, and periodontics departments developed and administered the implant curriculum. Formats varied among schools with respect to allotted time, curricular placement, laboratory experience, and clinical participation. Didactic material most frequently presented included a historical overview, diagnosis and treatment planning, classification of dental implants, and surgical and prosthetic concepts. Clinical involvement varied from actual implant placement to observation of prosthodontic procedures. Results were categorized based on the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) classification of countries in six regions.

  3. Status of portfolios in undergraduate medical education in the LCME accredited US medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoff, Jason; Wright, Ashleigh; Novak, Maureen; Fantone, Joseph; Fleming, Amy; Ahmed, Toufeeq; Green, Marianne M; Kalet, Adina; Linsenmeyer, Machelle; Jacobs, Joshua; Dokter, Christina; Zaidi, Zareen

    2016-09-01

    We sought to investigate the number of US medical schools utilizing portfolios, the format of portfolios, information technology (IT) innovations, purpose of portfolios and their ability to engage faculty and students. A 21-question survey regarding portfolios was sent to the 141 LCME-accredited, US medical schools. The response rate was 50% (71/141); 47% of respondents (33/71) reported that their medical school used portfolios in some form. Of those, 7% reported the use of paper-based portfolios and 76% use electronic portfolios. Forty-five percent reported portfolio use for formative evaluation only; 48% for both formative and summative evaluation, and 3% for summative evaluation alone. Seventy-two percent developed a longitudinal, competency-based portfolio. The most common feature of portfolios was reflective writing (79%). Seventy-three percent allow access to the portfolio off-campus, 58% allow usage of tablets and mobile devices, and 9% involve social media within the portfolio. Eighty percent and 69% agreed that the portfolio engaged students and faculty, respectively. Ninety-seven percent reported that the portfolios used at their institution have room for improvement. While there is significant variation in the purpose and structure of portfolios in the medical schools surveyed, most schools using portfolios reported a high level of engagement with students and faculty.

  4. Oral health status and treatment needs of hearing impaired children attending a special school in Bhimavaram, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, V; Kumar, Manikya; Vinay, C; Chandrasekhar, R; Jyostna, P

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing impairment (CHI) have special accessibility issues to meet their health care needs. Their oral health status is deprived and has wide ranging treatment needs to attend. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health status and treatment needs of CHI attending a special school in Bhimavaram Town, India. The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. This study was conducted in November 2012 at SVS special school for deaf, Bhimavaram, India. This study involved 180 CHI of both genders, aged 6-16 years, divided into Group-I (6-8 years), Group-II (9-12 years), and Group-III (13-16 years). Oral health status and treatment needs were recorded using methods and standards recommended by the WHO for Oral Health Surveys, 1997. Dental caries prevalence (decayed, missing, and filled teeth [DMFT/dmft]), gingivitis levels (Lφe, Silness Gingival Index), plaque levels (Silness, Lφe Plaque index), and treatment needs were the parameters recorded and analyzed. Z-test for proportion, one-way analysis of variance, and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Prevalence of dental caries in the sample was found to be 65% with a mean level of caries prevalence (DMFT) of 1.6 ± 1.3 in Group-I, 1.9 ± 1.2 in Group-II, and 2.2 ± 1.2 in Group-III. About 91.7% of the total children examined needs treatment. The mean plaque and gingivitis scores of the sample were 1.70 ± 0.61 and 1.59 ± 0.58, respectively. These findings imply the overwhelming situation of CHI in oral health perspective. Hence, prevention-based educational and motivational programs should be targeted to this vital group to achieve adequate oral hygiene levels.

  5. Maternal education and micro-geographic disparities in nutritional status among school-aged children in rural northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuili; Kane, Robert L; Xu, Dongjuan; Li, Lingui; Guan, Weihua; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

    2013-01-01

    Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas) in a Chinese minority area. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ). Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, β = 0.16, P = 0.033; edge versus mountain, β = 0.29, P = 0.002) and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, β = 0.12, P = 0.137; edge versus mountain, β = 0.25, P = 0.009). The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers' schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: β = 0.06, P = 0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: β = 0.07, P = 0.005). Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (β = -0.03, P = 0.056) in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (β = 0.02, P = 0.094) or in the edge areas (β = 0.04, P = 0.055). Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least educated groups in plain and in edge areas would be

  6. [Nutritional status and related factors of Tujia and Miao minority primary school students in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fulan; Zhang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    To understand the nutritional status and related factors of Tujia and Miao minority primary school students in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture and to provide refrence for the improvement of minority students' nutritional status. By the method of layered and random sampling, physique test and questionnaire survey were taken to 682 Tujia students and 420 Miao students, the nutritional level of students were estimated by the method of height with standard weight. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of nutritional status. The moderate malnutrition rate was 4.54% and the obesity rate was 11.43%. Logistic regression analysis showed that monthly income per capita (OR = 1.368, 95% CI 1.135-1.648) and culture level of fathers (OR = 1.332, 95% CI 1.108-1.602) were independent risk factors of malnutrition, children with family obesity history (OR =7.688, 95% C15. 134-11.513), monthly income per capita (OR = 1.516, 95% CI 1.204-1.910) and culture level of fathers (OR = 1.466, 95% CI 1.164-1.846 ) were independent risk factors of overnutrition. Malnutrition and overnutrition exist in Tujia and Miao students at the same time, family obesity history, monthly income per capita and culture level of fathers are factors of malnutrition and overnutrition. Nutritional education should be taken universal to students and their guardians.

  7. The Evaluation Of Effectiveness Of ICDS In 7 Anganwadi Centres On The Health Status Of Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni M.N

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Integrated child Development Services (ICDS scheme in 7 Anganwadi centers of Davangere Block on the health status of pre-school children were studied for a period of one year. Total of 547 children, who were enrolled for supplementary nutrition and non-formal education, formed the study group. Impact of the programme on nutritional status was seen only in severely malnourished children (Grade III & IV. Severely malnourished children constituted 9.3% of total initially and 3.9 percent at the end of the study. The number of children belonging to grade I & II malnutrition were 74% initially and 81.5% at the end of the study. Not much improvement in the immunization status for BCG., all three doses of oral polio vaccine and DPT was 42.4, 59.4 and 73.3 percent at the baseline study and 56, 67.7 and 82 percent respectively at the end of the study. The supply of supplementary nutrients and vaccines was irregular. High prevalence of vit. ‘A’ Deficiency and anemia were noted.

  8. The Periodontal Status and Associated Systemic Health Problems among an Elderly Population Attending the Outpatient Clinics of a Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafer, Mohammed

    2015-12-01

    Periodontal diseases are associated with systemic health and health behaviors; the purpose of this study was to investigate periodontal health status and its association with systemic health and health behaviors in the elderly. Data was collected from 300 random Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) dental school patient charts, aged 65 or higher. A modified WHO form was used to collect the date on: periodontal conditions using the community periodontal index (CPI), demographics, systemic health and certain health behaviors. Community periodontal index collected data for six sextants. Descriptive tests and bivariate analytic tests, Chi-square test and computation of odds ratio, investigated any association between certain periodontal conditions and demographic as well as systemic health attributes. In the study cohort, the average age was 73.7 ± 6.8 years. Moderate periodontitis (38.9%) was the most prevalent periodontal health condition, while severe periodontitis was the least prevalent periodontal health (6.1%). Nearly 30% of the cohort had healthy periodontium. Only insurance status was associated with healthy periodontium (p periodontitis was the most prevalent among the studied subjects. A positive association was found with the insurance status of the subjects and the healthy periodontium. No association was found between periodontal disease and smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  9. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and nutritional status in school-age children from rural communities in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2013-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7-14 years, mean 9.76 ± 1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7-10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (pHonduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite STH infections in undermining children's nutritional status warrants more research.

  10. [Nutritional status, food consumption and physical activity in female school children of different socioeconomic levels from Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares C, Sonia; Bustos Z, Nelly; Lera M, Lydia; Zelada, María Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity is the main public health problem in Chilean school children. To compare the nutritional status, consumption of selected foods and extracurricular physical activity (PA) habits in school children of different socioeconomic levels as a baseline for developing effective educational interventions. Cross-sectional study that determined the body mass index, food consumption and physical activity with previously validated instruments in 202 and 358 girls from 3rd to 8th grade in schools of medium-high and low socioeconomic level (SEL) from Santiago, Chile, respectively. Compared to their counterparts of low socioeconomic level (SEL), the prevalence of obesity was significantly lower in 8-9 year-old girls of medium high SEL (19% and 9%, respectively, p =0.012) and 12-13 year-old (12% and 2.5% respectively, p =0.008). Also median daily intake of dairy products was higher in girls of medium high SEL (250 and 470 ml/day, respectively). The intake of fruits and vegetables was similar (200 g/d); and the intake of bread was lower (230 and 70 g/day, respectively, p Consumption of energy-dense foods was lower in 10-13 year-old girls of medium high SEL (80 and 50 g/day, respectively, p food and PA habits and to promote an environment that enhances healthy behaviors.

  11. Evaluation of Physical Activity Status among Yazd High School Students on the Model of the World Health Organization in 2015

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    Mahmood Vakili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and healthy eating at an early age are two key elements in prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases. Therefore, regular physical activity is recommended to improve public health and to reduce the burden of diseases and medical costs in communities. The aim of this study was to determine the status of physical activity in Yazd high school students Methods: A total number of1018 male high school students participated in this cross-sectional study. They were permanent residents of Yazd city in the school year of 2015-2016. Multistage cluster classification and stratified sampling methods were applied to collect samples. A validated Persian standardized World Health Organization questionnaire (GSHS was used as a data collection tool. After completing the questionnaire by students, data were analyzed by SPSS. Results: only 11.6 % of participants reported physical activity for at least 60 minutes a day. Inert activities such as watching television or playing computer games for more than 2 hours during a typical day was reported by 531 participants (55 %. Based on body mass index, 18.23 % of students were obese and 13.22 % were overweight. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the level of students' physical activities is low. Paying more attention to physical activity and designing curriculums that devote more hours for physical activities are recommended. Encouraging physical activity in leisure time and providing proper facilities for adolescents are further suggestions.

  12. Nutritional status and correlated socio-economic factors among preschool and school children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgamuwa, Lahiru Sandaruwan; Iddawela, Devika; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Galgamuwa, G L S

    2017-05-02

    Child malnutrition is a major public health concern worldwide, leading to higher morbidity and mortality. It is mostly preventable through public health and economic development. The aim of the present study was to determine socio-economic factors associated with nutritional status among children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was performed among preschool and school going children in three rural communities of Sri Lanka from January to August 2014. Demographic and household characteristics were documented and anthropometric measurements were collected to calculate weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ). Anthroplus, epiinfo and SPSS versions were used for the analysis of data. A total of 547 children (aged 1-15 years, mean 7.0 ± 3.6 years, 53% female) participated in the study. 35.6%, 26.9% and 32.9% of children were underweight, stunting and wasting respectively. Undernutrition was more common in primary school children. Maternal employment, high number of siblings, high birth orders and female children were significantly associated with undernutrition among preschool children. Living in small houses, large number of family members, low monthly income and maternal employment were significantly associated with undernutrition among school children. Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in the plantation sector, Sri Lanka. Health education programs among the study population could be effective for solving the problem.

  13. Obesity-related behaviours and BMI in five urban regions across Europe: sampling design and results from the SPOTLIGHT cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Ben Rebah, Maher; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Charreire, Hélène; Compernolle, Sofie; Glonti, Ketevan; Bardos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-27

    To describe the design, methods and first results of a survey on obesity-related behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in adults living in neighbourhoods from five urban regions across Europe. A cross-sectional observational study in the framework of an European Union-funded project on obesogenic environments (SPOTLIGHT). 60 urban neighbourhoods (12 per country) were randomly selected in large urban zones in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK, based on high or low values for median household income (socioeconomic status, SES) and residential area density. A total of 6037 adults (mean age 52 years, 56% female) participated in the online survey. Self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviours, dietary habits and BMI. Other measures included general health; barriers and motivations for a healthy lifestyle, perceived social and physical environmental characteristics; the availability of transport modes and their use to specific destinations; self-defined neighbourhood boundaries and items related to residential selection. Across five countries, residents from low-SES neighbourhoods ate less fruit and vegetables, drank more sugary drinks and had a consistently higher BMI. SES differences in sedentary behaviours were observed in France, with residents from higher SES neighbourhoods reporting to sit more. Residents from low-density neighbourhoods were less physically active than those from high-density neighbourhoods; during leisure time and (most pronounced) for transport (except for Belgium). BMI differences by residential density were inconsistent across all countries. The SPOTLIGHT survey provides an original approach for investigating relations between environmental characteristics, obesity-related behaviours and obesity in Europe. First descriptive results indicate considerable differences in health behaviours and BMI between countries and neighbourhood types. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  14. The status of refractive errors in elementary school children in South Jeolla Province, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang JU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jung Un Jang,1 Inn-Jee Park2 1Department of Optometry, Eulji University, Seongnam, 2Department of Optometry, Kaya University, Gimhae, South Korea Purpose: To assess the prevalence of refractive errors among elementary school children in South Jeolla Province of South Korea. Methods: The subjects were aged 8–13 years; a total of 1,079 elementary school children from Mokpo, South Jeolla Province, were included. In all participants, uncorrected visual acuity and objective and subjective refractions were determined using auto Ref-Keratometer and phoropter. A spherical equivalent of -0.50 diopter (D or worse was defined as myopia, +0.50 D or more was defined as hyperopia, and a cylinder refraction greater than 0.75 D was defined as astigmatism. Results: Out of 1,079 elementary school children, the prevalence of uncorrected, best-corrected, and corrected visual acuity with own spectacles of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 26.1%, 0.4%, and 20.2%, respectively. The uncorrected visual acuity was 20/200 or worse in the better eye in 5.7% of school children, and 5.2% of them already wore corrective spectacles. The prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was 46.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43.56–49.5, 6.2% (95% CI: 4.92–7.81, and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.76–11.25, respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals a considerably higher prevalence of refractive error among elementary school children in South Jeolla Province of South Korea, exceeding 50% of subjects. The prevalence of myopia in the school children in Korea is similar to many other countries including People’s Republic of China, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. This may indicate that genetics and educational influences, such as studying and learning, may play a role in the progression of myopia in Korean elementary school children. Keywords: refractive error, elementary school children, visual acuity, myopia, astigmatism

  15. Current Status of String Teacher Education at University Music Teacher Training Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokturk , Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of undergraduate string teacher education curriculum in Turkish universities in both eastern and western regions. To accomplish this task, the relative strengths and weaknesses of Turkish string teacher education were investigated through an intensive literature review and a survey. Seventy-one…

  16. Secular trends in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican school-aged children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karina dos Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. METHODS: 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls, distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012, were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. RESULTS: Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p2012, and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012. In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys, and normal-weight (in girls; no clear trend was evident for stunting. CONCLUSION: Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  17. Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness in Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Adam D.; Brown, Dale D.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Smith, Peter J. K.; Bass, Ronald W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research on physical fitness often regards socioeconomic status (SES) as a confounding factor. However, few studies investigate the impact of SES on fitness. This study investigated the impact of SES on physical fitness in both males and females, with an economic-based construct of SES. Methods: The sample consisted of 954 6th, 7th,…

  18. Secular trends in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican school-aged children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A R; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q F; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Prista, António

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  19. Marital Status, Home Environments, and Family Strain: Complex Effects on Preschool Children's School Readiness Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, SeungHee Claire; Peterson, Mieko Fuse

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the complex associations among marital status, home environments, and family strain (i.e. income, maternal depressive symptoms, social support, and parenting stress), as they predict preschool children's pre-academic and social skills at 36 and 54 months. Findings from the [National Institute of Child Health and Human…

  20. Psychosocial factors as mediators of food insecurity and weight status among middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Don E; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M

    2016-08-01

    Research regarding the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth has produced mixed results. However, few studies on this topic have utilized data that includes survey responses from children themselves regarding their experience with food insecurity. This study was undertaken to examine the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth, as well as the potential mediation by psychosocial factors. A survey of 5th-7th grade students was administered to gather information on food insecurity, social and psychological resources, and health. The primary analysis includes OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) regression conducted using SPSS software and Sobel's test for mediation. Results suggest a positive association between food insecurity and weight status even when controlling for key demographic variables. In addition, we find that this association is mediated by psychosocial factors-namely, perceived social status and depression. Insights from this work highlight the need to consider non-nutritional pathways through which food insecurity impacts health as well the need to continue surveying youth directly when examining their experiences with food insecurity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Status of Training and Supply of Media Specialists in South Carolina Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    In recent years a number of school districts in South Carolina have reported difficulty in filling library/media specialist positions. There is concern that college and university programs may not be meeting current and potential needs for media specialists, as well as concern for the quality of library/media education. Undertaken in order to…

  2. Assessment of anaemia and iron status of school age children (aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -12 years in some rural communities in Nigeria as well as identify factors associated with anemia in the children. A total of 249 school children, 120 males and 129 females aged between 7-12 years were used in the study. Haemomoglobin ...

  3. The Role and Status of Food and Nutrition Literacy in Canadian School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Falkenberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in North America has given greater attention to food and nutrition literacy in Canadian schools. However, the review of relevant literature on food and nutrition literacy reveals quite a range of understandings of what such literacy means. This raises the question of what understanding of food and nutrition literacy is…

  4. Occupational Stress, Mental Health Status and Stress Management Behaviors among Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…

  5. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  6. Iodine Status of School-children (8-10 years) and Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From a sub-sample oj 50 households, 50 salt samples used in the homes were coliectedJor iodine determination and 50 Jasting morning urine samples were collected Jrom the school-children Jor determination oj urinary iodine concentration. Results oj the study showed that median urinary iodine concentration.

  7. evaluation of nutritional status among school-aged children in rural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Childhood malnutrition continues to be a public health problem of school-aged children in resource limited countries. .... According to The Composite Budget of the Kwahu East District. Assembly for the 2012 Fiscal Year, the ..... infection of infants and children in rural Guatemala and its impact on physical growth. Am. J. Clin.

  8. The History and Current Status of Curriculum Length in United States Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Don L.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of all dental schools to gather information on curriculum length indicates that the majority plan to continue four-year programs, including early and late graduation options. Most do not plan to require a mandatory general practice residency program as a means of lengthening the curriculum. (MLW)

  9. Improving Literacy for Diverse, Low Socioeconomic Status, Middle School Students in an Urban District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Vivian Fowler

    2017-01-01

    In an urban district, Surfside School personnel were concerned that student literacy proficiency levels were low during 2011-2014 and teachers had not been able to close the achievement gap despite a focus on literacy practices and literacy professional development (PD) provided by the district. The purpose of this case study was to explore the…

  10. Self reported behavioral and emotional difficulties in relation to dentition status among school going children of Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India

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    Adepu Srilatha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children′s social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent′s overall health. Aim: To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997. Statistical Analysis: Independent Student′s t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient method. Results: Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. Conclusion: DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.

  11. [Weight status and cardiorespiratory fitness in school students in the central region of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Maia, José

    2013-07-01

    To determine the frequency of overweight and obesity in relation to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels in school students in 4 districts of the central region of Peru, and to analyze the relations among these variables. Weight, height and CRF were evaluated in 7841 school students who reside in four districts located on the coast, in the highlands and in the jungle of the central region of the country. Overweight and obesity were classified according to the criteria proposed by Cole. CRF was evaluated by a 12-minute run/walk test taken from the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance's test battery. ANOVA and logistic regression were used to examine the differences of the averages and the associations among these variables. Both male and female school students have similar frequency of overweight and obesity (20.9% in women and 20.1% in men). Residents of the coast (Barranco) presen thigh frequency of overweight and obesity (37.8%). Age, sex, geographical area and CRF were significant predictors of overweight and obesity. School students who live in Barranco are five times more likely to be obese (OR=4.67; CI95%: 3.55-6.14), while those who reside in the highlands (Junin) are less likely to be obese (OR=0.03; CI95%: 0.01-0.20). Furthermore, in contrast with students with high CRF, those with low CRF are more likely to be obese (OR=11.82; CI95%: 7.25-19.27). There was a high frequency of overweight and obesity among school students who reside in Barranco. Low CRF is associated with overweight and obesity.

  12. ADOLESCENTS’ SELF-CONCEPT AND SOCIAL STATUS IN THEIR SCHOOL CLASS AND PEER CLIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Ļevina, Jeļena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relations between multiple aspects of adolescents’ self-concept and various dimensions of their social status in the classroom and in the peer clique. It was found that there was a positive relationship (1) between physical abilities selfconcept and social preference, perceived popularity, and social dominance; (2) between physical appearance self-concept and perceived popularity and social dominance; (3) between oppositesex ...

  13. Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Children Is Associated with Grade Repetition and School Absenteeism, Independent of Folate, Iron, Zinc, or Vitamin A Status Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Cam; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-07-01

    Micronutrients are essential to neurocognitive development; yet their role in educational outcomes is unclear. We examined the associations of micronutrient status biomarkers with the risk of grade repetition and rates of school absenteeism in a cohort of school children. We recruited 3156 children aged 5-12 y from public schools in Bogota, Colombia. Circulating ferritin, hemoglobin, zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12; erythrocyte folate; and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were measured in blood samples obtained at the beginning of the year. Absenteeism was recorded weekly during the school year, and grade repetition was determined the next year. Risk ratios for grade repetition and rate ratios for absenteeism were estimated by categories of micronutrient status indicators with use of Poisson regression, adjusting for potential confounders. The risk of grade repetition was 4.9%, and the absenteeism rate was 3.8 d per child-year of observation. Vitamin B-12 deficiency (school absenteeism rates. Compared with children with plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations ≥148 pmol/L, vitamin B-12-deficient children had a 1.89-times higher adjusted rate (95% CI: 1.53, 2.34; P school absenteeism rates in school children from Bogota, Colombia. The effects of correcting vitamin B-12 deficiency on educational outcomes and neurocognitive development of school children need to be determined in intervention studies. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Iodine nutrition in elementary state schools of Queretaro, Mexico: correlations between urinary iodine concentration with global nutrition status and social gap index

    OpenAIRE

    García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gaytán, Ana Cristina; Reyes-Mendoza, Vanessa A.; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Leal-García, Luisa; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To estimate median urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and to correlate it with global nutrition indicators and social gap index (SGI) in 50 elementary state schools from 10 municipalities in the State of Queretaro, Mexico. RESULTS: 1,544 students were enrolled and an above of requirements of iodine intake was found (median UIC of 297 µg/L). Iodine status was found as deficient, adequate, more than adequate and excessive in 2, 4, 19 and 25 schools, respectively. Seventy...

  15. Effect of gender and nutritional status on academic achievement and cognitive function among primary school children in a rural district in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Jan J M; Amal, Mitra K; Hasmiza, H; Pim, C D; Ng, L O; Wan, Manan W M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gender, birth weight, nutritional status, and iron status of children with their academic performance and cognitive function. Two hundred and forty-nine children, seven to nine years of age, were recruited by systematic sampling from six primary schools in a rural area in Malaysia. Cognitive function was assessed by using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (R-CPM). Academic performance of the children was recorded from their school final examination results in four subjects including Malay language, English, Mathematics, and Science. Birth weight was recorded from the birth certificate, and nutritional status was determined by weight-for-age z score and height-for-age z score. Girls had a significantly higher score in all the academic tests, but a lower cognitive score compared to boys. Nutritional status was found to be correlated significantly with academic performance. Academic and cognitive function scores were also found to be correlated significantly with birth weight, parents' education, and family income. In a multivariate analysis, gender remained the significant predictor of academic function, and iron status and haemoglobin were the significant predictors of cognitive function, after controlling for other variables. The study showed that girls performed better academically than boys in rural Malaysia. Nutritional status, parents' education and family income could be additional modifiable factors to improve academic performance of the children. More attention is needed to improve academic achievements of boys at their early school years.

  16. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Elfu Feleke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples’ t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8% of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.

  17. Misalignment of Career and Educational Aspirations in Middle School: Differences across Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Brea L.; Martinez, Elizabeth; Morris, Edward; Link, Tanja C.; Leukefeld, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Misalignment of educational and career goals (i.e., educational aspirations expressed are inadequate for attaining one?s desired occupation) is associated with lower educational attainment and a lack of college readiness, and may contribute to persistent educational and employment disparities. Drawing on data from 249 sixth graders in low-income schools, this research examines misalignment between educational and career aspirations across racial and ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Findings i...

  18. The effect of emotional and genetic factors on nutritional status in a school-based population

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Llopis, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, our aim was to assess the effect of emotional psychopathology on dietary intake and adiposity in a school-based population from preadolescence to adolescence, according to the gender; taking into account the influence of genetic factors. Depression and anxiety, anthropometric and body composition parameters, food consumption, physical activity, and MAOA-uVNTR and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms data were assessed. In addition, we developed a conceptu...

  19. Acute respiratory diseases and carboxyhemoglobin status in school children of Quito, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Bertha; Estrella, Ramiro; Oviedo, Jorge; Narváez, Ximena; Reyes, María T; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Naumova, Elena N

    2005-05-01

    Outdoor carbon monoxide comes mainly from vehicular emissions, and high concentrations occur in areas with heavy traffic congestion. CO binds to hemoglobin, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and reduces oxygen delivery. We investigated the link between the adverse effects of CO on the respiratory system using COHb as a marker for chronic CO exposure. We examined the relationship between acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and COHb concentrations in school-age children living in urban and suburban areas of Quito, Ecuador. We selected three schools located in areas with different traffic intensities and enrolled 960 children. To adjust for potential confounders we conducted a detailed survey. In a random subsample of 295 children, we determined that average COHb concentrations were significantly higher in children attending schools in areas with high and moderate traffic, compared with the low-traffic area. The percentage of children with COHb concentrations above the safe level of 2.5% were 1, 43, and 92% in low-, moderate-, and high-traffic areas, respectively. Children with COHb above the safe level are 3.25 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-6.38] times more likely to have ARI than children with COHb < 2.5%. Furthermore, with each percent increase in COHb above the safety level, children are 1.15 (95% CI, 1.03-1.28) times more likely to have an additional case of ARI. Our findings provide strong evidence of the relation between CO exposure and susceptibility to respiratory infections.

  20. The Status of Positive Psychology Strengths within the Romanian School in the Digital Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Pânişoară

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the possible correlations between the strengths that are taught in school and those which are necessary for reaching personal success. In order to test the extent to which these strengths correlate, we applied a psychological-assessment tool composed of 24 strengths with a Likert-type response scale. The subjects selected for this research were 100 teachers from Romania, both male and female. The results were processed in SPSS Statistics, where we also calculated Pearson's correlation coefficient. After analyzing the descriptive statistics and the correlation coefficient we noticed that the "Vitality" strength showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the two groups, therefore it is not taught in school but it is considered important for achieving personal success. The "Citizenship" strength showed a statistically significant positive correlation, being concurrently promoted in school and important in achieving success.The neuro-linguistic reprogramming of a young individual will need a considerable effort, first of all as regards being aware of the values which render his well-being, and secondly as regards his orientation towards these values, which as it seems he was not at all oriented to. The new student profile of today’s society, also known as the digital native, needs to assimilate a full set of positive psychology values in order to create a complete model of success for nowadays’ world.

  1. Parenting practices and overweight status of junior high school students in China: A nationally representative study of 19,487 students from 112 schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengqi; Min, Jungwon; Xue, Hong; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Youfa

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to examine the level of parental responsiveness and demandingness for junior high students in China and its association with child weight status; assess if it differs by student socio-demographic characteristics; and to test the association between parenting and child physical activity. Nationally representative survey data collected from 19,487 students in 112 middle schools across China in 2013-2014 academic year were analyzed in 2016. Children's anthropometrics and perceptions of parenting practices were accessed by self-administered questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression models were fit to test the association controlling for child age, sex, school region, and parental education. The majority of adolescents reported their parents were highly responsive in terms of emotional support and involvement (high: 64.1% vs. low: 9.2%), although more parents were not perceived as highly demanding (high: 21.4% vs. low: 35.5%). Children were more likely to be overweight or obese if their parents were highly responsive (OR=1.4 [95%CI: 1.2,1.6]) and demanding (OR=1.1 [95%CI: 1.0,1.3]) compared to those with medium parenting scores. Older children, boys, children with highly educated parents, or in urban schools had greater odds of being overweight or obese by receiving highly responsive parenting compared to their counterparts. Children with highly demanding or responsive parenting had longer physical activity duration and higher physical activity participation rates than their counterparts. High responsiveness and demandingness among Chinese parents were associated with the risk of child overweight and obesity. Further research is needed to examine the causal relationship between parenting practices and childhood obesity in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begna TULU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ, BMI-for-age (BAZ and weight-for-age (WAZ for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6–18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4 an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001 and (P=0.001, respectively.Conclusion: IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important.

  3. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Zenebe, Yohannes; Amsalu, Eden

    2016-01-01

    Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6-18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4) an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni , E. histolytica/dispar , H. nana , A. lumbricoides , G. lambilia , T. trichiura , S. stercolaris , E. vermicularis , Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs ( P nutritional status of school children are also important.

  4. School environment, socioeconomic status and weight of children in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meko, Lucia N M; Slabber-Stretch, Marthinette; Walsh, Corinna M; Kruger, Salome H; Nel, Mariette

    2015-03-31

    The continued existence of undernutrition, associated with a steady increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, necessitates identification of factors contributing to this double burden of disease, in order for effective treatment and prevention programmes to be planned. To determine the nutritional status of 13-15-year-old children in Bloemfontein and its association with socioeconomic factors. Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa (2006). This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Randomly selected children (n = 415) completed structured questionnaires on socioeconomic status. The children's weight and height were measured and body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores were computed according to World Health Organization growth standards in order to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting. Waist circumference was measured to classify the children as having a high or very high risk for metabolic disease. Of the 415 children who consented to participate in the study, 14.9% were wasted and 3.4% were severely wasted. Only 6% of the children were overweight/obese. Significantly more boys (23.0%) were wasted than girls (10%) and severe stunting was also significantly higher in boys than in girls (10.3% and 4.2%, respectively). Children whose parents had graduate occupations were significantly more overweight/obese than those with parents working in skilled occupations. Stunting was significantly higher in low (31.4%) and medium (30.4%) socioeconomic groups compared to the high socioeconomic group (18.1%). A coexistence of underweight and overweight was found and gender and parental occupation were identified as being predictors of nutritional status.

  5. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yew Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236 was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013–October 2014. Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s. Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001. A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified (r = 0.53, p < 0.001 after excluding energy intake mis-reporters (n = 95, highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  6. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T.; Collins, Clare E.; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Colyvas, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236) was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013–October 2014). Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s). Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg) compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001). A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified (r = 0.53, p < 0.001) after excluding energy intake mis-reporters (n = 95), highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia. PMID:28117690

  7. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Colyvas, Kim

    2017-01-20

    Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study ( n = 236) was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013-October 2014). Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s). Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg) compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001). A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified ( r = 0.53, p < 0.001) after excluding energy intake mis-reporters ( n = 95), highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  8. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  9. Status of Medical Education Reform at Saga Medical School 5 Years After Introducing PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutomo Oda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors. Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including “silent tutors” and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  10. Orphan status, school attendance, and relationship to household head in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramide Kazeem

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study addresses the important issue of whether extended family networks can meet the educational needs of orphans in Nigeria. The theory behind this paper is based on Hamilton's rule, which holds that individuals are less altruistic toward those with whom they have distant kinship ties. Objective: Our objective is to determine whether orphans experience an educational advantage if they reside in households headed by blood relatives rather than non-relatives, paying attention to age and household income differences. Methods: We use logistic regression to estimate models of children's school attendance based on data from the 2010 Nigeria Education Data Survey (NEDS. The analyses examine the associations of paternal (father died and maternal/double orphans (mother or both parents died and child's relation to the household head with school attendance. It also investigates how the pattern of relationships differs by age of children and household income. Results: The results indicate that paternal and maternal/double orphans who are distantly related to their household heads have lower chances of attending school than those who have close biological ties, specifically when they reside in poor households. This finding is consistent with Hamilton's rule. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that orphanhood is problematic for those more distantly related to their guardians and in poor households. Since the disadvantages of orphanhood carry on into later life, ameliorative policies and programs need to be attentive to the double disadvantages faced by children in such circumstances. Contribution: This study contributes to the literature by showing that while close kinship ties to household head produce educational advantage for orphans, the willingness of household heads to display altruism regardless of degree of kinship is highly dependent on their economic resources.

  11. Status of neurology medical school education: results of 2005 and 2012 clerkship director survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jonathan L; Ali, Imran I; Isaacson, Richard S; Safdieh, Joseph E; Finney, Glen R; Sowell, Michael K; Sam, Maria C; Anderson, Heather S; Shin, Robert K; Kraakevik, Jeff A; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana

    2014-11-04

    To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were "very satisfied" or "somewhat satisfied," but more than half experienced "burnout" and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. The Role of Socioeconomic Status in the Narrative Story Retells of School-Aged English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, Genesis D.; DiLallo, Jennifer N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the relationship between maternal level of education as an index of socioeconomic status (SES) on the narrative story retells of school-aged children who are English language learners (ELLs) to guide interpretation of results. Method Using data available from the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts database (Miller & Iglesias, 2012), we were able to compare the language samples of 907 ELL students in kindergarten and 2nd grade whose parents had different levels of education. We used a simple linear regression to see if maternal level of education was predictive of measures of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative structure in Spanish and English narrative story retells. Results There were no differences in language measures between children from different SES backgrounds for the Spanish language samples. There were differences with the English language samples in four of the five measures for the kindergarten sample and only three of five measures for the older children, with a smaller percentage of the variance explained. Conclusion Despite common knowledge that SES has a negative influence on language, the actual influence on the narrative productions of school-aged ELLs was less than anticipated for English and absent for Spanish. The implications for assessment are discussed and concluded. PMID:27420411

  13. The Role of Socioeconomic Status in the Narrative Story Retells of School-Aged English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D; DiLallo, Jennifer N

    2016-10-01

    We examined the relationship between maternal level of education as an index of socioeconomic status (SES) on the narrative story retells of school-aged children who are English language learners (ELLs) to guide interpretation of results. Using data available from the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts database (Miller & Iglesias, 2012), we were able to compare the language samples of 907 ELL students in kindergarten and 2nd grade whose parents had different levels of education. We used a simple linear regression to see if maternal level of education was predictive of measures of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative structure in Spanish and English narrative story retells. There were no differences in language measures between children from different SES backgrounds for the Spanish language samples. There were differences with the English language samples in four of the five measures for the kindergarten sample and only three of five measures for the older children, with a smaller percentage of the variance explained. Despite common knowledge that SES has a negative influence on language, the actual influence on the narrative productions of school-aged ELLs was less than anticipated for English and absent for Spanish. The implications for assessment are discussed and concluded.

  14. The Association of Health-Related Fitness and Chronic Absenteeism Status in New York City Middle School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Emily M; Day, Sophia E; Konty, Kevin J; Larkin, Michael; Saha, Subir; Wyka, Katarzyna

    2018-03-23

    Extensive research demonstrates the benefits of fitness on children's health and academic performance. Although decreases in health-related fitness may increase school absenteeism, multiple years of prospective, child-level data are needed to examine whether fitness changes predict subsequent chronic absenteeism status. Six cohorts of New York City public school students were followed from grades 5-8 (2006/2007-2012/2013; N = 349,381). A longitudinal 3-level logistic generalized linear mixed model with random intercepts was used to test the association of individual children's changes in fitness and 1-year lagged chronic absenteeism. The odds of chronic absenteeism increased 27% [odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.30], 15% (OR 95% CI, 1.13-1.18), 9% (OR 95% CI, 1.07-1.11), and 1% (OR 95% CI, 0.98-1.04), for students who had a >20% decrease, 10%-20% decrease, fitness, respectively, compared with >20% fitness increase. These findings contribute important longitudinal evidence to a cross-sectional literature, demonstrating reductions in youth fitness may increase absenteeism. Given only 25% of youth aged 12-15 years achieve the recommended daily 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity, future work should examine the potential for youth fitness interventions to reduce absenteeism and foster positive attitudes toward lifelong physical activity.

  15. The status of environmental education in Illinois public high school science and social studies classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jill F.

    Examines relationships among the levels of pre-service and inservice teacher preparation in various topic areas within environmental education (EE) and the levels of implementation of those topic areas in public high school science and social studies classrooms in Illinois. Measures teacher attitudes toward EE. Findings indicate that teachers who had received pre-service/inservice teacher education in EE implemented significantly more EE topics into the curriculum than did teachers who reported receiving no pre-service/inservice teacher education in EE. Findings also indicate that beginning teachers do not implement the EE topics nearly as much as veteran teachers.

  16. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an explorat......Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted...

  17. An Improved Doppler Rate Estimation Approach for Sliding Spotlight SAR Data Based on the Transposition Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    She Xiao-qiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In image processing of high-resolution sliding spotlight SAR, it is important to know the Doppler rate with accuracy; however, traditional Doppler rate estimation algorithms are not very helpful because of the azimuth spectrum folding phenomenon. In this study, an algorithm that works on the transposition domain is proposed to solve this problem. Furthermore, the algorithm is also helpful in obtaining excellent focused images by embedding it in the two-step technique. Finally, the proposed algorithm is verified using computer simulations.

  18. An implementation of a fast backprojection image formation algorithm for spotlight-mode SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.; Jakowatz, Charles V., Jr.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm for fast spotlight-mode synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation that employs backprojection as the core, but is implemented such that its compute time is comparable to the often-used Polar Format Algorithm (PFA). (Standard backprojection is so much slower than PFA that it is impractical to use in many operational scenarios.) We demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithm on real SAR phase history data sets and show some advantages in the SAR image formed by this technique.

  19. Cherry Featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists Video Series | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Cherry, Ph.D., learned at an early age that education is crucial to success. He credits his mentors, some of whom include his grandmother, Shepherd University professor Burton Lidgerding, Ph.D., David Munroe, Ph.D., Frederick National Lab, and Robert J. Hohman, Ph.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, for guiding him to the career he has today. Cherry, scientific program director, Office of Scientific Operations (OSO), NCI at Frederick, is one of the scientists featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists video series.

  20. Changes in the nutritional status of school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria between 1983 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senbanjo, I O; Oshikoya, K A; Njokanma, O F

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing worldwide with significant health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to determine the current nutritional status and its changes between 1983 and 2006 among school children and adolescents in a south western Nigeria town. five hundred and seventy children aged 5 to 19 years from randomly selected primary and secondary schools in Abeokuta, Nigeria had their weights and height measured using standard techniques. The data obtained were compared with data obtained from a similar cross sectional survey carried out in 1983. The National Centre for Health Statistics/World Health Organisation guidelines and cut-off points were used to determine the degree of underweight and stunting. Obesity prevalence was assessed using weight for age greater than 120 % of expected. The mean age of the participants was 12.2 + 3.41 years, 296 (51.5 %) were males. The mean Weight-for-Age Z -score and Height-for-Age Z-score were -1.2773 + 1.14 and -0.8569 + 1.19 respectively. The prevalence rates of underweight and stunting were 24.7 % and 17.4 % respectively. Using weight greater than 120 % of expected weight for age, five (1.7 %) male and 7 (2.6 %) female children were obese compared to 3.3 % male and 5.1 % female children who were obese in 1983. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has remained relatively unchanged between 1983 and 2006. However,under-nutrition remains a major nutritional problem among school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

  1. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, prevalence of malaria and nutritional status of school going children in honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease.

  2. Nutritional status of school-aged children of Buenos Aires, Argentina: data using three references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, I; Rausch Herscovici, C; De Gregorio, M J

    2011-09-01

    Childhood overweight has been reported in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a standardized classification system in order to facilitate comparison across countries and studies. This study aims to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in a group of 10-11-year-old children using three references [the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000, the the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) 2000 and the WHO, 2007]. A representative sample of 1588 children (771 boys and 817 girls) resulted from the randomization of 80 public schools from Buenos Aires. The prevalence of overweight, including obesity, for the whole sample was 35.5, 27.9 and 27.9%, respectively, depending on the reference used. For overweight, no gender differences were observed regardless of the reference used. Obesity was significantly more frequent among boys, and this remained consistent for the three references. Thinness frequency was 1.6 and 2.5% for the boys and 2.7 and 4.5% for the girls when considering the WHO and CDC cut-off points, respectively, and frequency increased in both boys and girls for each age group. There is a high prevalence of overweight and obese cases among school-aged children of Buenos Aires regardless of the reference used. Epidemiological data provided by this study suggests the urgent need to design preventive interventions.

  3. Misalignment of Career and Educational Aspirations in Middle School: Differences across Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L; Martinez, Elizabeth; Morris, Edward; Link, Tanja C; Leukefeld, Carl

    2016-09-01

    Misalignment of educational and career goals (i.e., educational aspirations expressed are inadequate for attaining one's desired occupation) is associated with lower educational attainment and a lack of college readiness, and may contribute to persistent educational and employment disparities. Drawing on data from 249 sixth graders in low-income schools, this research examines misalignment between educational and career aspirations across racial and ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Findings indicate that students in low-income schools aspire to middle and upper middle class careers, but sometimes lack an understanding of the educational degrees required to achieve their goals. Latinos are significantly more likely than other groups to report misaligned aspirations, as are students in the free and reduced lunch program and those without a college-educated parent. Consequently, early gaps in misaligned career and educational goals for disadvantaged students may set them on a trajectory that perpetuates educational and occupational inequalities in this population. We discuss the programmatic implications of these findings in light of the elevated college and career planning needs of students traditionally underrepresented in higher education.

  4. Amblyopia and refractive errors among school-aged children with low socioeconomic status in southeastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Dursun, Mehmet Emin; Dag, Umut; Balsak, Selahattin; Alakus, Fuat; Yavuz, Abdullah; Palanci, Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of refractive errors and other eye diseases, incidence and types of amblyopia in school-aged children, and their relation to gender, age, parental education, and socioeconomic factors. A total of 21,062 children 6 to 14 years old were screened. The examination included visual acuity measurements and ocular motility evaluation. Autorefraction under cycloplegia and examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus were performed. There were 11,118 females and 9,944 males. The average age was 10.56 ± 3.59 years. When all of the children were evaluated, 3.2% had myopia and 5.9% had hyperopia. Astigmatism 0.50 D or greater was present in 14.3% of children. Myopia was associated with older age, female gender, and higher parental education. Hyperopia was inversely proportional with older age. Spectacles were needed in 4,476 (22.7%) children with refractive errors, and 10.6% of children were unaware of their spectacle needs. Amblyopia was detected in 2.6% of all children. The most common causes of amblyopia were anisometropia (1.2%) and strabismus (0.9%). Visual impairment is a common disorder in school-aged children. Eye health screening programs are beneficial in early detection and proper treatment of refractive errors. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulu, Kamile; Sarvan, Süreyya; Muslu, Leyla; Yirmibesoglu, Serife Gözde

    2010-12-01

    The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different primary schools took part in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire including dietary habits of participants. Furthermore, the weight and height of students were measured and their body mass index was calculated. During the study, while 4.3 percent of students living in the non-metropolitan area were found obese, this figure was 8.4 percent in the metropolitan area. A big majority of non-metropolitan students have breakfast and lunch at home. Metropolitan students not having lunch at home have their lunch at restaurants or school canteens and generally consume more snacks. The obesity risk of students participating in the study was found to be high. Intervention programs should be organized in order to inform the students about the importance of healthy nutrition and lead them to change their current consumption behavior.

  6. Social Adjustment of Deaf Early Adolescents at the Start of Secondary School: The Divergent Role of Withdrawn Behavior in Peer Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, N.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of

  7. The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…

  8. Stigmatic Beliefs toward a Person with Alzheimer's Disease among High-School Students: Does Majority-Minority Status Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Perla; Jabel, Hanan Abo; Reuveni, Yehudit; Prilutzki, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Research in the area of public stigma and Alzheimer disease (AD) is attracting increased attention in the last years. However, studies are limited to assessing the topic among adult persons. The aims of this study were to assess stigmatic beliefs toward a person with AD in high-school students and to examine whether majority-minority status is…

  9. Vietnam as a Case Example of School-Based Mental Health Services in Low and Middle Income Countries: Efficacy and Effects of Risk Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Nguyen, Cao Minh; Tran, Nam; Pollack, Amie

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) assess the efficacy of a universal classroom-based mental health and social skills program for primary school students in Vietnam, and (b) given the universal nature of the intervention, assess outcomes as a function of risk status (high versus low). RECAP-VN is a semi-structured program that provides…

  10. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P children. © 2016 APJPH.

  11. Spotlight on ixazomib: potential in the treatment of multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muz B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Muz,1 Rachel Nicole Ghazarian,1,2 Monica Ou,1,3 Micah John Luderer,1 Hubert Daniel Kusdono,1,2 Abdel Kareem Azab1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Biology Division, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, 2Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, St Louis College of Pharmacy, 3Department of Biology, St Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Despite the significant therapeutic advances achieved with proteasome inhibitors (PIs such as bortezomib and carfilzomib in prolonging the survival of patients with multiple myeloma, the development of drug resistance, peripheral neuropathy, and pharmacokinetic limitations continue to pose major challenges when using these compounds. Ixazomib is a second-generation PI with improved activity over other PIs. Unlike bortezomib and carfilzomib, which are administered by injection, ixazomib is the first oral PI approved by US Food and Drug Administration. This review discusses the biochemical properties, mechanisms of action, preclinical efficacy, and clinical trial results leading to the US Food and Drug Administration approval of ixazomib. Keywords: proteasome inhibitor, oral administration, biological mechanism, clinical trials

  12. Oral health status and oral health behaviors of 12-year-old urban and rural school children in Udupi, Karnataka, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Singh Thakur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the oral health status and oral health behavior among 12-year-old urban and rural school children and to evaluate the relative effect of sociobehavioral risk factors on caries experience. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which included urban and rural subgroups of 12-year-old school children. The final study population covered two groups: 12 years rural (n = 261 and urban school children (n = 264. Data were collected and compared using Chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the importance of variables associated with dental caries. Results: Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were observed between rural and urban school children for the use of oral hygiene aids, frequency of tooth brushing, and dental services utilization. Dental caries level was significantly higher (P < 0.03 for rural children. Decayed teeth (DT component constituted majority of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (FT in both population. 55.6% of the rural school children required treatment compared to 42.4% of urban school children. Mean Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified values, mean DT, and FT were statistically significant for urban and rural school children. Logistic regression analysis showed that government or private school, dental care utilization, socioeconomic status, and malocclusion status were significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusion: Poor oral health and high treatment needs of children belonging to low socioeconomic background is an alarming situation. Strengthening of oral health care in the rural and underprivileged section should be priority of the policymakers.

  13. Dental Health Status of Junior High Schools Students; Golpaygan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani D.* PhD,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT index plays a key role in health care decisionmaking. According to WHO guideline, DMFT should not be more than 1 in 12-year old children. The role of fluoride intake in tooth and bone health is also well known. This study was carried out to investigate the DMFT index in junior high school students of Golpaygan City, Iran, and its relation the Fluoride concentration of drinking water. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in all 530 junior high school students of Golpaygan City, Iran, during 2010-11. The DMFT index was determined by educated and trained mouth and teeth health experts. The Fluoride concentration was measured by SPADNS method from 4 different places in 2 different times, May and June (4 samples each. Data were analyzed by statistical descriptive methods and one-way ANOVA test. Findings DMFT was 3.07±2.34 in boys and 3.28±2.56 in girls (p=0.34. There were no significant differences between boys and girls in the averages of decayed (p=0.95, missing (p=0.89 and filled (p=0.13 teeth. There was a significant difference in the DMFT value of the different age groups. There was also a significant difference between the DMFT values according to mothers’ level of education. The average of Fluoride concentration in water samples of 4 different places of the region in 2 period of times was 0.33±0.09mg/l. Conclusion DMFT index in the students of Golpaygan City, Iran, is more than WHO standards.

  14. Putting culture under the 'spotlight' reveals universal information use for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Roberto; Zhou, Xinyue; Miellet, Sébastien

    2010-03-18

    Eye movement strategies employed by humans to identify conspecifics are not universal. Westerners predominantly fixate the eyes during face recognition, whereas Easterners more the nose region, yet recognition accuracy is comparable. However, natural fixations do not unequivocally represent information extraction. So the question of whether humans universally use identical facial information to recognize faces remains unresolved. We monitored eye movements during face recognition of Western Caucasian (WC) and East Asian (EA) observers with a novel technique in face recognition that parametrically restricts information outside central vision. We used 'Spotlights' with Gaussian apertures of 2 degrees, 5 degrees or 8 degrees dynamically centered on observers' fixations. Strikingly, in constrained Spotlight conditions (2 degrees and 5 degrees) observers of both cultures actively fixated the same facial information: the eyes and mouth. When information from both eyes and mouth was simultaneously available when fixating the nose (8 degrees), as expected EA observers shifted their fixations towards this region. Social experience and cultural factors shape the strategies used to extract information from faces, but these results suggest that external forces do not modulate information use. Human beings rely on identical facial information to recognize conspecifics, a universal law that might be dictated by the evolutionary constraints of nature and not nurture.

  15. Comparison of algorithms for use in real-time spotlight-mode SAR image formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowatz, Charles V., Jr.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.; Bray, Brian K.; Bow, Wallace J., Jr.; Richards, John A.

    2004-09-01

    This paper compares three algorithms for potential use in a real-time, on-board implementation of spotlight-mode SAR image formation. These include: the polar formatting algorithm (PFA), the range migration algorithm (RMA), and the overlapped subapertures algorithm (OSA). We conclude that for any reasonable spotlight-mode imaging scenario, PFA is easily the algorithm of choice because its computational efficiency is significantly higher than that of either RMA or OSA. This comparison specifically includes cases in which wavefront curvature is sufficient to cause image defocus in conventional PFA, because a post-processing refocus step can be performed with PFA to yield excellent image quality for only a minimal increase in computation time. We demonstrate that real-time image formation for many imaging scenarios is achievable using PFA implemented on a single Pentium M processor. OSA is quite slow compared to PFA, especially for the case of moderate to high resolution (9 inches and better). RMA is not competitive with PFA for situations that do not require wavefront curvature correction. For those cases in which PFA requires post-processing to correct for wavefront curvature, RMA comes closer in efficiency to PFA, but is still outperformed by the modified PFA.

  16. Refractive status of primary school children in Mopani district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Mabaso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports part of the findings of a study carried out to determine the causes, prevalence,  and  distribution  of  ocular  dis-orders  among  rural  primary  school  children in  Mopani  district  of  Limpopo  Province, South Africa. Three hundred and eighty eight children  aged  8  to  15  years  were  randomly selected from five randomly selected schools. Non-cycloplegic retinoscopy and auto-refrac-tion were performed on each child. The preva-lence of hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism was  73.1%,  2.5%  and  31.3%  respective-ly.  Hyperopia  (Nearest  spherical  equivalent power (FNSE ranged from +0.75 to +3.50 D for the right and left eyes with means of +1.05 ±  0.35  D  and  +1.08  ±  0.34  D  respectively. Myopia (FNSE ranged from –0.50 to –1.75 D for the right eye and –0.50 to –2.25 D for the left eye with means of –0.75 ± 0.55 D and –0.93 ± 0.55 D respectively. Regression model for myopia, shows that age had an odds ratio of  1.94  (1.15  to  3.26,  indicating  a  signifi-cant increased risk of myopia with increasing age.  Correcting  cylinders  for  the  right  eyes ranged from –0.25 to –4.50 D (mean = −0.67 ± 0.47 D and for the left eyes from –0.25 to –2.50 D (mean = −0.60 ± 0.30 D. With-the-rule  (WTR  astigmatism  (66.5%  was  more common, followed by against-the-rule (ATR astigmatism (28.1% and oblique (OBL astig-matism  (5.4%.  With-the-rule  astigmatism was  more  common  in  females  than  males; ATR astigmatism and OBL astigmatism were common in males. Regular vision screening programmes,  appropriate  referral  and  vision correction  in  primary  schools  in  Mopani district  are  recommended  in  order  to  elimi-nate  refractive  errors  among  the  children.

  17. Refractive status of primary school children in Mopani district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Mabaso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports part of the findings of a study carried out to determine the causes, prevalence,  and  distribution  of  ocular  dis-orders  among  rural  primary  school  children in  Mopani  district  of  Limpopo  Province, South Africa. Three hundred and eighty eight children  aged  8  to  15  years  were  randomly selected from five randomly selected schools. Non-cycloplegic retinoscopy and auto-refrac-tion were performed on each child. The preva-lence of hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism was  73.1%,  2.5%  and  31.3%  respective-ly.  Hyperopia  (Nearest  spherical  equivalent power (FNSE ranged from +0.75 to +3.50 D for the right and left eyes with means of +1.05 ±  0.35  D  and  +1.08  ±  0.34  D  respectively. Myopia (FNSE ranged from –0.50 to –1.75 D for the right eye and –0.50 to –2.25 D for the left eye with means of –0.75 ± 0.55 D and –0.93 ± 0.55 D respectively. Regression model for myopia, shows that age had an odds ratio of  1.94  (1.15  to  3.26,  indicating  a  signifi-cant increased risk of myopia with increasing age.  Correcting  cylinders  for  the  right  eyes ranged from –0.25 to –4.50 D (mean = −0.67 ± 0.47 D and for the left eyes from –0.25 to –2.50 D (mean = −0.60 ± 0.30 D. With-the-rule  (WTR  astigmatism  (66.5%  was  more common, followed by against-the-rule (ATR astigmatism (28.1% and oblique (OBL astig-matism  (5.4%.  With-the-rule  astigmatism was  more  common  in  females  than  males; ATR astigmatism and OBL astigmatism were common in males. Regular vision screening programmes,  appropriate  referral  and  vision correction  in  primary  schools  in  Mopani district  are  recommended  in  order  to  elimi-nate  refractive  errors  among  the  children.

  18. The current status of animal use and alternatives in Korean veterinary medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwi Hyang; Choe, Byung In; Kim, Jin Suk; Hart, Lynette A; Han, Jin Soo

    2010-06-01

    Two new Korean laws regulating animal welfare and the humane use of animals in science came into effect in 2008 and 2009. Both these laws impose ethical committee review prior to the performance of animal experiments in research, testing and education. This study briefly summarises the new Korean laws, and investigates the current status regarding the numbers of animals used, the alternatives to animals which are used, the curricula relating to the humane use of animals, and ethical review practices in Korean veterinary education. Approximately 4,845 animals, representing 20 different species, were used in veterinary medical education in Korea in 2007. Korea has begun to introduce formal courses on animal welfare for the humane treatment of animals used in experiments, and an ethical protocol review system prior to animal use in education. Korea is moving toward better animal welfare, by incorporating practices consistent with international standards. The information presented represents the first such data gathered in Korea, which should prove useful for monitoring the implementation of replacement, reduction, and refinement measures in animal use for education purposes.

  19. Periodontal status of mentally handicapped school children in Caracas, Venezuela. A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Morales-Chávez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a chronic multifactor pathology, characterized by the progressive destruction of the dental structures support tissues. Patients with some type of disability have a higher predisposition to develop periodontal disease, due to bad hygiene, product of their motor and psychological deficiencies, and to their systemic alterations that difficult the defense against periodontopathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the periodontal status of a group of children with special needs, and a control group. 47 patients with mental retardation and Down syndrome from three special education centers, and 31 healthy patients of ages ranging from 6 to 15 years, were dentally evaluated, to determine their plaque index, gingival index, and the presence of calculus. After gathering the data and tabulating the results, a 1.08 plaque index was determined, and a gingival index of 1.03, corresponding to a mild gingivitis in the study group. On the other hand, on the group of regular patients, there was a 1.08 PI and a 0.96 GI. Calculus percentage was similar on both groups. However, a large percentage of children with mild gingival inflammation was observed in the group of special patients (53.19%, compared to the control group (29%.

  20. The effect of increased primary schooling on adult women's HIV status in Malawi and Uganda: Universal Primary Education as a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Julia Andrea

    2015-02-01

    This paper explores the causal relationship between primary schooling and adult HIV status in Malawi and Uganda, two East African countries with some of the highest HIV infection rates in the world. Using data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey and the 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, the paper takes advantage of a natural experiment, the implementation of Universal Primary Education policies in the mid 1990s. An instrumented regression discontinuity approach is used to model the relationship between increased primary schooling and adult women's HIV status. Results indicate that a one-year increase in schooling decreases the probability of an adult woman testing positive for HIV by 0.06 (p < 0.01) in Malawi and by 0.03 (p < 0.05) in Uganda. These results are robust to a variety of model specifications. In a series of supplementary analyses a number of potential pathways through which such effects may occur are explored. Findings indicate increased primary schooling positively affects women's literacy and spousal schooling attainment in Malawi and age of marriage and current household wealth in Uganda. However primary schooling has no effect on recent (adult) sexual behavior. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Degrees of health disparities: Health status disparities between young adults with high school diplomas, sub-baccalaureate degrees, and baccalaureate degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J

    2012-06-01

    Community colleges have increased post-secondary educational access for disadvantaged youth, but it is unknown how community college degrees fit into the educational gradient of health status disparities. Using data from high school graduates in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compared young adults ages 26-31 whose highest degrees were high school diplomas (n=5584), sub-baccalaureate credentials (sub-BAs include community college certificates and associate's degrees) (n=2415), and baccalaureate degrees (BAs) (n=3303) on measures of hypertension, obesity, smoking, sleep problems, dyslipidemia, and depression. Comparisons used multivariate Poisson regression with robust standard errors after exact and nearest-neighbor Mahalanobis matching within propensity score calipers on 23 baseline factors measured in 1995. High school graduates and sub-BAs differed significantly on 3 of 23 baseline factors. After matching, sub-BAs were 16% less likely to smoke daily than if they had only a high school diploma but did not differ in other health status measures. Sub-BAs and BAs differed significantly on 14 of 23 baseline factors. After matching, BAs were 60% less likely to smoke daily, 14% less likely to be obese, and 38% less likely to have been diagnosed with depression. Sub-BA degrees are accessible to high school graduates irrespective of academic backgrounds and predict lower smoking prevalence. BAs are less accessible to high school graduates and predict lower chances of smoking, depression, and obesity.

  2. Status of intestinal parasites infection among primary school children in Kampongcham, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Jae; Bae, Yong-Tae; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Kim, Hun-Joo; Im, Kyung-Il; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2002-09-01

    A survey was made to find the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Kampongcham, Cambodia in February 2002. A total of 251 fecal specimens were collected from Tonlebat primary school children and examined by formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasite was 54.2% (males, 57.3%; females, 50.8%). The infection rate of intestinal helminths by the species were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides 26.3%, Echinostoma sp. 15.6%, hookworm 6.4%, Opisthorchis sp. 4.0%, Rhabditis sp. 2.4%, and Trichuris trichiura 0.4%. The infection rate of intestinal protozoa were as follows: E. coli 7.6%, G. lamblia 3.2%, I. butschlii 3.2%, and E. histolytica 0.8%. More than two different kinds of parasites were found in 16.7% of the stool samples. All the children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel and metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in this area.

  3. Visual and binocular status in elementary school children with a reading problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Lisa W; Nandakumar, Krithika; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2017-11-21

    This descriptive study provides a summary of the binocular anomalies seen in elementary school children identified with reading problems. A retrospective chart review of all children identified with reading problems and seen by the University of Waterloo, Optometry Clinic, from September 2012 to June 2013. Files of 121 children (mean age 8.6 years, range 6-14 years) were reviewed. No significant refractive error was found in 81% of children. Five and 8 children were identified as strabismic at distance and near respectively. Phoria test revealed 90% and 65% of patients had normal distance and near phoria. Near point of convergencia (NPC) was <5cm in 68% of children, and 77% had stereoacuity of ≤40seconds of arc. More than 50% of the children had normal fusional vergence ranges except for near positive fusional vergencce (base out) break (46%). Tests for accommodation showed 91% of children were normal for binocular facility, and approximately 70% of children had an expected accuracy of accommodation. Findings indicate that some children with an identified reading problem also present with abnormal binocular test results compared to published normal values. Further investigation should be performed to investigate the relationship between binocular vision function and reading performance. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Hospitality and Inclusion Logistics of a Spotlight Event: An Insiders Look at the 2016 DNC in Philadelphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2016 Democratic National Convention held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania prioritized hospitality efforts and incorporated inclusion and diversity as its theme. These strategies helped to create a successful spotlight event, benefiting the city of Philadelphia and its hospitality industry.

  5. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students’ Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments (“Scientist Spotlights”) that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms. PMID:27587856

  6. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Khurshid, Usman; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2012-03-19

    Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO) and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC) references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Mean differences between weight-for-age (0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.30) and BMI-for-age (0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.30) z scores relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant. Over-nutrition estimates were higher (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (17% vs. 15% overweight and 7.5% vs. 4% obesity) while underweight and thinness/wasting were lower (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (7% vs. 12% underweight and 10% vs. 13% thinness). Significantly lower overweight (8%) and obesity (5%) prevalence and higher thinness grade one prevalence (19%) was seen with use of the IOTF cut-offs as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean difference between height-for-age z scores and difference in stunting prevalence relative to the WHO and USCDC references was not significant. Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed

  7. Nutritional Knowledge and Practices, Lifestyle Characteristics and Anthropometric Status of Turks and Caicos Islands Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, T E; Malcolm, S; Handfield, S

    2015-01-01

    To assess nutritional status, knowledge, practices and lifestyle characteristics of Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) primary school children. Sociodemographic, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle information were collected via an interviewer-assisted questionnaire from grade 5 to 6 participants in a cross-sectional survey; anthropometrics were collected by trained interviewers. Two hundred and ninety-seven students (mean age = 10.91 ± 1.01 years; female = 162 [54.5%]; overweight/obese = 121 [40.8%]) participated. Most were born (61.8%) or resided in TCI for more than five years (76.1%). Dietary patterns of breakfast (75.8%); ≥ 2 meals/day (81.2%); ≥ 1 snack/day (65%) and consumption of vegetables (14.5%) and fruits (27.3%) ≥ 2/day were reported. Multinomial regression examined lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics among body mass index (BMI) categories. Breakfast-eaters were 54% less likely (OR = 0.46; p = 0.025) to be obese; consumers of meals/day were approximately twice more likely to be obese (OR = 2.074; p = 0.02); participants who "ate out" day (including lunch) were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.365; p = 0.02). More boys reported strenuous activity (p = 0.05) while more girls reported moderate activity (p = 0.004). No vigorous exercise for ≥ 4 days/week was associated with obesity (OR = 2.0; p = 0.03). Most (> 80%) knew the food groups and that non-communicable diseases were related to diet and obesity (> 70%). Findings should inform policy, via the "Health in All" policy initiatives, to develop multisectoral interventions to positively impact children's nutritional status and ultimately eliminate obesogenic environments.

  8. Regular-soda intake independent of weight status is associated with asthma among US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Nutritional status of school going children and adolescents aged 9-13 years at Haldia in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Datta Banik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Malnutrition in children and adolescents is a global problem. In developing nations of Africa and Southeast Asia, the prevalence of undernutrition in children is very high. There is scanty data 'With respect to the nutritional status of school going children and adolescents, especially from suburban and rural areas in India. Objective A study was undertaken among boys (n = 174 and girls (n = 128 aged 9 13 years in a suburban area of Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal in India to understand age and sex variation of nutritional status of the subjects. Methods A crosssectional study among the schoolgoing children and adolescent aged 9 13 years was done during JuneSeptember 2009 in Haldia. Results Age and sex variation of anthropometric characteristics (body mass index or BMI and conicity index or CI revealed that remarkable sections of both the sexes were suffering from underweight (8.30%, stunting (14.60% and wasting (2.80%. Significant sex differences were observed in cases of mean CI (P=O.OO1, weightforage zscore (P = 0.0001 and weight-for-height ,-score (P 0.0001. Discussion Besides notable prevalence of under nutrition in both sexes, situation of the girls is worse (underweight - 11.70% and stunting - 21.10% compared to the boys. This is most evident among the subjects of both sexes aged 11 and 12 years.

  10. A case study and current status of the radiation education in the senior high school field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, Kouji [Tokyo Kasei Univ. Fuzoku Girls' High School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    There is almost no opportunity to have practices on the (ionizing) radiation in the present-day science curriculum in high school courses. The students who complete the science course are less than 20 % of the total. The students are leaving physics and/or science. We had created a lecture so called experimental natural science as an option for literature course students in 1996. The lecture included chemistry, biology and geology, comprehensively, and it provided easy understanding to demonstrate the phenomena by analogy experiments. Two courses of this type lecture were created for the second and third year classes in 1998. This paper introduces the content, which has relevant to the radiation among this curriculum. We can use very small radiation sources of polonium, strontium, and cobalt without licenses. The students measure the natural radiations of concrete buildings and lakes and so on, using simple radiation detectors. The simple cloud chamber shows the difference of locus in {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}-rays, respectively. An analogy of the light source is effective to explain the significance of ionizing radiation, radioactivity and also units related to the radiation such as Bq, Gy and Sv. A half-life time of the radioactivity is explained by using the experiment on capacitor discharges through resistances. The X-ray film for dentists and simple soft x-ray sources are used for taking pictures of their personal goods. The total lesson time is 6 to 8 hours for radiation. Consequently they learn the knowledge on safety and sweep their mind of a dread for radiation out. (Y. Tanaka)

  11. A cross sectional study of nutritional status among a group of school children in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Achmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine nutritional status among a school children of Barru Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity. Cross-sectional study. A total of 127 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from Barru Regency were included in this study as a sample of simple random sampling. Nutritional status of children (BMI index, degree of gingival inflammation (using chi-square test statistic, and missing teeth (DMF-T index were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about dental health, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. The data were processed using the program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. A group of who severe underweight (102 children, had higher odds for mild gingivitis (GI 79.4% than others group of who has an ideal weight (16 children, had mild gingivitis (GI 62.5%. Children, who severe underweight, had higher odds for moderate caries (38.2% than others group of who has an ideal weight, had moderate caries (18.8%. Based on chi-square test, there are correlation of nutritional status and dental caries severity (p=0.000status with gingivitis and dental caries severity among a school children.

  12. Impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of primary-school children in Osun state, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oninla, S O; Onayade, A A; Owa, J A

    2010-10-01

    In January-March 2000, the impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of 749 pupils (353 boys and 396 girls) attending public primary schools in the Ife Central local government area of Osun state, in south-western Nigeria, was investigated. Demographic, socio-economic and other relevant information was collected on the pupils, on the same day that a single stool sample was collected from each subject and examined, using Stoll's dilution egg-count technique. The weights, heights and ages of the subjects were recorded and converted to percentages of the reference medians for weight-for-height, weight-for-age and height-for-age. The overall prevalences of helminth infection detected among the 465 malnourished pupils (i.e. those with any form of under-nutrition) and the 284 well-nourished pupils were 32.9% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.029). The nutritional indices of the pupils who were found helminth-infected were generally lower than those of the pupils who appeared free of intestinal helminths. The mean values for weight-for-height, for example, were higher in the apparently uninfected pupils than in those found infected with any intestinal helminth (P=0.02) or only with Ascaris lumbricoides (P=0.05). Similarly, the mean height-for-age of the pupils who were apparently uninfected was higher than the corresponding value for the pupils found hookworm-positive (P=0.003). The pupils who were each found infected with two or more species of intestinal infection had significantly lower weights-for-heights, weights-for-ages and heights-for-ages than the pupils who appeared to be helminth-free. The results of a multivariate logistic-regression analysis indicated that hookworm infection was a significant risk factor for underweight (P=0.015), wasting (P=0.033) and stunting (P=0.015) whereas Trichuris was only a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0.025). It appears that intestinal helminthiasis may play a causal or contributory role in the occurrence of

  13. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students' Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms. © 2016 J. N. Schinske et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Breakfast, nutritional status, and socioeconomic outcome measures among primary school students from the City of Salta: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Susana J; Tempestti, Claudia P

    2017-10-01

    Socioeconomic context and family dynamics are determining factors when considering eating habits and nutritional status among students. It has been demonstrated that skipping breakfast or having a light breakfast has an unfavorable impact on nutritional status. To establish a relationship among breakfast, sociodemographic outcome measures, and nutritional status among students attending public schools in the urban and peri-urban areas of the City of Salta. Descriptive, crosssectional study. Purposive, non-probability sampling of students attending urban and periurban primary schools (aged 9-13, boys and girls). Outcome measures: breakfast at home (habit, "enKid" breakfast quality, frequency, duration), nutritional status (body mass index, Z-score, World Health Organization), and sociodemographic outcome measures (family type, level of education, employment, parents' breakfast habit, commensality). Analysis of frequency, associations, logistic regression, odds ratio, confidence interval, p < 0.05, WHO AnthroPlus and SPSS v18 software. Two hundred and eighty-three students were assessed; 49.8% attended urban schools. Overweight or obesity was observed in 46.0%. Also, 55.1% skipped breakfast at home on the day of the assessment; among those who did have breakfast, 79.5% had a poor or very-poor quality meal. Among those who skipped breakfast, 40.7% of the girls and 54.7% of the boys were overweight or obese. A greater socioeconomic vulnerability and a higher percentage of students who attended school without having breakfast were observed in peri-urban schools. Eventually, the probability of skipping breakfast was associated with having a large family, absence of parental breakfast habit, a low level of maternal education, having breakfast alone, and being obese. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  15. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

    2013-01-01

    Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Eating habits, physical activity, nutrition knowledge, and self-efficacy by obesity status in upper-grade elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seong Ah; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, Kyung A; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Childhood obesity has increased in recent decades in Korea. This study was designed to examine differences in the eating habits, physical activity (PA), nutrition knowledge, and self-efficacy of children by obesity status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Subjects were 5th-grade children from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. Two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. Survey questionnaire included items related to general characteristics, eating habits, PA, nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy. Excluding incomplete responses, 3,531 data were analyzed using SPSS. Subjects were categorized into overweight·obesity (OW) and normal weight (NW) groups based on body mass index percentiles for age by sex. RESULTS A total of 21.5% of subjects was overweight or obese. There were significant differences in gender, perceived stress, perception of body shape, body satisfaction, and interest in weight control between the OW and NW groups (P eating habits, the OW group ate breakfast (P eating habits, PA, and self-efficacy between OW and NW children. Obesity management programs for children need to focus on increasing self-efficacy, modifying eating habits, and increasing PA. PMID:27909557

  17. Eating habits, physical activity, nutrition knowledge, and self-efficacy by obesity status in upper-grade elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seong Ah; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, Kyung A; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun; Kim, Kyung Won

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity has increased in recent decades in Korea. This study was designed to examine differences in the eating habits, physical activity (PA), nutrition knowledge, and self-efficacy of children by obesity status. Subjects were 5th-grade children from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. Two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. Survey questionnaire included items related to general characteristics, eating habits, PA, nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy. Excluding incomplete responses, 3,531 data were analyzed using SPSS. Subjects were categorized into overweight·obesity (OW) and normal weight (NW) groups based on body mass index percentiles for age by sex. A total of 21.5% of subjects was overweight or obese. There were significant differences in gender, perceived stress, perception of body shape, body satisfaction, and interest in weight control between the OW and NW groups ( P eating habits, the OW group ate breakfast ( P eating habits, PA, and self-efficacy between OW and NW children. Obesity management programs for children need to focus on increasing self-efficacy, modifying eating habits, and increasing PA.

  18. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  19. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of albendazole in improving nutritional status of pre-school children in urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, S; Pande, V K; Fletcher, R H

    2000-01-01

    To study the clinical efficacy and the incremental cost-effectiveness of albendazole in improving the nutritional status of pre-school children. Single blind, placebo-controlled trial with child as the unit of randomization. In the Anganwadi centers of the Integrated Child Development Services situated in the urban slums of Lucknow, North India. Thirty-two Anganwadi centers were randomly selected for the trial. Included were registered resident children between 1.5 to 3.5 years of age with informed and written parental consent. The intervention group received 600 mg of albendazole powder every six months while the placebo group received same quantity of calcium powder. Enrolled children were contacted once in six months from January 1995 to 1997 and given treatment. The outcome measure were change in the proportion of underweight (weight for age 95%. During the 2 year follow-up, the proportion of stunted children increased by 11.44% and 2.06% in the placebo and albendazole groups, respectively, and the difference was 9.38% (95% CI 6.01% to 12.75%; p value cognitive performance, as judged by the revised Denver prescreening questionnaire, in both the groups at enrollment as well as at the end of the study. Six monthly albendazole reduces the risk of stunting with a small increase in the expenditure on health care from the payer's perspective. Larger trials are needed to study the effect of albendazole on prevention of stunting, cognitive functions and all-cause childhood mortality.

  20. Determining soil-transmitted helminth infection status and physical fitness of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Fürst, Thomas; Müller, Ivan; Kriemler, Susi; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2012-08-22

    , they often go unnoticed, are considered a normal condition by affected individuals, or are treated as symptoms of other diseases that might be more common in a given setting. Hence, it is conceivable that the true burden of STH infections is underestimated by assessment tools relying on self-declared signs and symptoms as is usually the case in population-based surveys. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Stephenson and colleagues highlighted the possibility of STH infections lowering the physical fitness of boys aged 6-12 years. This line of scientific inquiry gained new momentum recently. The 20-meter (m) shuttle run test was developed and validated by Léger et al. and is used worldwide to measure the aerobic fitness of children. The test is easy to standardize and can be performed wherever a 20-m long and flat running course and an audio source are available, making its use attractive in resource-constrained settings. To facilitate and standardize attempts at assessing whether STH infections have an effect on the physical fitness of school-aged children, we present methodologies that diagnose STH infections or measure physical fitness that are simple to execute and yet, provide accurate and reproducible outcomes. This will help to generate new evidence regarding the health impact of STH infections.

  1. The oral health status of institutionalized children that is, Juvenile home and orphanage home run by Gujarat state Government, in Vadodara city with that of normal school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Ankita; Sujan, Sunanda Gul; Katna, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Dental Caries and Periodontal Diseases are widespread and virtually everybody suffers from them, and in global scenario dental caries are the most prevalent oral diseases among children. Observation home serve as temporary holding facilities of juvenile and orphans who are arrested by police or found to be living in neglected. The aim of the study was to evaluate oral health status (caries prevalence, dmft, DMF, OHI index) of the institutionalized children that is, juvenile home, orphanage home run by Gujarat Government in Vadodara city with that of normal school children. Cross-sectional study was conducted among the 166 children residing in juvenile and orphanage home with 384 school children. The prevalence of dental caries was higher among the school going children (62.12%) with juvenile group having (52.4%) but the oral hygiene was poor among the juvenile group children with respect to those of school going group. It is concluded from the present study that juvenile group children had lower caries prevalence but poor oral hygiene status in contrast to school going children.

  2. NUTRITIONAL STATUS, KNOWLEDGE ABOUT NUTRITION AND FEEDING PRACTICES OF ADOLESCENTS ENROLLED IN HIGH SCHOOLS OF THE TOWN OF FORMIGA/MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson César de ABREU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the nutritional status, feeding practices and knowledge of nutrition of school students enrolled at high schools of the public and private teaching schools of the town of Formiga/MG. To evaluate the nutritional status, percentile Body Mass Index was utilized, adopting the cutting scores proposed by the World Health Organization. The information about feeding practices and knowledge in nutrition was obtained by utilizing self-administered standardized questionnaires. The prevalence of overweight was 11.8% and was significantly higher in the public schools and in males. The low weight was found in only 1.9% of studied population. Little more than a half of the participants indicated correctly the foods rich in fibers and in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Most of the adolescents (65.5% do not eat fruit and vegetables daily. The daily consumption of milk and dairy products was also low and was significantly higher in the private school network and in the male gender. Overall the results indicate poor eating habits that increase the risk of nutritional disorders.

  3. Geolocation with error analysis using imagery from an experimental spotlight SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, William Mark

    This dissertation covers the development of a geometry-based sensor model for a specific monostatic spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system---referred to as the ExSAR (for experimental SAR). This sensor model facilitates single- and multiple-image geopositioning with error analysis. It allows for the use of known ground control points in refining the collection geometry parameters (a process called image resection) and for the subsequent geopositioning of other points using the resected image. Theoretically, the model also allows for the potential recovery of bias-like, persistent errors common across multiple images. The model also includes multi-image correspondence equations to aid in the cross-image identification of conjugate points. The sensor model development begins with a generic, theoretical approach to the modeling of spotlight SAR. A closed-form solution to the range and range-rate condition equations and the corresponding error propagation equation are presented. (The SAR condition equations have traditionally been solved iteratively.) The application of the closed-form solution in the image-to-ground and ground-to-image transformations is documented. The theoretical work also includes a preliminary error sensitivity analysis and a treatment of the spotlight SAR resection process. The ExSAR-specific model is established and assessed with an extensive set of images collected using the experimental radar over arrays of ground control points. Using this set, the imagery metadata elements are assessed, and the optimal element set for geopositioning is determined. The ExSAR imagery is shown to be transformed to the ground plane in only one dimension. The eventual ExSAR sensor model is used with known elevations and single-image geopositioning to show a horizontal accuracy of 8.23 m (rms). With resection using five ground-surveyed control points per image, the horizontal accuracy of reserved check points is 0.45 m (rms). Resections using the same

  4. Sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies: The SPOTLIGHT project’s conceptual framework and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakerveld Jeroen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe is high. It is a major cause of the overall rates of many of the main chronic (or non communicable diseases in this region and is characterized by an unequal socio-economic distribution within the population. Obesity is largely determined by modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as low physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour and consumption of energy dense diets. It is increasingly being recognised that effective responses must go beyond interventions that only focus on a specific individual, social or environmental level and instead embrace system-based multi-level intervention approaches that address both the individual and environment. The EU-funded project “sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies” (SPOTLIGHT aims to increase and combine knowledge on the wide range of determinants of obesity in a systematic way, and to identify multi-level intervention approaches that are strong in terms of Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM. Methods/Design SPOTLIGHT comprises a series of systematic reviews on: individual-level predictors of success in behaviour change obesity interventions; social and physical environmental determinants of obesity; and on the RE-AIM of multi-level interventions. An interactive web-atlas of currently running multi-level interventions will be developed, and enhancing and impeding factors for implementation will be described. At the neighbourhood level, these elements will inform the development of methods to assess obesogenicity of diverse environments, using remote imaging techniques linked to geographic information systems. The validity of these methods will be evaluated using data from surveys of health and lifestyles of adults residing in the neighbourhoods surveyed. At both the micro- and macro-levels (national and international the different physical, economical, political and socio

  5. Evaluation of Oral Health Status among 5-15-Year-old School Children in Shimoga City, Karnataka, India: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashibhushan, Kukkalli Kamalaksharappa; Pradeep, Muttugadur Chandrappa; Babaji, Prashant; Reddy, Vundela Rajashekar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oral health is an integral part of general health. Dental problems can be avoided if identified at an early stage. There is no data on oral health status of school going children in Karnataka state’s Shimoga city. Aim To evaluate oral health status of school going children among 5-15-year-old in Shimoga city. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1458 government and private school children aged 5-6, 9-10 and 14-15 years. Dental caries (DMFT and deft Index), oral hygiene status (OHI-S Index) and dental fluorosis (Dean’s Fluorosis Index) according to WHO diagnostic criteria (1997) were assessed. Data was evaluated using ANOVA and t-test by SPSS (IBM statistical software version 21.0.) at a level of 5% significance. Results The deft among 5-6-year-old children was 3.36±3.511, deft and DMFT among 9-10-year-old was 2.55±2.497 and 0.45±0.996 respectively and DMFT among 14-15-year-old was 1.34±1.832. The caries prevalence among 5-6-year-old was 68.8%, 9-10-year-old was 77.2% and 14-15-year-old was 48.9% and overall prevalence of dental caries was 65.3% which was statistically significant. Among 9-10-year-old oral hygiene was good in 85.4%, fair in 13.5% and poor in 1% of school children and among 14-15-year-old oral hygiene was good in 77.4%, fair in 22.2% and poor in 0.4%. Overall 81.7% of children had good oral hygiene. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 14.5%. Conclusion The children from government school were found to be less caries free than the private school children, but the difference was not significant. Oral hygiene status is found to be good among both the private and government school children. So the dental awareness is required among children of government school. PMID:28893041

  6. Investigation on current statuses of radiation literacy of teachers and their radiation teaching in elementary and junior high schools in Kagoshima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutoku, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    From the present state of the expansion of radiation application base, it has been required to proceed with the correct radiation teaching in school education and teacher's radiation literacy will be questioned. In order to propose more effective ways of radiation teaching, the questionnaire survey on current statuses of radiation literacy of teachers and their radiation teaching in the public elementary and junior high schools in Kagoshima prefecture was carried out. The results of the questionnaire survey are summarized and the proposal is described in the present paper. (K. Kato)

  7. Lipid-soluble nutrient status of healthy Omani school children before and after intervention with oily fish meal or re-esterified triglyceride fish oil

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ghannami, Samia; Sedlak, E.; Hussein, I. S.; Min, Yoeju; Al-Shmmkhi, S. M.; Al-Oufi, H. S.; Al-Mazroui A, A.; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab

    2016-01-01

    Objectives\\ud Over the last two decades, the Omani diet has changed considerably to resemble a high calorie and a low nutrient density Western diet. We investigated fat soluble nutrient status of children before and after intervention with fish diet or fish oil.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud Children aged 9 and 10 years (n=314) were recruited from a randomly selected three schools. The schools were assigned to fish, fish oil or control group and the children given a lightly grilled oily fish, a re-esteri...

  8. Understanding Aggression through Attachment and Social Emotional Competence in Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Kim, Ann Y.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increase in adolescent crime in the Republic of Korea has put adolescent aggression in the spotlight. This study examines whether the quality of attachment to parents and peers influences aggressive behaviors and whether social emotional competencies serve as significant mediators for middle school students. These relationships…

  9. The Poetics of a School Shooter: Decoding Political Signification in Cho Seung-Hui's Multimedia Manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, against a tragically ironic backdrop of National Poetry Month, April indeed was "the cruellest month" (Eliot 1922, I.1). The media spotlight during that time repositioned from Iraq and Afghanistan to Blacksburg, Virginia, where a stateside guerilla incursion at Virginia Tech would mark the single worst episode of school shooting…

  10. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects...... their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine) of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443) from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited....... Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616). Cognitive performance was assessed...

  11. [Study of association between adverse experiences in childhood, social support, and physical and psychological sub-health status among middle school students in 3 cities in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Y H; Ma, S S; Xu, S J; Zhang, S C; Hao, J H; Tao, F B

    2017-09-06

    Objective: To explore the relationship between adverse experience in childhood, social support, and physical and psychological sub-health status among middle school students in 3 cities in China. Methods: 15 278 adolescents were selected as subjects from 20 junior and senior middle schools located in 3 cities of China by stratified cluster sampling method. The survey collected the demographic information, ACEs, social support and physical-psychological status. A total of 14 820 valid questionnaires were retained for analysis. We assessed ACE score (count of six categories of childhood adversity), social support (adolescent social support questionnaire), and the prevalence of two outcomes: physiological and psychological sub-health status. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between adverse childhood experiences, social support, and physiological and psychological sub-health status. Results: The prevalence of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 26.4% (3 917/14 820) and 24.1%(3 572/14 820), respectively. A total of 89.4% (13 247/14 820) reported at least 1 adverse childhood experiences. The rates of physiological and psychological sub-health status were higher among girls (28.1%(2 092/7 443), 26.0%(1 932/7 443)) than boys (24.7%(1 825/7 377), 22.2%(1 640/7 377)). Among adolescents without ACEs, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 15.4%(243/1 573) and 10.4%(163/1 573), for those with 5-6 ACEs, the rate were 40.9%(636/1 556) and 43.6%(678/1 556). Among adolescents with higher social support, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 19.9%(724/3 635) and 13.0%(474/3 635) for those with lower social support, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 35.9%(1 403/3 913) and 39.0%(1 528/3 913). The rates of physiological and psychological sub-health status were higher with more ACE exposure or less social support. At each level of ACE exposure

  12. The effect of school status and academic skills on the reporting of premarital sexual behavior: evidence from a longitudinal study in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Hampejsek, Erica; Grant, Monica J; Mensch, Barbara S; Hewett, Paul C; Rankin, Johanna

    2013-08-01

    Reliable data on sexual behavior are needed to identify adolescents at risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus or other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as unintended pregnancies. This study aimed to investigate whether schooling status and literacy and numeracy skills affect adolescents' reports of premarital sex, collected using audio computer-assisted self-interviews. We analyzed data on 2,320 participants in the first three rounds of the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Study to estimate the level of inconsistency in reporting premarital sex among rural Malawian adolescents. We used multivariate logistic regressions to examine the relationships between school status and academic skills and premarital sexual behavior reports. Males were more likely than females to report premarital sex at baseline, whereas females were more likely than males to report sex inconsistently within and across rounds. School-going females and males were more likely to report never having had sex at baseline and to retract reports of ever having sex across rounds than were their peers who had recently left school. School-going females were also more likely to report sex inconsistently at baseline. Literate and numerate respondents were less likely to report sex inconsistently at baseline; however, they were more likely to retract sex reports across rounds. The level of inconsistency both within a survey round and across rounds reflects the difficulties in collecting reliable sexual behavior data from young people in settings such as rural Malawi, where education levels are low and sex among school-going females is not socially accepted. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children's nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismann, Séverine; Shrestha, Akina; Diagbouga, Serge; Knoblauch, Astrid; Gerold, Jana; Herz, Ramona; Sharma, Subodh; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Drescher, Axel; Yang, Ray-Yu; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-03-09

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled "Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification" (VgtS), a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i) describe schoolchildren's health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii) provide an evidence-base for programme decisions on the relevance of complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The studies will be conducted in the Centre Ouest and the Plateau Central regions of Burkina Faso and the Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Data will be collected and combined at the level of schools, children and their households. A range of indicators will be used to examine nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and WASH conditions in 24 schools among 1144 children aged 8-14 years at baseline and a 1-year follow-up. The studies are designed as cluster randomised trials and the schools will be assigned to two core study arms: (i) the 'complementary school garden, nutrition and WASH intervention' arm; and the (ii) 'control' arm with no interventions. Children will be subjected to parasitological examinations using stool and urine samples and to quality-controlled anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements. Drinking water will be assessed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. A questionnaire survey on nutritional and health knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) will be administered to children and their caregivers, also assessing socioeconomic, food-security and WASH conditions at household level. Focus group and key-informant interviews on children's nutrition and hygiene perceptions and behaviours will be conducted with their caregivers and school personnel. The studies will

  14. Influence of socioeconomic status and home environmental factors on oral health-related quality of life among school children in north Bengaluru, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Ahuja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an increasing recognition that children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL is affected by social and environmental factors. Aim: To assess the influence of socioeconomic status and home environment factors on OHRQoL among 13–14-year-old schoolchildren in North Bengaluru. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 800 children aged 13–14 years from government and private schools in North Bengaluru. OHRQoL was assessed using a shorter version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14. Socioeconomic status of children was measured using Kuppuswamy's scale. Children were also asked to provide information on home environmental factors. Descriptive, Chi-square, and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used to analyze data. Results: In both government and private schools, mean CPQ11-14 scores were highest for children belonging to upper lower class followed by the lower middle, upper middle, and upper class of socioeconomic status, showing statistically significant differences (P < 0.05. In government schools, children living with single parent/guardian, having two or more siblings, one or two rooms, staying with more than one person per room, family using alcohol/tobacco reported higher mean CPQ11-14 scores as compared to private schools. (P < 0.05. Conclusion: It is important to shift focus from the current biomedical and restricted paradigm on oral health and develop oral health policies and programs considering the socioeconomic status and home environmental factors in improving child OHRQoL outcomes.

  15. Provision of a School Snack Is Associated with Vitamin B-12 Status, Linear Growth, and Morbidity in Children from Bogotá, Colombia1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Forero, Yibby; López-Arana, Sandra; Marín, Constanza; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, Bogotá's Secretary of Education (SED) initiated a snack program in public primary schools. A midmorning food ration was provided free of charge to children to supplement 30 and 50% of their daily requirements of energy and iron, respectively. The purpose of this study, an observational investigation of 3202 children ages 5–12 y, was to examine whether the snack program improved children's nutritional and health status. We measured micronutrient levels (plasma ferritin and vitamin B-1...

  16. Spotlight: Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This article describes the vital statistics and population growth in Ecuador as of mid-1997. Mid-1997 population numbered about 12 million. Fertility was 3.6 births/woman; deaths were 6/1000 population; and births were 29/1000 population. Ecuador was primarily an agricultural country, until oil was discovered in the early 1970s. The country has worked to increase per capita income and confront environmental consequences. The capital city of Quito is situated in a valley between two mountains and has very high air pollution levels due to cars and factories. In contrast, indigenous populations live in the Andean mountains and farm small plots. Land shortages have pushed these farmers onto higher slopes and more marginal land that is becoming eroded. 22% of Ecuador's forests were cleared for farming during 1980-90. The city of Guayaquil, on the Pacific coast, has serious water pollution problems, sewage problems, and industrial pollution. Shrimp farming relies on high levels of fertilizer, which is damaging coastlines. Oil exploration in the interior of Ecuador, has resulted in disruption of indigenous population, loss of forests, and pollution of rivers. Texaco Oil is accused of spilling about 17 million gallons of crude oil, or 50 times more than the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. Texaco argues that it met government environmental standards and agreed to a cleanup, which only partially meets the standards of its critics. Oil resources have funded improvements in education and health. About 90% of Ecuador's adult population is literate. Fertility has declined, but the population is still largely young and will be entering their reproductive years by 2025.

  17. Iran: spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1987-09-01

    Given its location between Asia and Asia Minor, Iran has been a country of strategic political importance throughout history. More than 98% of Iran's population is Moslem. During the early 20th century, as Iran gradually gained independence from the USSR and Turkey, a modernization process was begun. However, this modernization process was forced to yield to Islamic traditionalism after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Women have been most affected by this change. The implementation of Islamic traditions has meant low job opportunity or motivation for continuing education among women. Although fertility remains high, the present government is satisfied with the current rate of population growth. Family planning is allowed if implemented within the framework of Islamic law, but abortion is illegal. Mortality fell substantially after World War II, but has not continued to decline. At present, both males and females have the same life expectancy at birth. Iran's population is growing at a rate of 4%/year, and can be expected to double in another 21 years. It has been projected that Iran, currently the 21st largest country in the world with a population of 50 million, will become the 15th largest with a population of 97 million by the year 2025. Tehran, the 20th largest city in 1985, is projected to be the 9th largest by the year 2000, with a population of 13.6 million.

  18. Spotlight: Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Barbados was among the first to advocate a national system of family planning. In 1954 a joint committee report of birth legislation recommended the institution of a family planning system under the aegis of the government. The country's 1980 total fertility rate of 1.9 live births/woman attests to the success of the program. The rate is among the lowest of any developing nation. The population of Barbados was 122,298 at the 1st post emancipation census in 1844. In 1946 the population totaled 193,680. To a considerable extent, this very low rate of growth (0.46%) was due to substantial emigration, first to Trinidad and Guyana and later to countries outside the region such as the UK and more recently the US and Canada. Net emigration was so great between 1881 and 1921 that it exceeded natural increase by 54%. Consequently, the population declined from 182,867 to 156,724. By 1960, the population had reached 232,820, some 40,000 more than in 1946. Since then growth has been slow. Such a remarkably low rate of growth since World War 2 has been accomplished through continued high levels of emigration combined with declining fertility and mortality. The total fertility rate dropped from 4.7 in 1960 to 3.0 in 1970 to 1.9 in 1980. Life expectancy rose from about 50 in 1946 to 70 in 1980. Levels of net emigration have always been high and remain so. About 18,000 more persons left the country than entered it during the 1970s, a rate of 7.5/1000 population. While high, it is lower than in the 1960s. The mainstays of the economy are sugar and tourism. Since independence in 1966, sugar production has fallen steadily in response to depressed world sugar prices as well as increasing production costs. In recent years the government has sought to reduce dependence on the sugar industry. Tourism, adversely affected by the world recession, shows some signs of recovery. The discovery of some petroleum and natural gas may help. Barbados has one of the most developed infrastructures in the Caribbean and the government hopes to deal with current problems through diversification of the economy. As Barbados is the most densely populated country in the hemisphere, specialists agree that even a future population of 300,000 may be beyond the island's capacity. Because of high 1950s fertility, the labor force is expected to increase by 25% by the year 2000, a serious issue considering that current unemployment is already 14.7% After 2015, Barbados will be faced with an "elderly problem." Given its current demographic behavior, Barbados is in a better position to address and solve these problems than most developing countries.

  19. Spotlight: Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    As of mid-1998, Azerbaijan had a population of 7.7 million people residing in a land area of 33,436 square miles. There were 17 births and 6 deaths per 1000 population, as well as 19 infant deaths for every 1000 live births, and a population growing in size at 1.1% annually. The average woman had 2.1 births during her reproductive lifetime and life expectancy was 67 years for men and 74 years for women. Azerbaijan is an oil-producing country, although the agricultural sector is responsible for 25% of gross domestic product and employs 31% of the work force. Despite its oil wealth and strong agricultural and mining sectors, Azerbaijan is struggling to improve its environmental conditions and support a large refugee population. The country's air, water, and soil are severely polluted. Air pollution stems from petrochemical plants, refineries, exhaust fumes, and the burning of untreated garbage; water pollution is the result of oil spills, leaky pipelines and tanks, runoff of fertilizers and pesticides, and improperly treated sewage; and land pollution is due to inadequate waste management. The high incidence of waterborne diseases, including cholera, in Azerbaijan is caused by the inadequate treatment of drinking water and sewage intrusion into leaky distribution pipes. Although over 90% of infants under age 1 year are immunized against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, and measles, babies in Azerbaijan are 3 times as likely to die before reaching age 1 year than are babies in the US. Azerbaijani children are 5 times more likely to die by age 5 than are US children. Living conditions are especially difficult for the 12% of the overall population which are refugees.

  20. Spotlight: Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Vietnam, with 57 million people, ranks as the world's 13th most populous country with much of the population concentrated in the rice producing areas of the coastal lowlands and the Mekong and Red River valleys. Since reunification, economic recovery has been difficult. Following the failure of the 1976-80 5-Year Plan, the 1981-85 Plan calls for increased food production and the attainment of self sufficiency. Part of this policy is the reduction of the population growth rate. Vietnam's labor force is about 70% agricultural, with women making up about 2/3 of the farm work force. Most heavy industry is in the North and, although badly damaged in the war, has regained much of its capacity. Coal continues to be Vietnam's leading export. The country's extensive forests also provide great potential for the lumber industry and Vietnam has recently begun offshore oil production. Yet, recovery has been elusive. Foreign aid now comes from the Soviet Union, China, Eastern Europe, and France. In recent years the foreign trade balance has improved, but there have been some setbacks in food production. Efforts to raise food production by encouraging private development of unused land have not been very successful, partly because of the continuing shortage of fertilizers, farm machinery, and insecticides. It is also likely that economic progress has been retarded by large military expenditures necessitated by the wars with Cambodia and China. 1 of the government's major efforts has been a large scale population redistribution from urban areas to the less densely inhabited provinces. New Economic Zones have been established in these areas in the hope that new residents will become self sufficient as soon as possible. As part of its national policy, the government has set a goal to reduce the rate of population growth to 1.5% by 1981 through the National Family Planning Program. Officially reported crude birthrates reflect a decline in fertility from about 40/1000 population in 1976 to about 29 in 1980.

  1. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z

  2. Dental fluorosis and oral health status of 13–15-Year-Old school children of Chikkaballapur District: A cross-sectional study

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    Punith Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence, severity, and the crippling nature of oral diseases lead to significant absenteeism in schools and economic loss in the working population. Dental fluorosis is endemic in 15 states of India and Chikkaballapur district is one among them. Aim: To assess dental fluorosis and oral health status and in Chikkaballapur district among 13–15 years school going children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2400 school going children of 13–15-year-old in Chikkaballapur district. The data regarding the dental fluorosis were collected using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index. The clinical examination for the oral health status was determined using the WHO Oral Assessment Form 1997. Proportions were compared using Chi-square test, and one-way analysis of variance was used to test the differences. Results: It was seen that the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth was highest among the 13-year-old at 1.39. Bleeding on probing and calculus was highest among 15-year-old with 83.5% and 84.6%, respectively. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Chikkaballapur district was found to be 41.1%. Conclusion: The oral health status of the individuals was poor, and the prevalence of fluorosis was high. There is a need to create awareness regarding oral health and fluorosis.

  3. The numbers, educational status and health of enrolled and non-enrolled school-age children in the Allai Valley, Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew; Kirby, Helen

    2010-04-01

    A cluster survey of the age, sex and enrolment status of all school-age children 5-14 years old was undertaken in 2006 in a remote rural sub-district of the Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan about a year after a devastating earthquake. Information was collected on the characteristics of children, their households and parents, and on reasons for non-enrolment. The health and nutritional status of a randomly selected child in each household was assessed and enrolled and non-enrolled children were compared by sex. A total of 2032 children were recorded in 925 households, 845 girls and 1187 boys, a sex ratio of 71 girls/100 boys. Half of all girls were not enrolled in school compared with a fifth of all boys. There was no common reason for non-enrolment and they differed between the sexes. The randomly selected children (n = 897) were moderately malnourished: 43% were stunted, 12% were thin and 46% were anaemic. 66% of a sub-sample of children (n = 269) had a low urinary iodine concentration, which could contribute to a low IQ and impaired hearing. There were no statistically significant differences in the nutritional status or health of non-enrolled and enrolled girls. These data contribute towards an understanding of how to improve the education and health of school-age children in a conservative, rural province of Pakistan. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON THE LEVEL OF EARLY-SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S MOTOR ABILITIES – BLURRING OF DIFFERENCES IN THE ECONOMICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the level of motor abilities of 7-9-year-old girls and boys in relation to the socioeconomic status of their families . Material and Methods: The research was conducted in 12 primary schools in two regions of Poland namely of Warmia & Mazury and Pomorskie voivodeship, on the total of 1205 pupils (584 boys and 621 girls aged 7-9. Selected economic factors such as the type of school (public or private, monthly income per household member, and the number of children in a given family were accepted as the independent variables. The factors behind social status included the place of residence and parents’ educational background. In order to determine the level of motor abilities, 13 motor tests were applied. Results: The research revealed that motor tests such as 1 and 3 min. Burpee test and medicine ball throws (forward and backward appeared to show the biggest differences in the level of motor abilities of the children whose social and economic status varied. The results of these tests as well as those of the shuttle run were significantly higher for the girls from the families of high social status than for the boys of low social status. Social status to a greater extent than economic one differentiated the tested motor abilities, especially in the case of the girls from families marked by high social status, who scored better than boys. The exception is the skipping with clapping of hands – 8 s trial, which differentiated only the tested categories of economic status, especially when referred to the girls. Conclusions: Owing to the small number of significant differences between high and low social and economic status in both sex groups in the motor tests applied, it can be assumed that in the less developed, agriculture and tourism-oriented areas there has occurred blurring of the differences in the level of children’s motor abilities depending on their social and economic status.

  5. Comment on "Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein

    2007-01-01

    Chen and colleagues describe social factors that are related with Chinese adolescent smoking behaviors [Chen, W., Wen, X., Muscat, J., et al., 2007-this issue. Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China. Prev. Med. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.02.009]. These types of studies in China are very much needed given the fact that smoking is a significant health problem in China. Environmental factors may be more important than sometimes thought, since some studies suggest that smoking onset may not be such a 'reasoned' process by youngsters (Kremers, S.P., Mudde, A.N., de Vries, N.K., Brug, J., de Vries, H., 2004. Unplanned smoking initiation: new insights and implications for interventions. Patient Educ. Couns. 55 (3), 345-52.). Studies indicate that a multitude of factors are related to smoking onset, and thus deserve attention in a smoking prevention approach (see, e.g., [Tyas, S., Pederson, L., 1998. Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature. Tob. Control 7, 409-420; Lantz, P., Jacobson, P., Warner, K., et al., 2000. Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies. Tob. Control 9, 47-63]). The study conclusions were derived from a cross-sectional report. Consequently, one needs to be careful in making conclusions about causal pathways [Bauman, K., Fisher, L., 1986. On the measurement of friend behavior in research on friend influence and selection: findings from longitudinal studies of adolescent smoking and drinking. J. Youth Adolesc. 15 (4), 345-353]. Longitudinal studies also suggest the impact of selection mechanisms implying that adolescents were not pressured to start to smoke, but selected smoking friends. Chen, W., Wen, X., Muscat, J., et al.'s [2007-this issue. Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China. Prev. Med. doi:10

  6. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Font, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in knowledge about school corporal punishment by describing the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools and by assessing the extent to which schools disproportionately apply corporal punishment to children who are Black, to boys, and to children with disabilities. This policy report is the first-ever effort to describe the prevalence of and disparities in the use of school corporal punishment at the school and school-district levels. We end the report by summarizing sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discussing the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy. PMID:29333055

  7. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Font, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in knowledge about school corporal punishment by describing the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools and by assessing the extent to which schools disproportionately apply corporal punishment to children who are Black, to boys, and to children with disabilities. This policy report is the first-ever effort to describe the prevalence of and disparities in the use of school corporal punishment at the school and school-district levels. We end the report by summarizing sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discussing the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.

  8. Oral health status and treatment needs of hearing impaired children attending a special school in Bhimavaram, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in November 2012 at SVS special school for deaf, Bhimavaram, India. This study involved 180 CHI of both genders, aged 6-16 years, divided into Group-I (6-8 years, Group-II (9-12 years, and Group-III (13-16 years. Oral health status and treatment needs were recorded using methods and standards recommended by the WHO for Oral Health Surveys, 1997. Dental caries prevalence (decayed, missing, and filled teeth [DMFT/dmft], gingivitis levels (Lφe, Silness Gingival Index, plaque levels (Silness, Lφe Plaque index, and treatment needs were the parameters recorded and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Z-test for proportion, one-way analysis of variance, and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: Prevalence of dental caries in the sample was found to be 65% with a mean level of caries prevalence (DMFT of 1.6 ± 1.3 in Group-I, 1.9 ± 1.2 in Group-II, and 2.2 ± 1.2 in Group-III. About 91.7% of the total children examined needs treatment. The mean plaque and gingivitis scores of the sample were 1.70 ± 0.61 and 1.59 ± 0.58, respectively. Conclusion: These findings imply the overwhelming situation of CHI in oral health perspective. Hence, prevention-based educational and motivational programs should be targeted to this vital group to achieve adequate oral hygiene levels.

  9. The relationship between behavioral factors, weight status and a dietary pattern in primary school aged children: The GRECO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magriplis, Emmanuela; Farajian, Paul; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Risvas, Grigoris; Zampelas, Antonis

    2018-02-02

    Numerous factors have been associated with the increase in childhood overweight and obesity, including environmental, dietary and behavioral. The latter have been associated with unhealthy eating behaviors but studies of their relation to dietary patterns are limited. Dietary patterns serve as a better means to evaluate children's diet and risk of obesity and therefore the aim of the study was to examine the relationship of behavioral factors with a specific dietary pattern developed for children (child derived Food Index (cdFI)), and to assess how behavioral and diet are related to children's weight status when addressed together in a model. Study included school-aged children (n = 4434) from the Greek Childhood Obesity study (GRECO), a cross-sectional survey. Participants self-reported behavioral habits and dietary intake, using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A high dietary pattern-cdFI is related to a healthier dietary pattern. Anthropometric data were measured. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed, adjusting for age and gender. The dietary pattern was positively associated with sleep, family meals and study hours, and was inversely associated with total screen time, frequency of eating out and eating while on some screen. Overweight and obese children were more likely to have a lower cdFI score (2%), sleep less (8%) and report more study hours (6%). In order to reduce and prevent child overweight and obesity, interventions probably need to address specific behavioral and dietary patterns together. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Caries status and salivary characteristics of South Indian school children with molar incisor hypomineralization: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allwyn Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH is a common developmental condition resulting in enamel defects in first permanent molars and permanent incisors. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of MIH in school children aged 8–12 years in Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, South India. The caries status and the salivary characteristics of children with and without MIH were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 4495 children were screened. Children with hypomineralized permanent molars and incisors were diagnosed using the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria. The caries severity was assessed using the International Caries Detection Assessment System II scoring criteria. The saliva and plaque samples of 50 children with MIH and 50 children with molar hypomineralization (MH children were collected in a sterile container. Similarly, saliva and plaque sample of the 100 children with no caries and no MIH (control group were collected and compared with the MIH/MH children. Salivary pH, buffering capacity, and plaque pH were estimated. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS software version 17.0. Pearson and Student's t-test were used to compare the data. P =0.05 or less was considered to be of statistical significance. Results: The prevalence of MIH/MH was 5.25% (n = 236 in Tiruchengode district. Among the children, 3.33% (n = 150 boys and 1.91% (n = 86 girls had MIH/MH. The prevalence of dental caries in children with MIH/MH was 52.1% (n = 123 children. Conclusion: MIH is an important clinical problem that often concerns both the general dentists and pediatric dentists. Creating awareness about this condition, early diagnosis, and prompt treatment among the dentists, and population is obligatory, especially in countries like India.

  11. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

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    Cutumisu Nicoleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.

  12. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Indian adolescent school going children: its relationship with socioeconomic status and associated lifestyle factors.

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    Goyal, Ramesh K; Shah, Vitthaldas N; Saboo, Banshi D; Phatak, Sanjiv R; Shah, Navneet N; Gohel, Mukesh C; Raval, Prashad B; Patel, Snehal S

    2010-03-01

    Obesity and overweight have become a worldwide epidemic, and there is an urgent need to examine childhood obesity and overweight across countries using a standardized international standard. In the present study we have investigated the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their association with socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk factors like diet, physical activity like exercise, sports, sleeping habit in afternoon, eating habits like junk food, chocolate, eating outside at weekend, family history of diabetes and obesity. The study was carried out in 5664 school children of 12-18 years of age and having different SES. The obesity and overweight were considered using an updated body mass index reference. SES and life style factors were determined using pre-tested questionnaire. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight was found to be 14.3% among boys and 9.2% among girls where as the prevalence of obesity was 2.9% in boys and 1.5% in girls. The prevalence of overweight among children was higher in middle SES as compared to high SES group in both boys and girls whereas the prevalence of obesity was higher in high SES group as compared to middle SES group. The prevalence of obesity as well as overweight in low SES group was the lowest as compared to other group. Eating habit like junk food, chocolate, eating outside at weekend and physical activity like exercise, sports, sleeping habit in afternoon having remarkable effect on prevalence on overweight and obesity among middle to high SES group. Family history of diabetes and obesity were also found to be positively associated. Our data suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity varies remarkably with different socioeconomic development levels.

  13. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy

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    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Font, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in kn...

  14. Individual, social, and family factors associated with high school dropout among low-SES youth: Differential effects as a function of immigrant status.

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    Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Dupéré, Véronique; Brault, Marie-Christine; Andrew, Marie Mc

    2017-09-01

    In most Western countries, the individual, social, and family characteristics associated with students' dropout in the general population are well documented. Yet, there is a lack of large-scale studies to establish whether these characteristics have the same influence for students with an immigrant background. The first aim of this study was to assess the differences between first-, second-, and third-generation-plus students in terms of the individual, social, and family factors associated with school dropout. Next, we examined the differential associations between these individual, social, and family factors and high school dropout as a function of students' immigration status. Participants were 2291 students (54.7% with an immigrant background) from ten low-SES schools in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Individual, social, and family predictors were self-reported by students in secondary one (mean age = 12.34 years), while school dropout status was obtained five or 6 years after students were expected to graduate. Results of logistic regressions with multiple group latent class models showed that first- and second-generation students faced more economic adversity than third-generation-plus students and that they differed from each other and with their native peers in terms of individual, social, and family risk factors. Moreover, 40% of the risk factors considered in this study were differentially associated with first-, second-, and third-generation-plus students' failure to graduate from high school. These results provide insights on immigrant and non-immigrant inner cities' students experiences related to school dropout. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Concussion Characteristics in High School Football by Helmet Age/Recondition Status, Manufacturer, and Model: 2008-2009 Through 2012-2013 Academic Years in the United States.

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    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-06-01

    Football helmets used by high school athletes in the United States should meet the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment performance standards. Despite differences in interior padding and exterior shells, all football helmets should provide comparable protection against concussions. Yet, debate continues on whether differences in the rates or severity of concussions exist based on helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, or model. To investigate whether high school football concussion characteristics varied by helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, and model. Descriptive epidemiological study. High school football concussion and helmet data were collected from academic years 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. The certified athletic trainers of participating schools submitted athlete-exposure (AE) and injury information weekly. Participating schools reported 2900 football concussions during 3,528,790 AEs for an overall rate of 8.2 concussions per 10,000 AEs. Concussion rates significantly increased from 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 overall (P = .006) as well as in competition (P = .027) and practice (P = .023). Characteristics of concussed football players (ie, mean number of symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play) were similar among players wearing new helmets when compared with reconditioned helmets. Fewer players wearing an old/not reconditioned helmet had concussion symptoms resolve within 1 day compared with players wearing a new helmet. Despite differences in the manufacturers and models of helmets worn by all high school football players compared with players who sustained a concussion, the mean number of concussion symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play were similar for concussions sustained by football players wearing the most common helmet

  16. Improving physical fitness and emotional well-being in adolescents of low socioeconomic status in Chile: results of a school-based controlled trial.

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    Bonhauser, Marco; Fernandez, Gonzalo; Püschel, Klaus; Yañez, Fernando; Montero, Joaquín; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria

    2005-06-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Among adolescents, physical activity is associated with benefits in the prevention and control of emotional distress, and improvement of self-esteem. Countries in transitional epidemiological scenarios, such as Chile, need to develop effective strategies to improve physical activity as a way to face the epidemic of chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity program on physical fitness and mental health status of adolescents living in a low socioeconomic status area in Santiago, Chile. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the program over one academic year. The study included 198 students aged 15 years old. Two ninth grade classes were randomly selected as the intervention group, with two classes of the same grade as controls. A social planning approach was used to develop the intervention. The program was designed and implemented based on student preferences, teachers' expertise and local resources. Changes in physiological and mental health status were assessed. After the intervention, maximum oxygen capacity achieved a significant increase of 8.5% in the intervention versus 1.8% in the control group (p 0.01). Anxiety score decreased 13.7% in the intervention group versus 2.8% in the control group (p 80%. To conclude, a school-based program to improve physical activity in adolescents of low socioeconomic status, obtained a high level of participation and achieved significant benefits in terms of physical fitness and mental health status.

  17. Catalan Separatism: Factors of Impact on the Status of the Autonomous Community

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    Андрей Владимирович Баранов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines the resources and strategies of the separatist movement in Catalonia 1990—2000-s., the factors of its impact on the status of the autonomous community of Spain, the causes of radicalization after the adoption of the new Statute of Catalonia. In the spotlight — two interrelated aspects: institutional development of political parties and public opinion in the region.

  18. Teaching Rapid and Slow Learners in High Schools: The Status of Adaptations in Junior, Senior, and Regular High Schools Enrolling More than 300 Pupils. Bulletin, 1954, No. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Arno; Hull, J. Dan; Brown, Kenneth E.; Cummings, Howard H.; Johnson, Philip G.; Laxson, Mary; Ludington, John R.; Mallory, Berenice; Segel, David

    1954-01-01

    This bulletin represents a cooperative effort of nine secondary school specialists in the Office of Education to picture the provisions used in large high schools to adapt teaching methods in different subjects for pupils who are not average. It is recognized that a pupil may be a rapid learner in one subject and a slow learner in another. Each of…

  19. The status of Vitamin D in medical students in the preclerkship years of a Saudi medical school

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    Abdulmohsen H Al-Elq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has recently been recognized in different parts of the world, even affecting healthy populations. The deficiency of vitamin D can lead to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Few studies have been done to evaluate the status of vitamin D in the medical community. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of low levels of vitamin D in healthy Saudi medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in November 2009 on male and female students in the preclerkship years of medical school at the King Faisal University, Dammam. Data on age, consumption of dairy products and seafood, and exposure to sunlight were collected. The body mass index was calculated. Approximately, 15 ml of blood was extracted for the measurement of serum calcium, serum albumin, serum phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, fasting parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D < 50 nmol/l. Comparison between groups was done for statistical significance using an unpaired t-test. Significance was set at P < 0.05 using 95% CI for all comparisons. Results: The data from 95 male and 103 female students were analyzed. The mean age for all students was 19.54 years. In 100% of the students, the vitamin D level was low. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in all students was 96.0% (92.64% in males and 99.03% in females, while the remaining 4% had vitamin D insufficiency. The mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D level was 26.83 ± 12.60 nmol/l in males and 16.03 ± 8.28 nmol/l in females (P-value = 0.0001. Males had a statistically significant higher body mass index as well as consumption of dairy products, while the consumption of seafood was significantly higher in females. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of exposure to the sun. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among medical students

  20. Nutritional status and height, weight and BMI centiles of school-aged children and adolescents of 6-18-years from Kinshasa (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhendwa, Rudahaba Augustin; Roelants, Mathieu; Thomis, Martine; Nkiama, Constant E

    2017-09-01

    The last study to establish centiles of main anthropometric measurements in Kinshasa was conducted over 60 years ago, which questions its current adequacy to describe or monitor growth in this population. To assess the nutritional status of school-aged children and adolescents and to estimate centile curves of height, weight and body mass index (BMI). A representative sample of 7541 school-aged children and adolescents (48% boys) aged 6-18 years was measured between 2010-2013. Smooth centiles of height, weight and BMI-for-age were estimated with the LMS method and compared with the WHO 2007 reference. Nutritional status was assessed by comparing measurements of height and BMI against the appropriate WHO cut-offs. Compared to the WHO reference, percentiles of height and BMI were generally lower. This difference was larger in boys than in girls and increased as they approached adolescence. The prevalence of short stature ( 1 SD) was higher in girls (8.6%) than in boys (4.5%). Children from Kinshasa fall below WHO centile references. This study established up-to-date centile curves for height, weight and BMI by age in children and adolescents. These reference curves describe the current status of these anthropometric markers and can be used as a basis for comparison in future studies.