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Sample records for spot water sampling

  1. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  2. Dried blood spots on carboxymethyl cellulose sheets: Rapid sample preparation based on dissolution and precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund Ask, Kristine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This short communication describes the use of carboxymethyl cellulose sheets as sampling material for dried blood spots. Whole blood, spiked with quetiapine, a hydrophobic and basic small molecule drug substance, was spotted on the sheet and subsequently dried. The dried spot was then almost...... completely dissolved in acidified aqueous solution. It was shown that the dissolved polymer, together with major blood components can easily be precipitated and removed with acetonitrile. The presented sampling on a water-soluble biopolymer derivative followed by precipitation resulted in a simple protocol...

  3. Plasma androgen concentrations in initial samples from spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-01-31

    Jan 31, 1990 ... 1991,26(1). Plasma androgen concentrations in initial samples from spotted hyaenas immobilized with Zoletil (CI-744) reflect hormonal status estimated by GnRH challenge and immobilization stress response. A.S. van Jaarsveld * and J.D. Skinner. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria ...

  4. Estimating population salt intake in India using spot urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kristina S; Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations. Salt intake data from the 24-h urine collections and spot urine equations were weighted to provide estimates of salt intake for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 957 individuals provided a complete 24-h urine collection and a spot urine sample. Weighted mean salt intake based on the 24-h urine collection, was 8.59 (95% confidence interval 7.73-9.45) and 9.46 g/day (8.95-9.96) in Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on the Tanaka equation [9.04 (8.63-9.45) and 9.79 g/day (9.62-9.96) for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively], the Mage equation [8.80 (7.67-9.94) and 10.19 g/day (95% CI 9.59-10.79)], the INTERSALT equation [7.99 (7.61-8.37) and 8.64 g/day (8.04-9.23)] and the INTERSALT equation with potassium [8.13 (7.74-8.52) and 8.81 g/day (8.16-9.46)] were all within 1 g/day of the estimate based upon 24-h collections. For the Toft equation, estimates were 1-2 g/day higher [9.94 (9.24-10.64) and 10.69 g/day (9.44-11.93)] and for the Kawasaki equation they were 3-4 g/day higher [12.14 (11.30-12.97) and 13.64 g/day (13.15-14.12)]. In urban and rural areas in North and South India, most spot urine-based equations provided reasonable estimates of mean population salt intake. Equations that did not provide good estimates may have failed because specimen collection was not aligned with the original method.

  5. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads

    2017-01-01

    in venous blood. Samples with different hematocrit were spotted onto filter paper to assess hematocrit effect. RESULTS: The established method was precise and accurate for measurement of most elements in DBS. There was a significant but relatively weak correlation between measurement of the elements Mg, K......BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. METHODS: Elements were...... extracted from punches and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was evaluated with quality controls with defined element concentration and blood spiked with elements to assess accuracy and imprecision. DBS element concentrations were compared with concentrations...

  6. Water for animal products: a blind spot in water policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-09-01

    We know from land, energy and climate studies that the livestock sector plays a substantial role in deforestation, biodiversity loss and climate change. More recently it has become clear that livestock also significantly contributes to humanity’s water footprint, water pollution and water scarcity. Jalava et al (Environ. Res. Lett. 9 074016) show that considerable water savings can be achieved by reducing the fraction of animal products in our diet. The findings are in line with a few earlier studies on water use in relation to diets. As yet, this insight has not been taken forward in national water policies, which focus on ‘sustainable production’ rather than ‘sustainable consumption’. Most studies and practical efforts focus on increasing water-use efficiency in crop production (more crop per drop) and feed conversion efficiency in the livestock sector (more meat with less feed). Water-use efficiency in the food system as a whole (more nutritional value per drop) remains a blind spot.

  7. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  8. Design of an online spot air sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, D.P.; Govalkar, Atul; Yadav, S.A.; Mukherjee, Govinda; Murali, S.; Babu, D.A.R.; Prasad, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    In all the alpha handling facilities spot air sampling is essential while clearing a lab consequent to week end ventilation shut down or subsequent to completion of work/operations goes inside the facility. The sampling head is designed for 5 micron particles. Following pints are noticed over a period of such operational activities: Health Physicist goes inside a lab with a half face mask whose protection factor is 10, thereby useful for lab air activity up to ten DACs. Many times HP goes inside the lab when activity is more which is highly unsafe. On many occasions simultaneously a number of samples have to be taken by HP from a large number of laboratories inside the facility or for any special job where continuous radiological protection is required. Based on this it is proposed to design a sampling system which will overcome the above limitations. The design of the sampling head has been carried out which is for 5 micron particle size. The pump which is available in the existing facilities can be utilized. An innovative way of counting for large number of samples is fabricated in the RHC wing, RMD which can count ten samples at a time. Removal and counting of the sample may be carried out in a similar sampling carousel which is being used in RHC Unit, Radiometallurgy wing successfully with a little modification. In the proposed system, three samples can be operated in-line such that health physics intervention during the active operation would be minimum and during alarm situations (i.e. on the DAC level) proper protective equipment shall be advised by health physicist or he may suggest any other protective action. This type of online monitors will help in establishing the airborne activity inside the lab where special jobs are being carried out which will provide maximum protection to the lab personnel as well as to the health physicist who supervises the entire operation

  9. IR analyzer spots heavy water leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A correlation spectrometer developed by Barringer Research Ltd. (in collaboration with Atomic Energy of Canada and Ontario Hydro) is used to measure HDO concentrations in DTO in the final (distillation) stage of heavy-water production. A unit has been installed at Bruce Heavy Water Plant. Previously, such spectrometers had been installed to detect heavy-water leaks in CANDU reactors. The principle on which the instrument works is explained, with illustrations. It works by comparing the absorption at 2.9 μm, due to HDO, with that at 2.6 μm, due to both HDO and D 2 O. (N.D.H.)

  10. Reactor water sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor water sampling device for sampling reactor water in an in-core monitor (neutron measuring tube) housing in a BWR type reactor. The upper end portion of a drain pipe of the reactor water sampling device is attached detachably to an in-core monitor flange. A push-up rod is inserted in the drain pipe vertically movably. A sampling vessel and a vacuum pump are connected to the lower end of the drain pipe. A vacuum pump is operated to depressurize the inside of the device and move the push-up rod upwardly. Reactor water in the in-core monitor housing flows between the drain pipe and the push-up rod and flows into the sampling vessel. With such a constitution, reactor water in the in-core monitor housing can be sampled rapidly with neither opening the lid of the reactor pressure vessel nor being in contact with air. Accordingly, operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.N.)

  11. Comparison of Proteins in Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples by LC/MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.

  12. Comparison of Spot and Time Weighted Averaging (TWA Sampling with SPME-GC/MS Methods for Trihalomethane (THM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don-Roger Parkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected and analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature and trihalomethanes (THMs during the fall of 2014 at two monitored municipal drinking water source ponds. Both spot (or grab and time weighted average (TWA sampling methods were assessed over the same two day sampling time period. For spot sampling, replicate samples were taken at each site and analyzed within 12 h of sampling by both Headspace (HS- and direct (DI- solid phase microextraction (SPME sampling/extraction methods followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. For TWA, a two day passive on-site TWA sampling was carried out at the same sampling points in the ponds. All SPME sampling methods undertaken used a 65-µm PDMS/DVB SPME fiber, which was found optimal for THM sampling. Sampling conditions were optimized in the laboratory using calibration standards of chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, prepared in aqueous solutions from analytical grade samples. Calibration curves for all methods with R2 values ranging from 0.985–0.998 (N = 5 over the quantitation linear range of 3–800 ppb were achieved. The different sampling methods were compared for quantification of the water samples, and results showed that DI- and TWA- sampling methods gave better data and analytical metrics. Addition of 10% wt./vol. of (NH42SO4 salt to the sampling vial was found to aid extraction of THMs by increasing GC peaks areas by about 10%, which resulted in lower detection limits for all techniques studied. However, for on-site TWA analysis of THMs in natural waters, the calibration standard(s ionic strength conditions, must be carefully matched to natural water conditions to properly quantitate THM concentrations. The data obtained from the TWA method may better reflect actual natural water conditions.

  13. Water for animal products: a blind spot in water policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    We know from land, energy and climate studies that the livestock sector plays a substantial role in deforestation, biodiversity loss and climate change. More recently it has become clear that livestock also significantly contributes to humanity’s water footprint, water pollution and water scarcity.

  14. Investigations into the environmental conditions experienced during ambient sample transport: impact to dried blood spot sample shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Chester L; Dopson, Wesley; Kemp, Daniel C; Lewis, Mark; Lad, Rakesh; Overvold, Carol

    2011-07-01

    Prior to bioanalysis, sample transport and storage are critical considerations in any pharmacokinetic or toxicokinetic study design. Care must be taken to ensure the shipment is properly packaged and tracked to make certain it arrives at the desired, final destination in the appropriate timeframe, and that the integrity of the sample is not compromised. When dealing with biological specimens, environmental conditions may have a deleterious effect on the stability and conditions of the sample. Currently, frozen plasma or blood samples are the matrix of choice within the pharmaceutical industry for analysis within both preclinical and clinical trials. Liquid samples are shipped and received frozen and, therefore, the assumption is made that the frozen conditions are maintained throughout the entire transit process. Dried blood spot and dried matrix spot samples are becoming popular alternatives to plasma sampling in many small- and even large-molecule applications. With the implementation of dried blood spot and dried matrix spot samples, shipping and storage occurs under ambient conditions. In this article we discuss various shipping containers for these samples, illustrate the environmental extremes encountered during the shipping process, demonstrate a cost-effective method of monitoring both temperature and humidity, and discuss validation steps that may be implemented to minimize the impact of these variables on your study design.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum HRP2 ELISA for analysis of dried blood spot samples in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lauren E; Markwalter, Christine F; Kimmel, Danielle W; Mudenda, Lwiindi; Mbambara, Saidon; Thuma, Philip E; Wright, David W

    2017-08-23

    Dried blood spots are commonly used for sample collection in clinical and non-clinical settings. This method is simple, and biomolecules in the samples remain stable for months at room temperature. In the field, blood samples for the study and diagnosis of malaria are often collected on dried blood spot cards, so development of a biomarker extraction and analysis method is needed. A simple extraction procedure for the malarial biomarker Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) from dried blood spots was optimized to achieve maximum extraction efficiency. This method was used to assess the stability of HRP2 in dried blood spots. Furthermore, 328 patient samples made available from rural Zambia were analysed for HRP2 using the developed method. These samples were collected at the initial administration of artemisinin-based combination therapy and at several points following treatment. An average extraction efficiency of 70% HRP2 with a low picomolar detection limit was achieved. In specific storage conditions HRP2 was found to be stable in dried blood spots for at least 6 months. Analysis of patient samples showed the method to have a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 89% when compared with microscopy, and trends in HRP2 clearance after treatment were observed. The dried blood spot ELISA for HRP2 was found to be sensitive, specific and accurate. The method was effectively used to assess biomarker clearance characteristics in patient samples, which prove it to be ideal for gaining further insight into the disease and epidemiological applications.

  16. Quality standards in Biobanking: authentication by genetic profiling of blood spots from donor's original sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sergio; Valverde, Laura; Odriozola, Adrian; Elcoroaristizabal, Xabier; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2010-07-01

    The field of Biobanking requires extensive work to maintain traceability of samples. However, sometimes the necessity to authenticate a sample may arise. To address these circumstances, we herein present a method for authenticating derivatives by using a blood spot from each donor, attached to a sample authentication form, by means of genetic profiling. Blood spots are collected at the time a blood sample is donated at a health centre and before processing the blood sample at the biobank. To test the validity of our approach over time, we analyzed 26 blood spots stored at room temperature in our facilities for more than 15 years. DNA was successfully extracted from the three storage materials tested in this study and 15 STR markers plus amelogenin were subsequently analyzed. The storage of a small blood spot attached to a sample authentication form proved to be efficient for genetic profiling and, therefore, may constitute a long-lasting (at least 15 years), cost-effective and effortless approach for genetic authentication of samples in biobanks.

  17. Genome-wide scans using archived neonatal dried blood spot samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiuf Carsten

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of disease susceptible genes requires access to DNA from numerous well-characterised subjects. Archived residual dried blood spot samples from national newborn screening programs may provide DNA from entire populations and medical registries the corresponding clinical information. The amount of DNA available in these samples is however rarely sufficient for reliable genome-wide scans, and whole-genome amplification may thus be necessary. This study assess the quality of DNA obtained from different amplification protocols by evaluating fidelity and robustness of the genotyping of 610,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, using the Illumina Infinium HD Human610-Quad BeadChip. Whole-genome amplified DNA from 24 neonatal dried blood spot samples stored between 15 to 25 years was tested, and high-quality genomic DNA from 8 of the same individuals was used as reference. Results Using 3.2 mm disks from dried blood spot samples the optimal DNA-extraction and amplification protocol resulted in call-rates between 99.15% – 99.73% (mean 99.56%, N = 16, and conflicts with reference DNA in only three per 10,000 genotype calls. Conclusion Whole-genome amplified DNA from archived neonatal dried blood spot samples can be used for reliable genome-wide scans and is a cost-efficient alternative to collecting new samples.

  18. Evaluation of market samples of ′Yashada bhasma′ using ′Namburi Phased Spot Test′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Bhojashettar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yashada bhasma (Calx of Yashada i.e. Zinc which has its main indication in Prameha (Diabetes and Netra vikaras (Eye disorders was prepared according to the prescription in the Ayurvedic classics and subjected to various bhasma parikshas, including the Namburi Phased Spot Test (NPST, one of the qualitative tests described for various Ayurvedic preparations. NPST helps differentiate between, and thus identify, various bhasmas. It depends upon the pattern of the spot, which develops after a specific chemical reaction. Three market samples of Yashada bhasma, which were said to be Parada marita (incinerated using Mercury, were also subjected to the above tests and results compared. The various bhasmas exhibited marked differences in colour, and though NPST yielded desired results for all the samples, there were differences in their spot patterns and colour. The bhasma prepared in our department produced the most accurate results.

  19. Quantitative determination of atenolol in dried blood spot samples by LC-HRMS: a potential method for assessing medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Graham; Cocks, Elizabeth; Tanna, Sangeeta

    2012-05-15

    The use of blood spot collection cards was investigated as a means of obtaining small volume samples for the quantification of therapeutic drugs for assessing medication adherence. A liquid chromatography-high resolution TOF mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method, based on the measurement at the accurate mass to charge ratio of the target analyte, was used to ensure specificity for atenolol in the dried blood spot (DBS) samples. A working method was developed and validated. For the preparation of DBS samples whole blood spiked with analyte was used to produce 30 μl blood spots on specimen collection cards. A 5mm disc was cut from the dried blood spot and extracted using methanol:water (60:40, v/v) containing the internal standard, atenolol-d(7). Extracts were vortexed, sonicated and then centrifuged. Gradient chromatographic elution was achieved using an Ascentis Express C18 100mm×2.1mm column and a mobile phase flow rate of 0.2 ml/min and the column oven temperature at 30 °C. MS detection was carried out in electrospray positive ion mode for target ions at accurate mass m/z 267.1703 for atenolol and 274.2143 for the IS. Drug extraction efficiency from spiked blood spots was demonstrated to be 96±5% and the drug was stable in DBS for at least 10 weeks. The developed LC-HRMS method was linear within the tested calibration range of 25-1500 ng/ml and validation showed the accuracy (relative error) and precision (coefficient of variation) values were within the pre-defined limits of ≤ 5% at all concentrations with a limit of quantification of 25 ng/ml. Factors with potential to affect drug quantification measurements such as the matrix effects, volume of blood applied onto the collection card and effect of different sampling cards were investigated. The developed LC-HRMS method was applied to blood spots on sampling card taken from adult healthy volunteers previously administered a 50mg atenolol tablet and a DBS concentration-time profile was obtained for atenolol

  20. Reduction of Radiation Exposure Using Dynamic Trace Digital Angiography and Spot Fluoroscopy During Adrenal Venous Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Satoru; Endo, Kenji; Suzaki, Shingo; Ishizaki, Umiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nishina, Yu; Sakai, Shuji

    2017-05-01

    To compare radiation exposure of adrenal venous sampling (AVS) using dynamic trace digital angiography (DTDA) and spot fluoroscopy with that using conventional methods. AVS was performed in 11 patients using DTDA and spot fluoroscopy (Group A) and 11 patients using conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with collimation (Group B). Radiation exposure and image quality of adrenal venography using a five-point scale were compared between the groups. The acquisition dose-area product (DAP) using DTDA and fluoro-DAP using spot fluoroscopy in Group A were lower than those using conventional DSA (5.3 ± 3.7 vs. 29.1 ± 20.1 Gy cm 2 , p fluoroscopy without sacrificing image quality.

  1. Dried blood spots of pooled samples for RHD gene screening in blood donors of mixed ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Malta, M C F; Araujo, N C Fidélis; Vieira, O V Neves; Schmidt, L Cayres; Gonçalves, P de Cassia; Martins, M Lobato

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a strategy for RHD gene screening based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using dried blood spots of pooled samples. Molecular analysis of blood donors may be used to detect RHD variants among the presumed D-negative individuals. RHD genotyping using pooled samples is a strategy to test a large number of samples at a more reasonable cost. RHD gene detection based on real-time PCR using dried blood spots of pooled samples was standardised and used to evaluate 1550 Brazilian blood donors phenotyped as RhD-negative. Positive results were re-evaluated by retesting single samples using real-time PCR and conventional multiplex PCR to amplify five RHD-specific exons. PCR-sequence-specific primers was used to amplify RHDψ allele. We devised a strategy for RHD gene screening using dried blood spots of five pooled samples. Among 1550 serologically D-negative blood donors, 58 (3.74%) had the RHD gene. The non-functional RHDψ allele was detected in 47 samples (3.02%). The present method is a promising strategy to detect the RHD gene among presumed RhD-negative blood donors, particularly for populations with African ancestry. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  2. Evaluation of spot and passive sampling for monitoring, flux estimation and risk assessment of pesticides within the constraints of a typical regulatory monitoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zulin; Troldborg, Mads; Yates, Kyari; Osprey, Mark; Kerr, Christine; Hallett, Paul D; Baggaley, Nikki; Rhind, Stewart M; Dawson, Julian J C; Hough, Rupert L

    2016-11-01

    In many agricultural catchments of Europe and North America, pesticides occur at generally low concentrations with significant temporal variation. This poses several challenges for both monitoring and understanding ecological risks/impacts of these chemicals. This study aimed to compare the performance of passive and spot sampling strategies given the constraints of typical regulatory monitoring. Nine pesticides were investigated in a river currently undergoing regulatory monitoring (River Ugie, Scotland). Within this regulatory framework, spot and passive sampling were undertaken to understand spatiotemporal occurrence, mass loads and ecological risks. All the target pesticides were detected in water by both sampling strategies. Chlorotoluron was observed to be the dominant pesticide by both spot (maximum: 111.8ng/l, mean: 9.35ng/l) and passive sampling (maximum: 39.24ng/l, mean: 4.76ng/l). The annual pesticide loads were estimated to be 2735g and 1837g based on the spot and passive sampling data, respectively. The spatiotemporal trend suggested that agricultural activities were the primary source of the compounds with variability in loads explained in large by timing of pesticide applications and rainfall. The risk assessment showed chlorotoluron and chlorpyrifos posed the highest ecological risks with 23% of the chlorotoluron spot samples and 36% of the chlorpyrifos passive samples resulting in a Risk Quotient greater than 0.1. This suggests that mitigation measures might need to be taken to reduce the input of pesticides into the river. The overall comparison of the two sampling strategies supported the hypothesis that passive sampling tends to integrate the contaminants over a period of exposure and allows quantification of contamination at low concentration. The results suggested that within a regulatory monitoring context passive sampling was more suitable for flux estimation and risk assessment of trace contaminants which cannot be diagnosed by spot

  3. Measurement and application of purine derivatives: Creatinine ratio in spot urine samples of ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.B.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N.; Makkar, H.P.S.

    2004-01-01

    The daily excretion of purine derivatives in urine has been used to estimate the supply of microbial protein to ruminant animals. The method provides a simple and non-invasive tool to indicate the nutritional status of farm animals. However due to the need for complete collection of urine the potential application at farm level is restricted. Research conducted under the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project has indicated that it is possible to use the purine derivatives:creatinine ratio measured in several spot urine samples collected within a day, as an index of microbial protein supply in a banding system for farm application. Some theoretical and experimental aspects in the measurement of purine derivatives:creatinine ratio in spot urine samples and the possible application of the banding system at the farm level are discussed. (author)

  4. Improving FoRe: A New Inlet Design for Filtering Samples through Individual Microarray Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Victoria; Habegger, Marco; Schmidt, Marco; Vörös, János

    2017-03-24

    In this publication we present an improvement to our previously introduced vertical flow microarray, the FoRe array, which capitalizes on the fusion of immunofiltration and densely packed micron test sites. Filtering samples through individual microarray spots allows us to rapidly analyze dilute samples with high-throughput and high signal-to-noise. Unlike other flowthrough microarrays, in the FoRe design samples are injected into micron channels and sequentially exposed to different targets. This arrangement makes it possible to increase the sensitivity of the microarray by simply increasing the sample volume or to rapidly reconcentrate samples after preprocessing steps dilute the analyte. Here we present a new inlet system which allows us to increase the analyzed sample volume without compromising the micron spot size and dense layout. We combined this with a model assay to demonstrate that the device is sensitive to the amount of antigen, and as a result, sample volume directly correlates to sensitivity. We introduced a simple technique for analysis of blood, which previously clogged the nanometer-sized pores, requiring only microliter volumes expected from an infant heel prick. A drop of blood is mixed with buffer to separate the plasma before reconcentrating the sample on the microarray spot. We demonstrated the success of this procedure by spiking TNF-α into blood and achieved a limit of detection of 18 pM. Compared to traditional protein microarrays, the FoRe array is still inexpensive, customizable, and simple to use, and thanks to these improvements has a broad range of applications from small animal studies to environmental monitoring.

  5. Comparison of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc, and creatinine concentration in 24-h and spot urine samples in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich, Jasminka Z; Blanusa, Maja; Orlić, Zeljka Crncević; Orct, Tatjana; Kostial, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The 24-h urine sample is considered as the most reliable material for testing many but not necessarily all constituents in urine. However, its collection is tedious for both patients and research participants. The aim of this study was to compare concentrations of essential elements calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and zinc (Zn) in 24-h and spot urine samples. Urine samples were collected from 143 generally healthy women, aged 30-79 years. Fasting spot urine was collected immediately after the end of the 24-h collection, therefore being of the same content as the first morning urine which ended the 24-h collection. Elements were analyzed by flame atomic absorption/emission spectrometry and expressed as mg/g and/or mmol/mol of creatinine (Cr). Spearman rank order correlations between 24-h and spot urine were carried out for each element. Ratios of elements in 24-h to spot urine samples were calculated to estimate the element-proportion of spot in the 24-h sample. All coefficients of correlation between 24-h and spot urine of measured elements and Cr were significant (purine samples for each element (except K) were similar and close to 2, indicating uniform proportion of elements from spot urine sample in the 24-h sample. In addition, a high correlation between various pairs of elements was obtained in both 24-h and spot urine; the highest being between Na/Ca (0.435) and (0.578), respectively. This is in accordance with theoretical presumptions and previous findings regarding those relationships. Although replacing burdensome 24-h urine collection with spot urine sampling might not provide the solution in all cases, our results show that for the elements analyzed, spot urine could be a reliable alternative.

  6. Feasibility of self-sampled dried blood spot and saliva samples sent by mail in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Bastani, Nasser Ezzatkhah; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Gundersen, Thomas Erik; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske

    2015-04-11

    In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population-based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible

  7. Feasibility of self-sampled dried blood spot and saliva samples sent by mail in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Bastani, Nasser Ezzatkhah; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Gundersen, Thomas Erik; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske

    2015-01-01

    In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population–based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible

  8. Population variability of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A concentrations in spot urine samples versus 24- or 48-h collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista L Yorita; Lorber, Matthew; Koch, Holger M; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Morgan, Marsha K

    2012-11-01

    Human exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) can be assessed through urinary biomonitoring, but methods to infer daily intakes assume that spot sample concentrations are comparable to daily average concentrations. We evaluate this assumption using human biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States (US). The German data comprised three regional studies with spot samples and one with full-day samples analyzed for phthalate metabolites. The US data included: a study on DEHP metabolites and BPA involving eight persons supplying all urine voids (from which 24-h samples were constructed) for seven consecutive days; NHANES spot sample data on DEHP metabolites and BPA; and a regional study of children with 48-h samples analyzed for BPA. In the German data, measures of central tendency differed, but spot and 24-h samples showed generally comparable variance including 95th percentiles and maxima equidistant from central tendency measures. In contrast, the US adult data from the eight-person study showed similar central tendencies for phthalate metabolites and BPA, but generally greater variability for the spot samples, including higher 95th percentiles and maxima. When comparing children's BPA concentrations in NHANES spot and 48-h samples, distributions showed similar central tendency and variability. Overall, spot urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites and BPA have variability roughly comparable with corresponding 24-h average concentrations obtained from a comparable population, suggesting that spot samples can be used to characterize population distributions of intakes. However, the analysis also suggests that caution should be exercised when interpreting the high end of spot sample data sets.

  9. [Clinical application of protein-to-creatinine ratio in spot urine samples for preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Lin; Liang, Feng-bing; Yang, Cui-yu

    2012-08-07

    To evaluate the clinical application of protein-to-creatinine ratio (P/Cr) in spot urine samples so as to check whether it can replace urine protein excretion in 24 h collections for the diagnosis and screening of preeclampsia. The investigators selected 100 cases of pregnant women with preeclampsia and 36 cases of normal pregnant women examined at Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital over the last two years. The correlations between P/Cr in first morning urine samples and urinary protein excretion in 24 h collections were analyzed. The cutoff values of P/Cr in first morning urine samples for screening preeclampsia of 0.3 g and 5 g in urinary protein excretion in 24 h collections were determined by a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. A highly significant correlation existed between P/Cr in first morning urine samples and urinary protein excretion in 24 h collections. By the ROC curve analysis, the P/Cr of 0.34 g/g and 2.08 g/g in first morning urine samples represented the most appropriate threshold for detecting the urinary protein excretion of 0.3 g and 5 g in 24 h collections. The P/Cr in spot urine samples can replace urinary protein excretion in 24 h collections. It is a simple and reliable tool of diagnosis and follow-up for preeclampsia.

  10. Simplified sample preparation using frame spotting method for direct counting of total bacteria by fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Fumito; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Kenzaka, Takehiko; Tani, Katsuji; Nasu, Masao

    2004-12-01

    A new preparation method for direct counting of bacteria in liquid samples with fluorescence microscope was developed using a glass slide coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and ring-shaped polyester seal as a retainer. The experimental steps of this method were spotting samples onto the coated slides with the seal, drying under vacuum, staining with SYBR Green II, drying and covering with immersion oil and coverslip to allow counting. This simplified method provided consistent results when compared with the conventional filtration method for fluorescence microscopy, and is rapid, inexpensive and reproducible.

  11. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    increased when blood samples were stored for a period of time before the centrifugation, for certain cytokines more than 1000 fold compared to serum and plasma isolated and frozen immediately after venepuncture. The concentrations in serum generally increased more than in plasma. The measurable......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  12. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct in dried blood spot samples of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kathy S; Cai, Wenjie; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) were proposed as potentially viable method for exposure assessment of environmental toxicants in infant and young children. For this study, we validated an experimental protocol to quantify AFB 1 -lysine adduct in DBS samples of AFB 1 -treated F344 rats, as well as samples from human field study. Significant dose-response relationships in AFB 1 -lysine adduct formation were found in DBS samples of rats treated with single- and repeated-dose AFB 1 . AFB 1 -lysine levels in DBS samples were highly correlated with corresponding serum sample levels. The Person coefficients were 0.997 for the single-dose exposure, and 0.996 for the repeated-dose exposure. Levels of AFB 1 -lysine adduct had also good agreement between DBS and serum samples as shown by Bland-Altman plot analysis. For human field study samples (n = 36), a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.784 was found between AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels of DBS and corresponding serum samples. Bland-Altman plots showed the distribution of the log differences between DBS and serum AFB 1 -lysine levels are within 95% confidence intervals. These results showed AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels in DBS cards and serum samples from animals and human samples are comparable, and the DBS technique and analytical protocol is a good means to assess AFB 1 exposure in infant and children populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  14. Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weidong; Mao, Ying Qing; Huang, Ruochun; Duan, Chaohui; Xi, Yun; Yang, Kai; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2014-01-31

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper offer several advantages compared to conventional serum/plasma samples: they do not require any phlebotomy or separation of blood by centrifugation; they are less invasive; they allow sample stability and shipment at room temperature; and they pose a negligible risk of infection with blood-borne viruses, such as HIV, HBV and HCV, to those who handle them. Therefore dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper can be a quick, convenient and inexpensive means of obtaining blood samples for biomarker discovery, disease screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-hospitalized, public health settings. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential application of dried blood spot samples (DBSS) in protein expression profiling using antibody array technology. First, optimal conditions for array assay performance using dried blood spot samples (DBSS) was established, including sample elution buffer, elution time, elution temperature and assay blocking buffer. Second, we analyzed dried blood spot samples (DBSS) using three distinct antibody array platforms, including sandwich-based antibody arrays, quantitative antibody arrays and biotin-label-based antibody arrays. In comparison with paired serum samples, detection of circulating proteins in dried blood spot samples (DBSS) correlated well for both low- and high-abundance proteins on all three antibody array platforms. In conclusion, our study strongly indicates the novel application of multiplex antibody array platforms to analyze dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper represents a viable, cost-effective method for protein profiling, biomarker discovery and disease screening in a large, population-based survey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Robustness of genome-wide scanning using archived dried blood spot samples as a DNA source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Børglum Anders D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The search to identify disease-susceptible genes requires access to biological material from numerous well-characterized subjects. Archived residual dried blood spot (DBS samples, also known as Guthrie cards, from national newborn screening programs may provide a DNA source for entire populations. Combined with clinical information from medical registries, DBS samples could provide a rich source for productive research. However, the amounts of DNA which can be extracted from these precious samples are minute and may be prohibitive for numerous genotypings. Previously, we demonstrated that DBS DNA can be whole-genome amplified and used for reliable genetic analysis on different platforms, including genome-wide scanning arrays. However, it remains unclear whether this approach is workable on a large sample scale. We examined the robustness of using DBS samples for whole-genome amplification following genome-wide scanning, using arrays from Illumina and Affymetrix. Results This study is based on 4,641 DBS samples from the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank, extracted for three separate genome-wide association studies. The amount of amplified DNA was significantly (P Conclusion Our study indicates that archived DBS samples from the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank represent a reliable resource of DNA for whole-genome amplification and subsequent genome-wide association studies. With call-rates equivalent to high quality DNA samples, our results point to new opportunities for using the neonatal biobanks available worldwide in the hunt for genetic components of disease.

  16. Reliable Quantification of the Potential for Equations Based on Spot Urine Samples to Estimate Population Salt Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason Hy

    2016-01-01

    to a standard format. Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations for estimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according to key demographic and clinical......BACKGROUND: Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean...... population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, health status...

  17. Working towards sustainable urban water management: the vulnerability blind spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbeloff, L; Brown, R

    2011-01-01

    The unprecedented water scarcity in Australia coincides with the adoption of a new urban water rhetoric. The 'Security through Diversity' strategy has been adopted in a number of Australian cities as a new and innovative approach to urban water management. Although this strategy offers a more holistic approach to urban water management, in practice, the Security through Diversity strategy is largely being interpreted and implemented in a way that maintains the historical dependence on large scale, centralised water infrastructure and therefore perpetuates existing urban water vulnerabilities. This research explores the implementation of Security through Diversity as the new water scarcity response strategy in the cities of Perth and Melbourne. Through a qualitative study with over sixty-five urban water practitioners, the results reveal that the practitioners have absorbed the new Security through Diversity language whilst maintaining the existing problem and solution framework for urban water management. This can be explained in terms of an entrenched technological path dependency and cognitive lock-in that is preventing practitioners from more comprehensively engaging with the complexities of the Security through Diversity strategy, which is ultimately perpetuating the existing vulnerability of our cities. This paper suggests that greater engagement with the underlying purpose of the security though diversity strategy is a necessary first step to overcome the constraints of the traditional technological paradigm and more effectively reduce the continued vulnerability of Australian cities.

  18. Robustness of genome-wide scanning using archived dried blood spot samples as a DNA source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollegaard, Mads V; Grove, Jakob; Grauholm, Jonas; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Nørgaard, Mette; Benfield, Thomas L; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Mortensen, Preben B; Mors, Ole; Sørensen, Henrik T; Harboe, Zitta B; Børglum, Anders D; Demontis, Ditte; Ørntoft, Torben F; Bisgaard, Hans; Hougaard, David M

    2011-07-04

    The search to identify disease-susceptible genes requires access to biological material from numerous well-characterized subjects. Archived residual dried blood spot (DBS) samples, also known as Guthrie cards, from national newborn screening programs may provide a DNA source for entire populations. Combined with clinical information from medical registries, DBS samples could provide a rich source for productive research. However, the amounts of DNA which can be extracted from these precious samples are minute and may be prohibitive for numerous genotypings. Previously, we demonstrated that DBS DNA can be whole-genome amplified and used for reliable genetic analysis on different platforms, including genome-wide scanning arrays. However, it remains unclear whether this approach is workable on a large sample scale. We examined the robustness of using DBS samples for whole-genome amplification following genome-wide scanning, using arrays from Illumina and Affymetrix. This study is based on 4,641 DBS samples from the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank, extracted for three separate genome-wide association studies. The amount of amplified DNA was significantly (P Biobank represent a reliable resource of DNA for whole-genome amplification and subsequent genome-wide association studies. With call-rates equivalent to high quality DNA samples, our results point to new opportunities for using the neonatal biobanks available worldwide in the hunt for genetic components of disease.

  19. Reduction of Radiation Exposure Using Dynamic Trace Digital Angiography and Spot Fluoroscopy During Adrenal Venous Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Satoru, E-mail: i@imodey.com; Endo, Kenji; Suzaki, Shingo; Ishizaki, Umiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nishina, Yu; Sakai, Shuji [Tokyo Women’s Medical University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine (Radiology) (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeTo compare radiation exposure of adrenal venous sampling (AVS) using dynamic trace digital angiography (DTDA) and spot fluoroscopy with that using conventional methods.Materials and MethodsAVS was performed in 11 patients using DTDA and spot fluoroscopy (Group A) and 11 patients using conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with collimation (Group B). Radiation exposure and image quality of adrenal venography using a five-point scale were compared between the groups.ResultsThe acquisition dose–area product (DAP) using DTDA and fluoro-DAP using spot fluoroscopy in Group A were lower than those using conventional DSA (5.3 ± 3.7 vs. 29.1 ± 20.1 Gy cm{sup 2}, p < 0.001) and collimation (33.3 ± 22.9 vs. 59.1 ± 35.7 Gy cm{sup 2}, p = 0.088) in Group B. The total DAP in Group A was significantly lower than that in Group B (38.6 ± 25.9 vs. 88.2 ± 53.6 Gy cm{sup 2}, p = 0.006). The peak skin dose for patients and operator radiation exposure in Group A were significantly lower than those in Group B (403 ± 340 vs. 771 ± 416 mGy, p = 0.030, and 17.1 ± 14.8 vs. 36.6 ± 21.7 μSv, p = 0.013). The image quality of DTDA (4.4 ± 0.6) was significantly higher than that of digital angiography (3.8 ± 0.9, p = 0.011) and equivalent to that of DSA (4.3 ± 0.8, p = 0.651).ConclusionsRadiation exposure during AVS can be reduced by approximately half for both patients and operators by using DTDA and spot fluoroscopy without sacrificing image quality.

  20. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an 'environmental flow' in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  1. Correlation between Sweet Spots of Glycopeptides and Polymorphism of the Matrix Crystal in MALDI Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikaze, Takashi; Okumura, Hisako; Jinmei, Hiroshi; Amano, Junko

    2012-01-01

    A standard dried-droplet preparation using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA) as the matrix results in a large variation in signal intensity and poor shot-to-shot reproducibility in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). We expected that the differences can be attributed to the nature of the crystal structures in the region of the "sweet spot" within the MALDI samples. 2,5-DHBA crystals with and without analytes on a target plate obtained by means of a dried-droplet preparation contain two polymorphs, which can be distinguished by Raman spectra. In comparing the Raman image with the MS image, a clear correlation between the signal distribution of glycopeptides and hydrophilic peptides and the specific crystal form of 2,5-DHBA could be made. The ionization of hydrophobic peptides appears to proceed in both types of polymorphic crystals. In addition, the derivatization of glycopeptides with a pyrene group enabled us to detect glycopeptides regardless the crystal form. As the result, the number of sweet spots increased and MS spectra with a high signal intensity were obtained. The results suggest that the introduction of a hydrophobic/aromatic moiety to glycopeptides results in a more successful MALDI analysis due to the effective incorporation of the analyte into matrix crystals.

  2. A study of correlations between crude oil spot and futures markets: A rolling sample test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wan, Jieqiu

    2011-10-01

    In this article, we investigate the asymmetries of exceedance correlations and cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot and futures markets. First, employing the test statistic proposed by Hong et al. [Asymmetries in stock returns: statistical tests and economic evaluation, Review of Financial Studies 20 (2007) 1547-1581], we find that the exceedance correlations were overall symmetric. However, the results from rolling windows show that some occasional events could induce the significant asymmetries of the exceedance correlations. Second, employing the test statistic proposed by Podobnik et al. [Quantifying cross-correlations using local and global detrending approaches, European Physics Journal B 71 (2009) 243-250], we find that the cross-correlations were significant even for large lagged orders. Using the detrended cross-correlation analysis proposed by Podobnik and Stanley [Detrended cross-correlation analysis: a new method for analyzing two nonstationary time series, Physics Review Letters 100 (2008) 084102], we find that the cross-correlations were weakly persistent and were stronger between spot and futures contract with larger maturity. Our results from rolling sample test also show the apparent effects of the exogenous events. Additionally, we have some relevant discussions on the obtained evidence.

  3. Estimation of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Nah, Deuk-Young; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Cho, Eun-Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2014-06-20

    The present study evaluated the reliability of equations using spot urine (SU) samples in the estimation of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (24-HUNa). Equations estimating 24-HUNa from SU samples were derived from first-morning SU of 101 participants (52.4 ± 11.1 years, range 24-70 years). Equations developed by us and other investigators were validated with SU samples from a separate group of participants (n = 224, 51.0 ± 10.9 years, range 24-70 years). Linear, quadratic, and cubic equations were derived from first-morning SU samples because these samples had a sodium/creatinine ratio having the highest correlation coefficient for 24-HUNa/creatinine ratio (r = 0.728, p quadratic, and cubic equations developed from our study were not significantly different from measured 24-HUNa, while estimated 24-HUNa by previously developed equations were significantly different from measured 24-HUNa values. The limits of agreement between measured and estimated 24-HUNa by six equations exceeded 100 mmol/24-hour in the Bland-Altman analysis. All equations showed a tendency of under- or over-estimation of 24-HUNa, depending on the level of measured 24-HUNa. Estimation of 24-HUNa from single SU by equations as tested in the present study was found to be inadequate for the estimation of an individual's 24-HUNa.

  4. Validation study of the Tanaka and Kawasaki equations to estimate the daily sodium excretion by a spot urine sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, José Geraldo; Rodrigues, Sérgio Lamêgo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann

    2015-12-01

    To validate Tanaka and Kawasaki's formulas to calculate the salt intake by the sodium/creatinine ratio in spot of urine. Two hundred and seventy two adults (20 - 69 years old; 52.6% women) with 24 h urine collection and two urinary spots collected on the same day (while fasting - spot 1 - or not fasting - spot 2). Anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting blood were measured on the same day. The analysis of agreement between salt consumption measured in the 24 h urine test and urinary spots were determined by the Pearson's correlation (r) and the Bland & Altman method. The mean salt consumption measured by the 24 h sodium excretion was 10.4 ± 5.3 g/day. The correlation between the measured 24 h sodium excretion and the estimation based on spots 1 and 2, respectively, was only moderated according to Tanaka (r = 0.51 and r = 0.55; p salt consumption by Tanaka to increasing salt consumption and conversely, an overestimation of consumption by the Kawasaki formula. The estimation of salt consumption (difference between measured and calculated salt consumption lower than 1 g/day) was adequate only when the consumption was between 9 - 12 g/day (Tanaka) and 12 - 18 g/day (Kawasaki). Spot urine sampling is adequate to estimate salt consumption only among individuals with an actual consumption near the population mean.

  5. Measurements of purine derivatives and creatinine in spot urine samples of Chinese yellow cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Z.; Xi, W.B.; Mo, F.; Liu, J.W.; Yang, Y.F.; Chen, X.B.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using 18 Chinese Yellow Cattle located in 5 farms to study how supplementation of fermentable energy to low quality straw-based rations would improve rumen microbial protein synthesis. Within each farm, the animals were fed on five diets. Diets 1-2 were typical rice straw + by-products used by farmers and were low in fermentable energy content; Diets 3- 5 were more balanced, containing a higher content of fermentable energy. Purine derivatives (PD) and creatinine in spot urine samples were measured. The results showed that the PD to creatinine ratio was significantly higher with Diets 3-5 than with Diets 1-2. Organic matter digestibility and thus organic matter intake was also higher with Diets 3-5 compared to Diets 1-2. The results indicted that the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis could be improved by balancing the diet. (author)

  6. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Batterman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS. Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models.Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80, and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  7. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of dried blood spot samples for hepatitis C virus detection and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Brunna Lemos Crespo; do Espírito-Santo, Márcia Paschoal; Marques, Vanessa Alves; Miguel, Juliana Custódio; da Silva, Elisangela Ferreira; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane Alves; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2016-09-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) could be an excellent alternative for HCV diagnosis, since it is less invasive and can be stored and transported without refrigeration. The aim of this study was to optimize quantitative and qualitative methods for HCV detection in DBS. DBS and serum samples were collected from 99 subjects (59 anti-HCV/HCV RNA positive and 40 seronegative samples). Seven extraction methods and different PCR parameters were evaluated in DBS samples in the quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) developed to amplify the 5' noncoding region of HCV. A qualitative PCR for amplification of NS5B region of HCV was also valued and the nested-PCR sequenced. The qRT-PCR showed good correlation to commercial assay for HCV viral measurement in serum. To quantify HCV RNA in DBS, it was necessary to increase reverse transcriptase and cDNA concentration. HCV RNA quantification in DBS demonstrated sensitivity of 65.9%, 100% of specificity and kappa statistic of 0.65. The median viral load of DBS samples was 5.38 log10 copies/ml (minimum value=1.76 and maximum value=10.48 log10 copies/ml). HCV RNA was detected in NS5B regions and nucleotide sequences obtained in 43 serum and 11 DBS samples. The presence of the same subtype was observed in paired serum and DBS samples. In this study, it was possible to demonstrate that, despite the low sensitivity, the optimized protocol was able to determine the viral load, as well as, the infecting HCV genotype, validating the usefulness of DBS for viral load determination and molecular epidemiology studies of HCV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bridging the Gap between Sample Collection and Laboratory Analysis: Using Dried Blood Spots to Identify Human Exposure to Chemical Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I; Blake, Thomas A; Perez, Jonas W; Crow, Brian S; Shaner, Rebecca L; Coleman, Rebecca M; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2016-05-13

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  10. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  11. Creatinine measurement on dry blood spot sample for chronic kidney disease screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alan Castro Azevedo E; Gómez, Juan Fidel Bencomo; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo; Graciano, Miguel Luis

    2016-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) screening is advisable due to its high morbidity and mortality and is usually performed by sampling blood and urine. Here we present an innovative and simpler method, by measuring creatinine on a dry blood spot on filter paper. One-hundred and six individuals at high risk for CKD were enrolled. The creatinine values obtained using both tests and the demographic data of each participant allowed us to determinate the eGFR. The adopted cutoff for CKD was an eGFR value 96%, predictive negative value 55% and accuracy 92%. By the CKD-EPI equation the sensitivity was 94%, specificity 55%, predictive positive value 94%, predictive negative value 55% and accuracy 90%. A Bland and Altman analysis showed a relatively narrow range of creatinine values differences (+ 0.68mg/dl to -0.55mg/dl) inside the ± 1.96 SD, without systematic differences. Measurement of creatinine on dry blood sample is an easily feasible non-invasive diagnostic test with good accuracy that may be useful to screen chronic kidney disease.

  12. High explosive spot test analyses of samples from Operable Unit (OU) 1111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, D.; Haywood, W.; Powell, J.; Harris, B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation has been completed of environmental contaminants at selected sites within the Group DX-10 (formally Group M-7) area. Soil samples taken from specific locations at this detonator facility were analyzed for harmful metals and screened for explosives. A sanitary outflow, a burn pit, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) production outflow field, an active firing chamber, an inactive firing chamber, and a leach field were sampled. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to obtain semi-quantitative concentrations of metals in the soil. Two field spot-test kits for explosives were used to assess the presence of energetic materials in the soil and in items found at the areas tested. PETN is the major explosive in detonators manufactured and destroyed at Los Alamos. No measurable amounts of PETN or other explosives were detected in the soil, but items taken from the burn area and a high-energy explosive (HE)/chemical sump were contaminated. The concentrations of lead, mercury, and uranium are given.

  13. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  14. Estimasi Sintesis Protein Mikrobia Rumen Menggunakan Ekskresi Derivat Purin dalam Urin dengan Teknik Spot Sampling pada Kambing Bligon dan Kambing Kejobong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianestu Putra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study were aimed to determine the correlation between concentration of purine derivatives (PD in spot sample with PD total excretion in Bligon and Kejobong goats and determine the appropriate sampling time, in order to predicting microbial protein synthesis in both breeds. Six male Bligon goats and six male Kejobong goats with age range from 8 to 14 months and body weight from 16 to 21 kg were placed in metabolism cages. Peanut straw and water were given to both groups of goats through ad libitum feeding and drinking. The study was done in 14 days for adaptation, 3 days for collection. Sample of feeds, feed residues, and feces were collected and then analyzed to determine dry matter and organic matter content. Spot urine and the total daily urine samples were also collected. Samples collection of spot sampling technique was run by taking the urine periodically with 3 hours intervals at 24 hours. Urine samples were analyzed for the content of creatinine and PD which includes allantoin, uric acid, xanthine, and hypoxanthine. Data were tested for the correlation between concentration of PD spot urine sample with total PD daily excretion. It is known that the concentration of PD and creatinine (µmol/L for Bligon were 1,418.40 and 202.85 respectively, while for Kejobong were 1,547.40 and 219.68 respectively. Total excretion of PD, allantoin, uric acid, xanthyne and hypoxanthine and creatinine (µmol/W0,75/day for Bligon were 114.14, 95.86, 17.31, 0.97, and 16.40 respectively, with microbial protein synthesis efficiency was 4.61 g N/kg degraded of organic matter in rumen (DOMR. Total excretion of PD allantoin, uric acid, xanthyne and hypoxanthine and creatinine (µmol/W0,75/day for Kejobong were 180.18, 158.17, 20.60, 1.40, and 24.87 respectively, with microbial protein synthesis efficiency was 6.90 g N/kg DOMR. Based on this study also known that the best time for spot sampling to determine the total excretion of PD in Bligon was in the range

  15. Radon measurement in Malaysia water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A.B.; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    This paper reported the results of the measurement of radon in local water. The water samples collected were rainwater, river water, seawater, well water or ground water at area of State of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The samples were collected in scintillation cell ZnS(Ag) through Radon Degassing Unit RDU 200. Alpha activity was counted with scintillation counters RD 200 at energy 5.5 MeV. (author)

  16. Cooling water of power plant creates "hot spots" for tropical fishes and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Sebastian; Kochmann, Judith; Kuhn, Thomas; Dörge, Dorian D; Plath, Martin; Miesen, Friedrich W; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Thermally altered water bodies can function as "hot spots" where non-native species are establishing self-sustaining populations beyond their tropical and subtropical native regions. Whereas many tropical fish species have been found in these habitats, the introduction of non-native parasites often remains undetected. Here, n = 77 convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) were sampled by electro-fishing at two sites from a thermally altered stream in Germany and examined for parasite fauna and feeding ecology. Stomach content analysis suggests an opportunistic feeding strategy of A. nigrofasciata: while plant material dominated the diet at the warm water inlet (∼30 °C), relative contributions of insects, plants, and crustaceans were balanced 3 km downstream (∼27 °C). The most abundant non-native parasite species was the tropical nematode Camallanus cotti with P = 11.90 % and P = 80.00 % at the inlet and further downstream, respectively. Additionally, nematode larvae of Anguillicoloides crassus and one specimen of the subtropical species Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were isolated. A. nigrofasciata was also highly infected with the native parasite Acanthocephalus anguillae, which could be linked to high numbers of the parasite's intermediate host Asellus aquaticus. The aim of this study was to highlight the risk and consequences of the release and establishment of ornamental fish species for the introduction and spread of non-indigenous metazoan parasites using the convict cichlid as a model species. Furthermore, the spread of non-native parasites into adjacent fish communities needs to be addressed in the future as first evidence of Camallanus cotti in native fish species was also found.

  17. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  18. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  19. Use of protein: creatinine ratio in a random spot urine sample for predicting significant proteinuria in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, B K; Adhikari, S; Gyawali, P; Shrestha, R; Poudel, B; Khanal, M

    2010-06-01

    Present study was undertaken during a period of 6 months (September 2008-February 2009) to see an correlation of 24 hours urine protein estimation with random spot protein-creatinine (P:C) ratio among a diabetic patients. The study comprised of 144 patients aged 30-70 years, recruited from Kantipur hospital, Kathmandu. The 24-hr urine sample was collected, followed by spot random urine sample. Both samples were analyzed for protein and creatinine excretion. An informed consent was taken from all participants. Sixteen inadequately collected urine samples as defined by (predicted creatinine--measured creatinine)/predicted creatinine > 0.2 were excluded from analysis. The Spearman's rank correlation between the spot urine P:C ratio and 24-hr total protein were performed by the Statistical Package for Social Service. At the P:C ratio cutoff of 0.15 and reference method (24-hr urine protein) cutoff of 150 mg/day, the correlation coefficient was found to be 0.892 (p urine collection but the cutoff should be carefully selected for different patients group under different laboratory procedures and settings.

  20. Genetic toxicity in surface water from Guaiba Hydrographic Region under the influence of industrial, urban and agricultural sewage in the Drosophila Wing-Spot Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Sinigaglia, Marialva; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena

    2006-01-01

    Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of surface waters in the Guaiba Hydrographic Region (RS, Brazil) was investigated using the SMART in Drosophila melanogaster. Two positive results in Cai River (September 2000 and August 2001) and in Taquari River (August 2001 and February 2002) - linked to direct recombinagenic toxicants were observed. In Jacui samples, an indirect mutagenic and recombinagenic action was detected in a September 2000 collection and a direct recombinational activity was observed in February 2002. Also in February 2002 - samples from Diluvio Brook and Guaiba Lake (GPC) were able to induce wing spots by mitotic recombinagenesis. The former sampling site showed toxicants to have a direct action, and the latter an increment in mitotic recombination that depended on metabolic action. The SMART wing test shows that all positive responses were mainly related to homologous mitotic recombination. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of environmental mutagenesis

  1. Water Sample Points, Navajo Nation, 2000, USACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This point shapefile presents the locations and results for water samples collected on the Navajo Nation by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for the US...

  2. Passive sampling: more information about the water quality; Muestreo pasivo: mas informacion sobre la calidad de las aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, C.; Llorca, J.; Valor, I.

    2007-07-01

    Spot sampling is the methodology currently established and accepted for regulatory and law organisms. Nevertheless it only gives a snapshot of the pollutant levels at particular sampling sites and consequently episodic pollutants events can be missed, but it is also time-consuming and can be very costly, especially when the first problem is solved by increasing the frequency of sampling or installing automatic sampling systems. Passive sampling represents a promising alternative to spot sampling able to give wider temporal and spatial information of the water quality. (Author) 11 refs.

  3. Water sampling techniques for continuous monitoring of pesticides in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šunjka Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good ecological and chemical status of water represents the most important aim of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which implies respect of water quality standards at the level of entire river basin (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EC. This especially refers to the control of pesticide residues in surface waters. In order to achieve the set goals, a continuous monitoring program that should provide a comprehensive and interrelated overview of water status should be implemented. However, it demands the use of appropriate analysis techniques. Until now, the procedure for sampling and quantification of residual pesticide quantities in aquatic environment was based on the use of traditional sampling techniques that imply periodical collecting of individual samples. However, this type of sampling provides only a snapshot of the situation in regard to the presence of pollutants in water. As an alternative, the technique of passive sampling of pollutants in water, including pesticides has been introduced. Different samplers are available for pesticide sampling in surface water, depending on compounds. The technique itself is based on keeping a device in water over a longer period of time which varies from several days to several weeks, depending on the kind of compound. In this manner, the average concentrations of pollutants dissolved in water during a time period (time-weighted average concentrations, TWA are obtained, which enables monitoring of trends in areal and seasonal variations. The use of these techniques also leads to an increase in sensitivity of analytical methods, considering that pre-concentration of analytes takes place within the sorption medium. However, the use of these techniques for determination of pesticide concentrations in real water environments requires calibration studies for the estimation of sampling rates (Rs. Rs is a volume of water per time, calculated as the product of overall mass transfer coefficient and area of

  4. Urinary iodine concentration follows a circadian rhythm: a study with 3023 spot urine samples in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Als, C; Helbling, A; Peter, K; Haldimann, M; Zimmerli, B; Gerber, H

    2000-04-01

    Our overall aim is to monitor iodine supply in a prospective study before and after the September 1998 increase of salt iodide content in Switzerland. Because iodide is supplied by alimentation, we moreover wondered whether urinary iodine concentration (UI) is governed by circadian rhythmicity. Forty-two subjects (18 males and 24 females, including 13 children) collected 3023 urine spots between May 1996 and May 1998, at a rate of three to five samples per month, at any time of the day. The results show that circadian rhythmicity of UI in adults and children was found independent of the individual subject, age, gender, and season. Lowest UI levels were found between 8-11 h. A curve increasing progressively between 12 and 24 h was obtained. UI returned to base-line levels between 21 and 22 h in children only. UI peaks occurred 4-5 h after main meals; children's peaks occurred later than that of adults. Although the existence of a circadian rhythm of UI is probably universal, its profile, however, depends on alimentation. Because nadir of UI is represented by morning spots, this might seem an appropriate collecting period. In view of the significant circadian rhythmicity of UI, studies with restriction of sampling time to morning hours, for example, cannot be directly compared with studies in which urine is sampled all over the day.

  5. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. physico-chemical properties of well water samples from some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    chemical causes changes to the quality of the receiving water body. (Aremu et ... Sample collection, treatment and preservation: Water samples ... DEVIATION VALUES OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF. THE WELL WATER SAMPLES COMPARED WITH WHO STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER. PARAMETER.

  7. [Weight parameters of water quality impact and risk grade determination of water environmental sensitive spots in Jiashan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rong-Rong; Pang, Yong; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Ke; Sun, Ming-Yuan

    2012-07-01

    For the safety of the water environment in Jiashan county in Zhejiang Province, one-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality models are established based on three large-scale monitoring of hydrology and water quality in Jiashan county, three water environmental sensitive spots including Hongqitang dam Chijia hydrological station and Luxie pond are selected to investigate weight parameters of water quality impact and risk grade determination. Results indicate as follows (1) Internal pollution impact in Jiashan areas was greater than the external, the average weight parameters of internal chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution is 55.3%, internal ammonia nitrogen (NH(4+)-N) is 67.4%, internal total phosphor (TP) is 63.1%. Non-point pollution impact in Jiashan areas was greater than point pollution impact, the average weight parameters of non-point COD pollutions is 53.7%, non-point NH(4+)-N is 65.9%, non-point TP is 57.8%. (2) The risk of Hongqitang dam and Chijia hydrological station are in the middle risk. The risk of Luxie pond is also in the middle risk in August, and in April and December the risk of Luxie pond is low. The strategic decision will be suggested to guarantee water environment security and social and economic security in the study.

  8. Water: The Only Factor Influencing the Price of Energy in the Spot Market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mothé Maia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian electric energy generation system is based on its hydroelectric power plants, making the country dependent on proper rainfall and, thus, raising the possibility of energy stress situations, such as the energy-rationing scenario observed in the beginning of the century and the latest water crisis (2014. Moments of water scarcity are followed by an increase in energy prices, which affects the economy as whole. Therefore, it is relevant to understand which factors in the Brazilian Electric System affect the energy price and the individual importance of each. This paper aimed to analyze which the key variables influencing the energy price in the spot market are by using official data from the National Electric System Operator. The used data was from the period July/2001 to July/2014, which was employed in a multiple regression methodology along with time series. The results suggest an inverse relationship between the natural flow of rivers (directly related to rainfall and the energy price. Moreover, they also point to an inverse relationship between the potential energy stored in reservoirs as water and the energy price.

  9. Comparative study on the peroxidase activity from the floats of Caulerpa lentillifera (grapes seaweeds), roots of Tamarindus indica (tamarind), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) and Dracaena surculosa (spotted dracaena)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berosil, Maan Dyann N.; Magtibay, Cherrie Joy C.

    2005-02-01

    Peroxidase activities from four different varieties of plant roots were investigated through the use of UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Hydrogen peroxide was used as the substrate and phosphate buffer at a pH that have been determined to be the optimal pH for peroxidase activity for the specific sample type. The four plant root extracts showed an assay pH optimum of 7.5 for the Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), pH 5.5 for Dracaena surculosa (spotted dracaena) and pH 7.0 for Caulerpa lentillifera (grapes seaweeds) using Maehly and Chance method. Determination of peroxidase at 510 nm of the four extracts indicated that, spotted dracaena gave the highest peroxidase activity with 361.07 U ml -1 , followed by tamarind with 57.11 U ml -1 , then water hyacinth with 29.39 U m -1 and lastly, grapes seaweeds with 7.55 U ml -1 . The specific peroxidase activities of the spotted dracaena, water hyacinth, tamarind and grapes seaweeds are 0.3224, 0.2048, 0.0721 and 0.0341 U mg -1 respectively. The peroxidase of the four plant tissues that were kept at ultra low personal freezer for almost a week was degraded. (Authors)

  10. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric imaging of synthetic polymer sample spots prepared using ionic liquid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Stefan J; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Schwarzinger, Clemens; Panne, Ulrich; Weidner, Steffen M

    2014-03-15

    Polymer sample spots for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) prepared by the dried-droplet method often reveal ring formation accompanied by possible segregation of matrix and sample molecules as well as of the polymer homologs itself. Since the majority of sample spots are prepared by this simple and fast method, a matrix or sample preparation method that excludes such segregation has to be found. Three different ionic liquid matrices based on conventionally used aromatic compounds for MALDI-TOF MS were prepared. The formation of ionic liquids was proven by (1) H NMR spectroscopy. MALDI-Imaging mass spectrometry was applied to monitor the homogeneity. Our results show a superior sample spot homogeneity using ionic liquid matrices. Spots could be sampled several times without visible differences in the mass spectra. A frequently observed loss of matrix in the mass spectrometer vacuum was not observed. The necessary laser irradiance was reduced, which resulted in less polymer fragmentation. Ionic liquid matrices can be used to overcome segregation, a typical drawback of conventional MALDI dried-droplet preparations. Homogeneous sample spots are easy to prepare, stable in the MS vacuum and, thereby, improve the reproducibility of MALDI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Quantification of rifapentine, a potent antituberculosis drug, from dried blood spot samples using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Teresa L; Marzinke, Mark A; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R; Dorman, Susan E; Dooley, Kelly E

    2014-11-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials. Copyright © 2014

  12. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    , and 30 days at the same temperatures. 27 inflammatory markers in serum and plasma and 25 markers in DBSS were measured by a previously validated multiplex sandwich immunoassay using Luminex xMAP technology. The measurable concentrations of several cytokines in serum and plasma were significantly......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... increased when blood samples were stored for a period of time before the centrifugation, for certain cytokines more than 1000 fold compared to serum and plasma isolated and frozen immediately after venepuncture. The concentrations in serum generally increased more than in plasma. The measurable...

  13. Water sampling device for detecting fuel failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Yukio.

    1997-01-01

    A notched portion is formed at the lower end of an outer cap, and an extensible air bag is disposed being in contact with the inner side of the notched portion. A compressed air is sent into the outer gap through an air supply pipe to urge coolants thereby lowering the water level. A portion of the compressed air gets out of the outer gap from the notched portion, and if air bubbles are observed on the surface of coolants in a pressure vessel of a reactor, the outer cap is confirmed to be attached to the upper lattice plate. Compressed air is supplied to the air bag to close the notched portion. Then, coolants are sucked from a water level confirmation pipe. The level of coolants is further lowered, and the compressed air is sucked from the water level confirmation pipe instead of the coolants. Then, the level of the coolants at the inner side of the inner cap is confirmed to be made lower than the upper end of the channel box of a reactor fuel assembly. Then, coolants in the channel box are sampled, as a specimen water, through a water sampling pipe. (I.N.)

  14. Determination of 40K in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, C. E.; Miranda C, L.; Cuevas J, A. K.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The natural water used for human consumption comes from different sources, which may contain suspended solids in varying proportions. In groundwater, the source of suspended solids is related to the dissolution of mineral strata by the waters and leaching of rocks. Also, the radioactivity could concentrate on the bodies of slow-moving water that eventually could present a risk to ecosystems, as well as for the consumer. The water usually contains several natural radionuclides as: tritium, radon, radio, uranium isotopes, etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration of 40 K in water from different areas of Zacatecas state (Mexico). Four water samples were taken in triplicate from different areas; the 40 K concentration was measured with a spectrum metric system of gamma radiation with NaI (Tl) scintillation detector of 7.62 cm. In the measuring process a standard was prepared using water and KCl analytic grade where the 40 K concentration is 6.25 mol/Lt adding 250 mg/ml of potassium. Also the system was calibrated in energy using 3 point sources of 137 Cs, diameter 22 Na and 7.62 cm of height, using containers Marinelli and 60 Co. In the obtained spectra was observed that the photon of 1.432 MeV that emits the 40 K when decaying is the most important. The highest concentration was of 123 ± 5.2 Bq/lt and the lowest was of 9 ± 0.4 Bq/lt. Under the standards of drinking water, an amount of 40 K deposits an effective dose which contributes to annual dose received by people. (Author)

  15. PIXE analysis applied to characterized water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela S.; Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Medeiros, Geiza; Sampaio, Camilla; Martorell, Ana Beatriz Targino; Gouvea, Stella; Cunha, Kenya Moore Dias da

    2011-01-01

    Araxa, in Brazil, is a naturally high background area located in the State of Minas Gerais with a population of about 93 672 people. Araxa is historical city famous for its mineral water sources and mud from Termas de Araxa spa, which have been used for therapeutic, and recreation purposes. Other important aspect of economy of the city are mining and metallurgic industries. In the Araxa area is located the largest deposit of pyrochlore, a niobium mineral, and also a deposit of apatite, a phosphate mineral both containing Th and U associated to crystal lattice. The minerals are obtained from open pit mines, the minerals are processed in industrial also located in city of Araxa, these plants process the pyrochlore and apatite to obtain the Fe-Nb alloy and the concentrate of phosphate, respectively. Studies were developed in this area to assessment the occupational risk of the workers due to exposure to dust particles during the routine working, however very few studies evaluated the water contamination outside the mines in order to determine the metal (stables elements) concentrations in water and also the concentrations of the radionuclides in water. This paper presents the previous results of a study to identify and determine the concentrations of metals (stables elements) and radionuclides in river around the city. The water from these rivers is used as drinking water and irrigation water. The water samples were collected in different rivers around the Araxa city and the samples were analyzed using PIXE technique. A proton beam of 2 MeV obtained from the van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator was used to induce the characteristic X-rays. S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ba, Pb and U were identified in the mass spectrum of the samples. The elemental mass concentrations were compared using a non-parametric statistical test. The results of the statistical test showed that the elemental mass concentrations did not present the same distribution. These results indicated

  16. A modified low-temperature wafer bonding method using spot pressing bonding technique and water glass adhesive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Shengkai; Wang, Yinghui; Chen, Dapeng

    2018-02-01

    A modified low-temperature wafer bonding method using a spot pressing bonding technique and a water glass adhesive layer is proposed. The electrical properties of the water glass layer has been studied by capacitance–voltage (C–V) and electric current–voltage (I–V) measurements. It is found that the adhesive layer can be regarded as a good insulator in terms of leakage current density. The bonding mechanism and the motion of bubbles during the thermal treatment are investigated. The dominant factor for the bubble motion in the modified bonding process is the gradient of pressure introduced by the spot pressing force. It is proved that the modified method achieves low-temperature adhesive bonding, minimizes the effect of water desorption, and provides good bonding performance.

  17. Investigative studies on water contamination in Bangladesh. Primary treatment of water samples at the sampling site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Takatsuji, T.; Nakamura, T.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Saitoh, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentration in 13 well waters, 9 pond waters, 10 agricultural waters and a coconut juice taken in Comilla district, Bangladesh, where the problem of arsenic pollution is the most severe, was investigated. High-level arsenic is detected even in the well water which has been kept drinking by the people. Relatively high arsenic concentration was detected for some pond and farm waters even though the sampling was performed just after the rainy season and the waters were expected to be highly diluted. Clear relationship was observed in elemental compositions between the pond water and the coconut juice collected at the edge of the water. These results are expected to become the basic information for evaluating the risk of individual food such as cultured fishes, shrimps and farm products, and for controlling total intakes of arsenic. In order to solve the problem of transportation of water samples internationally, a simple method of target preparation performed at the sampling site was established and its validity was confirmed. All targets were prepared at the sampling sites in this study on the basis of this method. (author)

  18. Direct analysis of site-specific N-glycopeptides of serological proteins in dried blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Na Young; Hwang, Heeyoun; Ji, Eun Sun; Park, Gun Wook; Lee, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2017-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) samples have a number of advantages, especially with respect to ease of collection, transportation, and storage and to reduce biohazard risk. N-glycosylation is a major post-translational modification of proteins in human blood that is related to a variety of biological functions, including metastasis, cell-cell interactions, inflammation, and immunization. Here, we directly analyzed tryptic N-glycopeptides from glycoproteins in DBS samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) without centrifugation of blood samples, depletion of major proteins, desalting of tryptic peptides, and enrichment of N-glycopeptides. Using this simple method, we identified a total of 41 site-specific N-glycopeptides from 16 glycoproteins in the DBS samples, from immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG-1, 10 mg/mL) down to complement component C7 (50 μg/mL). Of these, 32 N-glycopeptides from 14 glycoproteins were consistently quantified over 180 days stored at room temperature. The major abundant glycoproteins in the DBS samples were IgG-1 and IgG-2, which contain nine asialo-fucosylated complex types of 16 different N-glycopeptide isoforms. Sialo-non-fucosylated complex types were primarily detected in the other glycoproteins such as alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, 2, alpha-1-antitypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, Ig alpha 1, 2 chain C region, kininogen-1, prothrombin, and serotransferrin. We first report the characterization of site-specific N-glycoproteins in DBS samples by LC-MS/MS with minimal sample preparation.

  19. The running waters macroinvertebrates community: sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaccini, Gilberto Natale; Leone, Laura Marianna; Taddei, Cinzia

    2009-04-01

    The community of running water macroinvertebrates has proved to be one of key subjects for fluvial ecology and bioindication studies, thanks both to the different trophic roles within the range of taxa and to the ease with which they may be collected and identified. However, the complex nature of this community creates problems concerning the complete identification of the full range of taxa, even when restricting the taxonomic classification to families and genera. Even so, the need to use the community for the implementation of indexes of Ecological Status of freshwaters and for the detection of reference conditions, necessarily means a deeper knowledge of this structure. Hence, a standard methodology of the capture effort is required to identify not only the ecological quality but also a reference community for each selected fluvial typology and for each section examined. Starting from the processing of data collected during intercalibration exercises of the IBE method, the authors analyse the results underlining the share given by the size of the sample collected (catchment effort), and by the distribution models of different taxa within the community, in order to give a contribution to the evaluation of the reliability level of standard samples. The results confirm the models already described in previous publications and lead us to accept the presence of marginal degrees of uncertainty in standard samples.

  20. Evaluation of HBsAg and anti-HBc assays in saliva and dried blood spot samples according HIV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Geane Lopes; Cruz, Helena Medina; Potsch, Denise Vigo; May, Silvia Beatriz; Brandão-Mello, Carlos Eduardo; Pires, Marcia Maria Amendola; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2017-09-01

    Influence of HIV status in HBV markers detection in saliva and dried blood spots (DBS) was not well established. This study aims to evaluate the performance of optimized commercial immunoassay for identifying HBsAg and anti-HBc in saliva and DBS according HIV status. A sum of 535 individuals grouped as HIV + , HBV + , HIV/HBV + and HIV/HBV- were recruited where 347 and 188 were included for HBsAg and anti-HBc evaluation, respectively. Serum, DBS collected in Whatman 903 paper and saliva obtained using salivette device were analyzed using EIA. Increased sample volume and ROC curve analysis for cut off determination were used for DBS and saliva testing. HBsAg detection in saliva and DBS exhibited sensitivities of 80.9% and 85.6% and specificities of 86.8% and 96.3%. Sensitivity of anti-HBc in saliva and DBS were 82.4% and 76.9% and specificities in saliva and DBS were 96.9% and 91.7%. Low sensitivities were observed for HBsAg (62%) and anti-HBc (47%) detection in saliva of HIV/HBV+ individuals. OD values were also lower for HBsAg detection in DBS and saliva of HIV/HBV+ individuals compared to their serum samples. Statistical significance was found for sensitivities in HBsAg detection between saliva and DBS demonstrating high sensitivity for DBS specimens. In conclusion, HIV status or antiretroviral treatment appears to interfere in the performance of HBsAg and anti-HBc detection in DBS and saliva samples using the adapted commercial EIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The protein-creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples and 24-h urinary protein excretion in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salesi, Mansour; Karimifar, Mansoor; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Esalatmanesh, Kamal; Khosravi, Shahrzad; Fallahi, Parvin; Akbarian, Mahmood

    2009-03-01

    A 24-h urinary protein is a standard way to diagnose lupus nephritis. Assessment of protein-creatinine (Pr-Cr) ratio in morning spot urine is a valuable method in diabetic patients but not use in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients routinely. In this study Pr-Cr ratio in spot urine was compare with 24-h urine protein; if they have valuable correlation we can use this test instead of 24-h urinary protein. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of spot urine Pr-Cr ratio for prediction of significant proteinuria (>or=300 mg/24 h) in patients with SLE. A cross-section study was conducted in 74 hospitalized women with SLE. The correlation between Pr-Cr in first morning urine specimens and urinary protein excretion in 24-h collections were analyzed. Correlation between Pr-Cr ratio in spot morning urine specimens and urinary protein excretion in 24-h collections was significant (P protein excretion and its measurement, enabling the methods to be used interchangeably creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a precise indicator of proteinuria in patients with lupus nephritis and represents a simple and inexpensive procedure in establishing severity of proteinuria in patients with SLE.

  2. Handbook for Sampling and Sample Preservation of Water and Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The group includes the serological groups D and Q: Streptococcus faecalis , S.faecalis subsp. liquifaciens, S.faecalis subsp. zymogenes, S.faecium...priority sampling point would normally be at the influent to a treatment plant. For small and medium sized wastewater systems, sampling at the first...theoretical settling rate of a spherical solid in a quiescent aqueous medium is given by Stokes’ Law: V D2 (Ss- Sw)gS = 18 v Where: Vs = settling velocity D

  3. bacteriological quality of water samples in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    met by water obtained from rainfall, streams, means of preventing pollution of the water well, boreholes or tap depending on the ... Most organized consumption of bottled and sachet water in a society depends on piped treated water to ... bottles containing 3% sodium thiosulphate solution (6). The pH and suspended solid.

  4. Archived neonatal dried blood spot samples can be used for accurate whole genome and exome-targeted next-generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Mads Vilhelm; Grauholm, Jonas; Nielsen, Ronni

    2013-01-01

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) have been collected and stored for decades as part of newborn screening programmes worldwide. Representing almost an entire population under a certain age and collected with virtually no bias, the Newborn Screening Biobanks are of immense value in medical studies......, for example, to examine the genetics of various disorders. We have previously demonstrated that DNA extracted from a fraction (2×3.2mm discs) of an archived DBSS can be whole genome amplified (wgaDNA) and used for accurate array genotyping. However, until now, it has been uncertain whether wgaDNA from DBSS...... can be used for accurate whole genome sequencing (WGS) and exome sequencing (WES). This study examined two individuals represented by three different types of samples each: whole-blood (reference samples), 3-year-old DBSS spotted with reference material (refDBSS), and 27- to 29-year-old archived...

  5. Bacteriological quality of water samples in Osogbo Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriological qualities of samples of some sachet water, tap water and well water were examined. Some physicochemical parameters (pH and suspended solids) indicative of water quality as well as the total bacterial and total coliform counts were examined. The pH of the samples range between 6.5 and 7.2.

  6. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variation in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling

  7. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  8. Colorimetric assay for on-the-spot alcoholic strength sensing in spirit samples based on dual-responsive lanthanide coordination polymer particles with ratiometric fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jingjing, E-mail: jjdeng@des.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Shi, Guoyue [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Zhou, Tianshu, E-mail: tszhou@des.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2016-10-26

    This study demonstrates a new strategy for colorimetric detection of alcoholic strength (AS) in spirit samples based on dual-responsive lanthanide infinite coordination polymer (Ln-ICP) particles with ratiometric fluorescence. The ICP used in this study are composed of two components: one is the supramolecular Ln-ICP network formed by the coordination between the ligand 2,2’-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and central metal ion Eu{sup 3+}; and the other is a fluorescent dye, i.e., coumarin 343 (C343), both as the cofactor ligand and as the sensitizer, doped into the Ln-ICP network through self-adaptive chemistry. Upon being excited at 300 nm, the red fluorescence of Ln-ICP network itself at 617 nm is highly enhanced due to the concomitant energy transfer from C343 to Eu{sup 3+}, while the fluorescence of C343 at 495 nm is supressed. In pure ethanol solvent, the as-formed C343@Eu-TDA is well dispersed and quite stable. However, the addition of water into ethanolic dispersion of C343@Eu-TDA destructs Eu-TDA network structure, resulting in the release of C343 from ICP network into the solvent. Consequently, the fluorescence of Eu-TDA turns off and the fluorescence of C343 turns on, leading to the fluorescent color change of the dispersion from red to blue, which constitutes a new mechanism for colorimetric sensing of AS in commercial spirit samples. With the method developed here, we could clearly distinguish the AS of different spirit samples within a wide linear range from 10% vol to 100% vol directly by “naked eye” with the help of UV-lamp (365 nm). This study not only offers a new method for on-the-spot visible detection of AS, but also provides a strategy for dual-responsive sensing mode by rational designing the optical properties of the Ln-ICP network and the guest, respectively. - Highlights: • Dual responsive lanthanide coordination polymer particles C343@Eu-TDA were synthesized. • The guest molecular coumarin 343 sensitized the luminescence of Eu

  9. Characterization of indicator bacteria in municipal raw water, drinking water, and new main water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J A; Burger, C A; Sabatinos, L E

    1982-09-01

    Municipal water samples were analyzed by membrane filter (MF) and presence-absence (P-A) tests for pollution indicator bacteria. In four years, 11 514 bacterial cultures were isolated from either raw water, drinking water, or new main water samples submitted to three environmental laboratories. The bacterial species occurring most often in all types of water samples were Escherichia coli (11.6-39.7%), Enterobacter aerogenes (18.1-26.3%), Aeromonas hydrophila (8.8-17.0%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.7-10.3%), and Citrobacter freundii (5.9-22.7%). A lactose - lauryl tryptose - tryptone broth was examined as an alternative medium to modified MacConkey broth in the presumptive portion of the P-A test. The intensity of acid and gas production in presumptive positive P-A bottles was compared with the types and frequencies of indicator bacteria shown by confirmatory tests. The results of detecting indicator bacteria following the analysis of 53 130 samples over a 2-year period were arranged by water source (well, lake, river, mixed) and water type (raw or drinking) to determine the influence of these parameters on the recovery of indicator bacteria. A further subdivision of the sample types into raw surface, raw ground, in-plant, plant discharge, reservoir, and distribution samples demonstrated the effect of water treatment practices.

  10. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  11. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  12. Remote sensing with SPOT-4 for mapping kelp forests in turbid waters on the south European Atlantic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, G.; Sánchez-Carnero, N.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, E.; Freire, J.

    2011-02-01

    Remote sensing has become an increasingly used technique for the thematic mapping of large marine areas. In recent years, many researchers have successfully applied these techniques in different places for benthic mapping in clear waters; however, areas with turbid waters present important limitations that are gradually being solved by recent technological advances. In this context, the main objective of the present study is to develop and validate a methodology for mapping intertidal and subtidal kelp forests in the Galician coast (NW Spain), based on images from SPOT-4 (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre). Three analysis methods have been applied: visual analysis and interpretation, unsupervised classification (cluster) and supervised classification (angular classification and maximum likelihood classification). Classification percentages higher than 70% in all substrates were obtained both using visual analysis and interpretation and maximum likelihood classification.

  13. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    The importance of good quality water cannot be over emphasized. This is because it is only next to air as a critical sustainer of life therefore it is appropriate to evaluate its quality and quantity. A total number of thirteen water samples were investigated in this study: Nine samples from different surface water bodies, two ...

  14. Chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of good quality water cannot be over emphasized. This is because it is only next to air as a critical sustainer of life therefore it is appropriate to evaluate its quality and quantity. A total number of thirteen water samples were investigated in this study: Nine samples from different surface water bodies, two ...

  15. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a)

  16. Analysis of phthalate esters contamination in drinking water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimum condition method was successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. The concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP in drinking water samples were below allowable levels, while the DEHP concentration in three samples was found to be greater than the ...

  17. Guidelines for sampling fish in inland waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Backiel, Tadeusz; Welcomme, R. L

    1980-01-01

    The book is addressed mainly to Fishery Biologists but it is hoped that Fishing Gear Technologists also can acquire some basic knowledge of sampling problems and procedures which, in turn, can result...

  18. Catch me if you can: Comparing ballast water sampling skids to traditional net sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradie, Johanna; Gianoli, Claudio; Linley, Robert Dallas; Schillak, Lothar; Schneider, Gerd; Stehouwer, Peter; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    With the recent ratification of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004, it will soon be necessary to assess ships for compliance with ballast water discharge standards. Sampling skids that allow the efficient collection of ballast water samples in a compact space have been developed for this purpose. We ran 22 trials on board the RV Meteor from June 4-15, 2015 to evaluate the performance of three ballast water sampling devices (traditional plankton net, Triton sampling skid, SGS sampling skid) for three organism size classes: ≥ 50 μm, ≥ 10 μm to performance.

  19. Spectrophotometric Determination of Boron in Environmental Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San San; Khin Win Kyi; Kwaw Naing

    2002-02-01

    The present paper deals with the study on the methods for the determination of boron in the environmental water samples. The standard methods which are useful for this determination are discussed thoroughly in this work. Among the standard methods approved by American Public Health Association, the carmine method was selected for this study. Prior to the determination of boron in the water samples, the precision and accuracy of the methods of choice were examined by using standard boron solutions. The determination of Boron was carried out by using water samples, waste water from Aquaculture Research Centre, University of Yangon, the Ayeyarwady River water near Magway Myathalon Pagoda in Magway Division, ground water from Sanchaung Township, and tap water from Universities' Research Centre, University of Yangon. Analyses of these water samples were done and statistical treatment of the results was carried out. (author)

  20. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite considerable heterogeneity over space and time, biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. Recently, these heterogeneous processes have been co...

  1. Detecting 22q11.2 deletions by use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification on DNA from neonatal dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina; Agergaard, Peter Juul; Olesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    of 22q11.2 deletions among certain manifestations, eg, congenital heart disease, on selected Danes, a multiplex ligation-dependant probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was designed. The analysis was planned to be performed on DNA extracted from dried blood spot samples (DBSS) obtained from Guthrie cards...... probe design is successful and reliable using minimal amounts of DNA. This allows for use of DBSS samples in a retrospective study of 22q11.2 deletion among certain manifestations associated with DiGeorge Syndrome....

  2. Preconcentration NAA for simultaneous multielemental determination in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Environment concerns with water, air, land and their interrelationship viz., human beings, fauna and flora. One of the important environmental compartments is water. Elements present in water might face a whole lot of physico-chemical conditions. This poses challenges to measure their total concentrations as well as different species. Preconcentration of the elements present in water samples is a necessary requisites in water analysis. For multi elements concentration measurements, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of the preferred analytical techniques due to its sensitivity and selectivity. In this talk preconcentration NAA for multielemental determination in water sample determination will be discussed

  3. Measurement of radioactivity in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, L.

    1990-01-01

    Public concern about the levels of radioactivity release to the environment whether authorised discharges or resulting from nuclear accident, has increased in recent years. Consequently there is increasing pressure for reliable data on the distribution of radioactivity and the extent of its intrusion into food chains and water supplies. As a result a number of laboratories not experienced in radioactivity measurements have acquired nucleonic counting equipment. These notes explore the underlying basics and indicate sources of essential data and information which are required for a better understanding of radioactivity measurements. Particular attention is directed to the screening tests which are usually designated ''gross'' alpha and ''gross'' beta activity measurement. (author)

  4. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Naturita UMTRA Project processing site in the spring of 1994. No water sampling was performed during 1993 at either the Naturita processing site (NAT-01) or the Dry Flats disposal site (NAT-12). Results of previous water sampling at the Naturita processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities. Baseline ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Dry Flats disposal site. Water sampling activities scheduled for April 1994 include preconstruction sampling of selected monitor wells at the processing site, surface water sampling of the San Miguel River, sampling of several springs/seeps in the vicinity of the disposal site, and sampling of two monitor wells in Coke Oven Valley. The monitor well locations provide sampling points to characterize ground water quality and flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been updated to reflect constituents related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted annually at minimum during the period of construction activities

  6. Determination of Phenols in Water Samples using a Supported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sample preparation method was tested for the determination of phenols in river water samples and landfill leachate. Concentrations of phenols in river water were found to be in the range 4.2 μg L–1 for 2-chlorophenol to 50 μg L–1 for 4-chlorophenol. In landfill leachate, 4-chlorophenol was detected at a concentration ...

  7. Radioactivity in waste water samples from COGEMA supplied by Greenpeace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinen, H.A.J.M.; Kwakman, P.J.M.; Overwater, R.M.W.; Tax, R.B.; Nissan, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organization Greenpeace sampled waste water from the reprocessing plant COGEMA in La Hague, France, in May 1999. On request of the Inspection Environmental Hygiene, The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) determined the radioactivity of the waste water samples. 5 refs

  8. Measurement of 90Sr in fresh water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanova, A.; Meresova, J.; Svetlik, I.; Tomaskova, L.

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study show new experimental approach to the determination of the radionuclide 90 Sr in water samples. The new method of dynamic windows utilizing liquid scintillation counting was applied on model and surface water samples. Our results show the demand of separation technique with significantly higher yields. (authors)

  9. Sampling procedure for lake or stream surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Musselman

    2012-01-01

    Surface waters collected in the field for chemical analyses are easily contaminated. This research note presents a step-by-step detailed description of how to avoid sample contamination when field collecting, processing, and transporting surface water samples for laboratory analysis.

  10. Utilizing Estimated Creatinine Excretion to Improve the Performance of Spot Urine Samples for the Determination of Proteinuria in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ke Wang

    Full Text Available Agreement between spot and 24-hour urine protein measurements is poor in kidney transplant recipients. We investigated whether using formulae to estimate creatinine excretion rate (eCER, rather than assuming a standard creatinine excretion rate, would improve the estimation of proteinuria from spot urine samples in kidney transplant recipients.We measured 24 hour urine protein and albumin and spot albumin:creatinine (ACR and spot protein:creatinine (PCR in 181 Kidney transplant recipients." We utilized 6 different published formulae (Fotheringham, CKD-EPI, Cockcroft-Gault, Walser, Goldwasser and Rule to estimate eCER and from it calculated estimated albumin and protein excretion rate (eAER and ePER. Bias, precision and accuracy (within 15%, 30% and 50% of ACR, PCR, eAER, ePER were compared to 24-hour urine protein and albumin.ACR and PCR significantly underestimated 24-hour albumin and protein excretion (ACR Bias (IQR, -5.9 mg/day; p< 0.01; PCR Bias, (IQR, -35.2 mg/day; p<0.01. None of the formulae used to calculate eAER or ePER had a bias that was significantly different from the 24-hour collection (eAER and ePER bias: Fotheringham -0.3 and 7.2, CKD-EPI 0.3 and 13.5, Cockcroft-Gault -3.2 and -13.9, Walser -1.7 and 3.1, Goldwasser -1.3 and -0.5, Rule -0.6 and 4.2 mg/day respectively. The accuracy for ACR and PCR were lower (within 30% being 38% and 43% respectively than the corresponding values estimated by utilizing eCER (for eAER 46% to 49% and ePER 46-54%.Utilizing estimated creatinine excretion to calculate eAER and ePER improves the estimation of 24-hour albuminuria/proteinuria with spot urine samples in kidney transplant recipients.

  11. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  12. Study of measurement of the alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and application of a volumetric DBS device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Kenan Modén, Naama; Seferaj, Sabina; Lenk, Gabriel; Helander, Anders

    2018-04-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a group of phospholipids formed in cell membranes following alcohol consumption. PEth measurement in whole blood samples is established as a specific alcohol biomarker with clinical and medico-legal applications. This study further evaluated the usefulness of dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected on filter paper for PEth measurement. Specimens used were surplus volumes of venous whole blood sent for routine LC-MS/MS quantification of PEth 16:0/18:1, the major PEth homolog. DBS samples were prepared by pipetting blood on Whatman 903 Protein Saver Cards and onto a volumetric DBS device (Capitainer). The imprecision (CV) of the DBS sample amount based on area and weight measurements of spot punches were 23-28%. Investigation of the relationship between blood hematocrit and PEth concentration yielded a linear, positive correlation, and at around 1.0-1.5μmol/L PEth 16:0/18:1, the PEth concentration increased by ~0.1μmol/L for every 5% increase in hematocrit. There was a close agreement between the PEth concentrations obtained with whole blood samples and the corresponding results using Whatman 903 (PEth DBS =1.026 PEth WB +0.013) and volumetric device (PEth DBS =1.045 PEth WB +0.016) DBS samples. The CV of PEth quantification in DBS samples at concentrations≥0.05μmol/L were ≤15%. The present results further confirmed the usefulness of DBS samples for PEth measurement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  14. Spot measurements of radionuclides in air, water and solids with a single instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipsborn, H. von

    1998-01-01

    A unique instrument for measuring environmental radionuclides and novel methods for their concentrative sampling are described here which meet high requirements of sensitivity, easy and reliable handling, and low cost for most applications in field screening, monitoring and training. (author)

  15. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  16. Evaluation of the use of purine derivatives:creatinine ratio in spot urine samples as an index of microbial protein supply in Yerli Kara crossbred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozdemir, H.; Gucus, A.I.; Ozcan, H.; Sogut, A.; Yaman, S.

    2004-01-01

    In Experiment I, response of daily purine derivatives (PD) excretion to feed intake in Yerli Kara crossbred (YK-C) cattle on state farms was measured. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed. Crude protein and organic matter contents of the diet were 12.4% and 95%, respectively. In Experiment II, spot urine sampling technique was applied at state farm. Four Yerli Kara crossbred bulls with a mean live weight of 211.0 ± 41.3 kg were used. The experimental design, feeding and diet were the same as in Experiment I. The treatments were allocated according to a 4 x 4 Latin Square design. In Experiment III, spot urine sampling technique was applied at smallholder farms. Two to three kg of compound feed (crude protein 12%) containing 65% barley, 25% bran, 6% sunflower seed meal, 3% marmer dust and 1% mineral and vitamin mixture was offered in two parts, one in the morning (0730 h) and the other in the afternoon (1700 h). The ingredients in the compound feed were similar for all animals, but animals in Groups I, II and III received 1 to 2 kg/d of straw (crude protein 3%), grass hay (crude protein 7%), or both straw and grass hay respectively. In Experiment I, a significant correlation (R 2 =0.99) between PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) and digestible organic matter intake, DOMI (X, kg/d) for YK-C cattle was observed (Y = 12.5 + 19.7 X). Moreover, daily PD excretion (mmol/d) was correlated with the PDC index, which was defined as [PD molar concentration] / [Creatinine molar concentration] x kgW 0.75 . In Experiment II, the PDC index increased with level of intake. The coefficient of variation due to time of sampling for uric acid, allantoin, PD, creatinine, total-N, the PDC Index in spot urine samples were less than 5%. In Experiment III, the PDC index were 49.95 ± 13.5, 45.6 ± 13.0, 48.95 ± 15.3 for the three groups respectively. These values were similar to those for 60% intake level in Experiment I. Using the equation DOMI = 344 + 48

  17. 5C.07: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE 24-HOUR SODIUM EXCRETION THROUGH SPOT URINE SAMPLES AND ITS APPLICATION VALUE FOR TARGET-ORGAN DAMAGE ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhao, L; Xi, Y; Sun, N

    2015-06-01

    24-h urine sodium excretion is considered the most reliable method to evaluate the salt intakes. However, this method is cumbersome. So we want to develop formulas to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urinary samples in Chinese hypertensive population and explore the application value of this method in salt intake assessment and target organ damage. 1. We enrolled 510 cases of hospitalized patients with hypertension, 2/3 of them were arranged randomly to formula group to develop a new formula and the remainings were used to test the performance of the formula. All participants were instructed to collect a 24-h urine sample, a second morning voiding urine sample (SMU), and a post-meridiem urine sample in the late afternoon or early evening, prior to the evening meal (PMU). All samples were sent to measure sodium and creatinine concentration.2. We compared the differences of office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular stiffness and urine protein among groups of different sodium intake. 24hour sodium excretion formulas was obtained using SMU and PMU respectively, which have good cosistency. The difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium excretion is 12.66mmol/day (SMU) and 9.41mmol/day (PM), to be equal to 0.7 g (SMU) and 0.6 g (PM) salt intake. Comparing with Kawasaki and Tanaka method, the new formula shows the lower degree of deviation, and higher accuracy and precision. Blood pressure of high urinary sodium group is higher than that in low urinary sodium group (P < 0.05). Left ventricular hypertrophy and urinary albumin/creatinine aggravated with the salt intake increase, this has eliminated the influence of other factors. All of morphologies of the relationship between ambulatory arterial stiffness index, pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness with quartiles of sodium intake resembled a J-shaped curve. In Chinese hypertensive population, the

  18. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for water sampling activities for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) processing and disposal sites. This water sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders (WSAWO) to be implemented during 1993. Monitoring at the former Lakeview processing site is for characterization purposes and in preparation for the risk assessment, scheduled for the fall of 1993. Compliance monitoring was conducted at the disposal site. Details of the sampling plan are discussed in Section 5.0

  19. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 105-N Basin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.O. Mahood

    1997-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the strategy, and field and laboratory methods that will be used to characterize 105-N Basin water. The water will be shipped to the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and disposal as part of N Reactor deactivation. These analyses are necessary to ensure that the water will meet the acceptance criteria of the ETF, as established in the Memorandum of Understanding for storage and treatment of water from N-Basin (Appendix A), and the characterization requirements for 100-N Area water provided in a letter from ETF personnel (Appendix B)

  20. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  1. Preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive liquid-liquid micro- extraction coupled with solid-phase extraction and determination with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

  2. Hot spot occlusion from bulk water: a comprehensive study of the complex between the lysozyme HEL and the antibody FVD1.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Irina S; Fernandes, Pedro A; Ramos, Maria J

    2007-03-15

    Alanine scanning of protein-protein interfaces has shown that there are some residues in the protein-protein interfaces, responsible for most of the binding free energy, which are called hot spots. Hot spots tend to exist in densely packed central clusters, and a hypothesis has been proposed that considers that inaccessibility to the solvent must be a necessary condition to define a residue as a binding hot spot. This O-ring hypothesis is mainly based on the analysis of the accessible surface area (ASA) of 23 static, crystallographic structures of protein complexes. It is known, however, that protein flexibility allows for temporary exposures of buried interfacial groups, and even though the ASA provides a general trend of the propensity for hydration, protein/solvent-specific interactions or hydrogen bonding cannot be considered here. Therefore, a microscopic level, atomistic picture of hot spot solvation is needed to support the O-ring hypothesis. In this study, we began by applying a computational alanine-scanning mutagenesis technique, which reproduces the experimental results and allows for decomposing the binding free energy difference in its different energetic factors. Subsequently, we calculated the radial distribution function and residence times of the water molecules near the hot/warm spots to study the importance of the water environment around those energetically important amino acid residues. This study shows that within a flexible, dynamic protein framework, the warm/hot spot residues are, indeed, kept sheltered from the bulk solvent during the whole simulation, which allows a better interacting microenvironment.

  3. Bacterial contamination of water samples in Gabon, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ehrhardt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of water is a major burden in the public health setting of developing countries. We therefore assessed the quality of water samples in Gabon in 2013. The main findings were a contamination rate with coliforms of 13.5% and the detection of a possible environmental reservoir for extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria.

  4. determination of lead at nanogram level in water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    As is well known, heavy metal pollution has been a focus of attention all over the world. Metal ions frequently contained in industrial and municipal wastewater can be harmful to aquatic ... an urgent need to develop a simple and sensitive conventional method for measuring lead ion in ..... 5 Drinking water, sea water sample.

  5. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded...

  6. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded...... that nylon should not be used in studies of contamination with organic compounds....

  7. Evaluation of ultrafiltration cartridges for a water sampling apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowecky, P M; James, R R; Lorch, D P; Straka, S E; Lindquist, H D A

    2009-03-01

    To determine the efficiency of various ultrafiltration cartridges (UFC) in concentrating test micro-organisms from drinking water. Replicate drinking water samples from three potable water supplies were dosed with Bacillus anthracis Sterne, Francisella tularensis LVS, Yersinia pestis CO92, bacteriophages MS2 and phi-X174, and Cryptosporidium parvum. The test micro-organisms were dosed together in 100 l of water, which was then recirculated through one of five different UFC until the retentate volume was reduced to c. 500 ml. The micro-organisms were assayed before and after ultrafiltration concentration and per cent recoveries were calculated. There were nine statistically significant differences among pairs of filters out of a possible 180 different combinations of UFC, test micro-organisms, and water types. No filter consistently performed better or worse than the others for each test micro-organism in all water samples tested. This study provides performance data on the ability of several different UFC to concentrate a panel of test micro-organisms from three sources of potable water. Water utilities and first responders may use these data when selecting UFC for use in emergency response protocols. This study also provides additional data as to the efficacy of ultrafiltration for recovering bacteria, virus-like particles, and protozoan oocysts from water samples.

  8. Hot-spot detection and calibration of a scanning thermal probe with a noise thermometry gold wire sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaitas, A.; Wolgast, S.; Covington, E.; Kurdak, C.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the temperature profile of a nanoscale sample using scanning thermal microscopy is challenging due to a scanning probe's non-uniform heating. In order to address this challenge, we have developed a calibration sample consisting of a 1-?m wide gold wire, which can be heated electrically by

  9. Archived neonatal dried blood spot samples can be used for accurate whole genome and exome-targeted next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollegaard, Mads Vilhelm; Grauholm, Jonas; Nielsen, Ronni; Grove, Jakob; Mandrup, Susanne; Hougaard, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) have been collected and stored for decades as part of newborn screening programmes worldwide. Representing almost an entire population under a certain age and collected with virtually no bias, the Newborn Screening Biobanks are of immense value in medical studies, for example, to examine the genetics of various disorders. We have previously demonstrated that DNA extracted from a fraction (2×3.2mm discs) of an archived DBSS can be whole genome amplified (wgaDNA) and used for accurate array genotyping. However, until now, it has been uncertain whether wgaDNA from DBSS can be used for accurate whole genome sequencing (WGS) and exome sequencing (WES). This study examined two individuals represented by three different types of samples each: whole-blood (reference samples), 3-year-old DBSS spotted with reference material (refDBSS), and 27- to 29-year-old archived neonatal DBSS (neoDBSS) stored at -20°C in the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank. The reference samples were genotyped using an Illumina Omni2.5M array, and all samples were sequenced on a HighSeq2000 Paired-End flow cell. First, we compared the array single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data to the single nucleotide variation (SNV) calls from the WGS and WES SNV calls. We also compared the WGS and WES reference sample SNV calls to the DBSS SNV calls. The overall performance of the archived DBSS was similar to the whole blood reference sample. Plotting the error rates relative to coverage revealed that the error rates of DBSS were similar to that of their reference samples. SNVs called with a coverage<×8 had error rates between 1.5 and 35%, whereas the error rates of SNVs called with a coverage≥8 were <1.5%. In conclusion, the wgaDNA amplified from both new and old neonatal DBSS perform as well as their whole-blood reference samples with regards to error rates, strongly indicating that neonatal DBSS collected shortly after birth and stored for decades comprise an

  10. Application of dried blood spots to determine vitamin D status in a large nutritional study with unsupervised sampling: the Food4Me project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Ulrich; Baur, Manuela; Roos, Franz F; Brennan, Lorraine; Daniel, Hannelore; Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Mike; Godlewska, Magdalena; Hartwig, Kai; Kolossa, Silvia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Livingstone, Katherine M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Macready, Anna L; Manios, Yannis; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Moschonis, George; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; O'Donovan, Clare B; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Saris, Wim H M; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Traczyk, Iwona; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Walsh, Marianne C; Woolhead, Clara; Mathers, John C; Weber, Peter

    2016-01-28

    An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D3 levels (Pvitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.

  11. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters

  12. Microbial Bioload of Some Tap Water Samples from Enugu, Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological screening on all sample groups indicated the presence of microorganism in tap water available in all eleven locations. Further characterization using biochemical methods revealed the absence of E. coli, and the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Shigella species and Salmonella species in sample ...

  13. GROUND WATER PURGING AND SAMPLING METHODS: HISTORY VS. HYSTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been over 10 years since the low-flow ground water purging and sampling method was initially reported in the literature. The method grew from the recognition that well purging was necessary to collect representative samples, bailers could not achieve well purging, and high...

  14. Considerations of acidifying water samples for 99Tc analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.L.; Lieberman, R.; Richardson, W.S. III; Wakamo, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental water samples are routinely acidified before radionuclide analysis to prevent adsorption of radionuclides on the container walls. This study addresses the concern for volatilizing 99Tc from acid solutions during evaporation before beta analysis has been addressed. Water samples can be acidified to pH 1.7 with nitric acid and evaporated to dryness on planchets without significant losses of technetium due to volatilization. However, the planchets should not be flamed unless a detergent is used, and control samples should be flamed to determine the loss of activity under the conditions used

  15. Comparing identified and statistically significant lipids and polar metabolites in 15-year old serum and dried blood spot samples for longitudinal studies: Comparing lipids and metabolites in serum and DBS samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Casey, Cameron P. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Stratton, Kelly G. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zink, Erika M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zheng, Xueyun [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Monroe, Matthew E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Weitz, Karl K. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bloodsworth, Kent J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Orton, Daniel J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ibrahim, Yehia M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Moore, Ronald J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lee, Christine G. [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Research Service, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland OR USA; Pedersen, Catherine [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Orwoll, Eric [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Smith, Richard D. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Baker, Erin S. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-02-05

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) has many advantages over traditional plasma and serum samples such as smaller blood volume required, storage at room temperature, and ability for sampling in remote locations. However, understanding the robustness of different analytes in DBS samples is essential, especially in older samples collected for longitudinal studies. Here we analyzed DBS samples collected in 2000-2001 and stored at room temperature and compared them to matched serum samples stored at -80°C to determine if they could be effectively used as specific time points in a longitudinal study following metabolic disease. Four hundred small molecules were identified in both the serum and DBS samples using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) and LC-ion mobility spectrometry-MS (LC-IMS-MS). The identified polar metabolites overlapped well between the sample types, though only one statistically significant polar metabolite in a case-control study was conserved, indicating degradation occurs in the DBS samples affecting quantitation. Differences in the lipid identifications indicated that some oxidation occurs in the DBS samples. However, thirty-six statistically significant lipids correlated in both sample types indicating that lipid quantitation was more stable across the sample types.

  16. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.

    2018-04-10

    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  17. Compositing water samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, T.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Maluk, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can easily and economically be obtained from a single VOC analysis by using proven methods of collecting representative, discrete water samples and compositing them with a gas-tight syringe. The technique can be used in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. The type of mean concentration desired depends on the objectives of monitoring. For example, flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations can be used to estimate mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm water, and spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations can be used to assess sources of drinking water (e.g., reservoirs and rivers). The mean error in a discrete sample due to compositing is about 2% for most VOC concentrations greater than 0.1 ??g/L. The total error depends on the number of discrete samples comprising the composite sample and precision of the chemical analysis.Accurate mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can easily and economically be obtained from a single VOC analysis by using proven methods of collecting representative, discrete water samples and compositing them with a gas-tight syringe. The technique can be used in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. The type of mean concentration desired depends on the objectives of monitoring. For example, flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations can be used to estimate mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm water, and spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations can be used to assess sources of drinking water (e.g., reservoirs and rivers). The mean error in a discrete sample due to compositing is about 2% for most VOC concentrations greater than 0.1 ??g/L. The total error depends on the number of discrete samples comprising the composite sample and precision of the chemical analysis.Researchers are able to derive

  18. The collection and field chemical analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Ealey, D.T.; Hollenbach, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    A successful water sampling program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement and sampling procedures in order to obtain reliable field data and representative samples. It is imperative that the personnel involved have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Though this seems self-evident, many sampling and field-chemical-analysis programs are still not properly conducted. Recognizing these problems, the Department of Energy contracted with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation through the Technical Measurements Center to develop and select procedures for water sampling and field chemical analysis at waste sites. The fundamental causese of poor field programs are addressed in this paper, largely through discussion of specific field-measurement techniques and their limitations. Recommendations for improvement, including quality-assurance measures, are also presented

  19. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  20. Temporal variability in urinary excretion of bisphenol A and seven other phenols in spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2013-01-01

    (ICCs). More than 70% of the urine samples had detectable levels of BPA, triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and sum of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol (σDCP). We found low to moderate ICCs for BPA (0.10-0.42) and σDCP (0.39-0.72), whereas the ICCs for BP-3 (0.69-0.80) and TCS (0...

  1. Dealing with large sample sizes: comparison of a new one spot dot blot method to western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Sulistyo Emantoko Dwi; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Von Websky, Karoline; Ritter, Teresa; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Hocher, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Western blot is the gold standard method to determine individual protein expression levels. However, western blot is technically difficult to perform in large sample sizes because it is a time consuming and labor intensive process. Dot blot is often used instead when dealing with large sample sizes, but the main disadvantage of the existing dot blot techniques, is the absence of signal normalization to a housekeeping protein. In this study we established a one dot two development signals (ODTDS) dot blot method employing two different signal development systems. The first signal from the protein of interest was detected by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The second signal, detecting the housekeeping protein, was obtained by using alkaline phosphatase (AP). Inter-assay results variations within ODTDS dot blot and western blot and intra-assay variations between both methods were low (1.04-5.71%) as assessed by coefficient of variation. ODTDS dot blot technique can be used instead of western blot when dealing with large sample sizes without a reduction in results accuracy.

  2. Nationwide Drinking Water Sampling Campaign for Exposure Assessments in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Hansen, Birgitte; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2018-01-01

    Nationwide sampling campaign of treated drinking water of groundwater origin was designed and implemented in Denmark in 2013. The main purpose of the sampling was to obtain data on the spatial variation of iodine concentration and speciation in treated drinking water, which was supplied to the majority of the Danish population. This data was to be used in future exposure and epidemiologic studies. The water supply sector (83 companies, owning 144 waterworks throughout Denmark) was involved actively in the planning and implementation process, which reduced significantly the cost and duration of data collection. The dataset resulting from this collaboration covers not only iodine species (I−, IO3−, TI), but also major elements and parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, DOC, TC, TN, F−, Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) and a long list of trace elements (n = 66). The water samples represent 144 waterworks abstracting about 45% of the annual Danish groundwater abstraction for drinking water purposes, which supply about 2.5 million Danes (45% of all Danish residents). This technical note presents the design, implementation, and limitations of such a sampling design in detail in order (1) to facilitate the future use of this dataset, (2) to inform future replication studies, or (3) to provide an example for other researchers. PMID:29518987

  3. Monitoring Inland Water Turbidity: Contribution of SPOT5 Take5 to Health Hazard Monitoring in West Africa (Bagre Lake, Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Somdecoste, Tom; Gal, Laetitia

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring turbidity and Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSSC) of inland waters in tropics is essential to assess human health risks, in particular the diarrheal disease risk. In this study, we explore the use of Spot5 time series acquired for the Spot5Take5 Program to monitor turbidity and SSSC on the Bagre Lake (Burkina Faso). Field measurements (turbidity, SSSC, radiometry) are used to evaluate different radiometric indices. The combination of the NIR with a visible band (R or G) is found to be the best suited to retrieve SSSC and turbidity from Spot5 images. Large differences between upstream and downstream areas of the lake are well capture by the Spot5 time series, with large difference in the seasonal maximum both for absolute values and timing. A large sediment transport is observed from upstream to downstream between June and September caused by surface runoff and erosion. The high turbidity values observed suggest that the associated health hazard is potentially high, especially at the beginning of the rainy season and in the upstream areas of the lake.

  4. Dark Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell's construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site

  6. Preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphthol reagent (PAN) at pH 6.0 was used as a chelating agent prior to extraction. After concentration and purification of the samples in SPE C18 sorbent, 1.5 mL elution sample containing 40.0 µL chlorobenzene was injected into the 5.0 mL pure water. After extraction and centrifuging, the sedimented ...

  7. Water and steam sampling systems; Provtagningssystem foer vatten och aanga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2009-10-15

    The supervision of cycle chemistry can be divided into two parts, the sampling system and the chemical analysis. In modern steam generating plants most of the chemical analyses are carried out on-line. The detection limits of these analyzers are pushed downward to the ppt-range (parts per trillion), however the analyses are not more correct than the accuracy of the sampling system. A lot of attention has been put to the analyzers and the statistics to interpret the results but the sampling procedures has gained much less attention. This report aims to give guidance of the considerations to be made regarding sampling systems. Sampling is necessary since most analysis of interesting parameters cannot be carried out in- situ on-line in the steam cycle. Today's on-line instruments for pH, conductivity, silica etc. are designed to meet a water sample at a temperature of 10-30 deg C. This means that the sampling system has to extract a representative sample from the process, transport and cool it down to room temperature without changing the characteristics of the fluid. In the literature research work, standards and other reports can be found. Although giving similar recommendations in most aspects there are some discrepancies that may be confusing. This report covers all parts in the sampling system: Sample points and nozzles; Sample lines; Valves, regulating and on-off; Sample coolers; Temperature, pressure and flow rate control; Cooling water; and Water recovery. On-line analyzers connecting to the sampling system are not covered. This report aims to clarify what guidelines are most appropriate amongst the existing ones. The report should also give guidance to the design of the sampling system in order to achieve representative samples. In addition to this the report gives an overview of the fluid mechanics involved in sampling. The target group of this report is owners and operators of steam generators, vendors of power plant equipment, consultants working in

  8. Considerations on ultra trace analysis of carbamates in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, J M F; Sandra, Tom; Sandra, Pat

    2003-05-09

    A new routine method for the ultra trace analysis of carbamates in water samples is presented, using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-ESI-MS). Instrumental conditions of LC-ESI-MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, showed excellent linear response for the six N-methyl carbamates studied (aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, methomyl, oxamyl and pirimicarb) in the range from 1 to 50 microg/l and a precision having a relative standard deviation below 7.8% was achieved. Instrumental limits of detection of 0.10 microg/l were found for these carbamates, with the exception of methomyl for which 0.50 microg/l was measured. The SPE assays were shown to be easy, fast, very sensitive, requiring a low volume (50 ml) of water sample. For laboratory-spiked water samples having 0.03 and 0.30 microg/l of individual N-methyl carbamates, higher selectivities were achieved in cartridges having octadecylsilica, polystyrene-divinylbenzene and N-vinylpyrrolidane-divinylbenzene as solid phases, for which reasonable average recoveries were obtained. Ten replicates using octadecylsilica SPE cartridges, showed average recoveries between 73.7 and 92.6% with a relative standard deviation lower than 14.7%. The present methodology evidences good robustness, accuracy and precision for monitoring of N-methyl carbamates in water samples, and is shown to be a suitable alternative to replace the currently dedicated analytical systems. The limits of detection for the analysis of N-methyl carbamates in water samples reached in the present methodology (0.5 to 3 ng/l), clearly cover the maximum concentration admissible for pesticides, established by the European Union directive on water quality.

  9. Determination of estrogenic potential in waste water without sample extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avberšek, Miha; Žegura, Bojana; Filipič, Metka; Uranjek-Ževart, Nataša; Heath, Ester

    2013-09-15

    This study describes the modification of the ER-Calux assay for testing water samples without sample extraction (NE-(ER-Calux) assay). The results are compared to those obtained with ER-Calux assay and a theoretical estrogenic potential obtained by GC-MSD. For spiked tap and waste water samples there was no statistical difference between estrogenic potentials obtained by the three methods. Application of NE-(ER-Calux) to "real" influent and effluents from municipal waste water treatment plants and receiving surface waters found that the NE-(ER-Calux) assay gave higher values compared to ER-Calux assay and GC-MSD. This is explained by the presence of water soluble endocrine agonists that are usually removed during extraction. Intraday dynamics of the estrogenic potential of a WWTP influent and effluent revealed an increase in the estrogenic potential of the influent from 12.9 ng(EEQ)/L in the morning to a peak value of 40.0 ng(EEQ)/L in the afternoon. The estrogenic potential of the effluent was

  10. determination of thiobencarb in water samples by gas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ... liquid-liquid microextraction via flotation assistance (HLLME-FA) coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied for the extraction and determination of thiobencarb in water samples. In this study, a special extraction cell was designed to facilitate collection of the low-density solvent ...

  11. Determination of thiobencarb in water samples by gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... liquid-liquid microextraction via flotation assistance (HLLME-FA) coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied for the extraction and determination of thiobencarb in water samples. In this study, a special extraction cell was designed to facilitate collection of the low-density solvent ...

  12. Determination of lead at nanogram level in water samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel method of chemistry applicable to the determination of trace lead in water samples based on the resonance light scattering (RLS) technique has been developed. In dilute phosphoric acid medium, in the presence of a large excess of I-, Pb(II) can form [PbI4]2-, which further reacts with tetrabutyl ammonium bromide ...

  13. Levels of Cadmium in Soil, Sediment and Water Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil, sediment and water samples collected from the catchment areas of some selected rivers and streams in Tarkwa and its environs were investigated for the levels of cadmium using the Atomic Absorption spectrophometric technique. From the results, it was observed that cadmium levels were generally higher than the ...

  14. Selected radioisotopes` concentrations in integrated reactor effluent water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.O.

    1962-12-01

    This document contains the results of weekly sampling of various isotope concentrations from effluent water at the 100 area at Hanford from July 1962 to February 1965. Compiled data in microcuries/milliliter are given. Each sampling records the concentrations of iodine-131, phosphorus-32, zinc-65, scandium-46, chromium-51, and cobalt-60. Records prior to October 8, 1962 also contain information on strontium-90, cesium-137, zirconium-95, ruthenium-103, ruthenium-106, and strontium-89. These last records are all from F reactor samples.

  15. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  16. Measurement of tritium in the free water of milk : spotting and quantifying some biases and proposing ways of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Pierre; Duda, Jean-Marie; Guétat, Philippe; Rambaud, Pauline; Mavon, Christophe; Vichot, Laurent; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Fromm, Michel

    2014-01-01

    As one of the three natural isotopes of hydrogen, tritium is ubiquitous and may potentially be present in any water or organic molecule that constitutes a biological matrix. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of chronic release of radionuclides, as it is a very common food product and also because it integrates deposition on large areas of grass or crops at a local scale. Different parameters have been studied to assess their impact on the reliability of tritium measurements in the free water of milk. The volume of the sample, the technique used to extract the water and the level of dehydration modulate the results but in different ways: dispersion of results and under- or over-estimation of the tritium activity. The influence of sample storage and preparation has also been investigated. Methodological improvements of tritium measurements in the free water of milk are proposed. An original fractionation effect during distillation of milk is also described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated high-capacity on-line extraction and bioanalysis of dried blood spot samples using liquid chromatography/high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Regina V; Henion, Jack; Wickremsinhe, Enaksha R

    2014-11-30

    Pharmacokinetic data to support clinical development of pharmaceuticals are routinely obtained from liquid plasma samples. The plasma samples require frozen shipment and storage and are extracted off-line from the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) systems. In contrast, the use of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is an attractive alternative in part due to its benefits in microsampling as well as simpler sample storage and transport. However, from a practical aspect, sample extraction from DBS cards can be challenging as currently performed. The goal of this report was to integrate automated serial extraction of large numbers of DBS cards with on-line liquid chromatography/high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry (LC/HRAMS) bioanalysis. An automated system for direct DBS extraction coupled to a LC/HRAMS was employed for the quantification of midazolam (MDZ) and α-hydroxymidazolam (α-OHMDZ) in human blood. The target analytes were directly extracted from the DBS cards onto an on-line chromatographic guard column followed by HRAMS detection. No additional sample treatment was required. The automated DBS LC/HRAMS method was developed and validated, based on the measurement at the accurate mass-to-charge ratio of the target analytes to ensure specificity for the assay. The automated DBS LC/HRAMS method analyzed a DBS sample within 2 min without the need for punching or additional off-line sample treatment. The fully automated analytical method was shown to be sensitive and selective over the concentration range of 5 to 2000 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy was less than 15% (less than 20% at the LLOQ). The validated method was successfully applied to measure MDZ and α-OHMDZ in an incurred human sample after a single 7.5 mg dose of MDZ. The direct DBS LC/HRAMS method demonstrated successful implementation of automated DBS extraction and bioanalysis for MDZ and α-OHMDZ. This approach has the potential to promote workload

  18. Algae viability over time in a ballast water sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2018-03-01

    The biology of vessels' ballast water needs to be analysed for several reasons, one of these being performance tests of ballast water management systems. This analysis includes a viability assessment of phytoplankton. To overcome logistical problems to get algae sample processing gear on board of a vessel to document algae viability, samples may be transported to land-based laboratories. Concerns were raised how the storage conditions of the sample may impact algae viability over time and what the most appropriate storage conditions were. Here we answer these questions with a long-term algae viability study with daily sample analysis using Pulse-Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry. The sample was analysed over 79 days. We tested different storage conditions: fridge and room temperature with and without light. It seems that during the first two weeks of the experiment the viability remains almost unchanged with a slight downwards trend. In the continuing period, before the sample was split, a slightly stronger downwards viability trend was observed, which occurred at a similar rate towards the end of the experiment. After the sample was split, the strongest viability reduction was measured for the sample stored without light at room temperature. We concluded that the storage conditions, especially regarding temperature and light exposure, have a stronger impact on algae viability compared to the storage duration and that inappropriate storage conditions reduce algal viability. A sample storage time of up to two weeks in a dark and cool environment has little influence on the organism viability. This indicates that a two week time duration between sample taking on board a vessel and the viability measurement in a land-based laboratory may not be very critical.

  19. Multibiomarker response in ten spotted live-bearer fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842) exposed to Reconquista river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossana, N A; Eissa, B L; Baudou, F G; Castañé, P M; Soloneski, S; Ferrari, L

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the water quality to chemical pollution at Roggero Dam, the headwater of the Reconquista river, and to perform a Cadmium (Cd) contamination pulse simulation through a wide battery of biomarkers which included: genotoxicity and enzymatic biomarker parameters on a neotropical teleost fish namely Cnesterodon decemmaculatus. Water samples were taken in order to determine the river's physicochemical profile. An integrative approach was applied using a biomarker index. The bioassay involved the use of laboratory culture adult animals, acclimatized in moderately hard water (MHW) and fed ad libitum. A semi-static 96h bioassay was conducted and the experimental groups were as follows: [1] river water (Rg); [2] river water + 2mg/L Cd (RgCd); [3] MHW + 2mg/L Cadmium (Cd), positive metal control; [4] MHW + 5mg/L Cyclophosphamide (positive genotoxicity control -CP); [5] MWH, negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure time fishes were sectioned and the following biomarkers were determined: 1) condition factor rate (CF); 2) for the anterior section (A) (head): glutathione (GSH) and protein (Pr) content; 3) for the body midsection (M) (viscera): Pr, GSH, Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Blood samples were also taken from the fish specimens to estimate the frequency of micronuclei (MN) as well as other nuclear abnormalities (NA). The physicochemical profile of the river water sample indicated high Copper concentrations. CAT and SOD activity and total Pr content did not show any significant changes. GST activity decreased in fish exposed to Rg, while GSH content decreased significantly for all treatments compared to controls in MHW. These results would seem to point to a reduction in cell defense capability as a result of the depletion antioxidants such as GSH. The NA frequency increased significantly in all treated groups while MN frequency was increased only in Cd and CP groups. Using some the

  20. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in High-Risk Elder Patients of Stroke from the Rural Areas of Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxia; Yin, Xuejun; Zhang, Ruijuan; Liu, Furong; Yang, Danrong; Fan, Yameng; Rong, Jie; Tian, Maoyi; Yu, Yan

    2017-10-11

    Background : 24-h urine collection is regarded as the "gold standard" for monitoring sodium intake at the population level, but ensuring high quality urine samples is difficult to achieve. The Kawasaki, International Study of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) and Tanaka methods have been used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine samples in some countries, but few studies have been performed to compare and validate these methods in the Chinese population. Objective : To compare and validate the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples in 365 high-risk elder patients of strokefrom the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods : Data were collected from a sub-sample of theSalt Substitute and Stroke Study. 365 high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province participated and their spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and creatinine in spot and 24-h urine samples wereanalysed. Estimated 24-h sodium excretion was predicted from spot urine concentration using the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka formulas. Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement by Bland-Altman method were computed for estimated and measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Results : The average 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 162.0 mmol/day, which representing a salt intake of 9.5 g/day. Three predictive equations had low correlation with the measured 24-h sodium excretion (r = 0.38, p h sodium excretion were observed (all p h sodium excretion. Conclusion : The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine specimens were inadequate for the assessment of sodium intake at the population level in high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province, although the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods.

  1. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in sea water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Haruo; Imai, Sakingo; Ohmori, Sayoko.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical values of trace elements in sea water samples have been fluctuated according to the sampling locations, the analytical procedures and so on. It is very important in marine chemistry to elucidate the cause of such concentration variations. This report is the analytical results of the samples obtained in the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Sea of Japan, by means of neutron activation analysis. As the preconcentration, 1-pyrrolidine carbothio acid (APDC)-chelate extraction and freeze-drying were adopted. The specimens obtained by this extraction from 500 or 800 ml samples were irradiated by KUR reactor for 1 min, 1 hr to 10 hrs and the gamma-ray spectrometry with a Ge(Li) detector was used for the determination of V, Mn, Cu, Zn, U, Fe, Co, Ni, Ag, Sb and Au. By about 80 hrs irradiation of the specimens obtained by freeze-drying from 20 ml samples and their gamma-ray spectrometry, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb and Cs were determined. The former procedure gives concentrations of elements in species reactable with APDC, but the latter method shows entire concentrations of the elements in the sea water samples. Some considerations on the analytical values and the comparisons of the both methods are described. (author)

  2. Collection and preparation of water samples for hydrogeochemical reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baucom, E.I.; Ferguson, R.B.; Wallace, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method based on ion exchange and neutron activation analysis (NAA) was developed and field-tested to determine uranium over the range 0.02 to 10,000 ppb in natural water using a single procedure. Water samples are filtered in the field using a specially-designed one-liter filter apparatus pressurized to 40 psig with an inert gas. The filtered water is treated with a high purity, mixed cation-anion resin in the hydronium-hydroxide form. All ions are removed from solution under the strong driving force of the neutralization reaction. Anionic, cationic, and natural complexes of uranium can be concentrated with this method. Field tests showed greater than 95 percent recovery of 13 elements analyzed (including greater than 99 percent recovery of uranium) and greater than or equal to 90 percent recovery of 4 other elements. Uranium collected on the resin was quantitatively determined by NAA. Coefficient of variation for sampling plus analysis was less than 20 percent for samples containing more than 0.1 ppb uranium. Advantages of this method include: (1) wide dynamic range, (2) low detection limit for uranium (0.02 ppb), (3) high precision and accuracy, (4) relatively low cost, (5) high-yield recovery from low-level aqueous samples without risk of loss to containers, (6) decreased risk of significant sample contamination compared with other low-level methods, (7) production of stable samples suitable for retrievable storage, and(8) concentration of other ions that can be determined by NAA. This paper presents (1) background regarding development of procedures for sample collection and preparation, (2) results of development programs, (3) description of equipment and field procedures, and (4) preliminary conclusions regarding use of this technology for hydrogeochemical reconnaissance for uranium

  3. The effect of water and shampooing on the efficacy of fluralaner spot-on solution against Ixodes ricinus and Ctenocephalides felis infestations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, Janina; Gale, Boyd; Zschiesche, Eva; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2016-05-31

    Fluralaner spot-on solution provides immediate and persistent efficacy against tick and flea infestations in dogs and cats for 12-weeks following topical administration. The active ingredient fluralaner is distributed systemically following transdermal absorption. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis whether water-immersion or shampooing of dogs following administration of fluralaner spot-on solution has an impact on subsequent tick and flea efficacy. Thirty-two Beagle dogs were allocated to four study groups of 8 dogs each. On day 0, dogs in the 2 treatment groups received topical administration of fluralaner (Bravecto™ spot-on solution) according to label instructions. Dogs in the 2 corresponding control groups remained untreated. On days 3, 21, 49, and 77 dogs in one treatment group and control group were water-immersed for 2-5 min, while dogs in the other treatment group and control group were shampooed 6-8 min with a commercial foaming micro-emulsion, unscented product. On days 4, 28, 56, and 84 all dogs were co-infested with 50 ± 2 female and 10 ± 2 male Ixodes ricinus and 100 ± 4 Ctenocephalides felis, with tick and flea removal and counts 48 ± 2 h post-infestation. Efficacy against ticks and fleas was calculated for each assessment time point. No treatment-related adverse event was observed in any of the 16 dogs treated with fluralaner spot-on solution during the study. Efficacy against ticks at each assessment time point was between 99.7 and 100 % in the water-immersed group and between 99.2 and 100 % in the shampooed group. Efficacy against fleas was 100 % at each assessment time point as well in the water-immersed as the shampooed group. Tick and flea reduction in both treatment groups was significant at all assessment time points (p fluralaner spot-on solution had an impact on the excellent tick and flea efficacy over the 12-week recommended re-treatment interval.

  4. Use of dried-blood-spot samples and in-house assays to identify antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-infected children in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemniak, Carrie; Mengistu, Yohannes; Ruff, Andrea; Chen, Ya-Hui; Khaki, Leila; Bedri, Abubaker; Simen, Birgitte B; Palumbo, Paul; Eshleman, Susan H; Persaud, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Monitoring HIV drug resistance is an important component of the World Health Organization's global HIV program. HIV drug resistance testing is optimal with commercially available clinically validated test kits using plasma; however, that type of testing may not be feasible or affordable in resource-constrained settings. HIV genotyping from dried blood spots (DBS) with noncommercial (in-house) assays may facilitate the capture of HIV drug resistance outcomes in resource-constrained settings but has had varying rates of success. With in-house assays for HIV reverse transcriptase, we evaluated the yield of genotyping DBS samples collected from HIV-infected children who were enrolled in two clinical trials conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (median HIV viral load, 5.88 log(10) HIV RNA copies/ml; range, 4.04 to 6.99). Overall, HIV genotypes were obtained for 94 (89.5%) of 105 samples tested (95% and 84% from clinical trials #1 and #2, respectively); however, successful analysis of 15 (16.1%) of the 94 samples required repeat testing using a different set of primers on previously synthesized cDNA. The yield of genotyping was lower on the DBS that were stored suboptimally from clinical trial #2 (56% versus 88% for optimally stored). Concordance with plasma genotypes derived using a clinically validated, commercial kit-based assay (ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system) was also assessed in a subset of children with paired testing. For 34 samples with paired DBS and plasma genotypes, there was 100% concordance for major drug resistance mutations. DBS genotyping using in-house assays provides an alternative for antiretroviral drug resistance testing in children in resource-constrained regions but may require region-specific optimization before widespread use.

  5. Use of Dried-Blood-Spot Samples and In-House Assays To Identify Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in HIV-Infected Children in Resource-Constrained Settings ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemniak, Carrie; Mengistu, Yohannes; Ruff, Andrea; Chen, Ya-Hui; Khaki, Leila; Bedri, Abubaker; Simen, Birgitte B.; Palumbo, Paul; Eshleman, Susan H.; Persaud, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring HIV drug resistance is an important component of the World Health Organization's global HIV program. HIV drug resistance testing is optimal with commercially available clinically validated test kits using plasma; however, that type of testing may not be feasible or affordable in resource-constrained settings. HIV genotyping from dried blood spots (DBS) with noncommercial (in-house) assays may facilitate the capture of HIV drug resistance outcomes in resource-constrained settings but has had varying rates of success. With in-house assays for HIV reverse transcriptase, we evaluated the yield of genotyping DBS samples collected from HIV-infected children who were enrolled in two clinical trials conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (median HIV viral load, 5.88 log10 HIV RNA copies/ml; range, 4.04 to 6.99). Overall, HIV genotypes were obtained for 94 (89.5%) of 105 samples tested (95% and 84% from clinical trials #1 and #2, respectively); however, successful analysis of 15 (16.1%) of the 94 samples required repeat testing using a different set of primers on previously synthesized cDNA. The yield of genotyping was lower on the DBS that were stored suboptimally from clinical trial #2 (56% versus 88% for optimally stored). Concordance with plasma genotypes derived using a clinically validated, commercial kit-based assay (ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system) was also assessed in a subset of children with paired testing. For 34 samples with paired DBS and plasma genotypes, there was 100% concordance for major drug resistance mutations. DBS genotyping using in-house assays provides an alternative for antiretroviral drug resistance testing in children in resource-constrained regions but may require region-specific optimization before widespread use. PMID:21956987

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of serological diagnosis of hepatitis C and B using dried blood spot samples (DBS: two systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Lange

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dried blood spots (DBS are a convenient tool to enable diagnostic testing for viral diseases due to transport, handling and logistical advantages over conventional venous blood sampling. A better understanding of the performance of serological testing for hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV from DBS is important to enable more widespread use of this sampling approach in resource limited settings, and to inform the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO guidance on testing for HBV/HCV. Methods We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HCV antibody (HCV-Ab and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg from DBS samples compared to venous blood samples. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health and Cochrane library were searched for studies that assessed diagnostic accuracy with DBS and agreement between DBS and venous sampling. Heterogeneity of results was assessed and where possible a pooled analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed using a bivariate analysis with maximum likelihood estimate and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. We conducted a narrative review on the impact of varying storage conditions or limits of detection in subsets of samples. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess risk of bias. Results For the diagnostic accuracy of HBsAg from DBS compared to venous blood, 19 studies were included in a quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 in a narrative review. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 98% (95%CI:95%–99% and 100% (95%CI:99–100%, respectively. For the diagnostic accuracy of HCV-Ab from DBS, 19 studies were included in a pooled quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 studies were included in a narrative review. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 98% (CI95%:95–99 and 99% (CI95%:98–100, respectively. Overall quality of studies and heterogeneity were rated as moderate in both systematic reviews. Conclusion HCV-Ab and HBsAg testing using DBS compared to venous

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of serological diagnosis of hepatitis C and B using dried blood spot samples (DBS): two systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Berit; Cohn, Jennifer; Roberts, Teri; Camp, Johannes; Chauffour, Jeanne; Gummadi, Nina; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nagarathnam, Anupriya; Tuaillon, Edouard; van de Perre, Philippe; Pichler, Christine; Easterbrook, Philippa; Denkinger, Claudia M

    2017-11-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are a convenient tool to enable diagnostic testing for viral diseases due to transport, handling and logistical advantages over conventional venous blood sampling. A better understanding of the performance of serological testing for hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) from DBS is important to enable more widespread use of this sampling approach in resource limited settings, and to inform the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on testing for HBV/HCV. We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HCV antibody (HCV-Ab) and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) from DBS samples compared to venous blood samples. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health and Cochrane library were searched for studies that assessed diagnostic accuracy with DBS and agreement between DBS and venous sampling. Heterogeneity of results was assessed and where possible a pooled analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed using a bivariate analysis with maximum likelihood estimate and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We conducted a narrative review on the impact of varying storage conditions or limits of detection in subsets of samples. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess risk of bias. For the diagnostic accuracy of HBsAg from DBS compared to venous blood, 19 studies were included in a quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 in a narrative review. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 98% (95%CI:95%-99%) and 100% (95%CI:99-100%), respectively. For the diagnostic accuracy of HCV-Ab from DBS, 19 studies were included in a pooled quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 studies were included in a narrative review. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 98% (CI95%:95-99) and 99% (CI95%:98-100), respectively. Overall quality of studies and heterogeneity were rated as moderate in both systematic reviews. HCV-Ab and HBsAg testing using DBS compared to venous blood sampling was associated with excellent diagnostic accuracy

  8. Hexagonal ice in pure water and biological NMR samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas; Gath, Julia; Hunkeler, Andreas; Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [UMR 5086 CNRS, Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    Ice, in addition to “liquid” water and protein, is an important component of protein samples for NMR spectroscopy at subfreezing temperatures but it has rarely been observed spectroscopically in this context. We characterize its spectroscopic behavior in the temperature range from 100 to 273 K, and find that it behaves like pure water ice. The interference of magic-angle spinning (MAS) as well as rf multiple-pulse sequences with Bjerrum-defect motion greatly influences the ice spectra.

  9. Monolith Chromatography as Sample Preparation Step in Virome Studies of Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Kutnjak, Denis; Rački, Nejc; Rupar, Matevž; Ravnikar, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Viruses exist in aquatic media and many of them use this media as transmission route. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have opened new doors in virus research, allowing also to reveal a hidden diversity of viral species in aquatic environments. Not surprisingly, many of the newly discovered viruses are found in environmental fresh and marine waters. One of the problems in virome research can be the low amount of viral nucleic acids present in the sample in contrast to the background ones (host, eukaryotic, prokaryotic, environmental). Therefore, virus enrichment prior to NGS is necessary in many cases. In water samples, an added problem resides in the low concentration of viruses typically present in aquatic media. Different concentration strategies have been used to overcome such limitations. CIM monoliths are a new generation of chromatographic supports that due to their particular structural characteristics are very efficient in concentration and purification of viruses. In this chapter, we describe the use of CIM monolithic chromatography for sample preparation step in NGS studies targeting viruses in fresh or marine water. The step-by-step protocol will include a case study where CIM concentration was used to study the virome of a wastewater sample using NGS.

  10. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics in environmental waters: sample preparation and determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speltini, Andrea; Sturini, Michela; Maraschi, Federica; Profumo, Antonella

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a general overview on the analytical methods proposed in the last decade for trace fluoroquinolone (FQ) determination in environmental waters. A large number of studies have been developed on this topic in reason of the importance of their monitoring in the studies of environmental mobility and potential degradation pathways. Every step of the analysis has been carefully considered, with a particular attention to sample preparation, in relationship with the problems involved in the analysis of real matrices. The different strategies to minimise interference from organic matter and to achieve optimal sensitivity, especially important in those samples with lower FQ concentrations, were also highlighted. Results and progress in this field have been described and critically commented. Moreover, a worldwide overview on the presence of FQs in the environmental waters has been reported.

  11. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  12. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY WATER AND URINE SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-08-27

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2008 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2008. A new rapid column separation method was used for analysis of actinides and {sup 90}Sr the NRIP 2008 emergency water and urine samples. Significant method improvements were applied to reduce analytical times. As a result, much faster analysis times were achieved, less than 3 hours for determination of {sup 90}Sr and 3-4 hours for actinides. This represents a 25%-33% improvement in analysis times from NRIP 2007 and a {approx}100% improvement compared to NRIP 2006 report times. Column flow rates were increased by a factor of two, with no significant adverse impact on the method performance. Larger sample aliquots, shorter count times, faster cerium fluoride microprecipitation and streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation were also employed. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and {sup 90}Sr analyses for NRIP 2008 emergency urine samples. High levels of potential matrix interferences may be present in emergency samples and rugged methods are essential. Extremely high levels of {sup 210}Po were found to have an adverse effect on the uranium results for the NRIP-08 urine samples, while uranium results for NRIP-08 water samples were not affected. This problem, which was not observed for NRIP-06 or NRIP-07 urine samples, was resolved by using an enhanced {sup 210}Po removal step, which will be described.

  13. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  14. Mongolian spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mongolian spots (MS are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  15. Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Saurabh; Krishnan, Sunderrajan; Rajkumar, Samuel; Halery, Nischal; Balkunde, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0–2 mg l −1 . Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field. - Highlights: • Fluoride is an inorganic pollutant in ground water, affecting human health. • A colorimetric method for measurement of fluoride in drinking water with smartphone • Measurement is by mixing water with zirconyl xylenol orange complex reagent. • Results are comparable with laboratory-based ion selective fluoride electrode method.

  16. Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Saurabh [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands); Krishnan, Sunderrajan [INREM Foundation (India); Rajkumar, Samuel; Halery, Nischal; Balkunde, Pradeep [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands)

    2016-05-01

    In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0–2 mg l{sup −1}. Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field. - Highlights: • Fluoride is an inorganic pollutant in ground water, affecting human health. • A colorimetric method for measurement of fluoride in drinking water with smartphone • Measurement is by mixing water with zirconyl xylenol orange complex reagent. • Results are comparable with laboratory-based ion selective fluoride electrode method.

  17. Genetoxicity of water samples from the scenic Lijang river in the Guilin area, China, evaluated by Tradescantia bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y G; Yu, Z D; Liu, G Z; Chen, R Z; Peng, G Y

    1999-05-19

    The Lijang river which passes through the Guilin mountains, and Guilin city is a world renowned scenic spot on the southwest border of China. The river and its tributaries receive water from the mountain tops and springs underground. The river water was clean two decades ago before the development of industrial establishments and extra heavy tourism. Deforestation over the mountain tops on the upper stream and its tributaries in the last decades has created serious erosion and increased sedimentation in the river. In the present study, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) assays were used to evaluate the genetoxicity of water samples collected from 60 different sites along the river. Results indicate that most of the water samples from the tributaries were highly mutagenic, and that pollutants had accumulated in the main river in the Guilin city area from the industrial effluent and city sewage. Both the Trad-MCN and Trad-SHM assays were highly effective for the detection of mutagens in the water samples. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of detection and quantification of HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA using dried blood spot (DBS) samples - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Berit; Roberts, Teri; Cohn, Jennifer; Greenman, Jamie; Camp, Johannes; Ishizaki, Azumi; Messac, Luke; Tuaillon, Edouard; van de Perre, Philippe; Pichler, Christine; Denkinger, Claudia M; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2017-11-01

    The detection and quantification of hepatitis B (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C (HCV) RNA in whole blood collected on dried blood spots (DBS) may facilitate access to diagnosis and treatment of HBV and HCV infection in resource-poor settings. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of DBS compared to venous blood samples for detection and quantification of HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA in two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HBV DNA and HCV RNA from DBS compared to venous blood samples. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, Web of Science, LILAC and Cochrane library for studies that assessed diagnostic accuracy with DBS. Heterogeneity was assessed and where appropriate pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were generated using bivariate analyses with maximum likelihood estimates and 95% confidence intervals. We also conducted a narrative review on the impact of varying storage conditions or different cut-offs for detection from studies that undertook this in a subset of samples. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess risk of bias. In the quantitative synthesis for diagnostic accuracy of HBV-DNA using DBS, 521 citations were identified, and 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall quality of studies was rated as low. The pooled estimate of sensitivity and specificity for HBV-DNA was 95% (95% CI: 83-99) and 99% (95% CI: 53-100), respectively. In the two studies that reported on cut-offs and limit of detection (LoD) - one reported a sensitivity of 98% for a cut-off of ≥2000 IU/ml and another reported a LoD of 914 IU/ml using a commercial assay. Varying storage conditions for individual samples did not result in a significant variation of results. In the synthesis for diagnostic accuracy of HCV-RNA using DBS, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, and this included six additional studies to a previously published review. The pooled sensitivity and specificity was 98% (95% CI:95-99) and 98% (95% CI:95-99.0), respectively

  19. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  20. Nuclear power plants and the environment. Water samplings and releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Philippe; Bordet, Francois; Chevalier, Christian; Colin, Jean-Luc; Khalanski, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This voluminous and illustrated guide aims at giving detailed information on the nature of waters used by nuclear power plants and of releases, on how these samplings and controls are performed, on the associated risks for the environment and public health, and on how public is informed. After a general overview of these issues, a chapter addresses the protection of nature and biodiversity and the actions performed by EDF in this respect. The next chapter deals with public information. The next chapters discuss the water needs of a nuclear power plant, effluent releases and their impacts. Two chapters are dedicated to the monitoring and control of the environment, and to the various techniques of environmental metrology. Legal and regulatory aspects are then presented

  1. Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gkinis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We built an interface between a Wavelength Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS purchased from Picarro Inc. and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneuous water isotopic analysis of δ18O and δD on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub μl amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100% efficiency in a~home made oven at a temperature of 170 °C. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW–SLAP scale. We apply the necessary corrections based on the assessed performance of the system regarding instrumental drifts and dependance on the water concentration in the optical cavity. The melt rates are monitored in order to assign a depth scale to the measured isotopic profiles. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1‰ and 0.5‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sample in the transfer lines limits the temporal resolution of the technique. In this work we investigate and assess these dispersion effects. By using an optimal filtering method we show how the measured profiles can be corrected for the smoothing effects resulting from the sample dispersion. Considering the significant advantages the technique offers, i.e. simultaneuous measurement of δ18O and δD, potentially in combination with chemical components that are traditionally measured on CFA systems, notable reduction on analysis time and power consumption, we consider it as an alternative to traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry with the possibility to

  2. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  3. Mass spectrometric studies on the in vivo metabolism and excretion of SIRT1 activating drugs in rat urine, dried blood spots, and plasma samples for doping control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppner, Sebastian; Delahaut, Philippe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The NAD(+) depending enzyme SIRT1 regulates the mitochondrial biogenesis, fat and glucose metabolism through catalyzing the deacetylation of several metabolism-related protein-substrates. Recently, synthetic activators of SIRT1 referred to as STACs (Sirtuin activating compounds, e.g. SRT2104) were identified and tested in clinical studies for the treatment of aging-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and obesity. Although the mechanism of SIRT1 activation by small molecules has caused considerable controversy, STACs demonstrated a significant performance enhancement in mice experiments including an improvement of endurance, muscle strength, and locomotor behavior. Due to their potential to increase exercise tolerance in healthy individuals, SIRT1 activators are currently being monitored by anti-doping authorities. In the present study, the in vivo metabolic clearance of three SIRT1 activators was investigated in rats by the collection of urine, DBS (dried blood spots) and plasma samples following a single oral administration. The resulting metabolic products were studied by positive electrospray ionization - (tandem) mass spectrometry and confirmed by the comparison with in vitro generated metabolites using human and rat liver microsomal preparations. Subsequently, a screening procedure for five SIRT1 activators and the metabolite M1-SRT1720 in DBS specimens was developed. Liquid-liquid-extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was employed based on diagnostic ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode and two deuterated internal standards namely d8-SRT1720 and d8-M1-SRT1720 were utilized. The doping control assay was characterized with regard to specificity, limit of detection (10-50ng/ml), recovery (65-83%) and imprecision (7-20%) and ion suppression/enhancement effects (drug testing applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  5. Assessment of surface water pollutant models of estuaries and coastal zone of Quang Ninh – Hai Phong using Spot-5 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Luong Chinh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone and estuaries of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong have great potential not only for economic development but also for protection and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem. Nowadays, due to industrial, agricultural and anthropogenic activities signs of water pollution in the region have been found. The level of surface water pollution can be determined by traditional methods through observatory stations. However, a traditional approach to determine water contamination is discontinuous, and thereby makes pollution assessment of the entire estuary very difficult. Nowadays, remote sensing technology has been developed and widely applied in many fields, for instance, in monitoring water environments. Remote sensing data combined with information from in-situ observations allow for extraction of polluted components in water and accurate measurements of pollution level in the large regions ensuring objectivity. According to results obtained from Spot-5 imagery of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong, the extracted pollution components, like BOD, COD and TSS can be determined with the root mean square error, the absolute mean error and the absolute mean percentage error (%: ±4.37 (mg/l 3.86 (mg/l, 27%; ±55.32 (mg/l, 48.30 (mg/l, 14%; and ±32.90 (mg/l, 23.38 (mg/l, 28%; respectively. Obtained outcomes guarantee objectivity in assessing water contaminant levels in the investigated regions and show the advantages of remote sensing applications in Resource and Environmental Monitoring in relation to Water – Air – Land.

  6. Multielement neutron activation analysis of underground water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Haruo; Fujimoto, Yuzo; Ishida, Keiko; Mamuro, Tetsuo.

    1980-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry with high resolution and large volume Ge (Li) detectors followed by data processing with an electronic computer was applied to the multielemental analysis to elucidate the chemical qualities of the underground water which has been widely used in the sake brewing industries in Mikage, Uozaki and Nishinomiya districts, called as miyamizu. The evaporated residues of the water samples were subjected to the neutron irradiations in reactor for 1 min at a thermal flux of 1.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 and for 30 hrs at a thermal flux of 9.3 x 10 11 n.cm -2 .sec -1 or for 5 hrs at a thermal flux of 3.9 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 . Thus, 11 elements in the former short irradiation and 38 elements in the latter two kinds of long irradiation can be analyzed. Conventional chemical analysis including atomic absorption method and others are also applied on the same samples, and putting the all results together, some considerations concerning the geochemical meaning of the analytical values are made. (author)

  7. Screening for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis on dried blood spots: A promising method to better reach hidden high-risk populations with self-collected sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge H M van Loo

    Full Text Available Many people at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs, e.g., men who have sex with men (MSM, are not optimally reached by current sexual health care systems with testing. To facilitate testing by home-based sampling or sampling in outreach setting we evaluated dried blood spots (DBS, a method for self-collected blood sampling for serological screening of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV and syphilis. The aims of this study were to assess the acceptability and feasibility of self-collected DBS and to compare the test results for screening of HIV, HBV and syphilis from DBS with blood drawn by venous puncture.DBS were collected from men who have sex with men (MSM, visiting the STI clinic of the public health service South Limburg (n = 183 and HIV positive and HBV positive patients (n = 34, visiting the outpatient clinics of the Maastricht University Medical Centre in the period January 2012-April 2015. The 93 first participating MSM visiting the STI clinic were asked to fill in a questionnaire about the feasibility and acceptability about self-collection of DBS in a setting without going to a health care facility and were asked to collect the DBS themselves. Serological screening tests for HIV (HIV combi PT, Roche, HBV (HBsAg, Roche and syphilis (Treponema pallidum Ig, Biokit 3.0 were performed on DBS and on blood drawn by venous puncture, which was routinely taken for screening.In total 217 participants were included in the study with a median age of 40 years (range between 17-80. Of MSM 84% agreed that it was clear and easy to do the finger-prick, while 53% agreed that it was clear and easy to apply the blood onto the DBS card. Also, 80% of MSM would use the bloodspot test again. In 91% (198 of DBS, sufficient material was collected to perform the three tests. No difference was observed in DBS quality between self-collected DBS and health care worker collected DBS. For HIV (n = 195 DBS-serum pairs sensitivity and specificity were 100%. For HBV

  8. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in High-Risk Elder Patients of Stroke from the Rural Areas of Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: 24-h urine collection is regarded as the “gold standard” for monitoring sodium intake at the population level, but ensuring high quality urine samples is difficult to achieve. The Kawasaki, International Study of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT and Tanaka methods have been used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine samples in some countries, but few studies have been performed to compare and validate these methods in the Chinese population. Objective: To compare and validate the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples in 365 high-risk elder patients of strokefrom the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods: Data were collected from a sub-sample of theSalt Substitute and Stroke Study. 365 high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province participated and their spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and creatinine in spot and 24-h urine samples wereanalysed. Estimated 24-h sodium excretion was predicted from spot urine concentration using the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka formulas. Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement by Bland-Altman method were computed for estimated and measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Results: The average 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 162.0 mmol/day, which representing a salt intake of 9.5 g/day. Three predictive equations had low correlation with the measured 24-h sodium excretion (r = 0.38, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.38, p < 0.01 for the Kawasaki; r = 0.35, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.31, p < 0.01 for the INTERSALT; r = 0.37, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.34, p < 0.01 for the Tanaka. Significant biases between estimated and measured 24-h sodium excretion were observed (all p < 0.01 for three methods. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods (mean bias: 31.90, 95% Cl: 23.84, 39

  9. Liquid Water from First Principles: Validation of Different Sampling Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundy, C J; Kuo, W; Siepmann, J; McGrath, M J; Vondevondele, J; Sprik, M; Hutter, J; Parrinello, M; Mohamed, F; Krack, M; Chen, B; Klein, M

    2004-05-20

    A series of first principles molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for liquid water to assess the validity and reproducibility of different sampling approaches. These simulations include Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations using the program CPMD with different values of the fictitious electron mass in the microcanonical and canonical ensembles, Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics using the programs CPMD and CP2K in the microcanonical ensemble, and Metropolis Monte Carlo using CP2K in the canonical ensemble. With the exception of one simulation for 128 water molecules, all other simulations were carried out for systems consisting of 64 molecules. It is found that the structural and thermodynamic properties of these simulations are in excellent agreement with each other as long as adiabatic sampling is maintained in the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations either by choosing a sufficiently small fictitious mass in the microcanonical ensemble or by Nos{acute e}-Hoover thermostats in the canonical ensemble. Using the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange and correlation energy functionals and norm-conserving Troullier-Martins or Goedecker-Teter-Hutter pseudopotentials, simulations at a fixed density of 1.0 g/cm{sup 3} and a temperature close to 315 K yield a height of the first peak in the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function of about 3.0, a classical constant-volume heat capacity of about 70 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, and a self-diffusion constant of about 0.1 Angstroms{sup 2}/ps.

  10. Determination of trihalomethanes in water samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Pavon, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)], E-mail: jlpp@usal.es; Herrero Martin, Sara; Garcia Pinto, Carmelo; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2008-11-23

    This article reviews the most recent literature addressing the analytical methods applied for trihalomethanes (THMs) determination in water samples. This analysis is usually performed with gas chromatography (GC) combined with a preconcentration step. The detectors most widely used in this type of analyses are mass spectrometers (MS) and electron capture detectors (ECD). Here, we review the analytical characteristics, the time required for analysis, and the simplicity of the optimised methods. The main difference between these methods lies in the sample pretreatment step; therefore, special emphasis is placed on this aspect. The techniques covered are direct aqueous injection (DAI), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), headspace (HS), and membrane-based techniques. We also review the main chromatographic columns employed and consider novel aspects of chromatographic analysis, such as the use of fast gas chromatography (FGC). Concerning the detection step, besides the common techniques, the use of uncommon detectors such as fluorescence detector, pulsed discharge photoionization detector (PDPID), dry electrolytic conductivity detector (DELCD), atomic emission detector (AED) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for this type of analysis is described.

  11. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  12. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Foreman, William T.; Iverson, Jana L.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19–23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  13. Experimental evaluation on the use of capillary tube and thermostatic expansion valve with heat recovery hot spot water heater in air source refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Azridjal; Mainil, Rahmat Iman; Mainil, Afdhal Kurniawan; Saputra, Eko

    2017-01-01

    The present experimental evaluation has been carried out to investigate the use of capillary tube (CT) and thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) with heat recovery hot spot water heater (HRHSWH) in air source compression refrigeration system. CT and TEV are the two basic types of refrigerant expansion devices that most frequently used in compression refrigeration system, but the identified about HRHSWH in extant literature are limited. The HRHSWH is modified from residential refrigeration system. The heat exchanger coil as HRHSWH was bonded with the compressor discharge pipe line as counter-flow heat exchanger, then insulated and placed them into transparent acrylic box. Water from storage tank with 50L capacity is pumped using circulation pump to the HRHSWH and heating the water in storage tank. The system performance of those two expansion devices in compression refrigeration system are evaluated and compared between with or without modified using HRHSWH. Results show that refrigeration system using TEV performs better performance than CT using HRHSWH compared to standard refrigeration system (without HRHSWH). The use of TEV device in HRHSWH causes a slight decrease in compressor power 0.0198 kW (4%), where the COP increases around 20% higher than the CT device. The finding indicates that the use of HRHSWH generates free hot water for TEV and CT with temperature around 54.06°C and 55.78°C, respectively. In general, HRHSWH give better perfomance than standar refrigeration system.

  14. Laser based water equilibration method for d18O determination of water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Magda; Smajgl, Danijela; Stoebener, Nils

    2017-04-01

    Determination of d18O with water equilibration method using mass spectrometers equipped with equilibration unit or Gas Bench is known already for many years. Now, with development of laser spectrometers this extends methods and possibilities to apply different technologies in laboratory but also in the field. The Thermo Scientific™ Delta Ray™ Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer (IRIS) analyzer with the Universal Reference Interface (URI) Connect and Teledyne Cetac ASX-7100 offers high precision and throughput of samples. It employs optical spectroscopy for continuous measurement of isotope ratio values and concentration of carbon dioxide in ambient air, and also for analysis of discrete samples from vials, syringes, bags, or other user-provided sample containers. Test measurements and conformation of precision and accuracy of method determination d18O in water samples were done in Thermo Fisher application laboratory with three lab standards, namely ANST, Ocean II and HBW. All laboratory standards were previously calibrated with international reference material VSMOW2 and SLAP2 to assure accuracy of the isotopic values of the water. With method that we present in this work achieved repeatability and accuracy are 0.16‰ and 0.71‰, respectively, which fulfill requirements of regulatory method for wine and must after equilibration with CO2.

  15. Verification of spectrophotometric method for nitrate analysis in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Gusrianti, Reny; Dwisiwi, Bledug Bernanti; Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Wiyantoko, Bayu

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the spectrophotometric method to analyze nitrate in water samples using APHA 2012 Section 4500 NO3-B method. The verification parameters used were: linearity, method detection limit, level of quantitation, level of linearity, accuracy and precision. Linearity was obtained by using 0 to 50 mg/L nitrate standard solution and the correlation coefficient of standard calibration linear regression equation was 0.9981. The method detection limit (MDL) was defined as 0,1294 mg/L and limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0,4117 mg/L. The result of a level of linearity (LOL) was 50 mg/L and nitrate concentration 10 to 50 mg/L was linear with a level of confidence was 99%. The accuracy was determined through recovery value was 109.1907%. The precision value was observed using % relative standard deviation (%RSD) from repeatability and its result was 1.0886%. The tested performance criteria showed that the methodology was verified under the laboratory conditions.

  16. Assessment of Sr-90 in water samples: precision and accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisti, Marcelo B.; Saueia, Cátia H.R.; Castilho, Bruna; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.br, E-mail: chsaueia@ipen.br, E-mail: bcastilho@ipen.br, E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The study of artificial radionuclides dispersion into the environment is very important to control the nuclear waste discharges, nuclear accidents and nuclear weapons testing. The accidents in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, released several radionuclides in the environment by aerial deposition and liquid discharge, with various level of radioactivity. The {sup 90}Sr was one of the elements released into the environment. The {sup 90}Sr is produced by nuclear fission with a physical half-life of 28.79 years with decay energy of 0.546 MeV. The aims of this study are to evaluate the precision and accuracy of three methodologies for the determination of {sup 90}Sr in water samples: Cerenkov, LSC direct method and with radiochemical separation. The performance of the methodologies was evaluated by using two scintillation counters (Quantulus and Hidex). The parameters Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) and Figure Of Merit (FOM) were determined for each method, the precision and accuracy were checked using {sup 90}Sr standard solutions. (author)

  17. Methods to maximise recovery of environmental DNA from water samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rheyda Hinlo

    Full Text Available The environmental DNA (eDNA method is a detection technique that is rapidly gaining credibility as a sensitive tool useful in the surveillance and monitoring of invasive and threatened species. Because eDNA analysis often deals with small quantities of short and degraded DNA fragments, methods that maximize eDNA recovery are required to increase detectability. In this study, we performed experiments at different stages of the eDNA analysis to show which combinations of methods give the best recovery rate for eDNA. Using Oriental weatherloach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus as a study species, we show that various combinations of DNA capture, preservation and extraction methods can significantly affect DNA yield. Filtration using cellulose nitrate filter paper preserved in ethanol or stored in a -20°C freezer and extracted with the Qiagen DNeasy kit outperformed other combinations in terms of cost and efficiency of DNA recovery. Our results support the recommendation to filter water samples within 24hours but if this is not possible, our results suggest that refrigeration may be a better option than freezing for short-term storage (i.e., 3-5 days. This information is useful in designing eDNA detection of low-density invasive or threatened species, where small variations in DNA recovery can signify the difference between detection success or failure.

  18. TALE-induced bHLH transcription factors that activate a pectate lyase contribute to water soaking in bacterial spot of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Allison R; Morbitzer, Robert; Lahaye, Thomas; Staskawicz, Brian J

    2017-01-31

    AvrHah1 [avirulence (avr) gene homologous to avrBs3 and hax2, no. 1] is a transcription activator-like (TAL) effector (TALE) in Xanthomonas gardneri that induces water-soaked disease lesions on fruits and leaves during bacterial spot of tomato. We observe that water from outside the leaf is drawn into the apoplast in X. gardneri-infected, but not X. gardneriΔavrHah1 (XgΔavrHah1)-infected, plants, conferring a dark, water-soaked appearance. The pull of water can facilitate entry of additional bacterial cells into the apoplast. Comparing the transcriptomes of tomato infected with X. gardneri vs. XgΔavrHah1 revealed the differential up-regulation of two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors with predicted effector binding elements (EBEs) for AvrHah1. We mined our RNA-sequencing data for differentially up-regulated genes that could be direct targets of the bHLH transcription factors and therefore indirect targets of AvrHah1. We show that two pectin modification genes, a pectate lyase and pectinesterase, are targets of both bHLH transcription factors. Designer TALEs (dTALEs) for the bHLH transcription factors and the pectate lyase, but not for the pectinesterase, complement water soaking when delivered by XgΔavrHah1 By perturbing transcriptional networks and/or modifying the plant cell wall, AvrHah1 may promote water uptake to enhance tissue damage and eventual bacterial egression from the apoplast to the leaf surface. Understanding how disease symptoms develop may be a useful tool for improving the tolerance of crops from damaging disease lesions.

  19. bacteriological analysis of well water samples in sagamu.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    diseases that affect human and animals cannot be underestimated. This is the most important concern about the quality of water. Guideline for bacteriological water ..... serious problem which calls for vigilance on the part of the authorities as it signals possible future outbreak of water borne diseases. Such disease outbreak ...

  20. Bacteriological analysis of well water samples in Sagamu | Idowu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the population in semi-urban and urban areas of Nigeria depend on wells as their source of water supply. Due to increasing cases of water-borne diseases in recent times, this study was carried out to examine the microbial quality of well water in Sagamu, Nigeria as a way of safeguarding public health against ...

  1. Pre-analytical and analytical validations and clinical applications of a miniaturized, simple and cost-effective solid phase extraction combined with LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous determination of catecholamines and metanephrines in spot urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoguang Sunny; Li, Shu; Kellermann, Gottfried

    2016-10-01

    It remains a challenge to simultaneously quantify catecholamines and metanephrines in a simple, sensitive and cost-effective manner due to pre-analytical and analytical constraints. Herein, we describe such a method consisting of a miniaturized sample preparation and selective LC-MS/MS detection by the use of second morning spot urine samples. Ten microliters of second morning urine sample were subjected to solid phase extraction on an Oasis HLB microplate upon complexation with phenylboronic acid. The analytes were well-resolved on a Luna PFP column followed by tandem mass spectrometric detection. Full validation and suitability of spot urine sampling and biological variation were investigated. The extraction recovery and matrix effect are 74.1-97.3% and 84.1-119.0%, respectively. The linearity range is 2.5-500, 0.5-500, 2.5-1250, 2.5-1250 and 0.5-1250ng/mL for norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, normetanephrine and metanephrine, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay imprecisions are ≤9.4% for spiked quality control samples, and the respective recoveries are 97.2-112.5% and 95.9-104.0%. The Deming regression slope is 0.90-1.08, and the mean Bland-Altman percentage difference is from -3.29 to 11.85 between a published and proposed method (n=50). A correlation observed for the spot and 24h urine collections is significant (n=20, p<0.0001, r: 0.84-0.95, slope: 0.61-0.98). No statistical differences are found in day-to-day biological variability (n=20). Reference intervals are established for an apparently healthy population (n=88). The developed method, being practical, sensitive, reliable and cost-effective, is expected to set a new stage for routine testing, basic research and clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro [Graduate School, Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time{sup 18}F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then {sup 18}F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of {sup 18}F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of {sup 18}F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  3. Development of analytical techniques for water and environmental samples (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Chul Hun; Jeon, Chi Wan; Jung, Kang Sup; Song, Kyung Sun; Kim, Sang Yeon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop new analytical methods with good detection limit for toxic inorganic and organic compounds. The analyses of CN, organic acids, particulate materials in environmental samples have been done using several methods such as Ion Chromatography, SPE, SPME, GC/MS, GC/FID, SPLITT (split-flow thin cell fractionation) during the second year of this project. Advantage and disadvantage of several distillation method (by KS, JIS, EPA) for CN analysis in wastewater were investigated. As the results, we proposed new distillation apparatus for CN analysis, which was proved to be simpler, faster and to get better recovery than conventional apparatus. And ion chromatograph/pulsed amperometric detector (IC/PAD) system instead of colorimetry for CN detection was setup to solve matrix interference. And SPE(solid phase extraction) and SPME (solid phase micro extraction) as liquid-solid extraction technique were applied to the analysis of phenols in wastewater. Optimum experimental conditions and factors influencing analytical results were determined. From these results, It could be concluded that C{sub 18} cartridge and polystyrene-divinylbenzene disk in SPE method, polyacrylate fiber in SPME were proper solid phase adsorbent for phenol. Optimum conditions to analyze phenol derivatives simultaneously were established. Also, Continuous SPLITT (Split-flow thin cell) Fractionation (CSF) is a new preparative separation technique that is useful for fractionation of particulate and macromolecular materials. CSF is carried out in a thin ribbon-like channel equipped with two splitters at both inlet and outlet of the channel. In this work, we set up a new CSF system, and tested using polystyrene latex standard particles. And then we fractionated particles contained in air and underground water based on their sedimentation coefficients using CSF. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 31 figs.

  4. Representation of solid and nutrient concentrations in irrigation water from tailwater recovery systems by surface water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailwater recovery (TWR) systems are being implemented on agricultural landscapes to create an additional source of irrigation water. Existing studies have sampled TWR systems using grab samples; however, the applicability of solids and nutrient concentrations in these samples to water being irrigat...

  5. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... execution within boundaries). Moreover, during the execution of the workload, SpotADAPT suggests a redeployment if the current spot instance gets terminated by Amazon or a better deployment becomes possible due to fluctuations of the spot prices. The approach is evaluated using the actual execution times...

  6. Titrimetric determination of arsenic concentration in water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is aimed at titrimetric determination of Arsenic concentration in samples collected from boreholes and irrigation channels of Hadejia Emirate council, Jigawa State, Nigeria. Twenty three samples were randomly collected using standard techniques. The pH of the samples was determined immediately at the ...

  7. Tritium concentrations in environmental water and food samples collected around the vicinity of the PNPP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.Y.; Enriquez, S.O.; Duran, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of tritium in environmental samples collected around the vicinity and more distant environment of the first Philippine Nuclear Power Plant (PNPP-1) in Bataan were assessed. The samples analyzed consisted of water samples such as seawater, freshwater, drinking water, groundwater and rainwater; and food samples such as cereals, vegetables, fruits; meat, milk fish and crustaceans. Tritium concentrations in water samples were determined by distillation and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The food samples were analyzed for tissue-free water tritium by the freezing-drying method followed by liquid scintillation counting techniques. (Auth.) 13 refs

  8. Soluble and insoluble pollutants in fog and rime water samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Stoyanova, V.; Chaloupecký, Pavel; Řezáčová, Daniela; Tsacheva, Ts.; Kupenova, T.; Marinov, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, Sp. Iss. 2 (2009), S123-S130 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1918; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : fog water * rime water * pollutant concentration Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  9. Evaluation Of Sachet Water Samples In Owerri Metropolis | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other surveys revealed that 12 brands had fake manufactures' address, 2 brands had NAFDAC registration number while 3 brands had genuine manufacturers' address on them. It was discovered that the producers packaged the water from their water source without any form of treatment or analysis on it. Key words: ...

  10. Physico-chemical characteristics of water sample from Aiba Stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aiba stream was an outlet of Aiba reservoir (Figure 1). The stream drains through Kuti road, Oweyo and ... solar distillation and this has also removed the settling solids that the water contain since temperature of water .... dissolution of salts deposits, domestic and industrial sewage discharge of effluent etc. The results of the ...

  11. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    are to assess, ascertain and evaluate the level, degree and type of pollution that characterize the surface water resources of Enugu area of ... implications for economic development since people relies heavily on it for various uses such as ... surface water bodies are prone to impacts from anthropogenic activities apart from ...

  12. Physico-chemical Properties of Water Samples from Manipur River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    the rivers indicating degradation of water quality during rainy season than summer. Values of DO was below the ... river system were within the WHO limits for drinking water and, therefore, may be suitable for domestic purposes. @ JASEM. ... help of a mercury thermometer, transparency with secchi disc, conductivity with ...

  13. Storm Water Sampling Data 11-16-17.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In the California Industrial General Permit (IGP) 2014-0057-DWQ for storm water monitoring, effective July 1, 2015, there are 21 contaminants that have been assigned NAL (Numeric Action Level) values, both annual and instantaneous.

  14. Prediction of cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy, and mortality by albumin concentration in a spot urine sample in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luciana Verçoza; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Camargo, Joiza Lins; Zelmanovitz, Themis; da Costa Rocha, Enio P C; Azevedo, Mirela Jobim

    2012-01-01

    To analyze in a random urine spot the predictive value of urinary albumin concentration (UAC) for cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy (DN), and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cohort, urinary albumin (immunoturbidimetry) was measured as 24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and, in a random spot urine, as UAC and albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR). Primary outcomes were: 1) cardiovascular events, 2) DN defined as a composite outcome [macroalbuminuria and/or decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) type 2 diabetic patients, aged 59.9 ± 9.9 years, were followed for 6.1 ± 2.7 years. UAC ≥14.4 mg/l, as determined by ROC curve, predicted DN and prediction for this and other outcomes were compared with traditional microalbuminuria cutoffs for ACR and UAE. The outcomes frequency was: cardiovascular events = 26.4%, DN = 31.7% (23.5% decreased GFR; 13.6% macroalbuminuria) and death = 8.50%. In Cox analyses, UAC ≥14 mg/l increased the risk (hazard ratio, HR) for cardiovascular events 3.25 times (95% CI 1.43-7.38; P = 0.005), 4.30 for DN composite outcome (95% CI 2.22-8.32; P cardiovascular events, 4.67 (95% CI 2.34-9.34; P cardiovascular events, 6.76 (95% CI 3.32-13.77; P cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy, and mortality just as well as ACR. UAC may be used to assess cardiovascular and renal risks in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Demonstration of the Gore Module for Passive Ground Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    3). Figure 3. Location of the SBR site on APG, Maryland. APG is located in the headwaters of the Chesapeake Bay and lies on two peninsulas...aqueous solution by the Module (determined in the laboratory), water temperature, and water pressure. The foundation for this model mirrors accepted...the City of Portsmouth. The former AFB occupies approximately 4,365 acres and is bounded on the west and southwest by Great Bay , on the northwest by

  16. Mutagenicity of drinking water sampled from the Yangtze River and Hanshui River (Wuhan section) and correlations with water quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xuemin; Lu, Yi; Yang, Xiaoming; Dong, Xiaorong; Ma, Kunpeng; Xiao, Sanhua; Wang, Yazhou; Tang, Fei

    2015-03-31

    A total of 54 water samples were collected during three different hydrologic periods (level period, wet period, and dry period) from Plant A and Plant B (a source for Yangtze River and Hanshui River water, respectively), and several water parameters, such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, and total organic carbon (TOC), were simultaneously analyzed. The mutagenicity of the water samples was evaluated using the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. According to the results, the organic compounds in the water were largely frame-shift mutagens, as positive results were found for most of the tests using TA98. All of the finished water samples exhibited stronger mutagenicity than the relative raw and distribution water samples, with water samples collected from Plant B presenting stronger mutagenic strength than those from Plant A. The finished water samples from Plant A displayed a seasonal-dependent variation. Water parameters including COD (r = 0.599, P = 0.009), TOC (r = 0.681, P = 0.02), UV254 (r = 0.711, P = 0.001), and total nitrogen (r = 0.570, P = 0.014) exhibited good correlations with mutagenicity (TA98), at 2.0 L/plate, which bolsters the argument of the importance of using mutagenicity as a new parameter to assess the quality of drinking water.

  17. 384 Power plant waste water sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerty, K.J.; Knotek, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the 384 Power House Sampling and Analysis Plan. The Plan describes sampling methods, locations, frequency, analytes, and stream descriptions. The effluent streams from 384, were characterized in 1989, in support of the Stream Specific Report (WHC-EP-0342, Addendum 1)

  18. Assessment of the pro-inflammatory activity of water sampled from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... Assessment of the pro-inflammatory activity of water sampled from major water treatment facilities ... Although these procedures have been used to assess the human health-related quality of water from ..... CITY OF TSHWANE (2003) Rietvlei Nature Reserve – historical back- ground. Water and Sanitation ...

  19. preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    extraction, co-precipitation and ion-exchange, electrodeposition [9-14] have been used in the ... This method uses an extracting solvent dissolved in a dispersive solvent, which is miscible with both extraction solvent and water. Methanol, acetonitrile and acetone have been used as ..... NASS-4-CRM are given in Table 5.

  20. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR DETECTION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN WATER SUPPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low densities of coliform bacteria introduced into distribution systems may survive in protected habitats. These organisms may interfere with and cause confusion in the use of the coliforms as indicators of sewage contamination of drinking water. Methods of increasing the probabi...

  1. Identifying potential surface water sampling sites for emerging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging chemical pollutants (ECPs) are defined as new chemicals which do not have a regulatory status, but which may have an adverse effect on human health and the environment. The occurrence and concentrations of ECPs in South African water bodies are largely unknown, so monitoring is required in order to ...

  2. Sample container and storage for paclobutrazol monitoring in irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclobutrazol is a plant growth retardant commonly used on greenhouse crops. Residues from paclobutrazol applications can accumulate in recirculated irrigation water. Given that paclobutrazol has a long half-life and potential biological activity in parts per billion concentrations, it would be de...

  3. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  4. High - velocity water jet impact on concrete samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádr, V.; Uhlář, R.; Hlaváč, L. M.; Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef; Hela, R.; Bodnárová, L.; Kaličinský, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2009), s. 43-48 ISSN 2067-3809 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : water jet * concrete * depth of penetration * disintegration volume Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://acta.fih.upt.ro/pdf/2009-4/ACTA-2009-4-08.pdf

  5. EPA Technology Available for Licensing: Portable Device to Concentrate Water Samples for Microorganism Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a computer controlled system, this ultrafiltration device automates the process of concentrating a water sample and can be operated in the field. The system was also designed to reduce human exposure to potentially contaminated water.

  6. High-frequency isotopic analysis of liquid water samples in the field - initial results from continuous water sampling and cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Freyberg, Jana; Studer, Bjørn; Kirchner, James

    2016-04-01

    Studying rapidly changing hydrochemical signals in catchments can help to improve our mechanistic understanding of their water flow pathways and travel times. For these purposes, stable water isotopes (18O and 2H) are commonly used as natural tracers. However, high-frequency isotopic analyses of liquid water samples are challenging. One must capture highly dynamic behavior with high precision and accuracy, but the lab workload (and sample storage artifacts) involved in collecting and analyzing thousands of bottled samples should also be avoided. Therefore, we have tested Picarro, Inc.'s newly developed Continuous Water Sampler Module (CoWS), which is coupled to their L2130-i Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer to enable real-time on-line measurements of 18O and 2H in liquid water samples. We coupled this isotope analysis system to a dual-channel ion chomatograph (Metrohm AG, Herisau, Switzerland) for analysis of major cations and anions, as well as a UV-Vis spectroscopy system (s::can Messtechnik GmbH, Vienna, Austria) and electrochemical probes for characterization of basic water quality parameters. The system was run unattended for up to a week at a time in the laboratory and at a small catchment. At the field site, stream-water and precipitation samples were analyzed, alternating at sub-hourly intervals. We observed that measured isotope ratios were highly sensitive to the liquid water flow rate in the CoWS, and thus to the hydraulic head difference between the CoWS and the samples from which water was drawn. We used a programmable high-precision dosing pump to control the injection flow rate and eliminate this flow-rate artifact. Our experiments showed that the precision of the CoWS-L2130-i-system for 2-minute average values was typically better than 0.06‰ for δ18O and 0.16‰ for δ2H. Carryover effects were 1% or less between isotopically contrasting water samples for 30-minute sampling intervals. Instrument drift could be minimized through periodic analysis of

  7. Study of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio in spot urine sample as a biomarker of 3A4 enzyme activity in healthy and epileptic subjects of Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Desoky, Ehab S; Mohamed, Hanan O; Farghaly, Wafaa M A; Hamed, Sherifa A; Hedaya, Mohsen A; Siest, Jean-Pascal

    2005-06-01

    The ratio of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6 beta-OHC/FC) in morning spot urine samples collected from 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. was studied using ELIZA kits (Stabiligen) in a group of healthy adult Egyptians (control group) of both sex (n=65, age range: 16-48 years). The frequency distribution of urinary 6 beta-OHC/FC ratio was widely distributed among subjects with higher values in males in comparison to females. No bimodality in either sex was observed. Another group of adult epileptic patients (n=16) was studied for the influence of chronic carbamazepine antiepileptic drug administration on urinary 6 beta-OHC/FC ratio in spot urine samples. The induction property of carbamazepine on CYP3A4 was observed through significant increase (p=0.01) in 6 beta-OHC/FC ratio among epileptic patients in comparison with control subjects. In conclusion, the frequency distribution of urinary 6 beta-OHC/FC ratio among Egyptians shows sexual dimorphism. Also, measurement of urinary 6 beta-OHC/FC ratio provides a simple non-invasive method to monitor CYP3A4 enzyme induction during administration of carbamazepine antiepileptic drug.

  8. 32P-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts: description of beta shielding apparatus and semi-automatic spotting and washing devices that facilitate the handling of multiple samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.V.; Blackburn, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of the 32 P-postlabeling assay in combination with TLC for the sensitive detection and estimation of aromatic DNA adducts has been increasing. The procedure consists of 32 P-labeling of carcinogen-adducted 3'-nucleotides in the DNA digests using γ- 32 P ATP and polynucleotide kinase, separation of 32 P-labeled adducts by TLC, and their detection by autoradiography. During both 32 P-labeling and initial phases of TLC, a relatively high amount of γ- 32 P ATP is handled when 30 samples are processed simultaneously. We describe the design of acrylic shielding apparatus, semi-automatic TLC spotting devices, and devices for development and washing of multiple TLC plates, which not only provide substantial protection from exposure to 32 P beta radiation, but also allow quick and easy handling of a large number of samples. Specifically, the equipment includes: (i) a multi-tube carousel rack having 15 wells to hold capless Eppendorf tubes and a rotatable lid with an aperture to access individual tubes; (ii) a pipette shielder; (iii) two semi-automatic spotting devices to apply radioactive solutions to TLC plates; (iv) a multi-plate holder for TLC plates; and (v) a mechanical device for washing multiple TLC plates. Item (i) is small enough to be held in one-hand, vortexed, and centrifuged to mix the solutions in each tube while beta radiation is shielded. Items (iii) to (iv) aid in the automation of the assay. (author)

  9. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sam...

  10. The toxicity of MEA and amine waste water samples using standardised freshwater bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, S.; Heiaas, H.; Lillicrap, A.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples provided by Tel-Tek AS were assessed for their toxicity to freshwater organisms from three trophic groups. The water samples included pure monoethanolamine (MEA) and two amine waste water mixtures described as Amine Reactor Waste (ARW) and treated amine waste water (TW). The toxicity of these three test solutions to the unicellular algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna, and the embryos of the zebra fish Danio rerio were performed in accor...

  11. SEAMIST trademark soil sampling for tritiated water: First year's results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.; Martins, S.A.; Houpis, J.L.; Lowry, W.; Cremer, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    SEAMIST trademark is a recently developed sampling system that enables one to measure various soil parameters by means of an inverted, removable, impermeable membrane tube inserted in a borehole. This membrane tube can have various measuring devices installed on it, such as gas ports, adsorbent pads, and electrical sensors. These membrane tubes are made of a laminated polymer. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, has installed two of these systems to monitor tritium in soil resulting from a leak in an underground storage tank. One tube is equipped with gas ports to sample soil vapor and the other with adsorbent pads to sample soil moisture. Borehole stability was maintained using either sand-filled or air-inflated tubes. Both system implementations yielded concentrations or activities that compared well with the measured concentrations of tritium in the soil taken during borehole construction. In addition, an analysis of the data suggest that both systems prevented the vertical migration of tritium in the boreholes. Also, a neutron probe was successfully used in a blank membrane inserted in one of the boreholes to monitor the moisture in the soil without exposing the probe to the tritium. The neutron log showed excellent agreement with the soil moisture content measured in soil samples taken during borehole construction. This paper describes the two SEAMIST trademark systems used and presents sampling results and comparisons

  12. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1, Version 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes the planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the Grand Junction US DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site (GRJ-01) in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at the Cheney Disposal Site (GRJ-03) near Grand Junction. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for the routine monitoring stations at the sites. Regulatory basis is in the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA ground water quality standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). This plan summarizes results of past water sampling activities, details water sampling activities planned for the next 2 years, and projects sampling activities for the next 5 years

  13. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Nilsen, Bente M; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sloth, Jens J

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Artic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS following microwave-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg(-1) wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (level in fish used in the recent EFSA opinion on arsenic in food.

  14. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julshamn, K.; Nilsen, B. M.; Frantzen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Arctic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast...... of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography–ICP-MS following microwave......-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg–1 wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (...

  15. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  16. Presence of enteric viruses in water samples for consumption in Colombia: Challenges for supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Dioselina; Guzmán, Blanca Lisseth; Rodríguez, Johanna; Acero, Felipe; Nava, Gerardo

    2016-04-15

    Since drinking water can be a vehicle for the transmission of pathogens, the detection of enteric viruses in these water samples is essential to establish the appropriate measures to control and prevent associated diseases.  To analyze the results obtained for enteric viruses in water samples for human consumption received at the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and establish their association with the data on water quality in Colombian municipalities.  We conducted a descriptive-retrospective analysis of the results obtained in the detection of rotavirus, enterovirus, hepatitis A virus and adenovirus in water samples received for complementary studies of enteric hepatitis, acute diarrheal disease and foodborne diseases. Data were correlated with the results of water quality surveillance determined by the national human consumption water quality index (IRCA).  Of the 288 samples processed from 102 Colombian municipalities, 50.7% were positive for viruses: 26.73% for hepatitis A virus, 20.48% for enterovirus and rotavirus and 18.05% for adenovirus. Viruses were detected in 48.26% of non-treated water samples and in 45.83% of treated water samples. The IRCA index showed no correlation with the presence of viruses.  The presence of viruses in water represents a public health risk and, therefore, the prevention of virus transmission through water requires appropriate policies to reinforce water supply systems and improve epidemiological surveillance.

  17. The representativeness of pore water samples collected from the unsaturated zone using pressure-vacuum lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C.A.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the chemistry of water samples may be altered by the collection technique, creating concern about the representativeness of the pore water samples obtained. A study using soil water pressure-vacuum lysimeters in outwash sand and glacial till deposits demonstrates that for non-dilute-solution samples the effect of pH of sampling with lysimeters is minimal, and that measured major cation and anion concentrations are representative of the natural pore water; trace-metal concentrations can be significantly altered by collection procedures at low concentrations. -from Authors

  18. Speciation of phosphorus oxoacids in natural and waste water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Iglesias, Mònica; Todolí, José Luís; Salvadó, Victòria

    2012-03-30

    Phosphorus is a key nutrient and in natural environments regulates trophic status and consequently water quality. Therefore monitoring of phosphorus content in natural and wastewater is essential. Although several phosphorus species can be found in the environment, the majority of the methods developed are for orthophosphate determination. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma with atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) has been first used in this study for the speciation of the most common phosphorus oxoanions in aquatic environments: orthophosphate, phosphite, hypophosphite, pyrophosphate and tripolyphosphate. The chromatograms have been obtained by registering the phosphorous 213.618 nm emission intensity variation with time. The pH and the ionic strength of the mobile phase have been the most critical variables of the chromatographic separation. Moreover, methanol addition promotes the elution of the most retained species. Finally, by using ammonium nitrate and a gradient elution, increasing ionic strength and decreasing the pH, the separation has been achieved in 12 min. Limits of detection have been included within the 1-5 mg L(-1) range. The developed methodology has been tested with spiked tap water and effluent water of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) obtaining recoveries in the range of 91.5-114.1% for a 20 mg P L(-1) spike concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of [i]Leptospira[/i] DNA in water and soil samples collected in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Wójcik-Fatla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [i]Leptospira[/i] is an important re-emerging zoonotic human pathogen, disseminated by sick and carrier animals, water and soil. Weather calamities, such as flooding or cyclones favour the spreading of these bacteria. To check a potential role of natural water and soil in the persistence and spread of [i]Leptospira [/i]on the territory of eastern Poland, 40 samples of natural water and 40 samples of soil were collected from areas exposed to flooding, and 64 samples of natural water and 68 samples of soil were collected from areas not exposed to flooding. Samples of water were taken from various reservoirs (rivers, natural lakes, artificial lakes, canals, ponds, farm wells and samples of soils were taken at the distance of 1–3 meters from the edge of the reservoirs. The samples were examined for the presence of [i]Leptospira[/i] DNA by nested-PCR. Two out of 40 samples of water (5.0% collected from the area exposed to flooding showed the presence of [i]Leptospira[/i] DNA, while all 40 samples of soil from this area were negative. All samples of water and soil (64 and 68, respectively collected from the areas not exposed to flooding were negative. No significant difference were found between the results obtained in the areas exposed and not exposed to flooding. In conclusion, these results suggest that water and soil have only limited significance in the persistence and dissemination of [i]Leptospira[/i] in eastern Poland.

  20. 400 area secondary cooling water sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    This is a total rewrite of the Sampling and Analysis Plan in response to, and to ensure compliance with, the State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4501 issued on July 31, 1996. This revision describes changes in facility status and implements requirements of the permit.

  1. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Belfield and Bowman Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in the spring of 1996. Water sampling was conducted in 1993 at both the Belfield processing site and the Bowman processing/disposal site. Results of the sampling at both sites indicate that ground water conditions have remained relatively stable over time. Water sampling activities are not scheduled for 1994 because ground water conditions at the two sites are relatively stable, the 1993 sampling was comprehensive, and surface remediation activities are not scheduled to start until 1996. The next water sampling event is scheduled before the start of remedial activities and will include sampling selected monitor wells at both sites and several domestic wells in the vicinity

  2. Presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in water samples from Southeast Asia: towards an integrated water detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Thulasi; Abd Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Onichandran, Subashini; Jaturas, Narong; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Tabo, Hazel A L; Tabo, Norbel; Dungca, Julieta Z; Tangpong, Jitbanjong; Phiriyasamith, Sucheep; Yuttayong, Boonyaorn; Polseela, Raxsina; Do, Binh Nhu; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Tan, Tian-Chye; Lim, Yvonne A L; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2016-01-13

    Access to clean and safe drinking water that is free from pathogenic protozoan parasites, especially Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia that cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, is still an issue in Southeast Asia (SEA). This study is the first attempt to detect the aforementioned protozoan parasites in water samples from countries in SEA, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. A total of 221 water samples of 10 l each were collected between April and October 2013 from Malaysia (53), Thailand (120), the Philippines (33), and Vietnam (15). A physicochemical analysis was conducted. The water samples were processed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's methods 1622/1623.1, microscopically observed and subsequently screened using qPCR assays. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10), with a concentration of 0.06 ± 0.19 oocyst/L, and untreated water samples from Thailand (25/93), Malaysia (17/44), and the Philippines (11/23), with concentrations ranging from 0.13 ± 0.18 to 0.57 ± 1.41 oocyst/L. Giardia cysts were found in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10), with a concentration of 0.02 ± 0.06 cyst/L, and in untreated water samples from Thailand (20/93), Vietnam (5/10), Malaysia (22/44), and the Philippines (16/23), with concentrations ranging from 0.12 ± 0.3 to 8.90 ± 19.65 cyst/L. The pathogens C. parvum and G. lamblia were detected using using qPCR assays by targeting the 138-bp fragment and the small subunit gene, respectively. C. parvum was detected in untreated water samples from the Philippines (1/23) and Malaysia (2/44), whilst, G. lamblia detected was detected in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10) and in untreated water samples from Thailand (21/93), Malaysia (12/44), and the Philippines (17/23). Nitrate concentration was found to have a high positive correlation with (oo)cyst (0.993). The presence of

  3. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelec, Marta; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and concentration of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment and to verify the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for analysis of drinking water. For this purpose, study was conducted for a period of 5 months. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland). To determine the effect of water treatment on concentration of PAHs, three sampling places were chosen: raw water input, stream of water just before disinfection and treated water output. After each month of sampling SPMDs were changed for fresh ones and prepared for further analysis. Concentrations of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Presented study indicates that the use of semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of aquatic environment, including monitoring of drinking water, where organic micropollutants are present at very low concentrations.

  4. Procedures for field chemical analyses of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.; Ealey, D.

    1983-12-01

    A successful water-quality monitoring program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement procedures in order to obtain reliable field data. It is imperative that the responsible personnel have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Unfortunately, there is a belief that field analyses are simple and straightforward. Yet, significant controversy as well as misuse of common measurement techniques abounds. This document describes procedures for field measurements of pH, carbonate and bicarbonate, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, Eh, and uranium. Each procedure section includes an extensive discussion regarding the limitations of the method as well as brief discussions of calibration procedures and available equipment. A key feature of these procedures is the consideration given to the ultimate use of the data. For example, if the data are to be used for geochemical modeling, more precautions are needed. In contrast, routine monitoring conducted merely to recognize gross changes can be accomplished with less effort. Finally, quality assurance documentation for each measurement is addressed in detail. Particular attention is given to recording sufficient information such that decisions concerning the quality of the data can be easily made. Application of the procedures and recommendations presented in this document should result in a uniform and credible water-quality monitoring program. 22 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  5. Determination of rare earth elements in natural water samples – A review of sample separation, preconcentration and direct methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Andrew, E-mail: afisher@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Kara, Derya [Department of Chemistry, Art and Science Faculty, Balikesir University, 10100, Balikesir (Turkey)

    2016-09-07

    This review discusses and compares the methods given for the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in natural water samples, including sea, river, lake, tap, ground and waste waters as well as Antarctic ice. Since REE are at very low concentrations in natural waters, numerous different preconcentration methods have been proposed to enable their measurement. These include liquid liquid extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction and solidified floating drop micro-extraction. In addition to liquid-liquid extraction methods, solid phase extraction using commercial resins, resins made in-house, silica-based exchange materials and other solid media is also discussed. These and other techniques such as precipitation/co-precipitation and flotation are compared in terms of speed, preconcentration factors achieved, precision, accuracy and limits of detection (LOD). Some papers have discussed the direct determination of REE in these sample types. Some have used specialised sample introduction systems such as ultrasonic nebulization whereas others have used a standard sample introduction system coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. These direct methods have also been discussed and compared. - Highlights: • The determination of rare earth elements in waters is reviewed. • Assorted preconcentration techniques are discussed and evaluated. • Detection techniques include atomic spectrometry, potentiometry and spectrophotometry. • Special nebulisers and electrothermal vaporization approaches are reviewed.

  6. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. Semiannual water sampling is scheduled for the spring and fall. Water quality sampling is conducted at the processing site (1) to ensure protection of human health and the environment, (2) for ground water compliance monitoring during remedial action construction, and (3) to define the extent of contamination. At the processing site, the frequency and duration of sampling will be dependent upon the nature and extent of residual contamination and the compliance strategy chosen. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  7. Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Samples of Tunceli, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking water quality is associated with the conditions of the water supply networks, the pollution and the contamination of groundwater with pollutants of both anthropogenic and natural origin. In this study, water samples were taken from four different waterworks in Tunceli, Turkey and heavy metals concentrations (As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Hg were measured. Four sampling sites were pre-defined in different locations of the city. The obtained results showed that, the heavy metals concentrations in water samples did not exceed the values of WHO (World Health Organization, EC (Europe Community, EPA (Environment Protection Agency and TSE-266 (Turkish Standard guidelines.

  8. Uranium content measurement in drinking water samples using track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, R.K.; Walia, T.P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of uranium has been assessed in drinking water samples collected from different locations in Bathinda district, Punjab, India. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells. Uranium is determined using fission track technique. Uranium concentration in the water samples varies from 1.65±0.06 to 74.98±0.38 μg/l. These values are compared with safe limit values recommended for drinking water. Most of the water samples are found to have uranium concentration above the safe limit. Analysis of some heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) in water is also done in order to see if some correlation exists between the concentration of uranium and these heavy metals. A weak positive correlation has been observed between the concentration of uranium and heavy metals of Pb, Cd and Cu

  9. USDA Forest Service national protocols for sampling air pollution-sensitive waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. J. Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    The first step in designing a surface water sampling program is identifying one or more problems or questions that require information on water quality. Common water quality problems include nutrient enrichment (from a variety of causes), effects of atmospheric deposition (acidification, eutrophication, toxicity), and effects of major disturbances such as fire or pest...

  10. Evaluation of the Bacterial Status of Water Samples at Umudike Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    77.78%), Proteus spp.(66.67%), Serratia spp.(55.5%) and Vibro spp.(22.2%). The occurrence of the water borne pathogens appeared limited to the stream water samples, hence, continuous consumption without adequate treatment is potentially dangerous. Keywords: Water, rainwater, stream, bacteria, coliforms, pathogen ...

  11. Responses of three very large inducible GTPases to bacterial and white spot syndrome virus challenges in the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Ding, Zhengfeng; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by cells in response to invasion by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. Very large inducible GTPases (VLIG) are the latest IFN-inducible GTPase family to be discovered and are the largest known GTPases of any species. However, VLIG proteins from invertebrates have yet to be characterized. In this study, three forms of VLIGs designated as MrVLIG1, MrVLIG2, and MrVLIG3 were cloned from the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrVLIG1 has a 5445 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding an 1814-amino acid protein. The complete nucleotide sequence of MrVLIG2 cDNA is 7055 bp long consisting of a 5757 bp ORF encoding a protein with 1918 amino acids. The full length of the MrVLIG3 gene consists of 5511 bp with a 3909 bp ORF encoding a peptide with 1302 amino acids. BLASTP and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the three MrVLIGs are clustered into one subgroup and, together with other vertebrate VLIGs, into a branch. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the mRNAs of the three MrVLIGs were widely expressed in almost all detected tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. They were also detected in the intestine but with relatively low expression levels. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA transcripts of the MrVLIGs in the hepatopancreas were significantly expressed at various time points after infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus. In summary, the three isoforms of VLIG genes participate in the innate immune response of the shrimps to bacterial and viral infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  13. Set up of an automatic water quality sampling system in irrigation agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable w...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in American Samoa from Water Samples collected since 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  15. Comparison of the mutagenic activity of XAD4 and blue rayon extracts of surface water and related drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummrow, Fábio; Rech, Celia M; Coimbrão, Carlos A; Roubicek, Deborah A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de A

    2003-11-10

    The combination of mutagenicity tests and selective extraction methodologies can be useful to indicate the possible classes of genotoxic organic contaminants in water samples. Treated and source water samples from two sites were analyzed: a river under the influence of an azo dye-processing plant discharge and a reservoir not directly impacted with industrial discharges, but contaminated with untreated domestic sewage. Organic extraction was performed in columns packed with XAD4 resin, that adsorbs a broad class of mutagenic compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), arylamines, nitrocompounds, quinolines, antraquinones, etc., including the halogenated disinfection by-products; and with blue rayon that selectively adsorbs polycyclic planar structures. The organic extracts were tested for mutagenicity with the Salmonella assay using TA98 and TA100 strains and the potencies were compared. A protocol for cleaning the blue rayon fibers was developed and the efficiency of the reused fibers was analyzed with spiked samples. For the river water samples under the influence of the azo-type dye-processing plant, the mutagenicity was much higher for both blue rayon and XAD4 extracts when compared to the water from the reservoir not directly impacted with industrial discharges. For the drinking water samples, although both sites showed mutagenic responses with XAD4, only samples from the site under the influence of the industrial discharge showed mutagenic activity with the blue rayon extraction, suggesting the presence of polycyclic compounds in those samples. As expected, negative results were found with the blue rayon extracts of the drinking water collected from the reservoir not contaminated with industrial discharges. In this case, it appears that using the blue rayon to extract drinking water samples and comparing the results with the XAD resin extracts we were able to distinguish the mutagenicity caused by industrial contaminants from the halogenated

  16. Analysis of ochratoxin A in dried blood spots - Correlation between venous and finger-prick blood, the influence of hematocrit and spotted volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteresch, Bernd; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    We report the improvement of a method for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2'R-ochratoxin A in dried blood spots (DBS) by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The DBS technique was advanced for the analysis of these two compounds in DBS with unknown amounts of blood as well as varying hematocrit values. Furthermore the comparability of venous vs. capillary blood was investigated. Human whole blood samples were spotted, dried, and extracted with a solvent consisting of acetone, acetonitrile and water for analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. Quantification was carried out by stable isotope labelled internal standards. Blood samples of volunteers (n=50) were used to further optimize and simplify the procedure. Ochratoxin A and 2'R-ochratoxin A concentrations found in the entire spots (approx. 100 μL blood) were compared with punched DBS discs of 8.8mm size containing approximately 20 μL blood. As a result the amounts of both toxins in a punched 8.8mm disc correlate well with the entire DBS. Also the use of capillary blood from finger-pricks versus venous blood was evaluated. The analyte levels correlate as well indicating that the less invasive finger-prick sampling gives also reliable results. The influence of hematocrit was investigated in a range of 25-55% according to the hematocrit in the used real blood samples (34-46% hematocrit). However no significant hematocrit effect was observed for the utilized real blood samples. Moreover different blood volumes were spotted and punched as a minimal spot size is usually recommended for accurate analysis. In this experiment finger-prick samples typically consist of about 90 μL blood. Therefore spots of 75, 100 and 125 μL blood were prepared and analyzed. Similar to the hematocrit effect, no considerable influence was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A study on the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and its enterotoxin genes in samples of well water, tap water, and bottled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hareesh Didugu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and its enterotoxin genes in various water sources. Materials and Methods: 125 samples (50 from well water, 50 from tap water, and 25 from bottled water were collected from various sources in and around Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation and examined for the presence of aeromonads by both cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Alkaline peptone water with ampicillin was used as enrichment. Aeromonas isolation medium and ampicillin dextrin agar were used as selective media. The boiling and snap chilling method was used for DNA extraction. Primers targeted against 16S rRNA, aer, and ast were used to identify aeromonads and its enterotoxins. Results: 48%, 18%, and 12% of well water, tap water, and bottled water samples were found positive by cultural assay with an overall prevalence of 28.8%. Aeromonads were detected in 32 % (52% in well water, 20% in tap water, and 16% in bottled water of samples by PCR assay. Aerolysin (aer gene was noticed in 34.6%, 20%, and 0% of well water, tap water, and bottled water samples, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 27.5%. Thermostable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast was observed in 37.5% (42.3% in well water, 30% in tap water, and 25% in bottled mineral water of samples. Conclusions: Presence of aeromonads and its toxin genes in various sources of water is of public health concern and emphasizes the need for necessary preventive measures to tackle the problem.

  18. A new collector for in situ pore water sampling in wetland sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Deng, Jiancai; Li, Qinqin; Hu, Liuming; Zhu, Jinge; Hang, Hongjuan; Hu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Currently available pore water samplers generally do not allow continuous monitoring of temporal variations in pore water composition. Therefore, a new type of pore water collector was designed and constructed. These collectors were constructed of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials, including PVC tubing with one end sealed and another end topped with a removable PVC screw-cap. A row of holes was drilled 10 cm from the sealed end of each collector. These new collectors were deployed in different layers of the sediment in a constructed wetland in Lake Taihu, China, to reveal variations in the nutrient composition of pore water with high spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, the collectors were driven into the sediment, and the pore water flowed into the tubing via gravity. The pore water was then sampled from the PVC tubing using a portable vacuum pump, and then was taken to the lab within 20 min for analysis of the dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrient concentration. The DO concentration of the pore water was below the detection limit for all samples, indicating that the pore water was probably not influenced by the air and that the water in the collector tube was representative of the pore water. These findings suggest that the collector is capable of measuring the temporal and spatial variations in the nutrient concentrations in pore water. Furthermore, the inexpensive material, ease of construction, minimal disturbance to the sediment and applicability for wetland sediments are advantages of the collector presented here compared with traditional pore water sampling techniques.

  19. Determination of pyridine in soil and water samples of a polluted area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van

    1994-01-01

    A method for the analyses of pyridine in environmental samples is described. For soil samples a distillation procedure followed by an extraction, an acidic extraction or a Soxhlet extraction can be used. For water samples a distillation procedure followed by extraction can be employed. Deuterated

  20. Measurement of radon concentration in some water samples belonging to some adjoining areas of Pathankot, Punjab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ajay, E-mail: ajay782@rediffmail.com; Sharma, Sumit, E-mail: sumitshrm210@gmail.com [Post Graduate Department of Physics, DAV College, Amritsar-143001 (India)

    2015-08-28

    The study of radon concentration was measured in some areas of Pathankot district, Punjab, India, from the health hazard point of view due to radon. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. RAD 7, an electronic solid state silicon detector (Durridgeco., USA) was used to measure the radon concentration in drinking water samples of the study area. The recorded values of radon concentration in these water samples are below the recommended limit by UNSCEAR and European commission. The recommended limit of radon concentration in water samples is 4 to 40 Bq/l given by UNSCEAR [1] and European commission has recommended the safe limit for radon concentration in water sample is 100 Bq/l [2].

  1. Pesticide residues analysis in water samples of Nagarpur and Saturia Upazila, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Islam, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Nabi, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    Pesticides used to protect the crops from pest attack in the agricultural fields pose harmful effect to the non-target organisms such as human and many other aquatic and terrestrial organisms either directly or indirectly through food chain. The present study was conducted to monitor a total of seven pesticide residues under organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in three different sources of pond water, paddy field water and tube-well water from Nagarpur Upazila and paddy field water in the company of Dhaleshwari and Gazikhali river water from Saturia Upazila, Bangladesh. A total of 40 water samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with ultraviolet detector. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, diazinon was detected in eight water samples at a concentration ranging from 4.11 to 257.91 μg/l whereas, malathion was detected only in one water sample at a concentration of 84.64 μg/l and chlorpyrifos pesticide was also detected only in one water sample and the concentration was 37.3 μg/l. Trace amount of carbaryl was identified but it was below the detection limit. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with DDT or its metabolites (DDE and DDD). The water samples contaminated with the suspected pesticides were above the acceptable limit except for the fish pond samples of Sahabatpur and Dubaria union. To control the misuse of pesticides and to reduce the possible health risk, appropriate control systems of pests such as integrated pest management system should be implemented immediately by the authorities of the country.

  2. A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE WATER DISTRIBUTION IN A SOIL SAMPLE USING NEUTRON IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šácha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical method by Kang et al. recently proposed for correcting two-dimensional neutron radiography for water quantification in soil. The method was tested on data from neutron imaging of the water infiltration in a soil sample. The raw data were affected by neutron scattering and by beam hardening artefacts. Two strategies for identifying the correction parameters are proposed in this paper. The method has been further developed for the case of three-dimensional neutron tomography. In a related experiment, neutron imaging is used to record ponded-infiltration experiments in two artificial soil samples. Radiograms, i.e., two-dimensional projections of the sample, were acquired during infiltration. A calculation was made of the amount of water and its distribution within the radiograms, in the form of two-dimensional water thickness maps. Tomograms were reconstructed from the corrected and uncorrected water thickness maps to obtain the 3D spatial distribution of the water content within the sample. Without the correction, the beam hardening and the scattering effects overestimated the water content values close to the perimeter of the sample, and at the same time underestimated the values close to the centre of the sample. The total water content of the entire sample was the same in both cases. The empirical correction method presented in this study is a relatively accurate, rapid and simple way to obtain the quantitatively determined water content from two-dimensional and three-dimensional neutron images. However, an independent method for measuring the total water volume in the sample is needed in order to identify the correction parameters.

  3. Presence of pesticide residues in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the presence of persistent pesticides in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras during the period 1995-98. Additionally, the LC 50 for 2 fungicides and 2 insecticides on post-larval Penaeus vannamei was determined in static water bioassays. A total of 80 water samples, 16 sediment samples and 7 biological samples (fish muscle tissue) were analyzed for detection of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues. The results of sample analyses indicate a widespread contamination of Honduran continental and coastal waters with organochlorine pesticides. Most detections were of low ( 50 values and were therefore found to be much more toxic to the post-larval shrimp than the fungicides tridemorph and propiconazole. (author)

  4. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  5. Semi-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ajay Kumar; Bhadauria, Shweta; Kumar, Pramod; Kamboj, Dev V; Singh, Lokendra

    2007-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive direct cell semi-nested PCR assay was developed for the detection of viable toxigenic V. cholerae in environmental water samples. The semi-nested PCR assay amplified cholera toxin (ctxA2B) gene present in the toxigenic V. cholerae. The detection sensitivity of direct cell semi-nested PCR was 2 × 10(3) CFU of V. cholerae whereas direct cell single-step PCR could detect 2 × 10(4) CFU of V. cholerae. The performance of the assay was evaluated using environmental water samples after spiking with known number of Vibrio cholerae O1. The spiked water samples were filtered through a 0.22 micrometer membrane and the bacteria retained on filters were enriched in alkaline peptone water and then used directly in the PCR assay. The semi-nested PCR procedure coupled with enrichment could detect less than 1 CFU/ml in ground water and sea water whereas 2 CFU/ml and 20 CFU/ml could be detected in pond water and tap water, respectively. The proposed method is simple, faster than the conventional detection assays and can be used for screening of drinking water or environmental water samples for the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae.

  6. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  7. Spot the difference. Impact of different selection criteria on observed properties of passive galaxies in zCOSMOS-20k sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Cimatti, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bolzonella, M.; Lamareille, F.; Mignoli, M.; Zucca, E.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pelló, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Barnes, L.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Diener, C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Le Floc'h, E.; López-Sanjuan, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Nair, P.; Oesch, P.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.; Welikala, N.

    2013-10-01

    Aims: We present the analysis of photometric, spectroscopic, and morphological properties for differently selected samples of passive galaxies up to z = 1 extracted from the zCOSMOS-20k spectroscopic survey. This analysis intends toexplore the dependence of galaxy properties on the selection criterion adopted, study the degree of contamination due to star-forming outliers, and provide a comparison between different commonly used selection criteria. This work is a first step to fully investigating the selection effects of passive galaxies for future massive surveys such as Euclid. Methods: We extracted from the zCOSMOS-20k catalog six different samples of passive galaxies, based on morphology (3336 "morphological" early-type galaxies), optical colors (4889 "red-sequence" galaxies and 4882 "red UVJ" galaxies), specific star-formation rate (2937 "quiescent" galaxies), a best fit to the observed spectral energy distribution (2603 "red SED" galaxies), and a criterion that combines morphological, spectroscopic, and photometric information (1530 "red & passive early-type galaxies"). For all the samples, we studied optical and infrared colors, morphological properties, specific star-formation rates (SFRs), and the equivalent widths of the residual emission lines; this analysis was performed as a function of redshift and stellar mass to inspect further possible dependencies. Results: We find that each passive galaxy sample displays a certain level of contamination due to blue/star-forming/nonpassive outliers. The morphological sample is the one that presents the higher percentage of contamination, with ~12-65% (depending on the mass range) of galaxies not located in the red sequence, ~25-80% of galaxies with a specific SFR up to ~25 times higher than the adopted definition of passive, and significant emission lines found in the median stacked spectra, at least for log (M/M⊙) contamination in color 10.25, very limited tails in sSFR, a median value ~20% higher than the

  8. Estimation of uranium in drinking water samples collected from different locations across Tarapur, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusane, C.B.; Maity, Sukanta; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, drinking water samples were collected from different locations across Tarapur, India for screening uranium contents. Uranium concentrations were determined by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Uranium concentration in water samples varied in a wide range from 0.6-7.9 μg L -1 . Results were compared with the international water quality guidelines World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) and were found within the permissible limit. Results were also compared with the safe limit values for drinking water recommended by national organization like Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). (author)

  9. 2nd interlaboratory comparison for deuterium and oxygen-18 analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, J.; Groening, M.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA Isotope Hydrology Laboratory organised in 1998/99 the 2nd interlaboratory comparison test for the analyses of hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition of water. The test was open to all laboratories engaged in isotope analyses of water samples world-wide. The main objective of this exercise was to help the laboratories to assess their precision and accuracy for the range of δ 18 O and δ 2 H values normally observed in meteoric waters. More than 115 laboratories from 43 countries indicated their willingness to participate in the exercise and received four water samples (OH-1 to OH-4) for analysis

  10. Estimating an appropriate sampling frequency for monitoring ground water well contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 1,500 ground water wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are sampled quarterly to monitor contamination by radionuclides and other hazardous constituents from nearby waste sites. Some 10,000 water samples were collected in 1993 at a laboratory analysis cost of $10,000,000. No widely accepted statistical method has been developed, to date, for estimating a technically defensible ground water sampling frequency consistent and compliant with federal regulations. Such a method is presented here based on the concept of statistical independence among successively measured contaminant concentrations in time

  11. Multiport well design for sampling of ground water at closely spaced vertical intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed vertical sampling is useful in aquifers where vertical mixing is limited and steep vertical gradients in chemical concentrations are expected. Samples can be collected at closely spaced vertical intervals from nested wells with short screened intervals. However, this approach may not be appropriate in all situations. An easy-to-construct and easy-to-install multiport sampling well to collect ground-water samples from closely spaced vertical intervals was developed and tested. The multiport sampling well was designed to sample ground water from surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers. The device consists of multiple stainless-steel tubes within a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) protective casing. The tubes protrude through the wall of the PVC casing at the desired sampling depths. A peristaltic pump is used to collect ground-water samples from the sampling ports. The difference in hydraulic head between any two sampling ports can be measured with a vacuum pump and a modified manometer. The usefulness and versatility of this multiport well design was demonstrated at an agricultural research site near Princeton, Minnesota where sampling ports were installed to a maximum depth of about 12 m below land surface. Tracer experiments were conducted using potassium bromide to document the degree to which short-circuiting occurred between sampling ports. Samples were successfully collected for analysis of major cations and anions, nutrients, selected herbicides, isotopes, dissolved gases, and chlorofluorcarbon concentrations.

  12. Monitoring the aftermath of Flint drinking water contamination crisis: Another case of sampling bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-07-15

    The delay in reporting high levels of lead in Flint drinking water, following the city's switch to the Flint River as its water supply, was partially caused by the biased selection of sampling sites away from the lead pipe network. Since Flint returned to its pre-crisis source of drinking water, the State has been monitoring water lead levels (WLL) at selected "sentinel" sites. In a first phase that lasted two months, 739 residences were sampled, most of them bi-weekly, to determine the general health of the distribution system and to track temporal changes in lead levels. During the same period, water samples were also collected through a voluntary program whereby concerned citizens received free testing kits and conducted sampling on their own. State officials relied on the former data to demonstrate the steady improvement in water quality. A recent analysis of data collected by voluntary sampling revealed, however, an opposite trend with lead levels increasing over time. This paper looks at potential sampling bias to explain such differences. Although houses with higher WLL were more likely to be sampled repeatedly, voluntary sampling turned out to reproduce fairly well the main characteristics (i.e. presence of lead service lines (LSL), construction year) of Flint housing stock. State-controlled sampling was less representative; e.g., sentinel sites with LSL were mostly built between 1935 and 1950 in lower poverty areas, which might hamper our ability to disentangle the effects of LSL and premise plumbing (lead fixtures and pipes present within old houses) on WLL. Also, there was no sentinel site with LSL in two of the most impoverished wards, including where the percentage of children with elevated blood lead levels tripled following the switch in water supply. Correcting for sampling bias narrowed the gap between sampling programs, yet overall temporal trends are still opposite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Design, analysis, and interpretation of field quality-control data for water-sampling projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David K.; Schertz, Terry L.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The process of obtaining and analyzing water samples from the environment includes a number of steps that can affect the reported result. The equipment used to collect and filter samples, the bottles used for specific subsamples, any added preservatives, sample storage in the field, and shipment to the laboratory have the potential to affect how accurately samples represent the environment from which they were collected. During the early 1990s, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented policies to include the routine collection of quality-control samples in order to evaluate these effects and to ensure that water-quality data were adequately representing environmental conditions. Since that time, the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Water Quality has provided training in how to design effective field quality-control sampling programs and how to evaluate the resultant quality-control data. This report documents that training material and provides a reference for methods used to analyze quality-control data.

  14. Ionizing radiation as optimization method for aluminum detection from drinking water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazante-Yamguish, Renata; Geraldo, Aurea Beatriz C.; Moura, Eduardo; Manzoli, Jose Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The presence of organic compounds in water samples is often responsible for metal complexation; depending on the analytic method, the organic fraction may dissemble the evaluation of the real values of metal concentration. Pre-treatment of the samples is advised when organic compounds are interfering agents, and thus sample mineralization may be accomplished by several chemical and/or physical methods. Here, the ionizing radiation was used as an advanced oxidation process (AOP), for sample pre-treatment before the analytic determination of total and dissolved aluminum by ICP-OES in drinking water samples from wells and spring source located at Billings dam region. Before irradiation, the spring source and wells' samples showed aluminum levels of 0.020 mg/l and 0.2 mg/l respectively; after irradiation, both samples showed a 8-fold increase of aluminum concentration. These results are discussed considering other physical and chemical parameters and peculiarities of sample sources. (author)

  15. Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline

  16. Identification and quantification of pesticide residues in water samples of Dhamrai Upazila, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Salam, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Being agricultural country, different types of pesticides are widely used in Bangladesh to prevent the crop losses due to pest attack which are ultimately drain to the water bodies. The present study was conducted to identify and quantify the organochlorine (DDT, DDE and DDD), organophosphorus (malathion, diazinon and chloropyrifos) and carbamate (carbaryl) residues in water samples of different sources from Dhamrai upazila of Bangladesh using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultra violate (UV) detector. Thirty water samples from fish pond, cultivated land and tube-well were collected in winter season to analyze the pesticide residues. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, malathion was present in seven water samples ranging from 42.58 to 922.8 μg/L, whereas diazinon was detected in water sample-8 (WS-8) and the concentration was 31.5 μg/L. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl or DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD). Except for a tube-well water sample, concentrations of the detected residues are above the acceptable limit for human body as assigned by different organizations. To avoid the possible health hazards, the indiscriminate application of pesticides should be restricted and various substitute products like bio-pesticide should be introduced in a broad scale as soon as possible.

  17. Molecular identification of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in water samples collected from Black sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Zeynep; Gulabi, Berivan Basak; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of Blastocystis sp. and complete a phylogenetic analysis of 268 water samples that were collected from the Samsun, Amasya and Sinop Provinces of the Black Sea in Turkey, between the years 2011 and 2014. Blastocystis sp. was investigated in 48 uncultured sea water samples that were collected from 4 sites within the Sinop Province. A total of 100 river water samples were collected from 37 sites in the Samsun Province and 120 river water samples were collected from 10 sampling sites within the Amasya Province. The small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed for the detection of Blastocytis sp. and the PCR-positive samples were sequenced. Subsequently, the (SSU) rDNA sequences were aligned by Bioedit and phylogenetic trees were constructed for Blastocystis with reference to the genotypes from GenBank. Blastocystis sp. were found in 3 out of the 75 (4%) river water samples that were collected from the Samsun Province. Six of the 120 (5%) river water samples and 1 out of the 48 (2%) seawater samples were positive for Blastocystis in the Amasya and Sinop Provinces. There were two different subtypes (ST; 1 and 3) found from sequencing all of the samples from the investigated sites. Two and one PCR products were found to be positive for ST1 and ST3 from the different samples collected within the Samsun Province. Two and 4 PCR products from the Amasya Province were ST1 and ST3, respectively and only one sample from the Sinop Province was found to be positive for ST1. This is the first report to identify and report the occurrence of Blastocystis subtypes within the Black Sea of Turkey. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-02-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation.

  19. "Nanofiltration" Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2016-02-15

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation.

  20. Genotypic characterization of Cryptosporidium hominis from water samples in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ronalda S; Dropa, Milena; Fernandes, Licia N; Carvalho, Terezinha T; Sato, Maria Inês Z; Soares, Rodrigo M; Matté, Glavur R; Matté, Maria Helena

    2011-11-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important water contaminants, causing waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases worldwide. The small size of oocysts under the microscope and the possibility of changes in characteristics of oocysts, mainly in environmental samples, make the taxonomy of the genus difficult if morphologic characteristics are considered. This limitation encouraged the application of molecular methods to identify this microorganism. The aim of this study was to detect and identify by nested-polymerase chain reaction oocysts of Cryptosporidium present in water samples in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Water samples were concentrated through a membrane filter, DNA was extracted by using a standard technique, and both amplification reactions used forward and reverse oligonucleotides that were complementary to Cryptosporidium 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Thirty water samples from different sites of collection in the state of São Paulo were evaluated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 30% of the samples. By genoptyping, C. hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. were identified in recreational water and C. meleagridis was identified in surface water samples. This is the first report of C. hominis in environmental samples in Brazil. Although identification of Cryptosporidium is still a difficult task, molecular methods are essential for specific identification and are a helpful tool to aid to understand the epidemiology of this parasite in Brazil.

  1. A new dissolved gas sampling method from primary water of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L., E-mail: papp.laszlo@atomki.mta.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Isotoptech Co. Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Palcsu, L. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Veres, M. [Isotoptech Co. Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Pintér, T. [Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Paks (Hungary)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We constructed and applied a lightweight portable dissolved gas sampling device. • A membrane contactor has been used to sample the dissolved gases from the water. • Gas compound and gamma spectrometric measurements were done from the samples. - Abstract: This article describes a novel sampling method for dissolved gases from radioactive waters. The major aim was to build a portable, lightweight sampling device in which the gas sample container is not in contact with the water itself. Therefore, a membrane contactor was used to take representative dissolved gas samples from the water of spent fuel pools. Quadrupole mass spectrometric and gamma spectrometric measurements were made from the samples to determine the gas composition and to detect any radioactive gas of fission origin. The paper describes (i) the construction of the sampler in general, (ii) the operation of the sampling unit and (iii) the measurement results of the first samples and the interpretation of the data. Both small and large fluctuations were able to be detected when the freshly spent fuel rods were put into the spent fuel pool or when the head valves of the toques of the fuel rods were replaced. In the investigated period (2013–2014), the main gas composition did not show large fluctuations, it was close to the composition of dissolved air. However, the activity concentration of {sup 85}Kr varied in a broad range (0.001–100 kBq/l).

  2. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 10{sup 15} Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: {sup 90}Sr - 1.4x10{sup 3} Bq/l; {sup 137}Cs - 3 Bq/l; {sup 3}H - 7x10{sup 2} Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10{sup -1} Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  4. Exploring the Legionella pneumophila positivity rate in hotel water samples from Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepin Özen, Nevgün; Tuğlu Ataman, Şenay; Emek, Mestan

    2017-05-01

    The genus Legionella is a fastidious Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in natural waters and man made water supply systems. Legionella pneumophila is the aetiological agent of approximately 90% of reported Legionellosis cases, and serogroup 1 is the most frequent cause of infections. Legionnaires' disease is often associated with travel and continues to be a public health concern at present. The correct water management quality practices and rapid methods for analyzing Legionella species in environmental water is a key point for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity rates and serotyping of Legionella species from water samples in the region of Antalya, Turkey, which is an important tourism center. During January-December 2010, a total of 1403 samples of water that were collected from various hotels (n = 56) located in Antalya were investigated for Legionella pneumophila. All samples were screened for L. pneumophila by culture method according to "ISO 11731-2" criteria. The culture positive Legionella strains were serologically identified by latex agglutination test. A total of 142 Legionella pneumophila isolates were recovered from 21 (37.5%) of 56 hotels. The total frequency of L. pneumophila isolation from water samples was found as 10.1%. Serological typing of 142 Legionella isolates by latex agglutination test revealed that strains belonging to L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 predominated in the examined samples (85%), while strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were less numerous (15%). According to our knowledge, our study with the greatest number of water samples from Turkey demonstrates that L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 is the most common isolate. Rapid isolation of L. pneumophila from environmental water samples is essential for the investigation of travel related outbreaks and the possible resources. Further studies are needed to have epidemiological data and to determine the types of L

  5. Microbiology of the surface water samples in the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Zamani, Khosrow; Sedigh, Hadi; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Taeb, Shahram; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Soofi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Residents of high background radiation areas of Ramsar have lived in these areas for many generations and received radiation doses much higher than the dose limit recommended by ICRP for radiation workers. The radioactivity of the high background radiation areas of Ramsar is reported to be due to 226 Ra and its decay products, which have been brought to the surface by the waters of hot springs. Over the past years the department has focused on different aspects of the health effects of the elevated levels of natural radiation in Ramsar. This study was aimed to perform a preliminary investigation on the bioeffects of exposure to elevated levels of natural radiation on the microbiology of surface water samples. Water samples were collected from surface water streams in Talesh Mahalleh district, Ramsar as well as a nearby area with normal levels of background radiation. Only two strains of bacteria, that is, Providencia stuartii and Shimwellia blattae, could be isolated from the water samples collected from high background radiation areas, while seven strains (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter asburiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Buttiauxella agerstis, Tatumella punctuata and Raoultella ornithinolytica) were isolated from the water samples collected from normal background radiation areas. All the bacteria isolated from water samples of high and normal background radiation areas were sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, heat, betadine, alcohol, and deconex. Although other investigators have reported that bacteria isolated from hot springs show radioresistance, the results reported here do not reveal any adaptive response. (author)

  6. Supplement to the UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado. The initial WSAP was finalized in August 1994 and will be completely revised in accordance with the WSAP guidance document (DOE, 1995) in late 1996. This version supplements the initial WSAP, reflects only minor changes in sampling that occurred in 1995, covers sampling scheduled for early 1996, and provides a preliminary projection of the next 5 years of sampling and monitoring activities. Once surface remedial action is completed at the former processing sites, additional and more detailed hydrogeologic characterization may be needed to develop the Ground Water Program conceptual ground water model and proposed compliance strategy. In addition, background ground water quality needs to be clearly defined to ensure that the baseline risk assessment accurately estimated risks from the contaminants of potential concern in contaminated ground water at the UC and NC sites

  7. Atrazine, triketone herbicides, and their degradation products in sediment, soil and surface water samples in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchanska, Hanna; Sajdak, Marcin; Szczypka, Kornelia; Swientek, Angelika; Tworek, Martyna; Kurek, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the sediment, soil and surface water contamination with selected popular triketone herbicides (mesotrione (MES) and sulcotrione(SUL)), atrazine (ATR) classified as a possible carcinogen and endocrine disrupting chemical, as well as their degradation products, in Silesia (Poland). Seventeen sediment samples, 24 soil samples, and 64 surface water samples collected in 2014 were studied. After solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). Ten years after the withdrawal from the use, ATR was not detected in any of the collected samples; however, its degradation products are still present in 41 % of sediment, 71 % of soil, and 8 % of surface water samples. SUL was determined in 85 % of soil samples; its degradation product (2-chloro-4-(methylosulfonyl) benzoic acid (CMBA)) was present in 43 % of soil samples. In 17 % of sediment samples, CMBA was detected. Triketones were detected occasionally in surface water samples. The chemometric analysis (clustering analysis (CA), single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), N-Way ANOVA) was applied to find relations between selected soil and sediment parameters and herbicides concentration. In neither of the studied cases a statistically significant relationship between the concentrations of examined herbicides, their degradation products and soil parameters (organic carbon (OC), pH) was observed.

  8. Soil and Water – What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concerns of a potential terrorist’s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

  9. Stable isotope ratio measurements on highly enriched water samples by means of laser spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trigt, R; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Visser, GH; Meijer, H.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using laser spectrometry (LS) to analyze isotopically highly enriched water samples (i.e., delta H-2 less than or equal to 15000 parts per thousand, delta O-18 less than or equal to 1200 parts per thousand), as often used in the biomedical doubly labeled water (DLW)

  10. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H

    2014-10-01

    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Guidance document for preparing water sampling and analysis plans for UMTRA Project sites. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is prepared for each Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide the rationale for routine ground water sampling at disposal sites and former processing sites. The WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine ground water monitoring stations at each site. This guidance document has been prepared by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Its purpose is to provide a consistent technical approach for sampling and monitoring activities performed under the WSAP and to provide a consistent format for the WSAP documents. It is designed for use by the TAC in preparing WSAPs and by the DOE, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state and tribal agencies, other regulatory agencies, and the public in evaluating the content of WSAPS

  12. Introduction of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) For River Water Samples Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakirah Abd Shukor; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination in water is a major component in the determination of water quality monitoring. In spite of the viability of several other metal ion analysis techniques for river water, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) method is most commonly used due to the reproducibility results, short analysis time, cost effective, lower level detection and robust. Therefore, this article gives an overview on the principles, instrumentation techniques, sample preparations, instrument calibration and data analysis in a simple manner for beginner. (author)

  13. Geothermal water and gas: collected methods for sampling and analysis. Comment issue. [Compilation of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J.G.; Serne, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Woodruff, E.M.

    1976-08-01

    A collection of methods for sampling and analysis of geothermal fluids and gases is presented. Compilations of analytic options for constituents in water and gases are given. Also, a survey of published methods of laboratory water analysis is included. It is stated that no recommendation of the applicability of the methods to geothermal brines should be assumed since the intent of the table is to encourage and solicit comments and discussion leading to recommended analytical procedures for geothermal waters and research. (WHK)

  14. An Optimized Method for Quantification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Environmental Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Riediger, Irina N.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Biondo, Alexander W.; Ko, Albert I.; Stoddard, Robyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease usually acquired by contact with water contaminated with urine of infected animals. However, few molecular methods have been used to monitor or quantify pathogenic Leptospira in environmental water samples. Here we optimized a DNA extraction method for the quantification of leptospires using a previously described Taqman-based qPCR method targeting lipL32, a gene unique to and highly conserved in pathogenic Leptospira. QIAamp DNA mini, MO BIO PowerWater DNA...

  15. Rapid determination of 210Po in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2013-08-02

    A new rapid method for the determination of 210Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for emergency response or routine water analyses. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD) event or a radiological attack associated with drinking water supplies occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of water samples, including drinking water, ground water and other water effluents. Current analytical methods for the assay of 210Po in water samples have typically involved spontaneous auto-deposition of 210Po onto silver or other metal disks followed by counting by alpha spectrometry. The auto-deposition times range from 90 minutes to 24 hours or more, at times with yields that may be less than desirable. If sample interferences are present, decreased yields and degraded alpha spectrums can occur due to unpredictable thickening in the deposited layer. Separation methods have focused on the use of Sr Resin, often in combination with 210Pb analysis. A new rapid method for 210Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that utilizes a rapid calcium phosphate co-precipitation method, separation using DGA Resin (N,N,N,N-tetraoctyldiglycolamide extractant-coated resin, Eichrom Technologies or Triskem-International), followed by rapid microprecipitation of 210Po using bismuth phosphate for counting by alpha spectrometry. This new method can be performed quickly with excellent removal of interferences, high chemical yields and very good alpha peak resolution, eliminating any potential problems with the alpha source preparation for emergency or routine samples. A rapid sequential separation method to separate 210Po and actinide isotopes was also developed. This new approach, rapid separation with DGA Resin plus microprecipitation for alpha source preparation, is a significant advance in

  16. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  17. Physicochemical transformation and algal toxicity of engineered nanoparticles in surface water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Luqing; Li, Jingyi; Yang, Kun; Liu, Jingfu; Lin, Daohui

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the behavior and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have been conducted in artificial water with well-controlled conditions, which are dramatically different from natural waters with complex compositions. To better understand the fate and toxicity of NPs in the natural water environment, physicochemical transformations of four NPs (TiO 2 , ZnO, Ag, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) and their toxicities towards a unicellular green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) in four fresh water and one seawater sample were investigated. Results indicated that water chemistry had profound effects on aggregation, dissolution, and algal toxicity of the NPs. The strongest homoaggregation of the NPs was associated with the highest ionic strength, but no obvious correlation was observed between the homoaggregation of NPs and pH or dissolved organic matter content of the water samples. The greatest dissolution of ZnO NPs also occurred in seawater with the highest ionic strength, while the dissolution of Ag NPs varied differently from ZnO NPs. The released Zn 2+ and especially Ag + mainly accounted for the algal toxicity of ZnO and Ag NPs, respectively. The NP-cell heteroagglomeration occurred generally for CNTs and Ag NPs, which contributed to the observed nanotoxicity. However, there was no significant correlation between the observed nanotoxicity and the type of NP or the water chemistry. It was thus concluded that the physicochemical transformations and algal toxicities of NPs in the natural water samples were caused by the combined effects of complex water quality parameters rather than any single influencing factor alone. These results will increase our knowledge on the fate and effects of NPs in the aquatic environment. - Highlights: • Transformation and algal toxicity of four NPs in five surface water samples were studied. • The transformation and toxicity were dependent on the types of NPs and water samples. • No single water parameter alone was

  18. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  19. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the demonstration testing of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS), four wells were equipped with PWMS units in 1997 and a series of sampling events were conducted at each during 1997-1998. Three of the wells were located in A/M Area while the fourth was located at the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground in the General Separations Area.The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact, system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without having significantly altered the water quality. One of the primary concerns as to its applicability at SRS, and elsewhere, is whether the PWMS might resample groundwater that is returned to the aquifer during the previous sampling event. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at the four test wells using the PWMS vs. historical data collected using the standard monitoring program methodology to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.The analysis of the groundwater chemical concentrations indicates that the PWMS sampling methodology acquired representative groundwater samples at monitoring wells ABP-1A, ABP-4, ARP-3 and BGO-33C. Representative groundwater samples are achieved if the PWMS does not resample groundwater that has been purged and returned during a previous sampling event. Initial screening calculations, conducted prior to the selection of these four wells, indicated that groundwater velocities were high enough under the ambient hydraulic gradients to preclude resampling from occurring at the time intervals that were used at each well. Corroborating evidence included a tracer test that was conducted at BGO-33C, the high degree of similarity between analyte concentrations derived from the PWMS samples and those obtained from historical protocol sampling, as well as the fact that PWMS data extend all previously existing concentration

  20. Ground-Water Issue: Soil sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T.E.; Crockett, A.B.; Siegrist, R.L.; Zarrabi, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a group of ground-water scientists that represents EPA's Regional Superfund Offices. The forum was organized to exchange up-to-date information related to groundwater remediation at Superfund sites. Sampling of soils for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an issue identified by the Ground Water Forum as a concern of Superfund decision makers. Concerns over data quality have raised many questions related to sampling soils for VOCs. This paper was prepared in response to some of these questions and concerns expressed by Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs). 53 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Characterization samples of Tigris river water treated with nano colloidal silver (physically, chemically, microbiologically)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumboos, H. I.; Beden, S. J.; Zouari, K.; Chkir, N.; Ahmed, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many researches of using nano silver in purification of drinking water from bacteria and its effect on stan dared properties as drinking water were established. Two stages accomplished in these projects. First stage include preparation of colloidal silver with characterization process and prepare water samples through sedimentation, filtration process, PH and turbidity measure then treated with colloidal silver in volume ratio (0.1-Λ) ml/100ml. The second stage represent select the better results from stage one and take samples to determine the standard characterization values with chemical, physical and microbiological taste. Results will be compared with Iraq standard certification. (Author)

  2. Study of the concentration of 7 Be in samples of rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero P, E.; Rojas M, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    This work shows the methodology carried out for the determination of 7 Be in samples of rain water and the obtained results of the concentration of having said radionuclide in this sampled matrix during the last five years in the Nuclear Center of Mexico. (Author)

  3. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES PRESERVED WITIH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as TBA. Because alcohols tend to stay with the water samples, they are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for separation and analysis. A common tec...

  4. Use of passive sampling devices for monitoring and compliance checking of POP concentrations in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmann, R.; Booij, K.; Smedes, F.; Vrana, B.

    2012-01-01

    The state of the art of passive water sampling of (nonpolar) organic contaminants is presented. Its suitability for regulatory monitoring is discussed, with an emphasis on the information yielded by passive sampling devices (PSDs), their relevance and associated uncertainties. Almost all persistent

  5. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATERS SAMPLED FROM CLUJ AND HUNEDOARA COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of organochlorine pesticides in drinking waterssampled from Cluj and Hunedoara counties. Pesticides are found scattered indifferent environmental factors (water, air, soil wherefrom they are drawn off byvegetal and animal organisms. Water pollution by pesticides results from the plantprotection products industry and also from massive application of these resourcesin agriculture and other branches of economy. Pesticides can reach surface wateralong with dripping waters and by infiltration may reach the groundwater layers,organochlorine pesticides are most often found in the water sources (dieldrin,endrin, DDT, aldrin, lindane, heptachlor, etc. due to their increased persistence inthe external environment. This study followed up the determination oforganochlorine pesticides in 14 drinking water samples collected from the outputof water treatment plants in Cluj and Hunedoara counties that process surfacewater and deep-water sources. For identification of organochlorine pesticides, thegas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction was used, by a gascromatograph Shimadzu GC 2010 with detector ECD (Electron CaptureDetection. There were not detected higher values than the method detection limit(0.01 μg/l in the drinking water samples collected and analyzed for both totalorganochlorine pesticides and components, which were well below the maximumconcentration admitted by Law 452/2002 regarding drinking water quality. Resultsare correlated with the sanitary protection areas for water sources and with the useof agricultural lands in the area. The solution to reduce risk of pesticides use isecological agriculture , which gains increasingly more ground in Romania too.

  6. [Detecting Thallium in Water Samples using Dispersive Liquid Phase Microextraction-Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Li, Yan; Zheng, Bo; Tang, Wei; Chen, Xiao; Zou, Xiao-li

    2015-11-01

    To develope a method of solvent demulsification dispersive liquid phase microextraction (SD-DLPME) based on ion association reaction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) for detecting thallium in water samples. Methods Thallium ion in water samples was oxidized to Tl(III) with bromine water, which reacted with Cl- to form TlCl4-. The ionic associated compound with trioctylamine was obtained and extracted. DLPME was completed with ethanol as dispersive solvent. The separation of aqueous and organic phase was achieved by injecting into demulsification solvent without centrifugation. The extractant was collected and injected into GFAAS for analysis. With palladium colloid as matrix modifier, a two step drying and ashing temperature programming process was applied for high precision and sensitivity. The linear range was 0.05-2.0 microg/L, with a detection limit of 0.011 microg/L. The relative standard derivation (RSD) for detecting Tl in spiked water sample was 9.9%. The spiked recoveries of water samples ranged from 94.0% to 103.0%. The method is simple, sensitive and suitable for batch analysis of Tl in water samples.

  7. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Heinz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O, a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system’s technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  8. Effects of sterilization treatments on the analysis of TOC in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yiming; Xu, Lingfeng; Gong, Dongqin; Lu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Decomposition experiments conducted with and without microbial processes are commonly used to study the effects of environmental microorganisms on the degradation of organic pollutants. However, the effects of biological pretreatment (sterilization) on organic matter often have a negative impact on such experiments. Based on the principle of water total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, the effects of physical sterilization treatments on determination of TOC and other water quality parameters were investigated. The results revealed that two conventional physical sterilization treatments, autoclaving and 60Co gamma-radiation sterilization, led to the direct decomposition of some organic pollutants, resulting in remarkable errors in the analysis of TOC in water samples. Furthermore, the extent of the errors varied with the intensity and the duration of sterilization treatments. Accordingly, a novel sterilization method for water samples, 0.45 microm micro-filtration coupled with ultraviolet radiation (MCUR), was developed in the present study. The results indicated that the MCUR method was capable of exerting a high bactericidal effect on the water sample while significantly decreasing the negative impact on the analysis of TOC and other water quality parameters. Before and after sterilization treatments, the relative errors of TOC determination could be controlled to lower than 3% for water samples with different categories and concentrations of organic pollutants by using MCUR.

  9. Set up of an automatic water quality sampling system in irrigation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2013-12-23

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS) for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines) in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system's technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  10. Determination of total alpha index in samples of see water by coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, L.; Pozuelo, M.; Pablo, A. de

    1998-01-01

    An environmental radiological monitoring network in the Spanish sea waters was set up by CEDEX in 1993. Water radioactivity is determined quarterly in eleven sampling points along the Spanish coast. The gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to be determined. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Nevertheless, the gross alpha activity determination in saline waters, such as sea waters, is troublesome, because mass attenuation is high and a very small of water is needed (0.2 ml). The coprecipitation method allows to analyze 500 ml water samples, so the detection limit is reduced and sensitivity is improved. In this work, the coprecipitation method was used to determine the gross alpha activity in the radiological network of the Spanish coast sea waters during 1996 and 1997. Gross alpha activity was very homogenous. It averaged 0.0844±0.0086 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.062 to 0.102 Bq.1''1. In collaboration with CIEMAT a set of samples was analyzed, they averaged 0.0689±0.0074 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.056 to 0.082 Bq.1''1. (Author) 5 refs

  11. Analysis of bromate in drinking water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Takei, Kanako; Akiba, Michihiro

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method for determining bromate in drinking water was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The (18)O-enriched bromate was used as an internal standard. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of bromate was 0.2 µg/L. The peak of bromate was separated from those of coexisting ions (i.e., chloride, nitrate and sulfate). The relative and absolute recoveries of bromate in two drinking water samples and in a synthesized ion solution (100 mg/L chloride, 10 mg N/L nitrate, and 100 mg/L sulfate) were 99-105 and 94-105%, respectively. Bromate concentrations in 11 drinking water samples determined by LC-MS/MS were water without sample pretreatment.

  12. Determination of trace water in gas samples by an improved Karl Fischer coulometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huiru; Bi, Pengyu; Cao, Jianping; Zhao, Shouyong

    2005-04-01

    The determination of trace water in gas samples, such as isobutene, chloromethane (polymeric staple gases) and SF6 by a conventional Karl Fischer coulometer is very difficult, because of the adsorption of trace water on the surface of sample pipe, the gasification of the liquefied samples, and the migration of moisture into the measuring cell from the surroundings. To solve these problems, we improved a device for coulometric determination of water by Karl Fischer method. The improved coulometer was used to determine the trace water in isobutene, chloromethane and SF6; RSD was less than 5%, and recoveries ranged from 94.1 to 109.1%, which is adequate for the analysis of industry.

  13. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Rick [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  14. Methodology of testing environmental samples from the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropikova, S.; Pastuchova, D.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are described of environmental sample investigation in the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits, namely monitoring ground water, surface water, sediments, water flows and catchments, vegetation and soil. Methods of sample preparation, and methods of radionuclides determination in mixtures are also discussed, as are spot activity measurement methods. (author)

  15. Identification of Phyllosilicates in Mudstone Samples Using Water Releases Detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogancamp, J. V. (Clark); Ming, D. W.; McAdam, A. C.; Archer, P. D.; Morris, R. V.; Bristow, T. F.; Rampe, E. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Gellert, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Curiosity Rover has detected high temperature water releases from mud-stones in the areas of Yellowknife Bay, Pahrump Hills, Naukluft Plateau, and Murray Buttes in Gale crater. Dehydroxylation of phyllosilicates may have caused the high temperature water releases observed in these samples. Because each type of phyllosilicate undergoes dehydroxylation at distinct temperatures, these water releases can be used to help constrain the type of phyllosilicate present in each sample.

  16. Measurement of the tritium concentration in the fractionated distillate from environmental water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Robert; Eddy, Teresa; Kuhne, Wendy; Jannik, Tim; Brandl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The current study investigates the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process, distinguishing it from and extending previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.04 ± 0.036, 1.05 ± 0.026, and 1.07 ± 0.038, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples where the first 5 mL are discarded, the tritium concentration could be underestimated by 4–7%. - Highlights: • Tritium measurements in environmental water samples. • Distilled samples. • Vapor pressure isotope effect. • Depending on boiling mode. • Potential underestimate of tritium activity concentration of 4–7%

  17. Research on How to Remove Efficiently the Condensate Water of Sampling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, SungHwan; Kim, MinSoo; Choi, HoYoung; In, WonHo

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion was caused in the measurement chamber inside the O 2 and H 2 analyzer, and thus measuring the concentration of O 2 and H 2 was not possible. It was confirmed that the cause of the occurrence of condensate water is due to the temperature difference caused during the process of the internal gas of the disposal and degasifier tank being brought into the analyzer. Thus, a heating system was installed inside and outside of the sampling panel for gas to remove generated condensate water in the analyzer and pipe. For the case where condensate water is not removed by the heating system, drain port is also installed in the sampling panel for gas to collect the condensate water of the sampling system. It was verified that there is a great volume of condensate water existing in the pipe line during the purging process after installing manufactured goods. The condensate water was fully removed by the installed heating cable and drain port. The heating cable was operated constantly at a temperature of 80 to 90 .deg. C, which allows the precise measurement of gas concentration and longer maintenance duration by blocking of the condensate water before being produced. To install instruments for measuring the gas, such as an O 2 and H 2 analyzer etc., consideration regarding whether there condensate water is present due to the temperature difference between the measuring system and analyzer is required

  18. Research on How to Remove Efficiently the Condensate Water of Sampling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, SungHwan; Kim, MinSoo; Choi, HoYoung; In, WonHo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Corrosion was caused in the measurement chamber inside the O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} analyzer, and thus measuring the concentration of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} was not possible. It was confirmed that the cause of the occurrence of condensate water is due to the temperature difference caused during the process of the internal gas of the disposal and degasifier tank being brought into the analyzer. Thus, a heating system was installed inside and outside of the sampling panel for gas to remove generated condensate water in the analyzer and pipe. For the case where condensate water is not removed by the heating system, drain port is also installed in the sampling panel for gas to collect the condensate water of the sampling system. It was verified that there is a great volume of condensate water existing in the pipe line during the purging process after installing manufactured goods. The condensate water was fully removed by the installed heating cable and drain port. The heating cable was operated constantly at a temperature of 80 to 90 .deg. C, which allows the precise measurement of gas concentration and longer maintenance duration by blocking of the condensate water before being produced. To install instruments for measuring the gas, such as an O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} analyzer etc., consideration regarding whether there condensate water is present due to the temperature difference between the measuring system and analyzer is required.

  19. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorzelec Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and concentration of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment and to verify the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for analysis of drinking water. For this purpose, study was conducted for a period of 5 months. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland. To determine the effect of water treatment on concentration of PAHs, three sampling places were chosen: raw water input, stream of water just before disinfection and treated water output. After each month of sampling SPMDs were changed for fresh ones and prepared for further analysis. Concentrations of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Presented study indicates that the use of semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of aquatic environment, including monitoring of drinking water, where organic micropollutants are present at very low concentrations.

  20. Presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in Drinking Water Samples in the North of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria João; Soares, Sónia; de Lurdes Delgado, Maria; Figueiredo, João; Silva, Elisabete; Castro, António; Cosa, José Manuel Correida Da

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are 2 protozoan parasites responsible for waterborne diseases outbreaks worldwide. In order to assess the prevalence of these protozoans in drinking water samples in the northern part of Portugal and the risk of human infection, we have established a long term program aiming at pinpointing the sources of surface water, drinking water, and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Total 43 sources of drinking water samples were selected, and a total of 167 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623. Sensitivity assays regarding the genetic characterization by PCR and sequencing of the genes, 18S SSU rRNA, for Cryptosporidium spp. and β,-giardin for G. duodenalis were set in the laboratory. According to the defined criteria, molecular analysis was performed over 4 samples. Environmental stages of the protozoa were detected in 25.7% (43 out of 167) of the water samples, 8.4% (14 out of 167) with cysts of Giardia, 10.2% (17 out of 167) with oocysts of Cryptosporidium and 7.2% (12 out of 167) for both species. The mean concentrations were 0.1-12.7 oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. per 10 L and 0.1-108.3 cysts of Giardia duodenalis per 10 L. Our results suggest that the efficiency in drinking water plants must be ameliorated in their efficiency in reducing the levels of contamination. We suggest the implementation of systematic monitoring programs for both protozoa. To authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water samples in the northern part of Portugal. PMID:20333284

  1. Presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water samples in the north of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, André; Moreira, Maria João; Soares, Sónia; Delgado, Maria de Lurdes; Figueiredo, João; Silva, Elisabete; Castro, António; Cosa, José Manuel Correida Da

    2010-03-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are 2 protozoan parasites responsible for waterborne diseases outbreaks worldwide. In order to assess the prevalence of these protozoans in drinking water samples in the northern part of Portugal and the risk of human infection, we have established a long term program aiming at pinpointing the sources of surface water, drinking water, and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Total 43 sources of drinking water samples were selected, and a total of 167 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623. Sensitivity assays regarding the genetic characterization by PCR and sequencing of the genes, 18S SSU rRNA, for Cryptosporidium spp. and beta,-giardin for G. duodenalis were set in the laboratory. According to the defined criteria, molecular analysis was performed over 4 samples. Environmental stages of the protozoa were detected in 25.7% (43 out of 167) of the water samples, 8.4% (14 out of 167) with cysts of Giardia, 10.2% (17 out of 167) with oocysts of Cryptosporidium and 7.2% (12 out of 167) for both species. The mean concentrations were 0.1-12.7 oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. per 10 L and 0.1-108.3 cysts of Giardia duodenalis per 10 L. Our results suggest that the efficiency in drinking water plants must be ameliorated in their efficiency in reducing the levels of contamination. We suggest the implementation of systematic monitoring programs for both protozoa. To authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water samples in the northern part of Portugal.

  2. Detection of protozoa in water samples by formalin/ether concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Suarez, Fabiana; Rivera, Raul; Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    Methods to detect protozoa in water samples are expensive and laborious. We evaluated the formalin/ether concentration method to detect Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Toxoplasma in water. In order to test the properties of the method, we spiked water samples with different amounts of each protozoa (0, 10 and 50 cysts or oocysts) in a volume of 10 L of water. Immunofluorescence assay was used for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Toxoplasma oocysts were identified by morphology. The mean percent of recovery in 10 repetitions of the entire method, in 10 samples spiked with ten parasites and read by three different observers, were for Cryptosporidium 71.3 ± 12, for Giardia 63 ± 10 and for Toxoplasma 91.6 ± 9 and the relative standard deviation of the method was of 17.5, 17.2 and 9.8, respectively. Intraobserver variation as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient, was fair for Toxoplasma, moderate for Cryptosporidium and almost perfect for Giardia. The method was then applied in 77 samples of raw and drinkable water in three different plant of water treatment. Cryptosporidium was found in 28 of 77 samples (36%) and Giardia in 31 of 77 samples (40%). Theses results identified significant differences in treatment process to reduce the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, the formalin ether method to concentrate protozoa in water is a new alternative for low resources countries, where is urgently need to monitor and follow the presence of theses protozoa in drinkable water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of soil water saturation on sampling equilibrium and kinetics of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil-Gon; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Yongseok; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Passive sampling can be applied for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in soil pore water. When using passive samplers under field conditions, however, there are factors that might affect passive sampling equilibrium and kinetics, such as soil water saturation. To determine the effects of soil water saturation on passive sampling, the equilibrium and kinetics of passive sampling were evaluated by observing changes in the distribution coefficient between sampler and soil (K sampler/soil ) and the uptake rate constant (k u ) at various soil water saturations. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) passive samplers were deployed into artificial soils spiked with seven selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In dry soil (0% water saturation), both K sampler/soil and k u values were much lower than those in wet soils likely due to the contribution of adsorption of PAHs onto soil mineral surfaces and the conformational changes in soil organic matter. For high molecular weight PAHs (chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), both K sampler/soil and k u values increased with increasing soil water saturation, whereas they decreased with increasing soil water saturation for low molecular weight PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Changes in the sorption capacity of soil organic matter with soil water content would be the main cause of the changes in passive sampling equilibrium. Henry's law constant could explain the different behaviors in uptake kinetics of the selected PAHs. The results of this study would be helpful when passive samplers are deployed under various soil water saturations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity on water-quality samples obtained from wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Gibs, Jacob

    1993-01-01

    Factors that affect the mass of chemical constituents entering a well include the distributions of flow rate and chemical concentrations along and near the screened or open section of the well. Assuming a layered porous medium (with each layer being characterized by a uniform hydraulic conductivity and chemical concentration), a knowledge of the flow from each layer along the screened zone and of the chemical concentrations in each layer enables the total mass entering the well to be determined. Analyses of hypothetical systems and a site at Galloway, NJ, provide insight into the temporal variation of water-quality data observed when withdrawing water from screened wells in heterogeneous ground-water systems.The analyses of hypothetical systems quantitatively indicate the cause-and-effect relations that cause temporal variability in water samples obtained from wells. Chemical constituents that have relatively uniform concentrations with depth may not show variations in concentrations in the water discharged from a well after the well is purged (evacuation of standing water in the well casing). However, chemical constituents that do not have uniform concentrations near the screened interval of the well may show variations in concentrations in the well discharge water after purging because of the physics of ground-water flow in the vicinity of the screen.Water-quality samples were obtained through time over a 30 minute period from a site at Galloway, NJ. The water samples were analyzed for aromatic hydrocarbons, and the data for benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene were evaluated for temporal variations. Samples were taken from seven discrete zones, and the flow-weighted concentrations of benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene all indicate an increase in concentration over time during pumping. These observed trends in time were reproduced numerically based on the estimated concentration distribution in the aquifer and the flow rates from each zone.The results of

  5. Trace element analysis of mineral water samples by PIXE and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.John; Augusthy, A.; Varier, K. M.; Magudapathy, P.; Panchapakesan, S.; Nair, K.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Trace elements present in bottled mineral water have been studied by PIXE and ICP-MS. Samples from ten different brands of brands of bottled mineral water were prepared by preconcentration techniques. Measurements were carried out using the 2 MeV proton beam obtained from 3 MV Tandem pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar. Our results are compared with Indian standard packaged natural mineral water specifications, World Health Organisation (WHO) and European guidelines for drinking water standards. Concentration of aluminum was found to be more in one of the brands. In general, our results are comparable to the above standards. (author)

  6. The natural and artificial radionuclides in drinking water samples and consequent population doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan Altıkulaç

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Concentration levels of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 137Cs were determined in 52 drinking water samples collected from the different supplies in Samsun province to evaluate annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the drinking water samples. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K natural radionuclides in the drinking water samples varied from <27 to 2431 mBq L−1, <36 to 270 mBq L−1 and <47 to 2880 mBq L−1 respectively. The activity concentrations of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in the drinking water samples were lower than minimum detectable activity except in one drinking water sample (DW14 with an associated activity concentration of 2576 mBq L−1. Contributions of the consumed water samples to annual effective dose from 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K varied from 1.6 to 33.4 μSv y−1 with a mean of 6.1 μSv y−1, 2.2 to 46.8 μSv y−1 with a mean of 8.6 μSv y−1, 4.7 to 97.5 μSv y−1 with a mean of 17.9 μSv y−1 for infants, children and adults, respectively. The results showed that all values of the annual effective dose of ingestion of these water samples were below the individual dose criterion of 100 μSv y−1 reported by World Health Organization (WHO.

  7. Thermal Wave Imaging: Flying SPOT Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqian

    1993-01-01

    A novel "Flying Spot" infrared camera for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and nondestructive characterization is presented. The camera scans the focal point of an unmodulated heating laser beam across the sample in a raster. The detector of the camera tracks the heating spot in the same raster, but with a time delay. The detector is thus looking at the "thermal wake" of the heating spot. The time delay between heating and detection is determined by the speed of the laser spot and the distance between it and the detector image. Since this time delay can be made arbitrarily small, the camera is capable of making thermal wave images of phenomena which occur on a very short time scale. In addition, because the heat source is a very small spot, the heat flow is fully three-dimensional. This makes the camera system sensitive to features, like tightly closed vertical cracks, which are invisible to imaging systems which employ full-field heating. A detailed theory which relates the temperature profile around the heating spot to the sample thermal properties is also described. The camera represents a potentially useful tool for measuring thermal diffusivities of materials by means of fitting the recorded temperature profiles to the theoretical curves with the diffusivity as a fitting parameter.

  8. Monitoring water quality in Toronto's urban stormwater ponds: Assessing participation rates and data quality of water sampling by citizen scientists in the FreshWater Watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew B; Frost, Paul C

    2017-08-15

    From 2013 to 2015, citizen scientist volunteers in Toronto, Canada were trained to collect and analyze water quality in urban stormwater ponds. This volunteer sampling was part of the research program, FreshWater Watch (FWW), which aimed to standardize urban water sampling efforts from around the globe. We held training sessions for new volunteers twice yearly and trained a total of 111 volunteers. Over the course of project, ~30% of volunteers participated by collecting water quality data after the training session with 124 individual sampling events at 29 unique locations in Toronto, Canada. A few highly engaged volunteers were most active, with 50% of the samples collected by 5% of trainees. Stormwater ponds generally have poor water quality demonstrated by elevated phosphate concentrations (~30μg/L), nitrate (~427μg/L), and turbidity relative to Canadian water quality standards. Compared to other urban waterbodies in the global program, nutrient concentrations in Toronto's urban stormwater ponds were lower, while turbidity was not markedly different. Toronto FWW (FWW-TO) data was comparable to that measured by standard lab analyses and matched results from previous studies of stormwater ponds in Toronto. Combining observational and chemical data acquired by citizen scientists, macrophyte dominated ponds had lower phosphate concentrations while phytoplankton dominated ponds had lower nitrate concentrations, which indicates a potentially important and unstudied role of internal biogeochemical processes on pond nutrient dynamics. This experience in the FWW demonstrates the capabilities and constraints of citizen science when applied to water quality sampling. While analytical limits on in-field analyses produce higher uncertainty in water quality measurements of individual sites, rapid data collection is possible but depends on the motivation and engagement of the group of volunteers. Ongoing efforts in citizen science will thus need to address sampling effort

  9. Ground-water sampling of the NNWSI (Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation) water table test wells surrounding Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuska, N.A.

    1988-12-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) study of the water table in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, completed 16 test holes on the Nevada Test Site and Bureau of Land Management-administered lands surrounding Yucca Mountain. These 16 wells are monitored by the USGS for water-level data; however, they had not been sampled for ground-water chemistry or isotropic composition. As part of the review of the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) sampled six of these wells. The goal of this sampling program was to measure field-dependent parameters of the water such as electrical conductivity, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen, and to collect samples for major and minor element chemistry and isotopic analysis. This information will be used as part of a program to geochemically model the flow direction between the volcanic tuff aquifers and the underlying regional carbonate aquifer

  10. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Optimized Method for Quantification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Environmental Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Irina N; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Biondo, Alexander W; Ko, Albert I; Stoddard, Robyn A

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease usually acquired by contact with water contaminated with urine of infected animals. However, few molecular methods have been used to monitor or quantify pathogenic Leptospira in environmental water samples. Here we optimized a DNA extraction method for the quantification of leptospires using a previously described Taqman-based qPCR method targeting lipL32, a gene unique to and highly conserved in pathogenic Leptospira. QIAamp DNA mini, MO BIO PowerWater DNA and PowerSoil DNA Isolation kits were evaluated to extract DNA from sewage, pond, river and ultrapure water samples spiked with leptospires. Performance of each kit varied with sample type. Sample processing methods were further evaluated and optimized using the PowerSoil DNA kit due to its performance on turbid water samples and reproducibility. Centrifugation speeds, water volumes and use of Escherichia coli as a carrier were compared to improve DNA recovery. All matrices showed a strong linearity in a range of concentrations from 106 to 10° leptospires/mL and lower limits of detection ranging from Leptospira in environmental waters (river, pond and sewage) which consists of the concentration of 40 mL samples by centrifugation at 15,000×g for 20 minutes at 4°C, followed by DNA extraction with the PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Although the method described herein needs to be validated in environmental studies, it potentially provides the opportunity for effective, timely and sensitive assessment of environmental leptospiral burden.

  12. A confirmatory holding time study for purgeable VOCs in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Bayne, C.K.; Siegrist, R.L.; Holden, W.H.; Bottrell, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Analyte stability during pre-analytical storage is essential to the accurate quantification contaminants in environmental samples. This is particularly true for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) which can easily volatilize and/or degrade during sample storage. Recognizing this, regulatory agencies require water samples be collected in vials without headspace and stored at 4 degrees C, and that analyses be conducted within 14 days, 2048 even if samples are acid-preserved. Since the selection of a 14-day holding time was largely arbitrary, the appropriateness of this requirement must be re-evaluated. The goal of the study described here was to provide regulatory agencies with the necessary data to extend the maximum holding time for properly preserved VOC water samples to 28 days

  13. Preconcentration and determination of heavy metals in water, sediment and biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkhanloo Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simple, sensitive and accurate column preconcentration method was developed for the determination of Cd, Cu and Pb ions in river water, urine and sediment samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure is based on the retention of the analytes on a mixed cellulose ester membrane (MCEM column from buffered sample solutions and then their elution from the column with nitric acid. Several parameters, such as pH of the sample solution, volume of the sample and eluent and flow rates of the sample were evaluated. The effects of diverse ions on the preconcentration were also investigated. The recoveries were >95 %. The developed method was applied to the determination of trace metal ions in river water, urine and sediment samples, with satisfactory results. The 3δ detection limits for Cu, Pb and Cd were found to be 2, 3 and 0.2 μg dm−3, respectively. The presented procedure was successfully applied for determination of the copper, lead and cadmium contents in real samples, i.e., river water and biological samples.

  14. Cyto- and genotoxic potential of water samples from polluted areas in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alija, Avdulla J; Bajraktari, Ismet D; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bojaxhi, Ekramije; Krenn, Margit; Asllani, Fisnik; Eckl, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Reports on the state of the environment in Kosovo have emphasized that river and ground water quality is affected by pollution from untreated urban water as well as the waste water from the industry. One of the main contributors to this pollution is located in Obiliq (coal power plants). Prishtina-the capital city of Kosovo-is heavily influenced too. Furthermore, the pollutants combined together with those from heavy traffic are dissolved in Prishtina runoff water, which is discharged into the creek entering the river Sitnica together with urban waste water. The available data show the complex pollution with excessive quantities of nitrites, suspended materials, organic compounds, detergents, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water samples taken at these sites was tested in primary rat hepatocytes. The results obtained indicate that water samples collected in Prishtina and Obiliq had a significant cytotoxic potential in primary rat hepatocyte cultures even when diluted to 1 %. The increased cytotoxicity, however, was not accompanied by an increased genotoxicity as measured by the percentage of micronucleated cells. Further investigations addressing the chemical composition of the samples and the identification of the toxicants responsible for the cytotoxic effects found will be carried out in a next step.

  15. Comparison of POCIS passive samplers vs. composite water sampling: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Dumoulin, David; Howsam, Michael; Mondamert, Leslie; Goossens, Jean-François; Prygiel, Jean; Billon, Gabriel

    2017-12-31

    The relevance of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) was evaluated for the assessment of concentrations of 46 pesticides and 19 pharmaceuticals in a small, peri-urban river with multi-origin inputs. Throughout the period of POCIS deployment, 24h-average water samples were collected automatically, and showed the rapid temporal evolution of concentrations of several micropollutants, as well as permitting the calculation of average concentrations in the water phase for comparison with those estimated from POCIS passive samplers. In the daily water samples, cyproconazol, epoxyconazol and imidacloprid showed high temporal variations with concentrations ranging from under the limit of detection up to several hundreds of ngL -1 . Erythromycin, cyprofloxacin and iopromide also increased rapidly up to tens of ngL -1 within a few days. Conversely, atrazine, caffeine, diclofenac, and to a lesser extent carbamazepine and sucralose, were systematically present in the water samples and showed limited variation in concentrations. For most of the substances studied here, the passive samplers gave reliable average concentrations between the minimal and maximal daily concentrations during the time of deployment. For pesticides, a relatively good correlation was clearly established (R 2 =0.89) between the concentrations obtained by POCIS and those gained from average water samples. A slight underestimation of the concentration by POCIS can be attributed to inappropriate sampling rates extracted from the literature and for our system, and new values are proposed. Considering the all data set, 75% of the results indicate a relatively good agreement between the POCIS and the average water samples concentration (values of the ratio ranging between 0,33 and 3). Note further that this agreement between these concentrations remains valid considering different sampling rates extracted from the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Active Sampling Device for Determining Pollutants in Surface and Pore Water - the In Situ Sampler for Biphasic Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supowit, Samuel D.; Roll, Isaac B.; Dang, Viet D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2016-02-01

    We designed and evaluated an active sampling device, using as analytical targets a family of pesticides purported to contribute to honeybee colony collapse disorder. Simultaneous sampling of bulk water and pore water was accomplished using a low-flow, multi-channel pump to deliver water to an array of solid-phase extraction cartridges. Analytes were separated using either liquid or gas chromatography, and analysis was performed using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Achieved recoveries of fipronil and degradates in water spiked to nominal concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 10 ng/L ranged from 77 ± 12 to 110 ± 18%. Method detection limits (MDLs) were as low as 0.040-0.8 ng/L. Extraction and quantitation of total fiproles at a wastewater-receiving wetland yielded concentrations in surface water and pore water ranging from 9.9 ± 4.6 to 18.1 ± 4.6 ng/L and 9.1 ± 3.0 to 12.6 ± 2.1 ng/L, respectively. Detected concentrations were statistically indistinguishable from those determined by conventional, more laborious techniques (p > 0.2 for the three most abundant fiproles). Aside from offering time-averaged sampling capabilities for two phases simultaneously with picogram-per-liter MDLs, the novel methodology eliminates the need for water and sediment transport via in situ solid phase extraction.

  17. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes... ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.9 Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives...

  18. Spotting Stellar Activity Cycles in Gaia Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Agol, Eric; Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2018-03-01

    Astrometry from Gaia will measure the positions of stellar photometric centroids to unprecedented precision. We show that the precision of Gaia astrometry is sufficient to detect starspot-induced centroid jitter for nearby stars in the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) sample with magnetic activity similar to the young G-star KIC 7174505 or the active M4 dwarf GJ 1243, but is insufficient to measure centroid jitter for stars with Sun-like spot distributions. We simulate Gaia observations of stars with 10 year activity cycles to search for evidence of activity cycles, and find that Gaia astrometry alone likely can not detect activity cycles for stars in the TGAS sample, even if they have spot distributions like KIC 7174505. We review the activity of the nearby low-mass stars in the TGAS sample for which we anticipate significant detections of spot-induced jitter.

  19. Detection of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from fish tissue and water samples by PCR amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Madsen, Lone; Bruun, Morten Sichlau

    2000-01-01

    Rainbow trout fry syndrome and cold-water disease, caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, are important diseases in farmed salmonids. Some of the presently available techniques for the detection of Fl. psychrophilum are either time consuming or lack sufficient sensitivity. In the present...... investigation, the possible detection of Fl. psychrophilum from fish tissue and water samples was examined using nested PCR with DNA probes against a sequence of the 16S rRNA genes. The DNA was extracted using Chelex(R) 100 chelating resin. The primers, which were tested against strains isolated from diseased...... to be more sensitive than agar cultivation of tissue samples from the brain of rainbow trout injected with Fl. psychrophilum. In non-sterile fresh water seeded with Fl. psychrophilum the detection limit of the PCR- assay was 1.7 cfu in the PCR tube, corresponding to 110 cfu ml(-1) water. The PCR...

  20. Using SPMDs for monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds in urban river water in Korea compared with using conventional water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee Young; Alvarez, David A.; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to verify the effectiveness of semi-permeablemembrane devices (SPMDs) formonitoring hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), that are not easy to detect using conventional grab samples (because of their low concentrations), in water.We used SPMDs and grab samples to monitor PCBs and PBDEs upstream and downstream of a sewage treatment plant (STP) in the Suyeong River in Busan, Korea. Concentrations in three different phases (freely dissolved, apparently dissolved, and particulate) were measured, to investigate the aquatic fate of PCBs and PBDEs. The freely dissolved (SPMD) concentrations were 2–3 times higher than the apparently dissolved and particulate phase (grab sample) concentrations. No meaningful relationships were found between the total PCB and PBDE concentrations of the grab sample and SPMD sample because of the different partitioning behaviors and detection frequencies of the individual chemicals. However, the summed concentrations of specific PCB and PBDE congeners (that were abundant in all samples) in the grab and SPMD samples correlated well (r2 = 0.7451 for PCBs 28 + 52 + 153, r2 = 0.9987 for PBDEs 28 + 47 + 99). The PBDE concentrations measured using SPMDs decreased with increasing distance from the STP, but no apparent dilution effect was found in the grab samples. Our results show that SPMDs could be used to support grab sampling for specific chemicals, or to trace chemical sources (such as STPs) to the aquatic environment.

  1. Direct determination of ammoniacal nitrogen in water samples using corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M T; Khayamian, T

    2008-09-15

    In this study, direct determination of ammoniacal nitrogen residues in water samples using corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) was investigated. Pyridine was used as an alternate reagent gas to enhance selectivity and sensitivity of the method. The results indicate that the limit of detection (LOD) was about 9.2x10(-3)mugmL(-1) and the linear dynamic range was obtained from 0.03 to 2.00mugmL(-1). The relative standard deviation was about 11%. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied to the direct determination of ammoniacal nitrogen in river and tap water samples and the results were compared with the Nessler method. The comparison of the results validates the potential of the proposed method as an alternative technique for the analysis of the ammoniacal nitrogen in water samples.

  2. The determination of levels of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from Naivasha area, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muigai, P.G.; Kamau, G.N.; Kinyua, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from different environments (Lake Naivasha, River Malewa boreholes and Olkaria geothermal wells) in Naivasha region and their possible origins are reported. The levels of mercury and lead in the water samples were above the maximum permissible limits of 0.005 mg/1 and 0.1 mg/1 respectively, as stipulated by the WHO. On the other hand, 83.3% of the samples had cadmium levels above the maximum permissible limit of 0.01mg/1 in drinking water by WHO. The mercury and lead levels were also higher than those previously obtained from different regions of Kenya, while those for cadmium were within the corresponding range. Possible sources of elevated values were the geology of the surrounding area, sewage treatment works, use of phosphate rock fertilizers and lead fuels.(author)

  3. Time Resolved X-Ray Spot Size Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Roger; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Weir, John

    2005-01-01

    A diagnostic was developed for the determination of temporal history of an X-ray spot. A pair of thin (0.5 mm) slits image the x-ray spot to a fast scintillator which is coupled to a fast detector, thus sampling a slice of the X-Ray spot. Two other scintillator/detectors are used to determine the position of the spot and total forward dose. The slit signal is normalized to the dose and the resulting signal is analyzed to get the spot size. The position information is used to compensate for small changes due to spot motion and misalignment. The time resolution of the diagnostic is about 1 ns and measures spots from 0.5 mm to over 3 mm. The theory and equations used to calculate spot size and position are presented, as well as data. The calculations assume a symmetric, Gaussian spot. The spot data is generated by the ETA II accelerator, a 2kA, 5.5 MeV, 60ns electron beam focused on a Tantalum target. The spot generated is typically about 1 mm FWHM. Comparisons are made to an X-ray pinhole camera which images th...

  4. Detection by PCR of pathogenic protozoa in raw and drinkable water samples in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Lora, Fabiana; Zuluaga, Juan David; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the presence of DNA of Giardia, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium by PCR, and of Giardia and Cryptosporidium genera by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), in water samples, before, during, and after plant treatment for drinkable water. We applied this method in 38 samples of 10 l of water taken from each of the water treatment steps and in 8 samples taken at home (only for Toxoplasma PCR) in Quindio region in Colombia. There were 8 positive samples for Cryptosporidium parvum (21 %), 4 for Cryptosporidium hominis (10.5 %), 27 for Toxoplasma gondii (58.6 %), 2 for Giardia duodenalis assemblage A (5.2 %), and 5 for G. duodenalis assemblage B (13.1 %). By IFAT, 23 % were positive for Giardia and 21 % for Cryptosporidium. An almost perfect agreement was found between IFAT and combined results of PCR, by Kappa composite proportion analysis. PCR positive samples were significantly more frequent in untreated raw water for C. parvum (p = 0.02). High mean of fecal coliforms, high pH values, and low mean of chlorine residuals were strongly correlated with PCR positivity for G. duodenalis assemblage B. High pH value was correlated with PCR positivity for C. parvum. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences was possible, showing water and human clinical sequences for Toxoplasma within the same phylogenetic group for B1 repeated sequence. PCR assay is complementary to IFAT assay for monitoring of protozoa in raw and drinkable water, enabling species identification and to look for phylogenetic analysis in protozoa from human and environmental sources.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation in quantitative determination of 137Cs in sand and water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, B.L.; Sharma, M.; Joshi, K.B.

    2002-01-01

    To understand the distribution of radionuclides in the high background area, one mainly needs to analyse sand, soil, water and other food stuff samples by gamma-spectroscopy. Due to interaction of photons emitted by these radionuclides within the sample, the underestimation of quantity of radionuclides in the sample cannot be ruled out. To overcome this situation, the Monte Carlo method to determine the effect of multiple scattering in Compton profiles has been extended to take better account of interaction of radiation with environmental samples. In this paper, we present the feasibility of Monte Carlo simulation in determining the absorption and multiple scattering of gamma-rays from 137 Cs radionuclides in the sand and water samples. It is seen that only 67 % and 90 % photons escaped from the sand and water respectively, can be detected by nuclear spectroscopy techniques. The high percentage of photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering of photons in these samples warrant the underestimation of quantitative determination of 137 Cs in these samples. (author)

  6. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to malachite green (MG may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L−1 (S/N = 3 in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L−1 in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10–1000 μg·L−1. Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L−1 gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD, 85.4% (9.17% RSD and 96.0% (7.44% RSD, respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (<2 min per sample quantitative detection of malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples.

  7. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has already a large impact on the availability of water resources. Many regions in South-East Asia are assumed to receive less water in the future, dramatically impacting the production of the most important staple food: rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice is the primary food source for nearly half of the World's population, and is the only cereal that can grow under wetland conditions. Especially anaerobic (flooded) rice fields require high amounts of water but also have higher yields than aerobic produced rice. In the past different methods were developed to reduce the water use in rice paddies, like alternative wetting and drying or the use of mixed cropping systems with aerobic (non-flooded) rice and alternative crops such as maize. A more detailed understanding of water and nutrient cycling in rice-based cropping systems is needed to reduce water use, and requires the investigation of hydrological and biochemical processes as well as transport dynamics at the field scale. New developments in analytical devices permit monitoring parameters at high temporal resolutions and at acceptable costs without much necessary maintenance or analysis over longer periods. Here we present a new type of automatic sampling set-up that facilitates in situ analysis of hydrometric information, stable water isotopes and nitrate concentrations in spatially differentiated agricultural fields. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The whole system is maintained with special developed software for remote control of the system via internet. We

  8. Field portable mobile phone based fluorescence microscopy for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Gorocs, Zoltan; McLeod, Euan; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Giardia lamblia is a waterborne parasite that causes an intestinal infection, known as giardiasis, and it is found not only in countries with inadequate sanitation and unsafe water but also streams and lakes of developed countries. Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of this pathogen is important for monitoring of drinking water. Here we present a cost-effective and field portable mobile-phone based fluorescence microscopy platform designed for automated detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in large volume water samples (i.e., 10 ml) to be used in low-resource field settings. This fluorescence microscope is integrated with a disposable water-sampling cassette, which is based on a flow-through porous polycarbonate membrane and provides a wide surface area for fluorescence imaging and enumeration of the captured Giardia cysts on the membrane. Water sample of interest, containing fluorescently labeled Giardia cysts, is introduced into the absorbent pads that are in contact with the membrane in the cassette by capillary action, which eliminates the need for electrically driven flow for sample processing. Our fluorescence microscope weighs ~170 grams in total and has all the components of a regular microscope, capable of detecting individual fluorescently labeled cysts under light-emitting-diode (LED) based excitation. Including all the sample preparation, labeling and imaging steps, the entire measurement takes less than one hour for a sample volume of 10 ml. This mobile phone based compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform together with its machine learning based cyst counting interface is easy to use and can even work in resource limited and field settings for spatio-temporal monitoring of water quality.

  9. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Samples of Certain Locations Situated Around Tumkur, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vijaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water and groundwater samples of certain locations namely Kallambella, Bugudanahalli, Maidala, Honnudike, Kunigal, Kadaba and Hebbur, situated around Tumkur were assessed in the month of September 2008 for pH, EC and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Zn and Ni. The pH vales of surface waters were in alkaline range of 7.8-8.2 and are well within safe limits for crop production. The pH of ground- water was in the range of 7.6-8.4. The conductivity was in the range of 0.20-0.68 mS/cm and 0.34-2.44 mS/cm for surface and groundwaters respectively. High EC value of Kallambella groundwater accounts for its salinity. All surface waters except Honnudike and Hebbur samples contain low concentrations of these metals and are ideal for irrigation. Though the samples from Honnudike, Kadaba and Hebbur have high iron concentration, only Honnudike and Hebbur samples have exceeded the limit of 5 mg/L required for irrigation. In groundwaters the concentrations of all these heavy metals except copper are also well in permissible limits and suitable for drinking. Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn were detected in all the samples and found in the range of 0.094-0.131, 0.958-12.537, 0.020-0.036 and 0.082-1.139 mg/L respectively in surface waters and these are in the range of 0.132-0.142, 0.125-1.014, 0.028-0.036 and 0.003-0.037 mg/L in ground- waters. The elements cadmium, mercury and manganese are absent in all the samples.

  10. Cotton-wool spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C; Brown, M M; Hiller, T; Fischer, D; Benson, W E; Magargal, L E

    1985-01-01

    A series of 24 consecutive patients presenting with a fundus picture characterized by a predominance of cotton-wool spots, or a single cotton-wool spot, is reported. Excluded were patients with known diabetes mellitus. Etiologic conditions found included previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in five patients, systemic hypertension in five patients, cardiac valvular disease in two patients, radiation retinopathy in two patients, and severe carotid artery obstruction in two patients. Dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, leukemia, AIDS, Purtscher's retinopathy, metastatic carcinoma, intravenous drug abuse, partial central retinal artery obstruction, and giant cell arteritis were each found in one patient. In only one patient did a systemic workup fail to reveal an underlying cause. The presence of even one cotton-wool spot in an otherwise normal fundus necessitates an investigation to ascertain systemic etiologic factors.

  11. Development of a protocol for sampling and analysis of ballast water in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achsah A Mitchell

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of ballast by the international shipping industry has negatively impacted the environment. To design such a protocol for the area, the ballast water tanks of seven bulk cargo vessels entering a Jamaican port were sampled between January 28, 2010 and August 17, 2010. Vessels originated from five ports and used three main routes, some of which conducted ballast water exchange. Twenty-six preserved and 22 live replicate zooplankton samples were obtained. Abundance and richness were higher than at temperate ports. Exchange did not alter the biotic composition but reduced the abundance. Two of the live sample replicates, containing 31.67 and 16.75 viable individuals m-3, were non-compliant with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments. Approximately 12% of the species identified in the ballast water were present in the waters nearest the port in 1995 and 11% were present in the entire bay in 2005. The protocol designed from this study can be used to aid the establishment of a ballast water management system in the Caribbean or used as a foundation for the development of further protocols.

  12. Semi-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae from environmental water samples

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Ajay Kumar; Bhadauria, Shweta; Kumar, Pramod; Kamboj, Dev V.; Singh, Lokendra

    2007-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive direct cell semi-nested PCR assay was developed for the detection of viable toxigenic V. cholerae in environmental water samples. The semi-nested PCR assay amplified cholera toxin (ctxA2B) gene present in the toxigenic V. cholerae. The detection sensitivity of direct cell semi-nested PCR was 2 × 103 CFU of V. cholerae whereas direct cell single-step PCR could detect 2 × 104 CFU of V. cholerae. The performance of the assay was evaluated using environmental water samples a...

  13. Glufosinate ammonium clean-up procedure from water samples using SPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb M., A.; Ismail B., S.; Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ta, Goh Choo; Agustar, Hani Kartini

    2015-09-01

    For the determination of glufosinate ammonium residue in soil and water samples, different solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent efficiency was studied. Four different SPE sorbents i.e.: CROMABOND PS-H+, CROMABOND PS-OH-, ISOLUTE ENV+, Water Sep-Pak and OASIS HLB were used. Sample clean-up performance was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (Agilent 1220 infinity LC) with fluorescence detector. Detection of FMO-derivatives was done at λ ex = 260 nm and λ em= 310 nm. OASIS HLB column was the most suitable for the clean-up in view of the overall feasibility of the analysis.

  14. Water intakes and dietary sources of a nationally representative sample of Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, L; Walton, J; Flynn, A

    2014-12-01

    Despite evidence that even mild dehydration is associated with various morbidities, water intake estimates in free-living populations are lacking. The present study aimed to estimate water intakes and dietary sources in a nationally representative sample of the Irish adult population. A 4-day semi-weighed food record was used to collect dietary intake data from 1500 free-living adults aged 18-90 years in the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-2010) from which water intake was estimated. To enable fluid intake estimation, additional questions on how water and milk were consumed were incorporated. Total water intake was calculated as drinking water plus water from other beverages and food moisture. The mean (SD) daily total water intake for Irish adults was 2.31 (0.92) L day(-1) [males 2.52 (1.00) L day(-1) ; females 2.09 (0.79) L day(-1)]. Intakes were lowest in elderly adults, as well as in those with less education, a lower social class, less energy expenditure and a higher body mass index and body fat percentage. In total, 67% of water came from beverages and 33% came from food moisture. Alcoholic beverages and teas individually contributed to total water intake in amounts similar to the drinking water contribution. These data may be used as a foundation for further research in the area of the effect of under consumption of water on health outcomes to guide public health messages regarding adequate water intakes. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Adaptive Kalman Filter Based on Adjustable Sampling Interval in Burst Detection for Water Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Yong Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been developed in accordance with the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems and the establishment of district meter areas (DMAs. Nonetheless, no consideration has been given to how frequently a flow meter measures and transmits data for predicting breaks and leaks in pipes. This paper analyzes the effect of sampling interval when an adaptive Kalman filter is used for detecting bursts in a WDS. A new sampling algorithm is presented that adjusts the sampling interval depending on the normalized residuals of flow after filtering. The proposed algorithm is applied to a virtual sinusoidal flow curve and real DMA flow data obtained from Jeongeup city in South Korea. The simulation results prove that the self-adjusting algorithm for determining the sampling interval is efficient and maintains reasonable accuracy in burst detection. The proposed sampling method has a significant potential for water utilities to build and operate real-time DMA monitoring systems combined with smart customer metering systems.

  16. A simplified method for low-level tritium measurement in the environmental water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yoichi; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Ogata, Yoshimune

    2004-01-01

    Low level liquid scintillation counting took much time with a lot of doing to distill off the impurities in the sample water before mixing the sample with the liquid scintillation cocktail. In the light of it, we investigated the possibility of an alternative filtration method for sample purification. The tritium concentration in the environmental water has become very low, and the samples have to be treated by electrolysis enrichment with a liquid scintillation analyzer. Using the solid polymer electrolyte enriching device, there is no need to add neither any electrolyte nor the neutralization after the concentration. If we could replace the distillation process with the filtration, the procedure would be simplified very much. We investigated the procedure and we were able to prove that the reverse osmosis (RO) filtration was available. Moreover, in order to rationalize all through the measurement method, we examined the followings: (1) Improvement of the enriching apparatus. (2) Easier measurement of heavy water concentration using a density meter, instead of a mass spectrometer. The concentration of water samples was measured to determine the enrichment rate of tritium during the electrolysis enrichment. (author)

  17. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Falls City, Texas, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). The following plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192. Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. The Falls City site is in Karnes County, Texas, approximately 8 miles [13 kilometers southwest of the town of Falls City and 46 mi (74 km) southeast of San Antonio, Texas. Before surface remedial action, the tailings site consisted of two parcels. Parcel A consisted of the mill site, one mill building, five tailings piles, and one tailings pond south of Farm-to-Market (FM) Road 1344 and west of FM 791. A sixth tailings pile designated Parcel B was north of FM 791 and east of FM 1344

  18. Removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajith, Nicy; Swain, K.K.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in ground water is one of the major concerns in many parts of the world including Bangladesh and India. Considering the high toxicity of arsenic, World Health Organization (WHO) has set a provisional guideline value of 10 μg L -1 for arsenic in drinking water. Several methods have been adopted for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Most of the methods fail to remove As(III), the most toxic form of arsenic. An extra oxidative treatment step is essential for effective removal of total arsenic. Manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) oxidizes As(III) to As(V). Removal of arsenic from water using manganese dioxide has been reported. During this work, removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from arsenic contaminated area of West Bengal, India were carried out using MnO 2

  19. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2007-01-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km 2 of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km 2 in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  20. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; sergioarnaud@hotmail.com; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km{sup 2} of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km{sup 2} in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  1. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. II. Sampling procedures and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, B.R.; Nielsen, D.C.; Shock, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared thermometry can be a valuable research and production tool for detecting and quantifying water stress in plants, as shown by a large volume of published research. Users of infrared thermometers (IRT) should be aware of the many equipment, environmental, and plant factors influencing canopy temperature measured by an IRT. The purpose of this paper is to describe factors influencing measured plant temperature, outline sampling procedures that will produce reliable Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) values, and offer interpretations of CWSI and plant temperatures relative to crop production and other water stress parameters by reviewing previously conducted research. Factors that are considered are IRT condition, configuration, and position; psychrometer location; wind speed; solar radiation; time of day; leaf area and orientation; and appropriate non-water-stressed baseline equation. Standard sampling and CWSI calculation procedures are proposed. Use of CWSI with crops varying in type of response to water stress is described. Previously conducted research on plant temperatures or CWSI is tabulated by crop and water stress parameters measured. The paper provides valuable information to assist interested users of IRTs in making reliable water stress measurements. (author)

  2. Determination of anionic concentrations in ground water samples using ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathibha, P.; Saradhi, I.V.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2011-01-01

    Ion chromatography is a powerful separation technique for the quantitative measurement of anions in aqueous samples as well as in soil, sediment and air particulate samples leached in aqueous solutions. Ion chromatographic technique is developed by making use of suppressed ion conductivity detection (Small et.al.,1975) and it is a rapid multi ion analysis technique. The time, processing and effort required for the analysis of anions is much less compared to other techniques available such as ion selective electrode technique. In the present paper ground water samples collected around New BARC campus, Visakhapatnam are analyzed for anions using Ion chromatograph. The data generated will establish the current baseline status of the ionic contaminants in the study area. Groundwater samples are collected at 13 locations around BARC Vizag campus covering 30 km radius in September, 2009, April and July, 2010. The water samples include samples from hand pump and open wells in villages. The water samples are analyzed for fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate using Metrohm make Ion chromatograph. The fluoride concentration in samples varied from 0.22 to 1.26 ppm, chloride from 18.7 to 810.9, nitrate from 1.34 to 378.5 ppm and sulphate from 13.29 to 250.69 ppm. No significant seasonal variations are observed in the samples collected from various locations except chloride at two locations. Ions Chromatograph is found to be a useful tool for simultaneous analysis of environmental samples with good accuracy where the concentrations of anions vary within an order of magnitude among them themselves. (author)

  3. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Tavčar; Erika Turk; Samo Kreft

    2012-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes p...

  4. Physiological response of wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) to out-of-water sampling for health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Janet M.; Sneath, Helen L.; Long, Trevor; Bonde, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a vulnerable marine mammal with large populations living in urban Queensland waters. A mark-recapture program for wild dugongs has been ongoing in southern Queensland since 2001. This program has involved capture and in-water sampling of more than 700 dugongs where animals have been held at the water surface for 5 min to be gene-tagged, measured, and biopsied. In 2008, this program expanded to examine more comprehensively body condition, reproductive status, and the health of wild dugongs in Moreton Bay. Using Sea World's research vessel, captured dugongs were lifted onto a boat and sampled out-of-water to obtain accurate body weights and morphometrics, collect blood and urine samples for baseline health parameters and hormone profiles, and ultrasound females for pregnancy status. In all, 30 dugongs, including two pregnant females, were sampled over 10 d and restrained on deck for up to 55 min each while biological data were collected. Each of the dugongs had their basic temperature-heart rate-respiration (THR) monitored throughout their period of handling, following protocols developed for the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). This paper reports on the physiological response of captured dugongs during this out-of-water operation as indicated by their vital signs and the suitability of the manatee monitoring protocols to this related sirenian species. A recommendation is made that the range of vital signs of these wild dugongs be used as benchmark criteria of normal parameters for other studies that intend to sample dugongs out-of-water.

  5. Method validation to determine total alpha beta emitters in water samples using LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Al-akel, B.; Saaid, S.

    2006-06-01

    In this work a method was validated to determine gross alpha and beta emitters in water samples using liquid scintillation counter. 200 ml of water from each sample were evaporated to 20 ml and 8 ml of them were mixed with 12 ml of the suitable cocktail to be measured by liquid scintillation counter Wallac Winspectral 1414. The lower detection limit by this method (LDL) was 0.33 DPM for total alpha emitters and 1.3 DPM for total beta emitters. and the reproducibility limit was (± 2.32 DPM) and (±1.41 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively, and the repeatability limit was (±2.19 DPM) and (±1.11 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively. The method is easy and fast because of the simple preparation steps and the large number of samples that can be measured at the same time. In addition, many real samples and standard samples were analyzed by the method and showed accurate results so it was concluded that the method can be used with various water samples. (author)

  6. The installation of a multiport ground-water sampling system in the 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    In 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater sampling system in well 399-1-20, drilled north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in southwestern Washington State. The purpose of installing the multiport system is to evaluate methods of determining the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads in ground water. Well 399-1-20 is adjacent to a cluster of four Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ground-water monitoring wells. This proximity makes it possible to compare sampling intervals and head measurements between the multiport system and the RCRA monitoring wells. Drilling and installation of the multiport system took 42 working days. Six sampling ports were installed in the upper unconfined aquifer at depths of approximately 120, 103, 86, 74, 56, and 44 feet. The locations of the sampling ports were determined by the hydrogeology of the area and the screened intervals of adjacent ground-water monitoring wells. The system was installed by backfilling sand around the sampling ports and isolating the ports with bentonite seals. The method proved adequate. For future installation, however, development and evaluation of an alternative method is recommended. In the alternative method suggested, the multiport system would be placed inside a cased and screened well, using packers to isolate the sampling zones. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. {sup 222}Rn determination in water and brine samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H., E-mail: oliveiratco2010@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) is the most common technique used for {sup 222}Rn determination in environmental aqueous sample. In this study, the performance of water-miscible (Ultima Gold AB) and immiscible (Optiscint) liquid scintillation cocktails has been compared for different matrices. {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra standard solutions were used for LSC calibration. {sup 214}Po region was defined as better for both cocktails. Counting efficiency of 76 % and optimum PSA level of 95 for Ultima Gold AB cocktail, and counting efficiency of 82 % and optimum PSA level of 85 for Optiscint cocktail were obtained. Both cocktails showed similar results when applied for {sup 222}Rn activity determination in water and brine samples. However the Optiscint is recommended due to its quenching resistance. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.06 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for water samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 10:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.04 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for brine samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 8:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. (author)

  8. The Evaluation of Aluminum Content for ‎Different Water Samples from Some Iraqi Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Haneen Kareem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, different samples of water are collected  from different provinces including,  (Babylon , Maysan , Al kut  which were ( river water ,drainage water and drinking water. Water sampling was during the month of February 2014. The chemical properties of these samples have been determined  including ( pH - Ec-Ca-Mg-K - Na - HCO3 and CO3 as well as measured aluminum for each sample and the results were as follows ,it was founded that    Ec ranged  from(  1 .101 - 5.39 ms / cm  ,higher  value found in Babylon for drainage water and lower value found in Al kut for drinking water . The values ​​of pH are ranged  from( 7.65 -8.26 and the values ​​for  are ranged from (5.26-29.91 meq / L and the values ​​of  are ranged from (0.19-1.53 meq / L and values ​​for Cl ranged from (15 - 31 meq / L and the values ​​for CO3 ranged from (0 - 0.1 meq / L and the values ​​for HCO3 ranging from (1.6-7 meq / L and the values ​​for Ca ranging from (3.4-11.8 meq / L and the values ​​for Mg ranging from (4.4-19.4 meq / L and the values ​​for (Al is very high and ranging from (0.640 to 0.647 ppm, and compared the results with standard specification of Iraq

  9. Membrane solid-phase extraction: Field application for isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, E.T.; Koleis, J.C.; Gates, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) membranes (M-SPE) were used to isolate microgram-per-liter to nanogram-per-liter quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 4- to 8-liter ground-water samples from a crude-oil-contaminated ground-water site near Bemidji, Minnesota. The M-SPE method was evaluated (1) under laboratory conditions using reagent water fortified with individual PAH at 1.23 micrograms per liter, and (2) at the Bemidji site. At the site, ground-water samples were processed and PAH isolated using a M-SPE system connected directly to the well pump. Following sample isolation, all M-SPE samples were extracted using dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring. Operationally, the M-SPE method provided a simple means to isolate PAH on site at the wellhead, particularly for anoxic water samples. Acceptable recoveries, ranging from 56 to over 100 percent, were observed for lower molecular weight PAH (naphthalene to pyrene) using the M-SPE method. Recoveries using M-SPE were somewhat lower, but reproducible, for higher molecular weight PAH (chrysene to benzo[ghi]perylene), ranging from 18 to 56 percent. M-SPE provides the capability to collect and field isolate PAH from a sufficiently large number of samples to identify environmental chemical processes occurring at individual compound concentrations of 50 to 1,200 nanograms per liter. Using M-SPE, the potential for facilitated transport of PAH by in situ-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was evaluated at the site. Plots comparing DOC and PAH concentrations indicate that PAH concentrations increase exponentially with linear increases in DOC concentrations

  10. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  11. Solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction: A sample preparation method for trace detection of diazinon in urine and environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladaghlo, Zolfaghar; Fakhari, Alireza; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2016-09-02

    In this research, a sample preparation method termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction (SA-DSPE) was applied. The used sample preparation method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent into the aqueous sample to maximize the interaction surface. In this approach, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was received by inserting a solution of the sorbent and disperser solvent into the aqueous sample. The cloudy solution created from the dispersion of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After pre-concentration of the diazinon, the cloudy solution was centrifuged and diazinon in the sediment phase dissolved in ethanol and determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Under the optimized conditions (pH of solution=7.0, Sorbent: benzophenone, 2%, Disperser solvent: ethanol, 500μL, Centrifuge: centrifuged at 4000rpm for 3min), the method detection limit for diazinon was 0.2, 0.3, 0.3 and 0.3μgL(-1) for distilled water, lake water, waste water and urine sample, respectively. Furthermore, the pre-concentration factor was 363.8, 356.1, 360.7 and 353.38 in distilled water, waste water, lake water and urine sample, respectively. SA-DSPE was successfully used for trace monitoring of diazinon in urine, lake and waste water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities 10 pCi/L. Ingrowth of beta-emitting progeny of238U, specifically234Pa and234Th, contributes much of the measured gross-beta activity in ground water from 4 of the 5 areas studied. Consequently, gross-beta activity measurements commonly overestimate the abundance of beta-emitting radionuclides actually present in ground water. Differing sample holding times before analysis lead to differing amounts of ingrowth of the two progeny. Therefore, holding times can affect observed gross-beta measurements, particularly in ground water with238U activities that are moderate to high

  13. Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs

  14. Fast and effective determination of strontium-90 in high volumes water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basarabova, B.; Dulanska, S.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast method was developed for determination of 90 Sr in high volumes of water samples from vicinity of nuclear power facilities. Samples were taken from the environment near Nuclear Power Plants in Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce in Slovakia. For determination of 90 Sr was used solid phase extraction using commercial sorbent Analig R Sr-01 from company IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc.. Determination of 90 Sr was performed with dilute solution of HNO 3 (1.5-2 M) and also tested in base medium with NaOH. For elution of 90 Sr was used eluent EDTA with pH in range 8-9. To achieve fast determination, automation was applied, which brings significant reduction of separation time. Concentration of water samples with evaporation was not necessary. Separation was performed immediately after filtration of analyzed samples. The aim of this study was development of less expensive, time unlimited and energy saving method for determination of 90 Sr in comparison with conventional methods. Separation time for fast-flow with volume of 10 dm 3 of water samples was 3.5 hours (flow-rate approximately 3.2 dm 3 / 1 hour). Radiochemical strontium yield was traced by using radionuclide 85 Sr. Samples were measured with HPGe detector (High-purity Germanium detector) at energy E φ = 514 keV. By using Analig R Sr-01 yields in range 72 - 96 % were achieved. Separation based on solid phase extraction using Analig R Sr-01 employing utilization of automation offers new, fast and effective method for determination of 90 Sr in water matrix. After ingrowth of yttrium samples were measured by Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer Packard Tricarb 2900 TR with software Quanta Smart. (authors)

  15. Measuring pesticides in surface waters - continuous versus event-based sampling design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, J.; Bach, M.; Frede, H.-G.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring pesticides in surface waters is still a work- and cost-intensive procedure. Therefore, studies are normally carried out with a low monitoring frequency or with only a small selection of substances to be analyzed. In this case, it is not possible to picture the high temporal variability of pesticide concentrations, depending on application dates, weather conditions, cropping seasons and other factors. In 2007 the Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resource Management at Giessen University implemented a monitoring program during two pesticide application periods aiming to produce a detailed dataset of pesticide concentration for a wide range of substances, and which would also be suitable for the evaluation of catchment-scale pesticide exposure models. The Weida catchment in Thuringia (Eastern Germany) was selected as study area due to the availability of detailed pesticide application data for this region. The samples were taken from the river Weida at the gauge Zeulenroda, where it flows into a drinking water reservoir. The catchment area is 102 km². 67% of the area are in agricultural use, the main crops being winter wheat, maize, winter barley and winter rape. Dominant soil texture classes are loamy sand and loamy silt. About one third of the agricultural area is drained. The sampling was carried out in cooperation with the water supply agency of Thuringia (Fernwasserversorgung Thueringen). The sample analysis was done by the Institute of Environmental Research at Dortmund University. Two sampling schemes were carried out using two automatic samplers: continuous sampling with composite samples bottled two times per week and event-based sampling triggered by a discharge threshold. 53 samples from continuous sampling were collected. 19 discharge events were sampled with 45 individual samples (one to six per event). 34 pesticides and two metabolites were analyzed. 21 compounds were detected, nine of which having concentrations above the drinking water

  16. Evaluation of HDPE water sample bottles and PVC sampler tubing used in herbicide dissipation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. B. Fischer; J. L. Michael; H. L. Gibbs

    2009-01-01

    The recovery of six herbicides (triclopyr, triclopyr ester, sulfometuron methyl, metsulfuron methyl, imazapyr, and hexazinone) was evaluated in two stream water samples, one from Weogufka Creek in the Alabama Piedmont and one from a stagnant stream in the Escambia Experimental Forest near Florida. Simulated field study conditions were...

  17. Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) supplement supports the regulatory and technical basis for water sampling at the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, as defined in the 1994 WSAP document for Maybell (DOE, 1994a). Further, this supplement serves to confirm our present understanding of the site relative to the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution as well as our intention to continue to use the sampling strategy as presented in the 1994 WSAP document for Maybell. Ground water and surface water monitoring activities are derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and 60 CFR 2854 (1 995). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. Additional site-specific documents relevant to the Maybell site are the Maybell Baseline Risk Assessment (currently in progress), the Maybell Remedial Action Plan (RAP) (DOE, 1994b), and the Maybell Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1995)

  18. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Because alcohols are miscible or highly soluble in water, alcohols are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for analysis....

  19. Laboratory performance study for passive sampling of nonpolar chemicals in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Kees; Smedes, Foppe; Crum, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Two laboratory performance studies with 21 and 11 participants were carried out for passive sampling of nonpolar chemicals in water, using silicone samplers that were deployed for 7 wk and 13 wk at 2 river sites in the Netherlands. Target analytes were polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic

  20. RA-226 concentration in water samples near uranium mines and in marine fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porntepkasemsan, B.

    1987-11-01

    Radium-226 and calcium were measured in water samples from the vicinity of three uranium mines and in fish samples collected from Puget sound, Washington State. The radium content of the samples were below the maximum permissible concentration 3 pCi/L for drinking water recommended by the Public Health Service and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The mean value of Ra-226 in water was 0.428 pCi/L and ranged from 0.043 to 1.552 pCi/L, whereas calcium content ranged from 3.0 to 190.0 mg/L. Ra-226 concentrations and calcium content in whole fish were 0.833-20.328 pCi/kg wet wt. and 114.1-259.3 mg/g ash, respectively. Results of the study indicated that Ra-226 concentration in water was correlated with calcium concentration but that this correlation was not observed in fish sample except English sole

  1. Innovative sampling and extraction methods for the determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Shivani; Di Carro, Marina; Magi, Emanuele

    2015-03-15

    Two different innovative approaches were used for the determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in water: stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and passive sampling, followed by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. SBSE was developed by comparing EG-Silicone and PDMS stir bars and optimizing main parameters to attain high preconcentration. Quantitative analysis was carried out by mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode and multiple reaction monitoring. The SBSE-LC-MS/MS method provided satisfactory figures of merit with LOD (7.5-71 ng L(-1)) and LOQ (22.5-213 ng L(-1)). The developed method was successfully applied to real samples collected from river water and wastewater effluents. The obtained results showed the presence of all analytes at trace levels, in a wide range of concentrations. The passive sampling approach was carried out by using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS); samplers were deployed for 15 days in river and tap water, allowing to detect analytes at ultra-trace levels. Time-Weighted Average concentration of NSAIDs in river water was estimated in the range 0.33-0.46 ng L(-1), using the sampling rates previously obtained by means of a simple calibration system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sample preparation for combined chemical analysis and bioassay application in water quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, A.; Schriks, M.; Brand, W; Bäuerlein, P.S.; van der Kooi, M.M.E.; van Doorn, R.H.; Emke, E.; Reus, A.; van der Linden, S.; de Voogt, P.; Heringa, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of in vitro bioassays and chemical screening can provide a powerful toolbox to determine biologically relevant compounds in water extracts. In this study, a sample preparation method is evaluated for the suitability for both chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays. A set of 39

  3. Ionic liquids for the passive sampling of sulfonamides from water-applicability and selectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Męczykowska, Hanna; Kobylis, Paulina; Stepnowski, Piotr; Caban, Magda

    2017-06-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are new-generation, non-volatile solvents which are designable, and their structure may be specifically adjusted to the current application needs. Therefore, it is possible to create and apply ILs which efficiently and selectively extract various analytes from different matrices. It has already been examined that ILs may be applied as receiving phases in passive sampling for the long-term water monitoring of PAHs and pharmaceuticals in water. In this paper, the concept of passive sampling with ILs (PASSIL applied as receiving phases) was continued and developed using phosphonium-, imidazolium-, and morpholinium-cation-based ILs. The target group of analytes was pharmaceuticals which represent one of the most common categories of water contaminants. Fourteen-day-long extractions using various ILs were performed in stirred conditions at a constant temperature (20 °C). The best extraction efficiency was achieved for trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium dicyanamide ([P666-14][N(CN) 2 ]). For this preliminary calibration, the sampling rates were calculated for each sulfonamide. Once again, selectivity was observed in passive sampling using [P666-14][N(CN) 2 ]. Therefore, PASSIL is seen as a very promising method for pharmaceutical monitoring in water.

  4. Measurement of the tritium concentration in the fractionated distillate from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert; Eddy, Teresa; Kuhne, Wendy; Jannik, Tim; Brandl, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The current study investigates the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process, distinguishing it from and extending previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.04 ± 0.036, 1.05 ± 0.026, and 1.07 ± 0.038, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples where the first 5 mL are discarded, the tritium concentration could be underestimated by 4-7%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Water perception and utilization in a sample of students in the province of Viterbo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, G; Russo, N; Federico, B; Spera, D; Gasperini, L; Magrini, A; Ricciardi, G

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays water quality is certainly one of the issues of major concern. Control on waterway considerably involves public hygiene services and represents a prevention activity and a measure of public health safety, which often is unknown to the population. For this reason the Public Hygiene Service of Viterbo L.H.U. (Local Health Unit) in collaboration with the Institute of Hygiene of the Catholic University of Rome carried out a survey to evaluate perception towards tap water quality in a sample of students. During the last decade tap and mineral water consumption habits turned out to be constant. The great majority of students reported to use widely mineral water at home; mineral water consumption was high regardless of social class. Since our investigation found a large use of mineral water in this town, the L.H.U. could intervene to modify these attitudes, starting up with an education campaign of the population: tap water is indeed subject to quality controls with a higher frequency compared to mineral water.

  6. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis in water samples from Assiut, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gamal, H.; Abdel Mageed, A.I.; El-Attar, A.L; Abdel Hamid, M.

    2013-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined in water samples, using 2”x 2” NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Water activity ranges from 0.07 to 0.59 Bq L−1 for 226 Ra, 0.05 to 0.37 Bq L−1 for 232 Th and 3.25 to 8.72 Bq L−1 for 40 K with mean values of 2.64, 2.22 and 119.50 Bq L−1, respectively. As far as the measured gamma radionuclides is concerned, the mean annual effective doses for all analyzed samples of water are in the range of 0.02–0.08, 0.03-0.17 and 0.03-0.10 mSv yr -1 for infants, children and adults, respectively, all being lower than the reference level of the committed effective dose recommended by the WHO.

  7. Letter Report: Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of B-Complex Perched Water Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moran, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nims, Megan K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saunders, Danielle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-13

    Fine-grained sediments associated with the Cold Creek Unit at Hanford have caused the formation of a perched water aquifer in the deep vadose zone at the B Complex area, which includes waste sites in the 200-DV-1 Operable Unit and the single-shell tank farms in Waste Management Area B-BX-BY. High levels of contaminants, such as uranium, technetium-99, and nitrate, make this aquifer a continuing source of contamination for the groundwater located a few meters below the perched zone. Analysis of deuterium (2H) and 18-oxygen (18O) of nine perched water samples from three different wells was performed. Samples represent time points from hydraulic tests performed on the perched aquifer using the three wells. The isotope analyses showed that the perched water had δ2H and δ18O ratios consistent with the regional meteoric water line, indicating that local precipitation events at the Hanford site likely account for recharge of the perched water aquifer. Data from the isotope analysis can be used along with pumping and recovery data to help understand the perched water dynamics related to aquifer size and hydraulic control of the aquifer in the future.

  8. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Sampling Algorithm in a Sensor Network for Automated Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tongxin; Xia, Min; Chen, Jiahong; Silva, Clarence de

    2017-11-05

    Power management is crucial in the monitoring of a remote environment, especially when long-term monitoring is needed. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind may be harvested to sustain a monitoring system. However, without proper power management, equipment within the monitoring system may become nonfunctional and, as a consequence, the data or events captured during the monitoring process will become inaccurate as well. This paper develops and applies a novel adaptive sampling algorithm for power management in the automated monitoring of the quality of water in an extensive and remote aquatic environment. Based on the data collected on line using sensor nodes, a data-driven adaptive sampling algorithm (DDASA) is developed for improving the power efficiency while ensuring the accuracy of sampled data. The developed algorithm is evaluated using two distinct key parameters, which are dissolved oxygen (DO) and turbidity. It is found that by dynamically changing the sampling frequency, the battery lifetime can be effectively prolonged while maintaining a required level of sampling accuracy. According to the simulation results, compared to a fixed sampling rate, approximately 30.66% of the battery energy can be saved for three months of continuous water quality monitoring. Using the same dataset to compare with a traditional adaptive sampling algorithm (ASA), while achieving around the same Normalized Mean Error (NME), DDASA is superior in saving 5.31% more battery energy.

  9. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Sampling Algorithm in a Sensor Network for Automated Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongxin Shu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Power management is crucial in the monitoring of a remote environment, especially when long-term monitoring is needed. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind may be harvested to sustain a monitoring system. However, without proper power management, equipment within the monitoring system may become nonfunctional and, as a consequence, the data or events captured during the monitoring process will become inaccurate as well. This paper develops and applies a novel adaptive sampling algorithm for power management in the automated monitoring of the quality of water in an extensive and remote aquatic environment. Based on the data collected on line using sensor nodes, a data-driven adaptive sampling algorithm (DDASA is developed for improving the power efficiency while ensuring the accuracy of sampled data. The developed algorithm is evaluated using two distinct key parameters, which are dissolved oxygen (DO and turbidity. It is found that by dynamically changing the sampling frequency, the battery lifetime can be effectively prolonged while maintaining a required level of sampling accuracy. According to the simulation results, compared to a fixed sampling rate, approximately 30.66% of the battery energy can be saved for three months of continuous water quality monitoring. Using the same dataset to compare with a traditional adaptive sampling algorithm (ASA, while achieving around the same Normalized Mean Error (NME, DDASA is superior in saving 5.31% more battery energy.

  10. High-resolution passive sampling of dissolved methane in the water column of lakes in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A. E.; Cadieux, S. B.; White, J. R.; Pratt, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic lakes are important participants in the global carbon cycle, releasing methane in a warming climate and contributing to a positive feedback to climate change. In order to yield detailed methane budgets and understand the implications of warming on methane dynamics, high-resolution profiles revealing methane behavior within the water column need to be obtained. Single day sampling using disruptive techniques has the potential to result in biases. In order to obtain high-resolution, undisturbed profiles of methane concentration and isotopic composition, this study evaluates a passive sampling method over a multi-day equilibration period. Selected for this study were two small lakes (Gatos Research Methane Carbon Isotope Analyzer. PDB sampling and pump sampling resulted in statistically similar concentrations (R2=0.89), ranging from 0.85 to 135 uM from PDB and 0.74 to 143 uM from pump sampling. In anoxic waters of the lake, where concentrations were high enough to yield robust isotopic results on the LGR MCIA, δ13C were also similar between the two methods, yielding -73‰ from PDB and -74‰ from pump sampling. Further investigation will produce results for a second lake and methane carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition for both lakes. Preliminary results for this passive sampling method are promising. We envision the use of this technique in future studies of dissolved methane and expect that it will provide a more finely resolved vertical profile, allowing for a more complete understanding of lacustrine methane dynamics.

  11. Results of elemental analyses of water and waterborne sediment samples from the Fairbanks NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Aamodt, P.L; Hill, D.E.

    1979-04-01

    During the late spring and then again in late summer, 1977, lake and stream water and bottom sediment samples were collected at a nominal density of one location every 16 km 2 from throughout the approximate 16,500-km 2 area of the Fairbanks NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. These samples were collected using standard procedures by investigators from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, as part of a special Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) study to identify variance in total uranium contents related to natural factors such as seasonal changes, source types, and geologic/geographic environments. Histograms and statistical summaries of total uranium in a number of sample populations presented herein indicate that water samples collected in late summer have a mean uranium content that is slightly higher than the mean for waters collected in the spring. Dilution and/or evaporative concentration are possible causes for this difference. Sediment samples collected from streams and springs have a slightly higher mean uranium content than those collected from lakes, and this is consistent with HSSR data from other Alaskan areas. The Alaskan investigators will complete a detailed analysis of variance study of these data in the near future and a second open-file report will be forthcoming upon its completion

  12. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  13. Daily variations of delta 18O and delta D in daily samplings of air water vapour and rain water in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, E.; Salati, E.; Ribeiro, M.N.G.; Tancredi, A.C.F.N.S.; Reis, C.M. dos

    1984-01-01

    The movement of rain water in the soil from 0 to 120 cm depth using delta 18 O weekly variations is studied. A study of the delta D variability in water vapour and rain water samples during precipitation was also done, the samples being collected a 3 minute intervals from the beginning to the end of precipitation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Application of empore TM strontium rad disks to the analysis of radiostrontium in environmental water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.L.; Seely, D.C.; Shannon, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    A solid phase extraction method for analyzing radioactive strontium in surface, ground, and drinking waters is presented. Strontium is simply isolated by pulling an acidified sample aliquot through an Empore TM strontium rad disk with a vacuum, and the disk is subsequently assayed for beta activity. The method is efficient, safe, reliable, and potentially field deployable. Sample preparation and counting source preparation may be condensed into a single procedure, thereby improving efficiency and eliminating many potential sources of laboratory error. Moreover, many of the hazardous chemicals associated with traditional strontium procedures are eliminated. Samples are easily batched, and a one-liter sample may be prepared with as little as 20 min of effort. For a one-liter aqueous sample, up to 3 mg of strontium can be retained by the disks. Chemical and radiometric interferences are discussed. (orig.)

  15. [An experiment to estimate locations of radioisotopes producing black spots on medical images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Hanamitsu, Hiroki; Mori, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Caused by the accident of nuclear power plants in the Fukushima at 2011, many radioisotopes (RI) were diffused to the environment. As a result, X-ray detectors were stained with RIs and black spots appeared on the medical images. Using the RI of (134)Cs and (137)Cs, black spots which appeared on the photostimulable phosphor plate (X-ray detector) were reproduced experimentally. The aim of this study is the following two points; firstly, to clarify the relationship between long-time irradiations of RI and fading effect, and secondly, to clarify the positional relationship between the RI sources and the X-ray detector based on irradiation times of RI. For the latter experiment, the samples were made by spraying water (containing the RI) in order to reproduce small point sources. Then, the sources were placed on the photostimulable phosphor plate or on the cassette, and corresponding images with different irradiation times were taken. The black spots could be reproduced with the condition, in which sources were directly adhered to the photostimulable phosphor plate. We observed the black spots when sources were placed on the cassette for one week. Based on the result, we summarized that the RI which are directly adhered on the photostimulable phosphor plate may produce the black spots.

  16. Genetic variability in spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), determined with microsatellite DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R.; Bowers, K.; Hensley, R.; Mobley, B.; Belouski, E.

    2007-01-01

    Variation in the allele frequencies of five microsatellite loci was surveyed in 1256 individual spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) obtained from 12 bays and estuaries from Laguna Madre, Texas, to Charlotte Harbor, Florida, to St. John's River on the Florida Atlantic Coast. Texas and Louisiana collection sites were resampled each year for two to four years (1998-2001). Genetic differentiation was observed. Spotted seatrout from Florida waters were strongly differentiated from spotted seatrout collected in Louisiana and Texas. The greatest genetic discontinuity was observed between Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, and Charlotte Harbor seatrout were most similar to Atlantic Coast spotted seatrout. Texas and Louisiana samples were not strongly structured within the northwestern Gulf of Mexico and there was little evidence of temporal differentiation within bays. These findings are contrary to those of earlier analyses with allozymes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) where evidence of spatial differentiation was found for spotted seatrout resident on the Texas coast. The differences in genetic structure observed among these markers may reflect differences in response to selective pressure, or may be due to differences in underlying genetic processes.

  17. A field trial of a PCR-based Mansonella ozzardi diagnosis assay detects high-levels of submicroscopic M. ozzardi infections in both venous blood samples and FTA card dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Almeida, Tatiana Amaral Pires; Silva, Lucyane Bastos Tavares; Rubio, Jose Miguel; Crainey, James Lee; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Luz, Sergio Luiz Bessa

    2015-05-20

    Mansonella ozzardi is a poorly understood human filarial parasite with a broad distribution throughout Latin America. Most of what is known about its parasitism has come from epidemiological studies that have estimated parasite incidence using light microscopy. Light microscopy can, however, miss lighter, submicroscopic, infections. In this study we have compared M. ozzardi incidence estimates made using light microscopy, with estimates made using PCR. 214 DNA extracts made from Large Volume Venous Blood Samples (LVVBS) were taken from volunteers from two study sites in the Rio Solimões region: Codajás [n = 109] and Tefé [n = 105] and were subsequently assayed for M. ozzardi parasitism using a diagnostic PCR (Mo-dPCR). Peripheral finger-prick blood samples were taken from the same individuals and used for microscopic examination. Finger-prick blood, taken from individuals from Tefé, was also used for the creation of FTAcard dried blood spots (DBS) that were subsequently subjected to Mo-dPCR. Overall M. ozzardi incidence estimates made with LVVBS PCRs were 1.8 times higher than those made using microscopy (44.9% [96/214] compared with 24.3% [52/214]) and 1.5 times higher than the PCR estimates made from FTAcard DBS (48/105 versus 31/105). PCR-based detection of FTAcard DBS proved 1.3 times more sensitive at diagnosing infections from peripheral blood samples than light microscopy did: detecting 24/105 compared with 31/105. PCR of LVVBS reported the fewest number of false negatives, detecting: 44 of 52 (84.6%) individuals diagnosed by microscopy; 27 of 31 (87.1%) of those diagnosed positive from DBSs and 17 out of 18 (94.4%) of those diagnosed as positive by both alternative methodologies. In this study, Mo-dPCR of LVVBS was by far the most sensitive method of detecting M. ozzardi infections and detected submicroscopic infections. Mo-dPCR FTAcard DBS also provided a more sensitive test for M. ozzardi diagnosis than light microscopy based diagnosis did and

  18. Screening and Quantification of Aliphatic Primary Alkyl Corrosion Inhibitor Amines in Water Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Damon, Deidre E; Barrett, Richard M; Syed, S U; Heeren, Ron M A; Taylor, Stephen; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2016-01-19

    Direct analysis and identification of long chain aliphatic primary diamine Duomeen O (n-oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane), corrosion inhibitor in raw water samples taken from a large medium pressure water tube boiler plant water samples at low LODs (boiler plant and other related samples in the water treatment industry. This approach was applied for the analysis of three complex water samples including feedwater, condensate water, and boiler water, all collected from large medium pressure (MP) water tube boiler plants, known to be dosed with varying amounts of polyamine and amine corrosion inhibitor components. Polyamine chemistry is widely used for example in large high pressure (HP) boilers operating in municipal waste and recycling facilities to prevent corrosion of metals. The samples used in this study are from such a facility in Coventry waste treatment facility, U.K., which has 3 × 40 tonne/hour boilers operating at 17.5 bar.

  19. Comparative study of uranium concentration in water samples of SW and NE Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Komal; Bajwa, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    Since the commencement of the earth, radiations and natural radioactivity has always been a part of environment. Uranium is heaviest naturally occurring element which is widespread in nature, mainly occurs in granites mineral deposits. The natural weathering of rocks such as granite dissolves the natural uranium, which goes into groundwater by leaching and precipitation called illumination process. People are always exposed to certain amount of uranium from air, water, soil and food as it is usually present in these components. About 85% of ingested uranium enter into human body through drinking water which makes it very important to estimate uranium concentration in potable water. Uranium and some other heavy metals may increase the risk of kidney damage, cancer diseases where experimental evidence suggests that respiratory and reproductive system are also affected by uranium exposure. In the present study comparative study of uranium concentration in potable water samples of SW and NE Punjab has been analysed

  20. [Study on Hexagonal Super-Lattice Pattern with Light Spot and Dim Spot in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Dong, Li-fang; Niu, Xue-jiao; Zhang, Chao

    2016-02-01

    The hexagonal super-lattice pattern composed of the light spot and the dim spot is firstly observed and investigated in the discharge of gas mixture of air and argon by using the dielectric barrier discharge device with double water electrodes. It is found that the dim spot is located at the center of its surrounding three light spots by observing the discharge image. Obviously, the brightness of the light spot and the dim spot are different, which indicates that the plasma states of the light spot and the dim spot may be different. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the light spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the light spot and the dim spot are calculated. Based on the relative intensity ratio of the line at 391.4 nm and the N₂ line at 394.1 nm, the average electron energies of the light spot and the dim spot are investigated. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the light spot and the dim spot. The experiment shows that the molecule vibration temperature, average electron energy and the electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the light spot in the same argon content. The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the light spot and dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 70% to 95%, while average electron energies of the light spot and dim spot decrease gradually. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the decisive effect on the formation of the dim spot. The experiment above plays an important role in studying the formation mechanism of the hexagonal super-lattice pattern with light spot and

  1. Hot spots of mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilarranz, Luis J; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating interactions into a biogeographical framework may serve to understand how interactions and the services they provide are distributed in space. We begin by simulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of realistic mutualistic networks inhabiting spatial networks of habitat patches. We proceed by comparing the predicted patterns with the empirical results of a set of pollination networks in isolated hills of the Argentinian Pampas. We first find that one needs to sample up to five times as much area to record interactions as would be needed to sample the same proportion of species. Secondly, we find that peripheral patches have fewer interactions and harbour less nested networks - therefore potentially less resilient communities - compared to central patches. Our results highlight the important role played by the structure of dispersal routes on the spatial distribution of community patterns. This may help to understand the formation of biodiversity hot spots. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  2. Microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextration of chlorobenzenes from water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Lorena [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Domini, Claudia E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Grane, Nuria [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Psillakis, Elefteria [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania, Crete (Greece); Canals, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: a.canals@ua.es

    2007-05-29

    A one-step and in-situ sample preparation method used for quantifying chlorobenzene compounds in water samples has been developed, coupling microwave and headspace single-drop microextraction (MW-HS-SDME). The chlorobenzenes in water samples were extracted directly onto an ionic liquid single-drop in headspace mode under the aid of microwave radiation. For optimization, a Plackett-Burman screening design was initially used, followed by a mixed-level factorial design. The factors considered were: drop volume, aqueous sample volume, stirring speed, ionic strength, extraction time, ionic liquid type, microwave power and length of the Y-shaped glass-tube. The optimum experimental conditions found from this statistical evaluation were: a 5 {mu}L microdrop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate exposed for 20 min to the headspace of a 30 mL aqueous sample, irradiated by microwaves at 200 W and placed in a 50 mL spherical flask connected to a 25 cm Y-shaped glass-tube. Under the optimised experimental conditions, the response of a high performance liquid chromatographic system was found to be linear over the range studied and with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The method showed a good level of repeatability, with relative standard deviations varying between 2.3 and 8.3% (n = 5). Detection limits were found in the low {mu}g L{sup -1} range varying between 0.016 and 0.039 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Overall, the performance of the proposed method demonstrated the favourable effect of microwave sample irradiation upon HS-SDME. Finally, recovery studies from different types of environmental water samples revealed that matrix had little effect upon extraction.

  3. Microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextration of chlorobenzenes from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Lorena; Domini, Claudia E.; Grane, Nuria; Psillakis, Elefteria; Canals, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    A one-step and in-situ sample preparation method used for quantifying chlorobenzene compounds in water samples has been developed, coupling microwave and headspace single-drop microextraction (MW-HS-SDME). The chlorobenzenes in water samples were extracted directly onto an ionic liquid single-drop in headspace mode under the aid of microwave radiation. For optimization, a Plackett-Burman screening design was initially used, followed by a mixed-level factorial design. The factors considered were: drop volume, aqueous sample volume, stirring speed, ionic strength, extraction time, ionic liquid type, microwave power and length of the Y-shaped glass-tube. The optimum experimental conditions found from this statistical evaluation were: a 5 μL microdrop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate exposed for 20 min to the headspace of a 30 mL aqueous sample, irradiated by microwaves at 200 W and placed in a 50 mL spherical flask connected to a 25 cm Y-shaped glass-tube. Under the optimised experimental conditions, the response of a high performance liquid chromatographic system was found to be linear over the range studied and with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The method showed a good level of repeatability, with relative standard deviations varying between 2.3 and 8.3% (n = 5). Detection limits were found in the low μg L -1 range varying between 0.016 and 0.039 μg L -1 . Overall, the performance of the proposed method demonstrated the favourable effect of microwave sample irradiation upon HS-SDME. Finally, recovery studies from different types of environmental water samples revealed that matrix had little effect upon extraction

  4. Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Certain Water Sources and Industrial Wastewater Samples in Dakahlia Governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadaly, H.; El-Defrawy, M.M.; El-Zawawy, F.; Makia, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical analysis included quantitative measurement of electrical conductivity, alkalinity , hardness sulphate, ph, total dissolved solids, chloride, as well as dissolved oxygen was carried out. The microbiological examination for different water sources and industrial wastewater samples was also conducted. some of heavy metals, Co 2+ Cu 2+ Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ were determined in fresh water, while other metals, such as Cr 6+ , Co 2+ , Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ were measured in industrial wastewater. Results of the chemical analysis showed that all measured parameters were found within the limitation either national or international law, except some samples which showed higher values than the permissible limits for some measured parameters. The microbiological analysis exhibited presence of yeasts, fungi and bacteria. Most bacterial isolates were short rod, spore formers as well as coccoid shaped bacteria. The efficiency of water treatment process on the reduction of microbial load was also calculated. Regarding the pathogenic bacteria, data showed that neither water samples nor industrial wastewater contain pathogens when using specific cultivation media for the examination. Furthermore, data proved the possibility of recycling of the tested industrial wastewater on which some microorganisms can grow. Data showed that the percent of heavy metals removal can reach to more than 70% in some cases as a result to bacterial treatment of industrial wastewater

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of mercury in water samples after preconcentration using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo; dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Silva, Eldevan dos Santos; Vieira, Emanuel Vitor dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    A simple method for the determination of mercury in water samples after preconcentration using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction is described. The procedure is based on the extraction of mercury in the form of a complex and its subsequent determination by spectrophotometry. The complex is formed between Hg(II) and 2-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-p-cresol. The detection at 650 nm is performed directly in the metal-rich phase, which is spread on a triacetylcellulose membrane. The method eliminates the need to use a cuvet or large quantities of samples and reagents. The parameters that influence the preconcentration were studied, and the analytical characteristics were determined. The enrichment factor and the consumptive index for this method were 64 and 0.16 mL, respectively. The LOD (3.3 microg/L) and LOQ (11.1 microg/L) were also determined. The accuracy of the method was tested by the determination of mercury in certified reference materials BCR 397 (Human Hair) and SRM 2781 (Domestic Sludge). The method was applied to the determination of mercury in samples of drinking water, sea water, and river water.

  6. Microfluidic chip with optical sensor for rapid detection of nerve agent Sarin in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hsih Yin; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Loke, Weng Keong; Tan, Yong Teng

    2007-12-01

    The chemical warfare agent Sarin is an organophosphate that is highly toxic to humans as they can act as cholinesterase inhibitors, that disrupts neuromuscular transmission. As these nerve agents are colorless, odorless and highly toxic, they can be introduced into drinking water as a means of terrorist sabotage. Hence, numerous innovative devices and methods have been developed for rapid detection of these organophosphates. Microfluidic technology allows the implementation of fast and sensitive detection of Sarin. In this paper, a micro-total analysis systems (TAS), also known as Lab-on-a-chip, fitted with an optical detection system has been developed to analyze the presence of the nerve agent sarin in water samples. In the present set-up, inhibition of co-introduced cholinesterase and water samples containing trace amounts of nerve agent sarin into the microfluidic device was used as the basis for selective detection of sarin. The device was fabricated using polymeric micromachining with PMMA (poly (methymethacrylate)) as the substrate material. A chromophore was utilized to measure the activity of remnant cholinesterase activity, which is inversely related to the amount of sarin present in the water samples. Comparisons were made between two different optical detection techniques and the findings will be presented in this paper. The presented measurement method is simple, fast and as sensitive as Gas Chromatography.

  7. Sampling problems and the determination of mercury in surface water, seawater, and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; van der Sloot, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of surface water for mercury comprises the determination of both ionic and organically bound mercury in solution and that of the total mercury content of the suspended matter. Eventually, metallic mercury has to be determined too. Requirements for the sampling procedure are given. A method for the routine determination of mercury in surface water and seawater was developed and applied to Dutch surface waters. The total sample volume is 2500 ml. About 500 ml is used for the determination of the content of suspended matter and the total amount of mercury in the water. The sample is filtered through a bed of previously purified active charcoal at a low flow-rate. The main portion ca. 2000 ml) passes a flow-through centrifuge to separate the solid fraction. One liter is used to separate ''inorganic'' mercury by reduction, volatilization in an airstream and adsorption on active charcoal. The other liter is led through a column of active charcoal to collect all mercury. The procedures were checked with 197 Hg radiotracer both as an ion and incorporated in organic compounds. The mercury is determined by thermal neutron activation, followed by volatilization in a tube furnace and adsorption on a fresh carbon bed. The limit of determination is approximately equal to 1 ng 1 -1 . The rate of desorption from and adsorption on suspended material has been measured as a function of a pH of the solution for Hg +2 and various other ions. It can be concluded that only the procedure mentioned above does not disturb the equilibrium. The separation of mercury from air is obtained by suction of 1 m 3 through a 0.22 μm filter and a charcoal bed. The determination is then performed as in the case of the water samples

  8. Lead in drinking water: sampling in primary schools and preschools in south central Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Anne R; Steele, Janet E

    2012-03-01

    Studies in Philadelphia, New York City, Houston, Washington, DC, and Greenville, North Carolina, have revealed high lead levels in drinking water. Unlike urban areas, lead levels in drinking water in suburban and rural areas have not been adequately studied. In the study described in this article, drinking water in primary schools and preschools in five suburban and rural south central Kansas towns was sampled to determine if any exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) guidance level for schools and child care facilities of 20 parts per billion (ppb). The results showed a total of 32.1% of the samples had detectable lead levels and 3.6% exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance level for schools and child care providers of 20 ppb. These results indicate that about one-third of the drinking water consumed by children age six and under in the five suburban and rural south central Kansas towns studied has some lead contamination, exposing these children to both short-term and long-term health risks. The authors suggest a need for increased surveillance of children's drinking water in these facilities.

  9. Application of environmental sampling to flexible endoscope reprocessing: the importance of monitoring the rinse water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Lawrence F

    2002-05-01

    The routine sampling of environmental surfaces within a healthcare facility is generally not recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), and several other healthcare organizations. There are a few circumstances, however, for which some organizations do recommend this practice. For instance, the CDC and the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) recommend environmental sampling as clinically required during an outbreak investigation. The CDC and AAMI also recommend routine sampling of the rinse water used during hemodialyzer (but not endoscope) reprocessing. The rationale for this recommendation is based in part on reports of pyrogenic responses, patient infections, and bacteremia due to waterborne, gram-negative bacteria during hemodialysis. To determine whether the basis for this rationale might similarly apply to the rinse water used during endoscope reprocessing, the Food and Drug Administration's medical device reporting database, the endoscope reprocessing literature, and other sources were reviewed. The results of this review indicate that nosocomial outbreaks linked to endoscopes contaminated with gram-negative bacteria have been frequently reported. As a result, for several reasons, including to minimize the risk of patient infection due to gram-negative bacteria following endoscopy, this article recommends routine microbiologic sampling of the rinse water used during endoscope reprocessing.

  10. Estimates of age, growth and mortality of spotted catfish, Arius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spotted catfish is a benthic species that can be found abundantly off the coast of Yunlin in southwestern Taiwan. Its biological parameters are little known. In this study, life history parameters of this species were estimated using samples caught by bottom trawling. The spotted catfish was the major bycatch species which ...

  11. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in...

  12. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  13. Stable isotope characterization of pan-derived and directly sampled atmospheric water vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maric, R.; St. Amour, N.A.; Gibson, J.J.; Edwards, T.W.D.

    2002-01-01

    Isotopic characterization of atmospheric water vapour, δ A , and its temporal variability are important prerequisites for quantifying water balance of surface reservoirs and partitioning of evaporation and transpiration fluxes using isotope techniques. Here we present results from a detailed comparison of several methods for determining δ A in field situations, (i) by back-calculation from isotopic and micrometeorological monitoring of a steady-state terminal reservoir (standard Class-A evaporation pan) using boundary-layer mass transfer models [1], (ii) through direct (cryogenic) sampling of ambient atmospheric moisture, and (iii) using the precipitation-equilibrium approximation (i.e., δ A =δ P - ε*)

  14. Ground water chemistry in SFR. Results from a sampling and analysis campaign year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin

    2002-02-01

    The ground water chemistry is regularly controlled at four observation points/boreholes within the control program for the operational stage in SFR. Initially, samples were taken twice a year, but after a revision of the control program in 1996, it was limited to yearly sampling with a more comprehensive sampling from several boreholes every fifth year. Such a comprehensive program was performed in year 2000. In three boreholes tests were made using a mobile field laboratory for 'on-line' analysis of pH-value, redox potential, conductivity, free oxygen and temperature. Gas analysis and determination of microbes were also made. In the other boreholes with sufficient flow, manual samples were taken. In this report the new results are presented together with a complete compilation of chemistry data since the start of the control program in 1989

  15. Volatile organic compound matrix spike recoveries for ground- and surface-water samples, 1997-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Bender, David A.; Zogorski, John S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program used field matrix spikes (FMSs), field matrix spike replicates (FMSRs), laboratory matrix spikes (LMSs), and laboratory reagent spikes (LRSs), in part, to assess the quality of volatile organic compound (VOC) data from water samples collected and analyzed in more than 50 of the Nation's largest river basins and aquifers (Study Units). The data-quality objectives of the NAWQA Program include estimating the extent to which variability, degradation, and matrix effects, if any, may affect the interpretation of chemical analyses of ground- and surface-water samples. In order to help meet these objectives, a known mass of VOCs was added (spiked) to water samples collected in 25 Study Units. Data within this report include recoveries from 276 ground- and surface-water samples spiked with a 25-microliter syringe with a spike solution containing 85 VOCs to achieve a concentration of 0.5 microgram per liter. Combined recoveries for 85 VOCs from spiked ground- and surface-water samples and reagent water were used to broadly characterize the overall recovery of VOCs. Median recoveries for 149 FMSs, 107 FMSRs, 20 LMSs, and 152 LRSs were 79.9, 83.3, 113.1, and 103.5 percent, respectively. Spike recoveries for 85 VOCs also were calculated individually. With the exception of a few VOCs, the median percent recoveries determined from each spike type for individual VOCs followed the same pattern as for all VOC recoveries combined, that is, listed from least to greatest recovery-FMSs, FMSRs, LRSs, and LMSs. The median recoveries for individual VOCs ranged from 63.7 percent to 101.5 percent in FMSs; 63.1 percent to 101.4 percent in FMSRs; 101.7 percent to 135.0 percent in LMSs; and 91.0 percent to 118.7 percent in LRSs. Additionally, individual VOC recoveries were compared among paired spike types, and these recoveries were used to evaluate potential bias in the method. Variability associated with field

  16. Efficient sample preparation method based on solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction for the trace detection of butachlor in urine and waste water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladaghlo, Zolfaghar; Fakhari, Alireza; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    In this work, an efficient sample preparation method termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction was applied. The used sample preparation method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent (benzophenone) into the aqueous sample to maximize the interaction surface. In this approach, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was achieved by inserting a solution of the sorbent and disperser solvent into the aqueous sample. The cloudy solution created from the dispersion of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After pre-concentration of the butachlor, the cloudy solution was centrifuged and butachlor in the sediment phase dissolved in ethanol and determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Under the optimized conditions (solution pH = 7.0, sorbent: benzophenone, 2%, disperser solvent: ethanol, 500 μL, centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 3 min), the method detection limit for butachlor was 2, 3 and 3 μg/L for distilled water, waste water, and urine sample, respectively. Furthermore, the preconcentration factor was 198.8, 175.0, and 174.2 in distilled water, waste water, and urine sample, respectively. Solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction was successfully used for the trace monitoring of butachlor in urine and waste water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Chocolate spot of Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Cheewangkoon, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Hyde, K.D.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Chocolate Spot leaf disease of Eucalyptus is associated with several Heteroconium-like species of hyphomycetes that resemble Heteroconium s.str. in morphology. They differ, however, in their ecology, with the former being plant pathogenic, while Heteroconium s.str. is a genus of sooty moulds. Results of molecular analyses, inferred from DNA sequences of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nrDNA, delineated four Heteroconium-like species on Eucalyptus, name...

  18. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water samples with a Becton Dickinson FACSort flow cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Boschman GD; LWL; Becton Dickinson Europe, Aalst, Belgie

    1995-01-01

    Current detection techniques for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water samples combine filtration of large volumes of water, concentration by centrifugation and flotation and immunofluorescense microscopy. The techniques are extremely labour-intensive and inefficient. The various steps

  19. Sample preparation of waste water to determine metallic contaminants by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Olivos, Javier.

    1987-01-01

    Trace X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis in liquid samples is preceded by sample preparation, which usually consists in the precipitation of the metallic ions and concentration over a thin cellulose filter. The samples preparation of waste water by this method is not efficient, due to the great amount of organic and insoluble matter that they contain. The purpose of this work was to determine the optimal value of pH in order to adsorbe all the insoluble matter contained in a waste water sample in the activated charcoal, so that the metallic ions could be precipitated and concentrated on a thin filter and determinated by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. A survey about the adsorption of some ions in activated charcoal in function of the pH was made for the following: Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Se 2+ , Hg 2+ , and Pb 2+ . It was observed that at pH 0, the ions are not adsorbed, but Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ are adsorbed in small amount; at pH 14, the ions are adsorbed, excluding Se, which is not adsorbed at any value of pH. If a waste water sample is treated at pH 0 with activated charcoal to adsorbe the organic and insoluble matter, most of the metallic ions are not adsorbed by the activated charcoal and could be precipitated with APDC (ammonium 1-pirrolidine dithio carbamate salt) and concentrated on a thin filter. The analysis of the metallic ions contained on the filter and those adsorbed in the activated charcoal by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, gave the total amount of the ions in the sample. (author)

  20. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  1. Analysis of Heavy Metals in Water and Fish (Tilapia sp.) Samples from Tasik Mutiara, Puchong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaniza Ismail; Idaliza Mat Saleh

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) were detected in muscle tissues of Tilapia sp. (black tilapia) collected from the lake of Taman Mutiara, Puchong. Samples were collected for several months in the end of 2009 at three sampling points. Heavy metals in fish and water samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Only Al, Cu, Fe and Zn were detected in the order Fe > Zn > Al > Cu, whereas concentrations of As, Cd and Pb were below the detection limit. The concentrations of heavy metals in water samples were low and below the detection limit. The levels of heavy metals in the fish samples can be considered as a serious matter of concern as it may be consumed and it signifies the degradation of lake quality. Generally, the sources of heavy metals in the Tasik Mutiara, Puchong could be attributed to the illegal waste dumping activity and discharge from the nearby sewage treatment plant into the lake which promote eutrophication in the lake. It could also be attributed to the Low Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels in the lake. (author)

  2. TRITIUM UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SURFACE WATER SAMPLES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, R.

    2012-07-31

    Radiochemical analyses of surface water samples, in the framework of Environmental Monitoring, have associated uncertainties for the radioisotopic results reported. These uncertainty analyses pertain to the tritium results from surface water samples collected at five locations on the Savannah River near the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Uncertainties can result from the field-sampling routine, can be incurred during transport due to the physical properties of the sample, from equipment limitations, and from the measurement instrumentation used. The uncertainty reported by the SRS in their Annual Site Environmental Report currently considers only the counting uncertainty in the measurements, which is the standard reporting protocol for radioanalytical chemistry results. The focus of this work is to provide an overview of all uncertainty components associated with SRS tritium measurements, estimate the total uncertainty according to ISO 17025, and to propose additional experiments to verify some of the estimated uncertainties. The main uncertainty components discovered and investigated in this paper are tritium absorption or desorption in the sample container, HTO/H{sub 2}O isotopic effect during distillation, pipette volume, and tritium standard uncertainty. The goal is to quantify these uncertainties and to establish a combined uncertainty in order to increase the scientific depth of the SRS Annual Site Environmental Report.

  3. UMTRA ground water sampling techniques: Comparison of the traditional and low flow methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the potential changes in water quality data that may occur with the conversion from MBV (multiple bore volume) to LF (low flow) sampling and provides two examples of how such a change might impact Project decisions. The existing scientific literature on LF sampling is reviewed and the new LF data from three UMTRA Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites are evaluated seeking answers to the questions posed above. Several possible approaches, that the UMTRA Project may take to address issues unanswered by the literature are presented and compared, and a recommendation is offered for the future direction of the LF conversion effort

  4. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Tsuji, Kouichi; Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón; Margui, Eva; Streli, Christina; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Stosnach, Hagen; Yamada, Takashi; Vandenabeele, Peter; Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael; Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K.; Bennun, Leonardo; Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina; Depero, Laura E.

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique.

  5. Iodide-assisted total lead measurement and determination of different lead fractions in drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ng, Ding-Quan; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2012-07-01

    Lead and its compounds are toxic and can harm human health, especially the intelligence development in children. Accurate measurement of total lead present in drinking water is crucial in determining the extent of lead contamination and human exposure due to drinking water consumption. The USEPA method for total lead measurement (no. 200.8) is often used to analyze lead levels in drinking water. However, in the presence of high concentration of the tetravalent lead corrosion product PbO(2), the USEPA method was not able to fully recover particulate lead due to incomplete dissolution of PbO(2) particles during strong acid digestion. In this study, a new procedure that integrates membrane separation, iodometric PbO(2) measurement, strong acid digestion and ICP-MS measurement was proposed and evaluated for accurate total lead measurement and quantification of different lead fractions including soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2) in drinking water samples. The proposed procedure was evaluated using drinking water reconstituted with spiked Pb(2+), spiked particulate Pb(II) carbonate and in situ formed or spiked PbO(2). Recovery tests showed that the proposed procedure and the USEPA method can achieve 93-112% and 86-103% recoveries respectively for samples containing low PbO(2) concentrations (0.018-0.076 mg Pb per L). For samples containing higher concentrations of PbO(2) (0.089-1.316 mg Pb per L), the USEPA method failed to meet the recovery requirement for total lead (85-115%) while the proposed method can achieve satisfactory recoveries (91-111%) and differentiate the soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2).

  6. Evaluation of the Goulden Large-Sample Extractor for acidic compounds in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headley, J.V.; Dickson, L.C. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). National Hydrology Research Inst.; Swyngedouw, C. [Chemex Labs Alberta Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Crosley, B. [Environment Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Whitley, G. [Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory (Canada). Water Resources Div.

    1996-11-01

    The Goulden Large-Sample Extractor has received extensive use for monitoring and surveillance surveys of natural waters impacted by pulp and paper mills and agricultural runoff water. However, there are concerns about whether this sampler, which was originally developed for extractions of hydrophobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other organochlorines, is suitable for sampling polar acidic compounds. The sampler was evaluated for recovery of surrogates for resin acids, fatty acids, herbicide acids, and chlorophenols from natural waters. Performance tests conducted in this work indicated that three surrogate compounds with K{sub p} (C{sub DCM}/C{sub water pH 2}) values from 16,700 to 1,260 were extracted from pH 2-adjusted 20-L water samples with an average recovery of 83.6%. The surrogate compounds with K{sub p} values less than 1,000 were extracted with significantly lower recoveries. The variability ranged from 10 to 36% relative standard deviation. Specific performance criteria (percent recoveries {+-} standard deviation, number of determinations in parentheses) observed for the surrogates 2,4,6-tribromophenol, heptadecanoic acid, O-methylpodocarpic acid, dichlorophenylacetic acid, and 4-bromophenol were 89.5 {+-} 24.0 (17), 82.8 {+-} 21.7 (18), 78.4 {+-} 14.8 (18), 41.9 {+-} 8.5 (16), and 22.1 {+-} 8.1 (19), respectively. Low recoveries of the 4-bromophenol surrogate may be due in part to side reactions with diazomethane. As a result, 4-bromophenol is not recommended as a surrogate. These values can be used to provide guidelines for acceptable surrogate recoveries and validation of extractions of polar acidic compounds.

  7. Temephos Removal From Water Samples by Silver Modified Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiralipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Temephos is an organophosphate pesticide used as larvicide in the environment. Although not extremely hazardous, it can be risky for human health in the moderate concentrations. Objectives This study investigated the quantitative removal efficiency of temephos, an organophosphate pesticide, from contaminated water by silver-modified ZVINPs. In addition, the operational parameters affected on removal process were optimized. Materials and Methods In the current study, three water samples from different parts of Iran such as Ahvaz tap water, the Karoon River passing through Khoramshahr city, and the Caspian Sea were collected. A new method for effective removal of temephos from the sample solutions by silver modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent was introduced. Results For a typical solution in which temephos was removed about 21% by iron zero-valent nanoparticles, modification by silver improved removal method was up to about 99%. The required time for the complete removal of temephos was about eight minutes. Variation of pH and concentration of KNO3 as an electrolyte was considerably ineffective on the efficient temephos removal. Adsorption studies of the method were followed by Langmuir isotherm. Maximum temephos adsorption amount was 12.65 mg/g under optimal conditions. The proposed method was simple, fast and safe to treat temephos polluted waters. Preparation of the adsorbent was easy and removal time was short. Conclusions Briefly, the current study represents a novel method to eliminate temephos as an organophosphate compound from water samples with modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

  8. Derivative activation analysis of phosphorus at ppb levels in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.; John, A.; Gangadharan, S.

    1991-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed for the indirect determination of phosphorus as orthophosphate at ppb levels, via the formation of antimonyl phosphomolybdic acid. The complex is adsorbed on Sephadex G-25 resin and the antimony is estimated through NAA, allowing the determination of phosphorus. The procedure provides an easy method to adopt for the routine determination of phosphorus at ≥ 10 ng ml -1 levels with good precision, in water samples. (author) 6 refs.; 5 tabs

  9. Real-Time PCR for Quantification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Environmental Water Samples and Sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Rebecca A.; Payment, Pierre; Krull, Ulrich J.; Horgen, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    The protozoan pathogens Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are major causes of waterborne enteric disease throughout the world. Improved detection methods that are very sensitive and rapid are urgently needed. This is especially the case for analysis of environmental water samples in which the densities of Giardia and Cryptosporidium are very low. Primers and TaqMan probes based on the β-giardin gene of G. lamblia and the COWP gene of C. parvum were developed and used to detect DNA co...

  10. Microbial Safety of Low Water Activity Foods: Study of Simulated and Durban Household Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ijabadeniyi, O. A.; Pillay, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Sixty household low water activity foods were examined and a simulative study was conducted in a high sugar, low aw almond and macadamia butter to determine the survival of Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Results obtained from 60 low aw samples collected at household level had some significant differences (P≤0,05) within food categories amongst the various tests. Spices had the highest number of aerobic bacteria, aerobic spore-formers, anaerobic spore-formers, and S. aur...

  11. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Samples of Raw Surface Water and Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lihua; Singh, Ajaib; Limor, Josef; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Gradus, Steve; Lal, Altaf

    2001-01-01

    Recent molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium parasites make it possible to differentiate the human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium parasites from those that do not infect humans and to track the source of Cryptosporidium oocyst contamination in the environment. In this study, we used a small-subunit rRNA-based PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique to detect and characterize Cryptosporidium oocysts in 55 samples of raw surface water collected from several areas in t...

  12. Molecular method for detection of total coliforms in drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Andrée F; Boudreau, Dominique K; Bisson, Marc-Antoine; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Bouchard, Sébastien; Nkuranga, Martine; Bergeron, Michel G; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2014-07-01

    This work demonstrates the ability of a bacterial concentration and recovery procedure combined with three different PCR assays targeting the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, to detect the presence of total coliforms in 100-ml samples of potable water (presence/absence test). PCR assays were first compared to the culture-based Colilert and MI agar methods to determine their ability to detect 147 coliform strains representing 76 species of Enterobacteriaceae encountered in fecal and environmental settings. Results showed that 86 (58.5%) and 109 (74.1%) strains yielded a positive signal with Colilert and MI agar methods, respectively, whereas the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA PCR assays detected 133 (90.5%), 111 (75.5%), and 146 (99.3%) of the 147 total coliform strains tested. These assays were then assessed by testing 122 well water samples collected in the Québec City region of Canada. Results showed that 97 (79.5%) of the samples tested by culture-based methods and 95 (77.9%), 82 (67.2%), and 98 (80.3%) of samples tested using PCR-based methods contained total coliforms, respectively. Consequently, despite the high genetic variability of the total coliform group, this study demonstrated that it is possible to use molecular assays to detect total coliforms in potable water: the 16S rRNA molecular assay was shown to be as efficient as recommended culture-based methods. This assay might be used in combination with an Escherichia coli molecular assay to assess drinking water quality. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Old and New Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action at the Rifle, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site began in the spring of 1992. Results of water sampling at the Old and New Rifle processing sites for recent years indicate that ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined alluvial aquifer (the uppermost aquifer) and less extensively in the underlying Wasatch Formation. Uranium and sulfate continue to exceed background ground water concentrations and/or maximum concentration limits at and downgradient from the former processing sites. These constituents provide the best indication of changes in contaminant distribution. Contamination in the uppermost (alluvial) aquifer at New Rifle extends a minimum of approximately 5000 feet (ft) (1,524 meters [m]) downgradient. At Old Rifle, the extent of contamination in the alluvial aquifer is much less (a minimum of approximately 1,000 ft [305 m]), partially due to differences in hydrologic regime. For example, the Old Rifle site lies in a relatively narrow alluvial floodplain; the New Rifle site lies in a broad floodplain. Data gathering for the Rifle baseline risk assessment is under way. The purpose of this effort is to determine with greater precision the background ground water quality and extent of ground water contamination at the processing sites. Historical surface water quality indicates that the Colorado River has not been affected by uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring of the Estes Gulch disposal cell has been proposed, because ground water in the underlying Wasatch Formation is limited use (Class 111) ground water and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer

  14. Quantification and identification of aerobic bacteria in holy water samples from a German environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Christoph; Tauchnitz, Stephanie; Kunzelmann, Heike; Horn, Christian; Blessing, Frithjof; Kohl, Matthias; Egert, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Despite its frequent use in many religious institutions, the microbiological quality of holy water is clearly underinvestigated. We analyzed the microbial load of 54 holy water samples, repeatedly taken in five Roman Catholic churches in the greater area of Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany, by means of aerobic colony counting and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Biotyping of representative isolates. Over all samples, colony counting indicated an average aerobic microbial load of 5.85 ± 3.98 × 10 3 colony forming units (CFU) ml -1 (average ± standard error of the mean (SEM)). Urban churches showed significantly higher contaminations than rural churches, probably owing to a greater number of visitors. Out of 145 bacterial isolates, 63 (43%) were identified to genus level and 39 (27%) to species level. The majority of the identified bacteria were typical human skin commensals, mainly affiliated with the genus Staphylococcus. Ten out of 20 (50%) of the identified species were classified as potential pathogens. Appropriate hygiene measures should be taken to control microbial contamination of holy water, e.g., regular water exchange, particularly in highly frequented churches.

  15. Using SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS Analysis to Assess Disperse Dyes in Environmental Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Pilon dos Santos, Glauco; Vendemiatti, Josiane; Vacchi, Francine Inforçato; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin

    2015-09-01

    We have optimized an SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS method and used it to monitor disperse azo dyes in environmental aquatic samples. Calibration curves constructed for nine disperse dyes-Red 1, Violet 93, Blue 373, Orange 1, Orange 3, Orange 25, Yellow 3, Yellow 7 and Red 13-in aqueous solution presented good linearity between 2.0 and 100.0 ng mL(-1). The method provided limits of detection and quantification around 2.0 and 8.0 ng L(-1), respectively. For dyes at concentrations of 25.0 ng mL(-1), the intra- and interday analyses afforded relative standard deviation lower than 6 and 13%, respectively. The recovery values obtained for each target analyte in Milli-Q water, receiving waters and treated water samples spiked with the nine studied dyes at concentrations of 8.0, 25.0 and 50.0 ng L(-1) (n = 3) gave average recoveries greater than 70%, with RSD dyes Disperse Red 1, Disperse Blue 373 and Disperse Violet 93 at concentrations ranging from 84 to 3452 ng L(-1) in the treated effluent (TE), affluent and points collected upstream and downstream of the drinking water treatment plant of a textile dye industry in Brazil. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Water adsorption at high temperature on core samples from The Geysers geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Horita, J.; Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1998-06-01

    The quantity of water retained by rock samples taken from three wells located in The Geysers geothermal reservoir, California, was measured at 150, 200, and 250 C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 {le} p/p{sub 0} {le} 0.98, where p{sub 0} is the saturated water vapor pressure. Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and the extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, low temperature gas adsorption analyses were performed on the same rock samples. Nitrogen or krypton adsorption and desorption isotherms at 77 K were used to obtain BET specific surface areas, pore volumes and their distributions with respect to pore sizes. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also used to obtain similar information extending to very large pores (macropores). A qualitative correlation was found between the surface properties obtained from nitrogen adsorption and the mineralogical and petrological characteristics of the solids. However, there is in general no proportionality between BET specific surface areas and the capacity of the rocks for water adsorption at high temperatures. The results indicate that multilayer adsorption rather than capillary condensation is the dominant water storage mechanism at high temperatures.

  17. Sources of variability in the determination by evaporation method of gross alpha activity in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the gross alpha activity concentration of water samples is one way to screen for waters whose radionuclide content is so high that its consumption could imply surpassing the Total Indicative Dose as defined in European Directive 98/83/EC. One of the most commonly used methods to prepare the sources to measure gross alpha activity in water samples is desiccation. Its main advantages are the simplicity of the procedure, the low cost of source preparation, and the possibility of simultaneously determining the gross beta activity. The preparation of the source, the construction of the calibration curves, and the measurement procedure itself involve, however, various factors that may introduce sufficient variability into the results to significantly affect the screening process. We here identify the main sources of this variability, and propose specific procedures to follow in the desiccation process that will reduce the uncertainties, and ensure that the result is indeed representative of the sum of the activities of the alpha emitters present in the sample. (orig.)

  18. Pumping time required to obtain tube well water samples with aquifer characteristic radon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, Carla Pereira; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Linhares, Maria G.M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: mgml@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radon is an inert noble gas, which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in soil, rock and water. Radon isotopes emanated from radium-bearing grains of a rock or soil are released into the pore space. Radon that reaches the pore space is partitioned between the gaseous and aqueous phases. Thus, the groundwater presents a radon signature from the rock that is characteristic of the aquifer. The characteristic radon concentration of an aquifer, which is mainly related to the emanation, is also influenced by the degree of subsurface degassing, especially in the vicinity of a tube well, where the radon concentration is strongly reduced. Looking for the required pumping time to take a tube well water sample that presents the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, an experiment was conducted in an 80 m deep tube well. In this experiment, after twenty-four hours without extraction, water samples were collected periodically, about ten minutes intervals, during two hours of pumping time. The radon concentrations of the samples were determined by using the RAD7 Electronic Radon Detector from Durridge Company, a solid state alpha spectrometric detector. It was realized that the necessary time to reach the maximum radon concentration, that means the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, is about sixty minutes. (author)

  19. SPME GC/MS determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbolat Sailaukhanuly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME in combination with gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS was studied for analysis of water samples. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE were collected and analyzed by GC/MS. To select of effective fiber coatings four types of SPME fibers were examined and compared. The parameters effecting the efficiency of HS-SPME such as extraction and pre-incubation time and extraction temperature, effect of solvent nature, ionic strength were studied to obtain optimal parameters. The method was developed using spiked water samples in a concentration range  10 - 500 ng/L. The calibration curve was linear over the studied concentration range with r≥0.9925. The detection limits varied from 1.57 to 2.08 ng/L. An authentic water samples from contaminated lake with OCPs were analyzed by developed method.

  20. Temperature dependence of the calibration factor of radon and radium determination in water samples by SSNTD

    CERN Document Server

    Hunyadi, I; Hakl, J; Baradacs, E; Dezso, Z

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of a sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra determination method of water samples by SSNTD was measured as a function of storage temperature during exposure. The method is based on an etched track type radon monitor, which is closed into a gas permeable foil and is immersed in the water sample. The sample is sealed in a glass vessel and stored for an exposure time of 10-30 days. The sensitivity increased more than a factor of two when the storage temperature was raised from 2 deg. C to 30 deg. C. Temperature dependence of the partition coefficient of radon between water and air provides explanation for this dependence. For practical radio- analytical application the temperature dependence of the calibration factor is given by fitting the sensitivity data obtained by measuring sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra standard solutions (in the activity concentration range of 0.1-48.5 kBq m sup - sup 3) at different storage temperatures.

  1. Pumping time required to obtain tube well water samples with aquifer characteristic radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricardo, Carla Pereira; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2011-01-01

    Radon is an inert noble gas, which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in soil, rock and water. Radon isotopes emanated from radium-bearing grains of a rock or soil are released into the pore space. Radon that reaches the pore space is partitioned between the gaseous and aqueous phases. Thus, the groundwater presents a radon signature from the rock that is characteristic of the aquifer. The characteristic radon concentration of an aquifer, which is mainly related to the emanation, is also influenced by the degree of subsurface degassing, especially in the vicinity of a tube well, where the radon concentration is strongly reduced. Looking for the required pumping time to take a tube well water sample that presents the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, an experiment was conducted in an 80 m deep tube well. In this experiment, after twenty-four hours without extraction, water samples were collected periodically, about ten minutes intervals, during two hours of pumping time. The radon concentrations of the samples were determined by using the RAD7 Electronic Radon Detector from Durridge Company, a solid state alpha spectrometric detector. It was realized that the necessary time to reach the maximum radon concentration, that means the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, is about sixty minutes. (author)

  2. Analytical methods for the endocrine disruptor compounds determination in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Sciascia, Francesco; Cifelli, Roberta; Malatesta, Luciano; Bruni, Pantaleone; Croce, Fausto

    2016-02-19

    The potential risk of exposure to different xenobiotics, which can modulate the endocrine system and represent a treat for the wellness of an increasing number of people, has recently drawn the attention of international environmental and health agencies. Several agents, characterized by structural diversity, may interfer with the normal endocrine functions that regulate cell growth, homeostasis and development. Substances such as pesticides, herbicides, plasticizers, metals, etc. having endocrine activity (EDCs) are used in agriculture and industry and are also used as drugs for humans and animals. A difficulty in the analytical determination of these substances is the complexity of the matrix in which they are present. In fact, the samples most frequently analyzed consist of groundwater and surface water, including influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants and drinking water. In this review, several sample pretreatment protocols, assays and different instrumental techniques recently used in the EDCs determination have been considered. This review concludes with a paragraph in which the most recent hyphenated-instrument techniques are treated, highlighting their sensitivity and selectivity for the analyses of environmental water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of radiochemical methods for the determination of radionuclides in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.; Bodizs, D.

    2004-01-01

    are high, in the range of 10 -4 -10 -6 Bq/L. 90 Sr and Pu nuclides have been determined in the surveillance wells of the Hungarian nuclear power plant for several years. Ground level measurements have been performed in the area of the future radioactive waste disposal site. Radionuclides of natural origin have typically significantly higher concentrations than those of artificial nuclides, thus methods of moderate sensitivities have been developed/adopted for the determination of U and Th as well as Ra and Po isotopes. Uranium and thorium are separated in a combined procedure by extraction chromatography using an organic phosphonate compound. Ra and Po are consecutively separated from the same sample aliquot, Po is spontaneously deposited onto Ag disc, while from the supernate Ra is co-precipitated with Ba sulfate. Alpha spectrometry is used for the sensitive detection of 238 U, 235 U, 234 U, 232 Th, 230 Th, 228 Th, 210 Po and 226 Ra. Analyzing 100-1000 ml water samples detection limits in the range of 10 -2 -10 -4 Bq/L were obtained. The procedure has been successfully applied for ground level determination in tile area of the future radioactive waste disposal site in Hungary. To increase the accuracy of each method radioactive tracers or stable carriers were added to each sample/each analyte before chelnical processing and results were corrected for chemical losses. Methods were validated by measuring reference materials and performing proficiency tests. (authors)

  4. Application of polydimethylsiloxane rod extraction to the determination of sixteen halogenated flame retardants in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Iglesias, Mònica; Salvadó, Victòria; Cela, Rafael

    2013-04-03

    An extraction and preconcentration procedure for the determination in water samples of several halogenated flame retardants (FRs), nine brominated diphenyls ethers (BDEs) and seven non-BDE FRs, was developed and validated. The optimised procedure is based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rods as sorptive extraction material, followed by liquid desorption and gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) determination, rendering an efficient and inexpensive method. The final optimised protocol consists of overnight extraction of 100mL of sample solutions containing 40% MeOH and 4% NaCl, followed by a 15-min sonication-assisted desorption with 300 μL of ethyl acetate, solvent evaporation and GC-NCI-MS analysis. Under these conditions, extraction efficiencies in the 9 to 70% range were obtained, leading to enrichment factors between 108 and 840, detection limits in the range from 0.4 to 10 ng L(-1)and RSD values in the 2-23% range. After method validation, different real water samples, including river, ria, sea, landfill leachate, influent and effluent wastewater from an urban sewage treatment plant (STP) and effluent wastewater from a textile industry, were analysed. BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100 and BDE-197 were detected in wastewater and landfill leachate samples at concentration levels up to 2887 ng L(-1). Among the non-BDE FRs, bis (2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (DEHTBP) was detected in surface water samples (sea, river and ria) between 1.3 and 2.2 ng L(-1) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) in the landfill leachate (64 ng L(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of passive sampling devices for monitoring and compliance checking of POP concentrations in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Booij, Kees; Smedes, Foppe; Vrana, Branislav

    2012-07-01

    The state of the art of passive water sampling of (nonpolar) organic contaminants is presented. Its suitability for regulatory monitoring is discussed, with an emphasis on the information yielded by passive sampling devices (PSDs), their relevance and associated uncertainties. Almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) targeted by the Stockholm Convention are nonpolar or weakly polar, hydrophobic substances, making them ideal targets for sampling in water using PSDs. Widely used nonpolar PSDs include semi-permeable membrane devices, low-density polyethylene and silicone rubber. The inter-laboratory variation of equilibrium partition constants between PSD and water is mostly 0.2-0.5 log units, depending on the exact matrix used. The sampling rate of PSDs is best determined by using performance reference compounds during field deployment. The major advantage of PSDs over alternative matrices applicable in trend monitoring (e.g. sediments or biota) is that the various sources of variance including analytical variance and natural environmental variance can be much better controlled, which in turn results in a reduction of the number of analysed samples required to obtain results with comparable statistical power. Compliance checking with regulatory limits and analysis of temporal and spatial contaminant trends are two possible fields of application. In contrast to the established use of nonpolar PSDs, polar samplers are insufficiently understood, but research is in progress to develop PSDs for the quantitative assessment of polar waterborne contaminants. In summary, PSD-based monitoring is a mature technique for the measurement of aqueous concentrations of apolar POPs, with a well-defined accuracy and precision.

  6. Sampling method of water sources at study site Taiping, Perak and Pulau Burung, Penang for research on pollutant movement in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rifaie Mohd Murtadza; Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Kamarudin Samuding; Roslanzairi Mostapa

    2005-01-01

    This paperwork explain the method of water sampling being used to take the water samples from the study sites in Taiping, Perak and Pulau Burung, Pulau Pinang. The sampling involve collecting of water samples for groundwater from boreholes and surface water from canal, river, pond, and ex-mining pond from several locations at the study sites. This study also elaborates the instruments and chemical used. The main purpose of this sampling are to obtain the important water quality parameters such as pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), heavy metals, anions, cations, and environmental isotopes delta values (d) for 18O, Deuterium dan Tritium. A correct sampling method according to standard is very important to ensure an accurate and precise results. With this, the data from the laboratory tests result can be fully utilized to make the interpretation of the pollutants movement. (Author)

  7. Quantification of ziram and zineb residues in fog-water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smita; Aggarwal, Shankar G; Singh, Pahup

    2005-01-15

    The present paper describes the extractive quantification of zinc-dithiocarbamate fungicides, i.e. ziram (zinc bis-dimethyldithiocarbamate) and zineb (zinc ethylene-1,2-bis-dithiocarbamate) in fog-water samples. The method is based on the releasing of equivalent amount of zinc from the fungicides and its subsequent determination by visible spectrophotometry or by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry (flame-AAS). For spectrophotometry, the sample contained up to 48mug of ziram and 42mug of zineb was first equilibrated with chloroform. The recovery results show that only ziram content was extracted into chloroform. Then, the sample was treated with NH(4)SCN and surfactants (i.e. CPC and TX-100) solutions, and extracted with toluene to remove interference of inorganic zinc and other metal ions, if present in the sample. The residue was further used for zineb determination. The chloroform extract and residue were then digested separately with nitric acid to release Zn(II), which were then analyzed spectrophotometerically with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol in the micellar medium (TX-100) for the determination of ziram and zineb, respectively. The complex shows lambda(max) at 495nm. The molar absorptivity in terms of ziram/zineb was determined to be (8.05) x 10(4)Lmole(-1)cm(-1). The detection limits for ziram and zineb were calculated to be 20 and 21mugL(-1) (with R.S.D. fog-water.

  8. Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J P G L; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2014-04-01

    Records of high concentrations of plastic and microplastic marine debris floating in the ocean have led to investigate the presence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Zooplankton samples collected at four offshore sites, in surveys conducted between 2002 and 2008, with three different sampling methods, were used in this preliminary study. A total of 152 samples were processed and microplastics were identified in 93 of them, corresponding to 61% of the total. Costa Vicentina, followed by Lisboa, were the regions with higher microplastic concentrations (0.036 and 0.033 no. m⁻³) and abundances (0.07 and 0.06 cm³ m⁻³), respectively. Microplastic: zooplankton ratios were also higher in these two regions, which is probably related to the proximity of densely populated areas and inputs from the Tejo and Sado river estuaries. Microplastics polymers were identified using Micro Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylates (PA). The present work is the first report on the composition of microplastic particles collected with plankton nets in Portuguese coastal waters. Plankton surveys from regular monitoring campaigns conducted worldwide may be used to monitor plastic particles in the oceans and constitute an important and low cost tool to address marine litter within the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the basis for ground water sampling at the Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site during fiscal year 1994. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations and will be updated annually. The Ambrosia Lake site is in McKinley County, New Mexico, about 40 kilometers (km) (25 miles [mi]) north of Grants, New Mexico, and 1.6 km (1 mi) east of New Mexico Highway 509 (Figure 1.1). The town closest to the tailings pile is San Mateo, about 16 km ( 10 mi) southeast (Figure 1.2). The former mill and tailings pile are in Section 28, and two holding ponds are in Section 33, Township 14 North, Range 9 West. The site is shown on the US Geological Survey (USGS) map (USGS, 1980). The site is approximately 2100 meters (m) (7000 feet [ft]) above sea level

  10. Detection of toxic compounds in real water samples using a conductometric tyrosinase biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh, Tuan Mai; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Prieur, Nicolas; Duc, Chien Nguyen; Pham, T.D.; Renault, Nicole Jaffrezic; Chovelon, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    A conductometric tyrosinase biosensor for the detection of some toxic compounds including diuron, atrazine, and copper ions was developed. The work of this biosensor is based on the principle of change of conductivity of the enzyme membrane when tyrosinase either interacts with 4-chlorophenol substrate or is inhibited by pollutants. The different samples tested were solutions containing diuron, atrazine, copper, lead and zinc ions, mixtures of copper/atrazine or copper/diuron and real water samples coming from a Vietnamese river. In the last case, classical techniques such as GC-MS or atomic absorption spectrometry were used in order to estimate exact concentration of these species in real water samples. Results have shown that such a biosensor could be used as an early warning system for the detection of these pollutants, as no matrix effect coming from the real sample was observed and no synergetic or antagonist effects were found for the mixture of toxic compounds. In addition, results were coherent with the content of the tyrosinase inhibitors

  11. Detection of toxic compounds in real water samples using a conductometric tyrosinase biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anh, Tuan Mai [Laboratoire d' Application de la Chimie a l' Environnement, UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 43 Boulevard du 11 Nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam (Viet Nam); Dzyadevych, Sergei V. [Laboratory of Biomolecular Electronics, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 150 Zabolotnogo Str., Kiev 03143 (Ukraine); Prieur, Nicolas [Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam National Centre for Science and Technology, Hoang Quoc Viet Str., Hanoi, Vietnam (Viet Nam); Duc, Chien Nguyen [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam (Viet Nam); Pham, T.D. [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam (Viet Nam); Renault, Nicole Jaffrezic [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CEGELY, UMR CNRS 5005, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Chovelon, Jean-Marc [Laboratoire d' Application de la Chimie a l' Environnement, UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 43 Boulevard du 11 Nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: chovelon@univ-lyon1.fr

    2006-03-15

    A conductometric tyrosinase biosensor for the detection of some toxic compounds including diuron, atrazine, and copper ions was developed. The work of this biosensor is based on the principle of change of conductivity of the enzyme membrane when tyrosinase either interacts with 4-chlorophenol substrate or is inhibited by pollutants. The different samples tested were solutions containing diuron, atrazine, copper, lead and zinc ions, mixtures of copper/atrazine or copper/diuron and real water samples coming from a Vietnamese river. In the last case, classical techniques such as GC-MS or atomic absorption spectrometry were used in order to estimate exact concentration of these species in real water samples. Results have shown that such a biosensor could be used as an early warning system for the detection of these pollutants, as no matrix effect coming from the real sample was observed and no synergetic or antagonist effects were found for the mixture of toxic compounds. In addition, results were coherent with the content of the tyrosinase inhibitors.

  12. Solid phase extraction for determination of 90Sr in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometakova, J.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the use of an extraction chromatography for determination of 90 Sr in samples of contaminated water. The aim of the thesis was to compare selected products from the point of view of the strontium yields and time needed. Three commercial products: 3M Empore Strontium Rad Disk, AnaLig, Sr-Resin and two classical methods: liquid-liquid extraction with tributylphosphate and carbonate co-precipitation (to eliminate interferers) were used for separation of 90 Sr. The water sample was used in radiochemical analysis for determination volume activity of 90 Sr. A radiochemical strontium yield was traced by using radionuclide 85 Sr. Samples were counted over a two week period to monitor the ingrowth of 90 Y on TRI CARB LSC counter. Samples were measured using an HPGe detector to find out 85 Sr recoveries at 514 keV line and they were counted directly by Cherenkov counting after the growth of 90 Y using TriCarb LSC counter after a two- week period (author)

  13. The measurement of tritium in water samples with electrolytic enrichment using liquid scintillation counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tritium (3H present in the environment decreased in the last decades and nowadays it has low activity concentrations. Measurement of low-level tritium activities in natural waters, e. g. in precipitation, groundwater, and river water requires special techniques for water pretreatment and detection of low-level radioactivity. In order to increase the tritium concentration to an easily measurable level, electrolytic enrichment must be applied. This paper presents the enrichment method performed by electrolysis in a battery of 18 cells, giving an enrichment factor of 5.84 (calculated from 59 electrolyses. The calculated mean values of the separation factor and enrichment parameter were 4.10 and 0.84, respectively. Results for tritium activity in precipitation and surface water collected in Belgrade during 2008 and 2009 are presented. The Radiation and Environmental Protection Department of the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, participated in the IAEA TRIC2008 international intercomparison exercise. The participation in the intercomparisons for any laboratory doing low-level 3H measurements in the waters is very important and useful. It is considered the best way to check the entire procedure and methods of the measurements and the reliability of the standard used. The analysis of the reported 3H activity results showed that all results for five intercomparison samples, for which electrolytic enrichment were applied prior to the 3H measurement, are acceptable.

  14. Cost-effective sampling of ground water monitoring wells. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridley, M.; Johnson, V.

    1995-11-01

    CS is a systematic methodology for estimating the lowest-frequency sampling schedule for a given groundwater monitoring location which will still provide needed information for regulatory and remedial decision-making. Increases in frequency dictated by remedial actions are left to the judgement of personnel reviewing the recommendations. To become more applicable throughout the life cycle of a ground water cleanup project or for compliance monitoring, several improvements are envisioned, including: chemical signature analysis to identify minimum suites of contaminants for a well, a simple flow and transport model so that sampling of downgradient wells are increased before movement of contamination, and a sampling cost estimation capability. By blending qualitative and quantitative approaches, we hope to create a defensible system while retaining interpretation ease and relevance to decision making

  15. Radium 226 and uranium isotopes simultaneously determination in water samples using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Akel, B.; Saaid, S.; Nashawati, A.

    2007-04-01

    In this work a method has been developed to determine simultaneously Radium 226 and Uranium isotopes in water samples by low back ground Liquid Scintillation Counter. Radium 226 was determined by its progeny Polonium 214 after one month of sample storage in order to achieve the equilibrium between Radium 226 and Polonium 214. Uranium isotopes were determined by subtracting Radium 226 activity from total alpha activity. The method detection limits were 0.049 Bq/L and 0.176 Bq/L for Radium 226 and Uranium isotopes respectively. The repeatability limits were ± 0.32 Bq/L and ± 0.9 Bq/L for Radium 226 and Uranium isotopes respectively. While relative errors were % 9.5 and %18.2 for Radium 226 and Uranium isotopes respectively. On the other hand, the report presented the results of different standard and natural samples.(author)

  16. Analysis and evaluation of compounds from Cichorium intybus aromatic water trade market samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hosseini*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cichorium intybus products are one of the best sellers in market Because of their effect on treatment of infection, poisoning, diabetes and allergy. This is the first study about Cichorium intybus market samplephytochemical compounds and the aim of this study was to define a method to recognize the original products. Methods: The sample compounds were extracted by liquid-liquid method and evaluated by GC-MS and compared with the references like Adams 2007. The obtained phytochemical data were analyzed with SPSS and classified by dendrogram method and was compared with the data earned from the standard sample. Results: Forty one compounds were detected. Carvacrol was available in all samples from 1.14 to 39.34%. Also, thymol was present in most of samples from 1.24 to 69.32%. Moreover, we understood that some compounds like pulegone, carvone, carvacrol and piperitenone could be detected in all samples mostly with different percentages. Some linear hydrocarbon was detected in this method along with some other unexpected compounds like cinnamaldehyde. Conclusion: Existence of some impure compounds like: pulegone, carvone, piperitenone and cinnamaldehyde in trade samples showed cleaning of container might not have been proper. Carvacrol and thymol are common compounds to define acceptable standard for Cichorium intybus aromatic water.

  17. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  18. Tritium analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and nationwide surveillance of radionuclides in some environmental samples(meat and drinking water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    12 kind of environmental samples such as soil, underground water, seawater, etc. around the Nuclear Power Plants(NPP) and surface seawater around the Korea peninsula were sampled, For the samples of rain, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, grain of rice and milk sampled around NPP, and surface seawater and rain sampled all around country, tritium concentration was measured, The tritium concentration in the tap water and the gamma activity in the domestic and imported beef that were sampled at ward in the large city in Korea(Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Taejun, Inchun, Kwangju) were analyzed for the meat and drinking waters. As the results of analyzing, tritium concentration in rain and tap water were very low all around country, but a little higher around the NPP than general surrounding. At the Wolsung NPP, tritium concentration was descend according to distance from the stack. Tritium activity of surface seawater around the Korea peninsula was also, very low. The measured radioactive elements in the beef is the same as the radioactive elements on the earth surface.

  19. Urban scenic spot interest space research based on transportation junction buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhou; Li, Wang; Sida, Cao; Shijie, Li; Xu, Li; Chongchong, Xue

    2017-03-01

    According to city tourism features, this paper studies the urban scenic spot interest space based on transportation junction buffer. City tourism features and the transportation junction radiation impact on scenic spots are studied. Take Zhengzhou city as an example, urban scenic spots are sampled and classified. Research range and objects are confirmed. By setting up buffer model and interest field data model, tourists’ interests on scenic spots within buffers are studied quantitatively. Scenic spot interest space is studied and analyzed. Meanwhile, tourism decision support projects relying on scenic spot interest space are provided for tourists to refer to.

  20. Life histories of two deep-water Australian endemic elasmobranchs: Argus skate Dipturus polyommata and eastern spotted gummy shark Mustelus walkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, C L; White, W T; Smart, J J; Simpfendorfer, C A

    2016-03-01

    Two Australian endemic elasmobranchs, the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata and the eastern spotted gummy shark Mustelus walkeri, were collected from the by-catch of a prawn Melicertus plebejus trawl fishery off Queensland. Age and growth parameters were estimated from growth band counts in vertebral sections of 220 D. polyommata and 44 M. walkeri. Dipturus polyommata males and females had an observed maximum age of 10 years and reached maximum sizes of 369 and 371 mm total length (LT ), respectively. Mustelus walkeri lived longer, with the oldest female aged 16 years and measuring 1050 mm stretched total length (LST ), and oldest male aged 9 years and 805 mm LST . Dipturus polyommata grew relatively fast with a von Bertalanffy growth completion parameter of k = 0·208 year(-1) with males reaching maturity at 4·0 years (c. 278 mm LT ) and females at 5·1 years (c. 305 mm LT ). Mustelus walkeri grew more slowly with k = 0·033 year(-1) with males estimated to mature at 7-9 years (670-805 mm LST ) and females at 10-14 years (833-1012 mm LST ). Length at birth inferred from neonate D. polyommata was 89-111 mm LT while for M. walkeri it was estimated to be 273 LST based on the value of L0 from the von Bertalanffy growth model. Both species appeared to have continuous reproductive cycles and low fecundity with an average ovarian fecundity of eight follicles for D. polyommata and a litter size of five to seven pups for M. walkeri. Based on these life-history traits, D. polyommata is more resilient to fishing pressure than M. walkeri. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Micro-TLC Approach for Fast Screening of Environmental Samples Derived from Surface and Sewage Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrated analytical capability of micro-planar (micro-TLC) technique comprising one and two-dimensional (2D) separation modes to generate fingerprints of environmental samples originated from sewage and ecosystems waters. We showed that elaborated separation and detection protocols are complementary to previously invented HPLC method based on temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography and UV-DAD detection. Presented 1D and 2D micro-TLC chromatograms of SPE (solid-phase extraction) extracts were optimized for fast and low-cost screening of water samples collected from lakes and rivers located in the area of Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland. Moreover, we studied highly organic compounds loaded in the treated and untreated sewage waters obtained from municipal wastewater treatment plant "Jamno" near Koszalin City (Poland). Analyzed environmental samples contained number of substances characterized by polarity range from estetrol to progesterone as well as chlorophyll-related dyes previously isolated and pre-purified by simple SPE protocol involving C18 cartridges. Optimization of micro-TLC separation and quantification protocols of such samples were discussed from the practical point of view using simple separation efficiency criteria including total peaks number, log(product Δ hR F ), signal intensity and peak asymmetry. Outcomes of the presented analytical approach, especially using detection involving direct fluorescence (UV366/Vis) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) visualization are compared with UV-DAD HPLC-generated data reported previously. Chemometric investigation based on principal components analysis revealed that SPE extracts separated by micro-TLC and detected under fluorescence and PMA visualization modes can be used for robust sample fingerprinting even after long-term storage of the extracts (up to 4 years) at subambient temperature (-20 °C). Such approach allows characterization of wide range of sample components

  2. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  3. Detection of Escherichia coli in Biofilms from Pipe Samples and Coupons in Drinking Water Distribution Networks▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhna, T.; Birzniece, D.; Larsson, S.; Zulenkovs, D.; Sharipo, A.; Azevedo, N. F.; Ménard-Szczebara, F.; Castagnet, S.; Féliers, C.; Keevil, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for direct detection of Escherichia coli on pipe surfaces and coupons in drinking water distribution networks. Old cast iron main pipes were removed from water distribution networks in France, England, Portugal, and Latvia, and E. coli was analyzed in the biofilm. In addition, 44 flat coupons made of cast iron, polyvinyl chloride, or stainless steel were placed into and continuously exposed to water on 15 locations of 6 distribution networks in France and Latvia and examined after 1 to 6 months exposure to the drinking water. In order to increase the signal intensity, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) 15-mer probe was used in the FISH screening for the presence or absence of E. coli on the surface of pipes and coupons, thus reducing occasional problems of autofluorescence and low fluorescence of the labeled bacteria. For comparison, cells were removed from the surfaces and examined with culture-based or enzymatic (detection of β-d-glucuronidase) methods. An additional verification was made by using PCR. Culture method indicated presence of E. coli in one of five pipes, whereas all pipes were positive with the FISH methods. E. coli was detected in 56% of the coupons using PNA FISH, but no E. coli was detected using culture or enzymatic methods. PCR analyses confirmed the presence of E. coli in samples that were negative according to culture-based and enzymatic methods. The viability of E. coli cells in the samples was demonstrated by the cell elongation after resuscitation in low-nutrient medium supplemented with pipemidic acid, suggesting that the cells were present in an active but nonculturable state, unable to grow on agar media. E. coli contributed to ca. 0.001 to 0.1% of the total bacterial number in the samples. The presence and number of E. coli did not correlate with any of physical and/or chemical characteristic of the drinking water (e.g., temperature, chlorine, or biodegradable organic matter concentration

  4. Submarine groundwater discharge derived strontium from the Bengal Basin traced in Bay of Bengal water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Ramananda; Mondal, Surajit; Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Lekha, J Sree; Sengupta, Debasis

    2018-03-12

    Evaluating the submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) derived strontium (Sr) flux from the Bengal Basin to the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and determining its isotopic composition is crucial for understanding the marine Sr isotopic evolution over time. Measurements of spatially and temporally distributed water samples collected from the BoB show radiogenic 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, high Sr, calcium (Ca) concentrations and high salinity in samples collected dominantly from 100-120 m depth, which can be explained only by the contribution of saline groundwater from the Bengal Basin. These results provide a direct evidence of the SGD-Sr flux to the BoB. This SGD-Sr flux is however, spatially heterogeneous and using conservative hydrological estimates of the SGD flux to the BoB, we suggest a SGD Sr flux of 13.5-40.5 × 10 5 mol/yr to the BoB. Mass balance calculations using Sr concentrations and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr suggest up to 7% contribution of SGD to the 100-120 m BoB water samples. The identification of SGD at 100-120 m depth also provides an explanation for the anomalous variations in barium (Ba) concentrations and the δ 18 O-salinity relationship in intermediate depths of the BoB.

  5. Microporous Carbon Spheres Solid Phase Membrane Tip Extraction for the Analysis of Nitrosamines in Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Salisu Musa; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A simple solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) utilizing microporous carbon spheres (MCS) was developed for the analysis of nitrosamines in aqueous samples. The method termed MCS-SPMTE was optimized for various important extraction parameters namely conditioning organic solvent, extraction time, effects of salt addition and pH change, desorption time, desorption solvent and sample volume. Under the optimized conditions, the method indicated good linearity in the range of 10-100 μg/ L with coefficients of determination, r 2 ≥0.9984. The method also demonstrated good reproducibility with % RSDs values ranging from 2.2 - 8.9 (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method ranged from 3.2 - 4.8 μg/ L and 10.9 - 15.9 μg/L respectively. Recoveries for both tap-water and lake water samples spiked at 10 μg/L were in the range of 83.2 - 107.5 %. (author)

  6. Arsenic speciation in natural water samples by coprecipitation-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Citak, Demirhan; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-15

    A speciation procedure for As(III) and As(V) ions in environmental samples has been presented. As(V) was quantitatively recovered on aluminum hydroxide precipitate. After oxidation of As(III) by using dilute KMnO(4), the developed coprecipitation was applied to determination of total arsenic. Arsenic(III) was calculated as the difference between the total arsenic content and As(V) content. The determination of arsenic levels was performed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of As(V) including pH, amount of aluminum as carrier element and sample volume, etc. on the presented coprecipitation system were investigated. The effects of some alkaline, earth alkaline, metal ions and also some anions were also examined. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The detection limits (LOD) based on three times sigma of the blank (N: 21) for As(V) was 0.012 microg L(-1). The satisfactory results for the analysis of arsenic in NIST SRM 2711 Montana soil and LGC 6010 Hard drinking water certified reference materials for the validation of the method was obtained. The presented procedure was successfully applied to real samples including natural waters for arsenic speciation.

  7. Study of lead pollution in air, soil and water samples of Quetta city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khan, G.M.; Akbar, S.; Panezai, M.A.; Haq, Z.U.

    2011-01-01

    This study briefly presents the collected data of lead pollution in the environment of Quetta City in Balochistan, Pakistan. The samples were collected from different sites. The analysis of lead was carried out in underground water samples, the exhaust of different vehicles, roadside and sewage soils from selected points of Quetta City. The average discharge resulted in deposition by motorcycles (29.12 g/h), cars (44.47 g/h), wagons (176.54 g/h) and buses (141.52 g/h). The maximum deposition was 222.96 g/h from auto-rickshaws. The value for lead in smoke of different vehicles seems quite high when extrapolated to the large number of such vehicles for a longer time. The concentration of lead in roadside soil varied from 73.3 mg/kg (T and T closed colony) to 731.9 mg/kg (Sirki road bus-stop). The average content of lead in sewage soil of City Nala is 1250.6 mg/kg. The level of lead was more than WHO standards for such soils. The lead quantity in all 24 tube- well water samples, was slightly above the WHO standards (10 macro g/L).The results of this study were comparable to similar study in twin cities of Rawalpindi and islamabad. (author)

  8. Ten years of radiometric monitoring in water samples in Uruguay potables plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perruni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The work exposes the summary of having been radiometrics obtained during the last 10 years in several water treatment plants of the national territory, with the purpose of determining if in the total dose to the one that this exposed one naturally the population of the country, is important the contribution of polluting radioactives in the drinkable water, in function of the geographical area and the time of the year. The investigation is framed inside the Program of Control Radiometrics of Products of Fission in waters, floors, foods and aerosols of the Uruguay developed by the Radiochemistry Department, of the Nuclear Research Center, Montevideo (UY) The samples of water filter, they process and they analyze according to laboratory protocols, had duplicated by each plant, parallel with radio-active, white bottom measures and standards. The results net average obtained for each factory, gave below the one it limits of detection: 2 BQ/Kg for geometry Marinelli and 0.02 BQ/g for plane geometry, with 99,3% of dependability (standard 3 deviations), very below the maximum values admitted by International Organisms (WHO, FAO, ICRP) [es

  9. Solid phase extraction for the speciation and preconcentration of inorganic selenium in water samples: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Latorre, C; Barciela García, J; García Martín, S; Peña Crecente, R M

    2013-12-04

    Selenium is an essential element for the normal cellular function of living organisms. However, selenium is toxic at concentrations of only three to five times higher than the essential concentration. The inorganic forms (mainly selenite and selenate) present in environmental water generally exhibit higher toxicity (up to 40 times) than organic forms. Therefore, the determination of low levels of different inorganic selenium species in water is an analytical challenge. Solid-phase extraction has been used as a separation and/or preconcentration technique prior to the determination of selenium species due to the need for accurate measurements for Se species in water at extremely low levels. The present paper provides a critical review of the published methods for inorganic selenium speciation in water samples using solid phase extraction as a preconcentration procedure. On the basis of more than 75 references, the different speciation strategies used for this task have been highlighted and classified. The solid-phase extraction sorbents and the performance and analytical characteristics of the developed methods for Se speciation are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of field-applied quality control samples to monitor performance of a Goulden large-sample extractor/GC-MS method for pesticides in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, W.T.; Gates, Paul M.; Foster, G.D.; Rinella, F.A.; McKenzie, S.W.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1985, the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) has been used to isolate a broad array of trace-organic contaminants from large volumes of water. In this study, field-applied quality control measures, including matrix and surrogate spikes and blanks, were used to monitor method performance from GLSE extraction through GC-MS analysis. The method was applied to the determination of multiple classes of pesticides isolated from 4- to 112-L filtered surface-water samples. Average recoveries of six surrogate compounds ranged from 84 ?? 18% for [2H10]diazinon to 15 ?? 13% for 4,4'-[2H8]DDT, the low recoveries for which were largely a result of unmonitored breakdown of this surrogate by the GC injection system. Field-matrix-spike samples were prepared by fortifying 10-L, 35-L, and 110-L filtered surface-water samples with 68 pesticides to amended concentrations of 11- to 50-ng/L each. Recoveries ranged from not detected to greater than 100%. Variability in pesticide recoveries from triplicate 10-L water samples collected at one site averaged 5.7% relative standard deviation and did not exceed 19%.Since 1985, the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) has been used to isolate a broad array of trace-organic contaminants from large volumes of water. In this study, field-applied quality control measures, including matrix and surrogate spikes and blanks, were used to monitor method performance from GLSE extraction through GC-MS analysis. The method was applied to the determination of multiple classes of pesticides isolated from 4- to 112-L filtered surface-water samples. Average recoveries of six surrogate compounds ranged from 84 ?? 18% for [2H10]diazinon to 15 ?? 13% for 4,4???-[2H8]DDT, the low recoveries for which were largely a result of unmonitored breakdown of this surrogate by the GC injection system. Field-matrix-spike samples were prepared by fortifying 10-L, 35-L, and 110-L filtered surface-water samples with 68 pesticides to amended concentrations of 11- to 50

  11. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2017-10-01

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  12. Trace analysis of iron in environmental water and snow samples from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golimowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    A voltammetric method for the determination of iron at detection limit of 4 μg/l is described, using the catalytic current of the reduction of the Fe(III)-triethanolamine (TEA) complex in the presence of bromate ions. The determination was performed at a mercury hanging drop electrode without preconcentration, using the TEA alkaline solution as a supporting electrolyte and the differential pulse technique. A peak current for the Fe-(III)-TEA catalytic reduction was observed at a potential of -1.0 V (Ag/AgCl saturated electrode). The influence of TEA, BrO 3 and NaOH concentrations on the peak height was studied. It was found that a 100-fold excess of Mn, a 50-fold excess of Cr(VI) and Zn did not interfere in the determination. This method was applied to the determination of iron in water, snow and waste water samples

  13. Detection and spatial mapping of mercury contamination in water samples using a smart-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingshan; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Feng, Steve; Yan, Eddie; Ki, So Jung; Caire, Romain; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-02-25

    Detection of environmental contamination such as trace-level toxic heavy metal ions mostly relies on bulky and costly analytical instruments. However, a considerable global need exists for portable, rapid, specific, sensitive, and cost-effective detection techniques that can be used in resource-limited and field settings. Here we introduce a smart-phone-based hand-held platform that allows the quantification of mercury(II) ions in water samples with parts per billion (ppb) level of sensitivity. For this task, we created an integrated opto-mechanical attachment to the built-in camera module of a smart-phone to digitally quantify mercury concentration using a plasmonic gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and aptamer based colorimetric transmission assay that is implemented in disposable test tubes. With this smart-phone attachment that weighs cellphones could be rather useful for distributed sensing, tracking, and sharing of water contamination information as a function of both space and time.

  14. Evaluation of lyophilization for the preconcentration of natural water samples prior to neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, S.H.; LaFleur, P.D.; Zoller, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Water is preconcentrated by freeze drying using a method which virtually eliminates sample contamination and trace element losses. To test the possibility of losses of volatile elements during the drying process, known quantities of radioactive tracers for 21 elements were added to water, the solutions freeze dried, and the tracer residues counted. The results confirm that at least 95 percent of all but the most volatile elements studied (Hg and I) were retained in the residue. The problem of transferring quantitatively the dry residue from the freeze drying container to an irradiation container was eliminated by designing a freeze drying container that would also serve as an irradiation and counting container. (U.S.)

  15. An alternative method for float-sink analysis of fine coal samples using water fluidization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Callen; S.J. Pratten; B.D. Belcher; N. Lambert; K.P. Galvin [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). School of Engineering

    2002-12-01

    The study reported is concerned with the development of a new method, based on water fluidization, for obtaining washability information for -4 +0.045 mm coal samples, with a view to providing a rapid, accurate, and safe alternative to the current laboratory method of float-sink testing. Previously, Galvin and Pratten have reported the technique of utilizing the density segregation effect of a narrow size range of particles in a fluidized bed to determine washability data. Here, the evaluation of the new method by determining the yield-ash data of a number of different Australian coals has demonstrated the robustness and accuracy of the water fluidization method. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 app.

  16. A simple assay of paracetamol based on dried blood spot suitable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried blood spots in Guthrie cards are a reliable means of blood sampling suitable for pharmacoki-netic analysis in children. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable bioanalytical method to measure the concentration of paracetamol in dried blood spots. Paracetamol was ex-tracted from dry blood spots by ...

  17. Data Validation Package - April and July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in July because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0113, 0248, and 0477. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  18. Analysis of {sup 210}Pb in water samples with plastic scintillation resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lluch, E.; Barrera, J. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1-11, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tarancón, A., E-mail: alex.tarancon@ub.edu [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1-11, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Bagán, H. [Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Getingevägen 60, Hus II, 22100 SE, Lund (Sweden); García, J.F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1-11, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-12

    {sup 210}Pb is a radioactive lead isotope present in the environment as member of the {sup 238}U decay chain. Since it is a relatively long-lived radionuclide (T{sub 1/2} = 22.2 years), its analysis is of interest in radiation protection and the geochronology of sediments and artwork. Here, we present a method for analysing {sup 210}Pb using plastic scintillation resins (PSresins) packaged in solid-phase extraction columns (SPE cartridge). The advantages of this method are its selectivity, the low limit of detection, as well as reductions in the amount of time and reagents required for analysis and the quantity of waste generated. The PSresins used in this study were composed of a selective extractant (4′,4″(5″)-Di-tert-butyldicyclohexano-18-crown-6 in 1-octanol) covering the surface of plastic scintillation microspheres. Once the amount of extractant (1:1/4) and medium of separation (2 M HNO{sub 3}) were optimised, PSresins in SPE cartridges were calibrated with a standard solution of {sup 210}Pb. {sup 210}Pb could be fully separated from its daughters, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po, with a recovery value of 91(3)% and detection efficiency of 44(3)%. Three spiked water samples (one underground and two river water samples) were analysed in triplicates with deviations lower than 10%, demonstrating the validity of the PS resin method for {sup 210}Pb analysis. - Highlights: • A plastic scintillation resin for selective analysis of {sup 210}Pb has been developed. • A commercial SPE cartridge has been use for separation and scintillation counting. • {sup 210}Pb separation from {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po is achieved with a 91(3)% of recovery. • The method is valid for analysis of {sup 210}Pb in river water samples.

  19. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems...... all had significant influences on parasite survival. Strategic treatment using the environmentally friendly chemical sodium percarbonate in combination with continuous micro-filtering of the pond water is suggested for control and management of this parasitosis....

  20. Determination of 222Rn in water samples from wells and springs in Tokyo by a modified integral counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Y.; Murase, Y.; Handa, K.; Murakami, I.

    1997-01-01

    222 Rn in 2L-water samples was extracted with 30 mL toluene, and 21 mL of the toluene solution was transferred into a liquid scintillation vial, in which PPO - 2,5-diphenyloxazole was placed in advance. The total activity of 222 Rn in the water sample was calculated based on the Ostwald's coefficient of solubilities of 222 Rn in toluene and water at the temperature of the sample water and the volume of water and toluene. About 40% of 222 Rn dissolved in 2L-water sample can be collected. After allowing to stand for 3.5 h, the equilibrium mixture of 222 Rn and its daughters was measured with an Aloka liquid scintillation spectrometer using a modified integral counting method which extrapolates the integral counting curve not to the zero pulse-height, but to the zero detection threshold, an average energy required to produce a measurable pulse, of the liquid scintillation spectrometer. The general method which agitates water sample (usually about 10 mL) with a liquid scintillation cocktail is practical when the activity of 222 Rn is high. By adding 10 mL of water sample, however, it is possible also to add variable amounts of quencher. In some cases water sample is preserved with nitric acid. The slope of the integral counting rate curve increases as quench level of the sample increases. Therefore, it is clear that the modified integral counting method gives more accurate 222 Rn concentrations for water samples of strong quench than the conventional integral counting method. 222 Rn sample of 0.2 Bq/L can be determined within an overall uncertainty of 3.1%

  1. A certified reference material for radionuclides in the water sample from Irish Sea (IAEA-443)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M.K.; Betti, M.; Povinec, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    values on massic activities with 95% confidence intervals are given for four radionuclides (230Th, 232Th, 239Pu and 240Pu). Results for less frequently reported radionuclides (99Tc, 228Th, 237Np and 241Pu) are also reported. The CRM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis...... of radionuclides in water samples, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available in 5 L units from IAEA (http://nucleus.iaea.org/rpst/index.htm)....

  2. Procedures for Handling and Chemical Analysis of Sediment and Water Samples,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    control program, beginning with sample collection. The three chemical tests that are described are: a. A short-term water leaching test (the standard...demand P, G 300 ml-2 Z 4 0 C 6 hr Chemical oxygen demand P, (3 200 ml H2S04 to pH < 2 7 days 4 °C PCB’s ( 2 Z 4°c Orranochlorine pesti- cides C I Z 40 C...the purpose of the study as discussed in Section 1. The elutriate test is a short-term, sediment- leaching procedure. It consists of agitating a known

  3. Predictors of narghile (water-pipe) smoking in a sample of American Arab Yemeni adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Omar G; Rice, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    To explore the predictors of water-pipe smoking among American Arab Yemeni adolescents, a descriptive correlational design was used, and regression models representing the proposed relationships in the study were tested from a convenience sample of 297 adolescents who attended a teen health clinic and two high schools. The participants completed five measures. Fourteen hypotheses were tested. Experimentation with tobacco was found to be significant in predicting narghile smoking. Tobacco use prevention and cessation interventions for this population can be focused on targeting the family and peer units, from which their identity is likely derived.

  4. Cloud point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of nickel in water samples using dimethylglyoxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new and simple method for the preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of nickel was developed by cloud point extraction (CPE. In the proposed work, dimethylglyoxime (DMG was used as the chelating agent and Triton X-114 was selected as a non-ionic surfactant for CPE. The parameters affecting the cloud point extraction including the pH of sample solution, concentration of the chelating agent and surfactant, equilibration temperature and time were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 10-150 ng mL-1 with a detection limit of 4 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation for 9 replicates of 100 ng mL-1 Ni(II was 1.04%. The interference effect of some anions and cations was studied. The method was applied to the determination of Ni(II in water samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Removal of Pb ion from water samples using red mud (bauxite ore processing waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presented the use of red mud (bauxite ore processing waste in removal of lead ions in water samples. For this 0.1 g of red mud has been used as adsorbent which suspended in 10 ml of lead solution with the concentration of 50 mg l-1 for about 1 h. After that the lead concentration in the samples taken from the red mud treated lead solution measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The effect of some parameter which is important in adsorption of lead on red mud such as suitable adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time of solution and adsorbent was investigated. The result shows that red mud as solid waste and low-cost adsorbent can be successfully used for the removal of lead ion from aqueous solution.

  6. Determination of 90Sr by liquid scintillation spectrometry in samples of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometakova, J.; Dulanska, S.

    2009-01-01

    On a model sample we optimized conditions of SPE separation of 90 Sr on Empore Sr Rad Disk in term of use eluent reagent and its appropriate concentration. Also the possibility of multiple use of both sorbents Empore Sr Rad Disk and AnaLig Sr-01 was confirmed. Not even after 8 separations radiochemical yield fall below 87%. For separation of 90 Sr from real sample of percolating water of controlled area of Bohunice NPP three commercially available products were used: 3M Empore Strontium Rad Disk, sorbents AnaLig (with different grain size) and Sr-Resin. The aim of this work was to compare the selected products in term of strontium extracts, the time demandingness and the possibility of multiple use of sorbents. For separation of strontium were also used two classical methods, namely liquid extraction with tributyl phosphate and carbonate precipitation due to the exclusion of interferents. (author)

  7. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavčar, Eva; Turk, Erika; Kreft, Samo

    2012-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes place in a sealed 4 ml cuvette. Detection is performed at 520 nm. Titration endpoint is determined from the graph of absorbance plotted against titration volume. The method has appropriate reproducibility (RSD = 4.3%), accuracy, and linearity (R 2 = 0.997). PMID:22567558

  8. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tavčar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method