WorldWideScience

Sample records for spot test analysis

  1. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  2. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Possible recombinogenic effect of caprolactam in the mammalian spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrig, R

    1989-11-01

    Tests of caprolactam in the mouse spot test showed that treatment with this compound increased the frequency of color spots among animals treated in utero. The nature of these spots suggests that caprolactam may induce spots through the induction of mitotic recombination.

  4. Medical students’ attitudes and perspectives regarding novel computer-based practical spot tests compared to traditional practical spot tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijerathne, Buddhika; Rathnayake, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Background Most universities currently practice traditional practical spot tests to evaluate students. However, traditional methods have several disadvantages. Computer-based examination techniques are becoming more popular among medical educators worldwide. Therefore incorporating the computer interface in practical spot testing is a novel concept that may minimize the shortcomings of traditional methods. Assessing students’ attitudes and perspectives is vital in understanding how students perceive the novel method. Methods One hundred and sixty medical students were randomly allocated to either a computer-based spot test (n=80) or a traditional spot test (n=80). The students rated their attitudes and perspectives regarding the spot test method soon after the test. The results were described comparatively. Results Students had higher positive attitudes towards the computer-based practical spot test compared to the traditional spot test. Their recommendations to introduce the novel practical spot test method for future exams and to other universities were statistically significantly higher. Conclusions The computer-based practical spot test is viewed as more acceptable to students than the traditional spot test. PMID:26451213

  5. Advanced spot quality analysis in two-colour microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetter Guillaume

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image analysis of microarrays and, in particular, spot quantification and spot quality control, is one of the most important steps in statistical analysis of microarray data. Recent methods of spot quality control are still in early age of development, often leading to underestimation of true positive microarray features and, consequently, to loss of important biological information. Therefore, improving and standardizing the statistical approaches of spot quality control are essential to facilitate the overall analysis of microarray data and subsequent extraction of biological information. Findings We evaluated the performance of two image analysis packages MAIA and GenePix (GP using two complementary experimental approaches with a focus on the statistical analysis of spot quality factors. First, we developed control microarrays with a priori known fluorescence ratios to verify the accuracy and precision of the ratio estimation of signal intensities. Next, we developed advanced semi-automatic protocols of spot quality evaluation in MAIA and GP and compared their performance with available facilities of spot quantitative filtering in GP. We evaluated these algorithms for standardised spot quality analysis in a whole-genome microarray experiment assessing well-characterised transcriptional modifications induced by the transcription regulator SNAI1. Using a set of RT-PCR or qRT-PCR validated microarray data, we found that the semi-automatic protocol of spot quality control we developed with MAIA allowed recovering approximately 13% more spots and 38% more differentially expressed genes (at FDR = 5% than GP with default spot filtering conditions. Conclusion Careful control of spot quality characteristics with advanced spot quality evaluation can significantly increase the amount of confident and accurate data resulting in more meaningful biological conclusions.

  6. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weighted Severity Index (WSI) was created based on these factors/drivers. Also, Density-based Clustering for Traffic Accident Risk (DBCTAR) was carried out to assist in ascertaining the distribution of Black Spots Severity (BSS). Results obtained include: shortestpath analysis, service area analysis, accident spot severity ...

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Skare, Lizbet; Lundgren, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) nickel spot test has been questioned because of false negative and positive test reactions. The EN 1811, a European standard reference method developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), is fine-tuned to estimate nickel release around...... the limit value of the EU Nickel Directive from products intended to come into direct and prolonged skin contact. Because assessments according to EN 1811 are expensive to perform, time consuming, and may destruct the test item, it should be of great value to know the accuracy of the DMG screening test....

  8. First Beam Test of Nanometer Spot Size Monitor Using Laser Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Walz, D

    2003-01-01

    The nanometer spot size monitor based on the laser interferometry (Laser-Compton Spot Size Monitor) has been tested in FFTB beam line at SLAC. A low emittance beam of 46 GeV electrons, provided by the two-mile linear accelerator, was focused into nanometer spot in the FFTB line, and its transverse dimensions were precisely measured by the spot size monitor.

  9. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  10. The Empirical Analysis of the Dynamic Prices Relationship between Cotton Spot Market and Futures Market in Xinjiang

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liang-bin

    2011-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the causal relationship between the cotton spot, and the tendency and impact of prices of futures markets in Xinjiang by using ADF test, co-integration analysis, Granger causality test and other econometric methods in order to discuss the interacted relationship between futures market prices of cotton and spot market prices since the futures of cotton in Xinjiang go public. The results of empirical analysis show that the spot market prices of cotton and the futures market ...

  11. Damage tolerance reliability analysis of automotive spot-welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Ni Kan

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a damage tolerance reliability analysis methodology for automotive spot-welded joints under multi-axial and variable amplitude loading history. The total fatigue life of a spot weld is divided into two parts, crack initiation and crack propagation. The multi-axial loading history is obtained from transient response finite element analysis of a vehicle model. A three-dimensional finite element model of a simplified joint with four spot welds is developed for static stress/strain analysis. A probabilistic Miner's rule is combined with a randomized strain-life curve family and the stress/strain analysis result to develop a strain-based probabilistic fatigue crack initiation life prediction for spot welds. Afterwards, the fatigue crack inside the base material sheet is modeled as a surface crack. Then a probabilistic crack growth model is combined with the stress analysis result to develop a probabilistic fatigue crack growth life prediction for spot welds. Both methods are implemented with MSC/NASTRAN and MSC/FATIGUE software, and are useful for reliability assessment of automotive spot-welded joints against fatigue and fracture

  12. Tests of fixity of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Emilia A.; Andrews, David L.; Gordon, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of inter-hot spot motion have been debated for decades. Herein we present updated predictions for the tracks of the Tristan da Cunha, Réunion, and Iceland hot spots assuming them to be fixed relative to Pacific hot spots. Uncertainties in Pacific hot spot rotations, which include uncertainties in the current locations of hot spots of 100-200 km, are combined with uncertainties in relative plate motions accumulated through the plate circuit to obtain the final uncertainty in the predicted positions (including uncertainties of 150-200 km in the current locations of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots). Improvements to reconstruction methods, to relative plate reconstructions, to age dates along the tracks, and to the geomagnetic reversal timescale lead to significant changes from prior results. When compared with the observed tracks, the predicted tracks indicate nominal rates of motion of only 2-6 mm a-1 of these Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots over the past 48 Ma. Within the uncertainties, the rates range from no motion to rates as high as 8-13 mm a-1. For reconstructions prior to 48 Ma B.P., however, the apparent rates of inter-hot spot motion are much larger, 46-55 ± 20 mm a-1, if the motion occurred entirely between 68 Ma B.P. and 48 Ma B.P. Either hot spots moved rapidly before 48 Ma B.P., and slowed drastically at ≈ 48 Ma B.P., or global plate circuits through Antarctica become less reliable as one goes increasingly further into the past. Most paleomagnetic data favor the latter explanation.

  13. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kayoko; Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: acalafat@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-10

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS ({approx}75 {mu}L of blood) were <0.5 ng mL{sup -1}. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL{sup -1} range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  14. Nondestructive Testing of Ceramic Hip Joint Implants with Laser Spot Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemer J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of laser spot thermography for damage detection in ceramic samples with surface breaking cracks. The measurement technique is an active thermographic approach based on an external heat delivery to a test sample, by means of a laser pulse, and signal acquisition by an infrared camera. Damage detection is based on the analysis of surface temperature distribution near the exciting laser spot. The technique is nondestructive, non-contact and allows for full-field measurements. Surface breaking cracks are a very common type of damage in ceramic materials that are introduced in the manufacturing process or during the service period. This paper briefly discusses theoretical background of laser spot thermography, describes the experimental test rig and signal processing methods involved. Damage detection results obtained with laser spot thermography are compared with reference measurements obtained with vibrothermography. This is a different modality of active thermography, that has been previously proven effective for this type of damage. We demonstrate that both measurement techniques can be effectively used for damage detection and quality control applications of ceramic materials.

  15. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    Along with chromium, nickel and cobalt are the clinically most important metal allergens. However, unlike for nickel and cobalt, there is no validated colorimetric spot test that detects chromium. Such a test could help both clinicians and their patients with chromium dermatitis to identify culprit...... exposures. To evaluate the use of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) as a spot test reagent for the identification of chromium(VI) release. A colorimetric chromium(VI) spot test based on DPC was prepared and used on different items from small market surveys. The DPC spot test was able to identify chromium(VI) release...

  16. Sweet Spot Size in Virtual Sound Reproduction: A Temporal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    The influence of head misalignments on the performance of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers is often evaluated in the frequency domain. The changes in magnitude give us an idea of how much of the crosstalk is leaked into the direct signal and therefore a sweet spot performance can......-correlation we estimate the interaural time delay and define a sweet spot. The analysis is based on measurements carried out on 21 different loudspeaker configurations, including two- and four-channels arrangements. Results show that closely spaced loudspeakers are more robust to lateral displacements than wider...... span angles. Additionally, the sweet spot as a function of head rotations increases systematically when the loudspeakers are placed at elevated positions....

  17. Dried blood spot analysis : facing new challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco A; Touw, Daan J; Alffenaar, Jan-willem C

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, DBS analysis has gained popularity for TDM because it’s a patient friendly sampling proce- dure [1-4]. Additional advantages are prolonged sample stability, lower risk of infections and transportation at ambient temperature [1-3,5]. These advantages may fa- cilitate

  18. LLNL UCG Commercialization "Sweet Spot" Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Julio [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Goldstein, Noah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Neher, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilder, Lynn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-01-31

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a promising endeavor that utilizes coal reserves in a manner that can provide a variety of energy products, including Electricity and Liquid Fuels, with low or zero carbon emissions. This work comprises a preliminary site suitability analysis for UCG in the US, focusing on regions that both show the best potential for UCG, and for which data is available. We view this work as a “first pass” of site suitability for UCG. In order to comprise a more complete analysis, stakeholder feedback is needed to capture the logic and views of the practical or applied site suitability. In this first pass (Stage I), we focus on the states of Illinois, Wyoming, and Texas. Since we were unable to get key geological data for Texas, we were only able to complete analysis for Illinois and Wyoming. We are currently working with the USGS to get the data and perform the analysis. In this document, we present the framework for the site suitability methodology, the pseudocode used in generating suitability maps, the maps themselves, and finally, a catalog of our data sources.

  19. Use of the mouse spot test to investigate the mutagenic potential of triclosan (Irigasan DP300)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, L.B.; Montgomery, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Triclosan, a chlorophenoxyphenol used in several commercial products, was tested in the mouse in vivo somatic mutation test (spot test) by intraperitoneal injection on day 9.25 or 10.25 postconception. Although the dose range tested overlapped the toxic, the frequency of presumed somatic mutations was not significantly greater in the experimental groups than in the methanol-injected controls; and the results rule out with 95% confidence a spot incidence 5 or more times greater than the control incidence. These findings fail to confirm the claim by Fahrig et al. (1978) that triclosan is mutagenic in the spot test.

  20. A study of correlations between crude oil spot and futures markets: A rolling sample test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wan, Jieqiu

    2011-10-01

    In this article, we investigate the asymmetries of exceedance correlations and cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot and futures markets. First, employing the test statistic proposed by Hong et al. [Asymmetries in stock returns: statistical tests and economic evaluation, Review of Financial Studies 20 (2007) 1547-1581], we find that the exceedance correlations were overall symmetric. However, the results from rolling windows show that some occasional events could induce the significant asymmetries of the exceedance correlations. Second, employing the test statistic proposed by Podobnik et al. [Quantifying cross-correlations using local and global detrending approaches, European Physics Journal B 71 (2009) 243-250], we find that the cross-correlations were significant even for large lagged orders. Using the detrended cross-correlation analysis proposed by Podobnik and Stanley [Detrended cross-correlation analysis: a new method for analyzing two nonstationary time series, Physics Review Letters 100 (2008) 084102], we find that the cross-correlations were weakly persistent and were stronger between spot and futures contract with larger maturity. Our results from rolling sample test also show the apparent effects of the exogenous events. Additionally, we have some relevant discussions on the obtained evidence.

  1. The charging security study of electric vehicle charging spot based on automatic testing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulan; Yang, Zhangli; Zhu, Bin; Ran, Shengyi

    2018-03-01

    With the increasing of charging spots, the testing of charging security and interoperability becomes more and more urgent and important. In this paper, an interface simulator for ac charging test is designed, the automatic testing platform for electric vehicle charging spots is set up and used to test and analyze the abnormal state during the charging process. On the platform, the charging security and interoperability of ac charging spots and IC-CPD can be checked efficiently, the test report can be generated automatically with No artificial reading error. From the test results, the main reason why the charging spot is not qualified is that the power supply cannot be cut off in the prescribed time when the charging anomaly occurs.

  2. Detecting High Hyperopia: The Plus Lens Test and the Spot Vision Screener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Samuel; Peterseim, Mae Millicent W; Trivedi, Rupal H; Edward Wilson, M; Cheeseman, Edward W; Papa, Carrie E

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the Plus Lens (Goodlite Company, Elgin, IL) test and the Spot Vision Screener (Welch Allyn, Skaneateles Falls, NY) in detecting high hyperopia in a pediatric population. Between June and August 2015, patients were screened with the Spot Vision Screener and the Plus Lens test prior to a scheduled pediatric ophthalmology visit. The following data were analyzed: demographic data, Plus Lens result, Spot Vision Screener result, cycloplegic refraction, and examination findings. Sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values were calculated for the Plus Lens test and Spot Vision Screener in detecting hyperopia as determined by the "gold-standard" cycloplegic refraction. A total of 109 children (average age: 82 months) were included. Compared to the ophthalmologist's cycloplegic refraction, the Spot Vision Screener sensitivity for +3.50 diopters (D) hyperopia was 31.25% and the specificity was 100%. The Plus Lens sensitivity for +3.50 D hyperopia was 43.75% and the specificity was 89.25%. Spot Vision Screener sensitivity increased with higher degrees of hyperopia. In this preliminary study, the Plus Lens test and the Spot Vision Screener demonstrated moderate sensitivity with good specificity in detecting high hyperopia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(3):163-167.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Clinical application of T-spot test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection for diagnosis of suspected pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-ping SHI

    2017-11-01

    .TB test were found in 414 cases in active TB group, and 47 cases in non-TB group were reported with T-SPOT.TB negative. The sensitivity and specificity of T-SPOT.TB test for diagnosing active TB were 78.4% and 49%, respectively. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 89.4%, 29.2%, 1.537 and 0.441, respectively. ROC curve showed that the specificity increased significantly (from 49% to 62.5% while the sensitivity decreased (from 78.4% to 72.7% when antigen A (cut-off: 16.0 SFCs/2.5×105 PBMC was combined with antigen B (cut-off: 7.0 SFCs/2.5×105 PBMC for analysis. In addition, the number of A and B antigen spots in active TB group was significantly higher than that in non-TB group (P<0.01. The number of B antigen spots in positive TB group was significantly higher than that in negative TB group (P<0.05. There was no significant difference among the other groups. Conclusions Since the high sensitivity and low specificity of T-SPOT.TB in the diagnosis of active TB, the final diagnosis should be combined with clinical manifestations. When the A antigen is 16.0 SFCs/2.5×105 PBMC and the B antigen is 7.0 SFCs/2.5×105 PBMC, the specificity of T-SPOT.TB will be improved. Higher number of spots has a certain reference diagnostic value for active TB. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.11.11

  4. Is the urine spot protein/creatinine ratio a valid diagnostic test for pre-eclampsia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuram, R; Kiran, T S Usha; Weerakkody, A N A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of the spot protein/creatinine ratio as the diagnostic test for pre-eclampsia by correlating it to the 24 h urine protein. For the spot test, this study uses the cut-off value recognised by the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP). Ours was a correlational study made in the setting of the antenatal assessment unit/antenatal ward in a District General Hospital. Patients at >24 weeks' gestation with hypertension and >1+ proteinuria (n = 32) were included in the study. A 10 ml sample of urine was collected for the spot protein/creatinine ratio (PCR) before the 24 h collection was started. Spot PCR samples were stored at -18°C until the end of the study period. The results of the spot PCR were correlated to 24 h results using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Main outcome measures were correlation coefficient, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Correlation was significant (r(2) = 0.82). Sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 92%; positive likelihood ratio, 10.3; negative likelihood ratio, 0.18. The spot PCR correlates well to the 24 h urine protein. The new cut-off values recognised by the ISSHP are producing consistent results. The evidence in favour of the spot PCR needs to be reassessed by larger studies.

  5. The light spot test: Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, reliable high-throughput methods for comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice lines have become a necessity. Here, we describe the development and validation of an anxiety test, the light spot test, that allows for unsupervised, automated, high-throughput testing of mice in a home-cage system. This automated behavioral test circumvents bias introduced by pretest handling, and enables recording both baseline behavior and the behavioral test response over a prolonged period of time. We demonstrate that the light spot test induces a behavioral response in C57BL/6J mice. This behavior reverts to baseline when the aversive stimulus is switched off, and is blunted by treatment with the anxiolytic drug Diazepam, demonstrating predictive validity of the assay, and indicating that the observed behavioral response has a significant anxiety component. Also, we investigated the effectiveness of the light spot test as part of sequential testing for different behavioral aspects in the home-cage. Two learning tests, administered prior to the light spot test, affected the light spot test parameters. The light spot test is a novel, automated assay for anxiety-related high-throughput testing of mice in an automated home-cage environment, allowing for both comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice, and rapid screening of pharmacological compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modal testing and finite element model updating of laser spot welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, N Abu; Khodaparast, H Haddad; Snaylam, A; James, S; Sharp, M; Dearden, G; Ouyang, H, E-mail: h.ouyang@liverpool.ac.u [Department of Engineering, Harrison Hughes Building, University of Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    Spot welds are used extensively in automotive engineering. One of the latest manufacturing techniques for producing spot welds is Laser Welding. Finite element (FE) modelling of laser welds for dynamic analysis is a research issue because of the complexity and uncertainty of the welds and thus formed structures. In this work, FE model of the welds is developed by employing CWELD element in NASTRAN and its feasibility for representing laser spot welds is investigated. The FE model is updated based on the measured modal data of hat-plate structures and cast as a structural minimisation problem by the application of NASTRAN codes.

  7. The analysis of spot welding joints of steel sheets with closed profile by ultrasonic method

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Ulbrich; Jakub Kowalczyk; Marian Jósko; Jarosław Selech

    2015-01-01

    Resistance spot welding is widely used in the fabrication of vehicle bodies and parts of their equipment. The article presents the methodology and the results of non-destructive ultrasonic testing of resistance spot welded joints of thin steel sheet with closed profile. Non-destructive test results were verified on the basis of welded joint area after destructive testing. The obtained results were used to develop an assessment technique for spot welded joints of closed profile with steel shee...

  8. Statistical Analysis And Treatment Of Accident Black Spots: A Case Study Of Nandyal Mandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharshan Reddy, B.; Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, L.; Sreenivasa Reddy, G., Dr

    2017-08-01

    Background: Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. Nandyal Mandal is located in the Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh and well developed in both agricultural and industrial sectors after Kurnool. 567 accidents occurred in the last seven years at 143 locations shows the severity of the accidents in the Nandyal Mandal. There is a need to carry out some work in the Nandyal Mandal to improve the accidents black spots for reducing the accidents. Methods: Last seven years (2010-2016) of accident data collected from Police Stations. Weighted Severity Index (WSI), a scientific method is used for identifying the accident black spots. Statistical analysis has carried out for the collected data using Chi-Square Test to determine the independence of accidents with other attributes. Chi-Square Goodness of fit test conducted for test whether the accidents are occurring by chance or following any pattern. Results: WSI values are determined for the 143 locations. The Locations with high WSI are treated as accident black spots. Five black spots are taken for field study. After field observations and interaction with the public, some improvements are suggested for improving the accident black spots. There is no relationship between the severity of accidents and the other attributes like month, season, day, hours in day and the age group except type of vehicle. Road accidents are distributed throughout the Year, Month and Season. Road accidents are not distributed throughout the day.

  9. The analysis of track chamber photographs using flying spot digitizers

    CERN Multimedia

    Powell, Brian W

    1966-01-01

    A vast quantity of data pours from the experiments on particle accelerators throughout the world. For example, over 300 000 photographs per week came from the three bubble chambers operating on the CERN PS at the end of 1965. The conventional method of processing these bubble chamber photographs is for each one of them to be examined ('scanned') to see whether it records an interesting particle interaction. The interesting photographs are then passed to hand operated measuring machines to obtain precise measurements of the particle trajectories recorded on the film. Similar measurements are carried out on photographs taken in film spark chamber experiments. This article on the Flying Spot Digitizers at CERN describes one of the most fruitful attempts to speed and make more accurate the process of analysis of bubble and spark chamber photographs. There are two types of Flying Spot Digitizer at CERN — the HPD or Hough Powell Device (named after Professor Hough and the author who, together, initiated the devel...

  10. The effect of introducing point-of-care or dried blood spot analysis on the uptake of hepatitis C virus testing in high-risk populations: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Josh T; Dillon, John F

    2015-11-01

    Testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection typically relies upon blood samples taken by traditional phlebotomy for laboratory processing. Novel testing methods, including using dried blood spots (DBS) and point-of-care (PoC) testing enable easier access to high risk populations who have less frequent contact with healthcare professionals. Many of these individuals have been exposed to HCV but have not previously been tested. We aimed to establish whether the availability of these novel testing methods increased either uptake of testing or the number of new diagnoses of HCV. The PubMed, Cochrane and SCOPUS databases were searched for terms relating to the study. References and associated bibliographies were also examined for further relevant articles. Studies were included if they contained quantitative data on frequency of testing and/or new diagnoses following the introduction of PoC and/or DBS testing of high-risk populations. Studies were then examined for findings and limitations and graded upon the quality of evidence provided. No studies were found which introduced PoC testing and determined its effect on frequency of testing or new diagnoses. Six studies were identified in which DBS testing was introduced and its effect evaluated. Two of the studies were randomised controlled trials, two were prospective cohort studies, one was an ecological study and one was a clinical audit. Populations studied included those attending substance misuse clinics, prisons and needle exchanges. Injection drug use was the commonest risk factor for HCV. Five of the six studies provided evidence that the introduction of DBS testing increased the number of tests, new diagnoses or both. Current evidence indicates that DBS testing availability may increase the uptake of testing for HCV in high-risk populations. There is currently no evidence regarding the efficacy of PoC testing in these populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Irradiated cocoa tested in the wing spot assay in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmering, S.; Olvera, O.; Cruces, M.P.; Pimentel, E.; Arceo, C.; Rosa, M.E. de la; Guzman, J.

    1992-01-01

    The result of treatment of Drosophila melanogaster with irradiated cocoa as scored in the somatic wing spot test is described. The test has been used previously in the evaluation of irradiated food and has registrated a significantly greater number of positives among chemicals tested than germ line counterparts. Irradiated cocoa has thus far been reported negative in other mutagenicity assays including those employing salmonella and Drosophila germ cells and mammalian cells. The wing spot test as described in Graf et al. was employed. Females of the genotype mwh were mated with flr 3 /TM3; Ser males. (author). 9 refs.; 1 tab

  12. Use of the Drosophila wing spot test in the genotoxicity testing of different herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, B; Creus, A; Yanikoğlu, A; Cabré, O; Marcos, R

    2000-01-01

    Four herbicides, namely propanil, maleic hydrazide, glyphosate, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), were investigated for genotoxicity in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster. The herbicides were administered by chronic feeding to 3-day-old larvae. Two different crosses, a standard (ST) and a high-bioactivation (HB) cross, involving the flare-3 (flr(3)) and the multiple wing hairs (mwh) markers, were used. The HB cross uses flies characterized by an increased cytochrome P-450-dependent bioactivation capacity, which permits a more efficient biotransformation of promutagens and procarcinogens. In both crosses, the wings of the two types of progeny, which are inversion-free marker heterozygotes and balancer heterozygotes, were analyzed. Maleic hydrazide and glyphosate proved to be more genotoxic in the ST cross, whereas propanil appeared to be slightly more genotoxic in the HB cross. On the other hand, the herbicide 2,4,5-T increased the mutation frequency for only the small single spots in the ST cross. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Analysis of very thin organic fibres by means of small spots electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daiser, S.M.; Cormia, R.D.; Scharpen, L.

    1985-01-01

    ESCA analysis of very thin organic fibres as small as a few micrometer diameter is now possible using the small spot X-ray capability of the SSX100 ESCA system. The sampling method involves suspending the material in the SSX100 chamber, and illuminating it with a monochromatized X-ray beam of 150-300 μm diameter. From the small spot ESCA spectra one can determine the chemical character of the organic layer and the thickness. (Author)

  14. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis of tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lian

    Full Text Available Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV severely damages and reduces the yield of many economically important plants worldwide. In this study, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 10 TSWV isolates recently identified from various regions and hosts in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of these 10 isolates as well as the three previously sequenced isolates indicated that the 13 Korean TSWV isolates could be divided into two groups reflecting either two different origins or divergences of Korean TSWV isolates. In addition, the complete nucleotide sequences for the 13 Korean TSWV isolates along with previously sequenced TSWV RNA segments from Korea and other countries were subjected to phylogenetic and recombination analysis. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that both the RNA L and RNA M segments of most Korean isolates might have originated in Western Europe and North America but that the RNA S segments for all Korean isolates might have originated in China and Japan. Recombination analysis identified a total of 12 recombination events among all isolates and segments and five recombination events among the 13 Korea isolates; among the five recombinants from Korea, three contained the whole RNA L segment, suggesting reassortment rather than recombination. Our analyses provide evidence that both recombination and reassortment have contributed to the molecular diversity of TSWV.

  15. Standard Test Method for Hot Spot Protection Testing of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure to determine the ability of a photovoltaic (PV) module to endure the long-term effects of periodic “hot spot” heating associated with common fault conditions such as severely cracked or mismatched cells, single-point open circuit failures (for example, interconnect failures), partial (or non-uniform) shadowing or soiling. Such effects typically include solder melting or deterioration of the encapsulation, but in severe cases could progress to combustion of the PV module and surrounding materials. 1.2 There are two ways that cells can cause a hot spot problem; either by having a high resistance so that there is a large resistance in the circuit, or by having a low resistance area (shunt) such that there is a high-current flow in a localized region. This test method selects cells of both types to be stressed. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method....

  16. Radioactive ''hot spots'' from nuclear weapons test fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    In a paper presented on January 8, 1985, at the Health Physics Society Midyear Symposium, Franke and Alvarez claimed that radioactivity observed on the Savannah River Plant site on March 14, 1955, was the result of a reactor accident. The source of the observed radioactivity was, in fact, rainwater containing radioactive products from a nuclear weapon test made two days earlier in Nevada. The weapon test TEAPOT HORNET was shown to be the source of the contamination at the time, and this has been corroborated in two recent papers. The aim of this review is to show that the highly-localized radioactive fallout on the Savannah River Plant site was not unique but part of a widespread phenomenon occurring all over the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. Retinol analysis in dried blood spots by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, N E; Haitema, T; Brindle, L K; Yamini, S; Humphrey, J H; West, K P

    2000-04-01

    There are many advantages to measuring vitamin A in dried blood spots (DBS) from a finger prick as compared to plasma collected by venipuncture. The advantages include easier collection, transport and storage; accessibility to younger and more remote populations; and decreased risk of disease transmission. We describe a method for the extraction of retinol from DBS for analysis by HPLC and initial comparison to plasma retinol. The effects of various buffers, detergents, antioxidants and chelators were evaluated to establish the most effective approach to elute the retinol: retinol binding protein (holo-RBP) complex from the blood collection cards. The process involves ultrasonic agitation to elute holo-RBP into a phosphate buffer containing an antioxidant and metal chelator. The holo-RBP complex was denatured by the addition of ethanol containing additional antioxidants permitting the extraction of free retinol into hexane. Following solvent evaporation, the extract was dissolved in methanol for HPLC analysis. The initial measured retinol levels in freshly collected DBS declined for 6-10 d whether stored at 25, 4 or -20 degrees C, but remained consistent thereafter (homeostatic). By incorporating a "recovery/volume adjustment" factor, measured retinol values in homeostatic DBS were adjusted to the equivalent of plasma retinol. For 17 normal adults, the correlation coefficient was 0.90 between plasma retinol and adjusted DBS retinol in samples that had been stored at -70 degrees C for < 9 mo. The use of this new sample matrix for vitamin A assessment will allow access to previously unavailable populations.

  18. Diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Arizona as indicated by fecal analysis and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen, 1891)) by visual analysis of bat feces and stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of bat feces, wing, hair, and insect prey. We collected 33 fecal samples from spotted bats and trapped 3755 insect...

  19. Data for automated, high-throughput microscopy analysis of intracellular bacterial colonies using spot detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Christina L; Login, Frédéric H; Jensen, Helene H

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of intracellular bacterial colonies is useful in strategies directed against bacterial attachment, subsequent cellular invasion and intracellular proliferation. An automated, high-throughput microscopy-method was established to quantify the number and size of intracellular bacterial...... of cell nuclei were automatically quantified using a spot detection-tool. The spot detection-output was exported to Excel, where data analysis was performed. In this article, micrographs and spot detection data are made available to facilitate implementation of the method....

  20. Analysis and validation of laser spot weld-induced distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorovsky, G.A.; Kanouff, M.P.; Maccallum, D.O.; Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1999-12-09

    Laser spot welding is an ideal process for joining small parts with tight tolerances on weld size, location, and distortion, particularly those with near-by heat sensitive features. It is also key to understanding the overlapping laser spot seam welding process. Rather than attempting to simulate the laser beam-to-part coupling (particularly if a keyhole occurs), it was measured by calorimetry. This data was then used to calculate the thermal and structural response of a laser spot welded SS304 disk using the finite element method. Five combinations of process parameter values were studied. Calculations were compared to experimental data for temperature and distortion profiles measured by thermocouples and surface profiling. Results are discussed in terms of experimental and modeling factors. The authors then suggest appropriate parameters for laser spot welding.

  1. Subtle Motion Analysis and Spotting using the Riesz Pyramid

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Carlos,; Alata, Olivier; Emonet, Rémi; Legrand, Anne-Claire; Konik, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Analyzing and temporally spotting motions which are almost invisible to the human eye might reveal interesting information about the world. However, detecting these events is difficult due to their short duration and low intensities. Taking inspiration from video magnification techniques, we design a workflow for analyzing and temporally spotting subtle motions based on the Riesz pyramid. In addition, we propose a filtering and masking scheme that segments motions of i...

  2. Diallel analysis for frogeye leaf spot resistance in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravina Geraldo de Amaral

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven soybean cultivars (Bossier, Cristalina, Davis, Kent, Lincoln, Paraná and Uberaba, with different levels of resistance to Cercospora sojina, were crossed in a diallel design to determine the general (GCA and specific (SCA combining abilities relative to the inheritance of the resistance. Race 04 of the fungus was inoculated in the parents and in the 21 F1 hybrids in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design, with 12 replications. The reactions to the disease were evaluated 20 days after the inoculation, always on the most infected leaflet. Both GCA and SCA were significant for all the evaluated characters, being inferred that, for the expression of the characters, the additive, dominant and, possibly, epistatic genic actions were important. The largest values of estimated SCA effect (ij were observed in the hybrid combinations where at least one parent presented high GCA. Cristalina, Davis and Uberaba cultivars showed the largest estimates for GCA effect (i, and from the analysis of ii, the contribution of these parents to heterosis of their hybrids will be towards the reduction of the disease symptoms. Therefore, these cultivars are indicated as parents in breeding programs that seek the development of soybean cultivars with resistance to frogeye leaf spot.

  3. Silica Coated Paper Substrate for Paper-Spray Analysis of Therapeutic Drugs in Dried Blood Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Xu, Wei; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Paper spray is a newly developed ambient ionization method that has been applied for direct qualitative and quantitative analysis of biological samples. The properties of the paper substrate and spray solution have a significant impact on the release of chemical compounds from complex sample matrices, the diffusion of the analytes through the substrate, and the formation of ions for mass spectrometry analysis. In this study, a commercially available silica-coated paper was explored in an attempt to improve the analysis of therapeutic drugs in dried blood spots (DBS). The dichloromethane/isopropanol solvent has been identified as an optimal spray solvent for the analysis. The comparison was made with paper spray using chromatography paper as substrate with methanol/water as solvent for the analysis of verapamil, citalopram, amitriptyline, lidocaine and sunitinib in dried blood spots. It has been demonstrated the efficiency of recovery of the analytes was notably improved with the silica coated paper and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for the drug analysis was 0.1 ng mL−1 using a commercial triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The use of silica paper substrate also resulted in a sensitivity improvement of 5-50 fold in comparison with chromatography papers, including the Whatmann ET31 paper used for blood card. Analysis using a handheld miniature mass spectrometer Mini 11 gave LOQs of 10~20 ng mL−1 for the tested drugs, which is sufficient to cover the therapeutic ranges of these drugs. PMID:22145627

  4. Use of the T-spot.TB test for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amodeo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Tuberculosis (TB represents a major health problem both in developing and both in industrialized countries.The identification of individuals latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb play a key role for the efficacy of TB control. These individuals with a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI, especially those with high risk of reactivation (e.g. HIV + / AIDS-infected individuals, patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy and children younger than 5 years could benefit from a preventive treatment with isoniazid reducing the risk of progression from LTBI to active TB. Until recently, detection of LTBI has relied on the tuberculin skin test (TST, but despite the widespread use in clinical practice,TST does not reliably diagnose LTBI because several drawbacks, e.g. lacking in specificity, particularly in who were exposed to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM or were vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG In addition, in young subjects,TST sensitivity is hampered by impaired T cell function leading frequently to false negative results.These several drawbacks limit the use of TST for the diagnose an LTBI in patients who may benefit from preventive chemotherapy. On the other hand, an accurate diagnosis of LTBI avoid the over-treatment of those patients with a positive TST results but not latently infected with Mtb. Recently, new tests based on the detection of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ after stimulation with Mtb-specific antigens: Early secretory Antigenic Target-6 (ESAT-6 and Culture Filtrate Protein-10 (CFP-10 have been proposed for the diagnosis of active TB and LTBI. Methods: During the period from January 2009 to June 2009, in our laboratory 70 patients were tested with T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotech, Abingdon, United Kingdom.We enrolled transplant patients and subjects ongoing transplant, patients immigrants from high prevalence TB countries, patients screened for immunosuppressive treatment, HIV / AIDS – infected

  5. Development of a test method for determining the cracking susceptibility of resistance spot welded high strength steel sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    In this study a test method for determining the cracking susceptibility of resistance spot welded high strength steel sheets was investigated. The development of a suitable test procedure is based on the External-Loaded Hot Crack Test (PVC-Test). The test modification for resistance spot welding contains a constant tensile force load. The test method for determining the cracking susceptibility was experimentally verified for a high strength steel, a transformation induced plasticity steel (TR...

  6. The analysis of spot welding joints of steel sheets with closed profile by ultrasonic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Ulbrich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance spot welding is widely used in the fabrication of vehicle bodies and parts of their equipment. The article presents the methodology and the results of non-destructive ultrasonic testing of resistance spot welded joints of thin steel sheet with closed profile. Non-destructive test results were verified on the basis of welded joint area after destructive testing. The obtained results were used to develop an assessment technique for spot welded joints of closed profile with steel sheet, which could be used in factories employing such joints. In addition, the article makes comparison between the costs of the developed assessment technique and currently used destructive method.

  7. Testing Co-Volatility Spillovers for Natural Gas Spot, Futures and ETF Spot using Dynamic Conditional Covariances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y. Wang (Yanghuiting)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThere is substantial empirical evidence that energy and financial markets are closely connected. As one of the most widely-used energy resources worldwide, natural gas has a large daily trading volume. In order to hedge the risk of natural gas spot markets, a large number of hedging

  8. High resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridisation analysis using spotted oligonucleotides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, B; Ouwerkerk, E; Meijer, G.A.; Ylstra, B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, comparative genomic hybridisation array (array CGH) is the method of choice for studying genome wide DNA copy number changes. To date, either amplified representations of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)/phage artificial chromosomes (PACs) or cDNAs have been spotted as

  9. Hot spot analysis applied to identify ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva

    2016-04-01

    Hot spot analysis are very useful to identify areas with similar characteristics. This is important for a sustainable use of the territory, since we can identify areas that need to be protected, or restored. This is a great advantage in terms of land use planning and management, since we can allocate resources, reduce the economical costs and do a better intervention in the landscape. Ecosystem services (ES) are different according land use. Since landscape is very heterogeneous, it is of major importance understand their spatial pattern and where are located the areas that provide better ES and the others that provide less services. The objective of this work is to use hot-spot analysis to identify areas with the most valuable ES in Lithuania. CORINE land-cover (CLC) of 2006 was used as the main spatial information. This classification uses a grid of 100 m resolution and extracted a total of 31 land use types. ES ranking was carried out based on expert knowledge. They were asked to evaluate the ES potential of each different CLC from 0 (no potential) to 5 (very high potential). Hot spot analysis were evaluated using the Getis-ord test, which identifies cluster analysis available in ArcGIS toolbox. This tool identifies areas with significantly high low values and significant high values at a p level of 0.05. In this work we used hot spot analysis to assess the distribution of providing, regulating cultural and total (sum of the previous 3) ES. The Z value calculated from Getis-ord was used to statistical analysis to access the clusters of providing, regulating cultural and total ES. ES with high Z value show that they have a high number of cluster areas with high potential of ES. The results showed that the Z-score was significantly different among services (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA =834. 607, pcultural (0.080±1.979) and regulating (0.076±1.961). These results suggested that providing services are more clustered than the remaining. Ecosystem Services Z score were

  10. Detection, Tracking and Analysis of Turbulent Spots and Other Coherent Structures in Unsteady Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalle, Jacques; Ashpis, David (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Transition on turbine blades is an important factor in the determination of eventual flow separation and engine performance. The phenomenon is strongly affected by unsteady flow conditions (wake passing). It is likely that some physics of unsteadiness should be included in advanced models, but it is unclear which properties would best embody this information. In this paper, we use a GEAE experimental database in unsteady transition to test some tools of spot identification, tracking and characterization. In this preliminary study, we identify some parameters that appear to be insensitive to wake passing effects, such as convection speed, and others more likely to require unsteady modeling. The main findings are that wavelet duration can be used as a measure of spot size, and that spot energy density is most closely correlated to the wake passing. The energy density is also correlated to spot size, but spot size appears unrelated to the phase angle. Recommendations are made for further study.

  11. Statistical analysis of Nomao customer votes for spots of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálovics, Róbert; Daróczy, Bálint; Benczúr, András; Pap, Julia; Ermann, Leonardo; Phan, Samuel; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of votes of customers for spots of France collected by the startup company Nomao. The frequencies of votes per spot and per customer are characterized by a power law distribution which remains stable on a time scale of a decade when the number of votes is varied by almost two orders of magnitude. Using the computer science methods we explore the spectrum and the eigenvalues of a matrix containing user ratings to geolocalized items. Eigenvalues nicely map to large towns and regions but show certain level of instability as we modify the interpretation of the underlying matrix. We evaluate imputation strategies that provide improved prediction performance by reaching geographically smooth eigenvectors. We point on possible links between distribution of votes and the phenomenon of self-organized criticality.

  12. Analysis of lattice spots dazzling to CCD irradiated by CW laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rongzhen; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Hua; Ren, Guangsen; Hao, Yongwang

    2017-05-01

    The dazzling phenomena such as point saturation, line crosstalk present successively when laser irradiates on the CCD camera. We use CW laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm to irradiate the interline transfer area array CCD, CCD emerges lattice spots under the lens focusing. Based on geometrical optics, we use theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to study the mechanization of lattice spots. Laser jamming effects to the same CCD are different between 532 nm and 1064 nm. This is because the 532 nm laser diffracts with the chip, while 1064 nm laser interferences with its reflected light in the transmission process. Meanwhile, the mechanization of the ring surrounding the main spot is analyzed.

  13. Automated detection and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization spots depicted in digital microscopic images of Pap-smear specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has been widely recognized as a promising molecular and biomedical optical imaging tool to screen and diagnose cervical cancer. However, manual FISH analysis is time-consuming and may introduce large inter-reader variability. In this study, a computerized scheme is developed and tested. It automatically detects and analyzes FISH spots depicted on microscopic fluorescence images. The scheme includes two stages: (1) a feature-based classification rule to detect useful interphase cells, and (2) a knowledge-based expert classifier to identify splitting FISH spots and improve the accuracy of counting independent FISH spots. The scheme then classifies detected analyzable cells as normal or abnormal. In this study, 150 FISH images were acquired from Pap-smear specimens and examined by both an experienced cytogeneticist and the scheme. The results showed that (1) the agreement between the cytogeneticist and the scheme was 96.9% in classifying between analyzable and unanalyzable cells (Kappa=0.917), and (2) agreements in detecting normal and abnormal cells based on FISH spots were 90.5% and 95.8% with Kappa=0.867. This study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH analysis, which may potentially improve detection efficiency and produce more accurate and consistent results than manual FISH analysis.

  14. Analysis of ripple formation in single crystal spot welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappaz, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab de Metallurgie Physique; Corrigan, D.; Boatner, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

    1997-10-01

    Stationary spot welds have been made at the (001) surface of Fe-l5%Ni-15%Cr single crystals using a Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA). On the top surface of the spot welds, very regular and concentric ripples were observed after solidification by differential interference color microscopy. Their height (typically 1--5 {micro}m) and spacing (typically {approximately} 60 {micro}m) decreased with the radius of the pool. These ripples were successfully accounted for in terms of capillary-wave theory using the fundamental mode frequency f{sub 0} given by the first zero of the zero-order Bessel function. The spacing d between the ripples was then equated to v{sub s}/f{sub 0}, where v{sub s} is the solidification rate. From the measured ripple spacing, the velocity of the pool was deduced as a function of the radius, and this velocity was in good agreement with the results of a heat-flow simulation.

  15. Beta Testing StraboSpot: Perspectives on mobile field mapping and data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunse, E.; Graham, K. A.; Rufledt, C.; Walker, J. D.; Müller, A.; Tikoff, B.

    2017-12-01

    Geologic field mapping has recently transitioned away from traditional techniques (e.g. field notebooks, paper mapping, Brunton compasses) and towards mobile `app' mapping technology. The StraboSpot system (Strabo) is an open-source solution for collection and storage for geologic field, microstructural, and lab-based data. Strabo's mission is to "enable recording and sharing data within the geoscience community, encourage interdisciplinary research, and facilitate the investigation of scientific questions that cannot currently be addressed" (Walker et al., 2015). Several mobile application beta tests of the system, on both Android and Apple iOS platforms using smartphones and tablets, began in Summer 2016. Students at the 2016 and 2017 University of Kansas Field Camps used Strabo in place of ArcGIS for Desktop on Panasonic Toughbooks, to field map two study areas. Strabo was also field tested by students of graduate and undergraduate level for both geo/thermochronologic sample collection and reconnaissance mapping associated with regional tectonic analysis in California. Throughout this period of testing, the app was geared toward structural and tectonic geologic data collection, but is versatile enough for other communities to currently use and is expanding to accommodate the sedimentology and petrology communities. Overall, users in each of the beta tests acclimated quickly to using Strabo for field data collection. Some key advantages to using Strabo over traditional mapping methods are: (1) Strabo allows for consolidation of materials in the field; (2) helps students track their position in the field with integrated GPS; and (3) Strabo data is in a uniform format making it simple for geologists to collaborate. While traditional field methods are not likely to go out of style in the near future, Strabo acts as a bridge between professional and novice geologists by providing a tool that is intuitive on all levels of geological and technological experience and

  16. Robust model-based analysis of single-particle tracking experiments with Spot-On.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anders S; Woringer, Maxime; Grimm, Jonathan B; Lavis, Luke D; Tjian, Robert; Darzacq, Xavier

    2018-01-04

    Single-particle tracking (SPT) has become an important method to bridge biochemistry and cell biology since it allows direct observation of protein binding and diffusion dynamics in live cells. However, accurately inferring information from SPT studies is challenging due to biases in both data analysis and experimental design. To address analysis bias, we introduce 'Spot-On', an intuitive web-interface. Spot-On implements a kinetic modeling framework that accounts for known biases, including molecules moving out-of-focus, and robustly infers diffusion constants and subpopulations from pooled single-molecule trajectories. To minimize inherent experimental biases, we implement and validate stroboscopic photo-activation SPT (spaSPT), which minimizes motion-blur bias and tracking errors. We validate Spot-On using experimentally realistic simulations and show that Spot-On outperforms other methods. We then apply Spot-On to spaSPT data from live mammalian cells spanning a wide range of nuclear dynamics and demonstrate that Spot-On consistently and robustly infers subpopulation fractions and diffusion constants. © 2018, Hansen et al.

  17. A digital image method of spot tests for determination of copper in sugar cane spirits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Kenia Dias; Suarez, Willian Toito; dos Reis, Marina Ferreira; de Oliveira Krambeck Franco, Mathews; Moreira, Renata Pereira Lopes; dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra

    2017-10-01

    In this work the development and validation of analytical methodology for determination of copper in sugarcane spirit samples is carried out. The digital image based (DIB) method was applied along with spot test from the colorimetric reaction employing the RGB color model. For the determination of copper concentration, it was used the cuprizone - a bidentate organic reagent - which forms with copper a blue chelate in an alkaline medium. A linear calibration curve over the concentration range from 0.75 to 5.00 mg L- 1 (r2 = 0.9988) was obtained and limits of detection and quantification of 0.078 mg L- 1 and 0.26 mg L- 1 were acquired, respectively. For the accuracy studies, recovery percentages ranged from 98 to 104% were obtained. The comparison of cooper concentration results in sugar cane spirits using the DIB method and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry as reference method showed no significant differences between both methods, which were performed using the paired t-test in 95% of confidence level. Thus, the spot test method associated with DIB allows the use of devices as digital cameras and smartphones to evaluate colorimetric reaction with low waste generation, practicality, quickness, accuracy, precision, high portability and low-cost.

  18. Validation of the "Six Step Spot Test" for gait among patients with multiple sclerosis in Brazil Validação do teste de marcha "Six Step Spot Test" em pacientes com esclerose múltipla no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pavan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS are variable among patients, and the course of disease is not linear. Different symptoms are presented, with gradual accumulation of disability. These variations are difficult to quantify in clinical practice, and several studies have attempted to create instruments capable of measuring these disabilities. The Six Step Spot Test (SSST was developed for quantitative evaluation of the lower limbs (LL over time. Performance in this test reflects the complexity of sensory-motor function, including LL strength, spasticity, coordination and balance, going beyond vision and cognition. The aim of the present study was to validate the SSST in a population of MS patients in Brazil. This prospective study included 75 patients with MS, with EDSS 0 to 6.5 in the study group. Ninety-one healthy subjects were randomly selected for the control group. The results showed that the groups were similar, and that the SSST is a reliable and reproducible test. According to the statistical analysis on the data in this study, the SSST is a valid, reliable and reproducible tool for use in the Brazilian MS patient population.As manifestações clínicas da esclerose múltipla (EM são variáveis e o curso da doença não é linear, caracterizado por sintomas, acúmulo progressivo de incapacidades. Estas variações são difíceis de quantificar na prática clínica, motivo pelo qual surgiram diversos estudos para criação de instrumentos capazes de mensurar essas incapacidades. O Six Step Spot Test (SSST foi desenvolvido para avaliar função dos membros inferiores (MMII de forma quantitativa, mensurado no domínio tempo, avaliando a complexa função sensório-motora, como força em MMII, espasticidade, coordenação e equilíbrio, além da visão e cognição. Este estudo teve como objetivo validar o SSST para pacientes com EM no Brasil. Estudo prospectivo do qual participaram 75 pacientes com EM e EDSS de 0 a 6,5 no

  19. Volumetric Analysis of 3-D-Cultured Colonies in Wet Alginate Spots Using 384-Pillar Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Woo; Choi, Yea-Jun; Lee, Sang-Yun; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Doh, Il; Ryu, Gyu Ha; Choi, Soo-Mi

    2017-10-01

    The volumetric analysis of three-dimensional (3-D)-cultured colonies in alginate spots has been proposed to increase drug efficacy. In a previously developed pillar/well chip platform, colonies within spots are usually stained and dried for analysis of cell viability using two-dimensional (2-D) fluorescent images. Since the number of viable cells in colonies is directly related to colony volume, we proposed the 3-D analysis of colonies for high-accuracy cell viability calculation. The spots were immersed in buffer, and the 3-D volume of each colony was calculated from the 2-D stacking fluorescent images of the spot with different focal positions. In the experiments with human gastric carcinoma cells and anticancer drugs, we compared cell viability values calculated using the 2-D area and 3-D volume of colonies in the wet and dried alginate spots, respectively. The IC 50 value calculated using the 3-D volume of the colonies (9.5 μM) was less than that calculated in the 2-D area analysis (121.5 μM). We observed that the colony showed a more sensitive drug response regarding volume calculated from the 3-D image reconstructed using several confocal images than regarding colony area calculated in the 2-D analysis.

  20. Genotoxic evaluation of two oral antidiabetic agents in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Çapoğlu, Ilyas; Kızılet, Halit; Halıcı, Zekai; Özçiçek, Fatih; Demirtaş, Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this study, two sulfonylureas--glimepiride and glipizide--commonly used in type 2 diabetes mellitus were investigated for genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing spot test. For this purpose, three-day-old transheterozygous larvae were treated with three mutagenic compounds, and the results obtained were compared with the control group. Mutational or recombinogenic changes were recorded in two recessive genes--multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr (3)). Two recessive markers were located on the left arm of chromosome 3, mwh in map position 0.3, and flare-3 (flr3) at 38.8, while the centromere was located in position 47.7. Wing spot tests are targeted on the loss of heterozygosity, which may be grounded in different genetic mechanisms such as mutation, mitotic recombination, deletion, half-translocation, chromosome loss, or nondisjunction. Genetic changes formatting in somatic cells of the imaginal discs cause nascence different mutant cloning in different body parts of adult flies. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated that glimepiride and glipizide show the genotoxicity, which is especially dependent on homologous somatic recombination.

  1. A time-series analysis of the crude oil spot and futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Jing.

    1990-01-01

    First, the existence of the relationship is tested. Second, after the relationship is established, it is tested to determine the direction of causality. Most of previous research on this issue ignored the first step, and the existence of the relationship was taken for granted. Unfortunately, however, this assumption is not justified since it does not necessarily hold. The first relationship investigated in this study is between the crude oil spot and futures prices. It is found that spot price leads futures prices instead of the futures price providing information on the spot price. Two additional relationships studied are those between the OPEC oil supply and the futures prices and that between the same supply and spot prices. In the case of OPEC supply and spot prices, a self-adaptive model with supply interruption dummy variables is introduced to study the price behavior. It is found that prices follow an adaptive process, that is, the previous price information offers powerful influence on the current price

  2. Analysis of Structure and Shear/Peel Strength of Refill Friction Stir Spot Welded 7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Kluz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the macrostructure and mechanical properties of spot welds of joints made by Refill Friction Spot Stir Welding (RFSSW method. RFSSW is a relatively new technology that gaining wider use in not only the automotive and aviation industries because it is a less energy intensive method than resistance spot welding. The primary focus of the article is the effect of welding time on the quality of the welded joints of sheet metal using the aforementioned method. The research was conducted on a joint between two pieces of sheet metal of various thicknesses (1.6mm and 0.8mm made of the common aviation grade aluminium alloy 7075-T6 Alclad. Metallographic sections of select variants were made in order to analyze the structure of the joint. Strength tests with a static load were conducted in different loading configurations. A traditional tensile strength test was conducted on the lap joint, which revealed a complex stress state within the joint and an analogous test was conducted with the use of a stiffening holder that ensured a pure shear state in the joint. Peel tests were also performed on the lap joints with using a special holder.

  3. Does Vitamin D Supplementation Enhance Musculoskeletal Performance in Individuals Identified as Vitamin D Deficient through Blood Spot Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kellie A.

    This thesis investigated possible changes in performance after one month of vitamin D supplementation in individuals found to be vitamin D deficient or insufficient through blood spot testing. Thirty-two males, ages 18-32, participated. Each subject visited the lab three times in one-month, completing four performance tests each session, including an isometric mid-thigh pull and a vertical jump on a force plate, a isometric 90-degree elbow flexion test using a load cell, and a psychomotor vigilance test on a palm pilot. The initial lab included blood spot tests to find vitamin D levels. In a single blind manner, 16 subjects were assigned vitamin D and 16 the placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=2.626, p=0.364), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.282, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.304, p=0.999) for maximum force production during an isometric mid-thigh pull. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.323, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.510, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.625, p=0.860) for rate of force production during a vertical jump. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.194, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=2.452, p=0.513), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.179, p=0.999) for maximal force production during a 90-degree isometric elbow flexion. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.710, p=0.804), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.471, p=0.94), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 0.293, p=0.999) for mean reaction time to random stimuli during the psychomotor vigilance test. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.530, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.141, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.784 p=0

  4. Genotoxicity of lapachol evaluated by wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wender Ferreira Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the genotoxicity of Lapachol (LAP evaluated by wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster in the descendants from standard (ST and high bioactivation (HB crosses. This assay detects the loss of heterozygosity of marker genes expressed phenotypically on the fly's wings. Drosophila has extensive genetic homology to mammals, which makes it a suitable model organism for genotoxic investigations. Three-day-old larvae from ST crosses (females flr³/TM3, Bd s x males mwh/mwh, with basal levels of the cytochrome P450 and larvae of high metabolic bioactivity capacity (HB cross (females ORR; flr³/TM3, Bd s x males mwh/mwh, were used. The results showed that LAP is a promutagen, exhibiting genotoxic activity in larvae from the HB cross. In other words, an increase in the frequency of spots is exclusive of individuals with a high level of the cytochrome P450. The results also indicate that recombinogenicity is the main genotoxic event induced by LAP.

  5. Genotoxicity of lapachol evaluated by wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Wender Ferreira; de Oliveira, Alaide Braga; Nepomuceno, Júlio César

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the genotoxicity of Lapachol (LAP) evaluated by wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster in the descendants from standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses. This assay detects the loss of heterozygosity of marker genes expressed phenotypically on the fly's wings. Drosophila has extensive genetic homology to mammals, which makes it a suitable model organism for genotoxic investigations. Three-day-old larvae from ST crosses (females flr(3)/TM3, Bd(s) x males mwh/mwh), with basal levels of the cytochrome P450 and larvae of high metabolic bioactivity capacity (HB cross) (females ORR; flr(3)/TM3, Bd(s) x males mwh/mwh), were used. The results showed that LAP is a promutagen, exhibiting genotoxic activity in larvae from the HB cross. In other words, an increase in the frequency of spots is exclusive of individuals with a high level of the cytochrome P450. The results also indicate that recombinogenicity is the main genotoxic event induced by LAP.

  6. False-positive result when a diphenylcarbazide spot test is used on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reveko, Valeriia; Lampert, Felix; Din, Rameez Ud

    2018-01-01

    A colorimetric 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC)-based spot test can be used to identify hexavalent chromium on various metallic and leather surfaces. DPC testing on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces has unexpectedly given positive results in some cases, apparently indicating the presence...... was used for the initial detection of hexavalent chromium on new and 1-year-aged trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces. Then, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed for all samples. Results The DPC spot test indicated the presence of hexavalent chromium in aged, but not new, trivalent...

  7. Assessing genotoxicity of diuron on Drosophila melanogaster by the wing-spot test and the wing imaginal disk comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Vega, Ricardo I; Castañeda-Sortibrán, América N; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio; Rodríguez-Arnaiz, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of the herbicide diuron in the wing-spot test and a novel wing imaginal disk comet assay in Drosophila melanogaster. The wing-spot test was performed with standard (ST) and high-bioactivation (HB) crosses after providing chronic 48 h treatment to third instar larvae. A positive dose-response effect was observed in both crosses, but statistically reduced spot frequencies were registered for the HB cross compared with the ST. This latter finding suggests that metabolism differences play an important role in the genotoxic effect of diuron. To verify diuron's ability to produce DNA damage, a wing imaginal disk comet assay was performed after providing 24 h diuron treatment to ST and HB third instar larvae. DNA damage induced by the herbicide had a significantly positive dose-response effect even at very low concentrations in both strains. However, as noted for the wing-spot test, a significant difference between strains was not observed that could be related to the duration of exposure between both assays. A positive correlation between the comet assay and the wing-spot test was found with regard to diuron genotoxicity.

  8. The impact of Australian ETS news on wholesale spot electricity prices: An exploratory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Julien

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of news concerning the development of emissions trading in Australia (such as the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)) on wholesale electricity spot prices, by using a database of 117 news announcements from December 1, 1998 to July 1, 2009. As power producers constitute the bulk of the participants of the proposed Australian emissions trading scheme, regulatory changes (about allocation, banking, coverage, targets) are indeed likely to affect the five interconnected electricity markets in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania. We assess these effects with an ARMA(1,1)-GARCH(1,1) model, where daily electricity spot prices are regressed against exogenous variables in the mean and variance equations. This article constitutes the first empirical analysis of Australian ETS news effects on electricity wholesale spot prices. Our results show two asymmetric types of news effects, depending on their information content.

  9. Analysis of ochratoxin A in dried blood spots - Correlation between venous and finger-prick blood, the influence of hematocrit and spotted volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteresch, Bernd; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    We report the improvement of a method for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2'R-ochratoxin A in dried blood spots (DBS) by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The DBS technique was advanced for the analysis of these two compounds in DBS with unknown amounts of blood as well as varying hematocrit values. Furthermore the comparability of venous vs. capillary blood was investigated. Human whole blood samples were spotted, dried, and extracted with a solvent consisting of acetone, acetonitrile and water for analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. Quantification was carried out by stable isotope labelled internal standards. Blood samples of volunteers (n=50) were used to further optimize and simplify the procedure. Ochratoxin A and 2'R-ochratoxin A concentrations found in the entire spots (approx. 100 μL blood) were compared with punched DBS discs of 8.8mm size containing approximately 20 μL blood. As a result the amounts of both toxins in a punched 8.8mm disc correlate well with the entire DBS. Also the use of capillary blood from finger-pricks versus venous blood was evaluated. The analyte levels correlate as well indicating that the less invasive finger-prick sampling gives also reliable results. The influence of hematocrit was investigated in a range of 25-55% according to the hematocrit in the used real blood samples (34-46% hematocrit). However no significant hematocrit effect was observed for the utilized real blood samples. Moreover different blood volumes were spotted and punched as a minimal spot size is usually recommended for accurate analysis. In this experiment finger-prick samples typically consist of about 90 μL blood. Therefore spots of 75, 100 and 125 μL blood were prepared and analyzed. Similar to the hematocrit effect, no considerable influence was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum HRP2 ELISA for analysis of dried blood spot samples in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lauren E; Markwalter, Christine F; Kimmel, Danielle W; Mudenda, Lwiindi; Mbambara, Saidon; Thuma, Philip E; Wright, David W

    2017-08-23

    Dried blood spots are commonly used for sample collection in clinical and non-clinical settings. This method is simple, and biomolecules in the samples remain stable for months at room temperature. In the field, blood samples for the study and diagnosis of malaria are often collected on dried blood spot cards, so development of a biomarker extraction and analysis method is needed. A simple extraction procedure for the malarial biomarker Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) from dried blood spots was optimized to achieve maximum extraction efficiency. This method was used to assess the stability of HRP2 in dried blood spots. Furthermore, 328 patient samples made available from rural Zambia were analysed for HRP2 using the developed method. These samples were collected at the initial administration of artemisinin-based combination therapy and at several points following treatment. An average extraction efficiency of 70% HRP2 with a low picomolar detection limit was achieved. In specific storage conditions HRP2 was found to be stable in dried blood spots for at least 6 months. Analysis of patient samples showed the method to have a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 89% when compared with microscopy, and trends in HRP2 clearance after treatment were observed. The dried blood spot ELISA for HRP2 was found to be sensitive, specific and accurate. The method was effectively used to assess biomarker clearance characteristics in patient samples, which prove it to be ideal for gaining further insight into the disease and epidemiological applications.

  11. Performance of iron spot test with Arabic bread made from fortified white wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Erin; Aburto, Nancy; Masa'd, Hanan; Wirth, James; Sullivan, Kevin; Serdula, Mary

    2012-09-01

    The iron spot test (IST) is a simple qualitative technique for determining the presence of added iron in fortified flour. IST performance in bread has never been investigated. If found to perform well, the IST has the potential to provide a field-friendly method for testing bread and thus support the monitoring and evaluation of flour fortification programs. To assess the performance of the IST in Arabic bread made from white wheat flour. Bread samples were collected from 1,737 households during a national micronutrient survey in Jordan. A subsample of Arabic bread (n = 44) was systematically selected for testing by both the IST and spectrophotometry (criterion reference). Performance measures (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) were calculated using five cutoffs to define the presence of added iron, including > or = 15.0 ppm (approximate level of natural iron in Arabic bread) and four additional cutoffs based on test performance. The iron contents of samples testing negative by IST ranged from 10.4 to 18.4 ppm, with one outlier at 41.0 ppm, which was excluded from subsequent analyses. The iron contents of samples testing positive by IST ranged from 16.1 to 38.4 ppm. With the exception of negative predictive values for the two lowest cutoffs (> or = 15.0 and > or = 16.1 ppm), all performance measures exceeded 83.3%. These results show promise for the IST as an inexpensive, field-friendly method for testing bread that could have a useful role in the monitoring and evaluation process for flour fortification programs.

  12. Immune trypanolysis test with blood spotted on filter paper for epidemiological surveillance of sleeping sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Oumou; Camara, Mamadou; Lejon, Veerle; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Sakande, Hassane; Léno, Mamadou; Büscher, Philippe; Bucheton, Bruno; Jamonneau, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    The immune trypanolysis test (TL) is an accurate sero-diagnostic tool increasingly implemented for sleeping sickness medical surveillance, but it is restricted to the reference laboratories. To facilitate storage and transport of the test specimen, we developed a protocol for the examination of blood spotted on filter paper (TL-fp) that can be stored and shipped at ambient temperature. We compared its performance with the classical TL on plasma (TL-pl) that needs to be kept frozen until use. The study was conducted in active foci of the Republic of Guinea. In total, 438 specimens from treated and untreated sleeping sickness patients and serological suspects were tested with both methods. TL-fp gave significantly less positive results than TL-pl, but all the confirmed sleeping sickness cases were positive with the TL-fp protocol. TL-fp appears to offer a good compromise between feasibility and sensitivity to detect currently infected subjects who play a role in the transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and is useful for contributing to the elimination of gambiense sleeping sickness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Spot Variance Path Estimation and its Application to High Frequency Jump Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.S.; Janus, P.; Koopman, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers spot variance path estimation from datasets of intraday high-frequency asset prices in the presence of diurnal variance patterns, jumps, leverage effects, and microstructure noise. We rely on parametric and nonparametric methods. The estimated spot variance path can be used to

  14. 3-D thermal stress analysis of hot spots in reactor piping using BEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, R.S.; Sugimoto, Jun

    1994-08-01

    A three-dimensional steady state thermoelastic analysis has been conducted on the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor(PWR) containing localized hot spots resulting from fission product aerosol deposition occurring during a hypothetical severe accident. The boundary element method (BEM) of numerical solution was successfully employed to investigate the structural response of the hot leg. Convergence of solution can be realized provided sufficiently large number of elements are employed and correct modelling of the temperature transition region (TTR) adjacent to the hot spot on the inner surface is conducted. The only correct temperature field across the TTR is that which can be represented by the interpolation functions employed in the BEM code. Further, incorrect solutions can also be generated if the TTR is too thin. The nature of the deformation at the hot spot location depends on whether the thermal boundary condition on the outer surface of the hot leg is one of constant temperature or adiabatic. The analysis shows that at the location of the hot spot on the inner surface large compressive stresses can be established. On the outer surface at the same location, large tensile stresses can be established. The presence of these large stress elevations in the vicinity of the hot spot could be detrimental to the integrity of the hot leg. The tensile stresses are extremely important since they can act as sites of crack initiation and subsequent propagation. Once a crack propagates through the thickness, leak worthiness of the hot leg comes into question. Consequently, additional analysis incorporating the effects of plasticity and temperature dependence of the material properties must be conducted to ascertain the integrity of the hot leg. (J.P.N.)

  15. An efficient in vitro test to determine carrot genotypes resistance to cavity spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelon, S; Vandemoortele, J L

    2001-01-01

    As part of a carrot breeding programme, our objective was to develop a test for determining genotypes resistance against two Pythium species responsible for cavity spot. Ten different media were tested for carrot callus culture, Pythium culture and dual cultures. Carrot callus growth was greater on Murashige and Skoog medium plus 1.25 microM 2.4D plus 2.5 microM BA plus 2.5 microM NAA. Pythium violae was more sensitive to medium composition than Pythium sulcatum. When carrot callus were inoculated by Pythium violae or sulcatum on Murashige and Skoog mineral medium, callus growth of Bolero, an resistant cultivar in the field, was highly inhibited whereas Nanco, a susceptible cultivar was not. Such a medium should be used for screening genotypes resistance to Pythium. A Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.25 microM 2.4D, 2.5 microM BA and 2.5 microM NAA, where callus growth was highly reduced whatever the genotype used, should be useful for selection of cell lines tolerant to Pythium.

  16. High explosive spot test analyses of samples from Operable Unit (OU) 1111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, D.; Haywood, W.; Powell, J.; Harris, B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation has been completed of environmental contaminants at selected sites within the Group DX-10 (formally Group M-7) area. Soil samples taken from specific locations at this detonator facility were analyzed for harmful metals and screened for explosives. A sanitary outflow, a burn pit, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) production outflow field, an active firing chamber, an inactive firing chamber, and a leach field were sampled. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to obtain semi-quantitative concentrations of metals in the soil. Two field spot-test kits for explosives were used to assess the presence of energetic materials in the soil and in items found at the areas tested. PETN is the major explosive in detonators manufactured and destroyed at Los Alamos. No measurable amounts of PETN or other explosives were detected in the soil, but items taken from the burn area and a high-energy explosive (HE)/chemical sump were contaminated. The concentrations of lead, mercury, and uranium are given.

  17. Spotted cotton oligonucleotide microarrays for gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nettleton Dan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays offer a powerful tool for diverse applications plant biology and crop improvement. Recently, two comprehensive assemblies of cotton ESTs were constructed based on three Gossypium species. Using these assemblies as templates, we describe the design and creation and of a publicly available oligonucleotide array for cotton, useful for all four of the cultivated species. Results Synthetic oligonucleotide probes were generated from exemplar sequences of a global assembly of 211,397 cotton ESTs derived from >50 different cDNA libraries representing many different tissue types and tissue treatments. A total of 22,787 oligonucleotide probes are included on the arrays, optimized to target the diversity of the transcriptome and previously studied cotton genes, transcription factors, and genes with homology to Arabidopsis. A small portion of the oligonucleotides target unidentified protein coding sequences, thereby providing an element of gene discovery. Because many oligonucleotides were based on ESTs from fiber-specific cDNA libraries, the microarray has direct application for analysis of the fiber transcriptome. To illustrate the utility of the microarray, we hybridized labeled bud and leaf cDNAs from G. hirsutum and demonstrate technical consistency of results. Conclusion The cotton oligonucleotide microarray provides a reproducible platform for transcription profiling in cotton, and is made publicly available through http://cottonevolution.info.

  18. Assessment of chromium(VI) release from 848 jewellery items by use of a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Hamann, Dathan

    2016-01-01

    We recently evaluated and validated a diphenylcarbazide(DPC)-based screening spot test that can detect the release of chromium(VI) ions (≥0.5 ppm) from various metallic items and leather goods (1). We then screened a selection of metal screws, leather shoes, and gloves, as well as 50 earrings...

  19. Quantitative structure–activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: Wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroust, K.; Pavlová, M.; Prokop, Z.; Mendel, Jan; Božková, K.; Kubát, Z.; Zajíčková, V.; Damborský, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2007), s. 152-159 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : toxicity * wing spot test * QSAR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2007

  20. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  1. Hot-spot analysis for drug discovery targeting protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Mireia; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Protein-protein interactions are important for biological processes and pathological situations, and are attractive targets for drug discovery. However, rational drug design targeting protein-protein interactions is still highly challenging. Hot-spot residues are seen as the best option to target such interactions, but their identification requires detailed structural and energetic characterization, which is only available for a tiny fraction of protein interactions. Areas covered: In this review, the authors cover a variety of computational methods that have been reported for the energetic analysis of protein-protein interfaces in search of hot-spots, and the structural modeling of protein-protein complexes by docking. This can help to rationalize the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interfaces of therapeutic interest. Computational analysis and docking can help to locate the interface, molecular dynamics can be used to find suitable cavities, and hot-spot predictions can focus the search for inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Expert opinion: A major difficulty for applying rational drug design methods to protein-protein interactions is that in the majority of cases the complex structure is not available. Fortunately, computational docking can complement experimental data. An interesting aspect to explore in the future is the integration of these strategies for targeting PPIs with large-scale mutational analysis.

  2. Detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in erythrocytes: a spectrophotometric assay and a fluorescent spot test compared with a cytochemical method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, B. H.; Weening, R. S.; Schutgens, R. B.; van Noorden, C. J.; Vogels, I. M.; Nagelkerke, N. J.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a quantitative spectrophotometric enzyme assay, a fluorescent spot test and a cytochemical assay for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were compared systematically. The high sensitivity of the spectrophotometric assay and the fluorescent spot test in the detection of

  3. A 2D optomechanical focused laser spot scanner: analysis and experimental results for microstereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, P S; Deshmukh, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a 2D optomechanical-focused laser spot scanning system (patent pending) which allows uniform intensity focused spot scanning with high speed and high resolution over a large range of scan. Such scanning is useful where variation of focused spot characteristics affects the performance of applications such as micro-/nano-stereolithography, laser micro-machining, scanning optical tweezers, optical scanning microscopy, and so on. Proposed scanning is achieved by using linear movement of mirrors and lens maintaining the alignment of motion and optical axis of laser. Higher speed and high resolution at the same time are achieved by use of two serial double parallelogram flexural mechanisms with mechatronics developed around them. Optical analysis is carried out to demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed system numerically and is further supported by the experimental results. Additional analysis is carried out to demonstrate robustness of the scanner in the case of small misalignment errors incurred in actual practice. Although the proposed scanner is useful in general in several applications mentioned above, discussion in this paper is focused on microstereolithography

  4. Study of Proper Time Range for Current Flow to Resistance Spot Welding Inspected by Mechanical Property and Metallurgy Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearsura, Prachya

    2007-08-01

    Full text: This research used the mechanical property and metallurgy testing to identify the proper time range for current flow. The specimen tested was 1 mm thick mild steel. The welded specimens were tested by Tensile Shear testing following JIS Z 3136: 1999 and Macro Structure testing follow by JIS Z 3139: 1978. Subsequently, the results from analyzing were compared with standard JIS Z 3140. The results show that the suitable current flow is 8 to 10 cycles. This technique can be applied to monitor the process and the quality of resistance spot welding

  5. Analysis of Using Acoustic Microscopy to Evaluate Defects in Spot Welding Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korzeniowski M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the possibilities of using acoustic microscopy to evaluate defects in resistance spot welding joints. For this purpose, the welded joints were made from two grades of aluminium plates EN AW5754 H24 and EN AW6005 T606, which were then subjected to non-destructive testing using acoustic microscopy and conventional destructive testing using traditional light microscopy techniques. Additionally, the study examined the influence of the typical contaminants found in industrial conditions on the quality of the joint.

  6. Micro-CT analysis of naturally arrested brown spot enamel lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Mahdi; Swain, Michael V

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the mineral density parameters through natural enamel brown spot lesions (BSLs) and to visualize and map their mineral distribution pattern in comparison to enamel whitespot lesions (WSLs). Study specimens included seventeen proximal WSLs (ICDAS 1, 2), seventeen proximal BSLs and seventeen sound proximal specimens (ICDAS 0) collected from The Oral Surgery Department at Sydney Dental Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Imaging was undertaken using a high resolution, desktop micro-computed tomography system. A calibration equation was used to transform the grey level values of the images into true mineral density values. The qualitative analysis and the quantification of the lesion parameters including the mineral density and the thickness of the enamel lesion surface layer were performed using mineral density profiles plotted in FIJI and the visualized mineral maps in MATLAB respectively. The maps of brownspot lesions revealed irregular demineralization patterns with faint boundaries and outlines. The regular triangular shape of proximal lesions was recognizable only in some parts of individual BSLs or was completely unrecognizable within the entire lesion. Scattered free-form areas of high density enamel were observed within or close to the surface of BSLs. A layer of high density enamel with a mineral density close to that of sound enamel was observed in all of the BSLs. The mean mineral density of the body of BSLs, including the scattered areas of high mineral density, was significantly higher than the corresponding values in white-spot lesions. The mean thickness of the surface layer in BSLs (79±15μm) was also significantly higher than white-spot lesions (51±11μm) (p<0.05). This study demonstrated that the mineralization parameters such as density and the thickness of the surface layer as well as distribution patterns through natural enamel brown spot lesions (BSLs) are different from enamel white-spot lesions (WSLs). The

  7. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroust, Karel; Pavlová, Martina; Prokop, Zbynek; Mendel, Jan; Bozková, Katerina; Kubát, Zdenek; Zajícková, Veronika; Damborský, Jiri

    2007-02-01

    Halogenated aliphatic compounds were evaluated for toxic and genotoxic effects in the somatic mutation and recombination test employing Drosophila melanogaster. The tested chemicals included chlorinated, brominated and iodinated; mono-, di- and tri-substituted; saturated and unsaturated alkanes: 1,2-dibromoethane, 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1-iodopropane, 2,3-dichloropropene, 3-bromo-1-propene, epibromohydrin, 2-iodobutane, 3-chloro-2-methylpropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2-chloroethymethylether, 1-bromo-2-methylpropane and 1-chloropentane. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea served as the positive and distilled water as the negative control. The set of chemicals for the toxicological testing was selected by the use of statistical experiment design. Group of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally more toxic than saturated analogues. The genotoxic effect was observed with 14 compounds in the wing spot test, while 3 substances did not show any genotoxicity by using the wing spot test at 50% lethal concentration. The highest number of wing spots was observed in genotoxicity assay with 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1-iodopropane. Nucleophilic superdelocalizability calculated by quantum mechanics appears to be a good parameter for prediction of both toxicity and genotoxicity effects of halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  8. 8-spot smFRET analysis using two 8-pixel SPAD arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingargiola, Antonino; Panzeri, Francesco; Sarkosh, Niusha; Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Ghioni, Massimo; Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier

    2013-02-22

    Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) techniques are now widely used to address outstanding problems in biology and biophysics. In order to study freely diffusing molecules, current approaches consist in exciting a low concentration (pixel Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs). A large enough number of single-molecule bursts must be accumulated in order to compute FRET efficiencies with sufficient statistics. As a result, the minimum timescale of observable phenomena is set by the minimum acquisition time needed for accurate measurements, typically a few minutes or more, limiting this approach mostly to equilibrium studies. Increasing smFRET analysis throughput would allow studying dynamics with shorter timescales. We recently demonstrated a new multi-spot excitation approach, employing a novel multi-pixel SPAD array, using a simplified dual-view setup in which a single 8-pixel SPAD array was used to collect FRET data from 4 independent spots. In this work we extend our results to 8 spots and use two 8-SPAD arrays to collect donor and acceptor photons and demonstrate the capabilities of this system by studying a series of doubly labeled dsDNA samples with different donor-acceptor distances ranging from low to high FRET efficiencies. Our results show that it is possible to enhance the throughput of smFRET measurements in solution by almost one order of magnitude, opening the way for studies of single-molecule dynamics with fast timescale once larger SPAD arrays become available.

  9. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Fenneropenaeus chinensis hemocytes upon white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available To elucidate molecular responses of shrimp hemocytes to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was applied to investigate differentially expressed proteins in hemocytes of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis at 24 h post infection (hpi. Approximately 580 protein spots were detected in hemocytes of healthy and WSSV-infected shrimps. Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 26 protein spots were significantly up-regulated, and 19 spots were significantly down-regulated. By mass spectrometry, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO 1, cytosolic MnSOD, triosephosphate isomerase, tubulin alpha-1 chain, microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1, nuclear receptor E75 protein, vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B L form, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, arginine kinase, etc., amounting to 33 differentially modulated proteins were identified successfully. According to Gene Ontology annotation, the identified proteins were classified into nine categories, consisting of immune related proteins, stimulus response proteins, proteins involved in glucose metabolic process, cytoskeleton proteins, DNA or protein binding proteins, proteins involved in steroid hormone mediated signal pathway, ATP synthases, proteins involved in transmembrane transport and ungrouped proteins. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of three up-regulated proteins (SUMO, heat shock protein 70, and arginine kinase and one down-regulated protein (prophenoloxidase were further analyzed by real-time RT-PCR at the transcription level after WSSV infection. The results showed that SUMO and heat shock protein 70 were significantly up-regulated at each sampling time point, while arginine kinase was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 hpi. In contrast, prophenoloxidase was significantly down-regulated at each sampling time point. The results of this work provided preliminary data on proteins in shrimp hemocytes involved in WSSV infection.

  10. Technical Note: Validation of halo modeling for proton pencil beam spot scanning using a quality assurance test pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Liyong, E-mail: linl@uphs.upenn.edu; Huang, Sheng; Kang, Minglei; Solberg, Timothy D.; McDonough, James E.; Ainsley, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive test pattern in validating calculation models that include the halo component (low-dose tails) of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) spots. Such a pattern has been used previously for quality assurance purposes to assess spot shape, position, and dose. Methods: In this study, a scintillation detector was used to measure the test pattern in air at isocenter for two proton beam energies (115 and 225 MeV) of two IBA universal nozzles (UN #1 and UN #2). Planar measurements were compared with calculated dose distributions based on the weighted superposition of location-independent (UN #1) or location-dependent (UN #2) spot profiles, previously measured using a pair-magnification method and between two nozzles. Results: Including the halo component below 1% of the central dose is shown to improve the gamma-map comparison between calculation and measurement from 94.9% to 98.4% using 2 mm/2% criteria for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #1. In contrast, including the halo component below 1% of the central dose does not improve the gamma agreement for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #2, due to the cutoff of the halo component at off-axis locations. When location-dependent spot profiles are used for calculation instead of spot profiles at central axis, the gamma agreement is improved from 98.0% to 99.5% using 2 mm/2% criteria. The two nozzles clearly have different characteristics, as a direct comparison of measured data shows a passing rate of 89.7% for the 115 MeV proton beam. At 225 MeV, the corresponding gamma comparisons agree better between measurement and calculation, and between measurements in the two nozzles. Conclusions: In addition to confirming the primary component of individual PBS spot profiles, a comprehensive test pattern is useful for the validation of the halo component at off-axis locations, especially for low energy protons.

  11. Analysis of multiple access techniques in multi-satellite and multi-spot mobile satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Giovanni E.; Ferrarelli, Carlo; Vatalaro, Francesco

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the analysis of mobile satellite systems adopting constellations of multi-spot satellites over non-geostationary orbits is addressed. A link design procedure is outlined, taking into account system spectrum efficiency, probability of bit error and outage probability. A semi-analytic approach to the evaluation of outage probability in the presence of fading and imperfect power control is described, and applied to single channel per carrier (SCPC) and code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques. Some results are shown for the Globalstar, Iridium and Odyssey orbital configurations.

  12. Emerging Hot Spot Analysis of Tracking Data from a Logistics Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    2017-01-01

    and significantly about the location of the bottlenecks. This paper analyses whether such knowledge can be generated using tracking data from logistics companies. The chosen case region is North Jutland in Denmark, and the method deployed is emerging hot spot analysis on tracking data from approximately 1......,500 trailers provided by one large Danish logistics company for the period 2012-2016. This methodology is relatively new in the transport field and has never been used in a Danish context before, and the paper shows that by using the tracking data and this methodology it is possible to identify where freight...

  13. Vacuum Enhanced X-Ray Florescent Scanner Allows On-The-Spot Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center engineers have teamed with KeyMaster Technologies, Kennewick, Washington, to develop a portable vacuum analyzer that performs on-the-spot chemical analyses under field conditions, a task previously only possible in a chemical laboratory. The new capability is important not only to the aerospace industry, but holds potential for broad applications in any industry that depends on materials analysis, such as the automotive and pharmaceutical industries. Weighing in at a mere 4 pounds, the newly developed handheld vacuum X-ray fluorescent analyzer can identify and characterize a wide range of elements, and is capable of detecting chemical elements with low atomic numbers, such as sodium, aluminum and silicon. It is the only handheld product on the market with that capability. Aluminum alloy verification is of particular interest to NASA because vast amounts of high-strength aluminum alloys are used in the Space Shuttle propulsion system such as the External Tank, Main Engine, and Solid Rocket Boosters. This capability promises to be a boom to the aerospace community because of unique requirements, for instance, the need to analyze Space Shuttle propulsion systems on the launch pad. Those systems provide the awe-inspiring rocket power that propels the Space Shuttle from Earth into orbit in mere minutes. The scanner development also marks a major improvement in the quality assurance field, because screws, nuts, bolts, fasteners, and other items can now be evaluated upon receipt and rejected if found to be substandard. The same holds true for aluminum weld rods. The ability to validate the integrity of raw materials and partially finished products before adding value to them in the manufacturing process will be of benefit not only to businesses, but also to the consumer, who will have access to a higher value product at a cheaper price. Three vacuum X-ray scanners are already being used in the Space Shuttle Program. The External Tank Project

  14. Identification of the Thickness of Nugget on Worksheet Spot Welding Using Non Destructive Test (NDT) – Effect of Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifa, A.; Baskoro, A. S.; Sugeng, S.; Badruzzaman, B.; Endramawan, T.

    2018-02-01

    Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is a process of connecting between two worksheet with thermomechanical loading process, RSW is widely used in automotive industry, the quality of splicing spot welding is influenced by several factors. One of the factors at the time of the welding process is pressure. The quality of welding on the nuggets can be determined by undertaking non-destructive testing by using Non Destructive Test (NDT) - Ultrasonic Test. In the NDT test is done by detecting the thickness of the nugget area, the purpose of research conducted to determine the effect of pressure to welding quality with Nugget thickness gauge measurement with Non Destructive Test method and manual measurement with micrometer, Experimental welding process by entering the welding parameters that have been specified and pressure variables 1 -5 bars on the worksheet thickness of 1 mm. The results of testing with NDT show there is addition of thickness in nugget superiority after compare with measurement result of thickness of nugget with micrometer which slightly experience thickness in nugget area, this indicates that the welding results have a connection between worksheet 1 and worksheet 2.

  15. CFD Analysis for Hot Spot Fuel Temperature of Deep-Burn Modular Helium Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, Nam Il; Jo, Chang Keun; Jun, Ji Su; Kim, Min Hwan; Venneri, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    As an alternative concept of a conventional transmutation using fast reactors, a deep-burn modular helium reactor (DB-MHR) concept has been proposed by General Atomics (GA). Kim and Venneri published an optimization study on the DB-MHR core in terms of nuclear design. The authors concluded that more concrete evaluations are necessary including thermo-fluid and safety analysis. The present paper describes the evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel assembly in the 600MWth DB-MHR core under full operating power conditions. Two types of fuel shuffling scheme (radial and axial hybrid shuffling and axial-only shuffling) are investigated. For accurate thermo-fluid analysis, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed on a 1/12 fuel assembly using the CFX code

  16. HPV Testing from Dried Urine Spots as a Tool for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rosanna Frati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, several screening strategies are available to prevent cervical cancer, but inadequate resources, sociocultural barriers, and sampling issues impede their success in low-income countries. To overcome these issues, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV testing from dried urine spots (DUS. Eighty-eight urine samples (including 56 HPV DNA positive specimens were spotted on filter paper, dried, and stored in paper-bags. HPV DNA was detected from the DUS after 1 week and 4 weeks of storage using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of the DUS-based HPV test were evaluated by comparing the results with those of HPV testing on fresh urine samples as the gold standard. The sensitivity of the test was 98.21% (95% CI: 90.56–99.68 for DUS stored for 1 week and 96.42% (95% CI: 87.88–99.01 for DUS stored for 4 weeks. The specificity was 100% (95% CI: 89.28–100 at both time points. The concordance between DUS and fresh urine HPV testing was “almost perfect” using the κ statistic. These preliminary data suggest that a DUS-based assay could bypass sociocultural barriers and sampling issues and therefore could be a suitable, effective tool for epidemiological surveillance and screening programs, especially in low-income countries.

  17. Evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, R.; Palaksha, K.J.; Anil, T.M.; Guruchannabasavanna; Patil, P.; Shankar, K.M.; Mohan, C.V.; Sreepada, R.A.

    A monoclonal antibody-based immunodot test was compared to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for managing white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) on shrimp farms at Kundapur and Kumta situated in Udupi and Uttar Kannada Districts, respectively...

  18. Simultaneous Testing for 6 Lysosomal Storage Disorders and X-Adrenoleukodystrophy in Dried Blood Spots by Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, Silvia; Turgeon, Coleman T; Gavrilov, Dimitar K; Oglesbee, Devin; Raymond, Kimiyo M; Rinaldo, Piero; Matern, Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    Newborn screening for lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) has revealed that late-onset variants of these conditions are unexpectedly frequent and therefore may evade diagnosis. We developed an efficient and cost-effective multiplex assay to diagnose six LSDs and several peroxisomal disorders in patients presenting with diverse phenotypes at any age. Three 3-mm dried blood spot (DBS) punches were placed into individual microtiter plates. One disc was treated with a cocktail containing acid sphingomyelinase-specific substrate and internal standard (IS). To the second DBS we added a cocktail containing substrate and IS for β-glucosidase, acid α-glucosidase, α-galactosidase A, galactocerebrosidase, and α-L-iduronidase. The third DBS was extracted with methanol containing d4-C26 lysophosphatidylcholine as IS and stored until the enzyme plates were combined and purified by liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction. The extracts were evaporated, reconstituted with the extract from the lysophosphatidylcholine plate, and analyzed by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry. Reference intervals were determined by analysis of 550 samples from healthy controls. DBS from confirmed patients with 1 of the 6 LSDs (n = 33), X-adrenoleukodystrophy (n = 9), or a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (n = 5), as well as carriers for Fabry disease (n = 17) and X-adrenoleukodystrophy (n = 5), were analyzed for assay validation. Prospective clinical testing of 578 samples revealed 25 patients affected with 1 of the detectable conditions. Our flow injection tandem mass spectrometry approach is amenable to high-throughput population screening for Hurler disease, Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick A/B disease, Pompe disease, Krabbe disease, Fabry disease, X-adrenoleukodystrophy, and peroxisomal biogenesis disorder in DBS. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  19. Evolutionary analysis of tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmelo; Aramburu, José; Galipienso, Luis; Soler, Salvador; Nuez, Fernando; Rubio, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes severe economic losses in many crops worldwide and often overcomes resistant cultivars used for disease control. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that tomato resistance conferred by the gene Sw-5 can be overcome by the amino acid substitution C to Y at position 118 (C118Y) or T120N in the TSWV movement protein, NSm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that substitution C118Y has occurred independently three times in the studied isolates by convergent evolution, whereas the substitution T120N was a unique event. Analysis of rates of non-synonymous and synonymous changes at individual codons showed that substitution C118Y was positively selected.

  20. Liquid Metal Embrittlement in Resistance Spot Welding and Hot Tensile Tests of Surface-refined TWIP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmie, J.; Schram, A.; Wesling, V.

    2016-03-01

    Automotive industry strives to reduce vehicle weight and therefore fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Especially in the auto body, material light weight construction is practiced, but the occupant safety must be ensured. These requirements demand high-strength steels with good forming and crash characteristics. Such an approach is the use of high- manganese-content TWIP steels, which achieve strengths of around 1,000 MPa and fracture strains of more than 60%. Welding surface-refined TWIP steels reduces their elongation at break and produces cracks due to the contact with liquid metal and the subsequent liquid metal embrittlement (LME). The results of resistance spot welds of mixed joints of high-manganese- content steel in combination with micro-alloyed ferritic steel and hot tensile tests are presented. The influence of different welding parameters on the sensitivity to liquid metal embrittlement is investigated by means of spot welding. In a high temperature tensile testing machine, the influence of different parameters is determined regardless of the welding process. Defined strains just below or above the yield point, and at 25% of elongation at break, show the correlation between the applied strain and liquid metal crack initiation. Due to the possibility to carry out tensile tests on a wide range of temperatures, dependencies of different temperatures of the zinc coating to the steel can be identified. Furthermore, the attack time of the zinc on the base material is investigated by defined heating periods.

  1. Analysis of the Relationship between Ethanol Spot and Futures Prices in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick D. Quintino

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an investigation and analysis are carried out in order to observe the relationship between ethanol spot and futures prices in Brazil. We adopted the Engle and Granger co-integration approach. Also, we consider the information share method proposed by Hasbrouck in order to examine the market efficiency in price discovery and information transmission. Results show that although the futures market is efficient in price discovery and information transmission, the cash market leads the long-run price discovery process. This suggests that the underlying cause of the dominance of the available market over the futures market can be attributed to the market’s relative concentration in wholesale ethanol distribution due to the formation of marketing pools by the ethanol mills, as well as the small number of distributors that control a significant portion of the market share.

  2. Dried blood spots: liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its main metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercolini, Laura; Mandrioli, Roberto; Sorella, Vittorio; Somaini, Lorenzo; Giocondi, Daniele; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Raggi, Maria Augusta

    2013-01-04

    A sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS method has been developed for the first time for the analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (the most important active cannabinoid) and its hydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites in human Dried Blood Spots (DBSs). The simultaneous determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and its two main metabolites allows assessing the time elapsed after the drug intake and distinguishing between acute or former consumption. This is an important information in specific contexts such as "on street" controls by police forces. DBSs have been chosen as the optimal biological matrix for this kind of testing, since they provide information on the actual state of intoxication, without storage and transportation problems usually associated with classical blood testing. The analysis is carried out on a C8 reversed phase column with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid in a water/methanol mixture and an electrospray ionisation (ESI) source, coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated according to international guidelines, with satisfactory results in terms of extraction yields, precision, stability and accuracy. Application to real DBS samples from Cannabis abusers gave reliable results, thus confirming the methodology suitability for roadside testing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Time Series Analysis of JEPX Spot Price with the Box-Jenkins Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroshi

    Following the examples of other countries, in April 2005 Japan launched wholesale electric power exchange operations as a primary item of system reform in line with electric liberalization. Only two years have passed since the initiation of these operations. However, in the summer of 2005, the surge in market prices was evident, which suggested that certain measures should be taken to confront potential market risks. Establishing a useful system for forecasting market prices through the modeling of price fluctuations in the wholesale electric market became essential. Currently, various price models are being proposed. Taking both the limited amount of data and the model's purpose into consideration, this study adopted the univariate time series model. We conducted a time series analysis on the open price indexes in the JEPX spot market with the Box-Jenkins method. Since a seven-day cycle can be observed in the data, we adopted the seasonal ARIMA model. In accordance with the procedures of the Box-Jenkins method, we determined the degree of the model's polynomial using the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation of the data and estimated the parameters of the model with the maximum likelihood method. We conducted a forecast on next day JEPX spot market prices with this time series model and examined its validity and utility as a forecasting tool. Price forecasts made with this model require only a small amount of data and will save substantial analysis work. Consequently, this method is expected to be widely used by market participants as the reference data for their bid pricing.

  4. Assessing Statistically Significant Heavy-Metal Concentrations in Abandoned Mine Areas via Hot Spot Analysis of Portable XRF Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-06-18

    To develop appropriate measures to prevent soil contamination in abandoned mining areas, an understanding of the spatial variation of the potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in the soil is necessary. For the purpose of effective soil sampling, this study uses hot spot analysis, which calculates a z -score based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify a statistically significant hot spot sample. To constitute a statistically significant hot spot, a feature with a high value should also be surrounded by other features with high values. Using relatively cost- and time-effective portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis, sufficient input data are acquired from the Busan abandoned mine and used for hot spot analysis. To calibrate the PXRF data, which have a relatively low accuracy, the PXRF analysis data are transformed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) data. The transformed PXRF data of the Busan abandoned mine are classified into four groups according to their normalized content and z -scores: high content with a high z -score (HH), high content with a low z -score (HL), low content with a high z -score (LH), and low content with a low z -score (LL). The HL and LH cases may be due to measurement errors. Additional or complementary surveys are required for the areas surrounding these suspect samples or for significant hot spot areas. The soil sampling is conducted according to a four-phase procedure in which the hot spot analysis and proposed group classification method are employed to support the development of a sampling plan for the following phase. Overall, 30, 50, 80, and 100 samples are investigated and analyzed in phases 1-4, respectively. The method implemented in this case study may be utilized in the field for the assessment of statistically significant soil contamination and the identification of areas for which an additional survey is required.

  5. Assessing Statistically Significant Heavy-Metal Concentrations in Abandoned Mine Areas via Hot Spot Analysis of Portable XRF Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To develop appropriate measures to prevent soil contamination in abandoned mining areas, an understanding of the spatial variation of the potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs in the soil is necessary. For the purpose of effective soil sampling, this study uses hot spot analysis, which calculates a z-score based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify a statistically significant hot spot sample. To constitute a statistically significant hot spot, a feature with a high value should also be surrounded by other features with high values. Using relatively cost- and time-effective portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF analysis, sufficient input data are acquired from the Busan abandoned mine and used for hot spot analysis. To calibrate the PXRF data, which have a relatively low accuracy, the PXRF analysis data are transformed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES data. The transformed PXRF data of the Busan abandoned mine are classified into four groups according to their normalized content and z-scores: high content with a high z-score (HH, high content with a low z-score (HL, low content with a high z-score (LH, and low content with a low z-score (LL. The HL and LH cases may be due to measurement errors. Additional or complementary surveys are required for the areas surrounding these suspect samples or for significant hot spot areas. The soil sampling is conducted according to a four-phase procedure in which the hot spot analysis and proposed group classification method are employed to support the development of a sampling plan for the following phase. Overall, 30, 50, 80, and 100 samples are investigated and analyzed in phases 1–4, respectively. The method implemented in this case study may be utilized in the field for the assessment of statistically significant soil contamination and the identification of areas for which an additional survey is required.

  6. Summary of Results of Tests Made by Aluminum Research Laboratories of Spot-welded Joints and Structural Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARTMANN E C; Stickley, G W

    1942-01-01

    Available information concerning spot welding as a means of joining aluminum-alloy parts has been summarized and comparisons have been made of the relative merits of spot-welded and riveted aluminum-alloy structural elements. The results indicated that spot welding was as satisfactory as riveting insofar as resistance to static loads is concerned. Spot welds showed slightly lower resistance to impact loads but definitely lower resistance to repeated loads than rivets.

  7. Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of dexamethasone from pig synovial fluid using dried matrix spotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Chad D; Laine, Derek F; Zimmer, Jennifer Sd; Johnson, Casey Jl; Sheaff, Chrystal N; Carpenter, Anna; Needham, Shane R

    2010-11-01

    Dried matrix spot techniques were employed to validate an HPLC-MS/MS assay for the determination of dexamethasone in clear Yorkshire pig synovial fluid using 15 µl of sample. We have adopted the term dried matrix spot to indicate that the techniques used for dried blood spots can be applied to nonblood matrices. The dried matrix spot method employs a color-indicating process developed at Alturas Analytics that enhances the ability to analyze transparent fluids spotted onto collection paper by allowing the analyst to visually verify the location of the dried sample spot. The method was shown to be accurate (±4.3%) and precise (14.2% at the LLOQ and ≤10.0% at all other concentrations) across the dynamic range of the assay. The method shows the potential application of dried matrix spot techniques for the analysis of transparent biological fluids.

  8. Empirical analysis of the spot market implications of price-responsive demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Although electricity is theoretically an inelastic good in the short term, the steep slope of the supply stack implies that even modest response by demand could translate into reduced capacity requirements and significant price decreases. This article examined the effect of price-responsive demand strategies in an actual deregulated electricity industry. Auction data from the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) day-ahead electricity market were used to form supply stacks for various zones. A simple linear demand function was used to determine the effect of price responsiveness on equilibrium spot market price and consumption. The aim was to quantify the benefits from the pricing protocol and to determine whether modest levels of price elasticity can significantly lower prices and consumption. Market-clearing prices and quantities were estimated using various supply curves in order to quantify the responsiveness necessary to achieve given price reductions. Price response was induced in the demand curve by varying its slope. Estimates were then used to estimate the average level of slope needed to reduce the average market-clearing price during the year by a certain percentage. Results showed that an average slope of -50.04 was necessary for prices to be reduced by 25 per cent. Results also showed that necessary price responses can be ascertained for any desired reduction in the market-clearing price or quantity. Although price responsiveness unambiguously reduces the spot market price and quantity, its effect on the forward price is not yet clear. It was concluded that a separate analysis of peak hours may reveal the effectiveness of enhanced price response. 8 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  9. Laser welded versus resistance spot welded bone implants: analysis of the thermal increase and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Meleti, Marco; Bonanini, Mauro; Lagori, Giuseppe; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Nammour, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of this "ex vivo split mouth" study was to compare the thermal elevation during the welding process of titanium bars to titanium implants inserted in pig jaws by a thermal camera and two thermocouples. The second aim was to compare the strength of the joints by a traction test with a dynamometer. Six pigs' jaws were used and three implants were placed on each side of them for a total of 36 fixtures. Twelve bars were connected to the abutments (each bar on three implants) by using, on one side, laser welding and, on the other, resistance spot welding. Temperature variations were recorded by thermocouples and by thermal camera while the strength of the welded joint was analyzed by a traction test. For increasing temperature, means were 36.83 and 37.06, standard deviations 1.234 and 1.187, and P value 0.5763 (not significant). For traction test, means were 195.5 and 159.4, standard deviations 2.00 and 2.254, and P value 0.0001 (very significant). Laser welding was demonstrated to be able to connect titanium implant abutments without the risk of thermal increase into the bone and with good results in terms of mechanical strength.

  10. Laser Welded versus Resistance Spot Welded Bone Implants: Analysis of the Thermal Increase and Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fornaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The first aim of this “ex vivo split mouth” study was to compare the thermal elevation during the welding process of titanium bars to titanium implants inserted in pig jaws by a thermal camera and two thermocouples. The second aim was to compare the strength of the joints by a traction test with a dynamometer. Materials and Methods. Six pigs’ jaws were used and three implants were placed on each side of them for a total of 36 fixtures. Twelve bars were connected to the abutments (each bar on three implants by using, on one side, laser welding and, on the other, resistance spot welding. Temperature variations were recorded by thermocouples and by thermal camera while the strength of the welded joint was analyzed by a traction test. Results. For increasing temperature, means were 36.83 and 37.06, standard deviations 1.234 and 1.187, and P value 0.5763 (not significant. For traction test, means were 195.5 and 159.4, standard deviations 2.00 and 2.254, and P value 0.0001 (very significant. Conclusion. Laser welding was demonstrated to be able to connect titanium implant abutments without the risk of thermal increase into the bone and with good results in terms of mechanical strength.

  11. Theory of Mind and embedding of perspective: A psychological test of a literary "sweet spot"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D H; Zunshine, Lisa; Holquist, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) has been proposed to explain social interactions, with real people but also with fictional characters, by interpreting their mind as well as our own. "Perspective embedding" exploits ToM by placing events in characters' minds (e.g., "he remembered she was home"). Three levels of embedment, common in literature, may be a "sweet spot" that provides enough information about a character's motivation, but not a confusing over-abundance. Here, we use short vignettes with 1 or 3 characters and 0-5 levels of perspective embedding in two reading studies to see whether these preferences might be related to processing ease. Self-paced readers were fastest with one level of embedment, increasingly slower as embedment increased; vignettes without embedment were approximately as slow as level 4. With both self-paced and imposed timing, error rates on probe questions increased only at the fifth level. Readers seem to prefer literary texts in which ToM operations are obvious due to embedding of perspectives within the narrative but still somewhat challenging.

  12. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael; Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla; Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena

    2008-01-01

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m 3 /ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis

  13. Analysis of M-stationary points to an EPEC modeling oligopolistic competition in an electricity spot market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henrion, R.; Outrata, Jiří; Surowiec, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2012), s. 295-317 ISSN 1292-8119 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints * EPEC * M-stationary solutions * electricity spot market * calmness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/outrata-analysis of m-stationary points to an epec modeling oligopolistic competition in an electricity spot market.pdf

  14. Hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis in the dried blood spots investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Alicja; Wietecha-Posłuszny, Renata; Mendys, Agata; Wójtowicz, Anna; Łydżba-Kopczyńska, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a new methodology using the combination of the hyperspectral imaging and the dry blood spot (DBS) collecting. Application of the hyperspectral imaging is fast and non-destructive. DBS method offers the advantage also on the micro-invasive blood collecting and low volume of required sample. During experimental step, the reflected light was recorded by two hyperspectral systems. The collection of 776 spectral bands in the VIS-NIR range (400-1000 nm) and 256 spectral bands in the SWIR range (970-2500 nm) was applied. Pixel has the size of 8 × 8 and 30 × 30 µm for VIS-NIR and SWIR camera, respectively. The obtained data in the form of hyperspectral cubes were treated with chemometric methods, i.e., minimum noise fraction and principal component analysis. It has been shown that the application of these methods on this type of data, by analyzing the scatter plots, allows a rapid analysis of the homogeneity of DBS, and the selection of representative areas for further analysis. It also gives the possibility of tracking the dynamics of changes occurring in biological traces applied on the surface. For the analyzed 28 blood samples, described method allowed to distinguish those blood stains because of time of apply.

  15. Identifying phosphorus hot spots: A spatial analysis of the phosphorus balance as a result of manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchomenko, Alexej; Borsky, Stefan

    2018-05-15

    In this paper, we analyze the phosphorus balance as a result of manure application on the parish level for Denmark and investigate its local geographic distribution. For our analysis, we determine phosphorus loads for the five main animal groups and the phosphorus demand of the fifteen major crop categories. Our results show that there is a large variability in the phosphorus balance within Denmark. Due to industry agglomeration statistically significant hot spots appear mainly along the west coast, while cold spots are predominantly present on southern and eastern coasts towards the Baltic Sea. The proximity of oversupply areas to water bodies and other environmentally sensitive areas reinforces the need for further phosphorus regulation. Our findings show the importance of a combined spatially targeted regulation, which allows different levels of phosphorus application depending on local economic and environmental circumstances in combination with subsidizing manure processing technologies in phosphorus hot spots. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Computational analysis of hot-spot formation by quasi-steady deformation waves in porous explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, John; Chakravarthy, Sunada; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2013-05-01

    The impact and shock sensitivity of porous (granular) high-explosives is related to the formation of small mass regions of elevated temperature within the material called hot-spots by dissipative mechanisms such as plastic and friction work. Because of their small size, hot-spots are difficult to experimentally interrogate, particularly for high volumetric strain rates (ɛ˙V>10,000 s-1). In this study, simulations are performed for large ensembles of deformable particles (≈4000 particles) using a combined finite and discrete element technique to characterize statistical distributions of hot-spot intensity, geometry, and spatial proximity within and behind quasi-steady, piston supported uniaxial waves in granular HMX (C4H8N8O8). Emphasis is placed on examining how the material's initial particle packing density, characterized by its effective solid volume fraction ϕ¯s ,0, affects hot-spot statistics for pressure dominated waves corresponding to piston speeds within the range 300≤Up≤500 m /s. Predictions indicate that hot-spot intensity is only marginally affected by initial porosity (1-ϕ¯s ,0) for all piston speeds, whereas hot-spot size, number density, volume fraction, and volume specific surface area appreciably increase with porosity and exponentially increase with piston speed. Minor variations in particle shape are predicted to be largely inconsequential. Joint distributions of hot-spot intensity and size are combined with thermal explosion data to identify and examine critical hot-spots that quickly react behind waves. These results indicate that the observed increase in sensitivity with initial porosity for sustained loading is likely due to an increase in hot-spot size and number rather than intensity.

  17. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  18. Alcohol-related hot-spot analysis and prediction : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This project developed methods to more accurately identify alcohol-related crash hot spots, ultimately allowing for more effective and efficient enforcement and safety campaigns. Advancements in accuracy came from improving the calculation of spatial...

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of a Novel Molecular Isolate of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae from Northern Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Ju; Blair, Patrick J; Felices, Vidal; Moron, Cecilia; Cespedes, Manuel; Anaya, Elizabeth; Schoeler, George B; Sumner, John W; Olson, James G; Richards, Allen L

    2005-01-01

    ...) collected from two domestic horses living in two separate locations in northern Peru (Coletas and Naranjo) was conducted to more clearly characterize this recently reported novel spotted fever group...

  20. Global Diffusion Pattern and Hot SPOT Analysis of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Fan, F.; Zanoni, I. Holly; Li, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Spatial characteristics reveal the concentration of vaccine-preventable disease in Africa and the Near East and that disease dispersion is variable depending on disease. The exception is whooping cough, which has a highly variable center of concentration from year to year. Measles exhibited the only statistically significant spatial autocorrelation among all the diseases under investigation. Hottest spots of measles are in Africa and coldest spots are in United States, warm spots are in Near East and cool spots are in Western Europe. Finally, cases of measles could not be explained by the independent variables, including Gini index, health expenditure, or rate of immunization. Since the literature confirms that each of the selected variables is considered determinants of disease dissemination, it is anticipated that the global dataset of disease cases was influenced by reporting bias.

  1. Analysis of Vegetation Behavior in a North African Semi-Arid Region, Using SPOT-VEGETATION NDVI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Chehbouni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of vegetation dynamics is essential in semi-arid regions, in particular because of the frequent occurrence of long periods of drought. In this paper, multi-temporal series of the Normalized Difference of Vegetation Index (NDVI, derived from SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data between September 1998 and June 2010, were used to analyze the vegetation dynamics over the semi-arid central region of Tunisia. A study of the persistence of three types of vegetation (pastures, annual agriculture and olive trees is proposed using fractal analysis, in order to gain insight into the stability/instability of vegetation dynamics. In order to estimate the state of vegetation cover stress, we propose evaluating the properties of an index referred to as the Vegetation Anomaly Index (VAI. A positive VAI indicates high vegetation dynamics, whereas a negative VAI indicates the presence of vegetation stress. The VAI is tested for the above three types of vegetation, during the study period from 1998 to 2010, and is compared with other drought indices. The VAI is found to be strongly correlated with precipitation.

  2. Optical and surface analysis of DNA microarrays to assess printed spot heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja Rao, Archana

    DNA microarrays have been plagued with analytical problems with quantitation, metrics, figures of merit, and reliability and reproducibility issues, hindering their acceptance in clinical and diagnostic settings. The main deficiency in the printed DNA format is the microspot heterogeneity occurring during array fabrication and further amplified during target hybridization. Work described in this dissertation focuses on assessment of DNA microarray spots generated with conventional pin-type contact printing of fluorescently labeled DNA probes, on industry-standard commercial polymer-coated array slides and their hybridization with complementary oligomer DNA target. Printing of probe DNA microspots shares many features of commonly reported droplet evaporation dynamics that lead to different drying patterns and spot morphologies. This study directly identifies and analyzes different DNA probe chemical and spatial microenvironments within spots, analyzed with high-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) chemical imaging, confocal epifluorescence, and probe microscopy force imaging methods. Drying of DNA probe spots shows Marangoni flow effects with high densities of probe DNA-Cy3 located in spot centers and nonhomogeneous DNA distributed radially within printed spots with both TOF-SIMS imaging and epifluorescence microscopy. Target hybridization kinetics and duplex formation were assessed using real-time in situ confocal imaging, and confirmed radial hemispherical diffusion-mediated distribution of target capture from spot edge to its interior. Kinetic modeling indicates pseudo-first order kinetics due to transport limitations and local density-dependent probe interactions with diffusing target. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and photobleaching results show that the high- density probe overcrowding in spots facilitates a broad range of target binding interactions regardless of dye orientations. Moreover, lateral probe density

  3. Bridging the Gap between Sample Collection and Laboratory Analysis: Using Dried Blood Spots to Identify Human Exposure to Chemical Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I; Blake, Thomas A; Perez, Jonas W; Crow, Brian S; Shaner, Rebecca L; Coleman, Rebecca M; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2016-05-13

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  4. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in response to white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Chen

    Full Text Available Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Microarray Data with Replicated Spots: A Case Study with Synechococcus WH8102

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently microarray experiments often involved relatively few arrays with only a single representation of each gene on each array. A complete genome microarray with multiple spots per gene (spread out spatially across the array was developed in order to compare the gene expression of a marine cyanobacterium and a knockout mutant strain in a defined artificial seawater medium. Statistical methods were developed for analysis in the special situation of this case study where there is gene replication within an array and where relatively few arrays are used, which can be the case with current array technology. Due in part to the replication within an array, it was possible to detect very small changes in the levels of expression between the wild type and mutant strains. One interesting biological outcome of this experiment is the indication of the extent to which the phosphorus regulatory system of this cyanobacterium affects the expression of multiple genes beyond those strictly involved in phosphorus acquisition.

  7. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries. A business analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pau, F.; Oremus, M.H.P.

    2003-04-01

    While you refuel for gas, why not refuel for information or download vehicle data? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage, service offering, and full business models from WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional, public) around gas stations. Also analyzed are the parties which play a role in such service authorization, provisioning and delivery, with all the dependencies modelled by attributed digraphs. Service planning is included as to WLAN base station capabilities. Five year financial models (CAPEX,OPEX), and data pertain to two possible service suppliers: multi-service oil companies, and mobile service operators (or MVNO). Model optimization on the return-on-investment (ROI) is carried out for different deployment scenarios, geographical coverage assumptions, as well as tariff structures. Comparison is also being made with public GPRS data services, as precursors for 3G services, and the effect of WLAN roaming is analyzed. Analysis shows that due to manpower costs and marketing costs, suitable ROI will not be achieved unless externalities are accounted for and innovative tariff structures are introduced. Open issues and further research are outlined. Further work is carried out, also with automotive electronics sector, wireless systems providers, wireless terminals platform suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers

  8. A spot test for detection of cobalt release – early experience and findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P.; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is often difficult to establish clinical relevance of metal exposure in cobalt-allergic patients. Dermatologists and patients may incorrectly assume that many metallic items release cobalt at levels that may cause cobalt dermatitis. Cobalt-allergic patients may be unaware...... also be used as a gel test if combined with an agar preparation. We found no false-positive reactions when testing metals and alloys known not to contain cobalt. However, one cobalt-containing alloy, which elicited cobalt dermatitis in cobalt-allergic patients, was negative upon cobalt gel testing....... Conclusions: The cobalt test detects amounts of cobalt release that approximate the elicitation concentration seen in cobalt-allergic patients. It may serve as a useful tool in dermatology offices and workplaces....

  9. Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Potential of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) in the Wing Spot Test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Zaira Rosa; Zanetti, Thalita Alves; Sennes-Lopes, Tiago Felipe; da Silva, Ana Francisca Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Momordica charantia, popularly known as bitter melon, is a plant widely used in ethnobotanical medicine. It has antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antiviral, and antimalarial activities, among others. The goal of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and/or antigenotoxic activity of the aqueous extracts obtained from the aerial parts and fruit of this plant by means of the Drosophila melanogaster wing spot test. Third-stage larvae that obtained standard (ST) cross and high bioactivation (HB) cross were treated with aqueous extracts of the aerial parts (IQA) and fruit (IQF) of M. charantia, following two protocols (genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity). The aqueous extracts are not genotoxic in lower concentrations. The frequencies of mutant spots observed in the descendants of the ST and HB crosses treated with doxorubicin (DXR) alone were 8.65 and 9.25, respectively, whereas in those cotreated with IQA and DXR, the frequencies ranged from 15.90 to 29 in the ST cross and from 15.05 to 24.78 in the HB cross. In cotreatment with IQF, the frequencies ranged from 30.10 to 30.65 in the ST cross and from 13.60 to 14.50 in the HB cross, whereas the frequencies obtained with DXR were 32.50 in the ST cross and 26.00 in the HB cross. In conclusion, the IQA has a synergistic effect, enhancing the genotoxicity of DXR in the ST cross and the HB cross, whereas the IQF has antigenotoxic effects in the HB cross.

  10. PYROLYTIC PRODUCTS FROM TRYPTOPHAN AND GLUTAMIC-ACID ARE POSITIVE IN THE MAMMALIAN SPOT-TEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Juul

    1983-01-01

    Pyrolysates of tryptophan (Trp-P-2) and glutamic acid (Glu-P-1) are known mutagens in in vitro short term mutagenicity tests, and have also shown carcinogenic effects in long term animal studies. The present study demonstrates that they also produce mutations in somatic cells. This result...

  11. Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. fruit peel oil on mutagenicity of two alkylating agents and two metals in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Kocaoğlu, Serap; Cetin, Huseyin; Kaya, Bülent

    2009-07-01

    Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. (Rutaceae) fruit peel oil (CPO) in combination with mutagenic metals and alkylating agents were studied using the wing spot test of D. melanogaster. The four reference mutagens, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), cobalt chloride (CoCl2), ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) were clearly genotoxic. CPO alone at doses from 0.1 to 0.5% in Tween 80 was not mutagenic and did not enhance the mutagenic effect of the reference mutagens. However, antigenotoxic effects of CPO were clearly demonstrated in chronic cotreatments with mutagens and oil, by a significant decrease in wing spots induced by all four mutagens. The D. melanogaster wing spot test was found to be a suitable assay for detecting antigenotoxic effects in vivo. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Validation of a commercial insulated isothermal PCR-based POCKIT test for rapid and easy detection of white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Tsai

    Full Text Available Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR, and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction. The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, monodon baculovirus (MBV, and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV positive samples. Accuracy analysis using 700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61-95.56% and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31-98.50%. Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei.

  13. Molecular cloning of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TLR21 and expression analysis post Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming; Qiao, Wei; Huang, Xia-Zi; Li, An-Xing

    2012-03-01

    TLR21, a non-mammalian Toll like receptor, was recently identified in chicken as a pattern recognition receptor of unmethyl-CpG ODN, functionally similar to that of mammalian TLR9. Its role in fish immune defense and whether it is involved in anti-parasite immunity has not yet been proven. In this study, we identified a cDNA sequence encoding orange-spotted grouper Toll-like receptor 21 (EcTLR21), the open reading frame (ORF) was 2937 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 979 amino acid residues. Some conserved motifs in mammalian TLR9 were also conserved in grouper and other fish species' TLR9 and TLR21. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that EcTLR21 is broadly expressed in all the tissue we tested except muscle. High expression levels were found in the head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen and heart. Post Cryptocaryon irritans infection, TLR21 and TLR9 transcripts were induced at the local infection sites (skin and gill), while suppressed in systemic immune organs (spleen and head kidney), indicating that these two receptors may play a role in host anti-parasitic immune responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  15. A prospective clinical trial to compare the performance of dried blood spots prenatal screening for Down's syndrome with conventional non-invasive testing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiying; Jiang, Yulin; Zhang, Minghui; Liu, Shanying; Hao, Na; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Xiaojin; Ma, Liangkun

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate, side by side, the efficiency of dried blood spots (DBSs) against serum screening for Down's syndrome, and then, to construct a two-tier strategy by topping up the fetal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) secondary screening over the high-risk women marked by the primary blood testing to build a practical screening tactic to identify fetal Down's syndrome. One thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven low-risk Chinese women, with singleton pregnancy, were enrolled for the study. Alpha-fetoprotein and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin were measured for the serum as well as for the parallel DBS samples. Partial high-risk pregnant women identified by primary blood testing (n = 38) were also subject to the secondary cfDNA screening. Diagnostic amniocentesis was utilized to confirm the screening results. The true positive rate for Down's syndrome detection was 100% for both blood screening methods; however, the false-positive rate was 3.0% for DBS and 4.0% for serum screening, respectively. DBS correlated well with serum screening on Down's syndrome detection. Three out of 38 primary high-risk women displayed chromosomal abnormalities by cfDNA analysis, which were confirmed by amniocentesis. Either the true detection rate or the false-positive rate for Down's syndrome between DBS and the serum test is comparable. In addition, blood primary screening aligned with secondary cfDNA analysis, a "before and after" two-tier screening strategy, can massively decrease the false-positive rate, which, then, dramatically reduces the demand for invasive diagnostic operation. Impact statement Children born with Down's syndrome display a wide range of mental and physical disability. Currently, there is no effective treatment to ease the burden and anxiety of the Down's syndrome family and the surrounding society. This study is to evaluate the efficiency of dried blood spots against serum screening for Down's syndrome and to construct a two-tier strategy by topping up the fetal

  16. WiFi Hot Spot Service Business for the Automotive and Oil Industries: A Competitive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Francois PAU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While you refuel for gas, why not refuel for information or upload vehicle data, using a cheap wireless technology as WiFi? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage, service offering, and full business models from WiFi hot spot services delivered to and from vehicles (private, professional, public around gas stations. Are also analyzed the parties which play a role in such services: authorization, provisioning and delivery, with all the dependencies modelled by attributed digraphs. Account is made of WiFi base station technical capabilities and costs. Five year financial models (CAPEX, OPEX, and data pertain to two possible service suppliers: multi-service oil companies, and mobile service operators (or MVNOs. Model optimization on the return-on-investment (R.O.I. is carried out for different deployment scenarios, geographical coverage assumptions, as well as tariff structures. Comparison is also being made with public GPRS and 3G data services, as precursors to HSPA/LTE, and the effect of WiFi roaming is analyzed. Regulatory implications, including those dealing with public safety, are addressed. Analysis shows that due to manpower costs and marketing costs, suitable R.O.I. will not be achieved unless externalities are accounted for and innovative tariff structures are introduced. Open issues and further research are outlined. Further work is currently carried out with automotive electronics sector, wireless systems providers, wireless terminals platform suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers. Future relevance of this work is also discussed for the emerging electrical reloading grids for electrical vehicles.

  17. Karyotype analysis and ribosomal gene localization of spotted knifejaw Oplegnathus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P Z; Cao, D D; Liu, X B; Wang, Y J; Yu, H Y; Li, X J; Zhang, Q Q; Wang, X B

    2016-12-23

    The spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, is an important aquaculture fish species in China. To better understand the chromosomal microstructure and the karyotypic origin of this species, cytogenetic analysis was performed using Giemsa staining to identify metaphase chromosomes, C-banding to detect C-positive heterochromatin, silver staining to identify the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for physical mapping of the major (18S rDNA) and minor (5S rDNA) ribosomal genes. The species showed a karyotype of 2n = 48 for females, composed of 2 submetacentric and 46 telocentric chromosomes, with a fundamental number (FN) = 50, while the karyotype of males was 2n = 47, composed of 1 exclusive large metacentric, 2 submetacentric, and 44 telocentric chromosomes, with FN = 50. These karyotype results suggest that O. punctatus might have an X 1 X 1 X 2 X 2 /X 1 X 2 Y multiple sex chromosome system. C-positive heterochromatin was distributed in the centromeres of all chromosomal pairs and in the terminal portions of some chromosomes. A single pair of Ag-positive NORs was found to be localized at the terminal regions of the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair, which was supported by FISH of 18S rDNA. After FISH, 5S rDNA were located on the interstitial regions of the smallest telocentric chromosome pair. This study was the first to identify the karyotype of this species and will facilitate further research on karyotype evolution in the order Perciformes.

  18. Mapping Cultural Ecosystem Services in Vilnius using Hot-Spot Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Egarter-Vigl, Lukas; Oliva, Marc; Misiune, Ieva; Keesstra, Saskia; Estebaranz, Ferran; Cerda, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Cultural services in urban areas are very important to promote tourism activities and develop the economy. These activities are fundamental for the sustainability of the urban areas since can represent an important monetary source. However, one of the major threats to the sustainability of cultural services is the high amount of visitants that can lead to a degradation of the services provided (Depellegrin et al., 2016). Mapping the potential of cultural ecosystems services is fundamental to assess the capacity that the territory have to provide it. Previous works used land use classification to identify the ecosystem services potential, and revealed to be a good methodology to attribute to each type of land use a specific capacity (Burkhard et al., 2008). The objective of this work is to map the cultural services in Vilnius area using a hot-spot analysis. Ecosystem services potential was assessed using the matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009), which ranks ES capacity from 0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity to a different land use type. The results showed that with the exception of Cultural Heritage ecosystem services that had a random pattern (Z-score=0.62, pCultural Heritage at 6746.17 m and Natural Heritage at 6205.82 m. This showed that the cultural services studied have a different spatial correlation. References Burkhard B, Kroll F, Müller F, Windhorst W. 2009. Landscapes' capacities to provide ecosystem services- a concept for land-cover based assessments. Landscape Online. 15, 1-22. Depellegrin, D.A., Pereira, P., Misiune, I., Egarter-Vigl, L. Mapping Ecosystem Services potential in Lithuania. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455.

  19. CFD analysis of hot spot formation through a fixed bed reactor of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aligolzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the interesting methods for conversion of synthesis gas to heavy hydrocarbons is Fischer–Tropsch process. The process has some bottlenecks, such as hot spot formation and low degree of conversion. In this work, computational fluid dynamics technique was used to simulate conversion of synthetic gas and product distribution. Also, hot spot formation in the catalytic fixed-bed reactor was investigated in several runs. Simulation results indicated that hot spot formation occurred more likely in the early and middle part of reactor due to high reaction rates. Based on the simulation results, the temperature of hot spots increased with increase in the inlet temperature as well as pressure. Among the many CFD runs conducted, it is found that the optimal temperature and pressure for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis are 565 K and 20 bar, respectively. As it seems that the reactor shall work very well under optimal conditions, the reaction rates and catalyst duration would simultaneously be maximum .

  20. Analysis of the Dynamic Evolutionary Behavior of American Heating Oil Spot and Futures Price Fluctuation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heating oil is an extremely important heating fuel to consumers in northeastern United States. This paper studies the fluctuations law and dynamic behavior of heating oil spot and futures prices by setting up their complex network models based on the data of America in recent 30 years. Firstly, modes are defined by the method of coarse graining, the spot price fluctuation network of heating oil (HSPFN and its futures price fluctuation network (HFPFN in different periods are established to analyze the transformation characteristics between the modes. Secondly, several indicators are investigated: average path length, node strength and strength distribution, betweeness, etc. In addition, a function is established to measure and analyze the network similarity. The results show the cumulative time of new nodes appearing in either spot or futures price network is not random but exhibits a growth trend of straight line. Meanwhile, the power law distributions of spot and futures price fluctuations in different periods present regularity and complexity. Moreover, these prices are strongly correlated in stable fluctuation period but weak in the phase of sharp fluctuation. Finally, the time distribution characteristics of important modes in the networks and the evolution results of the topological properties mentioned above are obtained.

  1. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Testing Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker AMAS Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Ammonia Amniocentesis Amylase ANCA/MPO/ ... Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases ...

  2. Section 227-National Shoreline Erosion Control Development and Demonstration Program. Coastal Processes Analysis. Dade County and 63rd Street Hot Spot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... The Phase I investigations consisted of an analysis of beach erosion and sand transport, both cross-shore and longshore, for most of Miami-Dade County and in the vicinity of the 63rd Street Hot Spot...

  3. Analysis on the hot spot and trend of the foreign assembly building research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoqing; Luo, Yanbing

    2017-03-01

    First of all, the paper analyzes the research on the front of the assembly building in the past 15 years. This article mainly adopts the method of CO word analysis, construct the co word matrix, correlation matrix, and then into a dissimilarity matrix, and on this basis, using factor analysis, cluster analysis and multi scale analysis method to study the structure of prefabricated construction field display. Finally, the results of the analysis are discussed, and summarized the current research focus of foreign prefabricated construction mainly concentrated in 7 aspects: embankment construction, wood construction, bridge construction, crane layout, PCM wall and glass system, based on neural network test, energy saving and recycling, and forecast the future trend of development study.

  4. Test-retest agreement and reliability of the Six Spot Step Test in persons with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Jacob; Richter, Christina; Kristensen, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    -day, day-to-day, and inter-rater agreement and reliability of the SSST in PwMS. A secondary aim was to investigate the validity of handheld timing. METHODS: A total of 38 PwMS with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ... days were ±15% and ±19%, while ICC were 0.987 and 0.983, respectively. A minor learning effect was found over four tests. The handheld timing error was ±0.5 seconds when compared to video-based timing. CONCLUSION: The SSST has an acceptable within- and between-day agreement and reliability...

  5. Automatic spot preparation and image processing of paper microzone-based assays for analysis of bioactive compounds in plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaher, M; Borissova, M; Seiman, A; Aid, T; Kolde, H; Kazarjan, J; Kaljurand, M

    2014-01-15

    The colorimetric determination of the concentration of phytochemicals in plant extract samples using a spotting automatic system, mobile phone camera and a computer with developed software for quantification is described. Method automation was achieved by using a robotic system for spotting. The instrument was set to disperse the appropriate aliquots of the reagents and sample on a Whatman paper sheet. Spots were photographed and analysed by ImageJ software or by applying the developed MatLab based algorithm. The developed assay was found to be effective, with a linear response at the concentration range of 0.03-0.25g/L for polyphenols. The detection limit of the proposed method is sub 0.03g/L. The paper microzone-based assays for flavonoids and amino acids/peptides were also developed and evaluated as applicable. Comparing the results with conventional PμZP methods demonstrates that both methods yield similar results. At the same time, the proposed method has an attractive advantage in analysis time and repeatability/reproducibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fully automated drug screening of dried blood spots using online LC-MS/MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gaugler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new and fully automated workflow for the cost effective drug screening of large populations based on the dried blood spot (DBS technology was introduced in this study. DBS were prepared by spotting 15 μL of whole blood, previously spiked with alprazolam, amphetamine, cocaine, codeine, diazepam, fentanyl, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphet-amine (MDMA, methadone, methamphetamine, morphine and oxycodone onto filter paper cards. The dried spots were scanned, spiked with deuterated standards and directly extracted. The extract was transferred online to an analytical LC column and then to the electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry system. All drugs were quantified at their cut-off level and good precision and correlation within the calibration range was obtained. The method was finally applied to DBS samples from two patients with back pain and codeine and oxycodone could be identified and quantified accurately below the level of misuse of 89.6 ng/mL and 39.6 ng/mL respectively.

  7. Dark Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  8. Doppler imaging of chemical spots on magnetic Ap/Bp stars. Numerical tests and assessment of systematic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhov, O.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Doppler imaging (DI) is a powerful spectroscopic inversion technique that enables conversion of a line profile time series into a two-dimensional map of the stellar surface inhomogeneities. DI has been repeatedly applied to reconstruct chemical spot topologies of magnetic Ap/Bp stars with the goal of understanding variability of these objects and gaining an insight into the physical processes responsible for spot formation. Aims: In this paper we investigate the accuracy of chemical abundance DI and assess the impact of several different systematic errors on the reconstructed spot maps. Methods: We have simulated spectroscopic observational data for two different Fe spot distributions with a surface abundance contrast of 1.5 dex in the presence of a moderately strong dipolar magnetic field. We then reconstructed chemical maps using different sets of spectral lines and making different assumptions about line formation in the inversion calculations. Results: Our numerical experiments demonstrate that a modern DI code successfully recovers the input chemical spot distributions comprised of multiple circular spots at different latitudes or an element overabundance belt at the magnetic equator. For the optimal reconstruction based on half a dozen spectral intervals, the average reconstruction errors do not exceed 0.10 dex. The errors increase to about 0.15 dex when abundance distributions are recovered from a few and/or blended spectral lines. Ignoring a 2.5 kG dipolar magnetic field in chemical abundance DI leads to an average relative error of 0.2 dex and maximum errors of 0.3 dex. Similar errors are encountered if a DI inversion is carried out neglecting a non-uniform continuum brightness distribution and variation of the local atmospheric structure. None of the considered systematic effects lead to major spurious features in the recovered abundance maps. Conclusions: This series of numerical DI simulations proves that inversions based on one or two spectral

  9. Home-cage anxiety levels in a transgenic rat model for Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 measured by an approach-avoidance task: The light spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Elisavet I; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Homberg, Judith R; Van der Harst, Johanneke E

    2017-08-18

    Measuring anxiety in a reliable manner is essential for behavioural phenotyping of rodent models such as the rat model for Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) where anxiety is reported in patients. An automated tool for assessing anxiety within the home cage can minimize human intervention, stress of handling, transportation and novelty. We applied the anxiety test "light spot" (LS) (white led directed at the food-hopper) to our transgenic SCA17 rat model in the PhenoTyper 4500 ® to extend the knowledge of this automated tool for behavioural phenotyping and to verify an anxiety-like phenotype at three different disease stages for use in future therapeutic studies. Locomotor activity was increased in SCA17 rats at 6 and 9 months during the first 15min of the LS, potentially reflecting increased risk assessment. Both genotypes responded to the test with lower duration in the LS zone and higher time spent inside the shelter compared to baseline. We present the first data of a rat model subjected to the LS. The LS can be considered more biologically relevant than a traditional test as it measures anxiety in a familiar situation. The LS successfully evoked avoidance and shelter-seeking in rats. SCA17 rats showed a stronger approach-avoidance conflict reflected by increased activity in the area outside the LS. This home cage test, continuously monitoring pre- and post-effects, provides the opportunity for in-depth analysis, making it a potentially useful tool for detecting subtle or complex anxiety-related traits in rodents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Changes Analysis in Bucharest City Using Corona, SPOT Hrv and Ikonos Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaje, I.; Sion, I. G.

    2012-08-01

    Bucharest, capital of Romania, deals with serious difficulties as a result of urban politics: influx of people due to industrialization and development of dormitory areas, lack of a modern infrastructure, absence of coherent and long term urban development politics, continuous depletion of environment. This paper presents a multisensor study relying on multiple data sets, both analogical and digital: satellite images (Corona - 1964 panchromatic, SPOT HRV - 1994 multispctral and panchromatic, IKONOS - 2007 multispectral), aerial photographs - 1994, complementary products (topographic and thematic maps). Georeferenced basis needs to be generated to highlight changes detection. The digital elevation model is generated from aerial photography 1:5,000 scaled, acquired in 1994. First a height correction is required followed by an affine transformation to the ground control points identified both in aerial photographs and IKONOS image. SPOT-HRV pansharpened satellite image has been rectified on georeferenced IKONOS image, by an affine transformation method. The Corona panoramic negative film was scanned and rubber sheeting method is used for rectification. The first 25 years of the study period (1964-1989) are characterized by growth of industrial areas, high density apartment buildings residential areas and leisure green areas by demolition of cultural heritage areas (hundred years old churches and architectural monuments). Changes between the imagery were determined partially through visual interpretation, using elements such as location, size, shape, shadow, tone, texture, and pattern (Corona image), partially using unsupervised classification (SPOT HRV and IKONOS). The second period of 18 years (1989-2007) highlighted considerable growth of residential areas in the city neighborhood, simultaneously with the diminish of green areas and massive deforestation in confiscated areas before and returned to the original owners.

  11. Genetic toxicity in surface water from Guaiba Hydrographic Region under the influence of industrial, urban and agricultural sewage in the Drosophila Wing-Spot Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Sinigaglia, Marialva; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena

    2006-01-01

    Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of surface waters in the Guaiba Hydrographic Region (RS, Brazil) was investigated using the SMART in Drosophila melanogaster. Two positive results in Cai River (September 2000 and August 2001) and in Taquari River (August 2001 and February 2002) - linked to direct recombinagenic toxicants were observed. In Jacui samples, an indirect mutagenic and recombinagenic action was detected in a September 2000 collection and a direct recombinational activity was observed in February 2002. Also in February 2002 - samples from Diluvio Brook and Guaiba Lake (GPC) were able to induce wing spots by mitotic recombinagenesis. The former sampling site showed toxicants to have a direct action, and the latter an increment in mitotic recombination that depended on metabolic action. The SMART wing test shows that all positive responses were mainly related to homologous mitotic recombination. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of environmental mutagenesis

  12. CFD Analysis of Hot Spot Fuel Temperature in the Control Fuel Block Assembly of a VHTR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Tak, Nam Il; Noh, Jae Man

    2010-01-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) dedicated for efficient hydrogen production requires core outlet temperatures of more than 950 .deg. C. As the outlet temperature increases, the thermal margin of the core decreases, which highlights the need for a detailed analysis to reduce its uncertainty. Tak et al. performed CFD analysis for a 1/12 fuel assembly model and compared the result with a simple unit-cell model in order to emphasize the need of a detailed CFD analysis for the prediction of hot spot fuel temperatures. Their CFD model, however, was focused on the standard fuel assembly but not on the control fuel assembly in which a considerable amount of bypass flow is expected to occur through the control rod passages. In this study, a CFD model for the control fuel block assembly is developed and applied for the hot spot analyses of PMR200 core. Not only the bypass flow but also the cross flow is considered in the analyses

  13. Identification and analysis the illegal dumping spot of solid waste at Ciliwung segment 5 riverbanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, D.; Purwaningrum, P.

    2018-01-01

    Ciliwung River is the main river in the area of Jakarta that is divided into six segments across West Java and Jakarta. The study focuses on the fifth segment which is 30 km long, covering from Kelapa Dua Depok to Manggarai, South Jakarta. The survey of the river consists of 3 sub-segments: Lenteng Agung, Pejaten Timur and Manggarai. Objectives of the study are to describe the characteristics and typology of the residential surrounding the Ciliwung Segment 5 Riverbank, to identification the illegal dumping spot of solid waste, to measure the volume and composition of solid waste in the riverbank, to decide solid waste management for residential area surrounding river banks to control the river pollution. The study shows that there are 11 illegal dumping spot of solid waste consisting of 4.37 m3 solid waste volume. The average composition of solid waste consists of 44% organic, 14% woods, 12% papers, 11% plastics, 3% rubbers, 1% metals and 2% others. To control the river pollution efforts are restoring the function of riverbanks to become green open space area, installing the trash rack into the river, to manage domestic solid waste based on 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) concept.

  14. Thermal analysis of continuous and patterned multilayer films in the presence of a nanoscale hot spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yang Juang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal responses of multilayer films play essential roles in state-of-the-art electronic systems, such as photo/micro-electronic devices, data storage systems, and silicon-on-insulator transistors. In this paper, we focus on the thermal aspects of multilayer films in the presence of a nanoscale hot spot induced by near field laser heating. The problem is set up in the scenario of heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR, the next-generation technology to overcome the data storage density limit imposed by superparamagnetism. We characterized thermal responses of both continuous and patterned multilayer media films using transient thermal modeling. We observed that material configurations, in particular, the thermal barriers at the material layer interfaces crucially impact the temperature field hence play a key role in determining the hot spot geometry, transient response and power consumption. With a representative generic media model, we further explored the possibility of optimizing thermal performances by designing layers of heat sink and thermal barrier. The modeling approach demonstrates an effective way to characterize thermal behaviors of micro and nano-scale electronic devices with multilayer thin film structures. The insights into the thermal transport scheme will be critical for design and operations of such electronic devices.

  15. Thermal analysis of continuous and patterned multilayer films in the presence of a nanoscale hot spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jia-Yang; Zheng, Jinglin

    2016-10-01

    Thermal responses of multilayer films play essential roles in state-of-the-art electronic systems, such as photo/micro-electronic devices, data storage systems, and silicon-on-insulator transistors. In this paper, we focus on the thermal aspects of multilayer films in the presence of a nanoscale hot spot induced by near field laser heating. The problem is set up in the scenario of heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR), the next-generation technology to overcome the data storage density limit imposed by superparamagnetism. We characterized thermal responses of both continuous and patterned multilayer media films using transient thermal modeling. We observed that material configurations, in particular, the thermal barriers at the material layer interfaces crucially impact the temperature field hence play a key role in determining the hot spot geometry, transient response and power consumption. With a representative generic media model, we further explored the possibility of optimizing thermal performances by designing layers of heat sink and thermal barrier. The modeling approach demonstrates an effective way to characterize thermal behaviors of micro and nano-scale electronic devices with multilayer thin film structures. The insights into the thermal transport scheme will be critical for design and operations of such electronic devices.

  16. Analysis of dot-like hemosiderin spots using brain dock system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Yoshifumi; Imaizumi, Toshio; Niwa, Jun [Hakodate Municipal Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Dot-like low intensity spots (a dot-like hemosiderin spot: dotHS) on T2-weighted MR images (T2WI), which is regarded as a sensitive method for hemosiderin detection, have been histologically diagnosed as old microbleeds associated with microangiopathies. The clinical significance of the dotHS, however, is still under debate. Therefore, we investigated the factors associated with dotHS. We investigated 209 healthy volunteers in our hospital (sex: 106 males, 103 females; age: 38 to 78 years old, mean age: 56.4{+-}8.3 years old) using ''Brain Dock'', a formalized screening system for asymptomatic brain diseases. The Odds ratio (OR) was estimated from multiple logistic regression analyses using the dotHS and variables. T2WI demonstrated dotHS in 7.7% of volunteers, and the mean number of dotHS was 0.16{+-}0.78. The hemosiderin was preferentially deposited in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Age{>=}65 years old (OR: 5.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-25.9; p=0.02), hypertension (OR: 7.0; 95% CI: 1.4-34.7; p=0.02), and headache (OR: 5.8; 95% CI: 1.4-24.6; p=0.02) were all found to be independently associated with dotHS. The dotHS was significantly associated with several factors, including age, hypertension and headache. (author)

  17. [Analysis of dot-like hemosiderin spots using brain dock system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yoshifumi; Imaizumi, Toshio; Niwa, Jun; Yoshikawa, Junpei; Miyata, Kei; Makabe, Takeshi; Moriyama, Ryo; Kurokawa, Kiyofumi; Mikami, Masashi; Nakamura, Manami

    2003-03-01

    Dot-like low intensity spots (a dot-like hemosiderin spot: dotHS) on T2*-weighted MR images (T2*WI), which is regarded as a sensitive method for hemosiderin detection, have been histologically diagnosed as old microbleeds associated with microangiopathies. The clinical significance of the dotHS, however, is still under debate. Therefore, we investigated the factors associated with dotHS. We investigated 209 healthy volunteers in our hospital (sex: 106 males, 103 females; age: 38 to 78 years old, mean age: 56.4 +/- 8.3 years old) using "Brain Dock", a formalized screening system for asymptomatic brain diseases. The Odds ratio (OR) was estimated from multiple logistic regression analyses using the dotHS and variables. T2*WI demonstrated dotHS in 7.7% of volunteers, and the mean number of dotHS was 0.16 +/- 0.78. The hemosiderin was preferentially deposited in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Age > or = 65 years old (OR: 5.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-25.9; p = 0.02), hypertension (OR: 7.0; 95% CI: 1.4-34.7; p = 0.02), and headache (OR: 5.8; 95% CI: 1.4-24.6; p = 0.02) were all found to be independently associated with dotHS. The dotHS was significantly associated with several factors, including age, hypertension and headache.

  18. Optimization of resistance spot welding parameters for microalloyed steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viňáš, Ján; Kaščák, Ľuboš; Greš, Miroslav

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the results of resistance spot welding of hot-dip galvanized microalloyed steel sheets used in car body production. The spot welds were made with various welding currents and welding time values, but with a constant pressing force of welding electrodes. The welding current and welding time are the dominant characteristics in spot welding that affect the quality of spot welds, as well as their dimensions and load-bearing capacity. The load-bearing capacity of welded joints was evaluated by tensile test according to STN 05 1122 standard and dimensions and inner defects were evaluated by metallographic analysis by light optical microscope. Thewelding parameters of investigated microalloyed steel sheets were optimized for resistance spot welding on the pneumatic welding machine BPK 20.

  19. Vibration analysis of resistance spot welding joint for dissimilar plate structure (mild steel 1010 and stainless steel 304)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, M. S. M.; Nazri, N. A.; Alawi, D. A. J.

    2017-09-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) is a proficient joining method commonly used for sheet metal joining and become one of the oldest spot welding processes use in industry especially in the automotive. RSW involves the application of heat and pressure without neglecting time taken when joining two or more metal sheets at a localized area which is claimed as the most efficient welding process in metal fabrication. The purpose of this project is to perform model updating of RSW plate structure between mild steel 1010 and stainless steel 304. In order to do the updating, normal mode finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental modal analysis (EMA) have been carried out. Result shows that the discrepancies of natural frequency between FEA and EMA are below than 10 %. Sensitivity model updating is evaluated in order to make sure which parameters are influences in this structural dynamic modification. Young’s modulus and density both materials are indicate significant parameters to do model updating. As a conclusion, after perform model updating, total average error of dissimilar RSW plate is improved significantly.

  20. Finite volume analysis of temperature effects induced by active MRI implants: 2. Defects on active MRI implants causing hot spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grönemeyer Dietrich HW

    2006-05-01

    investigations. The finite volume analysis calculates the time developing temperature maps for the model of a broken linear metallic wire embedded in tissue. Half of the total hot spot power loss is assumed to diffuse into both wire parts at the location of a defect. The energy is distributed from there by heat conduction. Additionally the effect of blood perfusion and blood flow is respected in some simulations because the simultaneous appearance of all worst case conditions, especially the absence of blood perfusion and blood flow near the hot spot, is very unlikely for vessel implants. Results The analytical solution as worst case scenario as well as the finite volume analysis for near worst case situations show not negligible volumes with critical temperature increases for part of the modeled hot spot situations. MR investigations with a high rf-pulse density lasting below a minute can establish volumes of several cubic millimeters with temperature increases high enough to start cell destruction. Longer exposure times can involve volumes larger than 100 mm3. Even temperature increases in the range of thermal ablation are reached for substantial volumes. MR sequence exposure time and hot spot power loss are the primary factors influencing the volume with critical temperature increases. Wire radius, wire material as well as the physiological parameters blood perfusion and blood flow inside larger vessels reduce the volume with critical temperature increases, but do not exclude a volume with critical tissue heating for resonators with a large product of resonator volume and quality factor. Conclusion The worst case scenario assumes thermal equilibrium for a hot spot embedded in homogeneous tissue without any cooling due to blood perfusion or flow. The finite volume analysis can calculate the results for near and not close to worst case conditions. For both cases a substantial volume can reach a critical temperature increase in a short time. The analytical solution, as absolute

  1. Proteomic analysis of Frankliniella occidentalis and differentially expressed proteins in response to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Vargas, I E; Rotenberg, D; Schneweis, D J; Hiromasa, Y; Tomich, J M; Whitfield, A E

    2012-08-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a persistent propagative manner. Despite the extensive replication of TSWV in midgut and salivary glands, there is little to no pathogenic effect on F. occidentalis. We hypothesize that the first-instar larva (L1) of F. occidentalis mounts a response to TSWV that protects it from pathogenic effects caused by virus infection and replication in various insect tissues. A partial thrips transcriptome was generated using 454-Titanium sequencing of cDNA generated from F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV. Using these sequences, the L1 thrips proteome that resolved on a two-dimensional gel was characterized. Forty-seven percent of the resolved protein spots were identified using the thrips transcriptome. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of virus titer in L1 thrips revealed a significant increase in the normalized abundance of TSWV nucleocapsid RNA from 2 to 21 h after a 3-h acquisition access period on virus-infected plant tissue, indicative of infection and accumulation of virus. We compared the proteomes of infected and noninfected L1s to identify proteins that display differential abundances in response to virus. Using four biological replicates, 26 spots containing 37 proteins were significantly altered in response to TSWV. Gene ontology assignments for 32 of these proteins revealed biological roles associated with the infection cycle of other plant- and animal-infecting viruses and antiviral defense responses. Our findings support the hypothesis that L1 thrips display a complex reaction to TSWV infection and provide new insights toward unraveling the molecular basis of this interaction.

  2. Convergence of European spot market prices for natural gas. A Real-Time Analysis of market integration using the Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siliverstovs, Boriss; Neumann, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a textbook example of an econometric analysis of the integration between two commodity markets and the subsequent price convergence or absence thereof. We analyze price relations between spot markets for natural gas in Europe. The European market for natural gas is currently undergoing a liberalization process with the aim of creating a single, unified market. We use time-varying coefficient estimation models, applying the Kalman filter to test whether price convergence between different locations is really taking place. Our results reveal that the construction of a pipeline between the UK and Zeebrugge (Belgium) has lead to almost perfect price convergence between theses locations; on the other hand, liberalization on the European continent does not seem to be working so far. (Author)

  3. Experimental analysis and modeling of the IV characteristics of photovoltaic solar cells under solar spectrum spot illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munji, M.K., E-mail: mathew.munji@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 7700 Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 7700 Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, some models that have been put forward to explain the characteristics of a photovoltaic solar cell device under solar spot-illumination are investigated. In the experimental procedure, small areas of the cell were selected and illuminated at different solar intensities. The solar cell open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and short circuit current (I{sub sc}) obtained at different illumination intensities was used to determine the solar cell ideality factor. By varying the illuminated area on the solar cell, changes in the ideality factor were studied. The ideality factor obtained increases with decreasing illumination surface ratio. The photo-generated current at the illuminated part of the cell is assumed to act as a dc source that injects charge carriers into the p-n junction of the whole solar cell while the dark region of the solar cell operates in a low space charge recombination regime with small diffusion currents. From this analysis, a different model of a spot illuminated cell that uses the variation of ideality factor with the illuminated area is proposed.

  4. Experimental analysis and modeling of the IV characteristics of photovoltaic solar cells under solar spectrum spot illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munji, M.K.; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, some models that have been put forward to explain the characteristics of a photovoltaic solar cell device under solar spot-illumination are investigated. In the experimental procedure, small areas of the cell were selected and illuminated at different solar intensities. The solar cell open circuit voltage (V oc ) and short circuit current (I sc ) obtained at different illumination intensities was used to determine the solar cell ideality factor. By varying the illuminated area on the solar cell, changes in the ideality factor were studied. The ideality factor obtained increases with decreasing illumination surface ratio. The photo-generated current at the illuminated part of the cell is assumed to act as a dc source that injects charge carriers into the p-n junction of the whole solar cell while the dark region of the solar cell operates in a low space charge recombination regime with small diffusion currents. From this analysis, a different model of a spot illuminated cell that uses the variation of ideality factor with the illuminated area is proposed.

  5. Flood Disaster Analysis Using Landsat-8 and SPOT-6 Imagery for Determination of Flooded Areas in Sampang, Madura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukojo, B. M.; Alfiansyah, F.

    2017-12-01

    Based on data of disaster which is defaced by Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah (BPBD) of Sampang that in the period of 2015 - 2017 as many as 25 cases from 31 cases of disaster caused by flood disaster or 80.65% from total disaster. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to create a map of flood vulnerability in Sampang. From the vulnerability map, we can know the area with the impacted flood level in Sampang so that from the map of flood affected areas can be known the extent of the affected area in each class. In this study, two Landsat-8 and SPOT 6 data were used. For Landsat-8 imagery used for land cover on district level disaster level vulnerability maps, while high-resolution SPOT-6 images were used for land cover making maps of flood affected areas Sampang district. With the flood affected areas in this study, it is expected to be used as a determinant of flood affected areas in Sampang district. Based on data processing and analysis it is found that the highest impacted area is located in Sampang district with 12 cases of 17 cases of total flood disaster in Sampang district based on data from BPBD Kabupaten Sampang in 2016. There are 4 classes of flood affected areas in Sampang district i.e. not affected by 9039,540 ha, low impact 46262.881 ha, medium impact 43012.431 ha and high impact of 14009,760 ha.

  6. Mongolian spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mongolian spots (MS are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  7. Determining hot spot motion using a multi line-of-sight nToF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatarik, Robert; Nora, Ryan; Spears, Brian; Eckart, Mark; Hartouni, Edward; Grim, Gary; Moore, Alastair; Schlossberg, David

    2017-10-01

    An important diagnostic value of a shot at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the resultant center-of mass motion of the imploding capsule as it contributes to the efficiency of converting LASER energy into plasma temperature. In the past the projection of this velocity onto a line-of-sight (LOS) for a given detector was determined by using a temperature model to determine the mean nergy of the emitted neutrons. With the addition of a fourth neutron time-of-flight LOS at the NIF, it is possible to determine a hot spot vector and mean velocity of the emitted neutron distribution. This entails analyzing all four LOS simultaneously and has the advantage of not relying on a temperature model. Results from recent NIF shots comparing this method with the traditional method will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Differential proteomics analysis of Frankliniella occidentalis immune response after infection with Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Pamella Akoth; Kiirika, Leonard Muriithi; Lorenz, Christin; Senkler, Jennifer; Braun, Hans-Peter; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2017-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is mainly vectored by Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, and it potentially activates the vector's immune response. However, molecular background of the altered immune response is not clearly understood. Therefore, using a proteomic approach, we investigated the immune pathways that are activated in F. occidentalis larvae after 24 h exposure to TSWV. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-IEF/SDS/PAGE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS), were used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed upon viral infection. High numbers of proteins were abundantly expressed in F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV (73%) compared to the non-exposed (27%), with the majority functionally linked to the innate immune system such as: signaling, stress response, defense response, translation, cellular lipids and nucleotide metabolism. Key proteins included: 70 kDa heat shock proteins, Ubiquitin and Dermcidin, among others, indicative of a responsive pattern of the vector's innate immune system to viral infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Empirically Testing Thematic Analysis (ETTA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkier Gildberg, Frederik; Bradley, Stephen; Tingleff, Ellen Boldrup

    2015-01-01

    Text analysis is not a question of a right or wrong way to go about it, but a question of different traditions. These tend to not only give answers to how to conduct an analysis, but also to provide the answer as to why it is conducted in the way that it is. The problem however may be that the li....../develop for themselves. The advantage of utilizing the presented analytic approach is argued to be the integral empirical testing, which should assure systematic development, interpretation and analysis of the source textual material....... between tradition and tool is unclear. The main objective of this article is therefore to present Empirical Testing Thematic Analysis, a step by step approach to thematic text analysis; discussing strengths and weaknesses, so that others might assess its potential as an approach that they might utilize...

  10. Clarification of the Etiology of Glomerella Leaf Spot and Bitter Rot of Apple Caused by Colletotrichum spp. Based on Morphology and Genetic, Molecular, and Pathogenicity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eugenia; Sutton, Turner B; Correll, James C

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT Morphological characteristics and vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of 486 isolates of Glomerella cingulata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and C. acutatum collected from apple leaves with Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) symptoms and fruit with bitter rot symptoms in the United States and Brazil were studied. From this collection, 155 isolates of G. cingulata (93 from fruit, 61 from leaves, and 1 from buds), 42 isolates of C. gloeosporioides from fruit, and 14 isolates of C. acutatum (10 from fruit and 4 from leaves) were studied using mitochondrial (mt)DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) haplotypes. A subset of 24 isolates was studied by examining the sequence of a 200-bp intron of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GDPH) nuclear gene. In addition, 98 isolates were tested for pathogenicity on leaves of cvs. Gala and Golden Delicious in the greenhouse, and 24 isolates were tested for pathogenicity on fruit of cv. Gala in growth chambers. In total, 238 and 225 isolates of G. cingulata were separated into four distinct morphological types and six VCGs, respectively. Five morphological types and six VCGs were identified among 74 and 36 isolates of C. gloeosporioides, respectively. Three morphological types and four VCGs were identified among 74 and 23 isolates of C. acutatum, respectively. Seven different mtDNA RFLP haplotypes were observed within isolates of G. cingulata, two within isolates of C. gloeosporioides, and two within isolates of C. acutatum. Phylogenetic trees, inferred based on maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods using the intron sequence, produced similar topologies. Each species was separated into distinct groups. All isolates tested were pathogenic on fruit, though only isolates with specific VCGs and haplotypes were pathogenic to leaves. Vegetative compatibility was a better tool than molecular characters for distinguishing isolates of G. cingulata pathogenic on both leaves and fruit from the ones

  11. Large coil test structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, J.A.; Hammonds, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is being utilized for testing of 2.5 x 3.5-m bore superconducting 8-T magnets produced by four international agencies (U.S., Euratom, Japan, and Switzerland). The definitive tests in the design configuration, six coils arranged in a compact torus, will begin in late 1985. Partial-array tests involving one US coil and the Japanese coil were completed in the fall of 1984. This presentation describes structural analysis using NASTRAN, with symmetry and superelement techniques, to predict the IFSMTF test stand and coil responses to various combinations of in-plane and out-of-plane loading conditions for both the partial-array and six-coil test configurations. Comparison to partial-array displacement and strain measurements are presented and discussed. Six-coil results and their utilization for determining safe levels of operation of the system are likewise discussed

  12. Early stage hot spot analysis through standard cell base random pattern generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Joong-Won; Song, Jaewan; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Park, Seongyul; Yang, Seung-Hune; Lee, Sooryong; Kang, Hokyu; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, SeungJo; Kwan, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited availability of DRC clean patterns during the process and RET recipe development, OPC recipes are not tested with high pattern coverage. Various kinds of pattern can help OPC engineer to detect sensitive patterns to lithographic effects. Random pattern generation is needed to secure robust OPC recipe. However, simple random patterns without considering real product layout style can't cover patterning hotspot in production levels. It is not effective to use them for OPC optimization thus it is important to generate random patterns similar to real product patterns. This paper presents a strategy for generating random patterns based on design architecture information and preventing hotspot in early process development stage through a tool called Layout Schema Generator (LSG). Using LSG, we generate standard cell based on random patterns reflecting real design cell structure - fin pitch, gate pitch and cell height. The output standard cells from LSG are applied to an analysis methodology to assess their hotspot severity by assigning a score according to their optical image parameters - NILS, MEEF, %PV band and thus potential hotspots can be defined by determining their ranking. This flow is demonstrated on Samsung 7nm technology optimizing OPC recipe and early enough in the process avoiding using problematic patterns.

  13. Hot spots, cluster detection and spatial outlier analysis of teen birth rates in the U.S., 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Diba; Rossen, Lauren M; Hamilton, Brady E; He, Yulei; Wei, Rong; Dienes, Erin

    2017-06-01

    Teen birth rates have evidenced a significant decline in the United States over the past few decades. Most of the states in the US have mirrored this national decline, though some reports have illustrated substantial variation in the magnitude of these decreases across the U.S. Importantly, geographic variation at the county level has largely not been explored. We used National Vital Statistics Births data and Hierarchical Bayesian space-time interaction models to produce smoothed estimates of teen birth rates at the county level from 2003-2012. Results indicate that teen birth rates show evidence of clustering, where hot and cold spots occur, and identify spatial outliers. Findings from this analysis may help inform efforts targeting the prevention efforts by illustrating how geographic patterns of teen birth rates have changed over the past decade and where clusters of high or low teen birth rates are evident. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Proactive behavior, but not inhibitory control, predicts repeated innovation by spotted hyenas tested with a multi-access box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Ulrich, Lily; Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe; Holekamp, Kay

    2018-03-06

    Innovation is widely linked to cognitive ability, brain size, and adaptation to novel conditions. However, successful innovation appears to be influenced by both cognitive factors, such as inhibitory control, and non-cognitive behavioral traits. We used a multi-access box (MAB) paradigm to measure repeated innovation, the number of unique innovations learned across trials, by 10 captive spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Spotted hyenas are highly innovative in captivity and also display striking variation in behavioral traits, making them good model organisms for examining the relationship between innovation and other behavioral traits. We measured persistence, motor diversity, motivation, activity, efficiency, inhibitory control, and neophobia demonstrated by hyenas while interacting with the MAB. We also independently assessed inhibitory control with a detour cylinder task. Most hyenas were able to solve the MAB at least once, but only four hyenas satisfied learning criteria for all four possible solutions. Interestingly, neither measure of inhibitory control predicted repeated innovation. Instead, repeated innovation was predicted by a proactive syndrome of behavioral traits that included high persistence, high motor diversity, high activity and low neophobia. Our results suggest that this proactive behavioral syndrome may be more important than inhibitory control for successful innovation with the MAB by members of this species.

  15. On the characterization of vegetation recovery after fire disturbance using Fisher-Shannon analysis and SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Lanorte, Antonio; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    Time series can fruitfully support fire monitoring and management from statistical analysis of fire occurrence (Tuia et al. 2008) to danger estimation (lasaponara 2005), damage evaluation (Lanorte et al 2014) and post fire recovery (Lanorte et al. 2014). In this paper, the time dynamics of SPOT-VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series are analyzed by using the statistical approach of the Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane to assess and monitor vegetation recovery after fire disturbance. Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis allows us to gain insight into the complex structure of a time series to quantify its degree of organization and order. The analysis was carried out using 10-day Maximum Value Composites of NDVI (MVC-NDVI) with a 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution. The investigation was performed on two test sites located in Galizia (North Spain) and Peloponnese (South Greece), selected for the vast fires which occurred during the summer of 2006 and 2007 and for their different vegetation covers made up mainly of low shrubland in Galizia test site and evergreen forest in Peloponnese. Time series of MVC-NDVI have been analyzed before and after the occurrence of the fire events. Results obtained for both the investigated areas clearly pointed out that the dynamics of the pixel time series before the occurrence of the fire is characterized by a larger degree of disorder and uncertainty; while the pixel time series after the occurrence of the fire are featured by a higher degree of organization and order. In particular, regarding the Peloponneso fire, such discrimination is more evident than in the Galizia fire. This suggests a clear possibility to discriminate the different post-fire behaviors and dynamics exhibited by the different vegetation covers. Reference Lanorte A, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to

  16. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.414 Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or...

  17. The SPOT-HRV instrument - An overview of design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midan, J. P.

    1983-10-01

    The SPOT spacecraft's High Visible Resolution (HVR) earth resources sensor performance requirements, system and subsystem design features, and technology development considerations, are discussed. Attention is given to such problem areas involving extensive design tradeoff analyses and testing as those uncovered by mechanical design and thermal distortion studies and SNR analysis and calibration considerations. The SPOT spacecraft will be placed in orbit in 1985.

  18. Bootstrap Score Tests for Fractional Integration in Heteroskedastic ARFIMA Models, with an Application to Price Dynamics in Commodity Spot and Futures Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    Empirical evidence from time series methods which assume the usual I(0)/I(1) paradigm suggests that the efficient market hypothesis, stating that spot and futures prices of a commodity should cointegrate with a unit slope on futures prices, does not hold. However, these statistical methods...... fractionally integrated model we are able to find a body of evidence in support of the efficient market hypothesis for a number of commodities. Our new tests are wild bootstrap implementations of score-based tests for the order of integration of a fractionally integrated time series. These tests are designed...... principle do. A Monte Carlo simulation study demonstrates that very significant improvements infinite sample behaviour can be obtained by the bootstrap vis-à-vis the corresponding asymptotic tests in both heteroskedastic and homoskedastic environments....

  19. Digital image analysis of Ki67 in hot spots is superior to both manual Ki67 and mitotic counts in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhammar, Gustav; Robertson, Stephanie; Wedlund, Lena; Lippert, Michael; Rantalainen, Mattias; Bergh, Jonas; Hartman, Johan

    2017-12-08

    During pathological examination of breast tumours, proliferative activity is routinely evaluated by a count of mitoses. Adding immunohistochemical stains of Ki67 provides extra prognostic and predictive information. However, the currently used methods for these evaluations suffer from imperfect reproducibility. It is still unclear whether analysis of Ki67 should be performed in hot spots, in the tumour periphery, or as an average of the whole tumour section. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical relevance of mitoses, Ki67 and phosphohistone H3 in two cohorts of primary breast cancer specimens (total n = 294). Both manual and digital image analysis scores were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity for luminal B versus A subtype as defined by PAM50 gene expression assays, for high versus low transcriptomic grade, for axillary lymph node status, and for prognostic value in terms of prediction of overall and relapse-free survival. Digital image analysis of Ki67 outperformed the other markers, especially in hot spots. Tumours with high Ki67 expression and high numbers of phosphohistone H3-positive cells had significantly increased hazard ratios for all-cause mortality within 10 years from diagnosis. Replacing manual mitotic counts with digital image analysis of Ki67 in hot spots increased the differences in overall survival between the highest and lowest histological grades, and added significant prognostic information. Digital image analysis of Ki67 in hot spots is the marker of choice for routine analysis of proliferation in breast cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparison of Spot and Time Weighted Averaging (TWA Sampling with SPME-GC/MS Methods for Trihalomethane (THM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don-Roger Parkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected and analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature and trihalomethanes (THMs during the fall of 2014 at two monitored municipal drinking water source ponds. Both spot (or grab and time weighted average (TWA sampling methods were assessed over the same two day sampling time period. For spot sampling, replicate samples were taken at each site and analyzed within 12 h of sampling by both Headspace (HS- and direct (DI- solid phase microextraction (SPME sampling/extraction methods followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. For TWA, a two day passive on-site TWA sampling was carried out at the same sampling points in the ponds. All SPME sampling methods undertaken used a 65-µm PDMS/DVB SPME fiber, which was found optimal for THM sampling. Sampling conditions were optimized in the laboratory using calibration standards of chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, prepared in aqueous solutions from analytical grade samples. Calibration curves for all methods with R2 values ranging from 0.985–0.998 (N = 5 over the quantitation linear range of 3–800 ppb were achieved. The different sampling methods were compared for quantification of the water samples, and results showed that DI- and TWA- sampling methods gave better data and analytical metrics. Addition of 10% wt./vol. of (NH42SO4 salt to the sampling vial was found to aid extraction of THMs by increasing GC peaks areas by about 10%, which resulted in lower detection limits for all techniques studied. However, for on-site TWA analysis of THMs in natural waters, the calibration standard(s ionic strength conditions, must be carefully matched to natural water conditions to properly quantitate THM concentrations. The data obtained from the TWA method may better reflect actual natural water conditions.

  1. Sensitivity analysis and economic optimization studies of inverted five-spot gas cycling in gas condensate reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Bilal; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Gas condensate reservoirs usually exhibit complex flow behaviors because of propagation response of pressure drop from the wellbore into the reservoir. When reservoir pressure drops below the dew point in two phase flow of gas and condensate, the accumulation of large condensate amount occurs in the gas condensate reservoirs. Usually, the saturation of condensate accumulation in volumetric gas condensate reservoirs is lower than the critical condensate saturation that causes trapping of large amount of condensate in reservoir pores. Trapped condensate often is lost due to condensate accumulation-condensate blockage courtesy of high molecular weight, heavy condensate residue. Recovering lost condensate most economically and optimally has always been a challenging goal. Thus, gas cycling is applied to alleviate such a drastic loss in resources. In gas injection, the flooding pattern, injection timing and injection duration are key parameters to study an efficient EOR scenario in order to recover lost condensate. This work contains sensitivity analysis on different parameters to generate an accurate investigation about the effects on performance of different injection scenarios in homogeneous gas condensate system. In this paper, starting time of gas cycling and injection period are the parameters used to influence condensate recovery of a five-spot well pattern which has an injection pressure constraint of 3000 psi and production wells are constraint at 500 psi min. BHP. Starting injection times of 1 month, 4 months and 9 months after natural depletion areapplied in the first study. The second study is conducted by varying injection duration. Three durations are selected: 100 days, 400 days and 900 days. In miscible gas injection, miscibility and vaporization of condensate by injected gas is more efficient mechanism for condensate recovery. From this study, it is proven that the application of gas cycling on five-spot well pattern greatly enhances condensate recovery

  2. Environmental hot spot analysis in agricultural life-cycle assessments – three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Piringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Present-day agricultural technology is facing the challenge of limiting the environmental impacts of agricultural production – such as greenhouse gas emissions and demand for additional land – while meeting growing demands for agricultural products. Using the well-established method of life-cycle assessment (LCA, potential environmental impacts of agricultural production chains can be quantified and analyzed. This study presents three case studies of how the method can pinpoint environmental hot spots at different levels of agricultural production systems. The first case study centers on the tractor as the key source of transportation and traction in modern agriculture. A common Austrian tractor model was investigated over its life-cycle, using primary data from a manufacturer and measured load profiles for field work. In all but one of the impact categories studied, potential impacts were dominated by the operation phase of the tractor’s life-cycle (mainly due to diesel fuel consumption, with 84.4-99.6% of total impacts. The production phase (raw materials and final assembly caused between 0.4% and 12.1% of impacts, while disposal of the tractor was below 1.9% in all impact categories. The second case study shifts the focus to an entire production chain for a common biogas feedstock, maize silage. System boundaries incorporate the effect of auxiliary materials such as fertilizer and pesticides manufacturing and application. The operation of machinery in the silage production chain was found to be critical to its environmental impact. For the climate change indicator GWP100 (global warming potential, 100-year reference period, emissions from tractor operation accounted for 15 g CO2-eq per kg silage (64% of total GWP100, followed by field emissions during fertilizer (biogas digestate application with 6 g CO2-eq per kg silage (24% of total GWP100. At a larger system scale that includes a silage-fed biogas plant with electricity generated by

  3. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis in detecting inborn errors of metabolism using blood spots: a metabonomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, M.A.; Papakonstantinou, E.; Benaki, D.; Spraul, M.; Shulpis, K.; Koupparis, M.A.; Mikros, E.

    2004-01-01

    NMR spectra of extracted blood spots were used to investigate the possibility for the development of a new method for mass screening concerning the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Blood spots were collected on filter papers from normal, phenylketonuric (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) subjects and their Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) 1 H NMR spectra were acquired. The spectra were reduced to a number of spectral descriptors and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. The scores plot showed that PKU and MSUD samples were well discriminated from the main cluster of points

  4. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  5. Influence of transverse mode on retinal spot size and retinal injury effect: A theoretical analysis on 532-nm laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Rui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental transverse mode (TEM00 is preferable for experimental and theoretical study on the laser-induced retinal injury effect, for it can produce the minimal retinal image and establish the most strict laser safety standards. But actually lasers with higher order mode were frequently used in both earlier and recent studies. Generally higher order mode leads to larger retinal spot size and so higher damage threshold, but there are few quantitative analyses on this problem. In this paper, a four-surface schematic eye model is established for human and macaque. The propagation of 532-nm laser in schematic eye is analyzed by the ABCD law of Gaussian optics. It is shown that retinal spot size increases with laser transverse mode order. For relative lower mode order, the retinal spot diameter will not exceed the minimum laser-induced retinal lesion (25 ~ 30 μm in diameter, and so has little effect on retinal damage threshold. While for higher order mode, the larger retinal spot requires more energy to induce injury and so the damage threshold increases. When beam divergence is lowered, the retinal spot size decreases correspondingly, so the effect of mode order can be compensated. The retinal spot size of macaque is slightly smaller than that of human and the ratio between them is independent of mode order. We conclude that the laser mode order has significant influence on retinal spot size but limited influence on the retinal injury effect.

  6. A Comparative Accuracy Analysis of Classification Methods in Determination of Cultivated Lands with Spot 5 Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    kaya, S.; Alganci, U.; Sertel, E.; Ustundag, B.

    2013-12-01

    A Comparative Accuracy Analysis of Classification Methods in Determination of Cultivated Lands with Spot 5 Satellite Imagery Ugur ALGANCI1, Sinasi KAYA1,2, Elif SERTEL1,2,Berk USTUNDAG3 1 ITU, Center for Satellite Communication and Remote Sensing, 34469, Maslak-Istanbul,Turkey 2 ITU, Department of Geomatics, 34469, Maslak-Istanbul, Turkey 3 ITU, Agricultural and Environmental Informatics Research Center,34469, Maslak-Istanbul,Turkey alganci@itu.edu.tr, kayasina@itu.edu.tr, sertele@itu.edu.tr, berk@berk.tc ABSTRACT Cultivated land determination and their area estimation are important tasks for agricultural management. Derived information is mostly used in agricultural policies and precision agriculture, in specifically; yield estimation, irrigation and fertilization management and farmers declaration verification etc. The use of satellite image in crop type identification and area estimate is common for two decades due to its capability of monitoring large areas, rapid data acquisition and spectral response to crop properties. With launch of high and very high spatial resolution optical satellites in the last decade, such kind of analysis have gained importance as they provide information at big scale. With increasing spatial resolution of satellite images, image classification methods to derive the information form them have become important with increase of the spectral heterogeneity within land objects. In this research, pixel based classification with maximum likelihood algorithm and object based classification with nearest neighbor algorithm were applied to 2012 dated 2.5 m resolution SPOT 5 satellite images in order to investigate the accuracy of these methods in determination of cotton and corn planted lands and their area estimation. Study area was selected in Sanliurfa Province located on Southeastern Turkey that contributes to Turkey's agricultural production in a major way. Classification results were compared in terms of crop type identification using

  7. Preliminary analysis of hot spot factors in an advanced reactor for space electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, P. H.; Holms, A. G.; Davison, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The maximum fuel pin temperature for nominal operation in an advanced power reactor is 1370 K. Because of possible nitrogen embrittlement of the clad, the fuel temperature was limited to 1622 K. Assuming simultaneous occurrence of the most adverse conditions a deterministic analysis gave a maximum fuel temperature of 1610 K. A statistical analysis, using a synthesized estimate of the standard deviation for the highest fuel pin temperature, showed probabilities of 0.015 of that pin exceeding the temperature limit by the distribution free Chebyshev inequality and virtually nil assuming a normal distribution. The latter assumption gives a 1463 K maximum temperature at 3 standard deviations, the usually assumed cutoff. Further, the distribution and standard deviation of the fuel-clad gap are the most significant contributions to the uncertainty in the fuel temperature.

  8. Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction and Spot Sign in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Andrea; Brouwers, H Bart; Romero, Javier M; Jessel, Michael J; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Cassarly, Christy; Greenberg, Steven M; Martin, Renee Hebert; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2017-08-01

    The computed tomographic angiography (CTA) spot sign is associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) expansion and may mark those patients most likely to benefit from intensive blood pressure (BP) reduction. To investigate whether the spot sign is associated with ICH expansion across a wide range of centers and whether intensive BP reduction decreases hematoma expansion and improves outcome in patients with ICH and a spot sign. SCORE-IT (Spot Sign Score in Restricting ICH Growth) is a preplanned prospective observational study nested in the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage II (ATACH-II) randomized clinical trial. Participants included consecutive patients with primary ICH who underwent a CTA within 8 hours from onset at 59 sites from May 15, 2011, through December 19, 2015. Data were analyzed for the present study from July 1 to August 31, 2016. Patients in ATACH-II were randomized to intensive (systolic BP target, sign, and 24 of 123 without missing data (19.5%) experienced ICH expansion. The spot sign was associated with expansion with sensitivity of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.34-0.74) and specificity of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.53-0.72). After adjustment for potential confounders, intensive BP treatment was not associated with a significant reduction of ICH expansion (relative risk, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.27-2.51; P = .74) or improved outcome (relative risk of 90-day modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.53-2.91; P = .62) in spot sign-positive patients. The predictive performance of the spot sign for ICH expansion was lower than in prior reports from single-center studies. No evidence suggested that patients with ICH and a spot sign specifically benefit from intensive BP reduction. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01176565.

  9. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  10. Experimental and numerical analysis of traffic emitted nanoparticle and particulate matter dispersion at urban pollution hot-spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anju

    Road vehicles are a major source of airborne nanoparticles (health effects such as asthma, cardiovascular and ischemic heart diseases. The issue of air pollution becomes more prominent at urban traffic hot-spots such as traffic intersections (TIs), where pollution pockets are created due to frequently changing driving conditions. Recent trends suggest an exponential increase in travel demand and travelling time in the UK and elsewhere over the years, which indicate a growing need for the accurate characterisation of exposure at TIs since exposure at these hot-spots can contribute disproportionately high to overall commuting exposure. Based on field observations, this thesis aims (i) to investigate the traffic driving conditions in which TIs become a hotspot for nanoparticles and PM, (ii) to estimate the extent of road that is affected by high particle number concentrations (PNCs) and PM due to presence of a signal, (iii) to assess the vertical and horizontal variations in PNC and PMC at different TIs, (iv) to estimate the associated in-cabin and pedestrian exposure at TIs, and finally (v) to predict PNCs by using freely available models of air pollution at TIs. For this thesis, two sets of experiments (i.e. mobile- and fixed-sites) were carried out to measure airborne nanoparticles and PM in the size range of (0.005-10 ?m) using a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50) and a GRIMM particle spectrometer (1.107 E). Mobile measurements were made on a circle passing through 10 TIs and fixed-site measurements were carried out at two different types of TIs (i.e. 3- and 4-way). Dispersion modelling was then performed by using California Line Source (CALINE4) and California Line Source for Queueing and Hotspot Calculations (CAL3QHC) at TIs. Several important findings were then extrapolated during the analysis. These findings indicated that congested TIs were found to become hot-spots when vehicle accelerate from idling conditions. The average length of

  11. Critical evaluation of incidence and prevalence of white spot lesions during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaj, Dhinahar; Venkatachalapathy, Sudhakar; Tandon, Akshay; Pereira, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Development of dental caries, specifically, white spot lesions (WSLs), continues to be a well-recognized and troubling side effect of orthodontic fixed appliance therapy, despite vast improvement in preventive dental techniques and procedures. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate, determine, and summarize the incidence and prevalence rates of WSLs during orthodontic treatment that have been published in the literature. According to predetermined criteria, databases were searched for appropriate studies. References of the selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications. In the 14 studies evaluated for WSLs, the incidence of new carious lesions formed during orthodontic treatment in patients was 45.8% and the prevalence of lesions in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment was 68.4%. The incidence and prevalence rates of WSLs in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment are quite high and significant. This widespread problem of WSL development is an alarming challenge and warrants significant attention from both patients and providers, which should result in greatly increased emphasis on effective caries prevention.

  12. An Elegant Analysis of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using a Graphene Oxide/Methylene Blue based Electrochemical Immunosensor Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Anusha; Devi, K. S. Shalini; Raja, Sudhakaran; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai

    2017-04-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major devastating virus in aquaculture industry. A sensitive and selective diagnostic method for WSSV is a pressing need for the early detection and protection of the aquaculture farms. Herein, we first report, a simple electrochemical immunosensor based on methylene blue dye (MB) immobilized graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/GO@MB) for selective, quick (35 ± 5 mins) and raw sample analysis of WSSV. The immunosensor was prepared by sequential modification of primary antibody, blocking agent (bovine serum album), antigen (as vp28 protein), secondary antibody coupled with horseradish peroxidase (Ab2-HRP) on the GCE/GO@MB. The modified electrode showed a well-defined redox peak at an equilibrium potential (E1/2), -0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl and mediated H2O2 reduction reaction without any false positive result and dissolved oxygen interferences in pH 7 phosphate buffer solution. Under an optimal condition, constructed calibration plot was linear in a range of 1.36 × 10-3 to 1.36 × 107 copies μL-1 of vp28. It is about four orders higher sensitive than that of the values observed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot based WSSV detection techniques. Direct electrochemical immunosensing of WSSV in raw tissue samples were successfully demonstrated as a real sample system.

  13. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  14. Cultural diversity: blind spot in medical curriculum documents, a document analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, Emma; Fokkema, Joanne P I; van Loon, Karsten A; van Dulmen, Sandra; Scheele, Fedde

    2014-08-22

    Cultural diversity among patients presents specific challenges to physicians. Therefore, cultural diversity training is needed in medical education. In cases where strategic curriculum documents form the basis of medical training it is expected that the topic of cultural diversity is included in these documents, especially if these have been recently updated. The aim of this study was to assess the current formal status of cultural diversity training in the Netherlands, which is a multi-ethnic country with recently updated medical curriculum documents. In February and March 2013, a document analysis was performed of strategic curriculum documents for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in the Netherlands. All text phrases that referred to cultural diversity were extracted from these documents. Subsequently, these phrases were sorted into objectives, training methods or evaluation tools to assess how they contributed to adequate curriculum design. Of a total of 52 documents, 33 documents contained phrases with information about cultural diversity training. Cultural diversity aspects were more prominently described in the curriculum documents for undergraduate education than in those for postgraduate education. The most specific information about cultural diversity was found in the blueprint for undergraduate medical education. In the postgraduate curriculum documents, attention to cultural diversity differed among specialties and was mainly superficial. Cultural diversity is an underrepresented topic in the Dutch documents that form the basis for actual medical training, although the documents have been updated recently. Attention to the topic is thus unwarranted. This situation does not fit the demand of a multi-ethnic society for doctors with cultural diversity competences. Multi-ethnic countries should be critical on the content of the bases for their medical educational curricula.

  15. Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weidong; Mao, Ying Qing; Huang, Ruochun; Duan, Chaohui; Xi, Yun; Yang, Kai; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2014-01-31

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper offer several advantages compared to conventional serum/plasma samples: they do not require any phlebotomy or separation of blood by centrifugation; they are less invasive; they allow sample stability and shipment at room temperature; and they pose a negligible risk of infection with blood-borne viruses, such as HIV, HBV and HCV, to those who handle them. Therefore dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper can be a quick, convenient and inexpensive means of obtaining blood samples for biomarker discovery, disease screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-hospitalized, public health settings. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential application of dried blood spot samples (DBSS) in protein expression profiling using antibody array technology. First, optimal conditions for array assay performance using dried blood spot samples (DBSS) was established, including sample elution buffer, elution time, elution temperature and assay blocking buffer. Second, we analyzed dried blood spot samples (DBSS) using three distinct antibody array platforms, including sandwich-based antibody arrays, quantitative antibody arrays and biotin-label-based antibody arrays. In comparison with paired serum samples, detection of circulating proteins in dried blood spot samples (DBSS) correlated well for both low- and high-abundance proteins on all three antibody array platforms. In conclusion, our study strongly indicates the novel application of multiplex antibody array platforms to analyze dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper represents a viable, cost-effective method for protein profiling, biomarker discovery and disease screening in a large, population-based survey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the direct multi-element analysis of dried blood spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguí, E.; Queralt, I.; García-Ruiz, E.; García-González, E.; Rello, L.; Resano, M.

    2018-01-01

    Home-based collection protocols for clinical specimens are actively pursued as a means of improving life quality of patients. In this sense, dried blood spots (DBS) are proposed as a non-invasive and even self-administered alternative to sampling whole venous blood. This contribution explores the potential of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the simultaneous and direct determination of some major (S, Cl, K, Na), minor (P, Fe) and trace (Ca, Cu, Zn) elements in blood, after its deposition onto clinical filter papers, thus giving rise to DBS. For quantification purposes the best strategy was to use matrix-matched blood samples of known analyte concentrations. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated by analysis of a blood reference material (Seronorm™ trace elements whole blood L3). Quantitative results were obtained for the determination of P, S, Cl, K and Fe, and limits of detection for these elements were adequate, taking into account their typical concentrations in real blood samples. Determination of Na, Ca, Cu and Zn was hampered by the occurrence of high sample support (Na, Ca) and instrumental blanks (Cu, Zn). Therefore, the quantitative determination of these elements at the levels expected in blood samples was not feasible. The methodology developed was applied to the analysis of several blood samples and the results obtained were compared with those reported by standard techniques. Overall, the performance of the method developed is promising and it could be used to determine the aforementioned elements in blood samples in a simple, fast and economic way. Furthermore, its non-destructive nature enables further analyses by means of complementary techniques to be carried out.

  17. The RT-PCR identification and sequence analysis of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus from apple cultivars in Jiaodong Peninsula, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dechang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Xiaoman; Wang, Ning; Gu, Liang

    2014-03-04

    A set of specific primer pairs was utilized to detect Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from seven different apple cultivars in Jiaodong Peninsula via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the sequence of ACLSV genome was analysed. The results indicate that: (1) High-purity total RNA could be successfully isolated using plant RNA rapid extraction kit. The ratios of A 260 /A 280 varied between 1.8 and 2.1. The fragmentation in agarose gel was good and the 28S and 16S bands were clear, which suggested that the extracted RNA had better quality and could be used for RT-PCR. (2) The amplified products by RT-PCR were approximately 220 bp, which showed the tested samples were infected by ACLSV in this study. (3) Sequencing analysis showed that the lengths of the target fragments were 217 bp, and the sequence identity rate ranged from 85.7% to 99.1% at the nucleotide level aligned with the corresponding sequences of other ACLSV strains in National Center for Biotechnology Information.

  18. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... execution within boundaries). Moreover, during the execution of the workload, SpotADAPT suggests a redeployment if the current spot instance gets terminated by Amazon or a better deployment becomes possible due to fluctuations of the spot prices. The approach is evaluated using the actual execution times...

  19. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  20. Effect of amlodipine, efonidipine, and trichlormethiazide on home blood pressure and upper-normal microalbuminuria assessed by casual spot urine test in essential hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Miki; Inoue, Ryusuke; Satoh, Michihiro; Watabe, Daisuke; Hanazawa, Tomohiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Obara, Taku; Imai, Yutaka

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of irbesartan alone and combined with amlodipine, efonidipine, or trichlormethiazide on blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin (UA) excretion in hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria (30≤UA/creatinine (Cr) ratio [UACR] <300 mg/g Cr) and upper-normal microalbuminuria (10≤UACR<30 mg/g Cr). This randomized controlled trial enrolled 175 newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients (home systolic blood pressure [SBP]≥135 mmHg; 10≤UACR<300 mg/g Cr of casual spot urine at the first visit to clinic). All patients were treated with irbesartan (week 0). Patients who failed to achieve home SBP ≤125 mmHg on 8-week irbesartan monotherapy (nonresponders, n = 115) were randomized into three additional drug treatment groups: trichlormethiazide (n = 42), efonidipine (n = 39), or amlodipine (n = 34). Irbesartan monotherapy decreased home SBP and first morning urine samples (morning UACR) for 8 weeks (p < 0.0001). At 8 weeks after randomization, all three additional drugs decreased home SBP (p < 0.0002) and trichlormethiazide significantly decreased morning UACR (p = 0.03). Amlodipine decreased morning UACR in patients with microalbuminuria based on casual spot urine samples (p = 0.048). However, multivariate analysis showed that only higher home SBP and UACR at week 8, but not any additional treatments, were significantly associated with UACR reduction between week 8 and week 16. In conclusion, crucial points of the effects of combination therapy on UACR were basal UACR and SBP levels. The effect of trichlormethiazide or amlodipine treatment in combination with irbesartan treatment on microalbuminuria needs to be reexamined based on a larger sample size after considering basal UACR and SBP levels.

  1. Why is the Great Red Spot Red? The Exogenic, Photolytic Origin of the UV/Blue-Absorbing Chromophores of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot as Determined by Spectral Analysis of Cassini/VIMS Observations using New Laboratory Optical Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2014-11-01

    For centuries, a major question for Jupiter has been: Why is the Great Red Spot red? In particular, two major theories have been proposed: (1) that the coloring is due to photolytic processes in the upper cloud layer, or (2) it is due to the upwellimg of red materials processed relatively deep within the troposphere. Utilizing indices of refraction for red choromophores generated by the photolysis of ammonia and acetylene in the laboratory, we present results of a spectral analysis of the core of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot (GRS) as observed by the visual channel of the Cassini/Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Consistent with the physical origin of such laboratory-generated chromophores in Jupiter - i.e., by solar-driven UV photolysis within the upper levels of the GRS structure near ~ 0.3 bar - our spectral modeling yields satisfactory results for such Mie scattering chromophores only when they are confined to the upper ~ 100 mbar of the GRS. Beneath this reddish upper cloud layer, our models indicate that the remainder of the GRS cloud - assumed to extend down to at least the ammonia condensation level near 0.6 bar - must be relatively spectrally bright throughout the UV-red spectrum; that is, they must be predominantly a whitish or grey color at depth. Thus, our 0.35-1.0 micron spectral models of the GRS are inconsistent with an endogenic origin of the reddish coloring originating in the depths of Jupiter, but are consistent with a photolytic origin due to the photolysis of ammonia and acetylene in the upper troposphere.

  2. A spatial analysis of population dynamics and climate change in Africa: potential vulnerability hot spots emerge where precipitation declines and demographic pressures coincide

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carr, David; Pricope, Narcisa G.; Aukema, Juliann E.; Jankowska, Marta M.; Funk, Christopher C.; Husak, Gregory J.; Michaelsen, Joel C.

    2014-01-01

    We present an integrative measure of exposure and sensitivity components of vulnerability to climatic and demographic change for the African continent in order to identify “hot spots” of high potential population vulnerability. Getis-Ord Gi* spatial clustering analyses reveal statistically significant locations of spatio-temporal precipitation decline coinciding with high population density and increase. Statistically significant areas are evident, particularly across central, southern, and eastern Africa. The highly populated Lake Victoria basin emerges as a particularly salient hot spot. People located in the regions highlighted in this analysis suffer exceptionally high exposure to negative climate change impacts (as populations increase on lands with decreasing rainfall). Results may help inform further hot spot mapping and related research on demographic vulnerabilities to climate change. Results may also inform more suitable geographical targeting of policy interventions across the continent.

  3. Extravasation of contrast (Spot Sign) predicts in-hospital mortality in ruptured arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zengpanpan; Ai, Xiaolin; Zheng, Jun; Hu, Xin; You, Chao; Andrew M, Faramand; Fang, Fang

    2017-10-09

    The spot sign is a highly specific and sensitive predictor of hematoma expansion in following primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Rare cases of the spot sign have been documented in patients with intracranial hemorrhage secondary to arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The purpose of this retrospective study is to assess the accuracy of spot sign in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with ruptured AVM. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed for patients who presented to West China Hospital with ICH secondary to AVM in the period between January 2009 and September 2016. Two radiologists blinded to the clinical data independently assessed the imaging data, including the presence of spot sign. Statistical analysis using univariate testing, multivariate logistic regression testing, and receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was performed. A total of 116 patients were included. Overall, 18.9% (22/116) of subjects had at least 1 spot sign detected by CT angiography, 7% (8/116) died in hospital, and 27% (31/116) of the patients had a poor outcome after 90 days. The spot sign had a sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 84.3% for predicting in-hospital mortality (p = .02, AUC 0.734). No correlation detected between the spot sign and 90-day outcomes under multiple logistic regression (p = .19). The spot sign is an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality. The presence of spot sign did not correlate with the 90 day outcomes in this patient cohort. The results of this report suggest that patients with ruptured AVM with demonstrated the spot sign on imaging must receive aggressive treatment early on due to the high risk of mortality.

  4. Screening for adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency using tandem mass spectrometry analysis of succinylpurines in neonatal dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikanova, Marie; Krijt, Jakub; Skopova, Vaclava; Krijt, Matyas; Baresova, Veronika; Kmoch, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope dilution coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is the sensitive method for screening for various inherited metabolic disorders using dried blood spots (DBSs). We present a method for LC-MS/MS determination of succinyladenosine (SAdo) and succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr), biomarkers for adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency (dADSL), in DBS. SAICAr and SAdo were separated on a Symmetry-C18 column and detected using positive electrospray ionisation in selected reaction monitoring mode. The quantification was performed using the isotopically labelled internal standards SAdo-(13)C4 and SAICAr-(13)C4, which were prepared via ADSL-catalysed reactions of fumarate-(13)C4 with adenosine monophosphate and aminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide, respectively, and subsequent alkaline phosphatase-catalysed dephosphorylation of the resulting products. The detection of SAICAr and SAdo in DBS was linear over the range of 0-25μmol/L. The respective intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision values were less than 10.7% and 15.2% for SAICAr and 4.7% and 5.7% for SAdo. The recoveries from DBS spiked with different concentrations of SAICAr and SAdo were between 94% and 117%. The concentrations of SAICAr and SAdo were higher in the archived DBS from dADSL patients (SAICAr, 0.03-4.7μmol/L; SAdo, 1.5-21.3μmol/L; n=5) compared to those of the control subjects (SAICAr, 0-0.026μmol/L; SAdo, 0.06-0.14μmol/L; n=31), even after DBSs from dADSL patients were stored for 2-23years. We developed and validated a method of succinylpurine analysis in DBS that improves selective screening for dADSL in the paediatric population and may be used for retrospective diagnosis to aid the genetic counselling of affected families. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of the GH content within archived dried blood spots of newborn screening cards from children diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency after the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, G; Hettmann, S; Weber, K; Kohlmüller, D; Schweizer, R

    2011-12-01

    It is unknown whether GH secretion of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is already diminished at birth. We aimed to determine the GH content within archived dried blood spots of newborn screening cards from children diagnosed with GHD at childhood. At our hospital, all children with the diagnosis of GHD and an actual age GH content. Reference values were calculated based on 600 anonymous newborn screening cards of different ages. Median GH content within the archived dried blood spots of the reference had declined by 30% during the first year and by further 35% during the next 8.5years of storage. After correction for time of storage, four out of the 16 archived dried blood spots of the GHD children contained low amounts of GH (≤5th percentile). Diminished GH secretion at birth was absent in isolated GHD, but associated with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) (P=0.0013), ectopic neurohypophysis (P=0.0013), lower GH test peak values (P=0.02) and higher weight at diagnosis (P=0.015). Children with isolated GHD have normal GH secretory capacity during the first week of life while the majority of children with MPHD and pituitary malformation were GH deficient immediately after birth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vocal complexity and sociality in spotted paca (Cuniculus paca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of sociality is related to many ecological factors that act on animals as selective forces, thus driving the formation of groups. Group size will depend on the payoffs of group living. The Social Complexity Hypothesis for Communication (SCHC) predicts that increases in group size will be related to increases in the complexity of the communication among individuals. This hypothesis, which was confirmed in some mammal societies, may be useful to trace sociality in the spotted paca (Cuniculus paca), a Neotropical caviomorph rodent reported as solitary. There are, however, sightings of groups in the wild, and farmers easily form groups of spotted paca in captivity. Thus, we aimed to describe the acoustic repertoire of captive spotted paca to test the SCHC and to obtain insights about the sociability of this species. Moreover, we aimed to verify the relationship between group size and acoustic repertoire size of caviomorph rodents, to better understand the evolution of sociality in this taxon. We predicted that spotted paca should display a complex acoustic repertoire, given their social behavior in captivity and group sightings in the wild. We also predicted that in caviomorph species the group size would increase with acoustic repertoire, supporting the SCHC. We performed a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based on acoustic parameters of the vocalizations recorded. In addition, we applied an independent contrasts approach to investigate sociality in spotted paca following the social complexity hypothesis, independent of phylogeny. Our analysis showed that the spotted paca’s acoustic repertoire contains seven vocal types and one mechanical signal. The broad acoustic repertoire of the spotted paca might have evolved given the species’ ability to live in groups. The relationship between group size and the size of the acoustic repertoires of caviomorph species was confirmed, providing additional support for the SCHC in yet another group of diverse

  7. Diagnostic performances of the fluorescent spot test for G6PD deficiency in newborns along the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielemans, Laurence; Gornsawun, Gornpan; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Paw, Moo Kho; Porn, Pen; Moo, Paw Khu; Van Overmeire, Bart; Proux, Stephane; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose; Carrara, Verena I; Bancone, Germana

    2018-01-01

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited enzymatic disorder associated with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute haemolysis after exposure to certain drugs or infections. The disorder can be diagnosed phenotypically with a fluorescent spot test (FST), which is a simple test that requires training and basic laboratory equipment. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of the FST used on umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and to compare test results of the neonates at birth with the results after one month of age. Methods : We conducted a cohort study on newborns at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, along the Thai-Myanmar border between January 2015 and May 2016. The FST was performed at birth on the umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and quality controlled by specialised technicians at the central laboratory. The FST was repeated after one month of age. Genotyping for common local G6PD mutations was carried out for all discrepant results. Results: FST was performed on 1521 umbilical cord blood samples. Quality control and genotyping revealed 10 misdiagnoses. After quality control, 10.7% of the males (84/786) and 1.2% of the females (9/735) were phenotypically G6PD deficient at birth. The FST repeated at one month of age or later diagnosed 8 additional G6PD deficient infants who were phenotypically normal at birth. Conclusions : This study shows the short-comings of the G6PD FST in neonatal routine screening and highlights the importance of training and quality control. A more conservative interpretation of the FST in male newborns could increase the diagnostic performances. Quantitative point-of-care tests might show higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of G6PD deficiency on umbilical cord blood and should be investigated.

  8. Diagnostic performances of the fluorescent spot test for G6PD deficiency in newborns along the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cohort study [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Thielemans

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is an inherited enzymatic disorder associated with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute haemolysis after exposure to certain drugs or infections. The disorder can be diagnosed phenotypically with a fluorescent spot test (FST, which is a simple test that requires training and basic laboratory equipment. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of the FST used on umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and to compare test results of the neonates at birth with the results after one month of age. Methods: We conducted a cohort study on newborns at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, along the Thai-Myanmar border between January 2015 and May 2016. The FST was performed at birth on the umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and quality controlled by specialised technicians at the central laboratory. The FST was repeated after one month of age. Genotyping for common local G6PD mutations was carried out for all discrepant results. Results: FST was performed on 1521 umbilical cord blood samples. Quality control and genotyping revealed 10 misdiagnoses. After quality control, 10.7% of the males (84/786 and 1.2% of the females (9/735 were phenotypically G6PD deficient at birth. The FST repeated at one month of age or later diagnosed 8 additional G6PD deficient infants who were phenotypically normal at birth. Conclusions: This study shows the short-comings of the G6PD FST in neonatal routine screening and highlights the importance of training and quality control. A more conservative interpretation of the FST in male newborns could increase the diagnostic performances. Quantitative point-of-care tests might show higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of G6PD deficiency on umbilical cord blood and should be investigated.

  9. Spot profile analysis and lifetime mapping in ultrafast electron diffraction: Lattice excitation of self-organized Ge nanostructures on Si(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Frigge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast high energy electron diffraction in reflection geometry is employed to study the structural dynamics of self-organized Germanium hut-, dome-, and relaxed clusters on Si(001 upon femtosecond laser excitation. Utilizing the difference in size and strain state the response of hut- and dome clusters can be distinguished by a transient spot profile analysis. Surface diffraction from {105}-type facets provide exclusive information on hut clusters. A pixel-by-pixel analysis of the dynamics of the entire diffraction pattern gives time constants of 40, 160, and 390 ps, which are assigned to the cooling time constants for hut-, dome-, and relaxed clusters.

  10. Solar Power Potential of Tanzania: Identifying CSP and PV Hot Spots through a GIS Multicriteria Decision Making Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Ahmed; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Pedersen, Anders Branth

    2017-01-01

    More than one billion people are still living without access to electricity today. More than half of them are living in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a noticeable shortage of energy related information in Africa, especially for renewable energies. Due to lacking studies and researches on integrating...... renewable energy technologies, the Tanzanian official generation expansion plan till 2035 showed high dependency on fossil fuel and a negligible role of renewables other than large hydropower. This study investigates the spatial suitability for large-scale solar power installations in Tanzania through using...... technology-specific suitability map categorizes all the non-excluded areas into most suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, and least suitable areas. The study also suggests four hot spots (i.e. specific recommended locations) for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) installations and four hot spots...

  11. Analysis of wave aberration influence on reducing focal spot size in a high-aperture focusing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonina, S. N.; Ustinov, A. V.; Pelevina, E. A.

    2011-09-01

    It was shown that the presence of wave aberrations (analyzed in the form of Zernike functions) in high-numerical-aperture focusing systems results in narrowing of the transverse dimension of the focal spot below the diffraction limit. Moreover, for linear polarization, the most common for modern lasers, the results achieved along one direction are better than for the radial polarization, the obtaining of which requires complex or expensive devices. Overcoming of the diffraction limit happens due to a substantial reduction of energy in the central part of the focal region. However, the possibility of the registration of light fields that have a very low intensity provides perspectives on the received results. It was also shown that not only the size of the light spot can be reduced, but also the shadow area, formed by a light ring with very small radius.

  12. Remineralization effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel white spot lesions. A quantitative energy dispersive X ray elemental analysis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate, by means of elemental analysis the mineral density, calcium, and phosphorus weight percent of sound enamel, demineralized and CPP-ACP treated enamel. Elemental analysis allows elemental and isotopic composition of a biologic sample. It can be qualitative (determining what elements are present, and quantitative (determining how much of each are present. INCA Energy 250, Oxford Analytical Instruments Ltd. (UK, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system for elemental analysis was performed on random assigned samples. Methods: 12 sound premolars were extracted for orthodontic reason. Each tooth was sectioned by using a double-faced diamond microtome under water cooling into three section for a total of 36 samples and randomly assigned to three groups: Group 1 (control, Group 2 (WS: white spot , Group 3 (WST white spot treated of 12 samples each. Samples (Group 2 and Group 3 underwent equally to 24 h and 48 h of acid bath duration. Then all the treated samples (Group 3 were coated with CPP-ACP for 5 min before immersion into water twice a day. Group 2 served as control for enamel damage evaluation. Inca Point & ID, an analytic platform software for SEM was used for elemental analysis on samples from Group 1 (C, 2 (WS and Group 3 (WST in order to determine the weight % and atomic % presence of Ca and P. Results: The results of the samples analysis from the three Groups show different weight % and atomic% of Ca and P, and clearly reflect the different mineralization rates. Conclusions: 10% Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, promotes remineralization in vitro. The results of this in vitro study completely agree with this statement. Clinical studies to investigate the intraoral effectiveness of topical applications of CPP-ACP on white spot lesions are required to confirm these results.

  13. Dried blood spot testing for the antenatal screening of HTLV, HIV, syphilis, toxoplasmosis and hepatitis B and C: prevalence, accuracy and operational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Boa-Sorte

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The use of dried blood spot may represent a secure way to expedite access to results of vertically transmitted diseases in the prenatal period, particularly in regions with scarce healthcare resources.

  14. A Life-Size and Near Real-Time Test of Irrigation Scheduling with a Sentinel-2 Like Time Series (SPOT4-Take5 in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Le Page

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the setting and results of a real-time experiment of irrigation scheduling by a time series of optical satellite images under real conditions, which was carried out on durum wheat in the Haouz plain (Marrakech, Morocco, during the 2012/13 agricultural season. For the purpose of this experiment, the irrigation of a reference plot was driven by the farmer according to, mainly empirical, irrigation scheduling while test plot irrigations were being managed following the FAO-56 method, driven by remote sensing. Images were issued from the SPOT4 (Take5 data set, which aimed at delivering image time series at a decametric resolution with less than five-day satellite overpass similar to the time series ESA Sentinel-2 satellites will produce in the coming years. With a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 0.91mm per day, the comparison between daily actual evapotranspiration measured by eddy-covariance and the simulated one is satisfactory, but even better at a five-day integration (0.59mm per day. Finally, despite a chaotic beginning of the experiment—the experimental plot had not been irrigated to get rid of a slaking crust, which prevented good emergence—our plot caught up and yielded almost the same grain crop with 14% less irrigation water. This experiment opens up interesting opportunities for operational scheduling of flooding irrigation sectors that dominate in the semi-arid Mediterranean area.

  15. Analysis to design test cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Locarti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Test the software is a necessary question in the process to achieve reliability, safety and quality of products, but most testers not aware of the importance of this activity. This article makes a reflection about this topic, and are described some myths and realities of the design and implement test cases. Parts of the concept that software testing should be viewed and applied as a parallel phase the entire product life cycle, and not leave it to the end as an imposition before delivery. Furthermore, is described the essence of the test cases design, while the challenge of this process are discussed. The objective is to present points of view based on experience everyday of this activity within the software engineering view.

  16. Empirically Testing Thematic Analysis (ETTA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Tingleff, Elllen B.

    2015-01-01

    Text analysis is not a question of a right or wrong way to go about it, but a question of different traditions. These tend to not only give answers to how to conduct an analysis, but also to provide the answer as to why it is conducted in the way that it is. The problem however may be that the link...

  17. BREEDING OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM RESISTANT TO TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Monakhos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of tomato lines resistance test to tomato spotted wilt virus and its comparison to molecular marker SCAR Sw421 genotyping data is shown. A molecular marker SCAR Sw421 analysis allowed identifying homozygous and heterozygous tomato genotypes possessing Sw5 alleles in segregating populations. Selected tomato lines possessing dominant homozygous alleles of Sw5 gene represent a tomato germplasm resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus and would be useful for following crop improvement.

  18. Seroepidemiology of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon and use of the SPOT test to identify herds with PI calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G Handel

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea, caused by the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV in the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae, is one of the most important diseases of cattle world wide causing poor reproductive performance in adult cattle and mucosal disease in calves. In addition it causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other infections, the impact of which is uncertain, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where animals are exposed to a much wider range and higher intensity of infections compared to Europe. There are no previous estimates of the seroprevalence of BVDV in cattle in Cameroon. This paper describes the serological screening for antibodies to BVDV and antigen of BVDV in a cattle population in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon in 2000. The estimates of herd-level and within herd seroprevalences adjusted for test imperfections were 92% and 30% respectively and 16.5% of herds were classed as having a persistently infected calf (PI in the herd within the last year based on the "spot" test approach. There was evidence of clustering of herds with PI calves across the north and west of the Region which corresponds with the higher cattle density areas and of self-clearance of infection from herds. A multivariable model was developed for the risk of having a PI calf in the herd; proximity to antelope, owning a goat, mixing with > 10 other herds at grazing and the catchment area of the veterinary centre the herd was registered at were all significant risk factors. Very little is known about BVDV in sub-Saharan Africa and these high seroprevalences suggest that there is a large problem which may be having both direct impacts on fertility and neonate mortality and morbidity and also indirect effects through immunosuppression and susceptibility to other infections. Understanding and accounting for BVDV should be an important component of epidemiological studies of other diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Hollywood and the representation of the Otherness. A historical analysis of the role played by movies in spotting enemies to vilify

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gelado Marcos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hollywood has played a decisive role in shaping the recent and short history of its founding country, the United States. This paper aims at exploring the representation of peoples outside the Western standard in Hollywood movies to spot recurrences in portraying Others, especially in vilifying terms. The analysis of plots and characters in American movies in different historical stages reveal not only consistent patterns in the depiction of Otherness, but also an even more interesting need to define and reaffirm the Self through the opposition to changing Others that mainly depend on the historical and political period occurring.

  20. Evidence-based nursing outputs and hot spot analysis of the last 5 years in mainland China: Results of a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junqiang; Liu, Xinjuan; Zhang, Wei; Xing, Yana; Cho, Sang Wouk; Hao, Yufang

    2018-03-02

    Evidence-based nursing has been highlighted and highly developed in recent decades in mainland China. Nevertheless, little is known about its overall development. To gain insights on the overall development of evidence-based nursing in the most recent 5 years and to inform future evidence-based nursing research in mainland China. Four Chinese and four English databases were searched with the search terms "evidence-based practice," "nurse or nursing," and "China or Chinese" from 2012 to 2016. Bibliometric and co-word cluster analysis were conducted with the final included publications. A total of 9036 papers published by 13 808 authors in 606 journals were included. Publication numbers were increasing. None of the top ten journals publishing evidence-based nursing papers were core nursing journals. The research hot spots on evidence-based nursing in the recent five years were cardiovascular disease, mental health, and complication prevention. However, little attention has been paid to education for evidence-based nursing. Evidence-based nursing has penetrated into various nursing branches in mainland China and become a well-recognized and relatively mature research domain. More importance should be attached to the study design, methodological, and reporting quality of evidence-based nursing projects. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Analysis of drought events in a Mediterranean semi-arid region, Using SPOT-VGT and TERRA-MODIS satellite products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Dridi, Ghofrane; Amri, Rim; Lili-Chabaane, Zohra

    2015-04-01

    In semi-arid regions, and northern Africa in particular, the scarcity of rainfall and the occurrence of long periods of drought, represent one of the main environmental factors having a negative effect on agricultural productivity. This is the case in Central Tunisia, where the monitoring of agricultural and water resources is of prime importance. Vegetation cover is a key parameter to analyse this problem. Remote sensing has shown in the last decades a high potential to estimate these surface parameters. This study is based on two satellite products: SPOT-VGT (1998-2012) and TERRA-MODIS (2001-2012) NDVI products. They are used to study the dynamics of vegetation and land use. Different behaviors linked to drought periods have been observed. A strong agreement is observed between products proposed by the two sensors. Low spatial resolution SPOT-VGT and TERRA-MODIS NDVI images were used to map the land into three characteristic classes: olive trees, annual agriculture and pastures. An analysis of vegetation behaviour for dry years is proposed using the Windowed Fourier Transform (WTF). The Fourier Transform is able to analyze the frequency content of a signal in the time domain by decomposing the signal as the superposition of sine and cosine basis functions. Analysis for annual agricultural areas demonstrates a combined effect between climate and farmers behaviours. In these areas, bare soils show a high increasing for drought years. Highest percent of bare soil is retrieved with TERRA-MODIS than with SPOT-VGT. This could be explained by the spatial resolution of the two sensors. The temporal series of optical images are finally used to calculate a drought index, namely the VAI (Vegetation Anomaly Index), on the plain of Kairouan (Amri et al., 2011). This index shows a high correlation with precipitation statistics.

  2. Theoretical analysis of angular distribution of scattering in nozzle components using a response-function method for proton spot-scanning therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hideaki; Furusaka, Michihiro; Matsuura, Taeko; Hirayama, Shusuke; Umegaki, Kikuo

    2018-02-01

    In spot-scanning proton therapy, highly precise beam control is required in the treatment nozzle such that the proton beam does not spread out during transportation by restraining the divergence of the beam angle and spot size, simultaneously. In order to evaluate the beam-broadening behaviour induced by passing through the various nozzle components, we have developed a new method to calculate the angular divergence profile of a proton beam in the nozzle. The angular divergence of the proton beam for each nozzle component is calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation code, Geant4, assuming that the initial beam has no divergence. The angular divergence profiles generated in the various nozzle components are then fitted by the analytic function formula with triple Gaussian distributions. The fitted profiles can be treated like analytic response functions and the angular divergence profile in the nozzle can be easily and systematically calculated by using a convolution theorem. The beam-broadening behaviour during transportation in the nozzle is carefully evaluated. The beam profiles are well-characterized by the proposed angular divergence analysis, i.e. triple Gaussian profile analysis. The primary Gaussian part of the beam profile is mainly generated by air and dose monitors with plate electrode components. The secondary and tertiary Gaussian parts are so-called wide-angle scattering and generated mainly by spot-position and profile monitors with metal window and wire components. The scattering of the nozzle component can be analysed using the proposed response function method for the angular distribution. Multiple convolved angular scattering can be determined from the response function of the individual nozzle components. The angular distribution from small to large angle regions can then be quantitatively evaluated by the proposed method. The method is quite simple and generalized, and is a straightforward way to understand the nozzle and component

  3. Plasma immune protein analysis in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: Evidence for altered expressions of immune factors associated with a choline-supplemented diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ya-Li; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Huynh, Truong-Giang; Liu, Ping-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to unravel the regulatory roles of choline in activating immune responses and disease resistance of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish were fed a choline-supplemented diet at 1 g kg -1 of feed for 30 days. Fish fed a fish meal basal diet without choline-supplement served as controls. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus. Meanwhile, plasma proteomics of fish in each group were also evaluated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrophotometry (MS/MS), then a Western blot analysis or real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm differential expressions of immune-enhancing proteins. Results showed that choline significantly increased survival of E. coioides 48 days after being injected with V. alginolyticus. From maps of plasma proteins, a comparative analysis between the control and choline groups revealed that 111 spots matched, with 26 altered expression spots in the choline group. Of these 26 spots, 16 were upregulated and 10 downregulated. After protein identification by reverse-phase nano-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization MS/MS analysis, eight of 26 proteins were found to be immune-related proteins, all of which were upregulated, including complement 3 (C3), alpha-2-macroglobulin-P-like isoform (A2M), fibrinogen beta chain precursor (FBG), and immunoglobulin heavy constant mu (Ighm) proteins. Expression of the A2M protein and A2M enzyme activity in plasma of fish fed choline significantly increased compared to the control group. Additionally, A2M messenger (m)RNA transcripts were also upregulated in the liver and kidneys. Significantly higher C3 expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels were detected in the liver of fish in the choline group. Moreover, FBG gene expressions in the liver and kidneys significantly increased, while Ighm increased in the

  4. On Residual Stresses in Resistance Spot-Welded Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6: Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, D.; Sedighi, M.; Karimi, M. R.; Barsoum, Z.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an electro-thermal-structural-coupled finite element (FE) model and x-ray diffraction residual stress measurements have been utilized to analyze distribution of residual stresses in an aluminum alloy 6061-T6 resistance spot-welded joint with 2-mm-thickness sheet. Increasing the aluminum sheet thickness to more than 1 mm leads to creating difficulty in spot-welding process and increases the complexity of the FE model. The electrical and thermal contact conductances, as mandatory factors are applied in contact areas of electrode-workpiece and workpiece-workpiece to resolve the complexity of the FE model. The physical and mechanical properties of the material are defined as thermal dependent to improve the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, the electrodes are removed after the holding cycle using the birth-and-death elements method. The results have a good agreement with experimental data obtained from x-ray diffraction residual stress measurements. However, the highest internal tensile residual stress occurs in the center of the nugget zone and decreases toward nugget edge; surface residual stress increases toward the edge of the welding zone and afterward, the area decreases slightly.

  5. Analysis of interface solid-state reaction on dissimilar ultrasonic spot welding of Al-Mg alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; de Leon, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The solid-state joining nature of the ultrasonic spot welding (USW) process has been proven useful in the fields where joining applications involve dissimilar lightweight materials. This study focused on the USW of challenging dissimilar aluminum (Al)-magnesium (Mg) alloys to gain a better understanding of the dominant factors of joint performance with particular emphasis on proper lap-joint positioning. Weld qualities of dissimilar ultrasonic spot welds, classified through a series of experiments, were determined. Process parameters effects, such as failure load and fracture morphologies, showed distinctions between two dissimilar welds based on lap-joint position. Characteristic distinctions between welding process parameters and material combinations (lap-positioning) were found. Incomplete deformation zones were found during USW of Mg/Al combination, yet they were noticeable and almost the same size as the horn diameter. It can be found that proper lap-positioning of the top part of the specimen is important for efficient utilization of the USW process.

  6. Minigenerator - Analysis, Design and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Fiala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis of the vibrational generator. The paper deals with the design of a vibrational generator that is used as a power supply for independent electric circuits. The vibrational generator can be used in the various areas, e.g. traffic, electronics, special-purpose machines, and robotics. The proposed design employs magnetic damping of the core movement. It was numerically evaluated and it was shown that it was possible to obtain significantly larger output voltage and output power than in experimental settings used previously [1].

  7. Testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the P. balsamifera - P. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [Septoria musiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoldus, Jared M; Isabel, Nathalie; Floate, Kevin D; Blenis, Peter; Thomas, Barb R

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('Hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis) and (or) to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or) hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis). We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera - P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined]) zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the 'phenological sink' hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal pathogens in plant

  8. Flight test trajectory control analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1983-01-01

    Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.

  9. Mapping publication trends and identifying hot spots of research on Internet health information seeking behavior: a quantitative and co-word biclustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Li, Min; Guan, Peng; Ma, Shuang; Cui, Lei

    2015-03-25

    The Internet has become an established source of health information for people seeking health information. In recent years, research on the health information seeking behavior of Internet users has become an increasingly important scholarly focus. However, there have been no long-term bibliometric studies to date on Internet health information seeking behavior. The purpose of this study was to map publication trends and explore research hot spots of Internet health information seeking behavior. A bibliometric analysis based on PubMed was conducted to investigate the publication trends of research on Internet health information seeking behavior. For the included publications, the annual publication number, the distribution of countries, authors, languages, journals, and annual distribution of highly frequent major MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were determined. Furthermore, co-word biclustering analysis of highly frequent major MeSH terms was utilized to detect the hot spots in this field. A total of 533 publications were included. The research output was gradually increasing. There were five authors who published four or more articles individually. A total of 271 included publications (50.8%) were written by authors from the United States, and 516 of the 533 articles (96.8%) were published in English. The eight most active journals published 34.1% (182/533) of the publications on this topic. Ten research hot spots were found: (1) behavior of Internet health information seeking about HIV infection or sexually transmitted diseases, (2) Internet health information seeking behavior of students, (3) behavior of Internet health information seeking via mobile phone and its apps, (4) physicians' utilization of Internet medical resources, (5) utilization of social media by parents, (6) Internet health information seeking behavior of patients with cancer (mainly breast cancer), (7) trust in or satisfaction with Web-based health information by consumers, (8

  10. Attitudes towards genetic testing: analysis of contradictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jallinoja, P; Hakonen, A; Aro, A R

    1998-01-01

    and on the confidence in control of the process of genetic testing and its implications. Our analysis indicated that some of the respondents have contradictory attitudes towards genetic testing. It is proposed that contradictory attitudes towards genetic testing should be given greater significance both in scientific...

  11. Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John

    2011-10-01

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

  12. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesoeren, A.

    1986-12-01

    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  13. Molecular Determinants Underlying Binding Specificities of the ABL Kinase Inhibitors: Combining Alanine Scanning of Binding Hot Spots with Network Analysis of Residue Interactions and Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Amanda; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying binding specificity and drug resistance of protein kinase inhibitors is of fundamental importance and remains highly challenging due to complex interplay of structural and thermodynamic factors. In this work, molecular simulations and computational alanine scanning are combined with the network-based approaches to characterize molecular determinants underlying binding specificities of the ABL kinase inhibitors. The proposed theoretical framework unveiled a relationship between ligand binding and inhibitor-mediated changes in the residue interaction networks. By using topological parameters, we have described the organization of the residue interaction networks and networks of coevolving residues in the ABL kinase structures. This analysis has shown that functionally critical regulatory residues can simultaneously embody strong coevolutionary signal and high network centrality with a propensity to be energetic hot spots for drug binding. We have found that selective (Nilotinib) and promiscuous (Bosutinib, Dasatinib) kinase inhibitors can use their energetic hot spots to differentially modulate stability of the residue interaction networks, thus inhibiting or promoting conformational equilibrium between inactive and active states. According to our results, Nilotinib binding may induce a significant network-bridging effect and enhance centrality of the hot spot residues that stabilize structural environment favored by the specific kinase form. In contrast, Bosutinib and Dasatinib can incur modest changes in the residue interaction network in which ligand binding is primarily coupled only with the identity of the gate-keeper residue. These factors may promote structural adaptability of the active kinase states in binding with these promiscuous inhibitors. Our results have related ligand-induced changes in the residue interaction networks with drug resistance effects, showing that network robustness may be compromised by targeted mutations of key mediating

  14. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  15. Semen analysis and sperm function tests: How much to test?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Vasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis as an integral part of infertility investigations is taken as a surrogate measure for male fecundity in clinical andrology, male fertility, and pregnancy risk assessments. Clearly, laboratory seminology is still very much in its infancy. In as much as the creation of a conventional semen profile will always represent the foundations of male fertility evaluation, the 5th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO manual is a definitive statement on how such assessments should be carried out and how the quality should be controlled. A major advance in this new edition of the WHO manual, resolving the most salient critique of previous editions, is the development of the first well-defined reference ranges for semen analysis based on the analysis of over 1900 recent fathers. The methodology used in the assessment of the usual variables in semen analysis is described, as are many of the less common, but very valuable, sperm function tests. Sperm function testing is used to determine if the sperm have the biologic capacity to perform the tasks necessary to reach and fertilize ova and ultimately result in live births. A variety of tests are available to evaluate different aspects of these functions. To accurately use these functional assays, the clinician must understand what the tests measure, what the indications are for the assays, and how to interpret the results to direct further testing or patient management.

  16. Analysis of Nugget Formation During Resistance Spot Welding on Dissimilar Metal Sheets of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Li, Jinglong

    2014-10-01

    The nugget formation of resistance spot welding (RSW) on dissimilar material sheets of aluminum and magnesium alloys was studied, and the element distribution, microstructure, and microhardness distribution near the joint interface were analyzed. It was found that the staggered high regions at the contact interface of aluminum and magnesium alloy sheets, where the dissimilar metal melted together, tended to be the preferred nucleation regions of nugget. The main technical problem of RSW on dissimilar metal sheets of aluminum and magnesium alloys was the brittle-hard Al12Mg17 intermetallic compounds distributed in the nugget, with hardness much higher than either side of the base materials. Microcracks tended to generate at the interface of the nugget and base materials, which affected weld quality and strength.

  17. Optical Inspection and Morphological Analysis of Diospyros kaki Plant Leaves for the Detection of Circular Leaf Spot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchire Eranga Wijesinghe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using the bio-photonic imaging technique to assess symptoms of circular leaf spot (CLS disease in Diospyros kaki (persimmon leaf samples was investigated. Leaf samples were selected from persimmon plantations and were categorized into three groups: healthy leaf samples, infected leaf samples, and healthy-looking leaf samples from infected trees. Visually non-identifiable reduction of the palisade parenchyma cell layer thickness is the main initial symptom, which occurs at the initial stage of the disease. Therefore, we established a non-destructive bio-photonic inspection method using a 1310 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT system. These results confirm that this method is able to identify morphological differences between healthy leaves from infected trees and leaves from healthy and infected trees. In addition, this method has the potential to generate significant cost savings and good control of CLS disease in persimmon fields.

  18. Quantification of rifapentine, a potent antituberculosis drug, from dried blood spot samples using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Teresa L; Marzinke, Mark A; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R; Dorman, Susan E; Dooley, Kelly E

    2014-11-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials. Copyright © 2014

  19. Evaluation of the dried blood spot filter paper technology and five testing strategies of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarge-Njie, Ramu; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; Ceesay, Saihou; Cubitt, David; Sabally, Saihou; Corrah, Tumani; Whittle, Hilton

    2006-01-01

    Simple robust approaches are needed to monitor the prevalence and incidence of HIV in Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dried blood spot (DBS) as an alternative to serum or plasma for sentinel surveillance. Paired DBS and blood samples were obtained from 200 patients attending

  20. NEAT : an efficient network enrichment analysis test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be

  1. Analysis of green kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) proteinases by two-dimensional zymography and direct identification of zymographic spots by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Marilena; Rossano, Rocco; Riccio, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    Proteinases present in kiwi fruits are potentially allergenic enzymes belonging to the papain family of cysteine proteinases. Actinidin is a prominent kiwi enzyme. The study of kiwi proteinases is important for the follow-up of fruit maturation, a deeper insight in the allergenic properties of individual proteins, and the application of kiwi proteinases for meat tenderisation and other industrial purposes. Kiwi crude extracts were analysed by two-dimensional zymography on gelatin-containing gels. The digestion by the reactivated proteolytic enzymes after electrophoresis resulted in insights into kiwi proteinases. A mixture of several enzyme isotypes with the same pI but different molecular mass was observed. Clear spots, corresponding to the proteolytic activities, were excised, digested with trypsin, and submitted to MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry for protein identification. The most representative enzyme was actinidin. The innovative achievements of the present study are the: (1) two-dimensional zymographic map of kiwi gelatinases without the need for extensive purification; and (2) direct identification of proteinase isotypes by means of direct MALDI-ToF MS analysis of the zymographic spots. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  2. Benchmarking of a treatment planning system for spot scanning proton therapy: Comparison and analysis of robustness to setup errors of photon IMRT and proton SFUD treatment plans of base of skull meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, R., E-mail: ruth.harding2@wales.nhs.uk [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Trnková, P.; Lomax, A. J. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Centre for Proton Therapy, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Weston, S. J.; Lilley, J.; Thompson, C. M.; Cosgrove, V. P. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Short, S. C. [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oncology and Clinical Research, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand St James’s Institute of Oncology, Oncology, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Loughrey, C. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Oncology, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Thwaites, D. I. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Base of skull meningioma can be treated with both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and spot scanned proton therapy (PT). One of the main benefits of PT is better sparing of organs at risk, but due to the physical and dosimetric characteristics of protons, spot scanned PT can be more sensitive to the uncertainties encountered in the treatment process compared with photon treatment. Therefore, robustness analysis should be part of a comprehensive comparison between these two treatment methods in order to quantify and understand the sensitivity of the treatment techniques to uncertainties. The aim of this work was to benchmark a spot scanning treatment planning system for planning of base of skull meningioma and to compare the created plans and analyze their robustness to setup errors against the IMRT technique. Methods: Plans were produced for three base of skull meningioma cases: IMRT planned with a commercial TPS [Monaco (Elekta AB, Sweden)]; single field uniform dose (SFUD) spot scanning PT produced with an in-house TPS (PSI-plan); and SFUD spot scanning PT plan created with a commercial TPS [XiO (Elekta AB, Sweden)]. A tool for evaluating robustness to random setup errors was created and, for each plan, both a dosimetric evaluation and a robustness analysis to setup errors were performed. Results: It was possible to create clinically acceptable treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy of meningioma with a commercially available TPS. However, since each treatment planning system uses different methods, this comparison showed different dosimetric results as well as different sensitivities to setup uncertainties. The results confirmed the necessity of an analysis tool for assessing plan robustness to provide a fair comparison of photon and proton plans. Conclusions: Robustness analysis is a critical part of plan evaluation when comparing IMRT plans with spot scanned proton therapy plans.

  3. A field test of substance use screening devices as part of routine drunk-driving spot detection operating procedures in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzopoulos, Richard; Lasarow, Avi; Bowman, Brett

    2013-10-01

    specific drugs rather than a full panel analysis, which will reduce testing costs significantly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Post-test analysis of PANDA test P4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.; Woudstra, A.; Koning, H.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a post-test analysis of the integral system test P4, which has been executed in the PANDA facility at PSI in Switzerland within the framework of Work Package 2 of the TEPSS project are presented. The post-test analysis comprises an evaluation of the PANDA test P4 and a comparison of the test results with the results of simulations using the RELAPS/MOD3.2, TRAC-BF1, and MELCOR 1.8.4 codes. The PANDA test P4 has provided data about how trapped air released from the drywell later in the transient affects PCCS performance in an adequate manner. The well-defined measurements can serve as an important database for the assessment of thermal hydraulic system analysis codes, especially for conditions that could be met in passively operated advanced reactors, i.e. low pressure and small driving forces. Based on the analysis of the test data, the test acceptance criteria have been met. The test P4 has been successfully completed and the instrument readings were with the permitted ranges. The PCCs showed a favorable and robust performance and a wide margin for decay heat removal from the containment. The PANDA P4 test demonstrated that trapped air, released from the drywell later in the transient, only temporarily and only slightly affected the performance of the passive containment cooling system. The analysis of the results of the RELAPS code showed that the overall behaviour of the test has been calculated quite well with regards to pressure, mass flow rates, and pool boil-down. This accounts both for the pre-test and the post-test simulations. However, due to the one-dimensional, stacked-volume modeling of the PANDA DW, WW, and GDCS vessels, 3D-effects such as in-vessel mixing and recirculation could not be calculated. The post-test MELCOR simulation showed an overall behaviour that is comparable to RELAPS. However, MELCOR calculated almost no air trapping in the PCC tubes that could hinder the steam condensation rate. This resulted in lower calculated

  5. Multi-omics Analysis Sheds Light on the Evolution and the Intracellular Lifestyle Strategies of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid El Karkouri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne Rickettsia species are obligate intracellular bacteria which are pathogenic for humans. Within this genus, Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia conorii cause frequent and potentially severe infections, whereas Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia massiliae cause rare and milder infections. All four species belong to spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae. However, R. slovaca and R. raoultii cause scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy (SENLAT and are mainly associated with Dermacentor ticks, whereas the other two species cause Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF and are mainly transmitted by Rhipicephalus ticks. To identify the potential genes and protein profiles and to understand the evolutionary processes that could, comprehensively, relate to the differences in virulence and pathogenicity observed between these four species, we compared their genomes and proteomes. The virulent and milder agents displayed divergent phylogenomic evolution in two major clades, whereas either SENLAT or MSF disease suggests a discrete convergent evolution of one virulent and one milder agent, despite their distant genetic relatedness. Moreover, the two virulent species underwent strong reductive genomic evolution and protein structural variations, as well as a probable loss of plasmid(s, compared to the two milder species. However, an abundance of mobilome genes was observed only in the less pathogenic species. After infecting Xenopus laevis cells, the virulent agents displayed less up-regulated than down-regulated proteins, as well as less number of identified core proteins. Furthermore, their similar and distinct protein profiles did not contain some genes (e.g., ompA/B and rickA known to be related to rickettsial adhesion, motility and/or virulence, but may include other putative virulence-, antivirulence-, and/or disease-related proteins. The identified evolutionary forces herein may have a strong impact on intracellular expressions and strategies in

  6. Analysis of Peach Bottom turbine trip tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Lu, M.S.; Hsu, C.J.; Shier, W.G.; Diamond, D.J.; Levine, M.M.; Odar, F.

    1979-01-01

    Current interest in the analysis of turbine trip transients has been generated by the recent tests performed at the Peach Bottom (Unit 2) reactor. Three tests, simulating turbine trip transients, were performed at different initial power and coolant flow conditions. The data from these tests provide considerable information to aid qualification of computer codes that are currently used in BWR design analysis. The results are presented of an analysis of a turbine trip transient using the RELAP-3B and the BNL-TWIGL computer codes. Specific results are provided comparing the calculated reactor power and system pressures with the test data. Excellent agreement for all three test transients is evident from the comparisons

  7. Correction for the Hematocrit Bias in Dried Blood Spot Analysis Using a Nondestructive, Single-Wavelength Reflectance-Based Hematocrit Prediction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capiau, Sara; Wilk, Leah S; De Kesel, Pieter M M; Aalders, Maurice C G; Stove, Christophe P

    2018-02-06

    The hematocrit (Hct) effect is one of the most important hurdles currently preventing more widespread implementation of quantitative dried blood spot (DBS) analysis in a routine context. Indeed, the Hct may affect both the accuracy of DBS methods as well as the interpretation of DBS-based results. We previously developed a method to determine the Hct of a DBS based on its hemoglobin content using noncontact diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Despite the ease with which the analysis can be performed (i.e., mere scanning of the DBS) and the good results that were obtained, the method did require a complicated algorithm to derive the total hemoglobin content from the DBS's reflectance spectrum. As the total hemoglobin was calculated as the sum of oxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and hemichrome, the three main hemoglobin derivatives formed in DBS upon aging, the reflectance spectrum needed to be unmixed to determine the quantity of each of these derivatives. We now simplified the method by only using the reflectance at a single wavelength, located at a quasi-isosbestic point in the reflectance curve. At this wavelength, assuming 1-to-1 stoichiometry of the aging reaction, the reflectance is insensitive to the hemoglobin degradation and only scales with the total amount of hemoglobin and, hence, the Hct. This simplified method was successfully validated. At each quality control level as well as at the limits of quantitation (i.e., 0.20 and 0.67) bias, intra- and interday imprecision were within 10%. Method reproducibility was excellent based on incurred sample reanalysis and surpassed the reproducibility of the original method. Furthermore, the influence of the volume spotted, the measurement location within the spot, as well as storage time and temperature were evaluated, showing no relevant impact of these parameters. Application to 233 patient samples revealed a good correlation between the Hct determined on whole blood and the predicted Hct determined on venous DBS. The

  8. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Carmen; Rahman, Shamim

    2010-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is commonly characterized as one of two types: production testing for certification and acceptance of engine hardware, and developmental testing for prototype evaluation or research and development (R&D) purposes. For programmatic reasons there is a continuing need to assess and evaluate the test costs for the various types of test campaigns that involve liquid rocket propellant test articles. Presently, in fact, there is a critical need to provide guidance on what represents a best value for testing and provide some key economic insights for decision-makers within NASA and the test customers outside the Agency. Hence, selected rocket propulsion test databases and references have been evaluated and analyzed with the intent to discover correlations of technical information and test costs that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost projections in the future. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test cost information presented some unique obstacles which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future cost information gathering and analysis. In summary, this historical account and evaluation of rocket propulsion test cost information will enhance understanding of the various kinds of project cost information; identify certain trends of interest to the aerospace testing community.

  9. NEAT: an efficient network enrichment analysis test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-09-05

    Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be computationally slow and are based on normality assumptions. We propose NEAT, a test for network enrichment analysis. The test is based on the hypergeometric distribution, which naturally arises as the null distribution in this context. NEAT can be applied not only to undirected, but to directed and partially directed networks as well. Our simulations indicate that NEAT is considerably faster than alternative resampling-based methods, and that its capacity to detect enrichments is at least as good as the one of alternative tests. We discuss applications of NEAT to network analyses in yeast by testing for enrichment of the Environmental Stress Response target gene set with GO Slim and KEGG functional gene sets, and also by inspecting associations between functional sets themselves. NEAT is a flexible and efficient test for network enrichment analysis that aims to overcome some limitations of existing resampling-based tests. The method is implemented in the R package neat, which can be freely downloaded from CRAN ( https://cran.r-project.org/package=neat ).

  10. Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Climatic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram K Raghavan

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF prevalence in four contiguous states of Midwestern United States, and to determine the impact of environmental and socio-economic factors associated with this disease. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to quantify space and time only trends and spatio-temporal interaction effect in the case reports submitted to the state health departments in the region. Various socio-economic, environmental and climatic covariates screened a priori in a bivariate procedure were added to a main-effects Bayesian model in progressive steps to evaluate important drivers of RMSF space-time patterns in the region. Our results show a steady increase in RMSF incidence over the study period to newer geographic areas, and the posterior probabilities of county-specific trends indicate clustering of high risk counties in the central and southern parts of the study region. At the spatial scale of a county, the prevalence levels of RMSF is influenced by poverty status, average relative humidity, and average land surface temperature (>35°C in the region, and the relevance of these factors in the context of climate-change impacts on tick-borne diseases are discussed.

  11. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The PUMA test program and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.T.; Morrison, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The PUMA test program is sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data that are relevant to various Boiling Water Reactor phenomena. The author briefly describes the PUMA test program and facility, presents the objective of the program, provides data analysis for a large-break loss-of-coolant accident test, and compares the data with a RELAP5/MOD 3.1.2 calculation

  13. Direct analysis of site-specific N-glycopeptides of serological proteins in dried blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Na Young; Hwang, Heeyoun; Ji, Eun Sun; Park, Gun Wook; Lee, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2017-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) samples have a number of advantages, especially with respect to ease of collection, transportation, and storage and to reduce biohazard risk. N-glycosylation is a major post-translational modification of proteins in human blood that is related to a variety of biological functions, including metastasis, cell-cell interactions, inflammation, and immunization. Here, we directly analyzed tryptic N-glycopeptides from glycoproteins in DBS samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) without centrifugation of blood samples, depletion of major proteins, desalting of tryptic peptides, and enrichment of N-glycopeptides. Using this simple method, we identified a total of 41 site-specific N-glycopeptides from 16 glycoproteins in the DBS samples, from immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG-1, 10 mg/mL) down to complement component C7 (50 μg/mL). Of these, 32 N-glycopeptides from 14 glycoproteins were consistently quantified over 180 days stored at room temperature. The major abundant glycoproteins in the DBS samples were IgG-1 and IgG-2, which contain nine asialo-fucosylated complex types of 16 different N-glycopeptide isoforms. Sialo-non-fucosylated complex types were primarily detected in the other glycoproteins such as alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, 2, alpha-1-antitypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, Ig alpha 1, 2 chain C region, kininogen-1, prothrombin, and serotransferrin. We first report the characterization of site-specific N-glycoproteins in DBS samples by LC-MS/MS with minimal sample preparation.

  14. Improved simulation method of automotive spot weld failure with an account of the mechanical properties of spot welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Meng, X. M.; Fang, R.; Huang, Y. F.; Zhan, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the microstructure and mechanical properties of spot weld were studied, the hardness of nugget and heat affected zone (HAZ) were also tested by metallographic microscope and microhardness tester. The strength of the spot weld with the different parts' area has been characterized. According to the experiments result, CAE model of spot weld with HAZ structure was established, and simulation results of different lap-shear CAE models were analyzed. The results show that the spot weld model which contained the HAZ has good performance and more suitable for engineering application in spot weld simulation.

  15. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Pagan, Carmen P.; Rahman, Shamim A.

    2009-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is generally performed within two arenas: (1) Production testing for certification and acceptance, and (2) Developmental testing for prototype or experimental purposes. The customer base consists of NASA programs, DOD programs, and commercial programs. Resources in place to perform on-site testing include both civil servants and contractor personnel, hardware and software including data acquisition and control, and 6 test stands with a total of 14 test positions/cells. For several business reasons there is the need to augment understanding of the test costs for all the various types of test campaigns. Historical propulsion test data was evaluated and analyzed in many different ways with the intent to find any correlation or statistics that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost estimates and projections. The analytical efforts included timeline trends, statistical curve fitting, average cost per test, cost per test second, test cost timeline, and test cost envelopes. Further, the analytical effort includes examining the test cost from the perspective of thrust level and test article characteristics. Some of the analytical approaches did not produce evidence strong enough for further analysis. Some other analytical approaches yield promising results and are candidates for further development and focused study. Information was organized for into its elements: a Project Profile, Test Cost Timeline, and Cost Envelope. The Project Profile is a snap shot of the project life cycle on a timeline fashion, which includes various statistical analyses. The Test Cost Timeline shows the cumulative average test cost, for each project, at each month where there was test activity. The Test Cost Envelope shows a range of cost for a given number of test(s). The supporting information upon which this study was performed came from diverse sources and thus it was necessary to

  16. Application Values of T-SPOT.TB in Clinical Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Ou, Qinfang; Zheng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the application value of tuberculosis-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assay (T-SPOT.TB) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Fifty one patients with tuberculosis (TB) admitted to Wuxi No.5 People's Hospital, Wuxi, China from June 2015 to June 2017 were selected as the TB group, and 40 patients without tuberculosis admitted in the same period were randomly selected as the non-TB group. Patients in the two groups received T-SPOT.TB, TB antibody (TB-Ab) test and mycobacterium TB deoxyribonucleic acid (TB-DNA) test, and the results were compared. Comparisons of the sensitivity of the three methods showed that the sensitivity of T-SPOT.TB was the highest, followed by TB-DNA from sputum samples, and that of TB-Ab was the lowest. The specificity of TB-Ab was the highest, followed by T-SPOT.TB, and that of TB-DNA from sputum samples was the lowest. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under curve (AUC) of T-SPOT.TB (0.896) was the highest, followed by TB-DNA from sputum samples (0.772), and that of sputum smears (0.698) was the lowest. T-SPOT.TB can quickly and accurately determine the presence of tuberculosis infection, and it is a non-invasive examination, which can further assist in the diagnosis and guide the treatment.

  17. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.416 Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or... Cotton Source: 57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992, unless otherwise noted. ...

  18. Spotting software errors sooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, D.

    1989-01-01

    Static analysis is helping to identify software errors at an earlier stage and more cheaply than conventional methods of testing. RTP Software's MALPAS system also has the ability to check that a code conforms to its original specification. (author)

  19. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  20. SSR markers associated to early leaf spot disease resistance through selective genotyping and single marker analysis in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Zongo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an important oilseed and food crop of the world. Breeding for disease resistance is one of major objectives in groundnut breeding. Early leaf spot (ELS is one of the major destructive diseases worldwide and in West Africa, particularly in Burkina Faso causing significant yield losses. Conventional breeding approaches have been employed to develop improved varieties resistant to ELS. Molecular dissection of resistance traits using QTL analysis can improve the efficiency of resistance breeding. In the present study, an ELS susceptible genotype QH243C and an ELS resistant genotype NAMA were crossed and the F2 population genotypic and F3 progenies phenotypic data were used for marker-trait association analysis. Parents were surveyed with 179 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers out of which 103 SSR markers were found to be polymorphic between the parents. These polymorphic markers were utilized to genotype the F2 population followed by marker-trait analysis through single marker analysis (SMA and selective genotyping of the population using 23 resistant and 23 susceptible genotypes. The SMA revealed 13 markers while the selective genotyping method identified 8 markers associated with ELS resistance. Four markers (GM1911, GM1883, GM1000 and Seq13E09 were found common between the two trait mapping methods. These four markers could be employed in genomics-assisted breeding for selection of ELS resistant genotypes in groundnut breeding.

  1. Comparative analysis of in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical behaviour of spot-welded and mechaincally fastened joints in thermoplastic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, T.; Palardy, G.; Rans, C.D.; Benedictus, R.; Drechsler, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding is a promising assembly technique for thermoplastic composites and it is well-suited for spot welding. In this paper, the in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical behaviour of ultrasonically spot-welded and mechanically fastened joints are investigated by double-lap shear and

  2. Choreographer Pre-Testing Code Analysis and Operational Testing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Harrison, Christopher B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Perr, C. W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hurd, Steven A [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Choreographer is a "moving target defense system", designed to protect against attacks aimed at IP addresses without corresponding domain name system (DNS) lookups. It coordinates actions between a DNS server and a Network Address Translation (NAT) device to regularly change which publicly available IP addresses' traffic will be routed to the protected device versus routed to a honeypot. More details about how Choreographer operates can be found in Section 2: Introducing Choreographer. Operational considerations for the successful deployment of Choreographer can be found in Section 3. The Testing & Evaluation (T&E) for Choreographer involved 3 phases: Pre-testing, Code Analysis, and Operational Testing. Pre-testing, described in Section 4, involved installing and configuring an instance of Choreographer and verifying it would operate as expected for a simple use case. Our findings were that it was simple and straightforward to prepare a system for a Choreographer installation as well as configure Choreographer to work in a representative environment. Code Analysis, described in Section 5, consisted of running a static code analyzer (HP Fortify) and conducting dynamic analysis tests using the Valgrind instrumentation framework. Choreographer performed well, such that only a few errors that might possibly be problematic in a given operating situation were identified. Operational Testing, described in Section 6, involved operating Choreographer in a representative environment created through EmulyticsTM . Depending upon the amount of server resources dedicated to Choreographer vis-á-vis the amount of client traffic handled, Choreographer had varying degrees of operational success. In an environment with a poorly resourced Choreographer server and as few as 50-100 clients, Choreographer failed to properly route traffic over half the time. Yet, with a well-resourced server, Choreographer handled over 1000 clients without missrouting. Choreographer

  3. Spot quantification in two dimensional gel electrophoresis image analysis: comparison of different approaches and presentation of a novel compound fitting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, Jan M; Groemer, Teja W; Stroebel, Armin; Grosse-Holz, Simon; Oberstein, Timo; Wiltfang, Jens; Kornhuber, Johannes; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2014-06-11

    Various computer-based methods exist for the detection and quantification of protein spots in two dimensional gel electrophoresis images. Area-based methods are commonly used for spot quantification: an area is assigned to each spot and the sum of the pixel intensities in that area, the so-called volume, is used a measure for spot signal. Other methods use the optical density, i.e. the intensity of the most intense pixel of a spot, or calculate the volume from the parameters of a fitted function. In this study we compare the performance of different spot quantification methods using synthetic and real data. We propose a ready-to-use algorithm for spot detection and quantification that uses fitting of two dimensional Gaussian function curves for the extraction of data from two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) images. The algorithm implements fitting using logical compounds and is computationally efficient. The applicability of the compound fitting algorithm was evaluated for various simulated data and compared with other quantification approaches. We provide evidence that even if an incorrect bell-shaped function is used, the fitting method is superior to other approaches, especially when spots overlap. Finally, we validated the method with experimental data of urea-based 2-DE of Aβ peptides andre-analyzed published data sets. Our methods showed higher precision and accuracy than other approaches when applied to exposure time series and standard gels. Compound fitting as a quantification method for 2-DE spots shows several advantages over other approaches and could be combined with various spot detection methods.The algorithm was scripted in MATLAB (Mathworks) and is available as a supplemental file.

  4. Hot-spot analysis applied to the identification of potential high and low regulating, providing and cultural ecosystem services in Vilnius Region (Lithuania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Daniel, Depellegrin; Egarter-Vigl, Lukas; Cerda, Artemi; Estebaranz, Ferran; Misiune, Ieva

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) potential assessment is crucial for a correct territorial planning at different scales of analysis (Depellegrin et al., 2016). In urban and peri-urban areas, sprawl, grazing and unsustainable agriculture practices contributed to land degradation and de decrease of the quality and quantity of the services provided by these areas (Eldridge and Delgado-Baquerizo, 2017; Favretto et al., 2017). In order to understand the spatial pattern of these impacts, mapping ES potential is key to understand the areas that need to be restored and protected for an unsustainable use (Brevik et al., 2016; Egarter-Vigl et al., 2017; Pereira et al., 2017). Hot-spot analysis is a good method to identify clusters of areas with high and low capacity for ES capacity. This analysis is very useful to detect homogeneous areas, where ES have high or low quality. The objective of this work is to apply a hot-spot analysis to detect areas with high/low capacity for Regulating, Provision, Cultural and Total ES in Vilnius region. ES potential was carried out based on the matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009), which ranks ES capacity from 0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity to a different land use type. The results showed that regulating, providing and cultural and total ES have a significant dispersed (low-clustered) pattern: Regulating (Z-score=-19.28, pInternational Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455. Egarter-Vigl, L., Depellegrin, D., Pereira, P., De Groot, D., Tappeiner, U. (2017) Mapping the ecosystem service delivery chain: Capacity, flow, and demand pertaining to aesthetic experiences in mountain landscapes, Science of the Total Environment, 574, 442-436. Eldridge, D.J., Delgado-Baquerizo, M. (2017) Continental-scale impacts of livestock grazing on ecosystem supporting and regulating services. Land Degradation and Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2668 Favretto, N., Lueding, E., Stringer, L., Dougill, A.J. (2017) Valuing

  5. Cotton-wool spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C; Brown, M M; Hiller, T; Fischer, D; Benson, W E; Magargal, L E

    1985-01-01

    A series of 24 consecutive patients presenting with a fundus picture characterized by a predominance of cotton-wool spots, or a single cotton-wool spot, is reported. Excluded were patients with known diabetes mellitus. Etiologic conditions found included previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in five patients, systemic hypertension in five patients, cardiac valvular disease in two patients, radiation retinopathy in two patients, and severe carotid artery obstruction in two patients. Dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, leukemia, AIDS, Purtscher's retinopathy, metastatic carcinoma, intravenous drug abuse, partial central retinal artery obstruction, and giant cell arteritis were each found in one patient. In only one patient did a systemic workup fail to reveal an underlying cause. The presence of even one cotton-wool spot in an otherwise normal fundus necessitates an investigation to ascertain systemic etiologic factors.

  6. [Estimation of activities caused by black spots in digital radiography systems: analysis of black spots by the low concentrate radioisotopes adhered directly to the surface of the phosphor plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Takashi, Satoru; Hanamitsu, Hiroki; Mori, Michiko; Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Onuma, Yoji

    2012-01-01

    Because of an accident of the nuclear power plants in the Fukushima, many radioisotopes (RI) have been diffused to the environment. As a result, black spots were appearing on the medical images which were taken by the phosphor plate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activity (Bq) of radioactive contaminated IP based on the experiment using RI. The radioactive material ((134)Cs and/or (137)Cs) in the form of liquid was dropped on filter paper (25 mm(2)), and radioactive sources having 40-240 Bq activities were made. These sources were closely attached to the IP with irradiation times of 2-22 h. Then, we obtained the relationship between pixel values and products of activities and irradiation times. Using these relationships, we evaluated the activity in the contaminated IP. The evaluated value of approximately 7 Bq was in good agreement with a value which was inhered in a chemical wiper used for the decontamination of the IP. Based on the results, we summarized that almost all black spots were created by the RI adhered directly to the IP.

  7. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.

  8. The Combined Utility of Ex vivo IFN-γ Release Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot Assay and In vivo Skin Testing in Patients With Antibiotic-Associated Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiano, Jason A; Strautins, Kaija; Redwood, Alec J; Pavlos, Rebecca; Konvinse, Katherine C; Aung, Ar Kar; Slavin, Monica A; Thursky, Karin A; Grayson, M Lindsay; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2017-10-31

    For severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) associated with multiple antibiotics dosed concurrently, clinical causality is challenging and diagnostic approaches are limited, leading to constricted future antibiotic choices. To examine the combined utility of in vivo and ex vivo diagnostic approaches at assigning drug causality in a cohort of patients with antibiotic-associated (AA)-SCARs. Patients with AA-SCARs were prospectively recruited between April 2015 and February 2017. In vivo testing (patch testing or delayed intradermal testing) was performed to the implicated antibiotic(s) at the highest nonirritating concentration and read at 24 hours through 1 week. Ex vivo testing used patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with a range of pharmacologically relevant concentrations of implicated antibiotics to measure dose-dependent IFN-γ release from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells via an enzyme-linked immunoSpot assay. In 19 patients with AA-SCARs, combined in vivo and ex vivo testing assigned antibiotic causality in 15 (79%) patients. Ten patients (53%) with AA-SCARs were positive on IFN-γ release enzyme-linked immunoSpot assay, with an overall reported sensitivity of 52% (95% CI, 29-76) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 79-100), with improved sensitivity noted in acute (within 1 day to 6 weeks after SCAR onset) testing (75%) and in patients with higher phenotypic scores (59%). There was increased use of narrow-spectrum beta-lactams and antibiotics from within the implicated class following testing in patients with a positive ex vivo or in vivo test result. We demonstrate the potential utility of combined in vivo and ex vivo testing in patients with AA-SCARs to assign drug causality with high specificity. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. APRECOT - analysis program for reactivity coefficient tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, A.R.R.

    1979-05-01

    A computer program has been written which provides a rapid and convenient analysis route for fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity measurements, as carried out at Hinkley Point 'B' Power Station. This replaces the earlier, more tedious, iterative analysis using KINAGRAX. The program has been tested by analysing computer simulations of reactor tests. This has shown that APRECOT introduces errors which are small (approximately 11/2%) in comparison with other sources of error (approximately 10%), that the effect of axial flux shape changes is acceptably small and that effects due to xenon, which is not modelled in the current version of the program, can be dealt with adequately. This note describes the APRECOT method, including details of input and output to the program and gives results of the numerical tests made of the method. (author)

  10. Analysis on judo specific and unspecific test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Santos Rodríguez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In specialized literature it is not easy to find test which give us information about judokas developing their specific kinetic habits. Although judo is included in sociomotor sports (Parlebas, 2001, judokas physical fitness is normally evaluated through test which come from other type of sports, mainly from phychomotor sports. At the same time, batteries as the battery Eurofit (Conseil de L´Europe, 1989, are use to evaluate perceptive-motors aspects. In this article, we describe some of the tests found in specific western bibliography. Once finished this analysis, we mention the need of creating test which value the reality of competition confrontation more specifically, and which can be reliable, objective and reproductive (López and cols. 2004 being easy and useful to the trainer as well.

  11. Molecular characterization of Xanthomonas strains responsible for bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...

  12. Characterization and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with leaf spot of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nurul Husna; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Mohamed Nor, Nik Mohd Izham; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2018-01-01

    Leaf spot diseases are mainly caused by fungi including Fusarium. In the present study several species of Fusarium were isolated from the leaf spot lesion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) Based on morphological characteristics, TEF-1α sequences and phylogenetic analysis, five species were identified as F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. mangiferae, F. solani and F. chlamydosporum. Pathogenicity test indicated that representative isolates of F. proliferatum, F. semitectum and F. chlamydosporum were pathogenic on mango leaves causing leaf spot with low to moderate virulence. Nevertheless, abundance of spots on the leaf can disrupt photosynthesis which in turn reduced growth, and lead to susceptibility to infection by opportunistic pathogens due to weakening of the plant. Fusarium solani and F. mangiferae were non-pathogenic and it is possible that both species are saprophyte which associated with nutrient availability on the surface of the leaf through decaying leave tissues. The occurrence of Fusarium spp. on the leaf spot lesion and the effect from the disease needs to be considered when developing disease management method of mango cultivation as numerous spot on the leaves could effect the photosynthesis process and finally giving low yield and less quality of mango. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Center, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    1266 UNCLASSI F IED / 1*7 N I EhhhhEE 1. 12I2 lull- IlIll 1 1.25 1111.4 1111.6 1WuI - MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART NAT,TINAL BLIPEI , ,lNUR, SwRl i...RESEARCH ENGINE AND VEHICLE RESEARCH VEHICLE AND TRAFFIC SAFETY INSTRUMENTATION RESEARCH DIVISION CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING INFORMATION...ANALYSIS CENTERSPACE PHYSICS ENGINEERING DIVISION PCE YSICS_________________________________________POWER SYSTEMS APPLIED CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL

  14. Test data analysis on trapezoidal MSGC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergdolt, A.M.; Brom, J.M.; Coffin, J.; Djama, F.; Eberle, H.; Kachelhoffer, T.; Pallares, A.; Pralavorio, P.; Sigward, M.H.; Todorov, T.; Zghiche, A.; Barthe, S.; Schunck, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of experimental data obtained during the october tests at CERN with the trapezoidal MSGC detectors. The resolution and efficiency of the MSGC detectors have been estimated using the track reconstruction from eight planes of the silicon detector (also called telescope). A 100 μm residue is obtained, compatible with a 35 μm resolution, due to multiple coulomb-scattering. The efficiency out of the dead region is about 80%

  15. Verbascoside is not genotoxic in the ST and HB crosses of the Drosophila wing spot test, and its constituent, caffeic acid, decreases the spontaneous mutation rate in the ST cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Cruz, Luis Felipe; Ávila-Acevedo, José Guillermo; Ortega-Capitaine, Diego; Ojeda-Duplancher, Jesús Clemente; Perdigón-Moya, Juana Laura; Hernández-Portilla, Luis Barbo; López-Dionicio, Héctor; Durán-Díaz, Angel; Dueñas-García, Irma Elena; Castañeda-Partida, Laura; García-Bores, Ana María; Heres-Pulido, María Eugenia

    2012-03-01

    Verbascoside (VB) is a phenylpropanoid isolated from Buddleja species, some of which originate in Mexico, and was first described in the sixteenth century in the codices of Mexican traditional medicine. VB is present in alcohol extracts and is widely used in the north of Mexico as a sunscreen. VB absorbs UV-A and UV-B radiation and has high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. VB and its constituent caffeic acid (CA) were screened to determine their genotoxic activity using the Drosophila wing spot test. Third instar larvae (72±4 h) of the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses, with regulated and high levels of cytochrome P450s (Cyp450s), respectively, were exposed to VB or CA (0, 27, 57, 81, 135, and 173 mM). VB was not genotoxic at any of the concentrations tested in both crosses. The amount of VB residue as determined by HPLC in the adult flies that were fed with VB indicated a low metabolism of this compound, which explains the absence of genotoxicity. CA decreased the spontaneous frequencies of small and total spots and showed putative toxicity in the ST cross. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maraun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.

  17. Effect of Three-spot Seahorse Petroleum Ether Extract on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Macrophage RAW264.7 Inflammatory Cytokine Nitric Oxide and Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, LiPing; Shen, XuanRi; Chen, GuoHua; Cao, XianYing; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Three-Spot seahorse is a traditional medicine in Asian countries. However, the alcohol extract is largely unknown for its anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed at elucidating fraction of potent anti-inflammatory activity of seahorse. A systematic solvent extraction method of liquid-liquid fractionation of ethanol crude extract gave four fractions petroleum ether (PE), and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), water saturated butanol (n-BuOH), water (H2O). In this study, PE extract was selected for further study after preliminary screening test, and was connected to silica column chromatography and eluted with different polarity of mobile phases, and obtained four active fractions (Fr I, Fr II, Fr III, Fr IV). Effect of separated fractions on inflammation was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine RAW264.7 cells in vitro. The result shows that seahorse extract was capable of inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) significantly in a dose dependent manner and exhibited no notable cytotoxicity on cell viability. IC50 of fraction IV was 36.31 μg/mL, indicating that separated fraction possessed potent NO inhibitory activity against LPS-induced inflammatory response, thus, demonstrated its in vitro anti-inflammatory potentiality, it may be at least partially explained by the presence of anti-inflammation active substances, phenolic compounds, phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It could be suggested that seahorse lipid-soluble components could be used in functional food and anti-inflammatory drug preparations.

  18. Analysis of calibrated seafloor backscatter for habitat classification methodology and case study of 158 spots in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezzani, Ridha; Berger, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    An automated signal-based method was developed in order to analyse the seafloor backscatter data logged by calibrated multibeam echosounder. The processing consists first in the clustering of each survey sub-area into a small number of homogeneous sediment types, based on the backscatter average level at one or several incidence angles. Second, it uses their local average angular response to extract discriminant descriptors, obtained by fitting the field data to the Generic Seafloor Acoustic Backscatter parametric model. Third, the descriptors are used for seafloor type classification. The method was tested on the multi-year data recorded by a calibrated 90-kHz Simrad ME70 multibeam sonar operated in the Bay of Biscay, France and Celtic Sea, Ireland. It was applied for seafloor-type classification into 12 classes, to a dataset of 158 spots surveyed for demersal and benthic fauna study and monitoring. Qualitative analyses and classified clusters using extracted parameters show a good discriminatory potential, indicating the robustness of this approach.

  19. Strain Analysis of the de Mattia Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The de Mattia test is a well-known, standardized and widely used method in the rubber industry for characterizing the fatigue behaviour of rubbers. Due to the visual observation and classification of the crack initiated, high data scatter were usually observed in these tests. To improve the quality of the de Mattia test and to support the applicability of the test method in modern design procedures, two novel experimental methods were proposed. Full-field strain analysis experiments using digital image correlation technique were performed and the local strains at the notch tip determined in the first. A global displacement vs. local strain calibration curves makes the design and conduction of strain based Wöhler curves possible. The crack initiation and crack growth is detected by an image analysis system and the crack growth rate was determined in the second method. To gain more insight into the fatigue behaviour of rubbers, these two novel methods were combined and can efficiently be used for characterizing the fatigue behaviour of rubbers.

  20. Spot detection in microscopy images using Convolutional Neural Network with sliding-window approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabaso, Matsilele A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust spot detection in microscopy image analysis serves as a critical prerequisite in many biomedical applications. Various approaches that automatically detect spots have been proposed to improve the analysis of biological images. In this paper...

  1. Spotting Epidemic Keystones by R0 Sensitivity Analysis: High-Risk Stations in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-01-01

    How can we identify the epidemiologically high-risk communities in a metapopulation network? The network centrality measure, which quantifies the relative importance of each location, is commonly utilized for this purpose. As the disease invasion condition is given from the basic reproductive ratio R0, we have introduced a novel centrality measure based on the sensitivity analysis of this R0 and shown its capability of revealing the characteristics that has been overlooked by the conventional centrality measures. The epidemic dynamics over the commute network of the Tokyo metropolitan area is theoretically analyzed by using this centrality measure. We found that, the impact of countermeasures at the largest station is more than 1,000 times stronger compare to that at the second largest station, even though the population sizes are only around 1.5 times larger. Furthermore, the effect of countermeasures at every station is strongly dependent on the existence and the number of commuters to this largest station. It is well known that the hubs are the most influential nodes, however, our analysis shows that only the largest among the network plays an extraordinary role. Lastly, we also found that, the location that is important for the prevention of disease invasion does not necessarily match the location that is important for reducing the number of infected.

  2. Economic analysis of revenue losses and control costs associated with the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), in the California raspberry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Derek; Hamby, Kelly A; Bolda, Mark; Goodhue, Rachael E; Williams, Jeffrey C; Zalom, Frank G

    2017-06-01

    The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is an invasive vinegar fly with a preference for infesting commercially viable berries and stone fruits. SWD infestations can reduce yields significantly, necessitating additional management activities. This analysis estimates economic losses in the California raspberry industry that have resulted from the SWD invasion. California raspberry producers experienced considerable revenue losses and management costs in the first years following SWD's invasion of North America. Conventional producers have since developed effective chemical management programs, virtually eliminating revenue losses due to SWD and reducing the cost of management to that of purchasing and applying insecticides more often. Organic raspberry producers, who do not have access to the same chemical controls, continue to confront substantial SWD-related revenue losses. These losses can be mitigated only by applying expensive insecticides registered for organic use and by performing labor-intensive field sanitation. SWD's invasion into North America has caused extensive crop losses to berry and cherry crops in California and elsewhere. Agricultural producers and researchers have responded quickly to this pest by developing management programs that significantly reduce revenue losses. Economic losses are expected to continue to fall as producers learn to manage SWD more efficiently and as new control tactics become available. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  4. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  5. Validation study of the Tanaka and Kawasaki equations to estimate the daily sodium excretion by a spot urine sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, José Geraldo; Rodrigues, Sérgio Lamêgo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann

    2015-12-01

    To validate Tanaka and Kawasaki's formulas to calculate the salt intake by the sodium/creatinine ratio in spot of urine. Two hundred and seventy two adults (20 - 69 years old; 52.6% women) with 24 h urine collection and two urinary spots collected on the same day (while fasting - spot 1 - or not fasting - spot 2). Anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting blood were measured on the same day. The analysis of agreement between salt consumption measured in the 24 h urine test and urinary spots were determined by the Pearson's correlation (r) and the Bland & Altman method. The mean salt consumption measured by the 24 h sodium excretion was 10.4 ± 5.3 g/day. The correlation between the measured 24 h sodium excretion and the estimation based on spots 1 and 2, respectively, was only moderated according to Tanaka (r = 0.51 and r = 0.55; p salt consumption by Tanaka to increasing salt consumption and conversely, an overestimation of consumption by the Kawasaki formula. The estimation of salt consumption (difference between measured and calculated salt consumption lower than 1 g/day) was adequate only when the consumption was between 9 - 12 g/day (Tanaka) and 12 - 18 g/day (Kawasaki). Spot urine sampling is adequate to estimate salt consumption only among individuals with an actual consumption near the population mean.

  6. Incident Infection and Resistance Mutation Analysis of Dried Blood Spots Collected in a Field Study of HIV Risk Groups, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xierong; Smith, Amanda J; Forrest, David W; Cardenas, Gabriel A; Beck, Dano W; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R; Sionean, Catlainn; Owen, S Michele; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    To assess the utility of cost-effective dried blood spot (DBS) field sampling for incidence and drug resistance surveillance of persons at high risk for HIV infection. We evaluated DBS collected in 2007-2010 in non-clinical settings by finger-stick from HIV-positive heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV infection (n = 124), men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 110), and persons who inject drugs (PWID, n = 58). Relative proportions of recent-infection findings among risk groups were assessed at avidity index (AI) cutoffs of ≤25%, ≤30%, and ≤35%, corresponding to an infection mean duration of recency (MDR) of 220.6, 250.4, and 278.3 days, respectively. Drug resistance mutation prevalence was compared among the risk groups and avidity indices. HIV antibody avidity testing of all self-reported ARV-naïve persons (n = 186) resulted in 9.7%, 11.3% and 14.0% with findings within the 221, 250, and 278-day MDRs, respectively. The proportion of ARV-naïve MSM, heterosexuals, and PWID reporting only one risk category who had findings below the suggested 30% AI was 23.1%, 6.9% and 3.6% (pinfection results than did heterosexuals and PWID. The disproportionately higher recent-infection findings for MSM as compared to PWID and heterosexuals increased as the MDR window increased. Unreported ARV use might explain greater recent-infection findings and drug resistance in this MSM population. DBS demonstrated utility in expanded HIV testing; however, optimal field handling is key to accurate recent-infection estimates.

  7. Chocolate spot of Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Cheewangkoon, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Hyde, K.D.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Chocolate Spot leaf disease of Eucalyptus is associated with several Heteroconium-like species of hyphomycetes that resemble Heteroconium s.str. in morphology. They differ, however, in their ecology, with the former being plant pathogenic, while Heteroconium s.str. is a genus of sooty moulds. Results of molecular analyses, inferred from DNA sequences of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nrDNA, delineated four Heteroconium-like species on Eucalyptus, name...

  8. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  9. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  10. WES: A well test analysis expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensch, A.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes part of the development of an expert system in the domain of well-test analysis. This work has been done during my final internship, completed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The report is divided in three parts: the first one gives a description of the state of the project at the time I first began to work on it, and raises some problems that have to be solved. The second section shows the results that have been reached, and the last one draws conclusions from these results and proposes extensions that would be useful in the future

  11. Influence of welding current in resistance spot welding on the properties of Zn coated steel DX51D

    OpenAIRE

    Luboš Kaščák; Ján Viňáš; Rudolf Mišičko

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the resistance spot welding of three galvanized car body sheets DX51D + Z - EN 10142/2000. The quality of welded joints was evaluated by destructive tests and non-destructive tests. For evaluation of joints quality the shear tension test on spot joints according to DIN 50 124 standard was used. The influence of welding parameters on the structure of a welded joint was observed by metallographic analysis. Influence of welding current from 6.0 to 7.7 kA and infl...

  12. Analysis and Testing of Mobile Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Evenson, Darin; Rundquist, Victor; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Wireless networks are being used to connect mobile computing elements in more applications as the technology matures. There are now many products (such as 802.11 and 802.11b) which ran in the ISM frequency band and comply with wireless network standards. They are being used increasingly to link mobile Intranet into Wired networks. Standard methods of analyzing and testing their performance and compatibility are needed to determine the limits of the technology. This paper presents analytical and experimental methods of determining network throughput, range and coverage, and interference sources. Both radio frequency (BE) domain and network domain analysis have been applied to determine wireless network throughput and range in the outdoor environment- Comparison of field test data taken under optimal conditions, with performance predicted from RF analysis, yielded quantitative results applicable to future designs. Layering multiple wireless network- sooners can increase performance. Wireless network components can be set to different radio frequency-hopping sequences or spreading functions, allowing more than one sooner to coexist. Therefore, we ran multiple 802.11-compliant systems concurrently in the same geographical area to determine interference effects and scalability, The results can be used to design of more robust networks which have multiple layers of wireless data communication paths and provide increased throughput overall.

  13. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  14. Oil futures and spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samii, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  15. Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: Teaching Drug Marketers How to Inform Better or Spin Better? Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Evan

    2016-02-21

    Hyosun Kim's report "Trouble Spots in Online Direct to Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters" aims to teach marketers how to avoid breaching current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines in their online drug promotion. While Kim hopes to minimise the potential for online promotion to misinform consumers and the study is carefully conducted, teaching drug marketers how to avoid the common mistakes in online drug promotion is more likely to make marketers more adept at spinning information than appropriately balancing it. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  16. Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: Teaching Drug Marketers How to Inform Better or Spin Better?; Comment on “Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Doran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyosun Kim’s report “Trouble Spots in Online Direct to Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”aims to teach marketers how to avoid breaching current Food and Drug Administration (FDA guidelines in their online drug promotion. While Kim hopes to minimise the potential for online promotion to misinform consumers and the study is carefully conducted, teaching drug marketers how to avoid the common mistakes in online drug promotion is more likely to make marketers more adept at spinning information than appropriately balancing it.

  17. Development and Successful Validation of Simple and Fast TLC Spot Tests for Determination of Kryptofix® 2.2.2 and Tetrabutylammonium in 18F-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzsch, Matthias; Lamparter, Denis; Brüggener, Nils; Müller, Marco; Kienzle, Gabriele J.; Reischl, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Kryptofix® 2.2.2 (Kry) or tetrabutylammonium (TBA) are commonly used as phase transfer catalysts in 18F-radiopharmaceutical productions for positron emission tomography (PET). Due to their toxicity, quality control has to be performed before administration of the tracer to assure that limit concentration of residual reagent is not reached. Here, we describe the successful development and pharmaceutical validation (for specificity, accuracy and detection limit) of a simplified color spot test on TLC plates. We were able to prove its applicability as a general, time and resources saving, easy to handle and reliable method in daily routine analyzing 18F-tracer formulations for Kry (in [18F]FDG or [18F]FECh) or TBA contaminations (in [18F]FLT) with special regard to complex matrix compositions. PMID:24830987

  18. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  19. Spot table - RPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ended gel image of the spot. Mass Spectrometry Accession No. Accession No. of homologous protein by Mascot Analysis. Mass Spectrometr...y Homologous Protein Definition of homologous protein by Mascot Analysis. Mass Spectrometry

  20. Estratégia analítica para determinação de nitrito e amônia empregando spot test e análise de imagem digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. O. Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é proposta uma estratégia simples para determinação simultânea de nitrito e amônia empregando spot test e imagem digital. O método é baseado na reação do nitrito com a sulfanilamida, formando um cátion de diazônio que posteriormente é acoplado ao dicloreto de N-(1-nafitil etilenodiamina formando uma diazo composto de coloração rósea. A determinação da amônia foi realizada empregando a reação de berthelot modificada, onde o íon amônio em presença de salicilato, nitroprussiato e hipoclorito reage formando um composto de coloração verde. Os sinais analíticos foram obtidos a partir das intensidades de coloração por imagem digital no spot test do produto da reação. Após otimizações do sistema de análise e detecção, as seguintes figuras de mérito foram obtidas: concentração linear entre 0,2 a 10,0 mg L-1 para nitrito e 1,0 a 10,0 mg L-1 para a amônia. Os limites de detecção para o nitrito e amônia foram 0,05 mg L-1 e 0,27 mg L-1, respectivamente. A estratégia proposta foi aplicada com sucesso na determinação de nitrito e amônia em amostras de água subterrânea da zona urbana da cidade de Barreiras-Ba.

  1. Isolation of human genomic DNA for genetic analysis from premature neonates: a comparison between newborn dried blood spots, whole blood and umbilical cord tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Genotyping requires biological sample collection that must be reliable, convenient and acceptable for patients and clinicians. Finding the most optimal procedure of sample collection for premature neonates who have a very limited blood volume is a particular challenge. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the use of umbilical cord (UC) tissue and newborn dried blood spot (DBS)-extracted genomic DNA (gDNA) as an alternative to venous blood-derived gDNA from premature neonates for molecular genetic analysis. All samples were obtained from premature newborn infants between 24-32 weeks of gestation. Paired blood and UC samples were collected from 31 study participants. gDNA was extracted from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant-treated blood samples (~500 μl) and newborn DBSs (n = 723) using QIAamp DNA Micro kit (Qiagen Ltd., Crawley, UK); and from UC using Qiagen DNAeasy Blood and Tissue kit (Qiagen Ltd., Crawley, UK). gDNA was quantified and purity confirmed by measuring the A260:A280 ratio. PCR amplification and pyrosequencing was carried out to determine suitability of the gDNA for molecular genetic analysis. Minor allele frequency of two unrelated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was calculated using the entire cohort. Results Both whole blood samples and UC tissue provided good quality and yield of gDNA, which was considerably less from newborn DBS. The gDNA purity was also reduced after 3 years of storage of the newborn DBS. PCR amplification of three unrelated genes resulted in clear products in all whole blood and UC samples and 86%-100% of newborn DBS. Genotyping using pyrosequencing showed 100% concordance in the paired UC and whole blood samples. Minor allele frequencies of the two SNPs indicated that no maternal gDNA contamination occurred in the genotyping of the UC samples. Conclusions gDNAs from all three sources are suitable for standard PCR and pyrosequencing assays. Given that UC provide good quality

  2. Spectrometric Analysis for Pulse Jet Mixer Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZEIGLER, KRISTINE

    2004-01-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) was tasked with providing support for a Hanford River Protection Program-Waste Treatment Program (RPP-WTP) project test involving absorption analysis for non-Newtonian pulse jet mixer testing for small scale (PJM) and prototype (CRV) tanks with sparging. Tanks filled with clay were mixed with various amounts of powdered dye as a tracer. The objective of the entire project was to determine the best mixing protocol (nozzle velocity, number of spargers used, total air flow, etc.) by determining the percent mixed volume through the use of an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The dye concentration within the sample could be correlated to the volume fraction mixed in the tank. Samples were received in vials, a series of dilutions were generated from the clay, allowed to equilibrate, then centrifuged and siphoned for the supernate liquid to analyze by absorption spectroscopy. Equilibration of the samples and thorough mixing of the samples were a continuous issue with dilution curves being difficult to obtain. Despite these technical issues, useful data was obtained for evaluation of various mix conditions

  3. Dynamic characterization of the CT angiographic 'spot sign'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Chakraborty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Standard (static CT angiography is used to identify the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH spot sign. We used dynamic CT-angiography to describe spot sign characteristics and measurement parameters over 60-seconds of image acquisition. METHODS: We prospectively identified consecutive patients presenting with acute ICH within 4.5 hours of symptom onset, and collected whole brain dynamic CT-angiography (dCTA. Spot parameters (earliest appearance, duration, maximum Hounsfield unit (HU, time to maximum HU, time to spot diagnostic definition, spot volume and hematoma volumes were measured using volumetric analysis software. RESULT: We enrolled 34 patients: three were excluded due to secondary causes of ICH. Of the remaining 31 patients there were 18 females (58% with median age 70 (range 47-86 and baseline hematoma volume 33 ml (range 0.7-103 ml. Positive dCTA spot sign was present in 13 patients (42% visualized as an expanding 3-dimensional structure temporally evolving its morphology over the scan period. Median time to spot appearance was 21 s (range 15-35 seconds. This method allowed tracking of spots evolution until the end of venous phase (active extravasation with median duration of 39 s (range 25-45 seconds. The average density and time to maximum density was 204HU and 30.8 s (range 23-31 s respectively. Median time to spot diagnosis was 20.8 s using either 100 or 120HU definitions. CONCLUSION: Dynamic CTA allows a 3-dimensional assessment of spot sign formation during acute ICH, and captured higher spot sign prevalence than previously reported. This is the first study to describe and quantify spot sign characteristics using dCTA; these can be used in ongoing and upcoming ICH studies.

  4. Meta-analysis of California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) territory occupancy in the Sierra Nevada: habitat associations and their implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Tempel; John J. Keane; R. J. Gutierrez; Jared D. Wolfe; Gavin M. Jones; Alexander Koltunov; Carlos M. Ramirez; William J. Berigan; Claire V. Gallagher; Thomas E. Munton; Paula A. Shaklee; Sheila A. Whitmore; M. Zachariah Peery

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the occupancy dynamics of 275 California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) territories in 4 study areas in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1993 to 2011. We used Landsat data to develop maps of canopy cover for each study area, which we then used to quantify annual territory-specific habitat...

  5. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries :a business analysis Or : "Refuel the car with petrol and information, both ways at the gas station"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François); M.H.P. Oremus

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile you refuel for gas ,why not refuel for information or download vehicle data ? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage , service offering , and full business models from WLAN hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional ,

  6. Co-segregation analysis and mapping of the anthracnose Co-10 and angular leaf spot Phg-ON disease resistance genes in common bean cultivar Ouro Negro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) are devastating diseases of common bean. Ouro Negro is a highly productive Mesoamerican black-seeded common bean cultivar possessing the dominant Co-10 and Phg-ON genes that confer resistance to ANT and ALS, respectively. In this study we elucidate the ...

  7. Association analysis of bacterial leaf spot resistance and SNP markers derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, is a devastating disease of lettuce worldwide. Since there are no chemicals available for effective control of the disease, host-plant resistance is highly desirable to protect lettuce production. A total of 179 lettuce ge...

  8. Analysis of the release of nickel from orthodontic wires using the dimethylglyoxime spot test : in vitro and in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Noriko, NAKAO; Hideki, KITAURA; Noriaki, YOSHIDA; Division of Orthodontics and Biomedical Engineering, Department of Developmental and Reconstructive Medicine, Course of Medical and Dental Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences; Division of Orthodontics and Biomedical Engineering, Department of Developmental and Reconstructive Medicine, Course of Medical and Dental Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences; Division of Orthodontics and Biomedical Engineering, Department of Developmental and Reconstructive Medicine, Course of Medical and Dental Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

    2002-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been focused on allergic diseases thought to be caused by dental metals. Orthodontic materials contain metals that can induce metal allergies, and it is possible that metal ions are eluted from orthodontic materials by the corrosive action of saliva, electrolytes in food debris, and acids produced by bacteria. Nickel (Ni), in particular, is thought to be a typical antigen for metal allergy ; the numbers of patients with Ni allergy are increasing. In this study, we...

  9. Competitive interactions and resource partitioning between northern spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    with minimal spatial overlap among core-use areas. We used an information-theoretic approach to rank discrete-choice models representing alternative hypotheses about the influence of forest conditions, topography, and interspecific interactions on species-specific patterns of nighttime resource selection. Spotted owls spent a disproportionate amount of time foraging on steep slopes in ravines dominated by old (>120 yr) conifer trees. Barred owls used available forest types more evenly than spotted owls, and were most strongly associated with patches of large hardwood and conifer trees that occupied relatively flat areas along streams. Spotted and barred owls differed in the relative use of old conifer forest (greater for spotted owls) and slope conditions (steeper slopes for spotted owls), but we found no evidence that the 2 species differed in their use of young, mature, and riparian-hardwood forest types. Mean overlap in proportional use of different forest types between individual spotted owls and barred owls in adjacent territories was 81% (range = 30–99%). The best model of habitat use for spotted owls indicated that the relative probability of a location being used was substantially reduced if the location was within or in close proximity to a core-use area of a barred owl. We used pellet analysis and measures of food-niche overlap to determine the potential for dietary competition between spatially associated pairs of spotted owls and barred owls. We identified 1,223 prey items from 15 territories occupied by spotted owls and 4,299 prey items from 24 territories occupied by barred owls. Diets of both species were dominated by nocturnal mammals, but diets of barred owls included many terrestrial, aquatic, and diurnal prey species that were rare or absent in diets of spotted owls. Northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes, N. cinerea), and lagomorphs (Lepus americanus, Sylvilagus bachmani) were primary prey for both owl

  10. Resistance to gray leaf spot of maize: genetic architecture and mechanisms elucidated through nested association mapping and near-isogenic line analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jacqueline M; Poland, Jesse A; Benson, Brent M; Stromberg, Erik L; Nelson, Rebecca J

    2015-03-01

    Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis and Cercospora zeina, is one of the most important diseases of maize worldwide. The pathogen has a necrotrophic lifestyle and no major genes are known for GLS. Quantitative resistance, although poorly understood, is important for GLS management. We used genetic mapping to refine understanding of the genetic architecture of GLS resistance and to develop hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying quantitative disease resistance (QDR) loci. Nested association mapping (NAM) was used to identify 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for QDR to GLS, including seven novel QTL, each of which demonstrated allelic series with significant effects above and below the magnitude of the B73 reference allele. Alleles at three QTL, qGLS1.04, qGLS2.09, and qGLS4.05, conferred disease reductions of greater than 10%. Interactions between loci were detected for three pairs of loci, including an interaction between iqGLS4.05 and qGLS7.03. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm and fine-map three of the 16 QTL, and to develop hypotheses regarding mechanisms of resistance. qGLS1.04 was fine-mapped from an interval of 27.0 Mb to two intervals of 6.5 Mb and 5.2 Mb, consistent with the hypothesis that multiple genes underlie highly significant QTL identified by NAM. qGLS2.09, which was also associated with maturity (days to anthesis) and with resistance to southern leaf blight, was narrowed to a 4-Mb interval. The distance between major leaf veins was strongly associated with resistance to GLS at qGLS4.05. NILs for qGLS1.04 were treated with the C. zeae-maydis toxin cercosporin to test the role of host-specific toxin in QDR. Cercosporin exposure increased expression of a putative flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) gene, a candidate detoxification-related gene underlying qGLS1.04. This integrated approach to confirming QTL and characterizing the potential underlying mechanisms advances the understanding of QDR and will facilitate the

  11. Resistance to gray leaf spot of maize: genetic architecture and mechanisms elucidated through nested association mapping and near-isogenic line analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Benson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gray leaf spot (GLS, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis and Cercospora zeina, is one of the most important diseases of maize worldwide. The pathogen has a necrotrophic lifestyle and no major genes are known for GLS. Quantitative resistance, although poorly understood, is important for GLS management. We used genetic mapping to refine understanding of the genetic architecture of GLS resistance and to develop hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying quantitative disease resistance (QDR loci. Nested association mapping (NAM was used to identify 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL for QDR to GLS, including seven novel QTL, each of which demonstrated allelic series with significant effects above and below the magnitude of the B73 reference allele. Alleles at three QTL, qGLS1.04, qGLS2.09, and qGLS4.05, conferred disease reductions of greater than 10%. Interactions between loci were detected for three pairs of loci, including an interaction between iqGLS4.05 and qGLS7.03. Near-isogenic lines (NILs were developed to confirm and fine-map three of the 16 QTL, and to develop hypotheses regarding mechanisms of resistance. qGLS1.04 was fine-mapped from an interval of 27.0 Mb to two intervals of 6.5 Mb and 5.2 Mb, consistent with the hypothesis that multiple genes underlie highly significant QTL identified by NAM. qGLS2.09, which was also associated with maturity (days to anthesis and with resistance to southern leaf blight, was narrowed to a 4-Mb interval. The distance between major leaf veins was strongly associated with resistance to GLS at qGLS4.05. NILs for qGLS1.04 were treated with the C. zeae-maydis toxin cercosporin to test the role of host-specific toxin in QDR. Cercosporin exposure increased expression of a putative flavin-monooxygenase (FMO gene, a candidate detoxification-related gene underlying qGLS1.04. This integrated approach to confirming QTL and characterizing the potential underlying mechanisms advances the understanding of QDR and will

  12. Regional scale analysis of nitrous oxide emissions within the U.S. Corn Belt and the potential role of episodic hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, T. J.; Lee, X.; Baker, J. M.; Russelle, M.; Zhang, X.; Millet, D. B.; Venterea, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a long-lived greenhouse gas that has the third largest radiative forcing on the Earth-Atmosphere system and has become the most important stratospheric ozone depleting substance of the 21st century. The rapid increase in N2O concentrations over the last century is primarily attributed to the Haber-Bosch process and the green revolution. Predicting future concentrations and developing mitigation strategies for N2O is a critical environmental challenge as pressure mounts on agricultural ecosystems to deliver more products to a burgeoning population. Bottom-up (process/inventory) and top-down (global) strategies are used to constrain the global N2O budget, but have been inadequately tested by data collected at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Two-years of tall tower (regional-scale) high-frequency N2O concentration data and boundary layer budget techniques were used to quantify the regional budget and assess bottom-up and top-down emission factors within the U.S. Corn Belt. Here we show that regional flux estimates were 2 to 9-fold greater than bottom-up emission estimates provided by the EDGAR, IPCC, and GEIA assessments. Using our regional flux data we derived "internal" and "external" emission factors that relate directly to the bottom-up and top-down perspectives on constraining the global N2O cycle. The internal and external emission factors were 4.0 and 5.6%, respectively, and significantly larger than that derived from bottom-up approaches. It is hypothesized that this bias is caused by episodic leakage mechanisms that can only be accounted for at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales.N2O emission hot spots from agricultural drainage ditches are shown to exceed 60 nmol m-2 s-1 and, at times, are about 60-fold greater than typical field-scale fluxes. Our data and analyses suggest that many field-scale studies that quantify greenhouse gas emissions will significantly underestimate the true net radiative forcing of

  13. Accelerated testing statistical models, test plans, and data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Wayne B

    2009-01-01

    The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. "". . . a goldmine of knowledge on accelerated life testing principles and practices . . . one of the very few capable of advancing the science of reliability. It definitely belongs in every bookshelf on engineering.""-Dev G.

  14. Blind spot monitoring in light vehicles -- system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report summarizes findings of a small population study of blind spot monitoring systems (BSM) installed by : original vehicle manufacturers on standard production vehicles. The primary goals of these tests were to simulate real-world driving sce...

  15. Ultrasonic assessment of tension shear strength in resistance spot welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghanizadeh, Abbas

    2015-05-01

    Resistance spot welding is extensively used to join sheet steel in the automotive industry. Ultrasonic non-destructive techniques for evaluation of the mechanical properties of resistance spot welding are presented. The aim of this study is to develop the capability of the ultrasonic techniques as an efficient tool in the assessment of the welding characterization. Previous researches have indicated that the measurements of ultrasonic attenuation are sensitive to grain- size variations in an extensive range of metallic alloys. Other researchers have frequently described grain sizes which are able to have significant effects on the physical characteristics of the material. This research provides a novel method to estimate the tension-shear strengths of the resistance spot welding directly from the ultrasonic attenuation measurements. The effects of spot welding parameters on the ultrasonic waves are further investigated. The results confirm that it is possible to determine the spot welding parameters for individual quality by using ultrasonic test.

  16. Reliability of copper based alloys for electric resistance spot welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovicj, M.; Mihajlovicj, A.; Sherbedzhija, B.

    1977-01-01

    Durability of copper based alloys (B-5 and B-6) for electric resistance spot-welding was examined. The total amount of Be, Ni and Zr was up to 2 and 1 wt.% respectively. Good durability and satisfactory quality of welded spots were obtained in previous laboratory experiments carried out on the fixed spot-welding machine of an industrial type (only B-5 alloy was examined). Electrodes made of both B-5 and B-6 alloy were tested on spot-welding grips and fixed spot-welding machines in Tvornica automobila Sarajevo (TAS). The obtained results suggest that the durability of electrodes made of B-5 and B-6 alloys is more than twice better than of that used in TAS

  17. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  18. Failure propagation tests and analysis at PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, H.; Miyake, O.; Daigo, Y.; Sato, M.

    1984-01-01

    Failure propagation tests have been conducted using the Large Leak Sodium Water Reaction Test Rig (SWAT-1) and the Steam Generator Safety Test Facility (SWAT-3) at PNC in order to establish the safety design of the LMFBR prototype Monju steam generators. Test objectives are to provide data for selecting a design basis leak (DBL), data on the time history of failure propagations, data on the mechanism of the failures, and data on re-use of tubes in the steam generators that have suffered leaks. Eighteen fundamental tests have been performed in an intermediate leak region using the SWAT-1 test rig, and ten failure propagation tests have been conducted in the region from a small leak to a large leak using the SWAT-3 test facility. From the test results it was concluded that a dominant mechanism was tube wastage, and it took more than one minute until each failure propagation occurred. Also, the total leak rate in full sequence simulation tests including a water dump was far less than that of one double-ended-guillotine (DEG) failure. Using such experimental data, a computer code, LEAP (Leak Enlargement and Propagation), has been developed for the purpose of estimating the possible maximum leak rate due to failure propagation. This paper describes the results of the failure propagation tests and the model structure and validation studies of the LEAP code. (author)

  19. Corrosion of Ultrasonic spot Welded Joints of Magnesium to Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, Michael L.

    Mixed-metal joining, especially between magnesium and steel, is one of the critical technologies in achieving light-weighting vehicle body construction. However, galvanic corrosion between mixed metal joints is inevitable but not well quantified. In this study, 1.6 mm thick Mg AZ31B-H24 was joined to 0.8 mm thick hot-dipped galvanized (HDG) mild steel by ultrasonic spot welding in lap-shear configuration. No specific corrosion protection was applied in order to study worst-case conditions for corrosion behavior. The approach used an automotive cyclic corrosion test — Ford Arizona Proving Ground Equivalent Corrosion Cycle (APGE), which includes cycles of dipping in a salt bath, air drying, then holding in constant humidity environment. Lap-shear strength of the joints decreased linearly with the exposure cycles. All the joints were either taken out of test cycle for mechanical test or they separated within the humidity chamber before 25th cycle. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of Mg(OH)2 deposit in the crevice between the AZ31 and steel sheets and on the surface of the AZ31. The deposit grew thicker with cycles with exerting enough force to deform the AZ31 and HDG steel and causing a gradual opening of joints. The corrosion of the AZ31 was localized and nonuniform. The most severe corrosion occurred not at the intersection of AZ31 and the steel but rather 15-20 mm away from the spot welds.

  20. Genotoxicity studies in the ST cross of the Drosophila wing spot test of sunflower and soybean oils before and after frying and boiling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Marcos, Ricard; Kaya, Bülent

    2012-10-01

    Sunflower and soybean oils were tested for genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing somatic mutation and recombination assay. Results indicate that both oils produce genotoxic effects when tested without any previous frying or boiling processes. Boiling sunflower oil during fifteen, thirty and sixty minutes significantly increased its genotoxic response; nevertheless, after frying potatoes this oil showed a significant decrease in the genotoxic activity. On the other hand, boiling and frying soybean oil in the same conditions results in a decrease of its genotoxic potential. We have also detected that the amount of total polar materials increases significantly in oils submitted to frying or boiling process. Nevertheless, in oils obtained after frying potatoes, the amount of TPM was higher than after boiling. It is suggested that this effect is probably due to the amount of non-volatile TPM, the fatty acid composition of the oils, the types of frying oil, the high frying temperature and time, and the number of boiling and frying. This is the first study reporting genotoxicity data in Drosophila for the boiling and frying of both sunflower and soybean oils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modulation of genotoxicity by extra-virgin olive oil and some of its distinctive components assessed by use of the Drosophila wing-spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anter, Jaouad; Campos-Sánchez, Juan; Hamss, Rachid El; Rojas-Molina, Mar; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Analla, Mohamed; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles

    2010-12-21

    Olive oil is an important source of mono-unsaturated fat and a prime component of the Mediterranean diet. The beneficial health effects of olive oil are due to both its high content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and its high content of anti-oxidative substances. The objective of this study was to investigate the basis for the epidemiological information relating to the health benefits associated with the consumption of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). For this purpose, the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in wings of Drosophila melanogaster was applied to evaluate the antigenotoxic activity of six different EVOOs from four Spanish varieties (Hojiblanca, Nevadillo, Casta de Cabra, Picual). A two-level approach was followed: (1) determination of the lack of genotoxicity along with the antigenotoxic activity of EVOOs, through antigenotoxicity assays, with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidative genotoxin, and (2) evaluation of the properties of three major distinctive components of EVOOs that could be responsible for their antigenotoxic activity. The EVOOs tested are shown to be non-genotoxic; they exhibited antigenotoxic activity against the effects of hydrogen peroxide. Triolein, tyrosol and squalene did not show genotoxic effects in the proliferative imaginal cells of D. melanogaster. The three components were antigenotoxic when combined with soybean oil, only triolein and tyrosol showed a clear desmutagenic effect when combined with hydrogen peroxide. Our results confirm the safety of EVOOs and their health-protective effects. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A simple assay of paracetamol based on dried blood spot suitable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried blood spots in Guthrie cards are a reliable means of blood sampling suitable for pharmacoki-netic analysis in children. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable bioanalytical method to measure the concentration of paracetamol in dried blood spots. Paracetamol was ex-tracted from dry blood spots by ...

  3. The correct balance between analysis and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMALLWOOD,DAVID O.

    2000-03-30

    During the last 20 years there has been a tremendous increase in computational capabilities. It seems to accelerate every year. Models are now constructed with millions of degrees of freedom. Sandia National Laboratories recently computed modes and transient response for a 4,000,000 degree of freedom model. There is also an increase in the cost of testing as the unit price of test items increases and manpower costs escalate. One is reminded of Augustine's Laws, ``Simple systems are not feasible because they require infinite testing.'' Or conversely, extremely complex systems require no testing. In his discussion he uses data from actual systems to show how increasing complexity of systems appears to require less testing. A hundred dollar item required several thousand developments tests, where a ten million dollar item required a few tens of development tests. Of course, this results from the large increase in test costs caused in large part by the large cost of the test hardware that comes with increasing complexity. The complex system (costly) is coupled with the perceived need to reduce nonessential costs. At Sandia National Laboratories they are also faced with the prospect that some of the tests they ran in the past are not even feasible to run today.

  4. Weld Spot Detection by Color Segmentation and Template Convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambrini, Luigi; Biber, Jürgen; Hönigmann, Dieter; Löhndorf, Maike

    2007-12-01

    There is a need of non-destructive evaluation of the quality of steel spot welds. A computer-vision based solution is presented performing the analysis of the weld spot imprints left by the electrode on the protection bands. In this paper we propose two different methods to locate the position of the weld spot imprint as a first step in order to verify the quality of the welding process; both methods consist of two stages: (i) the use of the X channel of the XYZ color space as a proper representation, and (ii) the analysis of this image channel by employing specific algorithms.

  5. Weld Spot Detection by Color Segmentation and Template Convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambrini, Luigi; Biber, Juergen; Hoenigmann, Dieter; Loehndorf, Maike

    2007-01-01

    There is a need of non-destructive evaluation of the quality of steel spot welds. A computer-vision based solution is presented performing the analysis of the weld spot imprints left by the electrode on the protection bands. In this paper we propose two different methods to locate the position of the weld spot imprint as a first step in order to verify the quality of the welding process; both methods consist of two stages: (i) the use of the X channel of the XYZ color space as a proper representation, and (ii) the analysis of this image channel by employing specific algorithms

  6. DRAM fault analysis and test generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Ars, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic random access memories (DRAMs) are the most widely used type of memory in the market today, due to their important application as the main memory of the personal computer (PC). These memories are tested by their manufacturers in an ad hoc way, that results in an expensive test process the

  7. Analysis of Current Thyroid Function Testing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-18

    Rationale: Current guidelines recommend thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) alone as the best test to detect and monitor thyroid dysfunction, yet free ...thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) are commonly ordered when not clinically indicated. Excessive testing can lead to added economic

  8. Kekuatan Geser dan Pola Patahan Loop Space Maintainer yang Dibuat dengan Teknik Spot Welding Elektrik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Karlina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of spot variations on shear strength of spot welds in an electric loop space maintainer. Stainless steel wire of 0.8 mm diameter and nickel chromium crwon for lower second molar of temporary teeth were used. A loop 1 cm wide, made of 3.5 cm stainless steel wire, was welded with 3 dots on the crown using an electric spot welder. Each dot for each group took different spot variations from 1 X – 4 X. A loop space maintainer made with the usual materials and techniques as applied at the IKGA FKG UI Clinic was used as a control, with a torch as heat source. Ten specimens each were prepared for shear testing and three spesimens each for metallography. Universal testing machine was used for shear strength testing at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and SEM/EDS was used for metallography and fractography. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA at p = 0.05, and Tukey post hoc test. The results show that the shear strength of the welded loop space maintainer was higher than that of a soldered loop space maintainer, although the difference was not statistically significant with spot variation 1 X. SEM/EDS analysis suggests that a new alloy forms at the contact area of welded and soldered loop space maintainer. Fractography of the joints suggests that welds are better than soldered joints, with higher ductility and toughness, as can be seen from the dimpled pattern of the welded joint and cleavage patterns in the control joints. In conclusion, the loop space maintainer is better made by welding than by soldering.

  9. Analysis and Experiment of Hot-Spot Temperature Rise of 110 kV Three-Phase Three-Limb Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohan Gong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fluid-thermal coupled analysis method to compute the temperature distribution in a 31.5 MVA/110 kV oil natural air natural (ONAN three-phase three-limb transformer. The power losses of windings and core are measured by load-loss test and no-load test respectively. The convective heat transfer process, radiation and oil flow inside the transformer are investigated by finite volume method (FVM. In order to validate the feasibility and accuracy of the presented method, the temperature measuring system based on fiber Brag grating (FBG sensor is constructed for the temperature rise test of the 31.5 MVA/110 kV ONAN transformer. The simulation results deduced from the proposed method agree well with experimental data. This model can be applied to optimizing design and load scheduling.

  10. FIA data and species diversity—successes and failures using multivariate analysis techniques, spatial lag and error models and hot-spot analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Hartsell

    2015-01-01

    This study will investigate how global and local predictors differ with varying spatial scale in relation to species evenness and richness in the gulf coastal plain. Particularly, all-live trees >= one-inch d.b.h. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data was used as the basis for the study. Watersheds are defined by the USGS 12 digit hydrologic units. The...

  11. Well test analysis in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, K.

    1987-04-01

    The behavior of fracture systems under well test conditions and methods for analyzing well test data from fractured media are investigated. Several analytical models are developed to be used for analyzing well test data from fractured media. Numerical tools that may be used to simulate fluid flow in fractured media are also presented. Three types of composite models for constant flux tests are investigated. These models are based on the assumption that a fracture system under well test conditions may be represented by two concentric regions, one representing a small number of fractures that dominates flow near the well, and the other representing average conditions farther away from the well. Type curves are presented that can be used to find the flow parameters of these two regions and the extent of the inner concentric region. Several slug test models with different geometric conditions that may be present in fractured media are also investigated. A finite element model that can simulate transient fluid flow in fracture networks is used to study the behavior of various two-dimensional fracture systems under well test conditions. A mesh generator that can be used to model mass and heat flow in a fractured-porous media is presented.

  12. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  13. CFD post analysis of METEX-tests

    CERN Document Server

    Laure Blumenfeld, Cyril Kharoua, Yacine Kadi, Karel Samec, Mats Lindroos (CERN)

    This technical note summarises the additional CFD performed after the completion of the hydraulic METEX 1 and METEX 2 data tests to validate CFD turbulent simulation of liquid metal with the LES, RANS and SST model.

  14. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  15. Ion beam nanopatterning and micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis on HOPG for testing FIB performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archanjo, B.S., E-mail: bsarchanjo@inmetro.gov.br [Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias 25250-020, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Maciel, I.O. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Peripolli, S.B.; Damasceno, J.C. [Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias 25250-020, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Achete, C.A. [Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias 25250-020, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais (PEMM), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68505, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jorio, A. [Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias 25250-020, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    This work reports Ga{sup +} focused ion beam nanopatterning to create amorphous defects with periodic square arrays in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and the use of Raman spectroscopy as a new protocol to test and compare progresses in ion beam optics, for low fluence bombardment or fast writing speed. This can be ultimately used as a metrological tool for comparing different FIB machines and can contribute to Focused Ion Beam (FIB) development in general for tailoring nanostructures with higher precision. In order to do that, the amount of ion at each spot was varied from about 10{sup 6} down to roughly 1 ion per dot. These defects were also analyzed by using high resolution scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The sensitivities of these techniques were compared and a geometrical model is proposed for micro-Raman spectroscopy in which the intensity of the defect induced D band, for a fixed ion dose, is associated with the diameter of the ion beam. In addition, the lateral increase in the bombarded spot due to the cascade effect of the ions on graphite surface was extracted from this model. A semi-quantitative analysis of the distribution of ions at low doses per dot or high writing speed for soft modification of materials is discussed. -- Highlights: {yields} Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface is bombarded using a focused ion beam. {yields} Raman spectroscopy is used to propose a new protocol to test focused ion beam optics. {yields} Scattering diameter of the ions on HOPG surface is experimentally obtained. {yields} Optical limitations of the ion column in fast writing speed are discussed. {yields} Small level of modifications is considered for changing graphene conductive properties.

  16. Well test analysis in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, K.

    1986-04-01

    In this study the behavior of fracture systems under well test conditions and methods for analyzing well test data from fractured media are investigated. Several analytical models are developed to be used for analyzing well test data from fractured media. Numerical tools that may be used to simulate fluid flow in fractured media are also presented. Three types of composite models for constant flux tests are investigated. Several slug test models with different geometric conditions that may be present in fractured media are also investigated. A finite element model that can simulate transient fluid flow in fracture networks is used to study the behavior of various two-dimensional fracture systems under well test conditions. A mesh generator that can be used to model mass and heat flow in a fractured-porous media is presented. This model develops an explicit solution in the porous matrix as well as in the discrete fractures. Because the model does not require the assumptions of the conventional double porosity approach, it may be used to simulate cases where double porosity models fail.

  17. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Forecasting European thermal coal spot prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Krzemień

    2015-01-01

    Finally, in order to analyse the time series model performance a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN was used and its performance compared against the whole AR(2 process. Empirical results obtained confirmed that there is no statistically significant difference between both methods. The GRNN analysis also allowed pointing out the main drivers that move the European Thermal Coal Spot prices: crude oil, USD/CNY change and supply side drivers.

  19. The cobalt spot test - further insights into its performance and use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midander, Klara; Julander, Anneli; Skare, Lizbet

    2013-01-01

    A spot test was recently developed for easy and rapid testing to detect whether cobalt is available on surfaces in contact with skin.......A spot test was recently developed for easy and rapid testing to detect whether cobalt is available on surfaces in contact with skin....

  20. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  1. Genotoxicity studies of organically grown broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its interactions with urethane, methyl methanesulfonate and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide genotoxicity in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres-Pulido, María Eugenia; Dueñas-García, Irma; Castañeda-Partida, Laura; Santos-Cruz, Luis Felipe; Vega-Contreras, Viridiana; Rebollar-Vega, Rosa; Gómez-Luna, Juan Carlos; Durán-Díaz, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) has been defined as a cancer preventive food. Nevertheless, broccoli contains potentially genotoxic compounds as well. We performed the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster in treatments with organically grown broccoli (OGB) and co-treatments with the promutagen urethane (URE), the direct alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) in the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses with inducible and high levels of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), respectively. Larvae of both crosses were chronically fed with OGB or fresh market broccoli (FMB) as a non-organically grown control, added with solvents or mutagens solutions. In both crosses, the OGB added with Tween-ethanol yielded the expected reduction in the genotoxicity spontaneous rate. OGB co-treatments did not affect the URE effect, MMS showed synergy and 4-NQO damage was modulated in both crosses. In contrast, FMB controls produced damage increase; co-treatments modulated URE genotoxicity, diminished MMS damage, and did not change the 4-NQO damage. The high dietary consumption of both types of broccoli and its protective effects in D. melanogaster are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An analysis of induction motor testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soergel, S.

    1996-01-01

    There are two main failure mechanisms in induction motors: bearing related and stator related. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a study which was completed in 1985, and found that near 37% of all failures were attributed to stator problems. Another data source for motor failures is the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). This database reveals that approximately 55% of all motors were identified as being degraded before failure occurred. Of these, approximately 35% were due to electrical faults. These are the faults which this paper will attempt to identify through testing techniques. This paper is a discussion of the current techniques used to predict incipient failure of induction motors. In the past, the main tests were those to assess the integrity of the ground insulation. However, most insulation failures are believed to involve turn or strand insulation, which makes traditional tests alone inadequate for condition assessment. Furthermore, these tests have several limitations which need consideration when interpreting the results. This paper will concentrate on predictive maintenance techniques which detect electrical problems. It will present appropriate methods and tests, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each

  3. Modelling energy spot prices by Lévy semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces a new modelling framework for energy spot prices based on Lévy semistationary processes. Lévy semistationary processes are special cases of the general class of ambit processes. We provide a detailed analysis of the probabilistic properties of such models and we show how the...... they are able to capture many of the stylised facts observed in energy markets. Furthermore, we derive forward prices based on our spot price model. As it turns out, many of the classical spot models can be embedded into our novel modelling framework....

  4. Applying of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to Identify and Characterize Sweet Spots in Shale Gas Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskarczyk, Edyta

    2018-03-01

    The main goal of the study was to enhance and improve information about the Ordovician and Silurian gas-saturated shale formations. Author focused on: firstly, identification of the shale gas formations, especially the sweet spots horizons, secondly, classification and thirdly, the accurate characterization of divisional intervals. Data set comprised of standard well logs from the selected well. Shale formations are represented mainly by claystones, siltstones, and mudstones. The formations are also partially rich in organic matter. During the calculations, information about lithology of stratigraphy weren't taken into account. In the analysis, selforganizing neural network - Kohonen Algorithm (ANN) was used for sweet spots identification. Different networks and different software were tested and the best network was used for application and interpretation. As a results of Kohonen networks, groups corresponding to the gas-bearing intervals were found. The analysis showed diversification between gas-bearing formations and surrounding beds. It is also shown that internal diversification in sweet spots is present. Kohonen algorithm was also used for geological interpretation of well log data and electrofacies prediction. Reliable characteristic into groups shows that Ja Mb and Sa Fm which are usually treated as potential sweet spots only partially have good reservoir conditions. It is concluded that ANN appears to be useful and quick tool for preliminary classification of members and sweet spots identification.

  5. Immunochromatographic diagnostic test analysis using Google Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve; Caire, Romain; Cortazar, Bingen; Turan, Mehmet; Wong, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-03-25

    We demonstrate a Google Glass-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) reader platform capable of qualitative and quantitative measurements of various lateral flow immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical diagnostics tests. Using a custom-written Glass application and without any external hardware attachments, one or more RDTs labeled with Quick Response (QR) code identifiers are simultaneously imaged using the built-in camera of the Google Glass that is based on a hands-free and voice-controlled interface and digitally transmitted to a server for digital processing. The acquired JPEG images are automatically processed to locate all the RDTs and, for each RDT, to produce a quantitative diagnostic result, which is returned to the Google Glass (i.e., the user) and also stored on a central server along with the RDT image, QR code, and other related information (e.g., demographic data). The same server also provides a dynamic spatiotemporal map and real-time statistics for uploaded RDT results accessible through Internet browsers. We tested this Google Glass-based diagnostic platform using qualitative (i.e., yes/no) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. For the quantitative RDTs, we measured activated tests at various concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL for free and total PSA. This wearable RDT reader platform running on Google Glass combines a hands-free sensing and image capture interface with powerful servers running our custom image processing codes, and it can be quite useful for real-time spatiotemporal tracking of various diseases and personal medical conditions, providing a valuable tool for epidemiology and mobile health.

  6. Reliability demonstration test planning using bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Senthil Kumar; Arul, John A.

    2003-01-01

    In Nuclear Power Plants, the reliability of all the safety systems is very critical from the safety viewpoint and it is very essential that the required reliability requirements be met while satisfying the design constraints. From practical experience, it is found that the reliability of complex systems such as Safety Rod Drive Mechanism is of the order of 10 -4 with an uncertainty factor of 10. To demonstrate the reliability of such systems is prohibitive in terms of cost and time as the number of tests needed is very large. The purpose of this paper is to develop a Bayesian reliability demonstrating testing procedure for exponentially distributed failure times with gamma prior distribution on the failure rate which can be easily and effectively used to demonstrate component/subsystem/system reliability conformance to stated requirements. The important questions addressed in this paper are: With zero failures, how long one should perform the tests and how many components are required to conclude with a given degree of confidence, that the component under test, meets the reliability requirement. The procedure is explained with an example. This procedure can also be extended to demonstrate with more number of failures. The approach presented is applicable for deriving test plans for demonstrating component failure rates of nuclear power plants, as the failure data for similar components are becoming available in existing plants elsewhere. The advantages of this procedure are the criterion upon which the procedure is based is simple and pertinent, the fitting of the prior distribution is an integral part of the procedure and is based on the use of information regarding two percentiles of this distribution and finally, the procedure is straightforward and easy to apply in practice. (author)

  7. Data Link Test and Analysis System/ATCRBS Transponder Test System Technical Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    This document references material for personnel using or making software changes : to the Data Link Test and Analysis System (DATAS) for Air Traffic Control Radar : Beacon System (ATCRBS) transponder testing and data collection. This is one of : a se...

  8. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  9. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William L.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  10. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešnjak, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones

  11. TVWS devices spectrum mask test and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lamola, MM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available techniques to minimize the amount of interference. To protect Primary Users (TV receivers) from interference, we analyze the spectrum output of a low-cost TVWS device and produce its spectral mask to determine its characteristics. Current Television... can clearly be seen in this Figure. � Figure 3: The measured power of the signal at channel 11 with power level set to 10 dBm. V. CONCLUSION & NEXT STEPS We performed a series of tests to evaluate the viability of secondary usage of TV...

  12. Qualification test and analysis report: solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Test results show that the Owens-Illinois Sunpak/sup TM/ Model SEC 601 air-cooled collector meets the national standards and codes as defined in the Subsystem Performance Specification and Verification Plan of NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-32259, dated October 28, 1976. The architectural and engineering firm of Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, Detroit, Michigan, acted in the capacity of the independent certification agency. The program calls for the development, fabrication, qualification and delivery of an air-liquid solar collector for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems.

  13. Application of Geostatistical Methods and Wavelets to the Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery and the Testing of a Moving Variogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This is a first report of the project. It incorporates the report on an analysis completed in the previous project on moving averages, variances and variograms for NIR from a SPOT image of part of Fort A. P. Hill...

  14. [Diagnostic performance of T-SPOT.TB on peripheral blood in combination with adenosine deaminase on pleural fluid for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy within different age group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H Y; Zhang, D Q; Ye, J R; Su, S S; Xie, Y P; Chen, C S; Li, Y P

    2017-06-27

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of T cell enzyme-linked immuno-spot assay (T-SPOT) on peripheral blood in combination with adenosine deaminase (ADA) on pleural fluid for diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) pleurisy within different age groups. Methods: The data of patients with pleural effusion from the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from April 2012 to November 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, and the diagnoses of these patients were histopathologically confirmed through medical thoracoscopy. The cases who had confirmed diagnosis, in the same time, received peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB were enrolled. The performance of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB in combination with pleural fluid ADA on diagnosing TB pleurisy in the younger patients (16-59 years old) and elderly patients (≥60 years old) were analyzed respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were adopted for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 448 cases were finally enrolled, 341(76.1%) confirmed with TB pleurisy, 224 males, 117 females, (47±19) years old; and 107 (23.9%) classified as non-TB pleurisy, 65 males, 42 females, (61±14) years old. There were 285 cases who were classified as younger group, and the other 163 cases were classified as elderly group. The sensitivity and specificity of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB were 85.4% (204/239) and 71.7% (33/46) in the younger patients, 76.5% (78/102) and 59.0% (36/61) respectively in the elderly patients. The sensitivity of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB in the younger patients was significantly higher than that in the elderly patients ( P =0.047). The sensitivity and specificity were 99.2% and 95.7% in combination with peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB and pleural fluid ADA respectively in the younger patients. The area under ROC curve (AUC) of T-SPOT.TB in the younger patients was 0.833, AUC of T-SPOT.TB combined with ADA was 0

  15. FOTS: Fast Oriented Text Spotting with a Unified Network

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xuebo; Liang, Ding; Yan, Shi; Chen, Dagui; Qiao, Yu; Yan, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    Incidental scene text spotting is considered one of the most difficult and valuable challenges in the document analysis community. Most existing methods treat text detection and recognition as separate tasks. In this work, we propose a unified end-to-end trainable Fast Oriented Text Spotting (FOTS) network for simultaneous detection and recognition, sharing computation and visual information among the two complementary tasks. Specially, RoIRotate is introduced to share convolutional features ...

  16. Effects of welding parameters on friction stir spot welding of high density polyethylene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Mustafa Kemal; Yukler, Ahmet Irfan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schematic illustration of the cross section of a friction stir spot weld and (b) Geometry of the weld bonded area, x: nugget thickness and y: the thickness of the upper sheet. Highlights: → Welding parameters affect the FSSW nugget formation and the strength of the joint. → Melting of polyethylene occurred in the vicinity of the tool pin. → The joint that fractures with a pull nugget failure mode has a higher strength. -- Abstract: Friction stir spot welding parameters affect the weld strength of thermoplastics, such as high density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets. The effects of the welding parameters on static strength of friction stir spot welds of high density polyethylene sheets were investigated. For maximizing the weld strength, the selection of welding parameters is very important. In lap-shear tests two fracture modes were observed; cross nugget failure and pull nugget failure. The tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth and dwell time were determined to be important in the joint formation and its strength. The joint which had a better strength fails with a pull nugget failure morphology. Weld cross section image analysis of the joints were done with a video spectral comparator. The plunge rate of the tool was determined to have a negligible effect on friction stir spot welding.

  17. Four spot laser anemometer and optical access techniques for turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1987-01-01

    A time-of-flight anemometer (TOFA) system utilizing a spatial lead-lag filter for bipolar pulse generation has been constructed and tested. This system, called a four-spot laser anemometer, was specifically designed for use in high-speed, turbulent flows in the presence of walls or surfaces. The TOFA system uses elliptical spots to increase the flow acceptance angle to be comparable with that of a fringe-type anemometer. The tightly focused spots used in the four spot yield excellent flare light rejection capabilities. Good results have been obtained to 75 microns normal to a surface, with an f/2.5 collection lens. This system is being evaluated for use in a warm turbine facility. Results from both a particle-lag velocity experiment and boundary layer profiles will be discussed. In addition, an analysis of the use of curved windows in a turbine casing will be presented. Curved windows, matching the inner radius of the turbine casing, preserve the flow conditions, but introduce astigmatic aberrations. A correction optic was designed that virtually eliminates these astigmatic aberrations throughout the intrablade survey region for normal incidence.

  18. Analysis of behavior of focusing error signals generated by astigmatic method when a focused spot moves beyond the radius of a land-groove-type optical disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakatani, Hidehiko; Nakai, Kenya; Ohmaki, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically calculate behaviors of focusing error signals generated by an astigmatic method in a land-groove-type optical disk. The focusing error signal from the land does not coincide with that from the groove. This behavior is enhanced when a focused spot of an optical pickup moves beyond the radius of the optical disk. A gain difference between the slope sensitivities of focusing error signals from the land and the groove is an important factor with respect to stable focusing servo control. In our calculation, the format of digital versatile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) is adopted as the land-groove-type optical disk model, and the dependences of the gain difference on various factors are investigated. The gain difference strongly depends on the optical intensity distribution of the laser beam in the optical pickup. The calculation method and results in this paper will be reflected in newly developed land-groove-type optical disks.

  19. [Analysis of hot spots and trend of molecular pharmacognosy research based on project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of 1995-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Wen; Liu, Yang; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Ce; Li, Hai-Yan

    2016-05-01

    This study collected 1995-2014 molecular pharmacognosy study, a total of 595 items, funded by Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). TDA and Excel software were used to analyze the data of the projects about general situation, hot spots of research with rank analytic and correlation analytic methods. Supported by NSFC molecular pharmacognosy projects and funding a gradual increase in the number of, the proportion of funds for pharmaceutical research funding tends to be stable; mainly supported by molecular biology methods of genuine medicinal materials, secondary metabolism and Germplasm Resources Research; hot drugs including Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Rehmanniae, Cordyceps sinensis, hot contents including tanshinone biosynthesis, Rehmannia glutinosa continuous cropping obstacle. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Hot Spot in Eclipsing Dwarf Nova IY Ursae Majoris during Quiescence and Normal Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowska, K.; Olech, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the analysis of hot spot brightness in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova IY UMa during its normal outburst in March 2013 and in quiescence in April 2012 and in October 2015. Examination of four reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot changed significantly only during the outburst. The brightness of the hot spot, before and after the outburst, was on the same level. Thus, based on the behavior of the hot spot, IY UMa during its normal outburst follows the disk-instability model.

  1. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  2. THE USE OF DRIED BLOOD SPOTS AND A MODIFIED PARTICLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) for the testing of HIV-1 antibodies has been described since 1988.' Numerous studies have proved that this method of prevalence testing has high sensitivity and specificity and is easy to use, as well as having the advantage of being less expensive than conventional tests on whole blood.

  3. Speed testing of Sliding spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenski, Emil; Manolev, Dimitar

    2013-01-01

    The standard method for spectrum analysis in DSP is the Discrete Fourier transform (DFT), typically implemented using a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. The reconstruction of the time-domain signal is then performed by the IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier transform) algorithm. The FFT calculates the spectral components in a window, on a block-by-block basis. If that window is move by one sample, it is obvious that most of the information will remain the same. This article shows how to measure execution time of scripts realizing SDFT algorithm written for MatLab

  4. Parametric Analysis of a Hover Test Vehicle using Advanced Test Generation and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Schumann, Johann; Menzies, Tim; Barrett, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Large complex aerospace systems are generally validated in regions local to anticipated operating points rather than through characterization of the entire feasible operational envelope of the system. This is due to the large parameter space, and complex, highly coupled nonlinear nature of the different systems that contribute to the performance of the aerospace system. We have addressed the factors deterring such an analysis by applying a combination of technologies to the area of flight envelop assessment. We utilize n-factor (2,3) combinatorial parameter variations to limit the number of cases, but still explore important interactions in the parameter space in a systematic fashion. The data generated is automatically analyzed through a combination of unsupervised learning using a Bayesian multivariate clustering technique (AutoBayes) and supervised learning of critical parameter ranges using the machine-learning tool TAR3, a treatment learner. Covariance analysis with scatter plots and likelihood contours are used to visualize correlations between simulation parameters and simulation results, a task that requires tool support, especially for large and complex models. We present results of simulation experiments for a cold-gas-powered hover test vehicle.

  5. Repeatability study of replicate crash tests: A signal analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppi, Jeremy; Toczyski, Jacek; Crandall, Jeff R; Kerrigan, Jason

    2017-10-03

    To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. Test data from DRoTS tests, deceleration rollover sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, small overlap impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the NHTSA vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability. Signal analysis of the DRoTS tests showed that force and deformation time histories had good to excellent repeatability, whereas vehicle kinematics showed only fair repeatability due to the vehicle mounting method for one pair of tests and slightly dissimilar mass properties (2.2%) in a second pair of tests. Relative to the DRS, the DRoTS tests showed very similar or higher levels of repeatability in nearly all vehicle kinematic data signals with the exception of global X' (road direction of travel) velocity and displacement due to the functionality of the DRoTS fixture. Based on the average overall scoring metric of the dominant acceleration, DRoTS was found to be as repeatable as all other crash tests analyzed. Vertical force measures showed good repeatability and were on par with frontal crash barrier forces. Dynamic deformation measures showed good to excellent repeatability as opposed to poor repeatability seen in SOI and oblique deformation measures. Using the signal analysis method as outlined in this article, the DRoTS was shown to have the same or better repeatability of crash test methods used in government regulatory and consumer evaluation test

  6. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  7. The exceedance and cross-correlations between the gold spot and futures markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingsong; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic features of cross-correlations and exceedance correlations between COMEX gold spot and futures returns using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) and a test for symmetrical exceedance correlation. First, we examine the cross-correlations both qualitatively and quantitatively by employing the cross-correlations test and the DCCA method. We find that the cross-correlations are significant for all lagged orders and are weakly persistent. Our results from a rolling sample test also show that some exogenous events can apparently affect the cross-correlations between gold spot and futures returns. Second, after employing the test statistic, our empirical results show that the exceedance correlations between spot and futures returns are both positive and symmetric, indicating that the two returns co-move in the same direction and that the correlations between them are symmetrical for the upper and lower of the returns. However, the results from the rolling sample show that occasional events can induce significant asymmetries of exceedance correlations.

  8. [Ambulance services in Copenhagen, Odense and Ringkøbing County. Results of the spot test conducted by the Ministry of Health and the County Councils Association in 1990. 1. Epidemiological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, H; Larsen, C F

    1992-02-17

    In 1990, The Danish Ministry of Health and the County Council Association undertook a spot test investigation of the activities in connection with 3,182 emergency ambulance services (AU) in the Municipality of Copenhagen (a city), the Odense district (a large provincial town) and the County of Ringkøbing (a mixed rural and urban region). The investigation included data collected by the ambulance staff before hospitalization and the diagnoses on discharge from casualty and hospital departments. The frequency of AU per 1,000 population was found to be 101 annually in Copenhagen, 44 in Odense and 19 in the County of Ringkøbing. More than 10% of the services in all three regions did not result in transport of the patient to hospital treatment. The average age of the patients was 52 years in Copenhagen compared with 44 years in the other two regions. The age-specific frequency of AU for patients aged 0-4 year-old was nine times as great in Copenhagen than in Odense and the County of Ringkøbing and, where patients aged more than 80 years were concerned, the frequency was 4-10 times as great. In all three regions, the activities of ambulance services were most numerous between 6-16 hours and lowest during the period 0-6 hours. Services to patients' homes constituted 44-46% and to traffic regions 32-40%. Services on account of illness constituted 41-45% and, on account of accidents, 27-35%. In cases of rapid emergency transport (using signals), 78% of the ambulances had reached the patient within five minutes in Copenhagen as compared with 44% in Odense and the County of Ringkøbing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Muon catalyzed fusion beam window mechanical strength testing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Zabriskie, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A thin aluminum window [0.127 mm (0.005-inch) thick x 146 mm (5 3/4-inch diameter] of 2024-T6 alloy was modeled and analyzed using the ABACUS non-linear finite element analysis code. A group of windows was fabricated, heat-treated and subsequently tested. Testing included both ultimate burst pressure and fatigue. Fatigue testing cycles involved oil-canning behavior representing vacuum purge and reversal to pressure. Test results are compared to predictions and the mode of failure is discussed. Operational requirements, based on the above analysis and correlational testing for the actual beam window are discussed

  10. Testing the LIGO inspiral analysis with hardware injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D A

    2004-01-01

    Injection of simulated binary inspiral signals into detector hardware provides an excellent test of the inspiral detection pipeline. By recovering the physical parameters of an injected signal, we test our understanding of both instrumental calibration and the data analysis pipeline. We describe an inspiral search code and results from hardware injection tests and demonstrate that injected signals can be recovered by the data analysis pipeline. The parameters of the recovered signals match those of the injected signals

  11. TRACG post-test analysis of panthers prototype tests of SBWR passive containment condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, J.R.; Billig, P.F.; Abdollahian, D.; Masoni, P.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the validation effort for application of the TRACG code to the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR), calculations have been performed for the various test facilities which are part of the SBWR design and technology certification program. These calculations include post-test calculations for tests in the PANTHERS Passive Containment Condenser (PCC) test program. Sixteen tests from the PANTHERS/PCC test matrix were selected for post-test analysis. This set includes three steady-state pure-steam tests, nine steady-state steam-air tests, and four transient tests. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the results of the post-test analysis. The author includes a brief description of the PANTHERS/PCC test facility and test matrix, a description of the PANTHERS/PCC post-test TRACG model and the manner in which the various types of tests in the post-test evaluation were simulated, and a presentation of the results of the TRACG simulation

  12. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  13. SPOTting model parameters using a ready-made Python package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houska, Tobias; Kraft, Philipp; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The selection and parameterization of reliable process descriptions in ecological modelling is driven by several uncertainties. The procedure is highly dependent on various criteria, like the used algorithm, the likelihood function selected and the definition of the prior parameter distributions. A wide variety of tools have been developed in the past decades to optimize parameters. Some of the tools are closed source. Due to this, the choice for a specific parameter estimation method is sometimes more dependent on its availability than the performance. A toolbox with a large set of methods can support users in deciding about the most suitable method. Further, it enables to test and compare different methods. We developed the SPOT (Statistical Parameter Optimization Tool), an open source python package containing a comprehensive set of modules, to analyze and optimize parameters of (environmental) models. SPOT comes along with a selected set of algorithms for parameter optimization and uncertainty analyses (Monte Carlo, MC; Latin Hypercube Sampling, LHS; Maximum Likelihood, MLE; Markov Chain Monte Carlo, MCMC; Scuffled Complex Evolution, SCE-UA; Differential Evolution Markov Chain, DE-MCZ), together with several likelihood functions (Bias, (log-) Nash-Sutcliff model efficiency, Correlation Coefficient, Coefficient of Determination, Covariance, (Decomposed-, Relative-, Root-) Mean Squared Error, Mean Absolute Error, Agreement Index) and prior distributions (Binomial, Chi-Square, Dirichlet, Exponential, Laplace, (log-, multivariate-) Normal, Pareto, Poisson, Cauchy, Uniform, Weibull) to sample from. The model-independent structure makes it suitable to analyze a wide range of applications. We apply all algorithms of the SPOT package in three different case studies. Firstly, we investigate the response of the Rosenbrock function, where the MLE algorithm shows its strengths. Secondly, we study the Griewank function, which has a challenging response surface for

  14. A comparison of creatinine concentration with {sup 40}K radioactivity in spot urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Minjeong; Park, Seyoung; Ha, Wiho; Lee, Seungsook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwangpyo; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Minjeong [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    24 hour urine collection is technically difficult to carry out and inconvenience for subjects. Also the result of 24 hour urine may vary from collection date. The spot urine assessment has large uncertainty that some spot urine concentrated or some spot urine diluted. Hence, it needs to apply normalization method for minimizing result of measurement the spot urine. In radiation emergency, specific gravity method was proposed which method use portable density meter for measuring density of urine and then normalization. The creatinine test recommend by ICRP (1968) and IAEA (1999) is the most common method for urine normalization. However, the creatinine result was various which depends upon sex, age, race and health conditions. Thus it needs to supplementary method for urine normalization. Natural potassium has isotopes those are K-39, K-40, and K-41, in the percentages of 93.08, 0.0118 and 6.91, respectively. Especially, the K-40 emits relatively high energy (1.46 MeV gamma ray) with a half life of 1.248 Χ 10{sup 9}γ. The potassium is an essential element in human which works as homeostatic regulation. Thus human which works as homeostatic regulation. Thus human which works as homeostatic regulation. Thus human body contains specific amount of the potassium and then excreted regularly. And then K-40 is measurable in urine sample using HPGs detector. The purpose of this study is to estimate the variability of spot urine normalization method for assessing the internal exposure dose of hospital workers who work related with radiopharmaceutical produce. The use of creatinine as normalization of spot urine samples for internal dosimetry is possible to reduce level of uncertainty. However, creatinine range is wide which means the creatinine is not exactly correct reference value for normalization. Or some malfunction in creatinine analysis, it need to another supplementary method for normalization for adequately assessing the activity in spot urine samples. In this

  15. Spatial Epidemiology and Risk Factor Analysis of White Spot Disease in the Shrimp Farming Industry of Sinaloa, Mexico, from 2005 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, A; Mardones, F O; Chávez, M C; Montoya, L; Cabanillas, J A; de Blas, I; Martínez-López, B

    2017-10-01

    White spot disease (WSD), caused by the white spot syndrome virus, is currently one of the primary causes of mortality and economic losses in the shrimp farming industry worldwide. In Mexico, shrimp production is one of the most important primary activities generating an annual income of USD 711 million. However, WSD introduction in 1999 had a devastating impact for the Mexican shrimp industry. The aim of this study was to characterize the WSD spatio-temporal patterns and to identify the primary risk factors contributing to WSD occurrence from 2005 to 2011 in Sinaloa, Mexico. We used data collected by the 'Comité Estatal de Sanidad Acuícola de Sinaloa' from 2005 to 2011 regarding WSD outbreaks as well as environmental, production and husbandry factors at farm level. The spatio-temporal patterns of WSD were described using space-time scan statistics. The effect of 52 variables on the time to WSD outbreak occurrence was assessed using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Results reveal that WSD risk and survival time were not homogeneously distributed as suggested by the significant clusters obtained using the space-time permutation model and the space-time exponential model, respectively. The Cox model revealed that the first production cycle [hazard ratio (HR) = 11.31], changes from 1 to 1.4°C of temperature oscillation caused by 'El Niño'/'La Niña' events (HR = 1.44) and high average daily growths (HR = 1.26) were significantly associated with lower survival (i.e. shorter time to WSD outbreak) on farm. Conversely, shrimp weight at the moment of the outbreak (HR = 0.159), changes from -0.9 to -0.5°C of temperature oscillation caused by 'El Niño'/'La Niña' events (HR = 0.540), high superficial water temperature during the pound stocking (HR = 0.823) and high (>100) number of days of culture (HR = 0.830) were factors associated with higher survival. Results are expected to inform the design of risk-based, intervention strategies to

  16. Method for the Determination of Iodide in Dried Blood Spots from Newborns by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Jung; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2018-03-06

    Dried blood spots (DBS), collected for newborn screening programs in the United States, have been used to screen for congenital metabolic diseases in newborns for over 50 years. DBS provide an easy and inexpensive way to collect and store peripheral blood specimens and present an excellent resource for studies on the assessment of chemical exposures in newborns. In this study, a selective and sensitive method was developed for the analysis of iodide in DBS by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Accuracy, inter- and intraday precision, matrix effects, and detection limits of the method were determined. Further validation of the method was accomplished by concurrent analysis of whole blood and fortified blood spotted on a Whatman 903 filter card. A significant positive correlation was found between measured concentrations of iodide in venous whole blood and the same blood spotted as DBS. The method limit of detection was 0.15 ng/mL iodide. The method was further validated by the analysis of a whole blood sample certified for iodide levels (proficiency testing sample) by spotting on a filter card. Twenty DBS samples collected from newborns in New York State were analyzed to demonstrate the applicability of the method. The measured concentrations of iodide in whole blood of newborns from New York State ranged between analysis of DBS collected for epidemiological studies that investigate the importance of iodide on the health of newborns.

  17. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  18. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - SSST Testing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), Huntsville, AL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-03-25

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the methods used for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis during the IDCA program. These methods changed throughout the Proficiency Test and the reasons for these changes are documented in this report. The most significant modifications in standard testing methods are: 1) including one specified sandpaper in impact testing among all the participants, 2) diversifying liquid test methods for selected participants, and 3) including sealed sample holders for thermal testing by at least one participant. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is putting the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study will suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. The testing performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  19. Comparative analysis of automotive paints by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and nonparametric permutation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntee, Erin; Viglino, Emilie; Rinke, Caitlin; Kumor, Stephanie; Ni Liqiang; Sigman, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated for the discrimination of automobile paint samples. Paint samples from automobiles of different makes, models, and years were collected and separated into sets based on the color, presence or absence of effect pigments and the number of paint layers. Twelve LIBS spectra were obtained for each paint sample, each an average of a five single shot 'drill down' spectra from consecutive laser ablations in the same spot on the sample. Analyses by a nonparametric permutation test and a parametric Wald test were performed to determine the extent of discrimination within each set of paint samples. The discrimination power and Type I error were assessed for each data analysis method. Conversion of the spectral intensity to a log-scale (base 10) resulted in a higher overall discrimination power while observing the same significance level. Working on the log-scale, the nonparametric permutation tests gave an overall 89.83% discrimination power with a size of Type I error being 4.44% at the nominal significance level of 5%. White paint samples, as a group, were the most difficult to differentiate with the power being only 86.56% followed by 95.83% for black paint samples. Parametric analysis of the data set produced lower discrimination (85.17%) with 3.33% Type I errors, which is not recommended for both theoretical and practical considerations. The nonparametric testing method is applicable across many analytical comparisons, with the specific application described here being the pairwise comparison of automotive paint samples.

  20. Evaluation of Test/Analysis Correlation Methods for Crash Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Bark, Lindley W.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2001-01-01

    A project has been initiated to improve crash test and analysis correlation. The work in this paper concentrated on the test and simulation results for a fuselage section. Two drop tests of the section were conducted. The first test was designed to excite the linear structural response for comparison with finite element modal analysis results. The second test was designed to provide data for correlation with crash simulations. An MSC.Dytran model was developed to generate nonlinear transient dynamic results. Following minor modifications, the same model was executed in MSC.Nastran to generate modal analysis results. The results presented in this paper concentrate on evaluation of correlation methodologies for crash test data and finite element simulation results.

  1. Application of modern well test analysis techniques to pressure transient tests in Kizildere geothermal field, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, M.; Serpen, U.; Gok, I.M. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Mines; Zeybek, A.D. [Al-Mutlaq Compound, Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia)

    2003-04-01

    The analyses of two build-up tests and one interference test in the Kizildere geothermal field, Turkey, are presented. Modern well test analysis methods based on pressure-derivative (logarithmic time rate of pressure) and non-linear regression, as well as conventional log-log and semi-log straight-line methods, have been used in the interpretation of these field pressure tests. Pressure transient models based on both homogeneous reservoirs and fractal reservoirs without matrix participation are considered in the analysis. It is shown that the use of conventional analysis methods alone can lead to an inaccurate interpretation of these field tests, and the use of modern analysis techniques in conjunction with conventional analysis techniques provides a more reliable and accurate interpretation of the well test data in the Kizildere geothermal field. The information obtained (e.g., estimates of permeability thickness and fractal dimensions) from analyses of these tests should prove useful for reservoir characterization studies in the Kizildere field, where reinjection is scheduled to begin soon. Finally, the modern interpretation methods described in this paper are recommended for analysis of well test pressure data from geothermal reservoirs. (Author)

  2. The Merit-order effect. A detailed analysis of the price effect of renewable electricity generation on spot market prices in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensfuss, F.; Ragwitz, M.; Genoese, M.

    2007-07-01

    The German feed-in support of electricity generation from renewable energy sources has led to high growth rates of the supported technologies. Critics state that the costs for consumers are too high. An important aspect to be considered in the discussion is the price effect created by renewable electricity generation. This paper seeks to analyse the impact of privileged renewable electricity generation on the electricity market in Germany. The central aspect to be analysed is the impact of renewable electricity generation on spot market prices. The results generated by an agent-based simulation platform indicate that the financial volume of the price reduction is considerable. In the short run, this gives rise to a distributional effect which creates savings for the demand side by reducing generator profits. In the case of the year 2006, the volume of the merit-order effect exceeds the volume of the net support payments for renewable electricity generation which have to be paid by consumers. (orig.)

  3. Testing Process Factor Analysis Models Using the Parametric Bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian

    2018-01-01

    Process factor analysis (PFA) is a latent variable model for intensive longitudinal data. It combines P-technique factor analysis and time series analysis. The goodness-of-fit test in PFA is currently unavailable. In the paper, we propose a parametric bootstrap method for assessing model fit in PFA. We illustrate the test with an empirical data set in which 22 participants rated their effects everyday over a period of 90 days. We also explore Type I error and power of the parametric bootstrap test with simulated data.

  4. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  5. Geospatial Analysis Using Remote Sensing Images: Case Studies of Zonguldak Test Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayık, Çağlar; Topan, Hüseyin; Özendi, Mustafa; Oruç, Murat; Cam, Ali; Abdikan, Saygın

    2016-06-01

    Inclined topographies are one of the most challenging problems for geospatial analysis of air-borne and space-borne imageries. However, flat areas are mostly misleading to exhibit the real performance. For this reason, researchers generally require a study area which includes mountainous topography and various land cover and land use types. Zonguldak and its vicinity is a very suitable test site for performance investigation of remote sensing systems due to the fact that it contains different land use types such as dense forest, river, sea, urban area; different structures such as open pit mining operations, thermal power plant; and its mountainous structure. In this paper, we reviewed more than 120 proceeding papers and journal articles about geospatial analysis that are performed on the test field of Zonguldak and its surroundings. Geospatial analysis performed with imageries include elimination of systematic geometric errors, 2/3D georeferencing accuracy assessment, DEM and DSM generation and validation, ortho-image production, evaluation of information content, image classification, automatic feature extraction and object recognition, pan-sharpening, land use and land cover change analysis and deformation monitoring. In these applications many optical satellite images are used i.e. ASTER, Bilsat-1, IKONOS, IRS-1C, KOMPSAT-1, KVR-1000, Landsat-3-5-7, Orbview-3, QuickBird, Pleiades, SPOT-5, TK-350, RADARSAT-1, WorldView-1-2; as well as radar data i.e. JERS-1, Envisat ASAR, TerraSAR-X, ALOS PALSAR and SRTM. These studies are performed by Departments of Geomatics Engineering at Bülent Ecevit University, at İstanbul Technical University, at Yıldız Technical University, and Institute of Photogrammetry and GeoInformation at Leibniz University Hannover. These studies are financially supported by TÜBİTAK (Turkey), the Universities, ESA, Airbus DS, ERSDAC (Japan) and Jülich Research Centre (Germany).

  6. The Motivation Analysis Test: an historical and contemporary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C; Walsh, R Patricia; Mills, Michael

    2005-04-01

    This is an historical review and contemporary empirical evaluation of the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT), one of the first tests to take a psychometric approach to the assessment of motivation. Reviews were quite positive, but the test is now over 50 years old. Nevertheless, it employs innovations in measurement not widely used in objective measurement then or now: (1) subtests with different formats, (2) disguised items, (3) speeded administration procedures, and (4) ipsative format and scoring procedures. These issues are discussed and a contemporary sample (N = 360) obtained to evaluate the Motivation Analysis Test in light of its innovative characteristics.

  7. Modal test - Measurement and analysis requirements. [for Viking Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Data from the Viking Orbiter Modal Test Program are used to illustrate modal test measurement and analysis requirements. The test was performed using a multiple shake dwell technique where data were acquired one channel at a time and recorded on paper tape. Up to ten shakers were used simultaneously, with a complete set of data consisting of 290 strain-gage readings and 125 accelerometer readings. The data analysis provided information sufficient to minimize errors in the data. The list of analyses in order of value is orthogonality, residual mass, frequency sweep, data checks to assure good test data, multilevel trends, global kinetic energy, and global strain energy.

  8. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V.; Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J.; Antila, E.

    1998-01-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  9. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J. [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E. [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  10. Laparoscopic ovum pick-up in spotted paca ( Cuniculus pacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F.P.C. Barros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work is study the laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LapOPU technique in spotted paca, describing surgery details, complications and oocyte recovery rate. Nine healthy adult non-pregnant captive females were used, in a total of 39 procedures. When the surgical plane of anaesthesia was achieved, the females were positioned at 20º Trendelenburg. Three 6mm trocars were placed on right and left inguinal and hypogastric regions. Abdomen was inflated with CO2 and the intra-abdominal pressure was stablished in 10mmHg. Follicular punctures were performed moving the ovaries with atraumatic forceps. For punctures, an 18-gauge 3.5 inch long needle attached to a vacuum system with pressure not exceeding 65mmHg was used. Oocytes were recovered into 50mL centrifuge tubes with media composed of PBS supplemented with 10 IU/mL of heparin and kept at 36°C. R Software was used for statistical analysis. Data normality distribution (Shapiro test and variances homoscedasticity (Bartlett test were tested and descriptive statistics (mean±SD was used to present the results. It was only possible to perform LapOPU in 30 of 39 laparoscopies (76.92%. The surgical total time was 37.34 ± 18.53 minutes. The total number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles, and retrieved oocytes were 502, 415, and 155, respectively. And the same parameters per animal were: 14.34 ± 12.23, 11.86 ± 10.03, and 4.43 ± 4.69 respectively. Oocyte recovery rate was 32.56 ± 27.32%. In conclusion, caudal positioning of portals with slight triangulation allows good viewing of the abdominal cavity and eases the manipulation of the ovaries. Thus this described LapOPU technique is feasible in spotted paca and easy to perform.

  11. Performance of the biomerieux DBS puncher and dried blood spots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The latest World Health Organization recommendations request viral load (VL) testing, if possible, for monitoring HIV-1 infections. However, the use of plasma is an obstacle to realize this test in sub-Saharan Africa. In this context, the dried blood spot (DBS) is an interesting tool for sample collections.

  12. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  13. Development and validation of a weather-based warning system to advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot on turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Kerns, J. P.; Walker, N. R.; Payne, A. F.; Horvath, B.; Inguagiato, J. C.; Kaminski, J. E.; Tomaso-Peterson, M.

    2018-01-01

    Dollar spot is one of the most common diseases of golf course turfgrass and numerous fungicide applications are often required to provide adequate control. Weather-based disease warning systems have been developed to more accurately time fungicide applications; however, they tend to be ineffective and are not currently in widespread use. The primary objective of this research was to develop a new weather-based disease warning system to more accurately advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot activity across a broad geographic and climactic range. The new dollar spot warning system was developed from data collected at field sites in Madison, WI and Stillwater, OK in 2008 and warning system validation sites were established in Madison, WI, Stillwater, OK, Knoxville, TN, State College, PA, Starkville, MS, and Storrs, CT between 2011 and 2016. A meta-analysis of all site-years was conducted and the most effective warning system for dollar spot development consisted of a five-day moving average of relative humidity and average daily temperature. Using this model the highest effective probability that provided dollar spot control similar to that of a calendar-based program across the numerous sites and years was 20%. Additional analysis found that the 20% spray threshold provided comparable control to the calendar-based program while reducing fungicide usage by up to 30%, though further refinement may be needed as practitioners implement this warning system in a range of environments not tested here. The weather-based dollar spot warning system presented here will likely become an important tool for implementing precision disease management strategies for future turfgrass managers, especially as financial and regulatory pressures increase the need to reduce pesticide usage on golf course turfgrass. PMID:29522560

  14. Development and validation of a weather-based warning system to advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot on turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D L; Kerns, J P; Walker, N R; Payne, A F; Horvath, B; Inguagiato, J C; Kaminski, J E; Tomaso-Peterson, M; Koch, P L

    2018-01-01

    Dollar spot is one of the most common diseases of golf course turfgrass and numerous fungicide applications are often required to provide adequate control. Weather-based disease warning systems have been developed to more accurately time fungicide applications; however, they tend to be ineffective and are not currently in widespread use. The primary objective of this research was to develop a new weather-based disease warning system to more accurately advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot activity across a broad geographic and climactic range. The new dollar spot warning system was developed from data collected at field sites in Madison, WI and Stillwater, OK in 2008 and warning system validation sites were established in Madison, WI, Stillwater, OK, Knoxville, TN, State College, PA, Starkville, MS, and Storrs, CT between 2011 and 2016. A meta-analysis of all site-years was conducted and the most effective warning system for dollar spot development consisted of a five-day moving average of relative humidity and average daily temperature. Using this model the highest effective probability that provided dollar spot control similar to that of a calendar-based program across the numerous sites and years was 20%. Additional analysis found that the 20% spray threshold provided comparable control to the calendar-based program while reducing fungicide usage by up to 30%, though further refinement may be needed as practitioners implement this warning system in a range of environments not tested here. The weather-based dollar spot warning system presented here will likely become an important tool for implementing precision disease management strategies for future turfgrass managers, especially as financial and regulatory pressures increase the need to reduce pesticide usage on golf course turfgrass.

  15. Hot spot exercise: 1975 (HSX-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trolan, R.T.; Wilson, R.L.; Jessen, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A special unannounced exercise, called HOT SPOT Exercise--1975 (HSX-75), was prepared to test the general capability of the LLL ALERT Program to activate and deploy the LLL and Sandia Laboratory, Livermore (SLL) component of the ERDA/ARG. The exercise activities were limited to the LLL facilities in Livermore and the Site 300 explosive test facility located approximately 15 miles southeast of Livermore. The exercise simulated an accident at a U.S. Army storage facility (Site 300). The simulated accident involved two LLL designed weapons (W-70). One weapon was dropped during unloading operations and ignited the gas tank of the weapon transporter. The subsequent fire caused a low-order detonation of the high explosive component. The fire caused dispersal of fissile material downwind from the site. A second weapon was damaged in the explosion by fragments from the first weapon. The extent of damage to the second weapon was initially unknown. The exercise was conducted on September 23, 1975. A complete description of the specific nature of the simulated accident is contained in the scenario. Umpires were assigned to evaluate and subsequently report on the effectiveness of the response. All test objectives were accomplished. The following appendices are included: operational safety procedures, photographs and site map, HOT SPOT equipment, atmospheric release advisory capability, personnel list, chronology of events, and critique comments

  16. Propulsion Test Support Analysis with GPU Computing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design, development and staging of tests to certify liquid rocket engines usually require high-fidelity structural, fluid and thermal support analysis. These...

  17. Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Glahn, C. (2008). Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing. Presented at Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagogical, organisational and technological issues. 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. April, 10, 2008, Madrid, Spain.

  18. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : content analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-17

    This report presents the content analysis test plan for the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The Minnesota UPA projects focus on reducing congestion by employing ...

  19. Advances in the analysis of pressure interference tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez R, N. [Petroleos Mexicanos, PEMEX, Mexico City (Mexico); Samaniego V, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presented an extension for radial, linear, and spherical flow conditions of the El-Khatib method for analyzing pressure interference tests through utilization of the pressure derivative. Conventional analysis of interference tests considers only radial flow, but some reservoirs have physical field conditions in which linear or spherical flow conditions prevail. The INTERFERAN system, a friendly computer code for the automatic analysis of pressure interference tests, was also discussed and demonstrated by way of 2 field cases. INTERFERAN relies on the principle of superposition in time and space to interpret a test of several wells with variable histories of production or injection or both. The first field case addressed interference tests conducted in the naturally fractured geothermal field of Klamath Falls, and the second field case was conducted in a river-formed bed in which linear flow conditions are dominant. The analysis was deemed to be reliable. 13 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  20. Star spotting at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    This June, two American celebrities (and physics enthusiasts!) came to CERN. Brian Cox gave Mike Einziger (right), lead guitarist with the rock band Incubus, the star treatment in the ATLAS cavern. Jesse Dylan embraces the spirit of ATLAS! Mike Einziger, lead guitarist with the rock band Incubus, visited CERN on Friday 13 June between concerts in Finland and England. Einziger, a lifelong science enthusiast descended into the ATLAS and CMS caverns and visited the SM18 test magnet facility during his brief tour of CERN. Einziger learned about the LHC through watching online lectures from University of Manchester and ATLAS physicist Brian Cox, and was thrilled to have the chance to see the detectors in person. The musician has created an orchestral piece, inspired in part by the work being done at CERN for the LHC, which will have its debut in Los Angeles on 23 August. Just over a week earlier, Jesse Dylan, Hollywood film director a...

  1. Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloy to Steel with Transition Material - From Process to Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Shao, H; Kimchi, Menachem; Menachem Kimchi and Wanda Newman

    2004-05-11

    This paper summarizes work to date on resistance spot welding (RSW) of aluminum alloy to mild steel from process development to performance evaluation. A cold-rolled strip material is introduced as a transition material to aid the resistance welding process. The optimal welding parameters and electrode selections were established using a combination of experimental and analytical approaches. The mechanical behaviors of welded samples was evaluated using static and dynamic strength tests and cyclic fatigue tests. A statistical analysis was also performed to analyze the effect of different failure modes on the sample's peak load and energy absorption.

  2. Assessment of Nugget Size of Spot Weld using Neutron Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance spot welding (RSW has been widely used for many years in the fabrication of car body structures, mainly due to the cost and time considerations. The weld quality as well as the nugget size is an issue in various manufacturing and processes due to the strong link between the weld quality and safety. It has led to the development of various destructive and non-destructive tests for spot welding such as peel testing, ultrasonic inspections, digital shearography, and infrared thermography. However, such methods cannot show spot weld nugget visually and the results are very operator’s skill dependent. The present work proposes a method to visualize the nugget size of spot welds using neutron radiography. Water, oil and various concentrations of gadolinium oxide-alcohol mixture were evaluated as a contrast media to obtain the best quality of radiography. Results show that mixture of 5 g gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3 in 25 ml alcohol produces the best contrast. It provides the possibility to visualize the shape and size of the nugget spot weld. Furthermore, it can discriminate between nugget and corona bond. The result of neutron radiography evaluation shows reasonable agreement with that of destructive test.

  3. Nonlinear Analysis and Preliminary Testing Results of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2015-01-01

    A large test article was recently designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested up to the representative design ultimate loads to demonstrate that stiffened composite panels with through-the-thickness reinforcement are a viable option for the next generation large transport category aircraft, including non-conventional configurations such as the hybrid wing body. This paper focuses on finite element analysis and test data correlation of the hybrid wing body center section test article under mechanical, pressure and combined load conditions. Good agreement between predictive nonlinear finite element analysis and test data is found. Results indicate that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately capture the behavior of the non-circular pressurized and highly-stressed structure when the design approach permits local buckling.

  4. Seismic analysis and testing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed in this guide: General Recommendations for seismic classification, loading combinations and allowable limits; seismic analysis methods; implications for seismic design; seismic testing and qualification; seismic instrumentation; modelling techniques; material property characterization; seismic response of soil deposits and earth structures; liquefaction and ground failure; slope stability; sloshing effects in water pools; qualification testing by means of the transport vehicle

  5. Application of software technology to automatic test data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The verification process for a major software subsystem was partially automated as part of a feasibility demonstration. The methods employed are generally useful and applicable to other types of subsystems. The effort resulted in substantial savings in test engineer analysis time and offers a method for inclusion of automatic verification as a part of regression testing.

  6. Thermal stresses in the space shuttle orbiter: Analysis versus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, H.R.; Gibson, W.F. Jr.; Benson, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Significant temperature differences occur between the internal structure and the outer skin of the Space Shuttle Orbiter as it returns from space. These temperature differences cause important thermal stresses. A finite element model containing thousands of degrees of freedom is used to predict these stresses. A ground test was performed to verify the prediction method. The analysis and test results compare favorably. (orig.)

  7. Interpretation and inverse analysis of the wedge splitting test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    to the wedge splitting test and that it is well suited for the interpretation of test results in terms of s(w). A fine agreement between the hinge and FEM-models has been found. It has also been found that the test and the hinge model form a solid basis for inverse analysis. The paper also discusses possible...... three dimensional problems in the experiment as well as the influence of specimen size....

  8. Test-retest reliability of trunk accelerometric gait analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Moe-Nilssen, R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a trunk accelerometric gait analysis in healthy subjects. Accelerations were measured during walking using a triaxial accelerometer mounted on the lumbar spine of the subjects. Six men and 14 women (mean age 35.2; range 18...... a definite potential in clinical gait analysis....

  9. Analysis of off-axis tension test of wood specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a stress analysis of the off-axis tension test of clear wood specimens based on orthotropic elasticity theory. The effects of Poisson's ratio and shear coupling coefficient on stress distribution are analyzed in detail. The analysis also provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of a 10° grain angle in wood specimens for the...

  10. Mirror Fusion Test Facility: Superconducting magnet system cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    At the request of Victor Karpenko, Project manager for LLL`s Mirror Fusion Test Facility, EG&G has prepared this independent cost analysis for the proposed MFTF Superconducting Magnet System. The analysis has attempted to show sufficient detail to provide adequate definition for a basis of estimating costs.

  11. Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads and 17 months (19 heads; Romanian Spotted x Holstein first generation crossbreed of aged 12 months (29 heads and 17 months (20 heads. The Romanian Spotted breed steer, show superiority in terms of carcass weight compared to crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein, therefore this breed has a better suitability for fattening for meat. Regarding dressing percentage is higher in crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein compared with Romanian Spotted breed steers, but the difference is insignificant.

  12. FARO base case post-test analysis by COMETA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziato, A.; Addabbo, C. [Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The paper analyzes the COMETA (Core Melt Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis) post test calculations of FARO Test L-11, the so-called Base Case Test. The FARO Facility, located at JRC Ispra, is used to simulate the consequences of Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants under a variety of conditions. The COMETA Code has a 6 equations two phase flow field and a 3 phases corium field: the jet, the droplets and the fused-debris bed. The analysis shown that the code is able to pick-up all the major phenomena occurring during the fuel-coolant interaction pre-mixing phase.

  13. SU-F-T-169: A Periodic Quality Assurance Program for a Spot-Scanning Proton Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundy, D; Tryggestad, E; Beltran, C; Furutani, K; Gilson, G; Ito, S; Johnson, J; Kruse, J; Remmes, N; Tasson, A; Whitaker, T; Herman, M [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop daily and monthly quality assurance (QA) programs in support of a new spot-scanning proton treatment facility using a combination of commercial and custom equipment and software. Emphasis was placed on efficiency and evaluation of key quality parameters. Methods: The daily QA program was developed to test output, spot size and position, proton beam energy, and image guidance using the Sun Nuclear Corporation rf-DQA™3 device and Atlas QA software. The program utilizes standard Atlas linear accelerator tests repurposed for proton measurements and a custom jig for indexing the device to the treatment couch. The monthly QA program was designed to test mechanical performance, image quality, radiation quality, isocenter coincidence, and safety features. Many of these tests are similar to linear accelerator QA counterparts, but many require customized test design and equipment. Coincidence of imaging, laser marker, mechanical, and radiation isocenters, for instance, is verified using a custom film-based device devised and manufactured at our facility. Proton spot size and position as a function of energy are verified using a custom spot pattern incident on film and analysis software developed in-house. More details concerning the equipment and software developed for monthly QA are included in the supporting document. Thresholds for daily and monthly tests were established via perturbation analysis, early experience, and/or proton system specifications and associated acceptance test results. Results: The periodic QA program described here has been in effect for approximately 9 months and has proven efficient and sensitive to sub-clinical variations in treatment delivery characteristics. Conclusion: Tools and professional guidelines for periodic proton system QA are not as well developed as their photon and electron counterparts. The program described here efficiently evaluates key quality parameters and, while specific to the needs of our facility

  14. SU-F-T-169: A Periodic Quality Assurance Program for a Spot-Scanning Proton Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundy, D; Tryggestad, E; Beltran, C; Furutani, K; Gilson, G; Ito, S; Johnson, J; Kruse, J; Remmes, N; Tasson, A; Whitaker, T; Herman, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop daily and monthly quality assurance (QA) programs in support of a new spot-scanning proton treatment facility using a combination of commercial and custom equipment and software. Emphasis was placed on efficiency and evaluation of key quality parameters. Methods: The daily QA program was developed to test output, spot size and position, proton beam energy, and image guidance using the Sun Nuclear Corporation rf-DQA™3 device and Atlas QA software. The program utilizes standard Atlas linear accelerator tests repurposed for proton measurements and a custom jig for indexing the device to the treatment couch. The monthly QA program was designed to test mechanical performance, image quality, radiation quality, isocenter coincidence, and safety features. Many of these tests are similar to linear accelerator QA counterparts, but many require customized test design and equipment. Coincidence of imaging, laser marker, mechanical, and radiation isocenters, for instance, is verified using a custom film-based device devised and manufactured at our facility. Proton spot size and position as a function of energy are verified using a custom spot pattern incident on film and analysis software developed in-house. More details concerning the equipment and software developed for monthly QA are included in the supporting document. Thresholds for daily and monthly tests were established via perturbation analysis, early experience, and/or proton system specifications and associated acceptance test results. Results: The periodic QA program described here has been in effect for approximately 9 months and has proven efficient and sensitive to sub-clinical variations in treatment delivery characteristics. Conclusion: Tools and professional guidelines for periodic proton system QA are not as well developed as their photon and electron counterparts. The program described here efficiently evaluates key quality parameters and, while specific to the needs of our facility

  15. Twin-spot laser welding of advanced high-strength multiphase microstructure steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajcar, Adam; Morawiec, Mateusz; Różański, Maciej; Stano, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    The study addresses the results concerning the laser welding of TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity) steel using a beam focused at two spots (also referred to as twin-spot laser welding). The analysis involved the effect of variable welding thermal cycles on the properties and microstructure of welded joints. The tests were performed using a linear energy of 0.048 and 0.060 kJ/mm and the laser beam power distribution of 50%:50%, 60%:40% and 70%:30%. The tests also involved welding performed using a linear energy of 0.150 kJ/mm and the laser beam power distribution of 70%:30%. In addition, the research included observations of the microstructure of the fusion zone, heat affected zone and the transition zone using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The fusion zone was composed of blocky-lath martensite whereas the HAZ (heat-affected zone) was characterised by the lath microstructure containing martensite, bainite and retained austenite. The distribution of twin-spot laser beam power significantly affected the microstructure and hardness profiles of welded joints. The highest hardness (480-505 HV), regardless of welding variants used, was observed in the HAZ.

  16. Microhardness and Penetration of Artificial White Spot Lesions Treated with Resin or Colloidal Silica Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandava, Jyothi; Reddy, Y Shilpa; Kantheti, Sirisha; Chalasani, Uma; Ravi, Ravi Chandra; Borugadda, Roopesh; Konagala, Ravi Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Infiltration of early enamel lesions by materials having remineralizing capacity seems to improve aesthetics and arrests caries progression. To evaluate and compare the surface microhardness and penetration depth of a low viscosity resin and colloidal silica nanoparticle infiltrates into artificially created white spot lesions. Forty extracted human central incisors were embedded in acrylic resin blocks exposing the labial surfaces of the crowns. The specimens were immersed in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to create white spot lesions on labial surfaces. The samples were then divided into two groups (n=20 each), where in Group 1-resin infiltration (ICON DMG, Hamburg, Germany) and Group 2-colloidal silica infiltration (Arrow Fine chemicals, Rajkot, Gujarat, India) was done. Samples were subjected to vicker's microhardness testing at baseline, after demineralization and after treatment with resin or colloidal silica infiltrates. Then, the crowns were sectioned longitudinally and penetration depth of the infiltrants was measured using confocal laser scanning microscope and compared the readings to lesion depth. All the collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using t-test. Resin infiltration group showed significantly greater increase in microhardness compared to colloidal silica infiltration (p=0.001). The percentage of penetration of the resin group was 67.14% and that of colloidal silica group was 54.53% indicating significant difference between the two. Resin infiltrates performed better in regaining the baseline microhardness and penetrating deep into the porous white spot lesions, when compared to colloidal silica infiltrates.

  17. Commercial test kits for detection of Lyme borreliosis: a meta-analysis of test accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook MJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Cook,1 Basant K Puri2 1Independent researcher, Dorset, UK; 2Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: The clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis can be supported by various test methodologies; test kits are available from many manufacturers. Literature searches were carried out to identify studies that reported characteristics of the test kits. Of 50 searched studies, 18 were included where the tests were commercially available and samples were proven to be positive using serology testing, evidence of an erythema migrans rash, and/or culture. Additional requirements were a test specificity of ≥85% and publication in the last 20 years. The weighted mean sensitivity for all tests and for all samples was 59.5%. Individual study means varied from 30.6% to 86.2%. Sensitivity for each test technology varied from 62.4% for Western blot kits, and 62.3% for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests, to 53.9% for synthetic C6 peptide ELISA tests and 53.7% when the two-tier methodology was used. Test sensitivity increased as dissemination of the pathogen affected different organs; however, the absence of data on the time from infection to serological testing and the lack of standard definitions for “early” and “late” disease prevented analysis of test sensitivity versus time of infection. The lack of standardization of the definitions of disease stage and the possibility of retrospective selection bias prevented clear evaluation of test sensitivity by “stage”. The sensitivity for samples classified as acute disease was 35.4%, with a corresponding sensitivity of 64.5% for samples from patients defined as convalescent. Regression analysis demonstrated an improvement of 4% in test sensitivity over the 20-year study period. The studies did not provide data to indicate the sensitivity of tests used in a clinical setting since the effect of recent use of antibiotics or steroids or other

  18. Integrated nonlinear regression analysis of tracer and well test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, Serhat [Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-08-01

    One frequent observation from conventional pressure transient test analysis is that field data match mathematical models derived for homogeneous systems. This observation suggests that pressure data as presently interpreted may not contain details concerning certain reservoir heterogeneities. On the other hand, tracer tests may be more sensitive to heterogeneous elements present in the reservoir because of the convective nature of the flow test. In this study, a possible improvement of conventional pressure transient and tracer test analysis by integrating them using the nonlinear least square (LS) regression method is investigated. To achieve this goal, a correlation between permeability and dispersivity is used to couple the response of both tests. A multi-fracture tracer test model was coupled with double porosity pressure models using a commercial spreadsheet. The proposed method is tested using experimental well test and tracer test data obtained from a fractured geothermal reservoir model where fracture apertures and distributions were known. It has been observed that changing injection-production well depths resulted in different analyses primarily due to changing flow paths. The combination of multi-fracture tracer test model with dual-porosity pressure transient model described the physics of the experiments better than the others did. It has been also observed that the obtained solutions are highly constrained.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of detection and quantification of HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA using dried blood spot (DBS) samples - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Berit; Roberts, Teri; Cohn, Jennifer; Greenman, Jamie; Camp, Johannes; Ishizaki, Azumi; Messac, Luke; Tuaillon, Edouard; van de Perre, Philippe; Pichler, Christine; Denkinger, Claudia M; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2017-11-01

    The detection and quantification of hepatitis B (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C (HCV) RNA in whole blood collected on dried blood spots (DBS) may facilitate access to diagnosis and treatment of HBV and HCV infection in resource-poor settings. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of DBS compared to venous blood samples for detection and quantification of HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA in two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HBV DNA and HCV RNA from DBS compared to venous blood samples. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, Web of Science, LILAC and Cochrane library for studies that assessed diagnostic accuracy with DBS. Heterogeneity was assessed and where appropriate pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were generated using bivariate analyses with maximum likelihood estimates and 95% confidence intervals. We also conducted a narrative review on the impact of varying storage conditions or different cut-offs for detection from studies that undertook this in a subset of samples. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess risk of bias. In the quantitative synthesis for diagnostic accuracy of HBV-DNA using DBS, 521 citations were identified, and 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall quality of studies was rated as low. The pooled estimate of sensitivity and specificity for HBV-DNA was 95% (95% CI: 83-99) and 99% (95% CI: 53-100), respectively. In the two studies that reported on cut-offs and limit of detection (LoD) - one reported a sensitivity of 98% for a cut-off of ≥2000 IU/ml and another reported a LoD of 914 IU/ml using a commercial assay. Varying storage conditions for individual samples did not result in a significant variation of results. In the synthesis for diagnostic accuracy of HCV-RNA using DBS, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, and this included six additional studies to a previously published review. The pooled sensitivity and specificity was 98% (95% CI:95-99) and 98% (95% CI:95-99.0), respectively

  20. Dominant white spotting in the Chinese hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, C; Henwood, J; Robinson, R

    1987-01-01

    An autosomal dominant white spotting mutant is described for the Chinese hamster. The mutant gene is designated as dominant spot (symbol Ds). The homozygote DsDs is a prenatal lethal while the heterozygote Ds + displays white spotting. The expression of white is variable, ranging from a white forehead spot to extensive white on the body. The venter is invariably white. Growth appears to be normal and the fertility of both sizes shows no impairment.

  1. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  2. Applications of Automation Methods for Nonlinear Fracture Test Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    As fracture mechanics material testing evolves, the governing test standards continue to be refined to better reflect the latest understanding of the physics of the fracture processes involved. The traditional format of ASTM fracture testing standards, utilizing equations expressed directly in the text of the standard to assess the experimental result, is self-limiting in the complexity that can be reasonably captured. The use of automated analysis techniques to draw upon a rich, detailed solution database for assessing fracture mechanics tests provides a foundation for a new approach to testing standards that enables routine users to obtain highly reliable assessments of tests involving complex, non-linear fracture behavior. Herein, the case for automating the analysis of tests of surface cracks in tension in the elastic-plastic regime is utilized as an example of how such a database can be generated and implemented for use in the ASTM standards framework. The presented approach forms a bridge between the equation-based fracture testing standards of today and the next generation of standards solving complex problems through analysis automation.

  3. Supercritical water oxidation benchscale testing metallurgical analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norby, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes metallurgical evaluation of witness wires from a series of tests using supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to process cutting oil containing a simulated radionuclide. The goal of the tests was to evaluate the technology's ability to process a highly chlorinated waste representative of many mixed waste streams generated in the DOE complex. The testing was conducted with a bench-scale SCWO system developed by the Modell Development Corporation. Significant test objectives included process optimization for adequate destruction efficiency, tracking the radionuclide simulant and certain metals in the effluent streams, and assessment of reactor material degradation resulting from processing a highly chlorinated waste. The metallurgical evaluation described herein includes results of metallographic analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis of witness wires exposed to the SCWO environment for one test series

  4. First Report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus in Hoya carnosa in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikyeong Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, less than 30% of virus-like symptoms such as chlorosis, necrosis and ringspots were observed in Hoya carnosa from commercial greenhouse in Eumseong, Korea. A total of 6 samples from Hoya carnosa were collected both symptomatic and asymptomatic plants and tested for virus infection by RT-PCR of 3 viruses known to infect Hoya spp. including Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV. Three symptomatic samples were positives for INSV. Also, it was not the virus detected in three asymptomatic samples. To further confirm the presence of INSV, complete nucleocapsid (N gene of the virus were amplified and sequenced from two samples. BLAST analysis of the consensus sequence showed that two isolates (INSV-Hy1 and -Hy2 shared nucleotide sequence identities of 99% with each other and 97-99% with other INSV isolates available in the GenbBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates closely related to the INSV isolates from ornamental from China. This is the first report of INSV on Hoya carnosa from Korea.

  5. Modeling hourly Electricity Spot Market Prices as non stationary functional times series

    OpenAIRE

    Liebl, Dominik

    2010-01-01

    The instantaneous nature of electricity distinguishes its spot prices from spot prices for equities and other commodities. Up to now electricity cannot be stored economically and therefore demand for electricity has an untempered effect on electricity prices. In particular, hourly electricity spot prices show a vast range of dynamics which can change rapidly. In this paper we introduce a robust version of functional principal component analysis for sparse data. The functional perspective inte...

  6. Energy reduction for the spot welding process in the automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, J D; Athi, N; Al-Jader, M A; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2007-01-01

    When performing spot welding on galvanised metals, higher welding force and current are required than on uncoated steels. This has implications for the energy usage when creating each spot weld, of which there are approximately 4300 in each passenger car. The paper presented is an overview of electrode current selection and its variance over the lifetime of the electrode tip. This also describes the proposed analysis system for the selection of welding parameters for the spot welding process, as the electrode tip wears

  7. Interaction of alleles of the relA, relC and spoT genes in Escherichia coli: analysis of the interconversion of GTP, ppGpp and pppGpp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, N P; Willumsen, B M; Friesen, J D

    1977-01-01

    Mutants in the spo T gene have been isolated as stringent second site revertants of the relC mutation. These show varying degrees of the characteristics associated with the spoT1 gene, viz relative amount and absolute levels of both pppGpp and ppGpp and the decay rate of the latter. The entry of 3H......-guanosine into GTP and ppGpr pools in spoT+ and spoT1 cells either growing exponentially or during amino acid starvation was determined, and the rate of ppGpp synthesis and its decay constant calculated. During exponential growth the ppGpp pool is 2-fold higher, its decay constant 10-fold lower, and its synthesis...... rate 5-fold lower in spoT- than in spoT+ cells; during amino acid starvation the ppGpp pool is 2-fold higher, its decay constant 20-fold lower, and its synthesis rate 10-fold lower in spoT than in spoT+ cells. In one of the "intermediate" spoT mutants the rate of entry of 3H-guanosine into GTP, pp...

  8. Effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation on joining of AA 5052 aluminium alloy to polypropylene using friction stir spot welding

    OpenAIRE

    Aliasghari, S.; Ghorbani, M.; Skeldon, P.; Karami, H.; Movahedi, M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) pre-treatment on joining of AA 5052 aluminium alloy and polypropylene by friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is investigated using lap tensile shear tests. Two surface conditions of the AA 5052 alloy are compared, one with a PEO pre-treatment in a silicate-based electrolyte, another without any pre-treatment. The resultant specimens are examined by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and attenuated total re...

  9. A new index for electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falbo, Paolo; Fattore, Marco; Stefani, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Different indexes are used in electricity markets worldwide to represent the daily behavior of spot prices. However, the peculiarities of these markets require a careful choice of the index, based on mathematical formulation and its statistical properties. Choosing a bad index may influence the financial policies of market players, since derivative pricing and hedging performance can be deeply affected. In this paper with an initial theoretical analysis, we intend to show that the most widely used indexes (simple arithmetic average and weighted average with current volumes) are poor representatives of the spot market. We will then perform an analysis of the hedging strategy on a derivative instrument (an Asian option) written on a reference index. The resulting simulations, applied to OMEL (Spain) and EEX (Germany), are sufficiently clear cut to suggest that the decision to adopt an index to represent properly a market must be taken very carefully. Finally we will propose a new index (FAST index) and, after comparing it with the previous indexes, will show that both theoretically and practically this index can be taken as a good electricity market synthetic indicator. (author)

  10. Validation test case generation based on safety analysis ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chin-Feng; Wang, Wen-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Current practice in validation test case generation for nuclear system is mainly ad hoc. ► This study designs a systematic approach to generate validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report. ► It is based on a domain-specific ontology. ► Test coverage criteria have been defined and satisfied. ► A computerized toolset has been implemented to assist the proposed approach. - Abstract: Validation tests in the current nuclear industry practice are typically performed in an ad hoc fashion. This study presents a systematic and objective method of generating validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). A domain-specific ontology was designed and used to mark up a SAR; relevant information was then extracted from the marked-up document for use in automatically generating validation test cases that satisfy the proposed test coverage criteria; namely, single parameter coverage, use case coverage, abnormal condition coverage, and scenario coverage. The novelty of this technique is its systematic rather than ad hoc test case generation from a SAR to achieve high test coverage.

  11. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  12. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ster, Daniel C van der; García, Mario Úbeda; Paladin, Massimo; Elmsheuser, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HammerCloud was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HammerCloud has been employed by the ATLAS experiment for continuous testing of many sites worldwide, and also during large scale computing challenges such as STEP'09 and UAT'09, where the scale of the tests exceeded 10,000 concurrently running and 1,000,000 total jobs over multi-day periods. In addition, HammerCloud is being adopted by the CMS experiment; the plugin structure of HammerCloud allows the execution of CMS jobs using their official tool (CRAB).

  13. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Post-test creep analysis of piping failure tests in wind project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, E.; Maruyama, Y.; Yuchi, Y.; Shibazaki, H.; Nakamura, H.; Hidaka, A.; Kudo, T.; Hashimoto, K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal and structural responses of the reactor coolant piping under elevated temperature and pressure conditions are being investigated in piping failure tests in WIND (Wide Range Piping Integrity Demonstration) project at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute). The elasto-plastic creep analysis was performed with ABAQUS code for the test using a nuclear grade type 316 stainless steel pipe, which had an outer diameter of 114.3 mm and a wall thickness of 13.5 mm. The major material properties at elevated temperature needed for the analysis were measured for specimen sectioned from the test pipe. Based on the measured creep data, a creep constitutive equation including the tertiary stage was developed and incorporated into ABAQUS code. We compared the results of the three-dimensional analysis with those of two-dimensional analysis and the piping failure test. The comparison showed that the piping failure timing and deformation of pipe obtained from the three dimensional analysis underestimated the test results, and that temperature history at the elevated temperature should be adequately considered. (author)

  15. Plasma Vehicle Charging Analysis for Orion Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, B.; Norgard, J.

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the upcoming experimental test flight for the Orion crew module, considerable interest was raised over the possibility of exposure to elevated levels of plasma activity and vehicle charging both externally on surfaces and internally on dielectrics during the flight test orbital operations. Initial analysis using NASCAP-2K indicated very high levels of exposure, and this generated additional interest in refining/defining the plasma and spacecraft models used in the analysis. This refinement was pursued, resulting in the use of specific AE8 and AP8 models, rather than SCATHA models, as well as consideration of flight trajectory, time duration, and other parameters possibly affecting the levels of exposure and the magnitude of charge deposition. Analysis using these refined models strongly indicated that, for flight test operations, no special surface coatings were necessary for the Thermal Protection System (TPS), but would definitely be required for future GEO, trans-lunar, and extra-lunar missions.

  16. MITG post-test analysis and design improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design, performance analysis, and key attributes of the Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG) were described in a 1981 IECEC paper; and the design, fabrication, and testing of prototypical MITG test assemblies were described in preceding papers in these proceedings. Each test assembly simulated a typical modular slice of the flight generator. The present paper describes a detailed thermal-stress analysis, which identified the causes of stress-related problems observed during the tests. It then describes how additional analyses were used to evaluate design changes to alleviate those problems. Additional design improvements are discussed in the next paper in these proceedings, which also describes revised fabrication procedures and updated performance estimates for the generator

  17. A shift from significance test to hypothesis test through power analysis in medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Girish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical research literature until recently, exhibited substantial dominance of the Fisher′s significance test approach of statistical inference concentrating more on probability of type I error over Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test considering both probability of type I and II error. Fisher′s approach dichotomises results into significant or not significant results with a P value. The Neyman-Pearson′s approach talks of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Based on the same theory these two approaches deal with same objective and conclude in their own way. The advancement in computing techniques and availability of statistical software have resulted in increasing application of power calculations in medical research and thereby reporting the result of significance tests in the light of power of the test also. Significance test approach, when it incorporates power analysis contains the essence of hypothesis test approach. It may be safely argued that rising application of power analysis in medical research may have initiated a shift from Fisher′s significance test to Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test procedure.

  18. Inelastic analysis of Battelle-Columbus piping elbow creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhalla, A.K.; Newman, S.Z.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical results are presented for room temperature and 593 deg. C creep bending deformation of a piping elbow structure tested at the Battelle-Columbus Laboratory. This analysis was performed in support of the International Piping Benchmark Problem Program being coordinated by ORNL. Results are presented for both simplified and refined structural models, and compared with test measurements reported by the Battelle-Columbus Laboratory. (author)

  19. Analysis of Earthquake Catalogs for CSEP Testing Region Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresan, A.; Romashkova, L.; Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V.; Panza, G.F.

    2010-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis shows that the set of catalogs provided by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV, Italy) as the authoritative database for the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability - Testing Region Italy (CSEP-TRI), is hardly a unified one acceptable for the necessary tuning of models/algorithms, as well as for running rigorous prospective predictability tests at intermediate- or long-term scale. (author)

  20. Brake System Analysis, Reliability Testing And Control Using Bench Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Z.; Yang, B.

    1997-01-01

    In this project, the authors investigated the dynamics and reliability of a brake control system using a test bench which is a Lincoln Town Car brake system. The objectives of the project are to: 1) experimentally characterize the brake system; 2) obtain good nonlinear models of the brake system; 3) perform reliability analysis of the brake control system; and, 4) develop algorithms for brake malfunction detection and brake reliability enhancement. By using the brake test bench, the dynamic c...

  1. SIMS prototype system 1 test results: Engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The space and domestic water solar heating system designated SIMS Prototype Systems 1 was evaluated. The test system used 720 ft (gross) of Solar Energy Products Air Collectors, a Solar Control Corporation SAM 20 Air Handler with Model 75-175 control unit, a Jackson Solar Storage tank with Rho Sigma Mod 106 controller, and 20 tons of rack storage. The test data analysis performed evaluates the system performance and documents the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 1 hardware for field installation.

  2. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  3. Automated analysis of pumping tests; Analise automatizada de testes de bombeamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, Luiz Alberto Nozaki

    1996-01-01

    An automated procedure for analysis of pumping test data performed in groundwater wells is described. A computer software was developed to be used under the Windows operational system. The software allows the choice of 3 mathematical models for representing the aquifer behavior, which are: Confined aquifer (Theis model); Leaky aquifer (Hantush model); unconfined aquifer (Boulton model). The analysis of pumping test data using the proper aquifer model, allows for the determination of the model parameters such as transmissivity, storage coefficient, leakage coefficient and delay index. The computer program can be used for the analysis of data obtained from both pumping tests, with one or more pumping rates, and recovery tests. In the multiple rate case, a de superposition procedure has been implemented in order to obtain the equivalent aquifer response for the first flow rate, which is used in obtaining an initial estimate of the model parameters. Such initial estimate is required in the non-linear regression analysis method. The solutions to the partial differential equations describing the aquifer behavior were obtained in Laplace space, followed by numerical inversion of the transformed solution using the Stehfest algorithm. The data analysis procedure is based on a non-linear regression method by matching the field data to the theoretical response of a selected aquifer model, for a given type of test. A least squared regression analysis method was implemented using either Gauss-Newton or Levenberg-Marquardt procedures for minimization of a objective function. The computer software can also be applied to multiple rate test data in order to determine the non-linear well coefficient, allowing for the computation of the well inflow performance curve. (author)

  4. A study of fatigue life prediction for automotive spot weldment using local strain approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Song In; Yu, Hyo Sun; Na, Sung Hun; Na, Eui Gyun

    2000-01-01

    The fatigue crack initiation life is studied on automotive spot weldment made from cold rolled carbon steel(SPC) sheet by using DCPDM and local strain approach. It can be found that the fatigue crack initiation behavior in spot weldment can be definitely detected by DCPDM system. The local stresses and strains are estimated by elastic-plastic FEM analysis and the alternative approximate method based on Neuber's rule were applied to predict the fatigue life of spot weldment. A satisfactory correlation between the predicted life and experimental life can be found in spot weldment within a factor of 4

  5. Space-time modeling of electricity spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Girum Dagnachew; Haldrup, Niels

    In this paper we derive a space-time model for electricity spot prices. A general spatial Durbin model that incorporates the temporal as well as spatial lags of spot prices is presented. Joint modeling of space-time effects is necessarily important when prices and loads are determined in a network...... of power exchange areas. We use data from the Nord Pool electricity power exchange area bidding markets. Different spatial weight matrices are considered to capture the structure of the spatial dependence process across different bidding markets and statistical tests show significant spatial dependence...

  6. Biocontrol of bacterial spot diseases of muskmelon using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biocontrol activity of PpG14 was examined by pot and field tests. Results show that the strain significantly reduced the development and suppressed the incidence of bacterial spot diseases. Moreover, the prevention treatment was better than the therapy treatment when using this strain. Based on its main bacteriological ...

  7. Chemical control of Cercospora leaf spot disease of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Three fungicides, benlate (methy'I -1- (butylcarbamoyl) - 2 - benzimidazole carbamate), dithane M -45 (zinc and magnesium ethylene bisdithiocarbamate) and difolatan (5 Cis - N - 1, l ,2,2 - tetrachloroethy 1) thio - .4 - cyclohexane - 1, 2 – di-carboximide) were tested in the field for Cercospora leaf spot control.

  8. Tomato chlorotic spot virus Identified in Marsdenia floribunda in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornamental crops including hoya, annual vinca and portulaca have recently been identified with Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) infections in Florida. Observations of Marsdenia floribunda, commonly known as Madagascar jasmine, in September 2016 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these sympt...

  9. A well test analysis method accounting for pre-test operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, D.B.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2003-01-01

    We propose to use regular monitoring data from a production or injection well for estimating the formation hydraulic properties in the vicinity of the wellbore without interrupting the operations. In our approach, we select a portion of the pumping data over a certain time interval and then derive our conclusions from analysis of these data. A distinctive feature of the proposed approach differing it form conventional methods is in the introduction of an additional parameter, an effective pre-test pumping rate. The additional parameter is derived based on a rigorous asymptotic analysis of the flow model. Thus, we account for the non-uniform pressure distribution at the beginning of testing time interval caused by pre-test operations at the well. By synthetic and field examples, we demonstrate that deviation of the matching curve from the data that is usually attributed to skin and wellbore storage effects, can also be interpreted through this new parameter. Moreover, with our method, the data curve is matched equally well and the results of the analysis remain stable when the analyzed data interval is perturbed, whereas traditional methods are sensitive to the choice of the data interval. A special efficient minimization procedure has been developed for searching the best fitting parameters. We enhanced our analysis above with a procedure of estimating ambient reservoir pressure and dimensionless wellbore radius. The methods reported here have been implemented in code ODA (Operations Data Analysis). A beta version of the code is available for free testing and evaluation to interested parties

  10. Mechanical behaviour of thermoplastic composites spot-welded and mechanically fastened joints : A preliminary comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, T.; Palardy, G.; Fernandez Villegas, I.; Rans, C.D.; Martinez, M.J.; Benedictus, R.

    2016-01-01

    The in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical behaviour of both ultrasonically spot-welded and mechanically fastened joints was investigated by double-lap shear and pull-through tests, respectively. Spot-welded specimens showed comparable onset failure load and significantly higher joint stiffness

  11. Business of Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, Nuclear Technology Test Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Masahiko

    1981-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Test Center established the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office to execute newly the works concerning nuclear safety analysis in addition to the works related to the proving tests of nuclear machinery and equipments. The regulations for the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office concerning its organization, business and others were specially decided, and it started the business formally in August, 1980. It is a most important subject to secure the safety of nuclear facilities in nuclear fuel cycle as the premise of developing atomic energy. In Japan, the strict regulation of safety is executed by the government at each stage of the installation, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear facilities, based on the responsibility for the security of installers themselves. The Nuclear Safety Analysis Office was established as the special organ to help the safety examination related to the installation of nuclear power stations and others by the government. It improves and puts in order the safety analysis codes required for the cross checking in the safety examination, and carries out safety analysis calculation. It is operated by the cooperation of the Science and Technology Agency and the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. The purpose of establishment, the operation and the business of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, the plan of improving and putting in order of analysis codes, and the state of the similar organs in foreign countries are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. Evidence for the spotting hypothesis in gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the visual spotting hypothesis in 10 experts and 10 apprentices as they perform back aerial somersaults from a standing position with no preparatory jumps (short flight duration condition) and after some preparatory jumps with a flight time of 1s (long flight duration condition). Differences in gaze behavior and kinematics were expected between experts and apprentices and between experimental conditions. Gaze behavior was measured using a portable and wireless eye-tracking system in combination with a movement-analysis system. Experts exhibited a smaller landing deviation from the middle of the trampoline bed than apprentices. Experts showed higher fixation ratios during the take-off and flight phase. Experts exhibited no blinks in any of the somersaults in both conditions, whereas apprentices showed significant blink ratios in both experimental conditions. The findings suggest that gymnasts can use visual spotting during the back aerial somersault, even when the time of flight is delimited. We conclude that knowledge about gaze-movement relationships may help coaches develop specific training programs in the learning process of the back aerial somersault.

  13. Seismically induced accident sequence analysis of the advanced test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khericha, S.T.; Henry, D.M.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Griffin, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Nafday, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as part of the external events analysis. The risk from seismic events to the fuel in the core and in the fuel storage canal was evaluated. The key elements of this paper are the integration of seismically induced internal flood and internal fire, and the modeling of human error rates as a function of the magnitude of earthquake. The systems analysis was performed by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. and the fragility analysis and quantification were performed by EQE International, Inc. (EQE)

  14. Spot sale of uncommitted LNG from Middle East: Japan or the UK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikhalat-Jahromi, Hamed; Bell, Michael G.H.; Fontes, Dalila B.M.M.; Cochrane, Robert A.; Angeloudis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is rising as demand for it grows rapidly and steadily due to growth in energy demand, the transition to a low carbon economy and the longer distances over which natural gas is now traded. Given its importance, this work proposes an optimization model that assists to decide on when and where LNG should be delivered by coordinating tanker type, assignment and routing, inventory management, contract obligations, arbitrage and uncommitted LNG. The model maximizes the profit mainly by taking advantage of price differences between different markets. The contributions of this work are twofold. First, following the analysis of expenses and revenues, a new mixed integer programming model for LNG liquefaction and shipping is proposed from a corporate finance perspective. Furthermore, a solution approach for it is implemented and tested. Second, the model is used to derive a short term trade policy for the Middle Eastern LNG producers regarding the spot sale of their uncommitted product to Japan or to the UK, namely to: dispatch to whichever market has the higher current spot price, regardless of the variability of the transport expenses. - Highlights: •The cash-flow of an LNG producer in operational planning is examined. •An LNG inventory routing problem for EBITDA maximization is formulated. •A project in Middle East for studying the spot sale of uncommitted LNG is created. •In sale to Japan and the UK the market with the higher price should be picked.

  15. Dried blood spots of pooled samples for RHD gene screening in blood donors of mixed ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Malta, M C F; Araujo, N C Fidélis; Vieira, O V Neves; Schmidt, L Cayres; Gonçalves, P de Cassia; Martins, M Lobato

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a strategy for RHD gene screening based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using dried blood spots of pooled samples. Molecular analysis of blood donors may be used to detect RHD variants among the presumed D-negative individuals. RHD genotyping using pooled samples is a strategy to test a large number of samples at a more reasonable cost. RHD gene detection based on real-time PCR using dried blood spots of pooled samples was standardised and used to evaluate 1550 Brazilian blood donors phenotyped as RhD-negative. Positive results were re-evaluated by retesting single samples using real-time PCR and conventional multiplex PCR to amplify five RHD-specific exons. PCR-sequence-specific primers was used to amplify RHDψ allele. We devised a strategy for RHD gene screening using dried blood spots of five pooled samples. Among 1550 serologically D-negative blood donors, 58 (3.74%) had the RHD gene. The non-functional RHDψ allele was detected in 47 samples (3.02%). The present method is a promising strategy to detect the RHD gene among presumed RhD-negative blood donors, particularly for populations with African ancestry. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  16. Influence of TCSC on congestion and spot price in electricity market with bilateral contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Naresh; Mithulananthan, Nadarajah

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the effect of TCSC on congestion and spot price in deregulated electricity markets. The paper could also be considered as a comprehensive tutorial on the influence of TCSC in electricity market. A voluntary pool market, where the market participants can trade electricity either via a pool or through bilateral contracts is considered. The electricity market is modeled in an optimal power flow framework with the objective of maximizing the social welfare. In such formulation, the Lagrange operators associated with the equality constraints associated with real power balance give the spot prices of energy at each bus of the system. Studies are carried out with and without TCSC at peak and low loading conditions to capture the influence and to see the effectiveness of TCSC at different loading conditions. The paper further explores the effect of TCSC compensation level on the spot prices and the congestion under varying pool and bilateral loading conditions. A 5-bus test system is used for numerical studies and to showcase the influence of TCSC in an electricity market environment. (author)

  17. Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on multipliers cannot generate a unique clearing price. Although such situations are rare, they can cause significant uncertainties and complexities in market dispatch. In practice, this situation is solved through simple empirical methods, which may cause additional operations or biased allocation. Based...... the results of the theoretical analysis, and further demonstrate that the method performs effectively in both uniform-pricing and nodalpricing markets....

  18. Missing data analysis and homogeneity test for Turkish precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, missing value analysis and homogeneity tests were conducted for 267 precipitation stations throughout Turkey. For this purpose, the monthly and annual total precipitation records at stations operated by Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMI) from 1968 to 1998 were considered. In these stations ...

  19. Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent

  20. The Reliability of Inverse Screen Tests for Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Richard G.; Williams, Janice E.

    1987-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study, involving 6,000 "computer subjects" and three raters, explored the reliability of the inverse screen test for cluster analysis. Results indicate that the inverse screen may be a useful and reliable cluster analytic technique for determining the number of true groups. (TJH)

  1. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    van der Ster, Daniel C; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Paladin, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud (HC) is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HC was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HC has been ...

  2. Medical microbiological analysis of Apollo-Soyuz test project crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.; Zaloguev, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    The procedures and results of the Microbial Exchange Experiment (AR-002) of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project are described. Included in the discussion of procedural aspects are methods and materials, in-flight microbial specimen collection, and preliminary analysis of microbial specimens. Medically important microorganisms recovered from both Apollo and Soyuz crewmen are evaluated.

  3. Validation and structural analysis of the kinematics concept test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, A.; Wagner, C.; Hofer, S. I.; Stern, E.; Vaterlaus, A.

    2017-06-01

    The kinematics concept test (KCT) is a multiple-choice test designed to evaluate students' conceptual understanding of kinematics at the high school level. The test comprises 49 multiple-choice items about velocity and acceleration, which are based on seven kinematic concepts and which make use of three different representations. In the first part of this article we describe the development and the validation process of the KCT. We applied the KCT to 338 Swiss high school students who attended traditional teaching in kinematics. We analyzed the response data to provide the psychometric properties of the test. In the second part we present the results of a structural analysis of the test. An exploratory factor analysis of 664 student answers finally uncovered the seven kinematics concepts as factors. However, the analysis revealed a hierarchical structure of concepts. At the higher level, mathematical concepts group together, and then split up into physics concepts at the lower level. Furthermore, students who seem to understand a concept in one representation have difficulties transferring the concept to similar problems in another representation. Both results have implications for teaching kinematics. First, teaching mathematical concepts beforehand might be beneficial for learning kinematics. Second, instructions have to be designed to teach students the change between different representations.

  4. Validation and structural analysis of the kinematics concept test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lichtenberger

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinematics concept test (KCT is a multiple-choice test designed to evaluate students’ conceptual understanding of kinematics at the high school level. The test comprises 49 multiple-choice items about velocity and acceleration, which are based on seven kinematic concepts and which make use of three different representations. In the first part of this article we describe the development and the validation process of the KCT. We applied the KCT to 338 Swiss high school students who attended traditional teaching in kinematics. We analyzed the response data to provide the psychometric properties of the test. In the second part we present the results of a structural analysis of the test. An exploratory factor analysis of 664 student answers finally uncovered the seven kinematics concepts as factors. However, the analysis revealed a hierarchical structure of concepts. At the higher level, mathematical concepts group together, and then split up into physics concepts at the lower level. Furthermore, students who seem to understand a concept in one representation have difficulties transferring the concept to similar problems in another representation. Both results have implications for teaching kinematics. First, teaching mathematical concepts beforehand might be beneficial for learning kinematics. Second, instructions have to be designed to teach students the change between different representations.

  5. Advances in isotopic analysis for food authenticity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Bontempo, L.; Camin, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stable isotope analysis has been used for food authenticity testing for more than 30 years and is today being utilized on a routine basis for a wide variety of food commodities. During the past decade, major analytical method developments have been made and the fundamental understanding...... of fractionation processes resulting in isotopic signatures suitable for food authentication has improved. In combination with an increasing use of multivariate statistics, development of new reference materials, establishment of reference sample databases, and complementation with other analytical methods, food...... authenticity testing is currently developing even further. In this chapter, we aim to provide an overview of the latest developments in stable isotope analysis for food authenticity testing. As several review articles and book chapters have recently addressed this topic, we will primarily focus on relevant...

  6. Thermal test and analysis of a spent fuel storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, H.; Gomi, Y.; Ozaki, S.; Kosaki, A.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal test simulated with full-scale cask model for the normal storage was performed to verify the storage skill of the spent fuels of the cask. The maximum temperature at each point in the test was lower than the allowable temperature. The integrity of the cask was maintained. It was observed that the safety of containment system was also kept according to the check of the seal before and after the thermal test. Therefore it was shown that using the present skill, it is possible to store spent fuels in the dry-type cask safely. Moreover, because of the good agreement between analysis and experimental results, it was shown that the analysis model was successfully established to estimate the temperature distribution of the fuel cladding and the seal portion. (J.P.N.)

  7. SPOTROD: Semi-analytic model for transits of spotted stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béky, Bence

    2014-11-01

    SPOTROD is a model for planetary transits of stars with an arbitrary limb darkening law and a number of homogeneous, circular spots on their surface. It facilitates analysis of anomalies due to starspot eclipses, and is a free, open source implementation written in C with a Python API.

  8. BUSTED BUTTE TEST FACILITY GROUND SUPPORT CONFIRMATION ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonabian, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to confirm the validity of the ground support design for Busted Butte Test Facility (BBTF). The highwall stability and adequacy of highwall and tunnel ground support is addressed in this analysis. The design of the BBTF including the ground support system was performed in a separate document (Reference 5.3). Both in situ and seismic loads are considered in the evaluation of the highwall and the tunnel ground support system. In this analysis only the ground support designed in Reference 5.3 is addressed. The additional ground support installed (still work in progress) by the constructor is not addressed in this analysis. This additional ground support was evaluated by the A/E during a site visit and its findings and recommendations are addressed in this analysis

  9. Analysis of coincidence-time loopholes in experimental Bell tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. G.; Hill, A.; Kwiat, P. G.; Knill, E.; Nam, S. W.; Coakley, K.; Glancy, S.; Shalm, L. K.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-09-01

    We apply a distance-based Bell-test analysis method [E. Knill et al., Phys. Rev. A 91, 032105 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.032105] to three experimental data sets where conventional analyses failed or required additional assumptions. The first is produced from a classical source exploiting a "coincidence-time loophole" for which standard analysis falsely shows a Bell violation. The second is from a source previously shown to violate a Bell inequality; the distance-based analysis agrees with the previous results but with fewer assumptions. The third data set does not show a violation with standard analysis despite the high source quality, but is shown to have a strong violation with the distance-based analysis method.

  10. A well test analysis method accounting for pre-testoperations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.B.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2003-06-13

    We propose to use regular monitoring data from a productionor injection well for estimating the formation hydraulic properties inthe vicinity of the wellbore without interrupting the operations. In ourapproach, we select a portion of the pumping data over a certain timeinterval and then derive our conclusions from analysis of these data. Adistinctive feature of the proposed approach differing it formconventional methods is in the introduction of an additional parameter,an effective pre-test pumping rate. The additional parameter is derivedbased on a rigorous asymptotic analysis of the flow model. Thus, weaccount for the non-uniform pressure distribution at the beginning oftesting time interval caused by pre-test operations at the well. Bysynthetic and field examples, we demonstrate that deviation of thematching curve from the data that is usually attributed to skin andwellbore storage effects, can also be interpreted through this newparameter. Moreover, with our method, the data curve is matched equallywell and the results of the analysis remain stable when the analyzed datainterval is perturbed, whereas traditional methods are sensitive to thechoice of the data interval. A special efficient minimization procedurehas been developed for searching the best fitting parameters. We enhancedour analysis above with a procedure of estimating ambient reservoirpressure and dimensionless wellbore radius. The methods reported herehave been implemented in code ODA (Operations Data Analysis). A betaversion of the code is available for free testing and evaluation tointerested parties.

  11. PP025. Urinary dipstick proteinuria testing - Does automated strip analysis offer an advantage over visual testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, D A; Halstead, C; Côté, A-M; Sabr, Y; von Dadelszen, P; Magee, L A

    2012-07-01

    The visual urinary test strip is widely accepted for screening for proteinuria in pregnancy, given the convenience of the method and its low cost. However, test strips are known to lack sensitivity and specificity. The 2010 NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) guidelines for management of pregnancy hypertension have recommended the use of an automated test strip reader to confirm proteinuria (http://nice.org.uk/CG107). Superior diagnostic test performance of an automated (vs. visual) method has been proposed based on reduced subjectivity. To compare the diagnostic test properties of automated vs. visual read urine dipstick testing for detection of a random protein:creatinine ratio (PrCr) of ⩾30mg/mmol. In this prospective cohort study, consecutive inpatients or outpatients (obstetric medicine and high-risk maternity clinics) were evaluated at a tertiary care facility. Random midstream urine samples (obtained as part of normal clinical care) were split into two aliquots. The first underwent a point-of-care testing for proteinuria using both visual (Multistix 10SG, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc., Tarrytown NY) and automated (Chemstrip 10A, Roche Diagnostics, Laval QC) test strips, the latter read by an analyser (Urisys 1100®, Roche Diagnostics, Laval QC). The second aliquot was sent to the hospital laboratory for analysis of urinary protein using a pyrocatechol violet molybdate dye-binding method, and urinary creatinine using an enzymatic method, both on an automated analyser (Vitros® 5,1 FS or Vitros® 5600, Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Rochester NY); random PrCr ratios were calculated in the laboratory. Following exclusion of dilute samples with urinary creatinine concentration analysis. Both visual and automated read urinary dipstick testing showed low sensitivity (56.0% and 53.9%, respectively). Positive likelihood ratios (LR+) and 95% CI were 15.0 [5.9,37.9] and 24.6 [7.6,79.6], respectively. Negative LR (LR-) were 0.46 [0

  12. Population dynamics of the California spotted owl in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Blakesley; M.E. Seamans; M.M. Connor; A.B. Franklin; G.C. White; R.J. Gutierrez; J.E. Hines; J.D. Nichols; T.E. Munton; D.W.H. Shaw; J.J. Keane; G.N. Steger; T.L. McDonald

    2010-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California,...

  13. Applications of Automation Methods for Nonlinear Fracture Test Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Using automated and standardized computer tools to calculate the pertinent test result values has several advantages such as: 1. allowing high-fidelity solutions to complex nonlinear phenomena that would be impractical to express in written equation form, 2. eliminating errors associated with the interpretation and programing of analysis procedures from the text of test standards, 3. lessening the need for expertise in the areas of solid mechanics, fracture mechanics, numerical methods, and/or finite element modeling, to achieve sound results, 4. and providing one computer tool and/or one set of solutions for all users for a more "standardized" answer. In summary, this approach allows a non-expert with rudimentary training to get the best practical solution based on the latest understanding with minimum difficulty.Other existing ASTM standards that cover complicated phenomena use standard computer programs: 1. ASTM C1340/C1340M-10- Standard Practice for Estimation of Heat Gain or Loss Through Ceilings Under Attics Containing Radiant Barriers by Use of a Computer Program 2. ASTM F 2815 - Standard Practice for Chemical Permeation through Protective Clothing Materials: Testing Data Analysis by Use of a Computer Program 3. ASTM E2807 - Standard Specification for 3D Imaging Data Exchange, Version 1.0 The verification, validation, and round-robin processes required of a computer tool closely parallel the methods that are used to ensure the solution validity for equations included in test standard. The use of automated analysis tools allows the creation and practical implementation of advanced fracture mechanics test standards that capture the physics of a nonlinear fracture mechanics problem without adding undue burden or expense to the user. The presented approach forms a bridge between the equation-based fracture testing standards of today and the next generation of standards solving complex problems through analysis automation.

  14. An efficient method of spot welding Aluminium alloys with induction preheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Saleem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Steel has been the material of choice for automobile manufacturers. In the recent years material such as aluminium and its alloys are taking over the market because of their light weight. The use of aluminium, in automobile manufacturing can result in overall fuel efficiency. Spot welding aluminium alloys require higher electric power and less welding time as compared to steel. Welding guns that can produce an electric current which is approximately 2 to 3 times higher, as compared to steel are required for spot welding aluminium. An efficient method of spot welding Aluminium alloys with the preheating process has been proposed in this paper. Preheating Aluminium sheet before spot welding reduces the thermal and electrical resistance which brings down the electric current requirement to spot weld Aluminium structures. Both spot welding and induction preheating process have been modelled in this paper. The test results of the preheating process have also been verified with practical heating trials. The preheating is performed on-the-fly in advance to spot welding process. The results show that spot welding Al 6082 after preheating up to 200 oC, the output current requirements to make the spot weld are reduced by 22%.

  15. Establishment of critical contamination risk locations ("hot spots") in environmental monitoring by means of three-dimensional airflow analysis and particulate evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Hirohito; Higo, Takashi; Tokunaga, Yuji; Hiyama, Yukio; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    A practical approach for the qualification of the surrounding environment of the critical area in aseptic processing has been developed. This method uses three-dimensional air velocity measurements combined with airborne particle monitoring. The analysis of the results obtained using the methods described in this article are beneficial in the selection of sample sites and frequencies and in refining personnel procedures and materials flow in aseptic processing. We propose that this improved qualification method can be widely applicable for both existing and new aseptic processing areas. This paper shows the results of one case study utilizing this method. The particle distribution map of a Grade B environment based upon extensive analysis was found to correspond to room airflow, as visualized by air vector mapping. The actual annual environmental monitoring data, which include airborne particles and microbes, as well as other microbial monitoring data, are also presented with respect to their relationship to the airflow pattern.

  16. Prototype spent-fuel canister design, analysis, and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisher, W.B.; Eakes, R.G.; Duffey, T.A.

    1982-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was asked by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (now US Department of Energy) to design the spent fuel shipping cask system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). As a part of this task, a canister which holds liquid sodium and the spent fuel assembly was designed, analyzed, and tested. The canister body survived the regulatory Type-B 9.1-m (30-ft) drop test with no apparent leakage. However, the commercially available metal seal used in this design leaked after the tests. This report describes the design approach, analysis, and prototype canister testing. Recommended work for completing the design, when funding is available, is included

  17. Experiments with Test Case Generation and Runtime Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artho, Cyrille; Drusinsky, Doron; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Lowry, Mike; Pasareanu, Corina; Rosu, Grigore; Visser, Willem; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Software testing is typically an ad hoc process where human testers manually write many test inputs and expected test results, perhaps automating their execution in a regression suite. This process is cumbersome and costly. This paper reports preliminary results on an approach to further automate this process. The approach consists of combining automated test case generation based on systematically exploring the program's input domain, with runtime analysis, where execution traces are monitored and verified against temporal logic specifications, or analyzed using advanced algorithms for detecting concurrency errors such as data races and deadlocks. The approach suggests to generate specifications dynamically per input instance rather than statically once-and-for-all. The paper describes experiments with variants of this approach in the context of two examples, a planetary rover controller and a space craft fault protection system.

  18. Multivariate analysis of factors Influencing reliability of teacher made tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Meshkani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the measurements literature reliability of the test refers to the consistency of the test results and shows whether the obtained score is stable indication of the student’s performance in particular test Reliability can be measured by different statistics formula.Purpose: To determine the factors influenced the reliability of 392 MCQ examinations.Methods: The correlation of reliabilities of MCQ based examination and other characteristics of tests such as length difficult items, discrimination index, mean, standard deviation and time for answering was calculated based on the data available on examination center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Multivariate regression has been used for data analysis.Results: overall reliability of teacher made test is at satisfactory level in most cases. The mean value of reliability was 0.71 ±0.15. In comparing previous semester with last series of examination some improvement have been found during these years (P=0.000, for first semester, P=0.002 for second, P= 0.005 for third and P=0.005 for forth semester. Keeping other variable fixed the interaction of length of exam according to item difficulty showedl significant difference on value of test reliability. Comparing difficult and easy items question with moderate difficultyindex can increase reliability 8 times more than difficult and 13 times more than easy items P=0.000.Conclusion: Our study showed that with documentation of tests’ metric features an analysis and evaluation of tests are within reach of medical school .Key words: RELIABILITY , TEACHER MADE TEST, RELIABILITY MEASUREMENTS

  19. Dispersion of hot spots in steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    The streamwise development of hot spots in a helical type heat exchanger has been treated experimentally and theoretically as well. Velocity profiles across the bundle have been measured varying the Reynolds number, Re, from 10 3 to 1.35 x 10 5 . Pressurized air or helium have been applied as coolant. In an additional series of tests the length scale parameter of the turbulence structure has been determined. It is correlated with the turbulent Peclet number, Pe t , which occurs in the basic equation as an unknown parameter. Its value was found to be independent of Re (Pe t = 8.2). Introducing this value leads to a good agreement of theoretical and experimental results. (author)

  20. FLOW TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF THE FSP-1 EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Jones, Warren F.; Marcum, Wade; Weiss, Aaron; Howard, Trevor

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. High Performance Research Reactor Conversions fuel development team is focused on developing and qualifying the uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy monolithic fuel to support conversion of domestic research reactors to low enriched uranium. Several previous irradiations have demonstrated the favorable behavior of the monolithic fuel. The Full Scale Plate 1 (FSP-1) fuel plate experiment will be irradiated in the northeast (NE) flux trap of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This fueled experiment contains six aluminum-clad fuel plates consisting of monolithic U-Mo fuel meat. Flow testing experimentation and hydraulic analysis have been performed on the FSP-1 experiment to be irradiated in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A flow test experiment mockup of the FSP-1 experiment was completed at Oregon State University. Results of several flow test experiments are compared with analyses. This paper reports and shows hydraulic analyses are nearly identical to the flow test results. A water velocity of 14.0 meters per second is targeted between the fuel plates. Comparisons between FSP-1 measurements and this target will be discussed. This flow rate dominates the flow characteristics of the experiment and model. Separate branch flows have minimal effect on the overall experiment. A square flow orifice was placed to control the flowrate through the experiment. Four different orifices were tested. A flow versus delta P curve for each orifice is reported herein. Fuel plates with depleted uranium in the fuel meat zone were used in one of the flow tests. This test was performed to evaluate flow test vibration with actual fuel meat densities and reported herein. Fuel plate deformation tests were also performed and reported.

  1. Analysis of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter; Przekop, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid wing body center section test article is an all-composite structure made of crown, floor, keel, bulkhead, and rib panels utilizing the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) design concept. The primary goal of this test article is to prove that PRSEUS components are capable of carrying combined loads that are representative of a hybrid wing body pressure cabin design regime. This paper summarizes the analytical approach, analysis results, and failure predictions of the test article. A global finite element model of composite panels, metallic fittings, mechanical fasteners, and the Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) test fixture was used to conduct linear structural strength and stability analyses to validate the specimen under the most critical combination of bending and pressure loading conditions found in the hybrid wing body pressure cabin. Local detail analyses were also performed at locations with high stress concentrations, at Tee-cap noodle interfaces with surrounding laminates, and at fastener locations with high bearing/bypass loads. Failure predictions for different composite and metallic failure modes were made, and nonlinear analyses were also performed to study the structural response of the test article under combined bending and pressure loading. This large-scale specimen test will be conducted at the COLTS facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  2. The Analysis of the Psychological Tests Using In Educational Institutions According To the Testing Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi MOR DİRLİK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze four psychological tests which are frequently used in the Guidance and Research Centers and in the guidance services of the schools according to the standards for educational and psychological testing of APA (American Psychological Association and test adaption standards of ITC (International Testing Commission. The tests were determined based on the goal- oriented sample selecting method and were selected from the most frequently used psychological tests in Guidance and Research Centers and school’s guidance centers. These tests are: Scale of Academic Self-Concept (Akademik Benlik Kavramı Ölçeği-ABKÖ, Evaluation of Early Childhood Development Tool (Gazi Erken Çocukluk Gelişimi Değerlendirme Aracı-GEÇDA, Primary Mental Abilities 7-11 (TKT 7-11, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised Form (WISC-R. In this research, the chapters related to the validity, reliability and test development and revision of “Standards For Educational And Psychological Testing” (APA, 1999 and the adaptation standards developed by ITC were translated into Turkish and a checklist was created by using these documents. The checklist has got two forms as short and long form. The tests were analyzed according to the short form of the checklist by researcher. In order to examine the reliability of these analyses, the analyses were repeated in three weeks’ time. Data of these analyses were exported to the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 and descriptive analysis was perfomed. As a result of this research, the meeting levels of the psychological tests to the test standards in the checklist and the features of the tests which should be improved according to the validity, reliability, test development and revision and test adaptation were determined. In conclusion, the standards analyzed have not been met satisfactorily by ABKÖ and GEÇDA, and according to the analyses of the realibility

  3. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  4. Tests and analysis on steam generator tube failure propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hiromi

    1990-01-01

    The understanding of leak enlargement and failure propagation behavior is essential to select a design basis leak (DBL) of LMFBR steam generators. Therefore, various series of experiments, such as self-enlargement tests, target wastage tests, failure propagation tests were conducted in a wide range of leak using test facilities of SWAT at PNC/OEC. Especially, in the large leak tests, potential of overheating failure was investigated under a prototypical steam cooling condition inside target tubes. In the small leak, the difference of wastage resistivity was clarified among several tube materials such as 9-chrome steels. In regard to an analytical approach, a computer code LEAP (Leak Enlargement and Propagation) was developed on the basis of all of these experimental results. The code was used to validate the previously selected DBL of the prototype reactor, Monju, steam generator. This approach proved to be successful in spite of somewhat over-conservatism in the analysis. Moreover, LEAP clarified the effectiveness of a rapid steam dump and an enhanced leak detection system. The code improvement toward a realistic analysis is desired, however, to lessen the DBL for a future large plant and then the re-evaluation of the experimental data such as the size of secondary failure is under way. (author). 4 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  5. Hydrocoin level 3 - Testing methods for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, B.; Lindbom, B.; Larsson, A.; Andersson, K.

    1991-01-01

    The HYDROCOIN study is an international cooperative project for testing groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. The study was initiated in 1984 by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the technical work was finalised in 1987. The participating organisations are regulatory authorities as well as implementing organisations in 10 countries. The study has been performed at three levels aimed at studying computer code verification, model validation and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis respectively. The results from the first two levels, code verification and model validation, have been published in reports in 1988 and 1990 respectively. This paper focuses on some aspects of the results from Level 3, sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, for which a final report is planned to be published during 1990. For Level 3, seven test cases were defined. Some of these aimed at exploring the uncertainty associated with the modelling results by simply varying parameter values and conceptual assumptions. In other test cases statistical sampling methods were applied. One of the test cases dealt with particle tracking and the uncertainty introduced by this type of post processing. The amount of results available is substantial although unevenly spread over the test cases. It has not been possible to cover all aspects of the results in this paper. Instead, the different methods applied will be illustrated by some typical analyses. 4 figs., 9 refs

  6. Wind tunnel test IA300 analysis and results, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, P. B.; Beaufait, W. B.; Kitchens, L. L.; Pace, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of wind tunnel pressure data from the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test IA300 are presented. The primary objective of the test was to determine the effects of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) plumes on the integrated vehicle forebody pressure distributions, the elevon hinge moments, and wing loads. The results of this test will be combined with flight test results to form a new data base to be employed in the IVBC-3 airloads analysis. A secondary objective was to obtain solid plume data for correlation with the results of gaseous plume tests. Data from the power level portion was used in conjunction with flight base pressures to evaluate nominal power levels to be used during the investigation of changes in model attitude, eleveon deflection, and nozzle gimbal angle. The plume induced aerodynamic loads were developed for the Space Shuttle bases and forebody areas. A computer code was developed to integrate the pressure data. Using simplified geometrical models of the Space Shuttle elements and components, the pressure data were integrated to develop plume induced force and moments coefficients that can be combined with a power-off data base to develop a power-on data base.

  7. Reliability test and failure analysis of high power LED packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaohui, Chen; Qin, Zhang; Kai, Wang; Xiaobing, Luo; Sheng, Liu

    2011-01-01

    A new type application specific light emitting diode (LED) package (ASLP) with freeform polycarbonate lens for street lighting is developed, whose manufacturing processes are compatible with a typical LED packaging process. The reliability test methods and failure criterions from different vendors are reviewed and compared. It is found that test methods and failure criterions are quite different. The rapid reliability assessment standards are urgently needed for the LED industry. 85 °C/85 RH with 700 mA is used to test our LED modules with three other vendors for 1000 h, showing no visible degradation in optical performance for our modules, with two other vendors showing significant degradation. Some failure analysis methods such as C-SAM, Nano X-ray CT and optical microscope are used for LED packages. Some failure mechanisms such as delaminations and cracks are detected in the LED packages after the accelerated reliability testing. The finite element simulation method is helpful for the failure analysis and design of the reliability of the LED packaging. One example is used to show one currently used module in industry is vulnerable and may not easily pass the harsh thermal cycle testing.

  8. New solutions for well test analysis of horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J.; Cunha, L.B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lu, T. [Sichuan Univ. (China)

    2002-07-01

    Horizontal wells are gaining popularity for primary and enhanced oil recovery operations, but horizontal well testing continues to be significantly more complex than vertical well testing. This paper presents new solutions for horizontal well test analysis. In particular, the paper presents horizontal well pressure drawdown and buildup analyses in a single porosity reservoir with a circular cylinder drainage volume. The mathematical solutions were based on 3 dimensional models which are more accurate than 2 dimensional models based on well testing equations. The paper presents simplified solutions for short and long times that show straight-line sections when pressure is plotted versus time. Equations and mathematical models were developed to determine different well bore pressures at different points along the well length. Reservoirs were characterized according to permeability. It was concluded that if the diameter of the drainage circle is very large compared to the horizontal well length, then the circular cylinder drainage model reduces to the infinite slab drainage model. The proposed formulae do not include the sum of infinite series as do other published formulae. These newly proposed formulae are considered to be easier to use in well testing analysis. 23 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Vibration testing and analysis of a multiply supported piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The behavior of nuclear power plant piping systems during earthquakes, and the most appropriate and economical mode of supporting such piping, is an issue of major concern. Consequently, the verification and validation of piping analysis methods and assumptions used in the design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants are of great interest. As part of its program on the validation of seismic calculational methods, the NR is specifically interested in the validation of the multiple support piping analysis module of the SMACS (Seismic Methodology Analysis Chain with Statistics) computer code. Data for comparing the dynamic behavior of various pipe hanger configurations and validating piping response analyses were recently obtained in the large shaker experiments (SHAG) conducted at the HDR. This paper describes preliminary results from the SHAG piping response tests and the approach taken in the validation of the SMACS code piping analysis. (orig./HP)

  10. Revised analysis of the Transition Joint Life Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartory, W K

    1984-07-01

    The Transition Joint Life Test was performed by General Electric and the Energy Technology Engineering Center and was analyzed earlier by General Electric. Because of later developments in analysis techniques and in our understanding of the stress behavior near a dissimilar metal weldment, agreement was reached between General Electric and Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s High-Temperature Structural Design program that a more up-to-date analysis was needed. This report presents results of a new analysis incorporating modified mechanical properties, revised constitutive equations, and a more refined finite element grid. The structural life prediction of the present report is quite conservative (approximately 3 cycles of predicted life compared to 12 to 25 cycles of measured life), whereas the earlier General Electric analysis was underconservative by a similar factor.

  11. Seismic analysis of the mirror fusion test facility building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes a seismic analysis of the present Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) building at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The analysis was conducted to evaluate how the structure would withstand the postulated design-basis earthquake (DBE). We discuss the methods of analysis used and results obtained. Also presented are a detailed description of the building, brief discussions of site geology, seismicity, and soil conditions, the approach used to postulate the DBE, and two methods for incorporating the effects of ductility. Floor spectra for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th floors developed for preliminary equipment design are also included. The results of the analysis, based on best-estimate equipment loadings, indicate additional bracing and upgrading of connection details are required for the structure to survive the postulated design-basis earthquake. Specific recommendations are made

  12. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Pull-Out Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottesen, N

    1981-01-01

    A specific pull-out test used to determine in-situ concrete compressive strength is analyzed. This test consists of a steel disc that is extracted from the structure. The finite element analysis considers cracking as well as strain hardening and softening in the pre- and post-failure region......, respectively. The aim is to attain a clear insight into structural behavior. Special attention is given to the failure mode. Severe cracking occurs and the stress distribution is very inhomogeneous. However, large compressive forces run from the disc in a rather narrow band towards the support...

  13. Polynomial regression analysis and significance test of the regression function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengming; Zhao Juan; He Shengping

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the decay heating power of a certain radioactive isotope per kilogram with polynomial regression method, the paper firstly demonstrated the broad usage of polynomial function and deduced its parameters with ordinary least squares estimate. Then significance test method of polynomial regression function is derived considering the similarity between the polynomial regression model and the multivariable linear regression model. Finally, polynomial regression analysis and significance test of the polynomial function are done to the decay heating power of the iso tope per kilogram in accord with the authors' real work. (authors)

  14. BUILD UP TEST ANALYSIS OF THE HORIZONTAL WELL

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Koščak Kolin; Marin Čikeš; Valentina Babić

    2013-01-01

    Build up test analysis for the horizontal well is based upon the theory of fluid flow in the reservoir, which is mathematically described by the diffusivity equation of the three dimensional flow and its solutions. According to the horizontal well model in the infinite reservoir for the case of the unsteady flow, four regimes can be developed: early radial flow, early linear, late pseudo-radial and late linear flow. Solutions of the diffusivity equation, that are used in the build up test ana...

  15. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm x 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25°C air temperature, 20-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm), and heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm 2 ). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈ 200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm 2 . Finally, this work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  16. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle; Neely, Jason; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-03-01

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm × 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25 °C air temperature, 20%-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm) and applied heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm2. This work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  17. Microhardness and Roughness of Infiltrated White Spot Lesions Submitted to Different Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neres, É Y; Moda, M D; Chiba, E K; Briso, Alf; Pessan, J P; Fagundes, T C

    A white spot lesion is the first clinical sign of a caries lesion and represents mineral loss from the enamel subsurface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microhardness and surface roughness of white spot lesions after application of a resin infiltrant and subjection to different challenges. Caries-like lesions were induced in bovine enamel discs (n=50), and the specimens were randomly divided into five study groups (n=10): demineralized enamel (negative control, G1), infiltrated enamel (G2), infiltrated enamel submitted to brushing (G3), infiltrated enamel submitted to pH cycling (G4), and infiltrated enamel submitted to artificial aging (G5). Half of each enamel surface was used as its own positive control. Roughness data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunn test. Results from microhardness were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey test for multiple comparisons. The level of significance was set at 5%. Microhardness and roughness values obtained from the test side of the specimens were significantly lower compared with the sound enamel for all groups. Microhardness values obtained for G2, G3, and G5 were not significantly different. Values found for G1 were significantly lower compared with those for G2, G3, and G5. The lowest microhardness values were observed for G4, which was significantly different from the other groups. Surface roughness was not significantly different between G2 and G3. The resin infiltrant presented superiority over the unprotected white spot lesions, as they were more resistant to mechanical and aging challenges. However, resin infiltration was not able to reestablish the properties of sound enamel and was not resistant to a new cariogenic challenge.

  18. STRUCTURAL TEST AND ANALYSIS OF RC SLAB AFTER FIRE LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUL-HUN CHUNG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber.

  19. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber

  20. Thermomechanical analysis of the DFLL test blanket module for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongli; Wu Yican; Bai Yunqing

    2006-01-01

    The finite element code is used to simulate two kinds of blanket design structure, which are SLL (Quasi-Static Lithium Lead) and DLL (Dual-cooled Lithium Lead) blanket concepts for the Dual Functional Lithium Lead-Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM) submitted to the ITER test blanket working group. The temperature and stress distributions have been presented for the two kinds of blanket structure on the basis of the structural design, thermal-hydraulic design and neutronics analysis. Also the mechanical performance is presented for the high temperature component of blanket structure according to the ITER Structural Design Criteria (ISDC). The rationality and feasibility of the two kinds of blanket structure design of DFLL-TBM have been analyzed based on the above results which also acted as the theoretical base for further optimized analysis. (authors)