WorldWideScience

Sample records for spot profiles show

  1. Show us your spots! Researchers need samples of bacterial leaf spots on celery, cilantro, parsley, and other crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2002, a severe leaf spot disease on parsley has occurred throughout central coastal California and particularly in Monterey County. Three different bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii, P. syringae pv. coriandricola and an organism very closely related to P. viridiflava) have bee...

  2. Spreading of Trisiloxanes on Thin Water Film: Dry Spot Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Ovunda NJOBUENWU

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation of the spreading of trisiloxanes EO6, EO7, EO8, EO9 and sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS on thin films which are 320 microns in thickness; the concentrations covered are above the CMC. The spreading of SDS is accompanied by the formation of a “dry spot” which advances in time roughly as t1/4. The trisiloxanes spreading gave rise to dry spot formation that was accompanied by “irregularities”, which corresponded to an abrupt jump in the plot of dry spot radius versus time. The behaviour is attributed to a variety of factors: disjoining pressure effects or the fact that the Petri dish was too small so that backward propagating waves were set up due to reflections from the walls which interacted with the outspreading dry spot.

  3. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Månsson, Wiking; Höglund, Mattias; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Jee, Kowan Ja; Liedberg, Fredrik; Aits, Sonja; Andersson, Anna; Chebil, Gunilla; Borg, Åke; Knuutila, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  4. Analysis of photonic spot profile converter and bridge structure on SOI platform for horizontal and vertical integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Saikat; Jha, Amit Kr.; Biswas, Aishik; Banerjee, Debasmita; Ganguly, Dipankar; Chakraborty, Rajib

    2017-08-01

    Horizontal spot size converter required for horizontal light coupling and vertical bridge structure required for vertical integration are designed on high index contrast SOI platform in order to form more compact integrated photonic circuits. Both the structures are based on the concept of multimode interference. The spot size converter can be realized by successive integration of multimode interference structures with reducing dimension on horizontal plane, whereas the optical bridge structure consists of a number of vertical multimode interference structure connected by single mode sections. The spot size converter can be modified to a spot profile converter when the final single mode waveguide is replaced by a slot waveguide. Analysis have shown that by using three multimode sections in a spot size converter, an Gaussian input having spot diameter of 2.51 μm can be converted to a spot diameter of 0.25 μm. If the output single mode section is replaced by a slot waveguide, this input profile can be converted to a flat top profile of width 50 nm. Similarly, vertical displacement of 8μm is possible by using a combination of two multimode sections and three single mode sections in the vertical bridge structure. The analyses of these two structures are carried out for both TE and TM modes at 1550 nm wavelength using the semi analytical matrix method which is simple and fast in computation time and memory. This work shows that the matrix method is equally applicable for analysis of horizontally as well as vertically integrated photonic circuit.

  5. Showing no spot sign is a strong predictor of independent living after intracerebral haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Ovesen, Christian; Christensen, Anders F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A spot sign on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a potentially strong predictor of poor outcome on ultra-early radiological imaging. The aim of this study was to assess the spot sign as a predictor of functional outcome at 3 months as well as long-term mortality, with a focus...... on the ability to identify patients with a spontaneous, acceptable outcome. METHODS: In a prospective, consecutive single-centre registry of acute stroke patients, we investigated patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) admitted within 4.5 h after symptom onset from April 2009 to January 2013....... The standard work-up in our centre included CTA for spot sign status, unless a contraindication was present. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were assessed at 3 months in the outpatient clinic or by telephone interviews. Long-term mortality was assessed by electronic chart follow-up for up to 1,500 days...

  6. Determination of radial profile of ICF hot spot's state by multi-objective parameters optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jianjun; Deng Bo; Cao Zhurong; Ding Yongkun; Jiang Shaoen

    2014-01-01

    A method using multi-objective parameters optimization is presented to determine the radial profile of hot spot temperature and density. And a parameter space which contain five variables: the temperatures at center and the interface of fuel and remain ablator, the maximum model density of remain ablator, the mass ratio of remain ablator to initial ablator and the position of interface between fuel and the remain ablator, is used to described the hot spot radial temperature and density. Two objective functions are set as the variances of normalized intensity profile from experiment X-ray images and the theory calculation. Another objective function is set as the variance of experiment average temperature of hot spot and the average temperature calculated by theoretical model. The optimized parameters are obtained by multi-objective genetic algorithm searching for the five dimension parameter space, thereby the optimized radial temperature and density profiles can be determined. The radial temperature and density profiles of hot spot by experiment data measured by KB microscope cooperating with X-ray film are presented. It is observed that the temperature profile is strongly correlated to the objective functions. (authors)

  7. Influence of the Laser Spot Size, Focal Beam Profile, and Tissue Type on the Lipid Signals Obtained by MALDI-MS Imaging in Oversampling Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegelmann, Marcel; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Soltwisch, Jens

    2016-12-01

    To improve the lateral resolution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) beyond the dimensions of the focal laser spot oversampling techniques are employed. However, few data are available on the effect of the laser spot size and its focal beam profile on the ion signals recorded in oversampling mode. To investigate these dependencies, we produced 2 times six spots with dimensions between ~30 and 200 μm. By optional use of a fundamental beam shaper, square flat-top and Gaussian beam profiles were compared. MALDI-MSI data were collected using a fixed pixel size of 20 μm and both pixel-by-pixel and continuous raster oversampling modes on a QSTAR mass spectrometer. Coronal mouse brain sections coated with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid matrix were used as primary test systems. Sizably higher phospholipid ion signals were produced with laser spots exceeding a dimension of ~100 μm, although the same amount of material was essentially ablated from the 20 μm-wide oversampling pixel at all spot size settings. Only on white matter areas of the brain these effects were less apparent to absent. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that these findings can presumably be attributed to different matrix morphologies depending on tissue type. We propose that a transition in the material ejection mechanisms from a molecular desorption at large to ablation at smaller spot sizes and a concomitant reduction in ion yields may be responsible for the observed spot size effects. The combined results indicate a complex interplay between tissue type, matrix crystallization, and laser-derived desorption/ablation and finally analyte ionization. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Determination of pulse profile characteristics of multi spot retinal photocoagulation lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Douglas McG; Makhzoum, Osama; Blackburn, John

    2015-10-01

    A system is described for determination of discrete pulse train characteristics of multi spot laser delivery systems for retinal photocoagulation. While photodiodes provide an ideal detection mechanism, measurement artifacts can potentially be introduced by the spatial pattern of the delivered beam relative to a discrete photodiode element. This problem was overcome by use of an integrating sphere to produce a uniform light field at the site of the photodiode detector. A basic current driven photodiode detection circuit incorporating an operational amplifier was used to generate a signal captured by a commercially available USB interface device at a rate of 10 kHz. Studies were undertaken of a Topcon Pascal Streamline laser system with output at a wavelength of 577 nm (yellow). This laser features the proprietary feature of 'Endpoint Management' ™ where pulses can be delivered as 100% of set energy levels with visible reaction on the retina and also at a reduced energy level to create potentially non visible but clinically effective lesions. Using the pulse train measurement device it was identified that the 'Endpoint Management' ™ delivery mode of pulses of lower energy was achieved by reducing the pulse duration of pulses for non-visible effect pulses while maintaining consistent beam power levels within the delivered pulse profile. The effect of eye geometry in determining safety and effectiveness of multi spot laser delivery for retinal photocoagulation is discussed. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reciprocal space mapping by spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We present an experimental approach for the recording of two-dimensional reciprocal space maps using spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). A specialized alignment procedure eliminates the shifting of LEED patterns on the screen which is commonly observed upon variation of the electron energy. After the alignment, a set of one-dimensional sections through the diffraction pattern is recorded at different energies. A freely available software tool is used to assemble the sections into a reciprocal space map. The necessary modifications of the Burr-Brown computer interface of the two Leybold and Omicron type SPA-LEED instruments are discussed and step-by-step instructions are given to adapt the SPA 4.1d software to the changed hardware. Au induced faceting of 4 deg. vicinal Si(001) is used as an example to demonstrate the technique

  10. Automated translating beam profiler for in situ laser beam spot-size and focal position measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, James

    2018-03-01

    We present a simple and convenient, high-resolution solution for automated laser-beam profiling with axial translation. The device is based on a Raspberry Pi computer, Pi Noir CMOS camera, stepper motor, and commercial translation stage. We also provide software to run the device. The CMOS sensor is sensitive over a large wavelength range between 300 and 1100 nm and can be translated over 25 mm along the beam axis. The sensor head can be reversed without changing its axial position, allowing for a quantitative estimate of beam overlap with counter-propagating laser beams. Although not limited to this application, the intended use for this device is the automated measurement of the focal position and spot-size of a Gaussian laser beam. We present example data of one such measurement to illustrate device performance.

  11. Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weidong; Mao, Ying Qing; Huang, Ruochun; Duan, Chaohui; Xi, Yun; Yang, Kai; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2014-01-31

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper offer several advantages compared to conventional serum/plasma samples: they do not require any phlebotomy or separation of blood by centrifugation; they are less invasive; they allow sample stability and shipment at room temperature; and they pose a negligible risk of infection with blood-borne viruses, such as HIV, HBV and HCV, to those who handle them. Therefore dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper can be a quick, convenient and inexpensive means of obtaining blood samples for biomarker discovery, disease screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-hospitalized, public health settings. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential application of dried blood spot samples (DBSS) in protein expression profiling using antibody array technology. First, optimal conditions for array assay performance using dried blood spot samples (DBSS) was established, including sample elution buffer, elution time, elution temperature and assay blocking buffer. Second, we analyzed dried blood spot samples (DBSS) using three distinct antibody array platforms, including sandwich-based antibody arrays, quantitative antibody arrays and biotin-label-based antibody arrays. In comparison with paired serum samples, detection of circulating proteins in dried blood spot samples (DBSS) correlated well for both low- and high-abundance proteins on all three antibody array platforms. In conclusion, our study strongly indicates the novel application of multiplex antibody array platforms to analyze dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper represents a viable, cost-effective method for protein profiling, biomarker discovery and disease screening in a large, population-based survey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Major urinary protein (MUP) profiles show dynamic changes rather than individual ‘barcode’ signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoß, M.; Luzynski, K.C.; Ante, M.; Miller, I.; Penn, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    House mice (Mus musculus) produce a variable number of major urinary proteins (MUPs), and studies suggest that each individual produces a unique MUP profile that provides a distinctive odor signature controlling individual and kin recognition. This ‘barcode hypothesis’ requires that MUP urinary profiles show high individual variability within populations and also high individual consistency over time, but tests of these assumptions are lacking. We analyzed urinary MUP profiles of 66 wild-caught house mice from eight populations using isoelectric focusing. We found that MUP profiles of wild male house mice are not individually unique, and though they were highly variable, closer inspection revealed that the variation strongly depended on MUP band type. The prominent (‘major) bands were surprisingly homogenous (and hence most MUPs are not polymorphic), but we also found inconspicuous (‘minor’) bands that were highly variable and therefore potential candidates for individual fingerprints. We also examined changes in urinary MUP profiles of 58 males over time (from 6 to 24 weeks of age), and found that individual MUP profiles and MUP concentration were surprisingly dynamic, and showed significant changes after puberty and during adulthood. Contrary to what we expected, however, the minor bands were the most variable over time, thus no good candidates for individual fingerprints. Although MUP profiles do not provide individual fingerprints, we found that MUP profiles were more similar among siblings than non-kin despite considerable fluctuation. Our findings show that MUP profiles are not highly stable over time, they do not show strong individual clustering, and thus challenge the barcode hypothesis. Within-individual dynamics of MUP profiles indicate a different function of MUPs in individual recognition than previously assumed and advocate an alternative hypothesis (‘dynamic changes’ hypothesis). PMID:26973837

  13. Major urinary protein (MUP) profiles show dynamic changes rather than individual 'barcode' signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoß, M; Luzynski, K C; Ante, M; Miller, I; Penn, D J

    2015-06-30

    House mice ( Mus musculus) produce a variable number of major urinary proteins (MUPs), and studies suggest that each individual produces a unique MUP profile that provides a distinctive odor signature controlling individual and kin recognition. This 'barcode hypothesis' requires that MUP urinary profiles show high individual variability within populations and also high individual consistency over time, but tests of these assumptions are lacking. We analyzed urinary MUP profiles of 66 wild-caught house mice from eight populations using isoelectric focusing. We found that MUP profiles of wild male house mice are not individually unique, and though they were highly variable, closer inspection revealed that the variation strongly depended on MUP band type. The prominent ('major) bands were surprisingly homogenous (and hence most MUPs are not polymorphic), but we also found inconspicuous ('minor') bands that were highly variable and therefore potential candidates for individual fingerprints. We also examined changes in urinary MUP profiles of 58 males over time (from 6 to 24 weeks of age), and found that individual MUP profiles and MUP concentration were surprisingly dynamic, and showed significant changes after puberty and during adulthood. Contrary to what we expected, however, the minor bands were the most variable over time, thus no good candidates for individual fingerprints. Although MUP profiles do not provide individual fingerprints, we found that MUP profiles were more similar among siblings than non-kin despite considerable fluctuation. Our findings show that MUP profiles are not highly stable over time, they do not show strong individual clustering, and thus challenge the barcode hypothesis. Within-individual dynamics of MUP profiles indicate a different function of MUPs in individual recognition than previously assumed and advocate an alternative hypothesis ('dynamic changes' hypothesis).

  14. Treatment of resistant tattoos using a new generation Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: influence of beam profile and spot size on clearance success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Syrus; Pfirrmann, Gudrun; Hammes, Stefan; Raulin, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Multiple treatments of resistant tattoos often result in fibrosis and visible textural changes that lessen response to subsequent treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of beam profile and spot size on clearance rates and side effects in the setting of resistant tattoos. Thirty-six professional, black tattoos (32 patients) were treated unsuccessfully with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (MedLite C3, HoyaConBio Inc., Fremont, CA). Because of therapy resistance all tattoos were re-treated using a new generation Nd:YAG laser (MedLite C6, HoyaConBio Inc.). Maximum energy fluence (E (max)), mean energy fluence, mean spot size, level of clearance, side effects and beam profile (irradiance distribution) of both laser systems were assessed and evaluated in a retrospective study. All tattoos were previously treated with the C3 laser at 1,064 nm using a mean E(max) of 5.8+/-0.8 J/cm(2) (range 3.8-7.5 J/cm(2)) as compared with a mean E(max) of 6.4+/-1.6 J/cm(2) (range 3.2-9.0 J/cm(2)) during the C6 treatment course. Corresponding spot sizes were larger during C6 treatments as compared with C3 (5.0+/-0.9 and 3.6+/-0.2 mm, respectively). The C6 laser had a "flat top" and homogenous profile regardless of the spot size. For the C3 laser the beam shape was "Gaussian," and the homogeneity was reduced by numerous micro-spikes and micro-nadirs. After the C6 treatment course 33.3% of the tattoos showed clearance of grade 1 (0-25%), 16.7% of grade 2 (26-50%), 16.7% of grade 3 (51-75%), 30.5% of grade 4 (76-95%), 2.8% of grade 5 (96-100%). The total rate of side effects due to C6 treatment was 8.3% in all tattoos (hyperpigmentation 5.6%, hypopigmentation 2.7%, textural changes/scars 0%). This clinical study documents for the first time the impact of a 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser with a more homogenous beam profile and a larger spot size on the management of resistant tattoos. Only a few treatment sessions were necessary to achieve an additional clearance with a low rate of

  15. Clinical profile and predictors of fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children from Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, Gerardo; Murillo-Benitez, Coral; Candia-Plata, Maria del Carmen; Moro, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an increasingly important cause of preventable mortality in children in Sonora, Mexico. Although early treatment with tetracycline has shown to prevent fatal outcome, the disease remains a life-threatening condition, particularly for children. This study describes the clinical factors associated with pediatric mortality due to RMSF in Sonora, in order to guide healthcare practices. This is a retrospective analysis of 104 children consecutively hospitalized at the major pediatric hospital of Sonora, diagnosed with RMSF between January 2004 and December 2013. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for fatal outcome. The case fatality ratio in this cohort was 20.2%. Children were hospitalized after a median of 6 days from onset of symptoms including fever (100%), rash involving palms and soles (88.5%) and headache (79.8%); 90.4% of fatal cases had low platelet counts (<50,000/μL) and 33.3% showed serum creatinine concentrations above the normal value. Acute kidney injury increased mortality, odds ratio (OR(adj)) = 4.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-16.2, as well as delay in treatment (≥ 5th day from onset) with doxycycline, OR(adj) = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.24-5.52 and hemorrhage, OR(adj) = 6.11, 95% CI: 1.89-19.69. RMSF is a public health problem in Sonora. Clinically, fatal cases differ from non-fatal cases in renal function and hemorrhagic manifestations, although these findings may occur too late for a timely intervention. First-line providers must be educated to harbor a timely suspicion of RMSF, and should provide empiric treatment with doxycycline when febrile patients first present for care.

  16. Microarray profiling shows distinct differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weining; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Tay, Hsien Ts’ung; Wu, Yonghui; Lim, Tony K. H.; Zheng, Lin; Song, In Chin; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Huynh, Hung; Tan, Patrick O. B.; Chow, Pierce K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in therapeutics, outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poor and there is an urgent need for efficacious systemic therapy. Unfortunately, drugs that are successful in preclinical studies often fail in the clinical setting, and we hypothesize that this is due to functional differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models. In this study, we attempt to answer this question by comparing tumor morphology and gene expression profiles between primary tumors, xenografts and HCC cell lines. Hep G2 cell lines and tumor cells from patient tumor explants were subcutaneously (ectopically) injected into the flank and orthotopically into liver parenchyma of Mus Musculus SCID mice. The mice were euthanized after two weeks. RNA was extracted from the tumors, and gene expression profiling was performed using the Gene Chip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0. Principal component analyses (PCA) and construction of dendrograms were conducted using Partek genomics suite. PCA showed that the commonly used HepG2 cell line model and its xenograft counterparts were vastly different from all fresh primary tumors. Expression profiles of primary tumors were also significantly divergent from their counterpart patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, regardless of the site of implantation. Xenografts from the same primary tumors were more likely to cluster together regardless of site of implantation, although heat maps showed distinct differences in gene expression profiles between orthotopic and ectopic models. The data presented here challenges the utility of routinely used preclinical models. Models using HepG2 were vastly different from primary tumors and PDXs, suggesting that this is not clinically representative. Surprisingly, site of implantation (orthotopic versus ectopic) resulted in limited impact on gene expression profiles, and in both scenarios xenografts differed significantly from the original primary tumors, challenging the long

  17. Genome profiling of sterol synthesis shows convergent evolution in parasites and guides chemotherapeutic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fügi, Matthias A; Gunasekera, Kapila; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Guan, Xueli; Wenk, Markus R; Mäser, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Sterols are an essential class of lipids in eukaryotes, where they serve as structural components of membranes and play important roles as signaling molecules. Sterols are also of high pharmacological significance: cholesterol-lowering drugs are blockbusters in human health, and inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis are widely used as antifungals. Inhibitors of ergosterol synthesis are also being developed for Chagas's disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we develop an in silico pipeline to globally evaluate sterol metabolism and perform comparative genomics. We generate a library of hidden Markov model-based profiles for 42 sterol biosynthetic enzymes, which allows expressing the genomic makeup of a given species as a numerical vector. Hierarchical clustering of these vectors functionally groups eukaryote proteomes and reveals convergent evolution, in particular metabolic reduction in obligate endoparasites. We experimentally explore sterol metabolism by testing a set of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors against trypanosomatids, Plasmodium falciparum, Giardia, and mammalian cells, and by quantifying the expression levels of sterol biosynthetic genes during the different life stages of T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. The phenotypic data correlate with genomic makeup for simvastatin, which showed activity against trypanosomatids. Other findings, such as the activity of terbinafine against Giardia, are not in agreement with the genotypic profile.

  18. Vitamin D supplementation and lipid profile: what does the best available evidence show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoumas, Dimitrios

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin D supplements have increasingly been used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Historically, effects of the vitamin on the cardiovascular (CV) system have been proposed and demonstrated in the literature, including benefits on serum lipids. Although observational studies support an association between increased serum vitamin D levels and a favorable lipid profile, interventional studies have shown no effects. This review presents and analyzes all the related randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in the literature from 1987 to present. A systematic literature search was conducted via MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE and, out of 19 relevant RCTs identified, only one reported benefits of vitamin D supplementation on lipid profile parameters, while the rest showed no effects or even adverse outcomes, which are highlighted by the only meta-analysis in the field. Attempts to explain the paradox of beneficial findings of observational studies versus discouraging results of interventional studies have been made and the most popular suggests that high serum vitamin D concentrations may not be the cause of good health but its outcome instead, as healthy people are more likely to stay outdoors longer and have better eating habits. For definitive answers to be given, large, well-designed RCTs need to be conducted that will take into account and adjust for dietary consumption as well as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, both of which have been shown to be associated with the CV system. Until then, recommendations for vitamin D supplementation should not change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Online Professional Profiles: Health Care and Library Researchers Show Off Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Tara J

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly digital world, online profiles can help health care and library professionals showcase their research and scholarly work. By sharing information about their investigations, studies, and projects, health care and library researchers can elevate their personal brand and connect with like-minded individuals. This column explores different types of online professional profiles and addresses some of the concerns that come with using them. A list of online professional profile and platform examples is also provided.

  20. Improved intra-array and interarray normalization of peptide microarray phosphorylation for phosphorylome and kinome profiling by rational selection of relevant spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholma, Jetse; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Joore, Jos; Hulsman, Marc; Schivo, Stefano; List, Alan F.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Post, Janine N.

    2016-01-01

    Massive parallel analysis using array technology has become the mainstay for analysis of genomes and transcriptomes. Analogously, the predominance of phosphorylation as a regulator of cellular metabolism has fostered the development of peptide arrays of kinase consensus substrates that allow the charting of cellular phosphorylation events (often called kinome profiling). However, whereas the bioinformatical framework for expression array analysis is well-developed, no advanced analysis tools are yet available for kinome profiling. Especially intra-array and interarray normalization of peptide array phosphorylation remain problematic, due to the absence of “housekeeping” kinases and the obvious fallacy of the assumption that different experimental conditions should exhibit equal amounts of kinase activity. Here we describe the development of analysis tools that reliably quantify phosphorylation of peptide arrays and that allow normalization of the signals obtained. We provide a method for intraslide gradient correction and spot quality control. We describe a novel interarray normalization procedure, named repetitive signal enhancement, RSE, which provides a mathematical approach to limit the false negative results occuring with the use of other normalization procedures. Using in silico and biological experiments we show that employing such protocols yields superior insight into cellular physiology as compared to classical analysis tools for kinome profiling. PMID:27225531

  1. Variation-preserving normalization unveils blind spots in gene expression profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Carlos P.; Gomes, Susana I. L.; Amorim, Mónica J. B.; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.

    2017-01-01

    RNA-Seq and gene expression microarrays provide comprehensive profiles of gene activity, but lack of reproducibility has hindered their application. A key challenge in the data analysis is the normalization of gene expression levels, which is currently performed following the implicit assumption that most genes are not differentially expressed. Here, we present a mathematical approach to normalization that makes no assumption of this sort. We have found that variation in gene expression is much larger than currently believed, and that it can be measured with available assays. Our results also explain, at least partially, the reproducibility problems encountered in transcriptomics studies. We expect that this improvement in detection will help efforts to realize the full potential of gene expression profiling, especially in analyses of cellular processes involving complex modulations of gene expression. PMID:28276435

  2. Metabolic profiles show specific mitochondrial toxicities in vitro in myotube cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qiuwei; Vu, Heather; Liu Liping; Wang, Ting-Chuan; Schaefer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity has been a serious concern, not only in preclinical drug development but also in clinical trials. In mitochondria, there are several distinct metabolic processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and each process contains discrete but often intimately linked steps. Interruption in any one of those steps can cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Detection of inhibition to OXPHOS can be complicated in vivo because intermediate endogenous metabolites can be recycled in situ or circulated systemically for metabolism in other organs or tissues. Commonly used assays for evaluating mitochondrial function are often applied to ex vivo or in vitro samples; they include various enzymatic or protein assays, as well as functional assays such as measurement of oxygen consumption rate, membrane potential, or acidification rates. Metabolomics provides quantitative profiles of overall metabolic changes that can aid in the unraveling of explicit biochemical details of mitochondrial inhibition while providing a holistic view and heuristic understanding of cellular bioenergetics. In this paper, we showed the application of quantitative NMR metabolomics to in vitro myotube cells treated with mitochondrial toxicants, rotenone and antimycin A. The close coupling of the TCA cycle to the electron transfer chain (ETC) in OXPHOS enables specific diagnoses of inhibition to ETC complexes by discrete biochemical changes in the TCA cycle.

  3. Gene expression profiling in gill tissues of White spot syndrome virus infected black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, M S; Gomathi, A; Gopikrishna, G; Ponniah, A G

    2015-06-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) continues to be the most devastating viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp the world over. The genome of WSSV has been deciphered and characterized from three geographical isolates and significant progress has been made in developing various molecular diagnostic methods to detect the virus. However, the information on host immune gene response to WSSV pathogenesis is limited. Microarray analysis was carried out as an approach to analyse the gene expression in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in response to WSSV infection. Gill tissues collected from the WSSV infected shrimp at 6, 24, 48 h and moribund stage were analysed for differential gene expression. Shrimp cDNAs of 40,059 unique sequences were considered for designing the microarray chip. The Cy3-labeled cRNA derived from healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp was subjected to hybridization with all the DNA spots in the microarray which revealed 8,633 and 11,147 as up- and down-regulated genes respectively at different time intervals post infection. The altered expression of these numerous genes represented diverse functions such as immune response, osmoregulation, apoptosis, nucleic acid binding, energy and metabolism, signal transduction, stress response and molting. The changes in gene expression profiles observed by microarray analysis provides molecular insights and framework of genes which are up- and down-regulated at different time intervals during WSSV infection in shrimp. The microarray data was validated by Real Time analysis of four differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis (translationally controlled tumor protein, inhibitor of apoptosis protein, ubiquitin conjugated enzyme E2 and caspase) for gene expression levels. The role of apoptosis related genes in WSSV infected shrimp is discussed herein.

  4. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  5. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  6. Cytokine profiles show heterogeneity of interferon-β response in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegen, Harald; Adrianto, Indra; Lessard, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum cytokine profiles for their utility to determine the heterogeneous responses to interferon (IFN)-β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome receiving de novo IFN-β treatment...... were included in this prospective, observational study. Number of relapses and changes in disability were assessed 2 years prior to and 2 years after initiation of treatment. Sera were collected at baseline and after 3 months on therapy. Cytokine levels in sera were assessed by Luminex multiplex assays...

  7. NMR-Based Metabolic Profiling of Field-Grown Leaves from Sugar Beet Plants Harbouring Different Levels of Resistance to Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Sekiyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora leaf spot (CLS is one of the most serious leaf diseases for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. worldwide. The breeding of sugar beet cultivars with both high CLS resistance and high yield is a major challenge for breeders. In this study, we report the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolic profiling of field-grown leaves for a subset of sugar beet genotypes harbouring different levels of CLS resistance. Leaves were collected from 12 sugar beet genotypes at four time points: seedling, early growth, root enlargement, and disease development stages. 1H-NMR spectra of foliar metabolites soluble in a deuterium-oxide (D2O-based buffer were acquired and subjected to multivariate analyses. A principal component analysis (PCA of the NMR data from the sugar beet leaves shows clear differences among the growth stages. At the later time points, the sugar and glycine betaine contents were increased, whereas the choline content was decreased. The relationship between the foliar metabolite profiles and resistance level to CLS was examined by combining partial least squares projection to latent structure (PLS or orthogonal PLS (OPLS analysis and univariate analyses. It was difficult to build a robust model for predicting precisely the disease severity indices (DSIs of each genotype; however, GABA and Gln differentiated susceptible genotypes (genotypes with weak resistance from resistant genotypes (genotypes with resistance greater than a moderate level before inoculation tests. The results suggested that breeders might exclude susceptible genotypes from breeding programs based on foliar metabolites profiled without inoculation tests, which require an enormous amount of time and effort.

  8. Urinary Metabolite Profiles in Premature Infants Show Early Postnatal Metabolic Adaptation and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel J. Moltu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during the early postnatal period, along with metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, oxoglutarate, fumarate and citrate. The metabolite changes correlated with postmenstrual age. Moreover, we observed elevated threonine and glycine levels in first-week urine samples of the small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age as compared to the appropriate for gestational age infants. Conclusion: This first nutri-metabolomics study in premature infants demonstrates that the physiological adaptation during the fetal-postnatal transition as well as maturation influences metabolism during the breastfeeding period. Elevated glycine and threonine levels were found in the first week urine samples of the SGA infants and emerged as potential biomarkers of an altered metabolic phenotype.

  9. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... of typical analytical workloads and real spot price traces. SpotADAPT's suggested deployments are comparable to the theoretically optimal ones, and in particular, it shows good cost benefits for the budget optimization -- on average SpotADAPT is at most 0.3% more expensive than the theoretically optimal...

  10. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM or chicken (CM, and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014, with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001. Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the

  11. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study...... the absorption of phenolic acids. The difference between the artery and the vein for all phenolic acids was small, indicating that the release of phenolic acids in the large intestine was not sufficient to create a porto-arterial concentration difference. Although, the porto-arterial difference was small...... consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism...

  12. Different methods to quantify Listeria monocytogenesbiofilms cells showed different profile in their viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizziane Kretli Winkelströter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen able to adhere and to form biofilms in several materials commonly present in food processing plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes attached to abiotic surface, after treatment with sanitizers, by culture method, microscopy and Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR. Biofilms of L. monocytogenes were obtained in stainless steel coupons immersed in Brain Heart Infusion Broth, under agitation at 37 °C for 24 h. The methods selected for this study were based on plate count, microscopic count with the aid of viability dyes (CTC-DAPI, and qPCR. Results of culture method showed that peroxyacetic acid was efficient to kill sessile L. monocytogenes populations, while sodium hypochlorite was only partially effective to kill attached L. monocytogenes (p < 0.05. When, viability dyes (CTC/DAPI combined with fluorescence microscopy and qPCR were used and lower counts were found after treatments (p < 0.05. Selective quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes by qPCR using EMA revelead that the pre-treatment with EMA was not appropriate since it also inhibited amplification of DNA from live cells by ca. 2 log. Thus, the use of CTC counts was the best method to count viable cells in biofilms.

  13. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  14. Spot profile analysis and lifetime mapping in ultrafast electron diffraction: Lattice excitation of self-organized Ge nanostructures on Si(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Frigge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast high energy electron diffraction in reflection geometry is employed to study the structural dynamics of self-organized Germanium hut-, dome-, and relaxed clusters on Si(001 upon femtosecond laser excitation. Utilizing the difference in size and strain state the response of hut- and dome clusters can be distinguished by a transient spot profile analysis. Surface diffraction from {105}-type facets provide exclusive information on hut clusters. A pixel-by-pixel analysis of the dynamics of the entire diffraction pattern gives time constants of 40, 160, and 390 ps, which are assigned to the cooling time constants for hut-, dome-, and relaxed clusters.

  15. Bier spots

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Yorulmaz,; Seray Kulcu Cakmak; Esra Ar?; Ferda Artuz

    2015-01-01

    Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elu...

  16. Helicobacter pylori strains from a Nigerian cohort show divergent antibiotic resistance rates and a uniform pathogenicity profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Harrison

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori is a factor preventing its successful eradication. Particularly in developing countries, resistance against commonly used antibiotics is widespread. Here, we present an epidemiological study from Nigeria with 111 isolates. We analyzed the associated disease outcome, and performed a detailed characterization of these isolated strains with respect to their antibiotic susceptibility and their virulence characteristics. Furthermore, statistical analysis was performed on microbiological data as well as patient information and the results of the gastroenterological examination. We found that the variability concerning the production of virulence factors between strains was minimal, with 96.4% of isolates being CagA-positive and 92.8% producing detectable VacA levels. In addition, high frequency of bacterial resistance was observed for metronidazole (99.1%, followed by amoxicillin (33.3%, clarithromycin (14.4% and tetracycline (4.5%. In conclusion, this study indicated that the infection rate of H. pylori infection within the cohort in the present study was surprisingly low (36.6%. Furthermore, an average gastric pathology was observed by histological grading and bacterial isolates showed a uniform pathogenicity profile while indicating divergent antibiotic resistance rates.

  17. Developmental profiles in tick water balance with a focus on the new Rocky Mountain spotted fever vector, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, J A; Benoit, J B; Rellinger, E J; Tank, J L

    2006-12-01

    Recent reports indicate that the common brown dog tick, or kennel tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) is a competent vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the U.S.A. This tick is of concern to public health because of its high frequency of contact, as it has a unique ability to thrive within human homes. To assess the moisture requirements necessary for survival, water balance characteristics were determined for each developmental stage, from egg to adult. This is the first time that water relations in ticks have been assessed throughout the complete lifecycle. Notably, R. sanguineus is differentially adapted for life in a dry environment, as characterized by a suppressed water loss rate distinctive for each stage that distinguishes it from other ticks. Analysis of its dehydration tolerance limit and percentage body water content provides no evidence to suggest that the various stages of this tick can function more effectively containing less water, indicating that this species is modified for water conservation, not desiccation hardiness. All stages, eggs excepted, absorb water vapour from the air and can drink free water to replenish water stores. Developmentally, a shift in water balance strategies occurs in the transition from the larva, where the emphasis is on water gain (water vapour absorption from drier air), to the adult, where the emphasis is on water retention (low water loss rate). These results on the xerophilic-nature of R. sanguineus identify overhydration as the primary water stress, indicating that this tick is less dependent upon a moisture-rich habitat for survival, which matches its preference for a dry environment. We suggest that the controlled, host-confined conditions of homes and kennels have played a key role in promoting the ubiquitous distribution of R. sanguineus by creating isolated arid environments that enable this tick to establish within regions that are unfavourable for maintaining water balance.

  18. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  19. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V; Sullivan, B B; Maller, J; Golding, J; Skuse, D; Ring, S; Evans, D M; Zammit, S; Fisher, S E; Neale, B M; Anney, R J L; Ripke, S; Hollegaard, M V; Werge, T; Ronald, A; Grove, J; Hougaard, D M; Børglum, A D; Mortensen, P B; Daly, M J; Davey Smith, G

    2018-02-01

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait. Social communication difficulties were measured in typically-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34 241 cases, 45 604 controls, 1235 trios) were either obtained through the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) or the Danish iPSYCH project. Overlap in genetic influences between ASD and social communication difficulties during development decreased with age, both in the PGC-ASD and the iPSYCH-ASD sample. Genetic overlap between schizophrenia and social communication difficulties, by contrast, persisted across age, as observed within two independent PGC-SCZ2 subsamples, and showed an increase in magnitude for traits assessed during later adolescence. ASD- and schizophrenia-related polygenic effects were unrelated to each other and changes in trait-disorder links reflect the heterogeneity of genetic factors influencing social communication difficulties during childhood versus later adolescence. Thus, both clinical ASD and schizophrenia share some genetic influences with impairments in social communication, but reveal distinct developmental profiles in their genetic links, consistent with the onset of clinical symptoms.

  20. Bier spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elucidated, Bier spots have been suggested to be a vascular anomaly caused by vasoconstriction of small vessels. In addition, several diseases have been proposed to be associated with Bier spots, including scleroderma renal crisis, cryoglobulinemia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, alopecia areata and hypoplasia of the aorta, although it has not been shown whether these associations are casual or coincidental. The clinical presentation of Bier spots is quite typical. These tiny whitish macules easily become prominent when the affected limb is placed in a dependent position and fade away when the limb is raised. Here we report a case of Bier spots in a 32-year-old male patient with characteristical clinical manifestations.

  1. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  2. Spotted inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions

  3. A Mouse Model of Hyperproliferative Human Epithelium Validated by Keratin Profiling Shows an Aberrant Cytoskeletal Response to Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Zhussupbekova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A validated animal model would assist with research on the immunological consequences of the chronic expression of stress keratins KRT6, KRT16, and KRT17, as observed in human pre-malignant hyperproliferative epithelium. Here we examine keratin gene expression profile in skin from mice expressing the E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 (K14E7 demonstrating persistently hyperproliferative epithelium, in nontransgenic mouse skin, and in hyperproliferative actinic keratosis lesions from human skin. We demonstrate that K14E7 mouse skin overexpresses stress keratins in a similar manner to human actinic keratoses, that overexpression is a consequence of epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7, and that overexpression further increases in response to injury. As stress keratins modify local immunity and epithelial cell function and differentiation, the K14E7 mouse model should permit study of how continued overexpression of stress keratins impacts on epithelial tumor development and on local innate and adaptive immunity.

  4. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  5. Transcriptome profiling of low temperature-treated cassava apical shoots showed dynamic responses of tropical plant to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava is an important tropical root crop adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and acid soils. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Thus far, there is limited information about gene regulation and signalling pathways related to the cold stress response in cassava. The development of microarray technology has accelerated the study of global transcription profiling under certain conditions. Results A 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20,840 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in apical shoots of cassava subjected to cold at 7°C for 0, 4 and 9 h. A total of 508 transcripts were identified as early cold-responsive genes in which 319 sequences had functional descriptions when aligned with Arabidopsis proteins. Gene ontology annotation analysis identified many cold-relevant categories, including 'Response to abiotic and biotic stimulus', 'Response to stress', 'Transcription factor activity', and 'Chloroplast'. Various stress-associated genes with a wide range of biological functions were found, such as signal transduction components (e.g., MAP kinase 4, transcription factors (TFs, e.g., RAP2.11, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes (e.g., catalase 2, as well as photosynthesis-related genes (e.g., PsaL. Seventeen major TF families including many well-studied members (e.g., AP2-EREBP were also involved in the early response to cold stress. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis uncovered many important pathways, such as 'Plant hormone signal transduction' and 'Starch and sucrose metabolism'. Furthermore, the expression changes of 32 genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, most of the tested stress-responsive genes were primarily expressed in mature leaves, stem cambia, and fibrous roots rather than apical buds and young leaves. As a response to cold stress in cassava, an increase

  6. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  7. Genome-wide expression profiling shows transcriptional reprogramming in Fusarium graminearum by Fusarium graminearum virus 1-DK21 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Won

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain-DK21 (FgV1-DK21 is a mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to F. graminearum, which is the primary phytopathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB disease in many cereals. Understanding the interaction between mycoviruses and plant pathogenic fungi is necessary for preventing damage caused by F. graminearum. Therefore, we investigated important cellular regulatory processes in a host containing FgV1-DK21 as compared to an uninfected parent using a transcriptional approach. Results Using a 3′-tiling microarray covering all known F. graminearum genes, we carried out genome-wide expression analyses of F. graminearum at two different time points. At the early point of growth of an infected strain as compared to an uninfected strain, genes associated with protein synthesis, including ribosome assembly, nucleolus, and ribosomal RNA processing, were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes required for transcription and signal transduction, including fungal-specific transcription factors and cAMP signaling, respectively, were actively up-regulated. In contrast, genes involved in various metabolic pathways, particularly in producing carboxylic acids, aromatic amino acids, nitrogen compounds, and polyamines, showed dramatic down-regulation at the early time point. Moreover, genes associated with transport systems localizing to transmembranes were down-regulated at both time points. Conclusion This is the first report of global change in the prominent cellular pathways in the Fusarium host containing FgV1-DK21. The significant increase in transcripts for transcription and translation machinery in fungal host cells seems to be related to virus replication. In addition, significant down-regulation of genes required for metabolism and transporting systems in a fungal host containing the virus appears to be related to the host defense mechanism and fungal virulence. Taken together

  8. The transcriptional profile of mesenchymal stem cell populations in primary osteoporosis is distinct and shows overexpression of osteogenic inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Benisch

    Full Text Available Primary osteoporosis is an age-related disease characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis. While the resorptive aspect of the disease has been studied intensely, less is known about the anabolic part of the syndrome or presumptive deficiencies in bone regeneration. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are the primary source of osteogenic regeneration. In the present study we aimed to unravel whether MSC biology is directly involved in the pathophysiology of the disease and therefore performed microarray analyses of hMSC of elderly patients (79-94 years old suffering from osteoporosis (hMSC-OP. In comparison to age-matched controls we detected profound changes in the transcriptome in hMSC-OP, e.g. enhanced mRNA expression of known osteoporosis-associated genes (LRP5, RUNX2, COL1A1 and of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis (CSF1, PTH1R, but most notably of genes coding for inhibitors of WNT and BMP signaling, such as Sclerostin and MAB21L2. These candidate genes indicate intrinsic deficiencies in self-renewal and differentiation potential in osteoporotic stem cells. We also compared both hMSC-OP and non-osteoporotic hMSC-old of elderly donors to hMSC of ∼30 years younger donors and found that the transcriptional changes acquired between the sixth and the ninth decade of life differed widely between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic stem cells. In addition, we compared the osteoporotic transcriptome to long term-cultivated, senescent hMSC and detected some signs for pre-senescence in hMSC-OP.Our results suggest that in primary osteoporosis the transcriptomes of hMSC populations show distinct signatures and little overlap with non-osteoporotic aging, although we detected some hints for senescence-associated changes. While there are remarkable inter-individual variations as expected for polygenetic diseases, we could identify many susceptibility genes for osteoporosis known from genetic studies. We also found new candidates, e.g. MAB21L

  9. TSH IRMA of dried blood spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tojinda, N.; Pattanachak, C.; Chongchirasiri, S.; Pattanachak, S.; Putrasreni, N.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.

    1990-01-01

    TSH determination is most useful for screening of neonatal hypothyroid in the population in iodine deficient areas. The NETRIA IRMA method for serum TSH was applied for blood-spot TSH. Cord blood on SS No. 903 filter paper was left dry overnight. The spot of 6 mm diameter, one/tube, was mixed with an assay buffer, diluted labelled m-anti-TSH, and diluted anti-TSH-solid phase. The mixture was rotated for 22-24 hours. After washing twice with wash buffer, it was counted for 1 minute. The standard curve with 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mIU/L whole blood was obtained with the maximum binding of 25%. The precision profile was satisfactory with %CV of 0 C) or 4 0 C or -20 0 C. The correlation between serum and blood-spot TSH values (n=120) showed r of 0.9541 and y=1.6123 (BS-TSH) +1.382. The mean of normal cord blood spot TSH (n=142) was 5.27 mIU/L. The technique was found to be precise, sensitive and easy to perform. Mass screening with this developed method is underway

  10. Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Kyrala, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  12. Fast spot-based multiscale simulations of granular drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Wong, Yee Lok; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2009-05-22

    We develop a multiscale simulation method for dense granular drainage, based on the recently proposed spot model, where the particle packing flows by local collective displacements in response to diffusing"spots'" of interstitial free volume. By comparing with discrete-element method (DEM) simulations of 55,000 spheres in a rectangular silo, we show that the spot simulation is able to approximately capture many features of drainage, such as packing statistics, particle mixing, and flow profiles. The spot simulation runs two to three orders of magnitude faster than DEM, making it an appropriate method for real-time control or optimization. We demonstrateextensions for modeling particle heaping and avalanching at the free surface, and for simulating the boundary layers of slower flow near walls. We show that the spot simulations are robust and flexible, by demonstrating that they can be used in both event-driven and fixed timestep approaches, and showing that the elastic relaxation step used in the model can be applied much less frequently and still create good results.

  13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  14. TV spots' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  15. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  16. Transcriptome profiling in conifers and the PiceaGenExpress database show patterns of diversification within gene families and interspecific conservation in vascular gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raherison Elie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conifers have very large genomes (13 to 30 Gigabases that are mostly uncharacterized although extensive cDNA resources have recently become available. This report presents a global overview of transcriptome variation in a conifer tree and documents conservation and diversity of gene expression patterns among major vegetative tissues. Results An oligonucleotide microarray was developed from Picea glauca and P. sitchensis cDNA datasets. It represents 23,853 unique genes and was shown to be suitable for transcriptome profiling in several species. A comparison of secondary xylem and phelloderm tissues showed that preferential expression in these vascular tissues was highly conserved among Picea spp. RNA-Sequencing strongly confirmed tissue preferential expression and provided a robust validation of the microarray design. A small database of transcription profiles called PiceaGenExpress was developed from over 150 hybridizations spanning eight major tissue types. In total, transcripts were detected for 92% of the genes on the microarray, in at least one tissue. Non-annotated genes were predominantly expressed at low levels in fewer tissues than genes of known or predicted function. Diversity of expression within gene families may be rapidly assessed from PiceaGenExpress. In conifer trees, dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA osmotic regulation proteins occur in large gene families compared to angiosperms. Strong contrasts and low diversity was observed in the dehydrin family, while diverse patterns suggested a greater degree of diversification among LEAs. Conclusion Together, the oligonucleotide microarray and the PiceaGenExpress database represent the first resource of this kind for gymnosperm plants. The spruce transcriptome analysis reported here is expected to accelerate genetic studies in the large and important group comprised of conifer trees.

  17. DNA Methylation Profiling of Human Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Heroin Users Shows Significant Difference between Genomic Contexts of Hyper- and Hypomethylation and a Younger Epigenetic Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kozlenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed Illumina 450 K Infinium microarrays to profile DNA methylation (DNAm in neuronal nuclei separated by fluorescence-activated sorting from the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of heroin users who died from heroin overdose (N = 37, suicide completers (N = 22 with no evidence of heroin use and from control subjects who did not abuse illicit drugs and died of non-suicide causes (N = 28. We identified 1298 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs between heroin users and controls, and 454 DMSs between suicide completers and controls (p < 0.001. DMSs and corresponding genes (DMGs in heroin users showed significant differences in the preferential context of hyper and hypo DM. HyperDMSs were enriched in gene bodies and exons but depleted in promoters, whereas hypoDMSs were enriched in promoters and enhancers. In addition, hyperDMGs showed preference for genes expressed specifically by glutamatergic as opposed to GABAergic neurons and enrichment for axonogenesis- and synaptic-related gene ontology categories, whereas hypoDMGs were enriched for transcription factor activity- and gene expression regulation-related terms. Finally, we found that the DNAm-based “epigenetic age” of neurons from heroin users was younger than that in controls. Suicide-related results were more difficult to interpret. Collectively, these findings suggest that the observed DNAm differences could represent functionally significant marks of heroin-associated plasticity in the OFC.

  18. Implication of spot position error on plan quality and patient safety in pencil-beam-scanning proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Juan; Beltran, Chris J., E-mail: beltran.chris@mayo.edu; Herman, Michael G. [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively and systematically assess dosimetric effects induced by spot positioning error as a function of spot spacing (SS) on intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan quality and to facilitate evaluation of safety tolerance limits on spot position. Methods: Spot position errors (PE) ranging from 1 to 2 mm were simulated. Simple plans were created on a water phantom, and IMPT plans were calculated on two pediatric patients with a brain tumor of 28 and 3 cc, respectively, using a commercial planning system. For the phantom, a uniform dose was delivered to targets located at different depths from 10 to 20 cm with various field sizes from 2{sup 2} to 15{sup 2} cm{sup 2}. Two nominal spot sizes, 4.0 and 6.6 mm of 1 σ in water at isocenter, were used for treatment planning. The SS ranged from 0.5 σ to 1.5 σ, which is 2–6 mm for the small spot size and 3.3–9.9 mm for the large spot size. Various perturbation scenarios of a single spot error and systematic and random multiple spot errors were studied. To quantify the dosimetric effects, percent dose error (PDE) depth profiles and the value of percent dose error at the maximum dose difference (PDE [ΔDmax]) were used for evaluation. Results: A pair of hot and cold spots was created per spot shift. PDE[ΔDmax] is found to be a complex function of PE, SS, spot size, depth, and global spot distribution that can be well defined in simple models. For volumetric targets, the PDE [ΔDmax] is not noticeably affected by the change of field size or target volume within the studied ranges. In general, reducing SS decreased the dose error. For the facility studied, given a single spot error with a PE of 1.2 mm and for both spot sizes, a SS of 1σ resulted in a 2% maximum dose error; a SS larger than 1.25 σ substantially increased the dose error and its sensitivity to PE. A similar trend was observed in multiple spot errors (both systematic and random errors). Systematic PE can lead to noticeable hot

  19. An online real time ultrasonic NDT system for the quality control of spot welding in the automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athi, N; Wylie, S R; Cullen, J D; Al-Jader, M; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Shaw, A

    2009-01-01

    Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry. The quality of the welds depends on the profile of the spot welding electrode cap. The increased use of zinc coated steel in the industry increases wear rate of the caps, making quality control more difficult. This paper presents a novel online real time ultrasonic NDE system for resistance spot welding which evaluates every weld as it is formed. SEM results are presented to show the alloying of the electrode caps.

  20. An online real time ultrasonic NDT system for the quality control of spot welding in the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athi, N.; Wylie, S. R.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Jader, M.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.

    2009-07-01

    Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry. The quality of the welds depends on the profile of the spot welding electrode cap. The increased use of zinc coated steel in the industry increases wear rate of the caps, making quality control more difficult. This paper presents a novel online real time ultrasonic NDE system for resistance spot welding which evaluates every weld as it is formed. SEM results are presented to show the alloying of the electrode caps.

  1. Human colon cancer profiles show differential microRNA expression depending on mismatch repair status and are characteristic of undifferentiated proliferative states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarver, Aaron L; Cunningham, Julie M; Subramanian, Subbaya; Wang, Liang; Smyrk, Tom C; Rodrigues, Cecilia MP; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Steer, Clifford J; French, Amy J; Borralho, Pedro M; Thayanithy, Venugopal; Oberg, Ann L; Silverstein, Kevin AT; Morlan, Bruce W; Riska, Shaun M; Boardman, Lisa A

    2009-01-01

    Colon cancer arises from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations to normal colonic tissue. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding regulatory RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Differential miRNA expression in cancer versus normal tissue is a common event and may be pivotal for tumor onset and progression. To identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in tumors and tumor subtypes, we carried out highly sensitive expression profiling of 735 miRNAs on samples obtained from a statistically powerful set of tumors (n = 80) and normal colon tissue (n = 28) and validated a subset of this data by qRT-PCR. Tumor specimens showed highly significant and large fold change differential expression of the levels of 39 miRNAs including miR-135b, miR-96, miR-182, miR-183, miR-1, and miR-133a, relative to normal colon tissue. Significant differences were also seen in 6 miRNAs including miR-31 and miR-592, in the direct comparison of tumors that were deficient or proficient for mismatch repair. Examination of the genomic regions containing differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that they were also differentially methylated in colon cancer at a far greater rate than would be expected by chance. A network of interactions between these miRNAs and genes associated with colon cancer provided evidence for the role of these miRNAs as oncogenes by attenuation of tumor suppressor genes. Colon tumors show differential expression of miRNAs depending on mismatch repair status. miRNA expression in colon tumors has an epigenetic component and altered expression that may reflect a reversion to regulatory programs characteristic of undifferentiated proliferative developmental states

  2. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  3. Advanced enzymology, expression profile and immune response of Clonorchis sinensis hexokinase show its application potential for prevention and control of clonorchiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingjin Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 35 million people are infected with Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis globally, of whom 15 million are in China. Glycolytic enzymes are recognized as crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for vaccine and drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK, as the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was investigated in the current study.There were differences in spatial structure and affinities for hexoses and phosphate donors between CsHK and HKs from humans or rats, the definitive hosts of C. sinensis. Effectors (AMP, PEP, and citrate and a small molecular inhibitor regulated the enzymatic activity of rCsHK, and various allosteric systems were detected. CsHK was distributed in the worm extensively as well as in liver tissue and serum from C. sinensis infected rats. Furthermore, high-level specific IgG1 and IgG2a were induced in rats by immunization with rCsHK. The enzymatic activity of CsHK was suppressed by the antibody in vitro. Additionally, the survival of C. sinensis was inhibited by the antibody in vivo and in vitro.Due to differences in putative spatial structure and enzymology between CsHK and HK from the host, its extensive distribution in adult worms, and its expression profile as a component of excretory/secretory products, together with its good immunogenicity and immunoreactivity, as a key glycolytic enzyme, CsHK shows potential as a vaccine and as a promising drug target for Clonorchiasis.

  4. Advanced enzymology, expression profile and immune response of Clonorchis sinensis hexokinase show its application potential for prevention and control of clonorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingjin; Yu, Jinyun; Tang, Zeli; Xie, Zhizhi; Lin, Zhipeng; Sun, Hengchang; Wan, Shuo; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 35 million people are infected with Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) globally, of whom 15 million are in China. Glycolytic enzymes are recognized as crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for vaccine and drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK), as the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was investigated in the current study. There were differences in spatial structure and affinities for hexoses and phosphate donors between CsHK and HKs from humans or rats, the definitive hosts of C. sinensis. Effectors (AMP, PEP, and citrate) and a small molecular inhibitor regulated the enzymatic activity of rCsHK, and various allosteric systems were detected. CsHK was distributed in the worm extensively as well as in liver tissue and serum from C. sinensis infected rats. Furthermore, high-level specific IgG1 and IgG2a were induced in rats by immunization with rCsHK. The enzymatic activity of CsHK was suppressed by the antibody in vitro. Additionally, the survival of C. sinensis was inhibited by the antibody in vivo and in vitro. Due to differences in putative spatial structure and enzymology between CsHK and HK from the host, its extensive distribution in adult worms, and its expression profile as a component of excretory/secretory products, together with its good immunogenicity and immunoreactivity, as a key glycolytic enzyme, CsHK shows potential as a vaccine and as a promising drug target for Clonorchiasis.

  5. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  6. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  7. SU-E-T-510: Interplay Between Spots Sizes, Spot / Line Spacing and Motion in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, TK

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In proton beam configuration for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT), one can define the spacing between spots and lines of scanning as a ratio of given spot size. If the spacing increases, the number of spots decreases which can potentially decrease scan time, and so can whole treatment time, and vice versa. However, if the spacing is too large, the uniformity of scanned field decreases. Also, the field uniformity can be affected by motion during SSPT beam delivery. In the present study, the interplay between spot/ line spacing and motion is investigated. Methods We used four Gaussian-shape spot sizes with 0.5cm, 1.0cm, 1.5cm, and 2.0cm FWHM, three spot/line spacing that creates uniform field profile which are 1/3*FWHM, σ/3*FWHM and 2/3*FWHM, and three random motion amplitudes within, +/−0.3mm, +/−0.5mm, and +/−1.0mm. We planned with 2Gy uniform single layer of 10×10cm2 and 20×20cm2 fields. Then, mean dose within 80% area of given field size, contrubuting MU per each spot assuming 1cGy/MU calibration for all spot sizes, number of spots and uniformity were calculated. Results The plans with spot/line spacing equal to or smaller than 2/3*FWHM without motion create ∼100% uniformity. However, it was found that the uniformity decreases with increased spacing, and it is more pronounced with smaller spot sizes, but is not affected by scanned field sizes. Conclusion It was found that the motion during proton beam delivery can alter the dose uniformity and the amount of alteration changes with spot size which changes with energy and spot/line spacing. Currently, robust evaluation in TPS (e.g. Eclipse system) performs range uncertainty evaluation using isocenter shift and CT calibration error. Based on presented study, it is recommended to add interplay effect evaluation to robust evaluation process. For future study, the additional interplay between the energy layers and motion is expected to present volumetric effect

  8. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  9. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  10. Poisson's spot and Gouy phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, I. G.; Soldati, Rodolfo; Cabral, L. A.; de Oliveira, J. G. G.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    Recently there have been experimental results on Poisson spot matter-wave interferometry followed by theoretical models describing the relative importance of the wave and particle behaviors for the phenomenon. We propose an analytical theoretical model for Poisson's spot with matter waves based on the Babinet principle, in which we use the results for free propagation and single-slit diffraction. We take into account effects of loss of coherence and finite detection area using the propagator for a quantum particle interacting with an environment. We observe that the matter-wave Gouy phase plays a role in the existence of the central peak and thus corroborates the predominantly wavelike character of the Poisson's spot. Our model shows remarkable agreement with the experimental data for deuterium (D2) molecules.

  11. X-ray focal spot reconstruction by circular penumbra analysis-Application to digital radiography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Giovanni; Cardarelli, Paolo; Contillo, Adriano; Taibi, Angelo; Gambaccini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The quality of a radiography system is affected by several factors, a major one being the focal spot size of the x-ray tube. In fact, the measurement of such size is recognized to be of primary importance during acceptance tests and image quality evaluations of clinical radiography systems. The most common device providing an image of the focal spot emission distribution is a pin-hole camera, which requires a high tube loading in order to produce a measurable signal. This work introduces an alternative technique to obtain an image of the focal spot, through the processing of a single radiograph of a simple test object, acquired with a suitable magnification. The radiograph of a magnified sharp edge is a well-established method to evaluate the extension of the focal spot profile along the direction perpendicular to the edge. From a single radiograph of a circular x-ray absorber, it is possible to extract simultaneously the radial profiles of several sharp edges with different orientations. The authors propose a technique that allows to obtain an image of the focal spot through the processing of these radial profiles by means of a pseudo-CT reconstruction technique. In order to validate this technique, the reconstruction has been applied to the simulated radiographs of an ideal disk-shaped absorber, generated by various simulated focal spot distributions. Furthermore, the method has been applied to the focal spot of a commercially available mammography unit. In the case of simulated radiographs, the results of the reconstructions have been compared to the original distributions, showing an excellent agreement for what regards both the overall distribution and the full width at half maximum measurements. In the case of the experimental test, the method allowed to obtain images of the focal spot that have been compared with the results obtained through standard techniques, namely, pin-hole camera and slit camera. The method was proven to be effective for simulated

  12. X-ray focal spot reconstruction by circular penumbra analysis—Application to digital radiography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Domenico, Giovanni, E-mail: didomenico@fe.infn.it; Cardarelli, Paolo; Taibi, Angelo; Gambaccini, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122, Italy and INFN - sezione di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122 (Italy); Contillo, Adriano [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122 (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The quality of a radiography system is affected by several factors, a major one being the focal spot size of the x-ray tube. In fact, the measurement of such size is recognized to be of primary importance during acceptance tests and image quality evaluations of clinical radiography systems. The most common device providing an image of the focal spot emission distribution is a pin-hole camera, which requires a high tube loading in order to produce a measurable signal. This work introduces an alternative technique to obtain an image of the focal spot, through the processing of a single radiograph of a simple test object, acquired with a suitable magnification. Methods: The radiograph of a magnified sharp edge is a well-established method to evaluate the extension of the focal spot profile along the direction perpendicular to the edge. From a single radiograph of a circular x-ray absorber, it is possible to extract simultaneously the radial profiles of several sharp edges with different orientations. The authors propose a technique that allows to obtain an image of the focal spot through the processing of these radial profiles by means of a pseudo-CT reconstruction technique. In order to validate this technique, the reconstruction has been applied to the simulated radiographs of an ideal disk-shaped absorber, generated by various simulated focal spot distributions. Furthermore, the method has been applied to the focal spot of a commercially available mammography unit. Results: In the case of simulated radiographs, the results of the reconstructions have been compared to the original distributions, showing an excellent agreement for what regards both the overall distribution and the full width at half maximum measurements. In the case of the experimental test, the method allowed to obtain images of the focal spot that have been compared with the results obtained through standard techniques, namely, pin-hole camera and slit camera. Conclusions: The method was

  13. Crack imaging by pulsed laser spot thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T; Almond, D P; Rees, D A S; Weekes, B

    2010-01-01

    A surface crack close to a spot heated by a laser beam impedes lateral heat flow and produces alterations to the shape of the thermal image of the spot that can be monitored by thermography. A full 3D simulation has been developed to simulate heat flow from a laser heated spot in the proximity of a crack. The modelling provided an understanding of the ways that different parameters affect the thermal images of laser heated spots. It also assisted in the development of an efficient image processing strategy for extracting the scanned cracks. Experimental results show that scanning pulsed laser spot thermography has considerable potential as a remote, non-contact crack imaging technique.

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  15. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF and wheat bran fiber (WF supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  16. Unlocking the Karyological and Cytogenetic Diversity of Iris from Lebanon: Oncocyclus Section Shows a Distinctive Profile and Relative Stasis during Its Continental Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Samad, Nour; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Hidalgo, Oriane; El Zein, Rana; Douaihy, Bouchra; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an important target of conservation concern and horticultural interest, Lebanese irises yet have a confusing taxonomic history and species' delimitation is often considered problematic, more especially among royal irises (Iris section Oncocyclus). Indeed, these irises of exceptionally large and spectacular flowers have radiated across Caucasus and eastern Mediterranean giving rise to a number of strict endemic taxa, many of them being considered under threat. Whilst efforts have mostly focused on clarifying the evolutionary relationships in the group based on morphological and molecular data, karyological and cytogenetic characters have been comparatively overlooked. In this study, we established for the first time the physical mapping of 35S rDNA loci and heterochromatin, and obtained karyo-morphological data for ten Lebanese Iris species belonging to four sections (Iris, Limniris, Oncocyclus and Scorpiris). Our results evidenced distinctive genomic profiles for each one of the sections, where Oncocyclus irises, while having the lowest chromosome numbers, exhibit both the highest number of 35S loci and CMA3+ sites. The continental radiation of royal irises has been accompanied by a relative karyological and cytogenetic stasis, even though some changes were observed regarding karyotype formula and asymmetry indexes. In addition to that, our results enabled taxonomic differentiation between I. germanica and I. mesopotamica-two taxa currently considered as synonyms-and highlighted the need for further studies on populations of I. persica and I. wallasiae in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

  17. Hot spot manifestation in eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae

    OpenAIRE

    Bakowska, K.; Olech, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of the hot spot in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae during its superoutburst in 2010 November. Analysis of eight reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot was changing significantly during the superoutburst. Thereby, detected hot spot manifestation in HT Cas is the newest observational evidence for the EMT model for dwarf novae.

  18. Spot weld arrangement effects on the fatigue behavior of multi-spot welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanifard, Soran; Zehsaz, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Firooz

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of spot weld arrangements in multi-spot welded joints on the fatigue behavior of the joints are studied. Three different four-spot welded joints are considered: one-row four-spot parallel to the loading direction, one-row four-spot perpendicular to the loading direction and two-row four-spot weld specimens. The experimental fatigue test results reveal that the differences between the fatigue lives of three spot welded types in the low cycle regime are more considerable than those in the high cycle regime. However, all kinds of spot weld specimens have similar fatigue strength when approaching a million cycles. A non-linear finite element analysis is performed to obtain the relative stress gradients, effective distances and notch strength reduction factors based on the volumetric approach. The work here shows that the volumetric approach does a very good job in predicting the fatigue life of the multi-spot welded joints

  19. Hot spot formation on different tokamak wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedospasov, A.V.; Bezlyudny, I.V.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal contraction phenomenon and generation of 'hot spots' due to thermoemission were described. The paper consider non-linear stages of heat contraction on the graphite, beryllium, tungsten and vanadium wall. It is shown that on the beryllium surface hot spot can't appear due to strong cooling by sublimation. For other materials the conditions of hot spot appearance due to local superheating of the wall have been calculated and their parameters were found: critical surface temperature, size of spots and their temperature profiles, heat fluxes from plasma to the spots. It have been calculated fluxes of sublimating materials from spots to the plasma. It is noticed that nominal temperature of the grafite divertor plate, accepted in ITER's project to being equal 1500 C, is lower then critical temperature of the development heat contraction due to thermoemission. (orig.)

  20. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  1. Arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrade, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    Arc spots are usually highly unstable and jump statistically over the cathode surface. In a magnetic field parallel to the surface, preferably they move in the retrograde direction; i.e., opposite to the Lorentzian rule. If the field is inclined with respect to the surface, the spots drift away at a certain angle with respect to the proper retrograde direction (Robson drift motion). These well-known phenomena are explained by one stability theory

  2. Splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition problem without the unphysical, axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to study the splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow, a feature first discovered by E.R. Lindgren (Arkiv Fysik 15, 1959). It has been widely believed that spot splitting is a mysterious stochastic process that has general implications on the lifetime and sustainability of wall turbulence. We address the following two questions: (1) What is the dynamics of turbulent spot splitting in pipe transition? Specifically, we look into any possible connection between the instantaneous strain rate field and the spot splitting. (2) How does the passive scalar field behave during the process of pipe spot splitting. In this study, the turbulent spot is introduced at the inlet plane through a sixty degree wide numerical wedge within which fully-developed turbulent profiles are assigned over a short time interval; and the simulation Reynolds numbers are 2400 for a 500 radii long pipe, and 2300 for a 1000 radii long pipe, respectively. Numerical dye is tagged on the imposed turbulent spot at the inlet. Splitting of the imposed turbulent spot is detected very easily. Preliminary analysis of the DNS results seems to suggest that turbulent spot slitting can be easily understood based on instantaneous strain rate field, and such spot splitting may not be relevant in external flows such as the flat-plate boundary layer.

  3. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  4. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA

  5. SPOTTED STAR LIGHT CURVES WITH ENHANCED PRECISION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    The nearly continuous timewise coverage of recent photometric surveys is free of the large gaps that compromise attempts to follow starspot growth and decay as well as motions, thereby giving incentive to improve computational precision for modeled spots. Due to the wide variety of star systems in the surveys, such improvement should apply to light/velocity curve models that accurately include all the main phenomena of close binaries and rotating single stars. The vector fractional area (VFA) algorithm that is introduced here represents surface elements by small sets of position vectors so as to allow accurate computation of circle-triangle overlap by spherical geometry. When computed by VFA, spots introduce essentially no noticeable scatter in light curves at the level of one part in 10,000. VFA has been put into the Wilson-Devinney light/velocity curve program and all logic and mathematics are given so as to facilitate entry into other such programs. Advantages of precise spot computation include improved statistics of spot motions and aging, reduced computation time (intrinsic precision relaxes needs for grid fineness), noise-free illustration of spot effects in figures, and help in guarding against false positives in exoplanet searches, where spots could approximately mimic transiting planets in unusual circumstances. A simple spot growth and decay template quantifies time profiles, and specifics of its utilization in differential corrections solutions are given. Computational strategies are discussed, the overall process is tested in simulations via solutions of synthetic light curve data, and essential simulation results are described. An efficient time smearing facility by Gaussian quadrature can deal with Kepler mission data that are in 30 minute time bins.

  6. Improved simulation method of automotive spot weld failure with an account of the mechanical properties of spot welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Meng, X. M.; Fang, R.; Huang, Y. F.; Zhan, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the microstructure and mechanical properties of spot weld were studied, the hardness of nugget and heat affected zone (HAZ) were also tested by metallographic microscope and microhardness tester. The strength of the spot weld with the different parts' area has been characterized. According to the experiments result, CAE model of spot weld with HAZ structure was established, and simulation results of different lap-shear CAE models were analyzed. The results show that the spot weld model which contained the HAZ has good performance and more suitable for engineering application in spot weld simulation.

  7. The Stiles-Crawford Effect: spot-size ratio departure in retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nachieketa K.; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2016-04-01

    The Stiles-Crawford effect of the first kind is the retina's compensative response to loss of luminance efficiency for oblique stimulation manifested as the spot-size ratio departure from the perfect power coupling for a normal human eye. In a retinitis pigmentosa eye (RP), the normal cone photoreceptor morphology is affected due to foveal cone loss and disrupted cone mosaic spatial arrangement with reduction in directional sensitivity. We show that the flattened Stiles-Crawford function (SCF) in a RP eye is due to a different spot-size ratio departure profile, that is, for the same loss of luminance efficiency, a RP eye has a smaller departure from perfect power coupling compared to a normal eye. Again, the difference in spot-size ratio departure increases from the centre towards the periphery, having zero value for axial entry and maximum value for maximum peripheral entry indicating dispersal of photoreceptor alignment which prevents the retina to go for a bigger compensative response as it lacks both in number and appropriate cone morphology to tackle the loss of luminance efficiency for oblique stimulation. The slope of departure profile also testifies to the flattened SCF for a RP eye. Moreover, the discrepancy in spot-size ratio departure between a normal and a RP eye is shown to have a direct bearing on the Stiles-Crawford diminution of visibility.

  8. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Natural Sciences, International Christian University, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8585, Japan ... the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association ... ate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University.

  9. Bulging of pressure tubes at hot spots under LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manu, C.; Shewfelt, R.S.W.; Wright, A.C.D.; Aboud, R.; Lau, J.H.K.; Sanderson, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    During certain postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) in a CANDU reactor, some fuel channels can become highly voided within a very short time. Although the pressure tubes are heated mainly by convection and thermal radiation during the LOCA transient, additional heat flow occurs through the bearing pads that are in contact with the pressure tribe. This contact can lead to local hot spots and associated thermal stresses in the pressure tube wall. The two factors that affects the behavior of the pressure tubes during LOCA conditions are the internal pressure and the local heating. Although the effect of internal pressure and of axially uniform temperature has been studied elsewhere, the effect of the local heating on the pressure tube behavior has not been modelled before. This paper shows that the bulging of a pressure tube at a hot spot is the result of the thermal stresses that are developed in a pressure tube during a LOCA transient. To isolate the local heating effect from the internal pressure, a series of single-effect experiments was performed. In these experiments, sections of a CANDU pressure tube were subjected to local heating only. The thermal profile and the local deformation were measured function of time. To quantify the effect of the thermal stresses on the bulging of pressure tubes at hot spots and to develop numerical tools that can predict such bulging, finite element analyses were performed rising the ABAQUS finite element computer code. Use of the measured thermal profiles in the ABAQUS finite element analysis, resulted in very good agreement between the predicted and measured displacements. (author)

  10. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  11. Analysis and validation of laser spot weld-induced distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorovsky, G.A.; Kanouff, M.P.; Maccallum, D.O.; Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1999-12-09

    Laser spot welding is an ideal process for joining small parts with tight tolerances on weld size, location, and distortion, particularly those with near-by heat sensitive features. It is also key to understanding the overlapping laser spot seam welding process. Rather than attempting to simulate the laser beam-to-part coupling (particularly if a keyhole occurs), it was measured by calorimetry. This data was then used to calculate the thermal and structural response of a laser spot welded SS304 disk using the finite element method. Five combinations of process parameter values were studied. Calculations were compared to experimental data for temperature and distortion profiles measured by thermocouples and surface profiling. Results are discussed in terms of experimental and modeling factors. The authors then suggest appropriate parameters for laser spot welding.

  12. [Study on Hexagonal Super-Lattice Pattern with Light Spot and Dim Spot in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Dong, Li-fang; Niu, Xue-jiao; Zhang, Chao

    2016-02-01

    The hexagonal super-lattice pattern composed of the light spot and the dim spot is firstly observed and investigated in the discharge of gas mixture of air and argon by using the dielectric barrier discharge device with double water electrodes. It is found that the dim spot is located at the center of its surrounding three light spots by observing the discharge image. Obviously, the brightness of the light spot and the dim spot are different, which indicates that the plasma states of the light spot and the dim spot may be different. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the light spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the light spot and the dim spot are calculated. Based on the relative intensity ratio of the line at 391.4 nm and the N₂ line at 394.1 nm, the average electron energies of the light spot and the dim spot are investigated. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the light spot and the dim spot. The experiment shows that the molecule vibration temperature, average electron energy and the electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the light spot in the same argon content. The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the light spot and dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 70% to 95%, while average electron energies of the light spot and dim spot decrease gradually. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the decisive effect on the formation of the dim spot. The experiment above plays an important role in studying the formation mechanism of the hexagonal super-lattice pattern with light spot and

  13. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-01-01

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The author...

  14. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  15. Effects of small, intense laser spots on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, K.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations show that small diameter laser spots burn through flat foils considerably faster than larger spots. The physical mechanisms are (1) more nearly spherical divergence from the smaller spots which allows the debris to rapidly convect radially away from the small volume of laser heated plasma and (2) a variation on thermal self-focusing in which light is refracted into this volume, increasing the local heating rate

  16. The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f 2 , where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion

  17. Humoral immune response of the small-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Kathryn; Smith, Lauren E; Williams, Rebecca; Cao, Wei; Lee, Mike; Jensen, Allan; Dooley, Helen

    2013-05-01

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest group in which an adaptive immune system based on immunoglobulin-superfamily members is found. This manuscript compares humoral immune function in small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) with that described for spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), another member of the Squalomorphi superorder, and nurse shark, the model for humoral immunity in elasmobranchs and a member of the Galeomorphi superorder. Although small-spotted catshark and nurse shark are separated by over 200 million years we found that immunoglobulin isoforms are well conserved between the two species. However, the plasma protein profile of small-spotted catshark was most similar to that of spiny dogfish, with low levels of pentameric IgM, and IgNAR present as a multimer in plasma rather than a monomer. We show that an antigen-specific monomeric IgM response, with a profile similar to that described previously for nurse sharks, can be raised in small-spotted catshark. Lacking polyclonal or monoclonal antibody reagents for detecting catshark IgNAR we investigated phage-display and recombinant Fc-fusion protein expression as alternative methods to look for an antigen-specific response for this isotype. However, we could find no evidence of an antigen-specific IgNAR in the animals tested using either of these techniques. Thus, unlike nurse sharks where antigen-specific monomeric IgM and IgNAR appear together, it seems there may be a temporal or complete 'uncoupling' of these isotypes during a humoral response in the small-spotted catshark. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Collaboration spotting for dental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A

    2014-10-06

    The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to Dental Science. In order to create a Sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro--maxillo--facial critical size defects, namely the use of Porous HydroxyApatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex--vivo of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. We produced the Sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on--line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state--of--the--art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used for Dental Science and produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped

  19. Collaboration Spotting for oral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to oral medicine. In order to create a sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro-maxillo-facial critical size defects, namely the use of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex vivo of mesenchymal stem cells. We produced the sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on-line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state-of-the-art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used in oral medicine as is produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped technologies in

  20. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  1. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  2. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  3. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-04-19

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B(12) injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management.

  4. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  5. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  6. Spots on AG Virginis - paradigm or panacea?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, S.A.; Rainger, P.P.; Hilditch, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the eclipsing binary AG Vir are presented. Medium-resolution spectroscopy has allowed the measurement of velocities for the secondary component for the first time. The V light curve shows many of the features seen in previous studies of this system. A full analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data has been made which suggests that the system is either in a marginal state of contact or a deep-contact configuration depending on the type of spot model invoked. AG Vir constitutes an excellent example of the expected manifestations of spot activity on a light curve. It also demonstrates the ease with which the spot phenomenon can be invoked to explain the appearance of a light curve and to provide conflicting results. (author)

  7. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  8. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  9. Easy Demonstration of the Poisson Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many physics teachers have a set of slides of single, double and multiple slits to show their students the phenomena of interference and diffraction. Thomas Young's historic experiments with double slits were indeed a milestone in proving the wave nature of light. But another experiment, namely the Poisson spot, was also important historically and…

  10. The polymorphic insertion of the luteinizing hormone receptor "insLQ" show a negative association to LHR gene expression and to the follicular fluid hormonal profile in human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, T; Chrudimska, J; Macek, M

    2018-01-01

    (AMHR2) and LHCGR, respectively, were observed for insLQ/insLQ compared to -/insLQ and the -/- genotypes. Moreover, LHCGR and CYP19a1 together with oestradiol and inhibin-B were significantly increased in -/insLQ compared to the -/- genotype. The homozygous insLQ genotype showed strong significant......The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) has a little studied polymorphic 6 bp insertion (rs4539842/insLQ). This study has evaluated the insLQ polymorphism in relation to potential associations with hormonal characteristics of human small antral follicles (hSAFs). In total, 310 hSAFs were collected...... from 86 women undergoing fertility preservation. Analysis included hormonal profile of 297 follicular fluid (FF) samples and 148 corresponding granulosa cells samples were evaluated by qPCR for selected genes. Significantly reduced and non-detectable mRNA levels of anti-Müllerian hormone receptor II...

  11. A spot-matching method using cumulative frequency matrix in 2D gel images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chan-Myeong; Park, Joon-Ho; Chang, Chu-Seok; Ryoo, Myung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A new method for spot matching in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images using a cumulative frequency matrix is proposed. The method improves on the weak points of the previous method called ‘spot matching by topological patterns of neighbour spots’. It accumulates the frequencies of neighbour spot pairs produced through the entire matching process and determines spot pairs one by one in order of higher frequency. Spot matching by frequencies of neighbour spot pairs shows a fairly better performance. However, it can give researchers a hint for whether the matching results can be trustworthy or not, which can save researchers a lot of effort for verification of the results. PMID:26019609

  12. Space-time modeling of electricity spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Girum Dagnachew; Haldrup, Niels

    In this paper we derive a space-time model for electricity spot prices. A general spatial Durbin model that incorporates the temporal as well as spatial lags of spot prices is presented. Joint modeling of space-time effects is necessarily important when prices and loads are determined in a network...... in the spot price dynamics. Estimation of the spatial Durbin model show that the spatial lag variable is as important as the temporal lag variable in describing the spot price dynamics. We use the partial derivatives impact approach to decompose the price impacts into direct and indirect effects and we show...... that price effects transmit to neighboring markets and decline with distance. In order to examine the evolution of the spatial correlation over time, a time varying parameters spot price spatial Durbin model is estimated using recursive estimation. It is found that the spatial correlation within the Nord...

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Saghazadeh

    Full Text Available Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS. Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn, six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P, and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E. People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD = -0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI: -1.16 to -0.09, Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43, and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84, while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28 and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57 were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33 and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69. Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS.

  14. Towards the PET radiotracer for p75 neurotrophin receptor: [(11)C]LM11A-24 shows biological activity in vitro, but unfavorable ex vivo and in vivo profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Julien; Kang, Min Su; Aliaga, Arturo; Sharif, Behrang; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A; Kostikov, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    Mature neurotrophins as well as their pro forms are critically involved in the regulation of neuronal functions. They are signaling through three distinct types of receptors: tropomyosin receptor kinase family (TrkA/B/C), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and sortilin. Aberrant expression of p75(NTR) in the CNS is implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this work was to evaluate one of the very few reported p75(NTR) small molecule ligands as a lead compound for development of novel PET radiotracers for in vivo p75(NTR) imaging. Here we report that previously described ligand LM11A-24 shows significant inhibition of carbachol-induced persistent firing (PF) of entorhinal cortex (EC) pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice via selective interaction with p75(NTR). Based on this electrophysiological assay, the compound has very high potency with an EC50<10nM. We optimized the radiosynthesis of [(11)C]LM11A-24 as the first attempt to develop PET radioligand for in vivo imaging of p75(NTR). Despite some weak interaction with CNS tissues, the radiolabeled compound showed unfavorable in vivo profile presumably due to high hydrophilicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography of congenital grouped albinotic spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David Y; Hwang, John C; Moore, Anthony T; Bird, Alan C; Tsang, Stephen H

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the findings of fundus autofluores-cence (FAF) and optical coherence tomography in a series of patients with congenital grouped albinotic spots. Three eyes of three patients with congenital grouped albinotic spots were evaluated with FAF and optical coherence tomography imaging to evaluate the nature of the albinotic spots. In all three eyes with congenital grouped albinotic spots, FAF imaging showed autofluorescent spots corresponding to the albinotic spots seen on stereo biomicroscopy. One eye also had additional spots detected on FAF imaging that were not visible on stereo biomicroscopy or color fundus photographs. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the spots showed decreased general autofluorescence and decreased peripheral autofluorescence surrounding central areas of retained or increased autofluorescence. Optical coherence tomography showed a disruption in signal from the hyperreflective layer corresponding to the inner and outer segment junction and increased signal backscattering from the choroid in the area of the spots. Fluorescein angiography showed early and stable hyperfluorescence of the spots without leakage. In this case series, FAF showed decreased autofluorescence of the spots consistent with focal retinal pigment epithelium atrophy or abnormal material blocking normal autofluorescence and areas of increased autofluorescence suggesting retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction. The findings of optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography suggest photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium layer abnormalities. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography are useful noninvasive diagnostic adjuncts that can aid in the diagnosis of congenital grouped albinotic spots, help determine extent of disease, and contribute to our understanding of its pathophysiology.

  16. Models of spots and flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in recent years have shown that there are many more ways to drive a plasma out of equilibrium than to preserve equilibrium. In that sense, it is perhaps easier to understand why flares should occur in a stellar atmosphere than why a long-lived feature such as a dark spot should persist. The author summarizes work on the equilibrium structure of cool spots in the sun and stars. Since spots involve complex interactions between convective flows and magnetic fields, he needs to refer to observations for help in identifying the dominant processes which should enter into the modelling. His summary therefore begins by discussing certain relevant properties of spots in the solar atmosphere. The next sections deal with the magnetic fields in spots, the stability of spots, spot cooling and missing flux. The author concludes that spots should be viewed not simply as cool areas, but rather as engines which do the work of converting the energy of convective flows into flare-compatible form. (Auth.)

  17. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  18. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  19. The transport mechanisms of 222Rn in soil at Tateishi as an anomaly spot in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandar, D.; Iida, T.; Yamazawa, H.; Moriizumi, J.; Koarashi, J.; Yamasoto, K.; Yamasaki, K.; Shimo, M.; Tsujimoto, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Fukuda, M.; Kojima, H.

    2005-01-01

    The 222 Rn concentration profiles in soil have been measured at an anomaly spot in Tateishi, Japan. In winter, the concentrations were low and showed a negative gradient with depth, but in other seasons, the concentration had both positive and negative gradients with depth, and dramatically changed by time. On the assumption that there was ventilation in deep layers and with driving forces of wind and temperatures, these phenomena were successfully explained. This finding would contribute to a numerical model for 222 Rn transport in soil

  20. Effect of surface coating on ripening and early peel spotting in 'Sucrier' banana (Musa acuminata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrier¿ bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group) show peel spotting when the peel is just about as yellow as green, which coincides with optimum eating quality. As consumers might relate the spotting to overripe fruit, early spotting is considered undesirable, especially for export markets. Fruit were

  1. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  2. Electricity spot price dynamics: Beyond financial models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, Graeme; Videbeck, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We reveal properties of electricity spot prices that cannot be captured by the statistical models, commonly used to model financial asset prices, that are increasingly used to model electricity prices. Using more than eight years of half-hourly spot price data from the New Zealand Electricity Market, we find that the half-hourly trading periods fall naturally into five groups corresponding to the overnight off-peak, the morning peak, daytime off-peak, evening peak, and evening off-peak. The prices in different trading periods within each group are highly correlated with each other, yet the correlations between prices in different groups are lower. Models, adopted from the modeling of security prices, that are currently applied to electricity spot prices are incapable of capturing this behavior. We use a periodic autoregression to model prices instead, showing that shocks in the peak periods are larger and less persistent than those in off-peak periods, and that they often reappear in the following peak period. In contrast, shocks in the off-peak periods are smaller, more persistent, and die out (perhaps temporarily) during the peak periods. Current approaches to modeling spot prices cannot capture this behavior either. (author)

  3. 3D-TOFSIMS characterization of black spots in polymer light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulle-Lieuwma, C.W.T.; Weijer, P. van de

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence and formation of black spots areas in PolyLED devices has been studied by time-of-flight SIMS (TOFSIMS). The composition, shape and position of the black spots is visualised by three-dimensional (3D)-TOFSIMS depth-profiling. It has been established that the formation of non-emissive spots is due to the growth of aluminium oxide clusters at the AlBa/polymer interface. Electron injection in the black spots is lost by the resulting local increase of the resistivity of the cathode

  4. Automated Spot Mammography for Improved Imaging of Dense Breasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M

    2004-01-01

    ... image that better distinguishes masses from overlapping tissues. Preliminary studies with a prototype device and breast simulating test objects showed promise, but spot compression didn't always separate the tissues as much as desired...

  5. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... β-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was examined. The results showed ... Introduction. White spot ... denatured conditions and renatured by successive 12 h incu- bations with 6, 4, ...

  6. Spotting psychopaths using technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Sarah; Adeli, Hojjat

    2015-01-01

    For the past three and a half decades, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the self-report Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) have been the standard measures for the diagnosis of psychopathy. Technological approaches can enhance these diagnostic methodologies. The purpose of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art review of various technological approaches for spotting psychopathy, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and other measures. Results of EEG event-related potential (ERP) experiments support the theory that impaired amygdala function may be responsible for abnormal fear processing in psychopathy, which can ultimately manifest as psychopathic traits, as outlined by the PCL-R or PPI-R. Imaging studies, in general, point to reduced fear processing capabilities in psychopathic individuals. While the human element, introduced through researcher/participant interactions, can be argued as unequivocally necessary for diagnosis, these purely objective technological approaches have proven to be useful in conjunction with the subjective interviewing and questionnaire methods for differentiating psychopaths from non-psychopaths. Furthermore, these technologies are more robust than behavioral measures, which have been shown to fail.

  7. Utility of large spot binocular indirect laser delivery for peripheral photocoagulation therapy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Saranya C; Mohney, Brian G; Bang, Genie M; Link, Thomas P; Pulido, Jose S

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the utility of the large spot size (LSS) setting using a binocular laser indirect delivery system for peripheral ablation in children. One patient with bilateral retinopathy of prematurity received photocoagulation with standard spot size burns placed adjacently to LSS burns. Using a pixel analysis program called Image J on the Retcam picture, the areas of each retinal spot size were determined in units of pixels, giving a standard spot range of 805 to 1294 pixels and LSS range of 1699 to 2311 pixels. Additionally, fluence was calculated using theoretical retinal areas produced by each spot size: the standard spot setting was 462 mJ/mm2 and the LSS setting was 104 mJ/mm2. For eyes with retinopathy of prematurity, our study shows that LSS laser indirect delivery halves the number of spots required for treatment and reduces fluence by almost one-quarter, producing more uniform spots.

  8. High quality methylome-wide investigations through next-generation sequencing of DNA from a single archived dry blood spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Karolina A; Xie, Lin Y; Nerella, Srilaxmi; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2013-05-01

    The potential importance of DNA methylation in the etiology of complex diseases has led to interest in the development of methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) aimed at interrogating all methylation sites in the human genome. When using blood as biomaterial for a MWAS the DNA is typically extracted directly from fresh or frozen whole blood that was collected via venous puncture. However, DNA extracted from dry blood spots may also be an alternative starting material. In the present study, we apply a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein enrichment-based technique in combination with next generation sequencing (MBD-seq) to assess the methylation status of the ~27 million CpGs in the human autosomal reference genome. We investigate eight methylomes using DNA from blood spots. This data are compared with 1,500 methylomes previously assayed with the same MBD-seq approach using DNA from whole blood. When investigating the sequence quality and the enrichment profile across biological features, we find that DNA extracted from blood spots gives comparable results with DNA extracted from whole blood. Only if the amount of starting material is ≤ 0.5µg DNA we observe a slight decrease in the assay performance. In conclusion, we show that high quality methylome-wide investigations using MBD-seq can be conducted in DNA extracted from archived dry blood spots without sacrificing quality and without bias in enrichment profile as long as the amount of starting material is sufficient. In general, the amount of DNA extracted from a single blood spot is sufficient for methylome-wide investigations with the MBD-seq approach.

  9. Effects of spot parameters in pencil beam scanning treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke Christine; Depauw, Nicolas; Clasie, Ben; Giunta, Marina; Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M

    2018-01-01

    Spot size σ (in air at isocenter), interspot spacing d, and spot charge q influence dose delivery efficiency and plan quality in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) treatment planning. The choice and range of parameters varies among different manufacturers. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the influence of the spot parameters on dose quality and delivery in IMPT treatment plans, to show their interdependence, and to make practitioners aware of the spot parameter values for a certain facility. Our study could help as a guideline to make the trade-off between treatment quality and time in existing PBS centers and in future systems. We created plans for seven patients and a phantom, with different tumor sites and volumes, and compared the effect of small-, medium-, and large-spot widths (σ = 2.5, 5, and 10 mm) and interspot distances (1σ, 1.5σ, and 1.75σ) on dose, spot charge, and treatment time. Moreover, we quantified how postplanning charge threshold cuts affect plan quality and the total number of spots to deliver, for different spot widths and interspot distances. We show the effect of a minimum charge (or MU) cutoff value for a given proton delivery system. Spot size had a strong influence on dose: larger spots resulted in more protons delivered outside the target region. We observed dose differences of 2-13 Gy (RBE) between 2.5 mm and 10 mm spots, where the amount of extra dose was due to dose penumbra around the target region. Interspot distance had little influence on dose quality for our patient group. Both parameters strongly influence spot charge in the plans and thus the possible impact of postplanning charge threshold cuts. If such charge thresholds are not included in the treatment planning system (TPS), it is important that the practitioner validates that a given combination of lower charge threshold, interspot spacing, and spot size does not result in a plan degradation. Low average spot charge occurs for small spots, small interspot

  10. Technical Note: Validation of halo modeling for proton pencil beam spot scanning using a quality assurance test pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Liyong, E-mail: linl@uphs.upenn.edu; Huang, Sheng; Kang, Minglei; Solberg, Timothy D.; McDonough, James E.; Ainsley, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive test pattern in validating calculation models that include the halo component (low-dose tails) of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) spots. Such a pattern has been used previously for quality assurance purposes to assess spot shape, position, and dose. Methods: In this study, a scintillation detector was used to measure the test pattern in air at isocenter for two proton beam energies (115 and 225 MeV) of two IBA universal nozzles (UN #1 and UN #2). Planar measurements were compared with calculated dose distributions based on the weighted superposition of location-independent (UN #1) or location-dependent (UN #2) spot profiles, previously measured using a pair-magnification method and between two nozzles. Results: Including the halo component below 1% of the central dose is shown to improve the gamma-map comparison between calculation and measurement from 94.9% to 98.4% using 2 mm/2% criteria for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #1. In contrast, including the halo component below 1% of the central dose does not improve the gamma agreement for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #2, due to the cutoff of the halo component at off-axis locations. When location-dependent spot profiles are used for calculation instead of spot profiles at central axis, the gamma agreement is improved from 98.0% to 99.5% using 2 mm/2% criteria. The two nozzles clearly have different characteristics, as a direct comparison of measured data shows a passing rate of 89.7% for the 115 MeV proton beam. At 225 MeV, the corresponding gamma comparisons agree better between measurement and calculation, and between measurements in the two nozzles. Conclusions: In addition to confirming the primary component of individual PBS spot profiles, a comprehensive test pattern is useful for the validation of the halo component at off-axis locations, especially for low energy protons.

  11. Hot spots on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2001-01-01

    A 61 year-old woman underwent perfusion and inhalation lung scan for the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan showed multiple round hot spots in both lung fields. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scan and chest radiography taken at the same time showed normal findings. A repeated perfusion lung scan taken 24 hours later demonstrated no abnormalities. Hot spots on perfusion lung scan can be caused by microsphere clumping due to faulty injection technique by radioactive embolization from upper extremity thrombophlebitis after injection. Focal hot spots can signify zones of atelectasis, where the hot spots probably represent a failure of hypoxic vasoconstriction. Artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping usually appear to be round and in peripheral location, and the lesions due to a loss of hypoxic vasoconstriction usually appear to be hot uptakes having linear borders. Although these artifactual hot spots have been well-known, we rarely encounter them. This report presents a case with artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

  12. Modelling energy spot prices by Lévy semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces a new modelling framework for energy spot prices based on Lévy semistationary processes. Lévy semistationary processes are special cases of the general class of ambit processes. We provide a detailed analysis of the probabilistic properties of such models and we show how...... they are able to capture many of the stylised facts observed in energy markets. Furthermore, we derive forward prices based on our spot price model. As it turns out, many of the classical spot models can be embedded into our novel modelling framework....

  13. Monte Carlo modeling of small photon fields: Quantifying the impact of focal spot size on source occlusion and output factors, and exploring miniphantom design for small-field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Alison J. D.; Nahum, Alan E.; Fenwick, John D.

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy with which Monte Carlo models of photon beams generated by linear accelerators (linacs) can describe small-field dose distributions depends on the modeled width of the electron beam profile incident on the linac target. It is known that the electron focal spot width affects penumbra and cross-field profiles; here, the authors explore the extent to which source occlusion reduces linac output for smaller fields and larger spot sizes. A BEAMnrc Monte Carlo linac model has been used to investigate the variation in penumbra widths and small-field output factors with electron spot size. A formalism is developed separating head scatter factors into source occlusion and flattening filter factors. Differences between head scatter factors defined in terms of in-air energy fluence, collision kerma, and terma are explored using Monte Carlo calculations. Estimates of changes in kerma-based source occlusion and flattening filter factors with field size and focal spot width are obtained by calculating doses deposited in a narrow 2 mm wide virtual ''milliphantom'' geometry. The impact of focal spot size on phantom scatter is also explored. Modeled electron spot sizes of 0.4-0.7 mm FWHM generate acceptable matches to measured penumbra widths. However the 0.5 cm field output factor is quite sensitive to electron spot width, the measured output only being matched by calculations for a 0.7 mm spot width. Because the spectra of the unscattered primary (Ψ Π ) and head-scattered (Ψ Σ ) photon energy fluences differ, miniphantom-based collision kerma measurements do not scale precisely with total in-air energy fluence Ψ=(Ψ Π +Ψ Σ ) but with (Ψ Π +1.2Ψ Σ ). For most field sizes, on-axis collision kerma is independent of the focal spot size; but for a 0.5 cm field size and 1.0 mm spot width, it is reduced by around 7% mostly due to source occlusion. The phantom scatter factor of the 0.5 cm field also shows some spot size dependence, decreasing by 6% (relative) as

  14. Motion-Dependent Filling-In of Spatiotemporal Information at the Blind Spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Gerrit W; Whitney, David

    2016-01-01

    We usually do not notice the blind spot, a receptor-free region on the retina. Stimuli extending through the blind spot appear filled in. However, if an object does not reach through but ends in the blind spot, it is perceived as "cut off" at the boundary. Here we show that even when there is no corresponding stimulation at opposing edges of the blind spot, well known motion-induced position shifts also extend into the blind spot and elicit a dynamic filling-in process that allows spatial structure to be extrapolated into the blind spot. We presented observers with sinusoidal gratings that drifted into or out of the blind spot, or flickered in counterphase. Gratings moving into the blind spot were perceived to be longer than those moving out of the blind spot or flickering, revealing motion-dependent filling-in. Further, observers could perceive more of a grating's spatial structure inside the blind spot than would be predicted from simple filling-in of luminance information from the blind spot edge. This is evidence for a dynamic filling-in process that uses spatiotemporal information from the motion system to extrapolate visual percepts into the scotoma of the blind spot. Our findings also provide further support for the notion that an explicit spatial shift of topographic representations contributes to motion-induced position illusions.

  15. SPOT: the door to digital innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    AREVA NP has opened in Lyon a small department, named SPOT, whose aim is to develop innovative digital technologies such as CAVE and MODOP'3D. CAVE, that is the acronym of Cave Automatic Virtual Environment, is a large screen that splits the room in half and shows the virtual copy of the Astrid reactor. Viewers can wander inside the reactor and its building through the screen and sees all the details of the design. CAVE represents a complete virtual 3-dimension prototype of the Astrid reactor whose aim is to help assessing any change in the design. MODOP'3D is a virtual maintenance tool that allows the operator to simulate reactor maintenance operations in a 3-dimensional way in order to assess their feasibility and optimize them. Exoskeletons whose purpose is to help operators to handle heavy loads are also tested at SPOT. (A.C.)

  16. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  17. Copying of holograms by spot scanning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Makoto; Wakunami, Koki; Oi, Ryutaro; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2018-05-20

    To replicate holograms, contact copying has conventionally been used. In this approach, a photosensitive material is fixed together with a master hologram and illuminated with a coherent beam. This method is simple and enables high-quality copies; however, it requires a large optical setup for large-area holograms. In this paper, we present a new method of replicating holograms that uses a relatively compact optical system even for the replication of large holograms. A small laser spot that irradiates only part of the hologram is used to reproduce the hologram by scanning the spot over the whole area of the hologram. We report on the results of experiments carried out to confirm the copy quality, along with a guide to design scanning conditions. The results show the potential effectiveness of the large-area hologram replication technology using a relatively compact apparatus.

  18. Numerical optimisation in spot detector design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Apperloo, W.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    1997-01-01

    Spots are image details resulting from objects, the projections of which are so small that the inner structure of these objects cannot be resolved from their image. Spot detectors are image operators aiming at the detection and localisation of spots in the image. Most spot detectors can be tuned

  19. Managing emerging threats to spotted owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Yi Wan; Joseph L. Ganey; Christina D. Vojta; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The 3 spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies in North America (i.e., northern spotted owl [S. o. caurina], California spotted owl [S. o. occidentalis], Mexican spotted owl [S. o. lucida]) have all experienced population declines over the past century due to habitat loss and fragmentation from logging. Now, the emerging influences of climate change, high-severity...

  20. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  1. Investigation of shinning Spot Defect on Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonggang, Liu; Lei, Cui

    2014-01-01

    Shinning spot defects on galvanized steel sheets were studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope(SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Original Position Statistic Distribution Analysis (LIBSOPA) in this study. The research shows that the coating thickness of shinning spot defects which caused by the substrate defect is much lower than normal area, and when skin passed, the shinning spot defect area can not touch with skin pass roll which result in the surface of shinning spot is flat while normal area is rough. The different coating morphologies have different effects on the reflection of light, which cause the shinning spot defects more brighter than normal area

  2. On the relationships between electron spot size, focal spot size, and virtual source position in Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Olivera, G. H.; Vynckier, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Every year, new radiotherapy techniques including stereotactic radiosurgery using linear accelerators give rise to new applications of Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. Accurate modeling requires knowing the size of the electron spot, one of the few parameters to tune in MC models. The resolution of integrated megavoltage imaging systems, such as the tomotherapy system, strongly depends on the photon spot size which is closely related to the electron spot. The aim of this article is to clarify the relationship between the electron spot size and the photon spot size (i.e., the focal spot size) for typical incident electron beam energies and target thicknesses. Methods: Three electron energies (3, 5.5, and 18 MeV), four electron spot sizes (FWHM=0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mm), and two tungsten target thicknesses (0.15 and 1 cm) were considered. The formation of the photon beam within the target was analyzed through electron energy deposition with depth, as well as photon production at several phase-space planes placed perpendicular to the beam axis, where only photons recorded for the first time were accounted for. Photon production was considered for ''newborn'' photons intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane at the isocenter (85 cm from source). Finally, virtual source position and ''effective'' focal spot size were computed by backprojecting all the photons from the bottom of the target intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane. The virtual source position and focal spot size were estimated at the plane position where the latter is minimal. Results: In the relevant case of considering only photons intersecting the 45x45 cm 2 plane, the results unambiguously showed that the effective photon spot is created within the first 0.25 mm of the target and that electron and focal spots may be assumed to be equal within 3-4%. Conclusions: In a good approximation photon spot size equals electron spot size for high energy X-ray treatments delivered by linear accelerators.

  3. Comparison of outcomes between overlapping-spot and single-spot photodynamic therapy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-An Su

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy (PDT with overlapping multiple spots and single spot for treating circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.METHODS:Twenty-two patients (22 eyes with symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma received PDT treatment. Fourteen patients received overlapping spots (two to three spots PDT, whereas eight patients received single-spot PDT. Laser was used at 50J/cm2 for 83s in the overlapping-spot group and 50J/cm2 for 166s in the single-spot group. Clinical examination, funduscopy, fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography were performed at baseline and after treatment.RESULTS:The mean follow-up time was 28.5±8.0 months in the overlapping-spot group and 27.0±5.0 months in the single-spot group. Nine patients (64.2% had their vision improved over two lines on the Snellen chart, and five patients showed stable visual acuity in the overlapping-spot group. The mean thickness of tumor decreased from 2.7±0.8mm to 1.2±0.9mm, and the mean greatest tumor linear dimension decreased from 7.4±1.5mm to 4.5±3.5mm after treatment. In the single-spot group, two patients (25% had their vision improved over two lines on the Snellen chart, and six patients had unchanged stable vision. The mean tumor thickness in this group decreased from 2.5±0.7mm to 1.4±1.0mm, and the mean greatest tumor linear dimension decreased from 7.2±1.3mm to 4.7±3.6mm. No significant differences in visual improvement and tumor regression were found between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Overlapping-spot PDT under appropriate treatment parameters and strategies is as effective and safe as single-spot PDT for treating symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. Improved or stabilized visual acuity was achieved as a result of tumor regression.

  4. Characterization of LIL laser UV focal spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangeant, M.; Dubois, J.L.; Behar, G.; Arroyo, P.; Durand, V.; Lahonde, C.

    2006-01-01

    One way to get the fusion of hydrogen in laboratory consists in heating and compressing a DT fuel capsule by using a laser. To reach this aim requires a new generation of high power laser facility. Cea (French board for atomic energy) is developing for this purpose a new 240 laser line facility, the LMJ facility. The LIL which is the prototype of four LMJ laser lines is operational now. In order to confirm the technical choices, a systematic characterization of LIL was carried out. A particular effort has been provided to measure the 3ω high energy focal spot (1.5 kJ/700 ps and 5 ns for one beam) and the synchronization of laser beams onto the target, which are key issues for the plasma production. An experimental device, SAT-3ω (a 3ω laser focal spot analysis) has been designed to perform these measures. That diagnostic which is located at the end of the laser lines delivered its first results during the 2004 quadruplet qualification campaigns. The near field imaging showed no diaphony and vignetting. Low power spots allowed us to control we had no ghost. The energy measurement quality showed the photometric transfer function was perfectly known. Our caustic image are given with an average dynamic range of 800, a spatial resolution of 10 μm and diameter accuracy about 1% for 50% and 3% for 90% of encircled energy. The high energy focal spot diameters are in agreement with low and very low energy diameters. The phase plate and 14 GHz effects are similar to what we had expected. For a laser shot completed with a continuous phase plate at 14 GHz, and for an energy level of 1.5 kJ per beam at 351 nm, the focal beam diameter at 3% of the peak level is (875 ± 45) μm

  5. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  6. Dried blood spots as a source of anti-malarial antibodies for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corran, Patrick H; Cook, Jackie; Lynch, Caroline; Leendertse, Heleen; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Griffin, Jamie; Cox, Jonathan; Abeku, Tarekegn; Bousema, Teun; Ghani, Azra C; Drakeley, Chris; Riley, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Background Blood spots collected onto filter paper are an established and convenient source of antibodies for serological diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. Although recommendations for the storage and analysis of small molecule analytes in blood spots exist, there are no published systematic studies of the stability of antibodies under different storage conditions. Methods Blood spots, on filter paper or glass fibre mats and containing malaria-endemic plasma, were desiccated and stored at various temperatures for different times. Eluates of these spots were assayed for antibodies against two Plasmodium falciparum antigens, MSP-119 and MSP2, and calculated titres used to fit an exponential (first order kinetic) decay model. The first order rate constants (k) for each spot storage temperature were used to fit an Arrhenius equation, in order to estimate the thermal and temporal stability of antibodies in dried blood spots. The utility of blood spots for serological assays was confirmed by comparing antibodies eluted from blood spots with the equivalent plasma values in a series of samples from North Eastern Tanzania and by using blood spot-derived antibodies to estimate malaria transmission intensity in this site and for two localities in Uganda. Results Antibodies in spots on filter paper and glass fibre paper had similar stabilities but blood was more easily absorbed onto filter papers than glass fibre, spots were more regular and spot size was more closely correlated with blood volume for filter paper spots. Desiccated spots could be stored at or below 4°C for extended periods, but were stable for only very limited periods at ambient temperature. When desiccated, recoveries of antibodies that are predominantly of IgG1 or IgG3 subclasses were similar. Recoveries of antibodies from paired samples of serum and of blood spots from Tanzania which had been suitably stored showed similar recoveries of antibodies, but spots which had been stored for extended periods

  7. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight....... fulvum-tomato and S. tritici-wheat in order to find modelsystems to enhance interpretation of results from R. collo-cygni-barley interaction. Results from the mapping showed that resistance to Ramularia leaf spot is controlled by a number of QTL’s, some of which co-locate with other physiological traits....... The populations further segregated for physiological leaf spots, a phenomenon related to the leaf damage imposed by Rubellin, although, resistance to physiological leafspots appeared to come from the Ramularia leaf spot susceptible parent. The toxin assay further supported this result as the genotypes susceptible...

  8. Experimental Study of Tensile Test in Resistance Spot Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebbal Habib

    Full Text Available Abstract Resistance spot welding (RSW is a widely used joining process for fabricating sheet metal assemblies in automobile industry .In comparison with other welding processes the RSW is faster and easier for automation. This process involves electrical, thermal and mechanical interactions. Resistance spot welding primarily takes place by localized melting spot at the interface of the sheets followed by its quick solidification under sequential control of pressure water-cooled electrode and flow of required electric current for certain duration. In this work the tensile tests were studied, the results obtained show that the type material, the overlap length, the angle of the rolling direction and the thickness of the sheet have an influence in resistance spot welding process.

  9. Retrieving handwriting by combining word spotting and manifold ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Saldarriaga, Sebastián; Morin, Emmanuel; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Online handwritten data, produced with Tablet PCs or digital pens, consists in a sequence of points (x, y). As the amount of data available in this form increases, algorithms for retrieval of online data are needed. Word spotting is a common approach used for the retrieval of handwriting. However, from an information retrieval (IR) perspective, word spotting is a primitive keyword based matching and retrieval strategy. We propose a framework for handwriting retrieval where an arbitrary word spotting method is used, and then a manifold ranking algorithm is applied on the initial retrieval scores. Experimental results on a database of more than 2,000 handwritten newswires show that our method can improve the performances of a state-of-the-art word spotting system by more than 10%.

  10. Stress hot spots in viscoplastic deformation of polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollett, A D; Li, J; Rohrer, G S; Lebensohn, R A; Groeber, M; Choi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The viscoplastic deformation of polycrystals under uniaxial loading is investigated to determine the relationship between hot spots in stress and their location in relation to the microstructure. A 3D full-field formulation based on fast Fourier transforms for the prediction of the viscoplastic deformation of poly-crystals is used with rate-sensitive crystal plasticity. Two measured polycrystalline structures are used to instantiate the simulations, as well as a fully periodic synthetic polycrystal adapted from a simulation of grain growth. Application of (Euclidean) distance maps shows that hot spots in stress tend to occur close to grain boundaries. It is also found that low stress regions lie close to boundaries. The radial distribution function of the hot spots indicates clustering. Despite the lack of texture in the polycrystals, the hot spots are strongly concentrated in (1 1 0) orientations, which can account for the observed clustering. All three microstructures yield similar results despite significant differences in topology

  11. Performance evaluation of micro thermoelectric module for hot spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ook Joong; Lee, Kong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The experimental and numerical study is carried out to investigate the availability of micro TEM for hot spot cooling of an IC chip. It is found that an acrylic plate integrating with copper plate and imbedded micro TEM represents good hot spot cooling of the IC chip when CO2 laser is used to hot spot heating. Effective active local cooling phenomena by the TEM are well investigated by experiment. The measured temperature drop in the hot spot point is compared to numerical result using the TAS program for every case. Numerical result shows good agreement with experiment using some appropriate thermal and thermoelectric properties of TEM and TIM obtained by trial and error. Measurement of thermo-physical properties such as contact thermal resistance and thickness of liquid TIM is difficult but can be estimated by numerical analysis

  12. Relation between surface roughness and number of cathode spots of a low-pressure arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Iwao, Toru; Yumoto, Motoshige

    2008-01-01

    A remarkable characteristic of the cathode spot of a low-pressure arc is that it can remove an oxide layer preferentially. Recently, cathode spots of a low-pressure arc have been used for cleaning metal oxide surfaces before thermal spraying or surface modification. Nevertheless, few reports have described the cathode spot movement or the oxide removal process. This experiment was carried out using a Fe+C cathode workpiece and a cylindrical copper anode. The cathode spot movement was recorded using a high-speed video camera. The images were later analysed using plasma image processing. The workpiece surface, which was covered with a 9.67 μm thick oxide, was analysed using laser microscopy after processing. The surface roughness and the number of cathode spots showed no direct relation because the current density per cathode spot did not change according to the number of cathode spots.

  13. Inhibition of turbulence in inertial-confinement-fusion hot spots by viscous dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C R; Clark, D S; Cook, A W; Busby, L E; Robey, H F

    2014-05-01

    Achieving ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires the formation of a high-temperature (>10 keV) central hot spot. Turbulence has been suggested as a mechanism for degrading the hot-spot conditions by altering transport properties, introducing colder, mixed material, or reducing the conversion of radially directed kinetic energy to hot-spot heating. We show, however, that the hot spot is very viscous, and the assumption of turbulent conditions in the hot spot is incorrect. This work presents the first high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations of National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments using detailed knowledge of implosion dynamics and instability seeds and including an accurate model of physical viscosity. We find that when viscous effects are neglected, the hot spot can exhibit a turbulent kinetic energy cascade. Viscous effects, however, are significant and strongly damp small-scale velocity structures, with a hot-spot Reynolds number in the range of only 10-100.

  14. Using a tungsten rollbar to characterize the source spot of a megavoltage bremsstrahlung linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schach von Wittenau, A.E.; Logan, C.M.; Rikard, R.

    2002-01-01

    In photon teletherapy, the size and functional form of the photon source spot affect both the sharpness of the penumbra of treatment fields and the sharpness of portal images. Photon source spot parameters are also used in photon teletherapy dose calculation codes. A simple method for characterizing the source spot would complement the existing, more involved methods that have been described in the medical physics literature. Such a method, using a rollbar made of tungsten or other high-Z metal, is used in industrial radiography. We describe the use of a tungsten rollbar for characterizing the source spot edge spread function (and thereby the source spot size and shape) of a megavoltage bremsstrahlung photon source. We use Monte Carlo simulations to quantify anticipated experimental artifacts of the method, assuming typical spot sizes for circ-function, Gaussian, and Bennett line shapes. We illustrate the use of the rollbar method by characterizing the source spot of a typical 9 MV linac used for industrial radiography. The source spot is analyzed using two approaches: (a) fitting the rollbar image with analytic functions and (b) using Abel inversion to obtain the cylindrically symmetric spot profile consistent with the measured rollbar image. Monte Carlo simulations, based on a 6 MV photon teletherapy accelerator, suggest that aspects of the method are applicable to medical bremsstrahlung sources

  15. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  16. Statistical hot spot analysis of reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1974-05-01

    This report is an introduction into statistical hot spot analysis. After the definition of the term 'hot spot' a statistical analysis is outlined. The mathematical method is presented, especially the formula concerning the probability of no hot spots in a reactor core is evaluated. A discussion with the boundary conditions of a statistical hot spot analysis is given (technological limits, nominal situation, uncertainties). The application of the hot spot analysis to the linear power of pellets and the temperature rise in cooling channels is demonstrated with respect to the test zone of KNK II. Basic values, such as probability of no hot spots, hot spot potential, expected hot spot diagram and cumulative distribution function of hot spots, are discussed. It is shown, that the risk of hot channels can be dispersed equally over all subassemblies by an adequate choice of the nominal temperature distribution in the core

  17. Genome-wide gene expression profiling and a forward genetic screen show that differential expression of the sodium ion transporter Ena21 contributes to the differential tolerance of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to osmotic stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enjalbert, Brice

    2009-04-01

    Candida albicans is more pathogenic than Candida dubliniensis. However, this disparity in virulence is surprising given the high level of sequence conservation and the wide range of phenotypic traits shared by these two species. Increased sensitivity to environmental stresses has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor to the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. In this study, we investigated, in the first comparison of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by transcriptional profiling, global gene expression in each species when grown under conditions in which the two species exhibit differential stress tolerance. The profiles revealed similar core responses to stresses in both species, but differences in the amplitude of the general transcriptional responses to thermal, salt and oxidative stress. Differences in the regulation of specific stress genes were observed between the two species. In particular, ENA21, encoding a sodium ion transporter, was strongly induced in C. albicans but not in C. dubliniensis. In addition, ENA21 was identified in a forward genetic screen for C. albicans genomic sequences that increase salt tolerance in C. dubliniensis. Introduction of a single copy of CaENA21 was subsequently shown to be sufficient to confer salt tolerance upon C. dubliniensis.

  18. Localization of the hot spots in a pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Leisheng; Lee, Wooram; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-01-01

    The pebble bed reactor (PBR) is a candidate reactor type for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is one of the Generation-IV reactor types. The HTGR design concept exhibits excellent safety features due to the low power density and the large amount of graphite present in the core which gives a large thermal inertia in an accident such as loss of coolant. The conclusions are made and may contribute to a better design of a PBR core and a closer inspection of the local hot spots to avoid destruction of pebbles from happening. Thermal field of a PBR core is investigated in this study. Specifically, experiments on measuring the pebbles' surface temperature are performed. It is found that the upper pebble has an overall higher temperature profile than the other pebbles and the stagnation zone under does not increase its surface's temperature. In addition, the temperature profile of the side pebble shows a concave form and it keeps decreasing from the contact point to the vertex in the lower pebble. Lastly, the maximum temperature difference among these points is 5.83 deg. C. These findings above are validated by CFX simulations under two different turbulence models (k-e, SST) and two contact areas (diameter of 6mm and 3.5mm). By contrasting the temperature variation trends of all simulation cases, it is concluded that SST turbulence model with 20% intensity shows a better agreement with the experiment result, nevertheless, slightly deviation is also found in terms of total temperature difference and the peak appears in position 17-19 in experiments

  19. Localization of the hot spots in a pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Leisheng; Lee, Wooram; Lee, Jaeyoung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The pebble bed reactor (PBR) is a candidate reactor type for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is one of the Generation-IV reactor types. The HTGR design concept exhibits excellent safety features due to the low power density and the large amount of graphite present in the core which gives a large thermal inertia in an accident such as loss of coolant. The conclusions are made and may contribute to a better design of a PBR core and a closer inspection of the local hot spots to avoid destruction of pebbles from happening. Thermal field of a PBR core is investigated in this study. Specifically, experiments on measuring the pebbles' surface temperature are performed. It is found that the upper pebble has an overall higher temperature profile than the other pebbles and the stagnation zone under does not increase its surface's temperature. In addition, the temperature profile of the side pebble shows a concave form and it keeps decreasing from the contact point to the vertex in the lower pebble. Lastly, the maximum temperature difference among these points is 5.83 deg. C. These findings above are validated by CFX simulations under two different turbulence models (k-e, SST) and two contact areas (diameter of 6mm and 3.5mm). By contrasting the temperature variation trends of all simulation cases, it is concluded that SST turbulence model with 20% intensity shows a better agreement with the experiment result, nevertheless, slightly deviation is also found in terms of total temperature difference and the peak appears in position 17-19 in experiments.

  20. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  1. The effect of defocusing on spot diameter when ablate the silicon surface by femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinkai; Li, Wei; Wu, Tengfei; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2018-02-01

    Femtosecond laser has been demonstrated to be a prominent tool to manufacture micro scale structure. In the processing, the focusing lens is usually used as the concentrated tool to assemble the original beam to the tiny spot to provide enough energy for ablation. What is more, different focal length means the diverse scale of the focused spot. In common use, various sizes of the spot are required to adjust to the multifarious profiles and substituting the focus lens is the general method. There is no doubt that changing the lens is a fussy job and frequent replacing the lens may cause the lack of stability. In this paper, we report the defocus of the lens to modify the scale of the spot and it is proved to be an effective way to vary the diameter of the focused spot without changing the focus lens.

  2. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Dugger, Katie M.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    the treated areas and 0.822 for the untreated areas. Derived estimates of population change on both study areas showed the same general decline before removal with an estimated slope of –0.0036 per year. Following removal, the rate of population change on the treated areas increased to an average of 1.029 but decreased to an average of 0.870 on the untreated areas. The results from this first experiment demonstrated that lethal removal of barred owls allowed the recovery of northern spotted owl populations in the treated portions of our study area. If additional federally funded barred owl removal experiments provide similar results, this could be the foundation for development of a long-term conservation strategy for northern spotted owls.

  3. Deflagration Wave Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-03

    Shock initiation in a plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) is due to hot spots. Current reactive burn models are based, at least heuristically, on the ignition and growth concept. The ignition phase occurs when a small localized region of high temperature (or hot spot) burns on a fast time scale. This is followed by a growth phase in which a reactive front spreads out from the hot spot. Propagating reactive fronts are deflagration waves. A key question is the deflagration speed in a PBX compressed and heated by a shock wave that generated the hot spot. Here, the ODEs for a steady deflagration wave profile in a compressible fluid are derived, along with the needed thermodynamic quantities of realistic equations of state corresponding to the reactants and products of a PBX. The properties of the wave profile equations are analyzed and an algorithm is derived for computing the deflagration speed. As an illustrative example, the algorithm is applied to compute the deflagration speed in shock compressed PBX 9501 as a function of shock pressure. The calculated deflagration speed, even at the CJ pressure, is low compared to the detonation speed. The implication of this are briefly discussed.

  4. The spot market and the spot price: applicability and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of spot prices and their relationship to long-term contracting is addressed. The author is associated with Nuexco, which originally was called the Nuclear Exchange Corporation. They use the term Exchange Value which originated in the idea that Nuexco operated an exchange 'bank' - those with too much uranium could 'bank it', those with short-term needs could borrow from the 'bank'. If the borrower repaid slightly more or less the difference was settled using the 'exchange value'. This became used for longer-term transactions and now settling the monthly value is an important part of Nuexco's activities. The exact nature of the Exchange Value is defined. Now more and more buyers are insisting on spot market related pricing even where this is not meaningfully related to uranium production costs. (U.K.)

  5. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  6. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero; Danila Khikhlukha; J. M. Solano-Altamirano; Raquel Dormido; Natividad Duro

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presente...

  7. Assessment of Nugget Size of Spot Weld using Neutron Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance spot welding (RSW has been widely used for many years in the fabrication of car body structures, mainly due to the cost and time considerations. The weld quality as well as the nugget size is an issue in various manufacturing and processes due to the strong link between the weld quality and safety. It has led to the development of various destructive and non-destructive tests for spot welding such as peel testing, ultrasonic inspections, digital shearography, and infrared thermography. However, such methods cannot show spot weld nugget visually and the results are very operator’s skill dependent. The present work proposes a method to visualize the nugget size of spot welds using neutron radiography. Water, oil and various concentrations of gadolinium oxide-alcohol mixture were evaluated as a contrast media to obtain the best quality of radiography. Results show that mixture of 5 g gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3 in 25 ml alcohol produces the best contrast. It provides the possibility to visualize the shape and size of the nugget spot weld. Furthermore, it can discriminate between nugget and corona bond. The result of neutron radiography evaluation shows reasonable agreement with that of destructive test.

  8. 7 CFR 1421.11 - Spot checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot checks. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.11 Spot checks. (a) CCC... CCC access to the farm and storage facility as necessary to conduct collateral inspections, or “spot...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1435 - Maxwell spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maxwell spot. 886.1435 Section 886.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1435 Maxwell spot. (a) Identification. A Maxwell spot is an AC...

  10. Tuning temperature and size of hot spots and hot-spot arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Elika; Babinet, Nicolas; Lalouat, Loïc; Lesueur, Jérôme; Aigouy, Lionel; Volz, Sébastian; Labéguerie-Egéa, Jessica; Mortier, Michel

    2011-01-17

    By using scanning thermal microscopy, it is shown that nanoscale constrictions in metallic microwires deposited on an oxidized silicon substrate can be tuned in terms of temperature and confinement size. High-resolution temperature maps indeed show that submicrometer hot spots and hot-spot arrays are obtained when the SiO(2) layer thickness decreases below 100 nm. When the SiO(2) thickness becomes larger, heat is less confined in the vicinity of the constrictions and laterally spreads all along the microwire. These results are in good agreement with numerical simulations, which provide dependences between silica-layer thickness and nanodot shape and temperature. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Modelling of a proton spot scanning system using MCNP6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardenfors, O; Gudowska, I; Dasu, A; Kopeć, M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to model the characteristics of a clinical proton spot scanning beam using Monte Carlo simulations with the code MCNP6. The proton beam was defined using parameters obtained from beam commissioning at the Skandion Clinic, Uppsala, Sweden. Simulations were evaluated against measurements for proton energies between 60 and 226 MeV with regard to range in water, lateral spot sizes in air and absorbed dose depth profiles in water. The model was also used to evaluate the experimental impact of lateral signal losses in an ionization chamber through simulations using different detector radii. Simulated and measured distal ranges agreed within 0.1 mm for R 90 and R 80 , and within 0.2 mm for R 50 . The average absolute difference of all spot sizes was 0.1 mm. The average agreement of absorbed dose integrals and Bragg-peak heights was 0.9%. Lateral signal losses increased with incident proton energy with a maximum signal loss of 7% for 226 MeV protons. The good agreement between simulations and measurements supports the assumptions and parameters employed in the presented Monte Carlo model. The characteristics of the proton spot scanning beam were accurately reproduced and the model will prove useful in future studies on secondary neutrons. (paper)

  12. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  13. Spot på samtalen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneris, Sophie; Jensen, Tanja Dall; Caswell, Dorte

    Spot på samtalen sætter fokus på det, der konkret foregår i samtaler mellem borgere og de beskæftigelsesfaglige medarbejdere i jobcentrene. Da de udsatte grupper i mange tilfælde er langt fra arbejdsmarkedet, er interessen rettet mod, hvilke forhold i kontakten med beskæftigelsessystemet, der...... har betydning hvilke indsatser ledige modtager, men også hvordan de modtager dem. Her rettes blikket mod den centrale del af den beskæftigelsespolitiske indsats som samtalerne udgør. I Spot på samtalen er blikket rettet mod de dynamikker, mønstre og mekanismer, der kommer i spil i samtalerne i...

  14. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  16. Measurement of laser spot quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Treptau, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of measuring spot quality are compared. We examine in detail various figures of merit such as full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at 1/(e exp 2) maximum, Strehl ratio, and encircled energy. Our application is optical data storage, but results can be applied to other areas like space communications and high energy lasers. We found that the optimum figure of merit in many cases is Strehl ratio.

  17. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  18. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuan Fang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index is also necessary since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemo...

  19. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A new index for electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falbo, Paolo; Fattore, Marco; Stefani, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Different indexes are used in electricity markets worldwide to represent the daily behavior of spot prices. However, the peculiarities of these markets require a careful choice of the index, based on mathematical formulation and its statistical properties. Choosing a bad index may influence the financial policies of market players, since derivative pricing and hedging performance can be deeply affected. In this paper with an initial theoretical analysis, we intend to show that the most widely used indexes (simple arithmetic average and weighted average with current volumes) are poor representatives of the spot market. We will then perform an analysis of the hedging strategy on a derivative instrument (an Asian option) written on a reference index. The resulting simulations, applied to OMEL (Spain) and EEX (Germany), are sufficiently clear cut to suggest that the decision to adopt an index to represent properly a market must be taken very carefully. Finally we will propose a new index (FAST index) and, after comparing it with the previous indexes, will show that both theoretically and practically this index can be taken as a good electricity market synthetic indicator.

  1. Laser spot welding of cobalt-based amorphous metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runchev, Dobre; Dorn, Lutc; Jaferi, Seifolah; Purbst, Detler

    1997-01-01

    The results concerning weldability of amorphous alloy (VAC 6025F) in shape of foils and the quality of laser-spot welded joints are presented in this paper. The aim of the research was the production of a high quality welding joint, by preserving the amorphous structure. The quality of the joint was tested by shear strength analysis and microhardness measuring. The metallographic studies were made by using optical microscope and SEM. The results show that (1) overlapped Co based amorphous metals foils can be welded with high-quality by a pulsed Nd: YAG-Laser, but only within a very narrow laser parameter window; (2) the laser welded spots show comparably high strength as the basic material; (3) the structure of the welded spot remains amorphous, so that the same characteristics as the base material can be achieved. (author)

  2. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  3. Spot formation of radiation particles by electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical etching (ECE) spot formation from the top of chemical etching (CE) spot was confirmed by a series of experiments. One of polycarbonate (Iupilon) could not make the spot, because ECE spot had grown up before the microscope confirming the CE spot. Clear CEC spots by α-ray and neutron were found on Harzlas and Baryotrak, both improvements of CR-39. Under the same etching conditions, the growth of ECE spot on Harzlas was more rapid than Baryotrak, but both spots were almost the same. All CE spot by α-ray produced the CEC spots, but a part of CE circle spot by neutron formed them. (S.Y.)

  4. Vocal complexity and sociality in spotted paca (Cuniculus paca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Stella G C; Sousa-Lima, Renata S; Tokumaru, Rosana S; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G; Nogueira, Selene S C

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of sociality is related to many ecological factors that act on animals as selective forces, thus driving the formation of groups. Group size will depend on the payoffs of group living. The Social Complexity Hypothesis for Communication (SCHC) predicts that increases in group size will be related to increases in the complexity of the communication among individuals. This hypothesis, which was confirmed in some mammal societies, may be useful to trace sociality in the spotted paca (Cuniculus paca), a Neotropical caviomorph rodent reported as solitary. There are, however, sightings of groups in the wild, and farmers easily form groups of spotted paca in captivity. Thus, we aimed to describe the acoustic repertoire of captive spotted paca to test the SCHC and to obtain insights about the sociability of this species. Moreover, we aimed to verify the relationship between group size and acoustic repertoire size of caviomorph rodents, to better understand the evolution of sociality in this taxon. We predicted that spotted paca should display a complex acoustic repertoire, given their social behavior in captivity and group sightings in the wild. We also predicted that in caviomorph species the group size would increase with acoustic repertoire, supporting the SCHC. We performed a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based on acoustic parameters of the vocalizations recorded. In addition, we applied an independent contrasts approach to investigate sociality in spotted paca following the social complexity hypothesis, independent of phylogeny. Our analysis showed that the spotted paca's acoustic repertoire contains seven vocal types and one mechanical signal. The broad acoustic repertoire of the spotted paca might have evolved given the species' ability to live in groups. The relationship between group size and the size of the acoustic repertoires of caviomorph species was confirmed, providing additional support for the SCHC in yet another group of diverse mammals

  5. The Spot 42 RNA: A regulatory small RNA with roles in the central metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bækkedal, Cecilie; Haugen, Peik

    2015-01-01

    The Spot 42 RNA is a 109 nucleotide long (in Escherichia coli) noncoding small regulatory RNA (sRNA) encoded by the spf (spot fourty-two) gene. spf is found in gamma-proteobacteria and the majority of experimental work on Spot 42 RNA has been performed using E. coli, and recently Aliivibrio salmonicida. In the cell Spot 42 RNA plays essential roles as a regulator in carbohydrate metabolism and uptake, and its expression is activated by glucose, and inhibited by the cAMP-CRP complex. Here we summarize the current knowledge on Spot 42, and present the natural distribution of spf, show family-specific secondary structural features of Spot 42, and link highly conserved structural regions to mRNA target binding. PMID:26327359

  6. Identification of hot spot area of sediment contamination in a lake system using texture characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, A M; Letha, J; Joseph, Sabu; Thomas, Jobin

    2013-04-01

    Texture plays an important role in the identification of polluted stretch in a lake system. The organic matter as well as toxic elements get accumulated in the finer sediments. The aim of the work is to show the spatio-temporal distribution of texture of the lake sediment (Akkulam-Veli lake, Kerala) and to identify the hot spot areas of contamination. Hot spot areas vary with seasons. During PRM, (premonsoon), the upstream portion of the Akkulam lake is the hot spot. During MON (monsoon), the downstream portion of the Akkulam lake and the upstream portion of the Veli lake are the hot spots. During POM (postmonsoon), hot spot area is the downstream portion of the Akkulam lake. This methodology can be used for the quick identification of hot spots in water bodies.

  7. The Spot 42 RNA: A regulatory small RNA with roles in the central metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bækkedal, Cecilie; Haugen, Peik

    2015-01-01

    The Spot 42 RNA is a 109 nucleotide long (in Escherichia coli) noncoding small regulatory RNA (sRNA) encoded by the spf (spot fourty-two) gene. spf is found in gamma-proteobacteria and the majority of experimental work on Spot 42 RNA has been performed using E. coli, and recently Aliivibrio salmonicida. In the cell Spot 42 RNA plays essential roles as a regulator in carbohydrate metabolism and uptake, and its expression is activated by glucose, and inhibited by the cAMP-CRP complex. Here we summarize the current knowledge on Spot 42, and present the natural distribution of spf, show family-specific secondary structural features of Spot 42, and link highly conserved structural regions to mRNA target binding.

  8. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  9. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  10. THE CAUSALITY TEST BETWEEN THE VARIANCES OF SPOT AND FUTURE MARKET PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMRAH İSMAİL ÇEVİK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatility in financial markets urges importance of risk management with respect to investors and especially firms. Information and interaction between spot and futures markets plays an important role on formation of market prices. In this study, causality and information flows are examined on spot and futures prices of ISE 100 Index, US Dollar, and Euro which are traded at Turkish Derivatives Exchange (VOB. Dynamic causality test that is originally created by Cheung and Ng (1996 is applied. Dynamic causality test results show that in the ISE 100 Index model spot prices affect futures prices and in the exchange model futures prices affect spot prices.

  11. Hot spot in eclipsing dwarf nova IY Ursae Majoris during quiescence and normal outburst

    OpenAIRE

    Bakowska, K.; Olech, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of hot spot brightness in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova IY Ursae Majoris during its normal outburst in March 2013 and in quiescence in April 2012 and in October 2015. Examination of four reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot changed significantly only during the outburst. The brightness of the hot spot, before and after the outburst, was on the same level. Hereby, based on the behaviour of the...

  12. Transition Heat Transfer Modeling Based on the Characteristics of Turbulent Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Fred; Boyle, Robert

    1998-01-01

    While turbulence models are being developed which show promise for simulating the transition region on a turbine blade or vane, it is believed that the best approach with the greatest potential for practical use is the use of models which incorporate the physics of turbulent spots present in the transition region. This type of modeling results in the prediction of transition region intermittency which when incorporated in turbulence models give a good to excellent prediction of the transition region heat transfer. Some models are presented which show how turbulent spot characteristics and behavior can be employed to predict the effect of pressure gradient and Mach number on the transition region. The models predict the spot formation rate which is needed, in addition to the transition onset location, in the Narasimha concentrated breakdown intermittency equation. A simplified approach is taken for modeling turbulent spot growth and interaction in the transition region which utilizes the turbulent spot variables governing transition length and spot generation rate. The models are expressed in terms of spot spreading angle, dimensionless spot velocity, dimensionless spot area, disturbance frequency and Mach number. The models are used in conjunction with a computer code to predict the effects of pressure gradient and Mach number on the transition region and compared with VKI experimental turbine data.

  13. Focusing on butterfly eyespot focus: uncoupling of white spots from eyespot bodies in nymphalid butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Developmental studies on butterfly wing color patterns often focus on eyespots. A typical eyespot (such as that of Bicyclus anynana) has a few concentric rings of dark and light colors and a white spot (called a focus) at the center. The prospective eyespot center during the early pupal stage is known to act as an organizing center. It has often been assumed, according to gradient models for positional information, that a white spot in adult wings corresponds to an organizing center and that the size of the white spot indicates how active that organizing center was. However, there is no supporting evidence for these assumptions. To evaluate the feasibility of these assumptions in nymphalid butterflies, we studied the unique color patterns of Calisto tasajera (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), which have not been analyzed before in the literature. In the anterior forewing, one white spot was located at the center of an eyespot, but another white spot associated with either no or only a small eyespot was present in the adjacent compartment. The anterior hindwing contained two adjacent white spots not associated with eyespots, one of which showed a sparse pattern. The posterior hindwing contained two adjacent pear-shaped eyespots, and the white spots were located at the proximal side or even outside the eyespot bodies. The successive white spots within a single compartment along the midline in the posterior hindwing showed a possible trajectory of a positional determination process for the white spots. Several cases of focus-less eyespots in other nymphalid butterflies were also presented. These results argue for the uncoupling of white spots from eyespot bodies, suggesting that an eyespot organizing center does not necessarily differentiate into a white spot and that a prospective white spot does not necessarily signify organizing activity for an eyespot. Incorporation of these results in future models for butterfly wing color pattern formation is encouraged.

  14. Methodological spot of establishing silt deposit concentration in Serbian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Slavoljub

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent methodology of sampling and establishing silt deposit concentration in Serbian rivers is associated to numerous deficiencies. Daily concentrations of this type of river deposit on the most of the hydrological gauges were obtained on the base of only one measurement, which takes into consideration the matter of representative ness of those samples. Taking the samples of deposit in one point on the profile is little bit problematic because of dispersion of the obtained results. Very important matter is the question of choice of the sampling location. This analyses of data may lead to serious spots in calculating total carried deposit. From the above mentioned reasons, we decided to take precise measurements of silt deposit concentration as well as to establish methodological spots of measurements. The results of these measurements are analyzed and presented in this paper.

  15. Thermally-Driven Mantle Plumes Reconcile Hot-spot Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D.; Davies, J.

    2008-12-01

    Hot-spots are anomalous regions of magmatism that cannot be directly associated with plate tectonic processes (e.g. Morgan, 1972). They are widely regarded as the surface expression of upwelling mantle plumes. Hot-spots exhibit variable life-spans, magmatic productivity and fixity (e.g. Ito and van Keken, 2007). This suggests that a wide-range of upwelling structures coexist within Earth's mantle, a view supported by geochemical and seismic evidence, but, thus far, not reproduced by numerical models. Here, results from a new, global, 3-D spherical, mantle convection model are presented, which better reconcile hot-spot observations, the key modification from previous models being increased convective vigor. Model upwellings show broad-ranging dynamics; some drift slowly, while others are more mobile, displaying variable life-spans, intensities and migration velocities. Such behavior is consistent with hot-spot observations, indicating that the mantle must be simulated at the correct vigor and in the appropriate geometry to reproduce Earth-like dynamics. Thermally-driven mantle plumes can explain the principal features of hot-spot volcanism on Earth.

  16. Method for measuring the focal spot size of an x-ray tube using a coded aperture mask and a digital detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paolo; Mettivier, Giovanni

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate a new method based on a coded aperture mask combined with a digital x-ray imaging detector for measurements of the focal spot sizes of diagnostic x-ray tubes. Common techniques for focal spot size measurements employ a pinhole camera, a slit camera, or a star resolution pattern. The coded aperture mask is a radiation collimator consisting of a large number of apertures disposed on a predetermined grid in an array, through which the radiation source is imaged onto a digital x-ray detector. The method of the coded mask camera allows one to obtain a one-shot accurate and direct measurement of the two dimensions of the focal spot (like that for a pinhole camera) but at a low tube loading (like that for a slit camera). A large number of small apertures in the coded mask operate as a "multipinhole" with greater efficiency than a single pinhole, but keeping the resolution of a single pinhole. X-ray images result from the multiplexed output on the detector image plane of such a multiple aperture array, and the image of the source is digitally reconstructed with a deconvolution algorithm. Images of the focal spot of a laboratory x-ray tube (W anode: 35-80 kVp; focal spot size of 0.04 mm) were acquired at different geometrical magnifications with two different types of digital detector (a photon counting hybrid silicon pixel detector with 0.055 mm pitch and a flat panel CMOS digital detector with 0.05 mm pitch) using a high resolution coded mask (type no-two-holes-touching modified uniformly redundant array) with 480 0.07 mm apertures, designed for imaging at energies below 35 keV. Measurements with a slit camera were performed for comparison. A test with a pinhole camera and with the coded mask on a computed radiography mammography unit with 0.3 mm focal spot was also carried out. The full width at half maximum focal spot sizes were obtained from the line profiles of the decoded images, showing a focal spot of 0.120 mm x 0.105 mm at 35

  17. Human second trimester amniotic fluid cells are able to create embryoid body-like structures in vitro and to show typical expression profiles of embryonic and primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Ivana; Di Pietro, Roberta; Alfonsi, Melissa; Centurione, Maria Antonietta; Centurione, Lucia; Sancilio, Silvia; Pelagatti, Francesca; D'Amico, Maria Angela; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Piattelli, Adriano; Tetè, Stefano; Palka, Giandomenico; Borlongan, Cesar V; Stuppia, Liborio

    2014-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) represent a novel class of broadly multipotent stem cells sharing characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells. However, both the origin of these cells and their actual properties in terms of pluripotent differentiation potential are still debated. In order to verify the presence of features of pluripotency in human second trimester AFSCs, we have investigated the ability of these cells to form in vitro three-dimensional aggregates, known as embryoid bodies (EBs), and to express specific genes of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). EBs were obtained after 5 days of AFSC culture in suspension and showed positivity for alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining and for specific markers of pluripotency (OCT4 and SOX2). Moreover, EB-derived cells showed the expression of specific transcripts of the three germ layers. RT-PCR analysis, carried out at different culture times (second, third, fourth, fifth, and eighth passages), revealed the presence of specific markers of ESCs (such as FGF4 and DAPPA4), as well as of markers typical of PGCs and, in particular, genes involved in early stages of germ cell development (Fragilis, Stella, Vasa, c-Kit, Rnf17). Finally, the expression of genes related to the control of DNA methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3b1, DNMT1, DNMT3L, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, MDB4, MeCP2), as well as the lack of inactivation of the X-chromosome in female samples, was also demonstrated. Taken together, these data provide further evidence for the presence of common features among human AFSCs, PGCs, and ESCs.

  18. Spot temperatures and area coverages on active dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Steven H.; Neff, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Two active K dwarfs are examined to determine the temperatures of the stars and to estimate the locations and sizes of cool spots on the stellar surfaces. Two wavelength regions with TiO absorption bands at different temperature sensitivities are modeled simultaneously using the method developed by Huenemoerder and Ramsey (1987). The spectrum of BD +26deg730 shows excess absorption in the TiO band, and the absence of the 8860 A band in HD 82558 indicates that its spots are warmer than those of BD +26deg730.

  19. Bilateral Macular Roth Spots as a Manifestation of Subacute Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ceglowska, Karolina; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Kiszka, Agnieszka; Koss, Michael J.; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Rejdak, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of impaired vision in the right eye (OD). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (LogMAR) was 1.1 for the right eye and 0.0 for the left eye (OS). Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhages resembling Roth spots in both macular regions. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed intraretinal pseudocysts and hyperreflective deposits in the areas corresponding to the Roth spots. Conducted blood tests revealed el...

  20. Computed tomography angiography spot sign predicts intraprocedural aneurysm rupture in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Stienen, Martin Nikolaus; Schöni, Daniel; Fung, Christian; Roethlisberger, Michel; Corniola, Marco Vincenzo; Bervini, David; Maduri, Rodolfo; Valsecchi, Daniele; Tok, Sina; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schaller, Karl; Bozinov, Oliver; Regli, Luca

    2017-07-01

    To analyze whether the computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign predicts the intraprocedural rupture rate and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). From a prospective nationwide multicenter registry database, 1023 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were analyzed retrospectively. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to compare spot sign-positive and -negative patients with aneurysmal intracerebral hemorrhage (aICH) for baseline characteristics, aneurysmal and ICH imaging characteristics, treatment and admission status as well as outcome at discharge and 1-year follow-up (1YFU) using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). A total of 218 out of 1023 aSAH patients (21%) presented with aICH including 23/218 (11%) patients with spot sign. Baseline characteristics were comparable between spot sign-positive and -negative patients. There was a higher clip-to-coil ratio in patients with than without aICH (both spot sign positive and negative). Median aICH volume was significantly higher in the spot sign-positive group (50 ml, 13-223 ml) than in the spot sign-negative group (18 ml, 1-416; p spot sign-positive aICH thus were three times as likely as those with spot sign-negative aICH to show an intraoperative aneurysm rupture [odds ratio (OR) 3.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-8.92, p = 0.046]. Spot sign-positive aICH patients showed a significantly worse mRS at discharge (p = 0.039) than patients with spot sign-negative aICH (median mRS 5 vs. 4). Logistic regression analysis showed that the spot sign was an aICH volume-dependent predictor for outcome. Both spot sign-positive and -negative aICH patients showed comparable rates of hospital death, death at 1YFU and mRS at 1YFU. In this multicenter data analysis, patients with spot sign-positive aICH showed higher aICH volumes and a higher rate of intraprocedural aneurysm rupture, but comparable long-term outcome to spot sign

  1. Sweet Spot Size in Virtual Sound Reproduction: A Temporal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    The influence of head misalignments on the performance of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers is often evaluated in the frequency domain. The changes in magnitude give us an idea of how much of the crosstalk is leaked into the direct signal and therefore a sweet spot performance can......-correlation we estimate the interaural time delay and define a sweet spot. The analysis is based on measurements carried out on 21 different loudspeaker configurations, including two- and four-channels arrangements. Results show that closely spaced loudspeakers are more robust to lateral displacements than wider...... span angles. Additionally, the sweet spot as a function of head rotations increases systematically when the loudspeakers are placed at elevated positions....

  2. Progressive outer retinal necrosis presenting as cherry red spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Glenn; Young, Lucy H

    2012-10-01

    To report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) presenting as a cherry red spot. Case report. A 53-year-old woman with recently diagnosed HIV and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) aseptic meningitis developed rapid sequential vision loss in both eyes over 2 months. Her exam showed a "cherry red spot" in both maculae with peripheral atrophy and pigmentary changes, consistent with PORN. Due to her late presentation and the rapid progression of her condition, she quickly developed end-stage vision loss in both eyes. PORN should be considered within the differential diagnosis of a "cherry red spot." Immune-deficient patients with a history of herpetic infection who present with visual loss warrant prompt ophthalmological evaluation.

  3. Hot spots on the neutralizer plates of a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of hot spots on the neutralizing surfaces of tokamaks may be one of the reasons for the entry of large impurity fluxes into the plasmas of TFTR and JET (the so-called carbon catastrophe or carbon bloom) with high auxiliary heating powers. At this time it is unclear whether these hot spots are caused just by nonuniformities on the neutralizer surface or whether their appearance is the result of some more general behavior, with the surface nonuniformities only showing up as seed perturbations. In this paper it is shown that hot spots can also develop on smooth surfaces of carbon neutralizer plates as a result of the contraction of a heat flux incident on the plates

  4. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  5. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  6. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  8. PyTranSpot: A tool for multiband light curve modeling of planetary transits and stellar spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvan, Ines G.; Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Fossati, L.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Lammer, H.; Guenther, E. W.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2018-02-01

    Several studies have shown that stellar activity features, such as occulted and non-occulted starspots, can affect the measurement of transit parameters biasing studies of transit timing variations and transmission spectra. We present PyTranSpot, which we designed to model multiband transit light curves showing starspot anomalies, inferring both transit and spot parameters. The code follows a pixellation approach to model the star with its corresponding limb darkening, spots, and transiting planet on a two dimensional Cartesian coordinate grid. We combine PyTranSpot with a Markov chain Monte Carlo framework to study and derive exoplanet transmission spectra, which provides statistically robust values for the physical properties and uncertainties of a transiting star-planet system. We validate PyTranSpot's performance by analyzing eleven synthetic light curves of four different star-planet systems and 20 transit light curves of the well-studied WASP-41b system. We also investigate the impact of starspots on transit parameters and derive wavelength dependent transit depth values for WASP-41b covering a range of 6200-9200 Å, indicating a flat transmission spectrum.

  9. Morphological changes in ultrafast laser ablation plumes with varying spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilal, S S; Diwakar, P K; Polek, M P; Phillips, M C

    2015-06-15

    We investigated the role of spot size on plume morphology during ultrafast laser ablation of metal targets. Our results show that the spatial features of fs LA plumes are strongly dependent on the focal spot size. Two-dimensional self-emission images showed that the shape of the ultrafast laser ablation plumes changes from spherical to cylindrical with an increasing spot size from 100 to 600 μm. The changes in plume morphology and internal structures are related to ion emission dynamics from the plasma, where broader angular ion distribution and faster ions are noticed for the smallest spot size used. The present results clearly show that the morphological changes in the plume with spot size are independent of laser pulse width.

  10. Long-term Spot-Coverage Variations of 13 BY Dra G-K Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, I. Yu.; Kozhevnikova, A. V.

    2018-06-01

    The results of spot-coverage modeling for 13 active G-K dwarf stars based on many-year photometric observations are presented. The results of UBV RI observations of eight stars performed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory were used together with data from the literature in this analysis. The spot-coverage parameters for 13 selected BY Dra active red dwarfs have been redetermined to improve the zonal spot-coverage model for the stellar photospheres, which currently allows for the presence of two active longitudes. Time variations of the spot-activity characteristics of these systems were analyzed with the aim of searching for possible cyclic variations. All the stars, with the exception of OU Gem and BE Cet, show fairly strong correlations between variations in the spot latitudes and spot areas, with absolute values of the correlation coefficients, R(, S), ranging from 0.38 to 0.92. For five stars, an anti-correlation between the mean latitude and area of the spots was found ( R(, S) from-0.24 to-0.73). This behavior may reflect the drift of spots toward the equator in the course of their development. Eight stars feature positive correlations, i.e. the spots drift towards the pole as their areas increase. Nine stars demonstrate activity cycles, which are reflected in photometric variations as well as variations of the spot areas and mean latitudes. The periods of the latitude drift of the spots are found for five stars; the magnitudes of the spot-latitude drift rates are lower than the corresponding value for sunspots by a factor of 1.5-3.

  11. Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepma, C.J.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W.; De Jong, F.; Overmars, P.

    2006-01-01

    This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection

  12. Spotted phenotypes in horses lost attractiveness in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wutke, Saskia; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i.e., chestnut) became dominant...

  13. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  14. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.D.; Midgley, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae). which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Mate flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania. Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies

  15. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  16. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

  17. X-ray spot filmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray apparatus is described which includes a spot filmer for feeding sheets of unexposed film one at a time into a vacuum evacuable cassette for exposure, and for returning exposed film sheets to an exposed film magazine. The spot filmer has a housing defining a light-tight enclosure. The film magazines are insertable through a door into the housing and into a film feed mechanism. The film feed mechanism unlatches, opens and positions the magazines; it then feeds a sheet of unexposed film into the vacuum evacuable cassette, releases the film sheet so the cassette can position the film sheet for exposure, and closes the film magazines. An orthogonal drive system positions the vacuum evacuable cassette to expose selected film sheet portions and returns the cassette to a retracted position. The film feed mechanism opens the magazines, feeds the exposed film sheet into the exposed film magazine, and closes the magazines. A film identification system is provided for forming an identifying image on a marginal portion of each film sheet

  18. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuanfang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2007-06-01

    The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index would be also interesting since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry which uses two large beams. In this case, the images of the particle formed by the reflected and refracted light, known as glare spots, are separated in space. When a particle passes in the probe volume, the two parts in a signal obtained by a detector in forward direction are then separated in time. If two detectors are used the phase differences between two signals, the distance and the intensity ratio of reflected and refracted parts can be obtained and they provide rich information about the particle diameter and its refractive index, as well as its velocity. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of such a configuration with two theoretical models: geometrical optics and rigorous electromagnetism solution.

  19. Oil futures and spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samii, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  20. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  1. Ionospheric hot spot at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, R.W.; Sojka, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    A hot spot (or spots) can occur in the high-latitude ionosphere depending on the plasma convection pattern. The hot spot corresponds to a small magnetic local time-magnetic latitude region of elevated ion temperatures located near the dusk and/or dawn meridians. For asymmetric convection electric field patterns, with enhanced flow in either the dusk or dawn sector of the polar cap, a single hot spot should occur in association with the strong convection cell. However, on geomagnetically disturbed days, two strong convection cells can occur, and hence, two hot spots should exist. The hot spot should be detectable when the electric field in the strong convection cell exceeds about 40 mV m -1 . For electric fields of the order of 100 mV m -1 in the convection cell, the ion temperature in the hot spot is greatest at low altitudes, reaching 4000 0 K at 160 km, and decreases with altitude in the F-region. An ionospheric hot spot (or spots) can be expected at all seasons and for a wide range of solar cycle conditions

  2. Natural Variation in Elicitation of Defense-Signaling Associates to Field Resistance Against the Spot Blotch Disease in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma; Ranabir Sahu; Sudhir Navathe; Vinod K. Mishra; Ramesh Chand; Pawan K. Singh; Arun K. Joshi; Shree P. Pandey

    2018-01-01

    Spot blotch, caused by the hemibiotropic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana, is amongst the most damaging diseases of wheat. Still, natural variation in expression of biochemical traits that determine field resistance to spot blotch in wheat remain unaddressed. To understand how genotypic variations relate to metabolite profiles of the components of defense-signaling and the plant performance, as well as to discover novel sources of resistance against spot blotch, we have conducted field studies us...

  3. Spot counting on fluorescence in situ hybridization in suspension images using Gaussian mixture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijia; Sa, Ruhan; Maguire, Orla; Minderman, Hans; Chaudhary, Vipin

    2015-03-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities are important diagnostic and prognostic criteria for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A flow cytometry-based imaging approach for FISH in suspension (FISH-IS) was established that enables the automated analysis of several log-magnitude higher number of cells compared to the microscopy-based approaches. The rotational positioning can occur leading to discordance between spot count. As a solution of counting error from overlapping spots, in this study, a Gaussian Mixture Model based classification method is proposed. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of GMM are used as global image features of this classification method. Via Random Forest classifier, the result shows that the proposed method is able to detect closely overlapping spots which cannot be separated by existing image segmentation based spot detection methods. The experiment results show that by the proposed method we can obtain a significant improvement in spot counting accuracy.

  4. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  5. SU-G-TeP1-04: Deriving Spot Shape Criteria for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, J; Huggins, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The shape of a single beam in proton PBS influences the resulting dose distribution. Spot profiles are modelled as two-dimensional Gaussian (single/ double) distributions in treatment planning systems (TPS). Impact of slight deviations from an ideal Gaussian on resulting dose distributions is typically assumed to be small due to alleviation by multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) in tissue and superposition of many spots. Quantitative limits are however not clear per se. Methods: A set of 1250 deliberately deformed profiles with sigma=4 mm for a Gaussian fit were constructed. Profiles and fit were normalized to the same area, resembling output calibration in the TPS. Depth-dependent MCS was considered. The deviation between deformed and ideal profiles was characterized by root-mean-squared deviation (RMSD), skewness/ kurtosis (SK) and full-width at different percentage of maximum (FWxM). The profiles were convolved with different fluence patterns (regular/ random) resulting in hypothetical dose distributions. The resulting deviations were analyzed by applying a gamma-test. Results were compared to measured spot profiles. Results: A clear correlation between pass-rate and profile metrics could be determined. The largest impact occurred for a regular fluence-pattern with increasing distance between single spots, followed by a random distribution of spot weights. The results are strongly dependent on gamma-analysis dose and distance levels. Pass-rates of >95% at 2%/2 mm and 40 mm depth (=70 MeV) could only be achieved for RMSD<10%, deviation in FWxM at 20% and root of quadratic sum of SK <0.8. As expected the results improve for larger depths. The trends were well resembled for measured spot profiles. Conclusion: All measured profiles from ProBeam sites passed the criteria. Given the fact, that beam-line tuning can result shape distortions, the derived criteria represent a useful QA tool for commissioning and design of future beam-line optics.

  6. A feature-based approach to modeling protein-protein interaction hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-il; Kim, Dongsup; Lee, Doheon

    2009-05-01

    Identifying features that effectively represent the energetic contribution of an individual interface residue to the interactions between proteins remains problematic. Here, we present several new features and show that they are more effective than conventional features. By combining the proposed features with conventional features, we develop a predictive model for interaction hot spots. Initially, 54 multifaceted features, composed of different levels of information including structure, sequence and molecular interaction information, are quantified. Then, to identify the best subset of features for predicting hot spots, feature selection is performed using a decision tree. Based on the selected features, a predictive model for hot spots is created using support vector machine (SVM) and tested on an independent test set. Our model shows better overall predictive accuracy than previous methods such as the alanine scanning methods Robetta and FOLDEF, and the knowledge-based method KFC. Subsequent analysis yields several findings about hot spots. As expected, hot spots have a larger relative surface area burial and are more hydrophobic than other residues. Unexpectedly, however, residue conservation displays a rather complicated tendency depending on the types of protein complexes, indicating that this feature is not good for identifying hot spots. Of the selected features, the weighted atomic packing density, relative surface area burial and weighted hydrophobicity are the top 3, with the weighted atomic packing density proving to be the most effective feature for predicting hot spots. Notably, we find that hot spots are closely related to pi-related interactions, especially pi . . . pi interactions.

  7. Mutant of Japanese pear resistant to Black Spot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, T.; Nishida, T.; Ikeda, F.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Nijisseike is one of the leading cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus serotinea Rehd.), but susceptible to black spot disease. Farmers try to prevent this disease by wrapping the fruit with a paper bag and by repeated spraying of fungicides. The disease is caused by a Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Susceptibility is controlled by a single dominant gene. In 1962, grafted trees of this cultivar were planted at a distance between 53 and 93 m from the 60 Co source in the gamma-field (daily dose 15-4 rad). One branch on a tree planted at 53 m was detected as resistant in 1981. Under field conditions, black spots were observed on many fruits and leaves of the original trees by natural infection in early July, however, they were not observed on the mutant. To examine the resistance of the mutant, artificial inoculations were made using spores of the pathogen and the host specific toxin produced by germinating spores. When some drops of the spore suspension are placed on leaves, the formation of black spots depends upon the leaf age. In a resistant cv. as Chojuro, black spot symptoms are formed only when inoculated on young leaves. An intermediate reaction was observed in the mutant, whereas the original Nijisseiki showed severe symptoms. When inoculation was made on matured fruit skins, no black spot was formed on the mutant just like on the resistant cv. Chojuro, while many small black spots were formed and grew into large spots overlapping each other on the susceptible cv. Nijisseiki. In case of the crude toxin inoculation (4-0.04 ppm) of cv. Nijisseiki black spots were formed on the surface of the susceptible fruit skin, and necrotic lesions at the cut end of detached small pieces of leaves, although reaction on fruit skins was weaker compared with inoculation by spores. However, no symptoms were observed from the toxin application on the mutant and the resistant cv. Chojuro. That the resistance of the mutant is classified as

  8. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra [University of Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN, Lyon (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Pomarède, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-09-20

    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.

  9. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF A DELTA-SPOT. I. A REGION OF VERY STRONG, HORIZONTAL MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggli, S. A., E-mail: sarah.jaeggli@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Active region NOAA 11035 appeared in 2009 December, early in the new solar activity cycle. This region achieved a delta sunspot (δ spot) configuration when parasitic flux emerged near the rotationally leading magnetic polarity and traveled through the penumbra of the largest sunspot in the group. Both visible and infrared imaging spectropolarimetry of the magnetically sensitive Fe i line pairs at 6302 and 15650 Å show large Zeeman splitting in the penumbra between the parasitic umbra and the main sunspot umbra. The polarized Stokes spectra in the strongest field region display anomalous profiles, and strong blueshifts are seen in an adjacent region. Analysis of the profiles is carried out using a Milne–Eddington inversion code capable of fitting either a single magnetic component with stray light or two independent magnetic components to verify the field strength. The inversion results show that the anomalous profiles cannot be produced by the combination of two profiles with moderate magnetic fields. The largest field strengths are 3500–3800 G in close proximity to blueshifts as strong as 3.8 km s{sup −1}. The strong, nearly horizontal magnetic field seen near the polarity inversion line in this region is difficult to understand in the context of a standard model of sunspot magnetohydrostatic equilibrium.

  10. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF A DELTA-SPOT. I. A REGION OF VERY STRONG, HORIZONTAL MAGNETIC FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeggli, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Active region NOAA 11035 appeared in 2009 December, early in the new solar activity cycle. This region achieved a delta sunspot (δ spot) configuration when parasitic flux emerged near the rotationally leading magnetic polarity and traveled through the penumbra of the largest sunspot in the group. Both visible and infrared imaging spectropolarimetry of the magnetically sensitive Fe i line pairs at 6302 and 15650 Å show large Zeeman splitting in the penumbra between the parasitic umbra and the main sunspot umbra. The polarized Stokes spectra in the strongest field region display anomalous profiles, and strong blueshifts are seen in an adjacent region. Analysis of the profiles is carried out using a Milne–Eddington inversion code capable of fitting either a single magnetic component with stray light or two independent magnetic components to verify the field strength. The inversion results show that the anomalous profiles cannot be produced by the combination of two profiles with moderate magnetic fields. The largest field strengths are 3500–3800 G in close proximity to blueshifts as strong as 3.8 km s −1 . The strong, nearly horizontal magnetic field seen near the polarity inversion line in this region is difficult to understand in the context of a standard model of sunspot magnetohydrostatic equilibrium

  11. Iodine concentration: a new, important characteristic of the spot sign that predicts haematoma expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fan; Sun, Shengjun; Liu, Liping; Li, Jianying; Su, Yaping; Li, Yingying

    2018-04-19

    The computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign is a validated predictor of haematoma expansion (HE) in spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH). We investigated whether defining the iodine concentration (IC) inside the spot sign and the haematoma on Gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) would improve its sensitivity and specificity for predicting HE. From 2014 to 2016, we prospectively enrolled 65 SICH patients who underwent single-phase spectral CTA within 6 h. Logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors for HE. The predictive performance of individual spot sign characteristics was examined via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The spot sign was detected in 46.1% (30/65) of patients. ROC analysis indicated that IC inside the spot sign had the greatest area under the ROC curve for HE (0.858; 95% confidence interval, 0.727-0.989; p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis found that spot sign with higher IC (i.e. IC > 7.82 100 μg/ml) was an independent predictor of HE (odds ratio = 34.27; 95% confidence interval, 5.608-209.41; p spot sign showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 0.81, 0.79, 0.73 and 0.86. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the IC in haematomas was independently associated with HE (odds ratio = 1.525; 95% confidence interval, 1.041-2.235; p = 0.030). ICs in haematoma and in spot sign were all independently associated with HE. IC analysis in spectral imaging may help to identify SICH patients for targeted haemostatic therapy. • Iodine concentration in spot sign and haematoma can predict haematoma expansion • Spectral imaging could measure the IC inside the spot sign and haematoma • IC in spot sign improved the positive predictive value (PPV) cf. CTA.

  12. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  13. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  14. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  15. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  16. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  17. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Transmission Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis and Testing ...

  19. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  20. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J M; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-03-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  1. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  2. Normalisation of spot urine samples to 24-h collection for assessment of exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, R.; Katorza, E.; Gonen, R.; German, U.; Tshuva, A.; Pelled, O.; Paz-tal, O.; Adout, A.; Karpas, Z.

    2008-01-01

    For dose assessment of workers at Nuclear Research Center Negev exposed to natural uranium, spot urine samples are analysed and the results are normalised to 24-h urine excretion based on 'standard' man urine volume of 1.6 l d -1 . In the present work, the urine volume, uranium level and creatinine concentration were determined in two or three 24-h urine collections from 133 male workers (319 samples) and 33 female workers (88 samples). Three volunteers provided urine spot samples from each voiding during a 24-h period and a good correlation was found between the relative level of creatinine and uranium in spot samples collected from the same individual. The results show that normalisation of uranium concentration to creatinine in a spot sample represents the 24-h content of uranium better than normalisation to the standard volume and may be used to reduce the uncertainty of dose assessment based on spot samples. (authors)

  3. Damage threshold from large retinal spot size repetitive-pulse laser exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Brian J; Lund, David J; Edsall, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    The retinal damage thresholds for large spot size, multiple-pulse exposures to a Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm wavelength, 7 ns pulses) have been measured for 100 μm and 500 μm retinal irradiance diameters. The ED50, expressed as energy per pulse, varies only weakly with the number of pulses, n, for these extended spot sizes. The previously reported threshold for a multiple-pulse exposure for a 900 μm retinal spot size also shows the same weak dependence on the number of pulses. The multiple-pulse ED50 for an extended spot-size exposure does not follow the n dependence exhibited by small spot size exposures produced by a collimated beam. Curves derived by using probability-summation models provide a better fit to the data.

  4. Extended morphological processing: a practical method for automatic spot detection of biological markers from microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka; Baba, Norio; Morone, Nobuhiro

    2010-07-08

    A reliable extraction technique for resolving multiple spots in light or electron microscopic images is essential in investigations of the spatial distribution and dynamics of specific proteins inside cells and tissues. Currently, automatic spot extraction and characterization in complex microscopic images poses many challenges to conventional image processing methods. A new method to extract closely located, small target spots from biological images is proposed. This method starts with a simple but practical operation based on the extended morphological top-hat transformation to subtract an uneven background. The core of our novel approach is the following: first, the original image is rotated in an arbitrary direction and each rotated image is opened with a single straight line-segment structuring element. Second, the opened images are unified and then subtracted from the original image. To evaluate these procedures, model images of simulated spots with closely located targets were created and the efficacy of our method was compared to that of conventional morphological filtering methods. The results showed the better performance of our method. The spots of real microscope images can be quantified to confirm that the method is applicable in a given practice. Our method achieved effective spot extraction under various image conditions, including aggregated target spots, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and large variations in the background intensity. Furthermore, it has no restrictions with respect to the shape of the extracted spots. The features of our method allow its broad application in biological and biomedical image information analysis.

  5. AN IMPROVED FUZZY CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR MICROARRAY IMAGE SPOTS SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Biju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An automatic cDNA microarray image processing using an improved fuzzy clustering algorithm is presented in this paper. The spot segmentation algorithm proposed uses the gridding technique developed by the authors earlier, for finding the co-ordinates of each spot in an image. Automatic cropping of spots from microarray image is done using these co-ordinates. The present paper proposes an improved fuzzy clustering algorithm Possibility fuzzy local information c means (PFLICM to segment the spot foreground (FG from background (BG. The PFLICM improves fuzzy local information c means (FLICM algorithm by incorporating typicality of a pixel along with gray level information and local spatial information. The performance of the algorithm is validated using a set of simulated cDNA microarray images added with different levels of AWGN noise. The strength of the algorithm is tested by computing the parameters such as the Segmentation matching factor (SMF, Probability of error (pe, Discrepancy distance (D and Normal mean square error (NMSE. SMF value obtained for PFLICM algorithm shows an improvement of 0.9 % and 0.7 % for high noise and low noise microarray images respectively compared to FLICM algorithm. The PFLICM algorithm is also applied on real microarray images and gene expression values are computed.

  6. New public dataset for spotting patterns in medieval document images

    Science.gov (United States)

    En, Sovann; Nicolas, Stéphane; Petitjean, Caroline; Jurie, Frédéric; Heutte, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    With advances in technology, a large part of our cultural heritage is becoming digitally available. In particular, in the field of historical document image analysis, there is now a growing need for indexing and data mining tools, thus allowing us to spot and retrieve the occurrences of an object of interest, called a pattern, in a large database of document images. Patterns may present some variability in terms of color, shape, or context, making the spotting of patterns a challenging task. Pattern spotting is a relatively new field of research, still hampered by the lack of available annotated resources. We present a new publicly available dataset named DocExplore dedicated to spotting patterns in historical document images. The dataset contains 1500 images and 1464 queries, and allows the evaluation of two tasks: image retrieval and pattern localization. A standardized benchmark protocol along with ad hoc metrics is provided for a fair comparison of the submitted approaches. We also provide some first results obtained with our baseline system on this new dataset, which show that there is room for improvement and that should encourage researchers of the document image analysis community to design new systems and submit improved results.

  7. Consistent melanophore spot patterns allow long-term individual recognition of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stien, L H; Nilsson, J; Bui, S; Fosseidengen, J E; Kristiansen, T S; Øverli, Ø; Folkedal, O

    2017-12-01

    The present study shows that permanent melanophore spot patterns in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar make it possible to use images of the operculum to keep track of individual fish over extended periods of their life history. Post-smolt S. salar (n = 246) were initially photographed at an average mass of 98 g and again 10 months later after rearing in a sea cage, at an average mass of 3088 g. Spots that were present initially remained and were the most overt (largest) 10 months later, while new and less overt spots had developed. Visual recognition of spot size and position showed that fish with at least four initial spots were relatively easy to identify, while identifying fish with less than four spots could be challenging. An automatic image analysis method was developed and shows potential for fast match processing of large numbers of fish. The current findings promote visual recognition of opercular spots as a welfare-friendly alternative to tagging in experiments involving salmonid fishes. © The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Assessment of White Spot Lesions and In-Vivo Evaluation of the Effect of CPP-ACP on White Spot Lesions in Permanent Molars of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Deepti; Garg, Shalini; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sethi, Harsimran Singh

    2016-05-01

    As hindrance of remineralisation process occurs during orthodontic therapy resulting in decalcification of enamel because number of plaque retention sites increases due to banding and bonding of appliances to teeth. The present analytic study was undertaken to assess the occurrence of white spot lesions in permanent molars of children with and without orthodontic therapy and to evaluate the effect of Casein PhosphoPeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions in post-orthodontic patients in a given period of time. The study comprised of examination of 679 first permanent molars which were examined to assess the occurrence of smooth surface white spot lesions in children of 8 to 16 years age group. Group I comprised subjects without any orthodontic treatment and Group II comprised of subjects who had undergone orthodontic therapy. The sample size was calculated using the epi-info6 computer package. Treatment group included 20 post-orthodontic patients examined with at least one white spot lesion within the enamel who received remineralizing cream (GC Tooth Mousse, Recaldent, GC Corporation.) i.e., CPP-ACP cream two times a day for 12 consecutive weeks. Computerized image analysis method was taken to evaluate white spot lesions. These frequency and percentages were compared with chi-square test. For comparison of numeric data, paired t-test was used. Of the total 278 (49.6%) first permanent molars showed occurrence of smooth surface white spot lesions out of 560 in Group I and 107 (89.9%) first permanent molars showed presence of white spot lesions out of 119 debanded first permanent molars of children examined in Group II. CPP-ACP therapy group showed reduction in severity of codes which was found to be highly significant after 12 weeks and eight weeks on gingival-third, p-value (spot lesions on teeth undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy according to the present study.

  9. Rigorous assessment and integration of the sequence and structure based features to predict hot spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic mutagenesis studies have shown that only a few interface residues termed hot spots contribute significantly to the binding free energy of protein-protein interactions. Therefore, hot spots prediction becomes increasingly important for well understanding the essence of proteins interactions and helping narrow down the search space for drug design. Currently many computational methods have been developed by proposing different features. However comparative assessment of these features and furthermore effective and accurate methods are still in pressing need. Results In this study, we first comprehensively collect the features to discriminate hot spots and non-hot spots and analyze their distributions. We find that hot spots have lower relASA and larger relative change in ASA, suggesting hot spots tend to be protected from bulk solvent. In addition, hot spots have more contacts including hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and atomic contacts, which favor complexes formation. Interestingly, we find that conservation score and sequence entropy are not significantly different between hot spots and non-hot spots in Ab+ dataset (all complexes. While in Ab- dataset (antigen-antibody complexes are excluded, there are significant differences in two features between hot pots and non-hot spots. Secondly, we explore the predictive ability for each feature and the combinations of features by support vector machines (SVMs. The results indicate that sequence-based feature outperforms other combinations of features with reasonable accuracy, with a precision of 0.69, a recall of 0.68, an F1 score of 0.68, and an AUC of 0.68 on independent test set. Compared with other machine learning methods and two energy-based approaches, our approach achieves the best performance. Moreover, we demonstrate the applicability of our method to predict hot spots of two protein complexes. Conclusion Experimental results show that support vector machine

  10. Rigorous assessment and integration of the sequence and structure based features to predict hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Systematic mutagenesis studies have shown that only a few interface residues termed hot spots contribute significantly to the binding free energy of protein-protein interactions. Therefore, hot spots prediction becomes increasingly important for well understanding the essence of proteins interactions and helping narrow down the search space for drug design. Currently many computational methods have been developed by proposing different features. However comparative assessment of these features and furthermore effective and accurate methods are still in pressing need. Results In this study, we first comprehensively collect the features to discriminate hot spots and non-hot spots and analyze their distributions. We find that hot spots have lower relASA and larger relative change in ASA, suggesting hot spots tend to be protected from bulk solvent. In addition, hot spots have more contacts including hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and atomic contacts, which favor complexes formation. Interestingly, we find that conservation score and sequence entropy are not significantly different between hot spots and non-hot spots in Ab+ dataset (all complexes). While in Ab- dataset (antigen-antibody complexes are excluded), there are significant differences in two features between hot pots and non-hot spots. Secondly, we explore the predictive ability for each feature and the combinations of features by support vector machines (SVMs). The results indicate that sequence-based feature outperforms other combinations of features with reasonable accuracy, with a precision of 0.69, a recall of 0.68, an F1 score of 0.68, and an AUC of 0.68 on independent test set. Compared with other machine learning methods and two energy-based approaches, our approach achieves the best performance. Moreover, we demonstrate the applicability of our method to predict hot spots of two protein complexes. Conclusion Experimental results show that support vector machine classifiers are quite

  11. Extracting Hot spots of Topics from Time Stamped Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chundi, Parvathi

    2011-01-01

    Identifying time periods with a burst of activities related to a topic has been an important problem in analyzing time-stamped documents. In this paper, we propose an approach to extract a hot spot of a given topic in a time-stamped document set. Topics can be basic, containing a simple list of keywords, or complex. Logical relationships such as and, or, and not are used to build complex topics from basic topics. A concept of presence measure of a topic based on fuzzy set theory is introduced to compute the amount of information related to the topic in the document set. Each interval in the time period of the document set is associated with a numeric value which we call the discrepancy score. A high discrepancy score indicates that the documents in the time interval are more focused on the topic than those outside of the time interval. A hot spot of a given topic is defined as a time interval with the highest discrepancy score. We first describe a naive implementation for extracting hot spots. We then construct an algorithm called EHE (Efficient Hot Spot Extraction) using several efficient strategies to improve performance. We also introduce the notion of a topic DAG to facilitate an efficient computation of presence measures of complex topics. The proposed approach is illustrated by several experiments on a subset of the TDT-Pilot Corpus and DBLP conference data set. The experiments show that the proposed EHE algorithm significantly outperforms the naive one, and the extracted hot spots of given topics are meaningful. PMID:21765568

  12. Volume higher; spot price ranges widen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the October 1994 uranium market summary. During this reporting period, volume on the spot concentrates market doubled. Twelve deals took place: three in the spot concentrates market, one in the medium and long-term market, four in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. The restricted price range widened due to higher prices at the top end of the range, while the unrestricted price range widened because of lower prices at the bottom end. Spot conversion prices were higher, and enrichment prices were unchanged

  13. Birth-jump processes and application to forest fire spotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, T; Greese, B; Martin, J; de Vries, G

    2015-01-01

    Birth-jump models are designed to describe population models for which growth and spatial spread cannot be decoupled. A birth-jump model is a nonlinear integro-differential equation. We present two different derivations of this equation, one based on a random walk approach and the other based on a two-compartmental reaction-diffusion model. In the case that the redistribution kernels are highly concentrated, we show that the integro-differential equation can be approximated by a reaction-diffusion equation, in which the proliferation rate contributes to both the diffusion term and the reaction term. We completely solve the corresponding critical domain size problem and the minimal wave speed problem. Birth-jump models can be applied in many areas in mathematical biology. We highlight an application of our results in the context of forest fire spread through spotting. We show that spotting increases the invasion speed of a forest fire front.

  14. Investigate Volatility Jumps in Chinese Stock Index Future and Spot Markets Based on Realized Volatility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang qiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate Chinese stock index future and spot market's volatility jumps characteristics by using recentlydeveloped jumpstest(Barndorff-Nielsenand Shephard,2004).Thedataisoneyearhigh frequencydatafromthe period19/04/2012 to 19/04/2013. The empirical results show two important points. Firstly, the logarithm of adjusted realized volatility shows a high degree of autocorrelation and folows a normal distribution nearly perfect. These characteristics show a potential high forecast ability. Secondly,thedailyrealizedvolatilityjumpsshowalowdegreeofautocorrealtionbutwithsignificantvolatilityclusters.Ingeneral,thejumps component has a low percentage in realized volatility estimation for both future and spot market. On average, there is one significant jumpswithinevery ten continue trading days.Spotmarkets showshigherdegree of jumps,anda rapidly jumpscharacterises.It implies that jumps may transmission from spot to future market, and spot market dominate future market at some degree.

  15. Modification and analysis of engineering hot spot factor of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuechun; Deng Caiyu; Li Haitao; Xu Taozhong; Mo Zhengyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modification and analysis of engineering hot spot factors of HFETR. The new factors are applied in the fuel temperature analysis and the estimated value of the safety allowable operating power of HFETR. The result shows the maximum cladding temperature of the fuel is lower when the new factor are in utilization, and the safety allowable operating power of HFETR if higher, thus providing the economical efficiency of HFETR. (authors)

  16. Features of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This montage features activity in the turbulent region of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Four sets of images of the GRS were taken through various filters of the Galileo imaging system over an 11.5 hour period on 26 June, 1996 Universal Time. The sequence was designed to reveal cloud motions. The top and bottom frames on the left are of the same area, northeast of the GRS, viewed through the methane (732 nm) filter but about 70 minutes apart. The top left and top middle frames are of the same area and at the same time, but the top middle frame is taken at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane absorbs more strongly. (Only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength.) Brightness differences are caused by the different depths of features in the two images. The bottom middle frame shows reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere. The white spot is to the northwest of the GRS; its appearance at different wavelengths suggests that the brightest elements are 30 km higher than the surrounding clouds. The top and bottom frames on the right, taken nine hours apart and in the violet (415 nm) filter, show the time evolution of an atmospheric wave northeast of the GRS. Visible crests in the top right frame are much less apparent 9 hours later in the bottom right frame. The misalignment of the north-south wave crests with the observed northwestward local wind may indicate a shift in wind direction (wind shear) with height. The areas within the dark lines are 'truth windows' or sections of the images which were transmitted to Earth using less data compression. Each of the six squares covers 4.8 degrees of latitude and longitude (about 6000 square kilometers). North is at the top of each frame.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The

  17. Finding your innovation sweet spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Jacob; Horowitz, Roni; Levav, Amnon; Mazursky, David

    2003-03-01

    Most new product ideas are either uninspired or impractical. So how can developers hit the innovation sweet spot--far enough from existing products to attract real interest but close enough that they are feasible to make and market? They can apply five innovation patterns that manipulate existing components of a product and its immediate environment to come up with something both ingenious and viable, say the authors. The subtraction pattern works by removing product components, particularly those that seem desirable or indispensable. Think of the legless high chair that attaches to the kitchen table. The multiplication pattern makes one or more copies of an existing component, then alters those copies in some important way. For example, the Gillette double-bladed razor features a second blade that cuts whiskers at a slightly different angle. By dividing an existing product into its component parts--the division pattern--you can see something that was an integrated whole in an entirely different light. Think of the modern home stereo--it has modular speakers, tuners, and CD and tape players, which allow users to customize their sound systems. The task unification pattern involves assigning a new task to an existing product element or environmental attribute, thereby unifying two tasks in a single component. An example is the defrosting filament in an automobile windshield that also serves as a radio antenna. Finally, the attribute dependency pattern alters or creates the dependent relationships between a product and its environment. For example, by creating a dependent relationship between lens color and external lighting conditions, eyeglass developers came up with a lens that changes color when exposed to sunlight.

  18. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  19. A telemetry experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated fish in South Africa was investigated by conducting a tracking experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in the East Kleinemonde Estuary. The telemetry equipment comprised two VEMCO V8 transmitters and a ...

  20. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  1. Detecting Blind Spot By Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ajay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety remains a top concern for automobile industries and new-car shoppers. Detection of Blind Spots is a major concern for safety issues. So automobiles have been constantly updating their products with new technologies to detect blind spots so that they can add more safety to the vehicle and also reduce the road accidents. Almost 1.5 million people die in road accidents each year. Blind spot of an automobile is the region of the vehicle which cannot be observed properly while looking either through side or rear mirror view. To meet the above requirements this paper describes detecting blind spot by using ultrasonic sensor and controlling the direction of car by automatic steering. The technology embedded in the system is capable of automatically steer the vehicle away from an obstacle if the system determines that a collision is impending or if the vehicle is in the vicinity of our car.

  2. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  3. Coral bleaching and ocean ''hot spots''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Global Coral Reef Alliance, Chappaqua, NY (United States)); Hayes, R.L. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States). College of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    Global sea-surface temperature maps show that mass coral-reef bleaching episodes between 1983 and 1991 followed positive anomalies more than 1 deg C above long-term monthly averages (''hot spots'') during the preceding warm season. Irregular formation, movement, and disappearance of hot spots make their detailed long-term prediction impossible, but they can be tracked in real time from satellite data. Monitoring of ocean hot spots and of coral bleaching is needed if the Framework Convention of Climate Change is to meet its goal of protecting the most temperature sensitive ecosystems. 47 refs, 3 figs

  4. HOT SPOT RELIEF WITH EMBEDDED BEAM FOR CDMA SYSTEMS IN HAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel micro/macro beam coverage scheme used in High Altitude Platform System (HAPS) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems. A relief of traffic burden in hot spot areas is achieved by embedding micro-beams into the macro-beams at the hot spot locations, together with appropriate power ratio control and user ratio control. The simulation results show that the hot spot problem can be relieved efficiently with the presented configuration, and a higher and more stable system capacity is expectable despite the variation of user distribution.

  5. Sharpening spots: correcting for bleedover in cDNA array images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therneau, Terry; Tschumper, Renee C; Jelinek, Diane

    2002-03-01

    For cDNA array methods that depend on imaging of a radiolabel, we show that bleedover of one spot onto another, due to the gap between the array and the imaging media, can be a major problem. The images can be sharpened, however, using a blind convolution method based on the EM algorithm. The sharpened images look like a set of donuts, which concurs with our knowledge of the spotting process. Oversharpened images are actually useful as well, in locating the centers of each spot.

  6. Studies of Hot Spots in Imploding Wire Arrays at 1 MA on COBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikuz, Sergey A.; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; McBride, Ryan D.; Hammer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We present recent results from hot spot investigations in imploding Al wire array z-pinches on the COBRA generator at Cornell University using x-ray diagnostics. Measurements of the temporal and spatial distribution of hot spots in stagnating plasmas by an x-ray streak-camera are included. Experiments show that hot spots have nanosecond lifetime and appear randomly along the array axis after plasma stagnation in secondary pinches in 8 mm diameter and during plasma stagnation in the arrays with 4 mm diameter.

  7. Stochastic factor model for electricity spot price-the case of the Nordic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehvilaeinen, Iivo; Pyykkoenen, Tuomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic factor based approach to mid-term modeling of spot prices in deregulated electricity markets. The fundamentals affecting the spot price are modeled independently and a market equilibrium model combines them to form spot price. Main advantage of the model is the transparency of the generated prices because each underlying factor and the dynamics between factors can be modeled and studied in detail. Paper shows realistic numerical examples on the forerunner Scandinavian electricity market. The model is used to price an exotic electricity derivative

  8. Stochastic factor model for electricity spot price - the case of the Nordic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehvilainen, I.; Pyykkoenen, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic factor based approach to mid-term modeling of spot prices in deregulated electricity markets. The fundamentals affecting the spot price are modeled independently and a market equilibrium model combines them to form spot price. Main advantage of the model is the transparency of the generated prices because each underlying factor and the dynamics between factors can be modeled and studied in detail. Paper shows realistic numerical examples on the forerunner Scandinavian electricity market. The model is used to price an exotic electricity derivative. (author)

  9. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, R.; James, B.

    1998-01-01

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be p...

  10. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  11. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  12. Modeling deflagration waves out of hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives comes about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping through an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step, deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in the cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighboring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration waves may depend on both pressure and temperature. It depends on pressure for quasistatic loading near ambient temperature, and on temperature at high temperatures resulting from shock loading. From the simulation we obtain deflagration fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For 8 to 13 GPa shocks, the emanating fronts propagate as deflagration waves to consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels deflagration waves may interact with the sweeping shock to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds.

  13. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix

    2017-01-01

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the Z-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relic DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. As a result, the dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.

  14. Genetic differentiation in natural populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) with different phenotypic spot patterns on tergites in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M H; Nascimento, M D S B; Leonardo, F S; Rebêlo, J M M; Pereira, S R F

    2011-01-01

    Entomological surveys in the state of Maranhão have recorded morphologically distinct populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). Some populations have one pair of spots (1S) on the fourth tergite, while others have two pairs (2S) on the third and fourth tergites of males. In the present study we investigated the degree of genetic polymorphism among four populations in the municipalities of Caxias, Codó and Raposa, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers. A total of 35 loci were identified, of which 30 were polymorphic. The highest polymorphism was observed with primer OPA 4, which produced 11 different profiles. Genetic diversity was assessed using grouping methods that produced a dendrogram in which the genotypes could be clearly separated into two main clades according to the number of spots on the male abdominal tergites. One cluster contained the populations from Caxias and Codó, and the other was formed by the populations from Raposa and Codó. The results of our RAPD analysis showed a clear separation between the populations with one and two pairs of spots. The epidemiologic significance of this genetic differentiation should be investigated in future studies.

  15. Association of poly-purine/poly-pyrimidine sequences with meiotic recombination hot spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Joel PW

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meiotic recombination events have been found to concentrate in 1–2.5 kilo base regions, but these recombination hot spots do not share a consensus sequence and why they occur at specific sites is not fully understood. Some previous evidence suggests that poly-purine/poly-pyrimidine (poly-pu/py tracts (PPTs, a class of sequence with distinctive biochemical properties, could be involved in recombination, but no general association of PPTs with meiotic recombination hot spots has previously been reported. Results We used computational methods to investigate in detail the relationship between PPTs and hot spots. We show statistical associations of PPT frequency with hot spots of meiotic recombination initiating lesions, double-strand breaks, in the genome of the yeast S. cerevisiae and with experimentally well characterized human meiotic recombination hot spots. Supporting a possible role of poly-pu/py-rich sequences in hot spot recombination, we also found that all three single nucleotide polymorphisms previously shown to be associated with human hot spot activity changes occur within sequence contexts of 14 bp or longer that are 85% or more poly-pu/py and at least 70% G/C. These polymorphisms are all close to the hot spot mid points. Comparing the sequences of experimentally characterized human hot spots with the orthologous regions of the chimpanzee genome previously shown not to contain hot spots, we found that in all five cases in which comparisons for the hot spot central regions are possible with publicly available sequence data, there are differences near the human hot spot mid points within sequences 14 bp or longer consisting of more than 80% poly-pu/py and at least 50% G/C. Conclusion Our results, along with previous evidence for the unique biochemical properties and recombination-stimulating potential of poly-pu/py-rich sequences, suggest that the possible functional involvement of this type of sequence in meiotic

  16. Methodology and software to detect viral integration site hot-spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Modern gene therapy methods have limited control over where a therapeutic viral vector inserts into the host genome. Vector integration can activate local gene expression, which can cause cancer if the vector inserts near an oncogene. Viral integration hot-spots or 'common insertion sites' (CIS) are scrutinized to evaluate and predict patient safety. CIS are typically defined by a minimum density of insertions (such as 2-4 within a 30-100 kb region), which unfortunately depends on the total number of observed VIS. This is problematic for comparing hot-spot distributions across data sets and patients, where the VIS numbers may vary. Results We develop two new methods for defining hot-spots that are relatively independent of data set size. Both methods operate on distributions of VIS across consecutive 1 Mb 'bins' of the genome. The first method 'z-threshold' tallies the number of VIS per bin, converts these counts to z-scores, and applies a threshold to define high density bins. The second method 'BCP' applies a Bayesian change-point model to the z-scores to define hot-spots. The novel hot-spot methods are compared with a conventional CIS method using simulated data sets and data sets from five published human studies, including the X-linked ALD (adrenoleukodystrophy), CGD (chronic granulomatous disease) and SCID-X1 (X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency) trials. The BCP analysis of the human X-linked ALD data for two patients separately (774 and 1627 VIS) and combined (2401 VIS) resulted in 5-6 hot-spots covering 0.17-0.251% of the genome and containing 5.56-7.74% of the total VIS. In comparison, the CIS analysis resulted in 12-110 hot-spots covering 0.018-0.246% of the genome and containing 5.81-22.7% of the VIS, corresponding to a greater number of hot-spots as the data set size increased. Our hot-spot methods enable one to evaluate the extent of VIS clustering, and formally compare data sets in terms of hot-spot overlap. Finally, we show that the

  17. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different ( p protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  18. Tunable subwavelength hot spot of dipole nanostructure based on VO2 phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Bum; Lee, Il-Min; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Kyuho; Choi, Dawoon; Song, Eui Young; Lee, Byoungho

    2013-07-01

    We propose a novel approach to generate and tune a hot spot in a dipole nanostructure of vanadium dioxide (VO2) laid on a gold (Au) substrate. By inducing a phase transition of the VO2, the spatial and spectral distributions of the hot spot generated in the feed gap of the dipole can be tuned. Our numerical simulation based on a finite-element method shows a strong intensity enhancement difference and tunability near the wavelength of 678 nm, where the hot spot shows 172-fold intensity enhancement when VO2 is in the semiconductor phase. The physical mechanisms of forming the hot spots at the two-different phases are discussed. Based on our analysis, the effects of geometric parameters in our dipole structure are investigated with an aim of enhancing the intensity and the tunability. We hope that the proposed nanostructure opens up a practical approach for the tunable near-field nano-photonic devices.

  19. Effect of vacuum arc cathode spot distribution on breaking capacity of the arc-extinguishing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Can; Yuan, Zhao; He, Junjia

    2017-10-01

    A DC circuit breaker performs a key function in breaking an intermediate-frequency (IF) current since breaking a pure IF current is equivalent to breaking a very small DC with a reverse IF current. In this study, it is found that cathode spots show a ring-shaped distribution at 2000 Hz. An arc with an uneven distribution of cathode spots has been simulated. The simulation results show that the distribution of cathode spots significantly affect the microparameter distribution of arc plasma. The current distribution on the anode side differs from that on the cathode side under the total radial electric field. Specifically, the anode current distribution is both uneven and concentrated. The applied axial magnetic field, which cannot reduce the concentrated anode current distribution effectively, might increase the concentration of the anode current. Finally, the uneven distribution of cathode spots reduces the breaking capacity of the arc-extinguishing chamber.

  20. Measurements of three dimensional residual stress distribution on laser irradiated spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hirotomo; Akita, Koichi; Ohya, Shin-ichi; Sano, Yuji; Naito, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    Three dimensional residual stress distributions on laser irradiated spots were measured using synchrotron radiation to study the basic mechanism of laser peening. A water-immersed sample of high tensile strength steel was irradiated with Q-switched and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The residual stress depth profile of the sample was obtained by alternately repeating the measurement and surface layer removal by electrolytic polishing. Tensile residual stresses were observed on the surface of all irradiated spots, whereas residual stress changed to compressive just beneath the surface. The depth of compressive residual stress imparted by laser irradiation and plastic deformation zone increased with increasing the number of laser pulses irradiated on the same spot. (author)

  1. Uniform irradiation of adjustable target spots in high-power laser driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiujuan; Li Jinghui; Li Huagang; Li Yang; Lin Zunqi

    2011-01-01

    For smoothing and shaping the on-target laser patterns flexibly in high-power laser drivers, a scheme has been developed that includes a zoom lens array and two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). The size of the target pattern can be controlled handily by adjusting the focal length of the zoom lens array, while the profile of the pattern can be shaped by fine tuning the distance between the target and the focal plane of the principal focusing lens. High-frequency stripes inside the pattern caused by beamlet interference are wiped off by spectral dispersion. Detailed simulations indicate that SSD works somewhat differently for spots of different sizes. For small spots, SSD mainly smooths the intensity modulation of low-to-middle spatial frequency, while for large spots, SSD sweeps the fine speckle structure to reduce nonuniformity of middle-to-high frequency. Spatial spectra of the target patterns are given and their uniformity is evaluated.

  2. Evaluation of the Weldability in Spot Welding using Ultrasonic Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Sung; Kim, No Hyu

    2005-01-01

    Spot welding is the most widely used in automotive and aerospace industries. The quality of weld depends upon the size of nugget between the overlapped steel plates. Recently, the thickness of the steel plates is much thinner and hence, it introduces the smaller size of nugget. Therefore, it is necessary not only to develop the criterion to evaluate the quality of weld but also to obtain the optimal welding conditions for the better performance. In this paper, the steel plates, 0.5 mm through 1.5 mm thickness, have been spot welded at different welding conditions and the nugget sizes are examined by ultrasonic technique (C-scan type). The relationships between the nugget sizes and the weldability have been investigated. The result of ultrasonic technique shows the good agreement with that of the tensile test

  3. Evaluation of the Weldability in Spot Welding using Ultrasonic Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Sung [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, No Hyu [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Spot welding is the most widely used in automotive and aerospace industries. The quality of weld depends upon the size of nugget between the overlapped steel plates. Recently, the thickness of the steel plates is much thinner and hence, it introduces the smaller size of nugget. Therefore, it is necessary not only to develop the criterion to evaluate the quality of weld but also to obtain the optimal welding conditions for the better performance. In this paper, the steel plates, 0.5 mm through 1.5 mm thickness, have been spot welded at different welding conditions and the nugget sizes are examined by ultrasonic technique (C-scan type). The relationships between the nugget sizes and the weldability have been investigated. The result of ultrasonic technique shows the good agreement with that of the tensile test

  4. Statistical analysis of Nomao customer votes for spots of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálovics, Róbert; Daróczy, Bálint; Benczúr, András; Pap, Julia; Ermann, Leonardo; Phan, Samuel; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of votes of customers for spots of France collected by the startup company Nomao. The frequencies of votes per spot and per customer are characterized by a power law distribution which remains stable on a time scale of a decade when the number of votes is varied by almost two orders of magnitude. Using the computer science methods we explore the spectrum and the eigenvalues of a matrix containing user ratings to geolocalized items. Eigenvalues nicely map to large towns and regions but show certain level of instability as we modify the interpretation of the underlying matrix. We evaluate imputation strategies that provide improved prediction performance by reaching geographically smooth eigenvectors. We point on possible links between distribution of votes and the phenomenon of self-organized criticality.

  5. Lead lag relationships between futures and spot prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asche, Frank; Guttormsen, Atle G

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between spot and futures prices. This is traditionally done by testing for cointegration with the Engle and Granger methodology, before one specifies an error correction models in order to draw inference about causality. This approach, although appealing for its simplicity, is problematic on at least two accounts. First, the approach is only valid given an exogeneity assumption, which is what one wants to test, and second, given that there are several contracts with different times to expiration, bivariate specifications cannot capture all the relevant information. We show that both problems can be avoided if the tests are carried out in a multivariate framework like the Johansen test. An empirical application is carried out on futures prices for gas oil. Findings indicate that futures prices leads spot prices, and that futures contracts with longer time to expiration leads contracts with shorter time to expiration. (author)

  6. Ultrasonic diagnosis of spot welding in thin plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, No You; Hong, Min Sung

    2005-01-01

    Spot welding widely used in automotive and aerospace industries has made it possible to produce more precise and smaller electric part by robotization and systemization of welding process. The quality of welding depends upon the size of nugget between the overlapped steel plates. Recently, the thickness of the steel plates becomes much thinner and hence, it introduces the smaller size of nugget. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the criterion to evaluate the quality of weld in order to obtain the optimal welding conditions for the better performance. In this paper, a thin steel plates, 0.1 mm through 0.3 mm thickness, have been spot-welded at different welding conditions and the nugget sizes are examined by defocused scanning microscopy. The relationships between nugget sizes and weldability have been investigated experimentally. The result of ultrasonic technique shows the good agreement with that of the tensile test.

  7. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  8. Morphology of the leather defect light flecks and spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafstad, O; Wisløff, H; Grønstøl, H

    2001-01-01

    The skin histology and the scanning electron microscope morphology of the hide defect light flecks and spots after tanning were studied in 11 steers infested with biting lice (Damalinia bovis). Nine steers from herds free of lice were used as controls. Skin biopsies from 6 of the animals in the lice infested group showed mild to moderate hyperkeratosis and moderate perivascular to diffuse dermatitis with infiltration of mainly mononuclear cells and some eosinophilic granulocytes. The steers were slaughtered at an age of 18 to 23 months. Light flecks and spots occurred on all examined hides from the infested group after tanning. No examined hides from the control group demonstrated similar damage. Both light microscopic examination of sections of tanned hide with light flecks and spots and scanning electron microscopy of the same defects showed superficial grain loss and craters with a irregular fibre base encircled by smooth and intact grain. The association between louse infestation at an early age and damage of hides following slaughter 6 to 15 months later, suggested that louse infestations lead to a prolonged or lifelong weakening in the dermis. This weakening may cause superficial grain loss during the tanning process.

  9. Spot-checks to measure general hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Ina L; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A variety of hygiene behaviors are fundamental to the prevention of diarrhea. We used spot-checks in a survey of 761 households in Burundi to examine whether something we could call general hygiene practice is responsible for more specific hygiene behaviors, ranging from handwashing to sweeping the floor. Using structural equation modeling, we showed that clusters of hygiene behavior, such as primary caregivers' cleanliness and household cleanliness, explained the spot-check findings well. Within our model, general hygiene practice as overall concept explained the more specific clusters of hygiene behavior well. Furthermore, the higher general hygiene practice, the more likely children were to be categorized healthy (r = 0.46). General hygiene practice was correlated with commitment to hygiene (r = 0.52), indicating a strong association to psychosocial determinants. The results show that different hygiene behaviors co-occur regularly. Using spot-checks, the general hygiene practice of a household can be rated quickly and easily.

  10. Morphology of the Leather Defect Light Flecks and Spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grønstøl H

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin histology and the scanning electron microscope morphology of the hide defect light flecks and spots after tanning were studied in 11 steers infested with biting lice (Damalinia bovis. Nine steers from herds free of lice were used as controls. Skin biopsies from 6 of the animals in the lice infested group showed mild to moderate hyperkeratosis and moderate perivascular to diffuse dermatitis with infiltration of mainly mononuclear cells and some eosinophilic granulocytes. The steers were slaughtered at an age of 18 to 23 months. Light flecks and spots occurred on all examined hides from the infested group after tanning. No examined hides from the control group demonstrated similar damage. Both light microscopic examination of sections of tanned hide with light flecks and spots and scanning electron microscopy of the same defects showed superficial grain loss and craters with a irregular fibre base encircled by smooth and intact grain. The association between louse infestation at an early age and damage of hides following slaughter 6 to 15 months later, suggested that louse infestations lead to a prolonged or lifelong weakening in the dermis. This weakening may cause superficial grain loss during the tanning process.

  11. Relationship between hot spot residues and ligand binding hot spots in protein-protein interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Brandon S; Hall, David R; Vajda, Sandor; Whitty, Adrian; Kozakov, Dima

    2012-08-27

    In the context of protein-protein interactions, the term "hot spot" refers to a residue or cluster of residues that makes a major contribution to the binding free energy, as determined by alanine scanning mutagenesis. In contrast, in pharmaceutical research, a hot spot is a site on a target protein that has high propensity for ligand binding and hence is potentially important for drug discovery. Here we examine the relationship between these two hot spot concepts by comparing alanine scanning data for a set of 15 proteins with results from mapping the protein surfaces for sites that can bind fragment-sized small molecules. We find the two types of hot spots are largely complementary; the residues protruding into hot spot regions identified by computational mapping or experimental fragment screening are almost always themselves hot spot residues as defined by alanine scanning experiments. Conversely, a residue that is found by alanine scanning to contribute little to binding rarely interacts with hot spot regions on the partner protein identified by fragment mapping. In spite of the strong correlation between the two hot spot concepts, they fundamentally differ, however. In particular, while identification of a hot spot by alanine scanning establishes the potential to generate substantial interaction energy with a binding partner, there are additional topological requirements to be a hot spot for small molecule binding. Hence, only a minority of hot spots identified by alanine scanning represent sites that are potentially useful for small inhibitor binding, and it is this subset that is identified by experimental or computational fragment screening.

  12. The Renewables Influence on Market Splitting: the Iberian Spot Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carvalho Figueiredo; Patrícia Pereira da Silva; Pedro Cerqueira

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the influence of wind power generation on the market splitting behaviour of the Iberian electricity spot markets. We use logit models to express the probability response for market splitting of day-ahead spot electricity prices together with explanatory variables like, wind speed, available transmission capacity and electricity demand. The results show that the probability of market splitting increases with the increase of wind power generation. The European intercon...

  13. The Study of Land Use Classification Based on SPOT6 High Resolution Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Song; Jiang Qigang

    2016-01-01

    A method is carried out to quick classification extract of the type of land use in agricultural areas, which is based on the spot6 high resolution remote sensing classification data and used of the good nonlinear classification ability of support vector machine. The results show that the spot6 high resolution remote sensing classification data can realize land classification efficiently, the overall classification accuracy reached 88.79% and Kappa factor is 0.8632 which means that the classif...

  14. Spotting handwritten words and REGEX using a two stage BLSTM-HMM architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bideault, Gautier; Mioulet, Luc; Chatelain, Clément; Paquet, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we propose a hybrid model for spotting words and regular expressions (REGEX) in handwritten documents. The model is made of the state-of-the-art BLSTM (Bidirectional Long Short Time Memory) neural network for recognizing and segmenting characters, coupled with a HMM to build line models able to spot the desired sequences. Experiments on the Rimes database show very promising results.

  15. Comparing the spot prices from Powernext and EEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, A.; Armstrong, M.

    2005-01-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility in charge of managing the French power exchange through an optional and anonymous organised exchange. Powernext started operating on 27 November 2001. Although the German exchange, EEX, has been functioning for much longer, the two have many common points. Both use the same system for fixing the day-ahead spot price, the one developed by NordPool. In contrast to Omel in Spain, power producers in France and Germany are not obliged to sell through the exchange. In addition, the cross-border transmission lines that physically link the French and German grids, not only make the electricity supply more reliable they also allow cross-border commercial transactions which should homogenize prices in both countries. So after nearly a year of operation it is interesting to compare the spot prices on the two exchanges in order to have a better understanding of the statistical properties of the prices in the two markets and the relationship between them. This information will be used when modelling the structure of the day-ahead spot prices. The data used to carry out the study consists of the (hourly) spot prices for electricity from Powernext and EEX, for the period from 1 January 2002 to 2 December 2002. Data from the first five weeks of trading were not included because traded volumes were relatively low initially and so these data are not necessarily representative. This report is divided into four sections. The first one presents the basic statistics, starting with the histograms of all the 8064 spot prices in the 336 days, for both exchanges. In time series data, it is usual to find three types of seasonality: daily, weekly and annual. As the available data cover less than one calendar year, it is too early to attempt to study annual trends. So we limit ourselves to studying daily and weekly fluctuations. Plotting the hourly average prices for each day of the week shows some interesting differences between Powernext and

  16. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns.

  17. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Taira

    Full Text Available Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns.

  18. Rapid Molecular detection of citrus brown spot disease using ACT gene in Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Moghimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Using rapid detection methods is important for detection of plant pathogens and also prevention through spreading pests in agriculture. Citrus brown spot disease caused by pathogenic isolates of Alternaria alternata is a common disease in Iran. Materials and methods: In this study, for the first time a PCR based molecular method was used for rapid diagnosis of brown spot disease. Nine isolates of A. Alternata were isolated in PDA medium from different citrus gardens. The plant pathogenic activity was examined in tangerine leaves for isolates. Results showed that these isolates are the agents of brown spot disease. PCR amplification of specific ACT-toxin gene was performed for DNA extracted from A. alternata isolates, with 11 different fungal isolates as negative controls and 5 DNA samples extracted from soil. Results: Results showed that A. alternata, the causal agent of brown spot disease, can be carefully distinguished from other pathogenic agents by performing PCR amplification with specific primers for ACT toxin gene. Also, the results from Nested-PCR method confirmed the primary reaction and the specificity of A. alternata for brown spot disease. PCR results to control samples of the other standard fungal isolates, showed no amplification band. In addition, PCR with the DNA extracted from contaminated soils confirmed the presence of ACT toxin gene. Discussion and conclusion: Molecular procedure presented here can be used in rapid identification and prevention of brown spot infection in citrus gardens all over the country.

  19. Proteomic analysis of barley response during early spot blotch infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Daoude, A.; Jawhar, M.; Shoaib, A.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2015-01-01

    Spot blotch (SB), caused by the fungus Cochliobolus sativus, is a common foliar disease of barley worldwide, but little is known about the host response to infection at the protein level. In this study, a systematic shotgun proteomics approach was chosen to document the early barley response to C. sativus infection. Overall, 28 protein spots were consistently observed as differential in the proteome profiles of the challenged and unchallenged plants. After tryptic digestion, MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and MASCOT database searching identified proteins associated with the defense response including resistance proteins, putative hydrolase, proteinase, kinase and general metabolism and transport proteins. These afford important functions in host resistance and pathogen's inhibition in plants. One of the identified products is a putative NBS-LRR protein which is considered one of the major plant disease resistance proteins identified to date. This work indicates that, in combination with functional genomics, response of barley to challenge by C. sativus involved the recruitment of proteins from various defense pathways.(author)

  20. Molecular and histological characterization of age spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonseon; Yin, Lanlan; Smuda, Christoph; Batzer, Jan; Hearing, Vincent J.; Kolbe, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Age spots, also called solar lentigines and lentigo senilis, are light brown to black pigmented lesions of various sizes that typically develop in chronically sun-exposed skin. It is well known that age spots are strongly related to chronic sun exposure and are associated with photodamage and an increased risk for skin cancer, however, the mechanism(s) underlying their development remain poorly understood. We used immunohistochemical analysis and microarray analysis to investigate the processes involved in their formation, focusing on specific markers associated with the functions and proliferation of melanocytes and keratinocytes. A total of 193 genes were differentially expressed in age spots but melanocyte pigment genes were not among them. The increased expression of keratins 5 and 10, markers of basal and suprabasal keratinocytes, respectively, in age spots suggests that the increased proliferation of basal keratinocytes combined with the decreased turnover of suprabasal keratinocytes leads to the exaggerated formation of rete ridges in lesional epidermis which in turn disrupts the normal processing of melanin upwards from the basal layer. Based on our results, we propose a model for the development of age spots that explains the accumulation of melanin and the development of extensive rete ridges in those hyperpigmented lesions. PMID:27621222

  1. Plutonium spot of mixed oxide fuel, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yukio; Maruishi, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Masaichi; Aoki, Toshimasa; Muto, Tadashi

    1974-01-01

    In a fast reactor, the specification for the homogeneity of plutonium in plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel is mainly dependent on the nuclear characteristics, whereas in a thermal reactor, on thermal characteristics. This homogeneity is measured by autoradiography as the plutonium spot size of the specimens which are arbitrarily chosen fuel pellets from a lot. Although this is a kind of random sampling, it is difficult to apply this method to conventional digital standards including JIS standards. So a special sampling inspection method was studied. First, it is assumed that the shape of plutonium spots is spherical, the size distribution is logarithmic normal, and the standard deviation is constant. Then, if standard deviation and mean spot size are given, the logarithmic normal distribution is decided unitarily, and further if the total weight of plutonium spots for a lot of pellets is known, the number of the spots (No) which does not conform to the specification can be obtained. Then, the fraction defective is defined as No devided by the number of pellets per lot. As to the lot with such fraction defective, the acceptance coefficient of the lot was obtained through calculation, in which the number of sampling, acceptable diameter limit observed and acceptable conditions were used as parameters. (Tai, I.)

  2. Children's exposure assessment of radiofrequency fields: Comparison between spot and personal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegi, Mara; Huss, Anke; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Guxens, Mònica; Birks, Laura Ellen; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David; Röösli, Martin; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana

    2018-05-24

    providing higher exposure estimates. Nevertheless, there were no systematic differences between those methodologies when classifying subjects into exposure categories. Personal measurements of total RF exposure showed low to moderate agreement with home and bedroom spot measurements and agreed better, though moderately, with TWA based on spot measurements in the main settings where children spend time (homes, schools and parks; Kappa = 0.46). Exposure assessment based on spot measurements could be a feasible proxy to rank personal RF exposure in children population, providing that all relevant locations are being measured. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. SU-D-BRE-03: Dosimetric Impact of In-Air Spot Size Variations for Commissioning a Room-Matched Beam Model for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Giebeler, A; Mascia, A; Piskulich, F; Perles, L; Lepage, R; Dong, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric consequence of spot size variations and validate beam-matching criteria for commissioning a pencil beam model for multiple treatment rooms. Methods: A planning study was first conducted by simulating spot size variations to systematically evaluate dosimetric impact of spot size variations in selected cases, which was used to establish the in-air spot size tolerance for beam matching specifications. A beam model in treatment planning system was created using in-air spot profiles acquired in one treatment room. These spot profiles were also acquired from another treatment room for assessing the actual spot size variations between the two treatment rooms. We created twenty five test plans with targets of different sizes at different depths, and performed dose measurement along the entrance, proximal and distal target regions. The absolute doses at those locations were measured using ionization chambers at both treatment rooms, and were compared against the calculated doses by the beam model. Fifteen additional patient plans were also measured and included in our validation. Results: The beam model is relatively insensitive to spot size variations. With an average of less than 15% measured in-air spot size variations between two treatment rooms, the average dose difference was −0.15% with a standard deviation of 0.40% for 55 measurement points within target region; but the differences increased to 1.4%±1.1% in the entrance regions, which are more affected by in-air spot size variations. Overall, our single-room based beam model in the treatment planning system agreed with measurements in both rooms < 0.5% within the target region. For fifteen patient cases, the agreement was within 1%. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that dosimetrically equivalent machines can be established when in-air spot size variations are within 15% between the two treatment rooms

  4. The Hot Spot in Superior Vena Caval Obstruction Using 99m Technetium tin Colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Tae; Kwon, Kye Ik; Shin, Young Tae; Cho, Kyung Sam; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Bo Yeon; Koh, Chang Soon

    1981-01-01

    The hot spot on liver scan was demonstrated by many authors in various conditions such as SVC obstruction, Budd-Chiari syndrome, liver abscess, hemangioma of liver, hepatic venoocclusive diseases, IVC obstruction, and tricuspid insufficiency. And the appearance of hot spot in SVC obstruction is due to unusual collateral circulation. But there was no report of this hots pot on liver scan in our country. We have recently observed one patient with SVC obstruction who shows well-defined area of increased radioactivity between right and left lobe of liver on liver scan using 99m Tc-tin colloid, and demonstrated collateral circulations with RI venography using 99m Tc-O 4 . The injection site of radiocolloid was left antecubital vein. This hot spot did not appear when the radiocolloid was injected into right leg vein. We report here this hoe spot on liver scan in SVC obstruction with review of some literatures.

  5. The Hot Spot in Superior Vena Caval Obstruction Using {sup 99m} Technetium tin Colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Tae; Kwon, Kye Ik; Shin, Young Tae; Cho, Kyung Sam; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Bo Yeon; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-03-15

    The hot spot on liver scan was demonstrated by many authors in various conditions such as SVC obstruction, Budd-Chiari syndrome, liver abscess, hemangioma of liver, hepatic venoocclusive diseases, IVC obstruction, and tricuspid insufficiency. And the appearance of hot spot in SVC obstruction is due to unusual collateral circulation. But there was no report of this hots pot on liver scan in our country. We have recently observed one patient with SVC obstruction who shows well-defined area of increased radioactivity between right and left lobe of liver on liver scan using {sup 99m}Tc-tin colloid, and demonstrated collateral circulations with RI venography using {sup 99m}Tc-O{sub 4}. The injection site of radiocolloid was left antecubital vein. This hot spot did not appear when the radiocolloid was injected into right leg vein. We report here this hoe spot on liver scan in SVC obstruction with review of some literatures.

  6. Laser reflection spot as a pattern in a diamond coating – a microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA S. RISTIĆ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond coatings were deposited by the synchronous and coupled action of a hot filament CVD method and a pulsed CO2 laser in spectro-absorbing and spectro-non-absorbing diamond precursor atmospheres. The obtained coatings were structured/patterned, i.e., they were comprised of uncovered, bare locations. An extra effect observed only in the spectro-active diamond precursor atmosphere was the creation of another laser spot in the coating – a reflection spot. In order to establish the practical usability of the latter one, extensive microscopic investigations were performed with consideration of the morphology changes in the spot of the direct laser beam. Normal incidence SEM images of this spot showed a smooth surface, without any pulse radiation damage. AFM imaging revealed the actual surface condition and gave precise data on the surface characteristics.

  7. Scanning vs. single spot laser ablation (λ=213 nm) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; Fernandez, Alberto; Mao Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Sampling strategy is defined in this work as the interaction of a repetitively pulsed laser beam with a fixed position on a sample (single spot) or with a moving sample (scan). Analytical performance of these sampling strategies was compared by using 213 nm laser ablation ICP-MS. A geological rock (Tuff) was quantitatively analyzed based on NIST series 610-616 glass standard reference materials. Laser ablation data were compared to ICP-MS analysis of the dissolved samples. The scan strategy (50 μm/s) produced a flat, steady temporal ICP-MS response whereas the single spot strategy produced a signal that decayed with time (after 60 s). Single-spot sampling provided better accuracy and precision than the scan strategy when the first 15 s of the sampling time was eliminated from the data analysis. In addition, the single spot strategy showed less matrix dependence among the four NIST glasses

  8. Material Characterization of Dissimilar Friction Stir Spot Welded Aluminium and Copper Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, K. O.; Akinlabi, E. T.

    2017-08-01

    In this research study, material characterization of dissimilar friction stir spot welded Aluminium and Copper was evaluated. Rotational speeds of 800 rpm and transverse speeds of 50 mm/min, 150 mm/min and 250 mm/min were used. The total numbers of samples evaluated were nine altogether. The spot welds were characterised by microstructure characterization using optical microscope (OEM) and scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM) by observing the evolution of the microstructure across the weld’s cross-section. lap-shear test of the of the spot weld specimens were also done. From the results, it shows that welding of metals and alloys using Friction stir spot welding is appropriate and can be use in industrial applications.

  9. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S P; Epstein, R; Hammel, B A; Suter, L J; Scott, H A; Barrios, M A; Bradley, D K; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C; Collins, G W; Dixit, S N; Döppner, T; Edwards, M J; Farley, D R; Fournier, K B; Glenn, S; Glenzer, S H; Golovkin, I E; Haan, S W; Hamza, A; Hicks, D G; Izumi, N; Jones, O S; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Ma, T; MacFarlane, J J; MacKinnon, A J; Mancini, R C; McCrory, R L; Meezan, N B; Meyerhofer, D D; Nikroo, A; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Sangster, T C; Smalyuk, V A; Springer, P T; Town, R P J

    2013-07-26

    Mixing of plastic ablator material, doped with Cu and Ge dopants, deep into the hot spot of ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion implosions by hydrodynamic instabilities is diagnosed with x-ray spectroscopy on the National Ignition Facility. The amount of hot-spot mix mass is determined from the absolute brightness of the emergent Cu and Ge K-shell emission. The Cu and Ge dopants placed at different radial locations in the plastic ablator show the ablation-front hydrodynamic instability is primarily responsible for hot-spot mix. Low neutron yields and hot-spot mix mass between 34(-13,+50)  ng and 4000(-2970,+17 160)  ng are observed.

  10. The relationship between spot and futures prices in the Nord Pool electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun; Kristiansen, Tarjei; Ilic, Marija D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze 11 years of historical spot- and futures prices from the hydro-dominated Nord Pool electricity market. We find that futures prices tend to be higher than spot prices. The average convenience yield is therefore negative, but varies by season and depends on the storage levels in hydro reservoirs. The average realized return on holding a long position in the futures market is also negative. The negative convenience yield and risk premium contrast empirical findings in most other commodity markets. We argue that differences between the supply and demand sides in terms of risk preferences and the ability to take advantage of short-term price variations can contribute to explain the observed relationship between spot- and futures prices. In addition, our analysis shows that the relationship between spot and futures prices is clearly linked to the physical state of the system, such as hydro inflow, reservoir levels, and demand. (author)

  11. Identification of Damaged Spot Welds in a Complicated Joined Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, M A; Rani, M N Abdul; Ouyang, H; Deng, H; James, S, E-mail: h.ouyang@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, Harrison Hughes Building, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-19

    In automotive engineering, spot welds on assembled structures such as Body in White (BiW) have a significant effect on the vehicles' dynamic characteristics. Understandably, imperfections in the spot welds will cause variations in the dynamic properties such as natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, a complicated welded structure which is a simplified Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) platform is investigated. The structure fabricated from thin metal sheets consists of ten components. They are jointed together by a number of scattered spot welds. NASTRAN Solution 200 based on sensitivity analysis is used to identify the most sensitive parameters to natural frequencies. The numerical model of the undamaged structure is initially updated in order to minimise the discrepancies between the measured and numerical data using NASTRAN optimisation code. The initial updated model serves as a benchmark for the subsequent structural damage identification. The numerical data of the benchmark model is then compared with the measured data obtained from the damaged structure. The same updating procedure is applied to the benchmark model in order to bring the numerical data as close as possible to the measured data of the damaged structure. The disparity in certain parameter values from the parameter values used in the benchmark model shows a fault or damage in the location of a particular joint, depending on the severity of this disparity. The challenge in this work is to localise damaged area and quantify the damage of the complicated structure with multiple spot welds in the presence of uncertainty in the location and material properties of the welds.

  12. Identification of Damaged Spot Welds in a Complicated Joined Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M A; Rani, M N Abdul; Ouyang, H; Deng, H; James, S

    2011-01-01

    In automotive engineering, spot welds on assembled structures such as Body in White (BiW) have a significant effect on the vehicles' dynamic characteristics. Understandably, imperfections in the spot welds will cause variations in the dynamic properties such as natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, a complicated welded structure which is a simplified Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) platform is investigated. The structure fabricated from thin metal sheets consists of ten components. They are jointed together by a number of scattered spot welds. NASTRAN Solution 200 based on sensitivity analysis is used to identify the most sensitive parameters to natural frequencies. The numerical model of the undamaged structure is initially updated in order to minimise the discrepancies between the measured and numerical data using NASTRAN optimisation code. The initial updated model serves as a benchmark for the subsequent structural damage identification. The numerical data of the benchmark model is then compared with the measured data obtained from the damaged structure. The same updating procedure is applied to the benchmark model in order to bring the numerical data as close as possible to the measured data of the damaged structure. The disparity in certain parameter values from the parameter values used in the benchmark model shows a fault or damage in the location of a particular joint, depending on the severity of this disparity. The challenge in this work is to localise damaged area and quantify the damage of the complicated structure with multiple spot welds in the presence of uncertainty in the location and material properties of the welds.

  13. Inheritance of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L R A; Rodrigues, R; Pimenta, S; Correa, J W S; Araújo, M S B; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P

    2017-04-20

    Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide. Inheritance of disease resistance is often variable, depending on genetic background of the parents. The knowledge of the genetic base controlling such resistance is the first step in a breeding program aiming to develop new genotypes, bringing together resistance and other superior agronomic traits. This study reports the genetic basis of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum using mean generation analysis from crosses between accessions UENF 2285 (susceptible) and UENF 1381 (resistant). The plants of each generation were grown in a greenhouse and leaflets were inoculated with bacterial strain ENA 4135 at 10 5 CFU/mL in 1.0 cm 2 of the mesophyll. Evaluations were performed using a scoring scale whose grades ranged from 1.0 (resistant) to 5.0 (susceptible), depending on symptom manifestation. Genetic control of bacterial spot has a quantitative aspect, with higher additive effect. The quantitative analysis showed that five genes were the minimum number controlling bacterial spot resistance. Additive effect was higher (6.06) than dominant (3.31) and explained 86.36% of total variation.

  14. A new method for depth profiling reconstruction in confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Rosario; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Mensitieri, Giuseppe

    2018-05-01

    Confocal microscopy is commonly used to reconstruct depth profiles of chemical species in multicomponent systems and to image nuclear and cellular details in human tissues via image intensity measurements of optical sections. However, the performance of this technique is reduced by inherent effects related to wave diffraction phenomena, refractive index mismatch and finite beam spot size. All these effects distort the optical wave and cause an image to be captured of a small volume around the desired illuminated focal point within the specimen rather than an image of the focal point itself. The size of this small volume increases with depth, thus causing a further loss of resolution and distortion of the profile. Recently, we proposed a theoretical model that accounts for the above wave distortion and allows for a correct reconstruction of the depth profiles for homogeneous samples. In this paper, this theoretical approach has been adapted for describing the profiles measured from non-homogeneous distributions of emitters inside the investigated samples. The intensity image is built by summing the intensities collected from each of the emitters planes belonging to the illuminated volume, weighed by the emitters concentration. The true distribution of the emitters concentration is recovered by a new approach that implements this theoretical model in a numerical algorithm based on the Maximum Entropy Method. Comparisons with experimental data and numerical simulations show that this new approach is able to recover the real unknown concentration distribution from experimental profiles with an accuracy better than 3%.

  15. Quantitative analysis of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP microbial community profiles: peak height data showed to be more reproducible than peak area Análise quantitativa de perfis de T-RFLP de comunidades microbianas: dados de altura de picos mostraram-se mais reprodutíveis do que os de área

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Caffaro-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP is a culture-independent fingerprinting method for microbial community analysis. Profiles generated by an automated electrophoresis system can be analysed quantitatively using either peak height or peak area data. Statistical testing demontrated that peak height data showed to be more reproducible than peak area data.Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP é um método molecular, independente de cultivo, para análise de comunidades microbianas. Perfis gerados por um sistema automatizado de eletroforese podem ser analisados quantitativamente usando dados de altura ou área dos picos. Os dados de altura mostraram-se mais reprodutíveis do que os de área.

  16. How much extra spot gas is there?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Th.

    2007-01-01

    With the increase of European gas demand and the sharp decrease of local supply, security of supply is becoming an ever greater issue. However, liberalization tilts the traditional equilibrium based on long term 'take or pay' contracts between big suppliers and national distribution companies. Today, buying gas on the spot market is becoming more and more important to balance supply portfolio with a fast moving market share. But the way gas spot markets are operating is not well documented. It is very difficult to assess its impact on the European security of supply. Therefore, the aim of this article is to evaluate the amount of 'spot' liquefied natural gas (LNG) that could be found in case of a major supply disruption in pipe gas delivered to Europe

  17. Laser Spot Center Detection and Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Xu, Zhengjie; Fu, Deli; Hu, Cong

    2018-04-01

    High efficiency and precision of the pot center detection are the foundations of avionics instrument navigation and optics measurement basis for many applications. It has noticeable impact on overall system performance. Among them, laser spot detection is very important in the optical measurement technology. In order to improve the low accuracy of the spot center position, the algorithm is improved on the basis of the circle fitting. The pretreatment is used by circle fitting, and the improved adaptive denoising filter for TV repair technology can effectively improves the accuracy of the spot center position. At the same time, the pretreatment and de-noising can effectively reduce the influence of Gaussian white noise, which enhances the anti-jamming capability.

  18. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  19. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Sá DelFiol, Fernando; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda; da Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira; de Toledo, Maria Inês; Filho, Silvio Barberato

    2010-06-01

    Although the number of confirmed cases of spotted fever has been declining in Brazil since 2005, the mortality rate (20% to 30%) is still high in comparison to other countries. This high mortality rate is closely related to the difficulty in making the diagnosis and starting the correct treatment. Only two groups of antibiotics have proven clinical effectiveness against spotted fever: chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. Until recently, the use of tetracyclines was restricted to adults because of the associated bone and tooth changes in children. Recently, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics and various researchers have recommended the use of doxycycline in children. In more severe cases, chloramphenicol injections are often preferred in Brazil because of the lack of experience with injectable tetracycline. Since early diagnosis and the adequate drug treatment are key to a good prognosis, health care professionals must be better prepared to recognize and treat spotted fever.

  20. Recurrent star-spot activity and differential rotation in KIC 11560447

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özavcı, I.; Şenavcı, H. V.; Işık, E.; Hussain, G. A. J.; O'Neal, D.; Yılmaz, M.; Selam, S. O.

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of surface inhomogeneities on the K1-type subgiant component of the rapidly rotating eclipsing binary KIC 11560447, using high-precision Kepler light curves spanning nearly 4 yr, which corresponds to about 2800 orbital revolutions. We determine the system parameters precisely, using high-resolution spectra from the 2.1-m Otto Struve Telescope at the McDonald Observatory. We apply the maximum entropy method to reconstruct the relative longitudinal spot occupancy. Our numerical tests show that the procedure can recover large-scale random distributions of individually unresolved spots, and it can track the phase migration of up to three major spot clusters. By determining the drift rates of various spotted regions in orbital longitude, we suggest a way to constrain surface differential rotation and we show that the results are consistent with periodograms. The K1IV star exhibits two mildly preferred longitudes of emergence, indications of solar-like differential rotation, and a 0.5-1.3-yr recurrence period in star-spot emergence, accompanied by a secular increase in the axisymmetric component of spot occupancy.

  1. A feature-based approach to modeling protein–protein interaction hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-il; Kim, Dongsup; Lee, Doheon

    2009-01-01

    Identifying features that effectively represent the energetic contribution of an individual interface residue to the interactions between proteins remains problematic. Here, we present several new features and show that they are more effective than conventional features. By combining the proposed features with conventional features, we develop a predictive model for interaction hot spots. Initially, 54 multifaceted features, composed of different levels of information including structure, sequence and molecular interaction information, are quantified. Then, to identify the best subset of features for predicting hot spots, feature selection is performed using a decision tree. Based on the selected features, a predictive model for hot spots is created using support vector machine (SVM) and tested on an independent test set. Our model shows better overall predictive accuracy than previous methods such as the alanine scanning methods Robetta and FOLDEF, and the knowledge-based method KFC. Subsequent analysis yields several findings about hot spots. As expected, hot spots have a larger relative surface area burial and are more hydrophobic than other residues. Unexpectedly, however, residue conservation displays a rather complicated tendency depending on the types of protein complexes, indicating that this feature is not good for identifying hot spots. Of the selected features, the weighted atomic packing density, relative surface area burial and weighted hydrophobicity are the top 3, with the weighted atomic packing density proving to be the most effective feature for predicting hot spots. Notably, we find that hot spots are closely related to π–related interactions, especially π · · · π interactions. PMID:19273533

  2. Volume dips; spot price ranges narrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the September 1994 uranium market summary. Volume in the spot concentrates market fell below 1 million lbs U3O8. In total, twelve deals took place compared to 28 deals in August. Of the twelve deals, three took place in the spot concentrates market, two took place in the medium and long-term market, three in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. Restricted prices weakened, but unrestricted prices firmed slightly. The enrichment price range narrowed a bit

  3. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, R; James, B

    1998-10-01

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be provided, along with the work-up of the differential diagnosis.

  4. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  5. Observations spotted solar type stars in Pleiades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnitskij, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    The september - october 1986 observations discovered periodic light variations in three solar type stars in the Pleiades cluster: Hz 296 (0.8 M Sun ), Hz152(0.91 M Sun ) and Hz739(1.15 M Sun ). Periods and amplitudes are accordingly 2 d and 0 m .11, 4 d .12 and 0 m .07, 2 d .70 and 0 m .05. Considerable light variations of these stars in Pleiades are due to the rotation of spotted stars. Contrast spots of solar type stars likely exist when stars are young and rapidly rotate

  6. Newborn screening blood spot analysis in the UK: influence of spot size, punch location and haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, A J; Bernstone, L; Hall, S K

    2016-03-01

    In dried blood spot analysis, punch location and variations in applied sample volume and haematocrit can produce different measured concentrations of analytes. We investigated the magnitude of these effects in newborn screening in the UK. Heparinized blood spiked with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, octanoyl carnitine (C8), and immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was spotted onto filter paper: (i) at a constant haematocrit of 50% at various volumes, and (ii) at a range of haematocrits using a constant volume. Subpunches (3.2 mm) of the dried blood spots were then analysed. Compared with a central punch from a 50 µL blood spot with 50% haematocrit, 10 µL spots can have significantly lower measured concentrations of all analytes, with decreases of 15% or more observed for leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Punching at the edge of a spot can increase measured concentrations up to 35%. Higher haematocrit decreased measured TSH and C8 yet increased amino acids and IRT by 15% compared with 50% haematocrit. Lower haematocrits had the opposite effect, but only with higher concentrations of some analytes. Differences in blood spot size, haematocrit and punch location substantially affect measured concentrations for analytes used in the UK newborn screening programme, and this could affect false positive and negative rates. To minimize analytical bias, these variables should be controlled or adjusted for where possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Transitional–turbulent spots and turbulent–turbulent spots in boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional–turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a Λ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional–turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional–turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional–turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent–turbulent spots. These turbulent–turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional–turbulent spots, these turbulent–turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent–turbulent spots. PMID:28630304

  8. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-03

    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  9. Technique using axicons for generating flat-top laser-beam profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Woodfin, G.L.; Stahl, D.; Carpenter, J.P.; Kyrala, G.

    1983-01-01

    In certain fusion experiments using CO 2 lasers, like Helios, it is desired to produce a focal spot several times larger than the nominal focal spot, with a flat beam profile. The typical focal spot in Helios is roughly 70 μm and just defocussing the beam produces beam breakup, with several hot spots with roughly the original diameter, and a gaussian distribution. A number of schemes were tried to achieve a large spot with desired characteristics. These are described in the article. Axicons were found to produce spots with desired characteristics. Axicons are lenses or mirrors having a cone-shaped surface. The various schemes are described, as well as an experiment in Helios which confirmed that axicons produced the spots with desirable characteristics. Helios is an 8-beam CO 2 laser which produces 10 kJ at power in excess of 20 TW. It is currently being used for Laser Fusion studies at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

  10. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Paul; Wu, Xiaodong; Blin, Guillaume; Vialette, Stéphane; Flynn, Ryan; Hyer, Daniel; Wang, Dongxu

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU) of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot; it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot that a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D) CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight [Monitor Unit (MU)] for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated. For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm), D95% to the planning target volume (PTV) was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX) dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm), without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3 mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  11. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. Materials and Methods: The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight (MU for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated.Results: For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm, D95% to the planning target volume (PTV was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm, without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. Conclusion: The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  12. Evaluation of electrophoretic profile and albumin quota in the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with distemper showing or not neurvous signs Avaliação do perfil eletroforético e da cota de albumina do líquido cerebrospinal de cães acometidos pela cinomose apresentando ou não sinais neurológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.V. Gama

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrophoretic profile of cerebrospinal fluid proteins and albumin quota was studied in healthy dogs and dogs with distemper in either nervous or non-nervous phases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from 30 dogs were collected by puncture of the cisterna magna. The total protein content, the albumin quota, and the electrophoretic fraction of CSF proteins in agarose gel plates were evaluated. Results were similar in healthy dogs and dogs with distemper and no nervous signs, but were significantly increased in the group of dogs with distemper showing nervous signs. The study of CSF protein profile proved useful and contributed significantly on the detection of central nervous system disorders and damages to the blood-brain barrier during the nervous phase of distemper.Estudaram-se o perfil eletroforético das proteínas liquóricas e a cota de albumina em cães sem e com cinomose na fase neurológica e não-neurológica. A punção da cisterna magna para a obtenção de amostras de liquor realizou-se em 30 cães. Analisaram-se teores de proteínas totais, cota de albumina e fracionamento eletroforético das proteínas liquóricas em gel de agarose. Os resultados foram semelhantes nos cães normais e nos cães com cinomose sem sinais neurológicos e significativamente elevados no grupo de cães com cinomose apresentando sinais neurológicos. O estudo do quadro protéico do líquido cérebroespinhal foi útil e contribuiu significativamente na detecção de lesões ao sistema nervoso central e de danos à barreira hematoencefálica durante a fase neurológica da cinomose.

  13. On the functional order of binocular rivalry and blind spot filling-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng S; Brascamp, Jan W; Liu, Taosheng

    2017-07-01

    Binocular rivalry is an important phenomenon for understanding the mechanisms of visual awareness. Here we assessed the functional locus of binocular rivalry relative to blind spot filling-in, which is thought to transpire in V1, thus providing a reference point for assessing the locus of rivalry. We conducted two experiments to explore the functional order of binocular rivalry and blind spot filling-in. Experiment 1 examined if the information filled-in at the blind spot can engage in rivalry with a physical stimulus at the corresponding location in the fellow eye. Participants' perceptual reports showed no difference between this condition and a condition where filling-in was precluded by presenting the same stimuli away from the blind spot, suggesting that the rivalry process is not influenced by any filling-in that might occur. In Experiment 2, we presented the fellow eye's stimulus directly in rivalry with the 'inducer' stimulus that surrounds the blind spot, and compared it with two control conditions away from the blind spot: one involving a ring physically identical to the inducer, and one involving a disc that resembled the filled-in percept. Perceptual reports in the blind spot condition resembled those in the 'ring' condition, more than those in the latter, 'disc' condition, indicating that a perceptually suppressed inducer does not engender filling-in. Thus, our behavioral data suggest binocular rivalry functionally precedes blind spot filling-in. We conjecture that the neural substrate of binocular rivalry suppression includes processing stages at or before V1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasonic Real-Time Quality Monitoring Of Aluminum Spot Weld Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Regalado, Waldo Josue

    The real-time ultrasonic spot weld monitoring system, introduced by our research group, has been designed for the unsupervised quality characterization of the spot welding process. It comprises the ultrasonic transducer (probe) built into one of the welding electrodes and an electronics hardware unit which gathers information from the transducer, performs real-time weld quality characterization and communicates with the robot programmable logic controller (PLC). The system has been fully developed for the inspection of spot welds manufactured in steel alloys, and has been mainly applied in the automotive industry. In recent years, a variety of materials have been introduced to the automotive industry. These include high strength steels, magnesium alloys, and aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys have been of particular interest due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Resistance spot welding requirements for aluminum vary greatly from those of steel. Additionally, the oxide film formed on the aluminum surface increases the heat generation between the copper electrodes and the aluminum plates leading to accelerated electrode deterioration. Preliminary studies showed that the real-time quality inspection system was not able to monitor spot welds manufactured with aluminum. The extensive experimental research, finite element modelling of the aluminum welding process and finite difference modeling of the acoustic wave propagation through the aluminum spot welds presented in this dissertation, revealed that the thermodynamics and hence the acoustic wave propagation through an aluminum and a steel spot weld differ significantly. For this reason, the hardware requirements and the algorithms developed to determine the welds quality from the ultrasonic data used on steel, no longer apply on aluminum spot welds. After updating the system and designing the required algorithms, parameters such as liquid nugget penetration and nugget diameter were available in the ultrasonic data

  15. Robust model-based analysis of single-particle tracking experiments with Spot-On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Jonathan B; Lavis, Luke D

    2018-01-01

    Single-particle tracking (SPT) has become an important method to bridge biochemistry and cell biology since it allows direct observation of protein binding and diffusion dynamics in live cells. However, accurately inferring information from SPT studies is challenging due to biases in both data analysis and experimental design. To address analysis bias, we introduce ‘Spot-On’, an intuitive web-interface. Spot-On implements a kinetic modeling framework that accounts for known biases, including molecules moving out-of-focus, and robustly infers diffusion constants and subpopulations from pooled single-molecule trajectories. To minimize inherent experimental biases, we implement and validate stroboscopic photo-activation SPT (spaSPT), which minimizes motion-blur bias and tracking errors. We validate Spot-On using experimentally realistic simulations and show that Spot-On outperforms other methods. We then apply Spot-On to spaSPT data from live mammalian cells spanning a wide range of nuclear dynamics and demonstrate that Spot-On consistently and robustly infers subpopulation fractions and diffusion constants. PMID:29300163

  16. Application Values of T-SPOT.TB in Clinical Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Ou, Qinfang; Zheng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the application value of tuberculosis-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assay (T-SPOT.TB) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Fifty one patients with tuberculosis (TB) admitted to Wuxi No.5 People's Hospital, Wuxi, China from June 2015 to June 2017 were selected as the TB group, and 40 patients without tuberculosis admitted in the same period were randomly selected as the non-TB group. Patients in the two groups received T-SPOT.TB, TB antibody (TB-Ab) test and mycobacterium TB deoxyribonucleic acid (TB-DNA) test, and the results were compared. Comparisons of the sensitivity of the three methods showed that the sensitivity of T-SPOT.TB was the highest, followed by TB-DNA from sputum samples, and that of TB-Ab was the lowest. The specificity of TB-Ab was the highest, followed by T-SPOT.TB, and that of TB-DNA from sputum samples was the lowest. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under curve (AUC) of T-SPOT.TB (0.896) was the highest, followed by TB-DNA from sputum samples (0.772), and that of sputum smears (0.698) was the lowest. T-SPOT.TB can quickly and accurately determine the presence of tuberculosis infection, and it is a non-invasive examination, which can further assist in the diagnosis and guide the treatment.

  17. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D; Jellesen, Morten S; Zachariae, Claus; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-11-01

    Along with chromium, nickel and cobalt are the clinically most important metal allergens. However, unlike for nickel and cobalt, there is no validated colorimetric spot test that detects chromium. Such a test could help both clinicians and their patients with chromium dermatitis to identify culprit exposures. To evaluate the use of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) as a spot test reagent for the identification of chromium(VI) release. A colorimetric chromium(VI) spot test based on DPC was prepared and used on different items from small market surveys. The DPC spot test was able to identify chromium(VI) release at 0.5 ppm without interference from other pure metals, alloys, or leather. A market survey using the test showed no chromium(VI) release from work tools (0/100). However, chromium(VI) release from metal screws (7/60), one earring (1/50), leather shoes (4/100) and leather gloves (6/11) was observed. We found no false-positive test reactions. Confirmatory testing was performed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and spectrophotometrically on extraction fluids. The use of DPC as a colorimetric spot test reagent appears to be a good and valid test method for detecting the release of chromium(VI) ions from leather and metal articles. The spot test has the potential to become a valuable screening tool. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Impacts of Implosion Asymmetry And Hot Spot Shape On Ignition Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Yi, S. Austin; Batha, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Implosion symmetry plays a critical role in achieving high areal density and internal energy at stagnation during hot spot formation in ICF capsules. Asymmetry causes hot spot irregularity and stagnation de-synchronization that results in lower temperatures and areal densities of the hot fuel. These degradations significantly affect the alpha heating process in the DT fuel as well as on the thermonuclear performance of the capsules. In this work, we explore the physical factors determining the shape of the hot spot late in the implosion and the effects of shape on Î+/-particle transport. We extend our ignition theory [1-4] to include the hot spot shape and quantify the effects of the implosion asymmetry on both the ignition criterion and capsule performance. We validate our theory with the NIF existing experimental data Our theory shows that the ignition criterion becomes more restrictive with the deformation of the hot spot. Through comparison with the NIF data, we demonstrate that the shape effects on the capsules' performance become more explicit as the self-heating and yield of the capsules increases. The degradation of the thermonuclear burn by the hot spot shape for high yield shots to date can be as high as 20%. Our theory is in good agreement with the NIF data. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  19. Applying dual-laser spot positions measurement technology on a two-dimensional tracking measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hau-Wei; Chen, Chieh-Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional tracking measurement system with a tracking module, which consists of two stepping motors, two laser diodes and a four separated active areas segmented position sensitive detector (PSD). The PSD was placed on a two-dimensional moving stage and used as a tracking target. The two laser diodes in the tracking module were directly rotated to keep the laser spots on the origin of the PSD. The two-dimensional position of the target PSD on the moving stage is determined from the distance between the two motors and the tracking angles of the two laser diodes, which are rotated by the two stepping motors, respectively. In order to separate the four positional values of the two laser spots on one PSD, the laser diodes were modulated by two distinct frequencies. Multiple-laser spot position measurement technology was used to separate the four positional values of the two laser spots on the PSD. The experimental results show that the steady-state voltage shift rate is about 0.2% and dynamic cross-talk rate is smaller than 2% when the two laser spots are projected on one PSD at the same time. The measurement errors of the x and y axial positions of the two-dimensional tracking system were less than 1% in the measuring range of 20 mm. The results demonstrate that multiple-laser spot position measurement technology can be employed in a two-dimensional tracking measurement system

  20. Prediction of protein interaction hot spots using rough set-based multiple criteria linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoying; Zhang, Zhiwang; Wu, Di; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xinyang; Wang, Yong; Shi, Yong

    2011-01-21

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamentally important in many biological processes and it is in pressing need to understand the principles of protein-protein interactions. Mutagenesis studies have found that only a small fraction of surface residues, known as hot spots, are responsible for the physical binding in protein complexes. However, revealing hot spots by mutagenesis experiments are usually time consuming and expensive. In order to complement the experimental efforts, we propose a new computational approach in this paper to predict hot spots. Our method, Rough Set-based Multiple Criteria Linear Programming (RS-MCLP), integrates rough sets theory and multiple criteria linear programming to choose dominant features and computationally predict hot spots. Our approach is benchmarked by a dataset of 904 alanine-mutated residues and the results show that our RS-MCLP method performs better than other methods, e.g., MCLP, Decision Tree, Bayes Net, and the existing HotSprint database. In addition, we reveal several biological insights based on our analysis. We find that four features (the change of accessible surface area, percentage of the change of accessible surface area, size of a residue, and atomic contacts) are critical in predicting hot spots. Furthermore, we find that three residues (Tyr, Trp, and Phe) are abundant in hot spots through analyzing the distribution of amino acids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems...

  2. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  3. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  4. The sweet spots in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In baseball, the sweet spot is a special place on a bat where the batter can hit the ball with the most power. It is the place where the performances of the batter and pitcher collide with maximum effect. It is the place where the dynamic tension between opponents leads to transformation. The dynamic tension in all living systems is between similarity and difference. Chaos and complexity scholars recognized this tension as amounts of information. When the amounts of information were high, but not too high, the system moved to the edge of chaos, to the complexity regime, to strange attractors, or to chaos, depending on the model. The sweet spot is that range of relative variety, just the proper mix of similarity and difference, leading to transformation. This essay contains a model of human communication as an emergent social process with its own sweet spots. The essay also includes a description of current literature highlighting tensions between similarity and difference, and there is an exploration of the potential to move from one basin of attraction to another. The primary constraints on finding communication sweet spots are paradigmatic - adopting a process orientation, discovering the proper parameters, bracketing sequences to define initial conditions, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling techniques.

  5. Modeling Hot Spot Motor Vehicle Theft Crime in Relation to Landuse and Settlement Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta

    2004-01-01

    size buildings. The calculation of contingency coefficient shows that there was a significant correlation between motor vehicle robbery hot spot with land use type and settlement pattern, but it has low correlation value. It means that land use type and settlement pattern have weak influence to the hot spot existence.

  6. Evaluation of actual vs expected photodynamic therapy spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchod, Tushar M; Brucker, Alexander J; Liu, Chengcheng; Cukras, Catherine A; Hopkins, Tim B; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2009-05-01

    To determine the accuracy of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) laser spot size on the retina as generated by 2 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lasers. Prospective observational case series. Fundus photographs were taken of 1 eye of each of 10 subjects with the WinStation 4000 fundus photography system (OIS; Ophthalmic Imaging Systems, Sacramento, California, USA); disc size was calculated using OIS software. Slit-lamp photographs were taken of the PDT laser spot focused on the retina adjacent to the optic disc, using various spot sizes in combination with 3 different contact lenses and 2 different lasers. Spot size at the retina was determined by measuring the ratio of disc diameter to spot diameter in Adobe Photoshop (San Jose, California, USA) and applying this ratio to the OIS disc measurements. Spot size at the retina averaged 87% of expected spot size for the Coherent Opal laser (Coherent Inc, Santa Clara, California, USA) and 104% of expected spot size for the Zeiss Visulas laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, California, USA)(P = .002). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that percentage of expected spot size decreased with larger spot diameter (P = .01 for Coherent laser; P = .02 for Zeiss laser). PDT spot size at the retina appears to be consistently smaller than expected for the Coherent laser while the spot size was consistently within 10% of expected size for the Zeiss laser. The deviation from expected size increased with larger spot size using the Coherent laser.

  7. The impact of wind generation on the electricity spot-market price level and variance: The Texas experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Horowitz, I.; Moore, J.; Pacheco, A.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on renewable energy suggests that an increase in intermittent wind generation would reduce the spot electricity market price by displacing high fuel-cost marginal generation. Taking advantage of a large file of Texas-based 15-min data, we show that while rising wind generation does indeed tend to reduce the level of spot prices, it is also likely to enlarge the spot-price variance. The key policy implication is that increasing use of price risk management should accompany expanded deployment of wind generation. - Highlights: → Rising wind generation in ERCOT tends to reduce electricity spot prices. → Rising wind generation in ERCOT is also likely to enlarge the spot-price variance. → Increased price risk management should accompany expanded wind power deployment.

  8. Investigation of Hardness Change for Spot Welded Tailored Blank in Hot Stamping Using CCT and Deformation-CCT Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogo, Yasuhiro; Kurato, Nozomi; Iwata, Noritoshi

    2018-04-01

    When an outer panel of a B-pillar is manufactured with the hot stamping process, reinforcements are spot welded on its inner side. Before reinforcements are added, the microstructure of the outer panel is martensite. However, reheating during spot welding changes the martensite to ferrite, which has a lower hardness in the heat-affected zone than in other areas. If spot welding is conducted before hot stamping for making a spot welded tailored blank, the microstructure in the spot welded tailored blank after hot stamping is martensite. This sequence of processes avoids hardness reduction due to spot welding. In this study, the hardness and microstructure around spot welded parts of the tailored blank were investigated. The results clearly showed that areas close to the spot welded parts are severely stretched during hot stamping. In addition, stretching suppresses the martensitic phase transformation and reduces the hardness. To characterize this phenomenon, a simulation was conducted that considered the effects of pre-strain on the phase transformation. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and a deformation continuous cooling transformation (DCCT) diagram were made in order to quantify the effect of the cooling rate and pre-strain on the phase transformation and hardness. The hardness was then calculated using the experimentally measured CCT and DCCT diagrams and the finite element analysis results. The calculated hardness was compared with the experimental hardness. Good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results.

  9. Investigation of Hardness Change for Spot Welded Tailored Blank in Hot Stamping Using CCT and Deformation-CCT Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogo, Yasuhiro; Kurato, Nozomi; Iwata, Noritoshi

    2018-06-01

    When an outer panel of a B-pillar is manufactured with the hot stamping process, reinforcements are spot welded on its inner side. Before reinforcements are added, the microstructure of the outer panel is martensite. However, reheating during spot welding changes the martensite to ferrite, which has a lower hardness in the heat-affected zone than in other areas. If spot welding is conducted before hot stamping for making a spot welded tailored blank, the microstructure in the spot welded tailored blank after hot stamping is martensite. This sequence of processes avoids hardness reduction due to spot welding. In this study, the hardness and microstructure around spot welded parts of the tailored blank were investigated. The results clearly showed that areas close to the spot welded parts are severely stretched during hot stamping. In addition, stretching suppresses the martensitic phase transformation and reduces the hardness. To characterize this phenomenon, a simulation was conducted that considered the effects of pre-strain on the phase transformation. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and a deformation continuous cooling transformation (DCCT) diagram were made in order to quantify the effect of the cooling rate and pre-strain on the phase transformation and hardness. The hardness was then calculated using the experimentally measured CCT and DCCT diagrams and the finite element analysis results. The calculated hardness was compared with the experimental hardness. Good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results.

  10. SpotCaliper: fast wavelet-based spot detection with accurate size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püspöki, Zsuzsanna; Sage, Daniel; Ward, John Paul; Unser, Michael

    2016-04-15

    SpotCaliper is a novel wavelet-based image-analysis software providing a fast automatic detection scheme for circular patterns (spots), combined with the precise estimation of their size. It is implemented as an ImageJ plugin with a friendly user interface. The user is allowed to edit the results by modifying the measurements (in a semi-automated way), extract data for further analysis. The fine tuning of the detections includes the possibility of adjusting or removing the original detections, as well as adding further spots. The main advantage of the software is its ability to capture the size of spots in a fast and accurate way. http://bigwww.epfl.ch/algorithms/spotcaliper/ zsuzsanna.puspoki@epfl.ch Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Time-varying convergence in European electricity spot markets and their association with carbon and fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Lilian M. de; Houllier, Melanie A.; Tamvakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Long-run dynamics of electricity prices are expected to reflect fuel price developments, since fuels generally account for a large share in the cost of generation. As an integrated European market for electricity develops, wholesale electricity prices should be converging as a result of market coupling and increased interconnectivity. Electricity mixes are also changing, spurred by a drive to significantly increase the share of renewables. Consequently, the electricity wholesale price dynamics are evolving, and the fuel–electricity price nexus that has been described in the literature is likely to reflect this evolution. This study investigates associations between spot prices from the British, French and Nordpool markets with those in connected electricity markets and fuel input prices, from December 2005 to October 2013. In order to assess the time-varying dynamics of electricity spot price series, localized autocorrelation functions are used. Electricity spot prices in the three markets are found to have stationary and non-stationary periods. When a trend in spot prices is observed, it is likely to reflect the trend in fuel prices. Cointegration analysis is then used to assess co-movement between electricity spot prices and fuel inputs to generation. The results show that British electricity spot prices are associated with fuel prices and not with price developments in connected markets, while the opposite is observed in the French and Nordpool day-ahead markets. - Highlights: • Electricity market integration policies may have altered EU spot electricity prices. • LACF is used to assess the changing nature of electricity spot prices. • EU electricity spot prices show both stationary and non-stationary periods. • Carbon and fuel prices have greater impact on British spot prices. • In continental Europe, electricity prices have decoupled from fuel prices.

  12. The rise and fall of a human recombination hot spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, Alec J; Neumann, Rita

    2009-05-01

    Human meiotic crossovers mainly cluster into narrow hot spots that profoundly influence patterns of haplotype diversity and that may also affect genome instability and sequence evolution. Hot spots also seem to be ephemeral, but processes of hot-spot activation and their subsequent evolutionary dynamics remain unknown. We now analyze the life cycle of a recombination hot spot. Sperm typing revealed a polymorphic hot spot that was activated in cis by a single base change, providing evidence for a primary sequence determinant necessary, though not sufficient, to activate recombination. This activating mutation occurred roughly 70,000 y ago and has persisted to the present, most likely fortuitously through genetic drift despite its systematic elimination by biased gene conversion. Nonetheless, this self-destructive conversion will eventually lead to hot-spot extinction. These findings define a subclass of highly transient hot spots and highlight the importance of understanding hot-spot turnover and how it influences haplotype diversity.

  13. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesoeren, A.

    1986-12-01

    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  14. SPOTting model parameters using a ready-made Python package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houska, Tobias; Kraft, Philipp; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The selection and parameterization of reliable process descriptions in ecological modelling is driven by several uncertainties. The procedure is highly dependent on various criteria, like the used algorithm, the likelihood function selected and the definition of the prior parameter distributions. A wide variety of tools have been developed in the past decades to optimize parameters. Some of the tools are closed source. Due to this, the choice for a specific parameter estimation method is sometimes more dependent on its availability than the performance. A toolbox with a large set of methods can support users in deciding about the most suitable method. Further, it enables to test and compare different methods. We developed the SPOT (Statistical Parameter Optimization Tool), an open source python package containing a comprehensive set of modules, to analyze and optimize parameters of (environmental) models. SPOT comes along with a selected set of algorithms for parameter optimization and uncertainty analyses (Monte Carlo, MC; Latin Hypercube Sampling, LHS; Maximum Likelihood, MLE; Markov Chain Monte Carlo, MCMC; Scuffled Complex Evolution, SCE-UA; Differential Evolution Markov Chain, DE-MCZ), together with several likelihood functions (Bias, (log-) Nash-Sutcliff model efficiency, Correlation Coefficient, Coefficient of Determination, Covariance, (Decomposed-, Relative-, Root-) Mean Squared Error, Mean Absolute Error, Agreement Index) and prior distributions (Binomial, Chi-Square, Dirichlet, Exponential, Laplace, (log-, multivariate-) Normal, Pareto, Poisson, Cauchy, Uniform, Weibull) to sample from. The model-independent structure makes it suitable to analyze a wide range of applications. We apply all algorithms of the SPOT package in three different case studies. Firstly, we investigate the response of the Rosenbrock function, where the MLE algorithm shows its strengths. Secondly, we study the Griewank function, which has a challenging response surface for

  15. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  16. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešnjak, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones

  17. Spot table - RPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...d_spot.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpd/LATEST/rpd_spot.zip F... cDNA. (multiple entries) About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Spot table - RPD | LSDB Archive ...

  18. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  19. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  20. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  1. Sowing rates for reforestation by the seed-spotting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert; Harry A. Fowells

    1964-01-01

    Presents guides to determine the number of seeds to sow per spot and the number of spots required per acre to obtain acceptable stocking. Based on theoretical probabilities, these guides were found to be reasonably close to actual field results When the probability-of-success was at least 55 percent. To compensate for lower actual stocking, increase the number of spots...

  2. Forward and Spot Prices in Multi-Settlement Wholesale Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Jeremy

    In organized wholesale electricity markets, power is sold competitively in a multi-unit multi-settlement single-price auction comprised of a forward and a spot market. This dissertation attempts to understand the structure of the forward premium in these markets, and to identify the factors that may lead forward and spot prices to converge or diverge. These markets are unique in that the forward demand is price-sensitive, while spot residual demand is perfectly inelastic and must be met in full, a crucial design feature the literature often glosses over. An important contribution of this dissertation is the explicit modeling of each market separately in order to understand how generation and load choose to act in each one, and the consequences of these actions on equilibrium prices and quantities given that firms maximize joint profits over both markets. In the first essay, I construct a two-settlement model of electricity prices in which firms that own asymmetric capacity-constrained units facing convex costs compete to meet demand from consumers, first in quantities, then in prices. I show that the forward premium depends on the costliness of spot production relative to firms' ability to exercise market power by setting quantities in the forward market. In the second essay, I test the model from the first essay with unit-level capacity and marginal cost data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). I show that the model closely replicates observed price formation in the CAISO. In the third essay, I estimate a time series model of the CAISO forward premium in order to measure the impact that virtual bidding has had on forward and spot price convergence in California between April 2009 and March 2014. I find virtual bidding to have caused forward and spot prices to diverge due to the large number of market participants looking to hedge against - or speculate on - the occurrence of infrequent but large spot price spikes by placing virtual demand bids.

  3. Influence of spatial and temporal spot distribution on the ocular surface quality and maximum ablation depth after photoablation with a 1050 Hz excimer laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Schelling, Urs; Wuellner, Christian; Donitzky, Christof

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of temporal and spatial distributions of laser spots (scan sequences) on the corneal surface quality after ablation and the maximum ablation of a given refractive correction after photoablation with a high-repetition-rate scanning-spot laser. IROC AG, Zurich, Switzerland, and WaveLight AG, Erlangen, Germany. Bovine corneas and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated using a 1050 Hz excimer laser prototype for corneal laser surgery. Four temporal and spatial spot distributions (scan sequences) with different temporal overlapping factors were created for 3 myopic, 3 hyperopic, and 3 phototherapeutic keratectomy ablation profiles. Surface quality and maximum ablation depth were measured using a surface profiling system. The surface quality factor increased (rough surfaces) as the amount of temporal overlapping in the scan sequence and the amount of correction increased. The rise in surface quality factor was less for bovine corneas than for PMMA. The scan sequence might cause systematic substructures at the surface of the ablated material depending on the overlapping factor. The maximum ablation varied within the scan sequence. The temporal and spatial distribution of the laser spots (scan sequence) during a corneal laser procedure affected the surface quality and maximum ablation depth of the ablation profile. Corneal laser surgery could theoretically benefit from smaller spot sizes and higher repetition rates. The temporal and spatial spot distributions are relevant to achieving these aims.

  4. Technical Stability and Biological Variability in MicroRNAs from Dried Blood Spots: A Lung Cancer Therapy-Monitoring Showcase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Mustafa; Laufer, Thomas; Backes, Christina; Schrörs, Hannah; Fehlmann, Tobias; Ludwig, Nicole; Kohlhaas, Jochen; Meese, Eckart; Wehler, Thomas; Bals, Robert; Keller, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Different work flows have been proposed to use miRNAs as blood-borne biomarkers. In particular, the method used for collecting blood from patients can considerably influence the diagnostic results. We explored whether dried blood spots (DBSs) facilitate stable miRNA measurements and compared its technical stability with biological variability. First, we tested the stability of DBS samples by generating from 1 person 18 whole-genome-wide miRNA profiles of DBS samples that were exposed to different temperature and humidity conditions. Second, we investigated technical reproducibility by performing 7 replicates of DBS again from 1 person. Third, we investigated DBS samples from 53 patients with lung cancer undergoing different therapies. Across these 3 stages, 108 genome-wide miRNA profiles from DBS were generated and evaluated biostatistically. In the stability analysis, we observed that temperature and humidity had an overall limited influence on the miRNomes (average correlation between the different conditions of 0.993). Usage of a silica gel slightly diminished DBS' technical reproducibility. The 7 technical replicates had an average correlation of 0.996. The correlation with whole-blood PAXGene miRNomes of the same individual was remarkable (correlation of 0.88). Finally, evaluation of the samples from the 53 patients with lung cancer exposed to different therapies showed that the biological variations exceeded the technical variability significantly ( P work flow for profiling of whole miRNomes on the basis of samples collected from DBS. Biological variations exceeded technical variations significantly. DBS-based miRNA profiles will potentially further the translational character of miRNA biomarker studies. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  5. Kinome profiling of Arabidopsis using arrays of kinase consensus substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieterse Corné MJ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinome profiling aims at the parallel analysis of kinase activities in a cell. Novel developed arrays containing consensus substrates for kinases are used to assess those kinase activities. The arrays described in this paper were already used to determine kinase activities in mammalian systems, but since substrates from many organisms are present we decided to test these arrays for the determination of kinase activities in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Kinome profiling using Arabidopsis cell extracts resulted in the labelling of many consensus peptides by kinases from the plant, indicating the usefulness of this kinome profiling tool for plants. Method development showed that fresh and frozen plant material could be used to make cell lysates containing active kinases. Dilution of the plant extract increased the signal to noise ratio and non-radioactive ATP enhances full development of spot intensities. Upon infection of Arabidopsis with an avirulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, we could detect differential kinase activities by measuring phosphorylation of consensus peptides. Conclusion We show that kinome profiling on arrays with consensus substrates can be used to monitor kinase activities in plants. In a case study we show that upon infection with avirulent P. syringae differential kinase activities can be found. The PepChip can for example be used to purify (unknown kinases that play a role in P. syringae infection. This paper shows that kinome profiling using arrays of consensus peptides is a valuable new tool to study signal-transduction in plants. It complements the available methods for genomics and proteomics research.

  6. Evaluation of Sex-Specific Gene Expression in Archived Dried Blood Spots (DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jewell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Screening newborns for treatable serious conditions is mandated in all US states and many other countries. After screening, Guthrie cards with residual blood (whole spots or portions of spots are typically stored at ambient temperature in many facilities. The potential of archived dried blood spots (DBS for at-birth molecular studies in epidemiological and clinical research is substantial. However, it is also challenging as analytes from DBS may be degraded due to preparation and storage conditions. We previously reported an improved assay for obtaining global RNA gene expression from blood spots. Here, we evaluated sex-specific gene expression and its preservation in DBS using oligonucleotide microarray technology. We found X inactivation-specific transcript (XIST, lysine-specific demethylase 5D (KDM5D (also known as selected cDNA on Y, homolog of mouse (SMCY, uncharacterized LOC729444 (LOC729444, and testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 21 (TTTY21 to be differentially-expressed by sex of the newborn. Our finding that trait-specific RNA gene expression is preserved in unfrozen DBS, demonstrates the technical feasibility of performing molecular genetic profiling using such samples. With millions of DBS potentially available for research, we see new opportunities in using newborn molecular gene expression to better understand molecular pathogenesis of perinatal diseases.

  7. Four spot laser anemometer and optical access techniques for turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1987-01-01

    A time-of-flight anemometer (TOFA) system utilizing a spatial lead-lag filter for bipolar pulse generation has been constructed and tested. This system, called a four-spot laser anemometer, was specifically designed for use in high-speed, turbulent flows in the presence of walls or surfaces. The TOFA system uses elliptical spots to increase the flow acceptance angle to be comparable with that of a fringe-type anemometer. The tightly focused spots used in the four spot yield excellent flare light rejection capabilities. Good results have been obtained to 75 microns normal to a surface, with an f/2.5 collection lens. This system is being evaluated for use in a warm turbine facility. Results from both a particle-lag velocity experiment and boundary layer profiles will be discussed. In addition, an analysis of the use of curved windows in a turbine casing will be presented. Curved windows, matching the inner radius of the turbine casing, preserve the flow conditions, but introduce astigmatic aberrations. A correction optic was designed that virtually eliminates these astigmatic aberrations throughout the intrablade survey region for normal incidence.

  8. [Complications and cause of death in mexican children with rocky mountain spotted fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Miguel Ángel; Rascón-Alcantar, Adela

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a life threatening disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsia, characterized by multisystem involvement. We studied 19 dead children with Rocky Mountain spotted fever. All children who were suspected of having rickettsial infections were defined as having Rocky Mountain spotted fever by serology test and clinical features. Through the analysis of each case, we identified the clinical profile and complications associated to the death of a patient. In nine (69.2%) of 13 cases that died in the first three days of admission, the associated condition was septic shock. Others complications included respiratory distress causes by non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, renal impairment, and multiple organ damage. The main cause of death in this study was septic shock. The fatality rate from Rocky Mountain spotted fever can be related to the severity of the infection, delay in diagnosis, and delay in initiation of antibiotic therapy. Pulmonary edema and cerebral edema can be usually precipitated by administration of excess intravenous fluids.

  9. Four spot laser anemometer and optical access techniques for turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    A time-of-flight anemometer (TOFA) system, utilizing a spatial lead-lag filter for bipolar pulse generation was constructed and tested. This system, called a Four Spot Laser Anemometer, was specifically designed for use in high speed, turbulent flows in the presence of walls or surfaces. The TOFA system uses elliptical spots to increase the flow acceptance angle to be comparable with that of a fringe type anemometer. The tightly focused spots used in the Four Spot yield excellent flare light rejection capabilities. Good results were obtained to 75 microns normal to a surface, with a f/2.5 collecting lens. This system is being evaluated for use in a warm turbine facility. Results from both a particle lag velocity experiment and boundary layer profiles will be discussed. In addition, an analysis of the use of curved windows in a turbine casing will be presented. Curved windows, matching the inner radius of the turbine casing, preserve the flow conditions, but introduce astigmatic aberrations. A correction optic was designed that virtually eliminates these astigmatic aberrations throughout the intrablade survey region for normal incidence.

  10. Four spot laser anemometer and optical access techniques for turbine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernet, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    A time-of-flight anemometer (TOFA) system, utilizing a spatial lead-lag filter for bipolar pulse generation was constructed and tested. This system, called a Four Spot Laser Anemometer, was specifically designed for use in high speed, turbulent flows in the presence of walls or surfaces. The TOFA system uses elliptical spots to increase the flow acceptance angle to be comparable with that of a fringe type anemometer. The tightly focused spots used in the Four Spot yield excellent flare light rejection capabilities. Good results were obtained to 75 microns normal to a surface, with a f/2.5 collecting lens. This system is being evaluated for use in a warm turbine facility. Results from both a particle lag velocity experiment and boundary layer profiles will be discussed. In addition, an analysis of the use of curved windows in a turbine casing will be presented. Curved windows, matching the inner radius of the turbine casing, preserve the flow conditions, but introduce astigmatic aberrations. A correction optic was designed that virtually eliminates these astigmatic aberrations throughout the intrablade survey region for normal incidence

  11. [A fatal case series of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Sonora, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-De la Mora, Jesús; Licona-Enríquez, Jesús David; Leyva-Gastélum, Marcia; Delgado-De la Mora, David; Rascón-Alcantar, Adela; Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo

    2018-03-15

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a highly lethal infectious disease, particularly if specific treatment with doxycycline is given belatedly. To describe the clinical profile of fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases in hospitalized patients in the state of Sonora, México. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a series of 47 deaths caused by Rickettsia rickettsii from 2013 to 2016. The diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was confirmed in a single blood sample by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or by a four-fold increase in immunoglobulin G measured in paired samples analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared stratifying subjects into two groups: pediatric and adult. There were no differences in clinical characteristics between groups; petechial rash was the most frequent sign (96%), followed by headache (70%) and myalgia (67%). Although that doxycycline was administered before the fifth day from the onset of symptoms, death occurred in 55% of patients. In clinical laboratory, thrombocytopenia, and biomarkers of liver acute failure and acute kidney failure were the most frequent. Rocky Mountain spotted fever remains as one of the most lethal infectious diseases, which may be related not only to the lack of diagnostic suspicion and delayed administration of doxycycline, but to genotypic characteristics of Rickettsia rickettsii that may play a role in the variability of the fatality rate that has been reported in other geographical regions where the disease is endemic.

  12. DBAC: A simple prediction method for protein binding hot spots based on burial levels and deeply buried atomic contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A protein binding hot spot is a cluster of residues in the interface that are energetically important for the binding of the protein with its interaction partner. Identifying protein binding hot spots can give useful information to protein engineering and drug design, and can also deepen our understanding of protein-protein interaction. These residues are usually buried inside the interface with very low solvent accessible surface area (SASA). Thus SASA is widely used as an outstanding feature in hot spot prediction by many computational methods. However, SASA is not capable of distinguishing slightly buried residues, of which most are non hot spots, and deeply buried ones that are usually inside a hot spot. Results We propose a new descriptor called “burial level” for characterizing residues, atoms and atomic contacts. Specifically, burial level captures the depth the residues are buried. We identify different kinds of deeply buried atomic contacts (DBAC) at different burial levels that are directly broken in alanine substitution. We use their numbers as input for SVM to classify between hot spot or non hot spot residues. We achieve F measure of 0.6237 under the leave-one-out cross-validation on a data set containing 258 mutations. This performance is better than other computational methods. Conclusions Our results show that hot spot residues tend to be deeply buried in the interface, not just having a low SASA value. This indicates that a high burial level is not only a necessary but also a more sufficient condition than a low SASA for a residue to be a hot spot residue. We find that those deeply buried atoms become increasingly more important when their burial levels rise up. This work also confirms the contribution of deeply buried interfacial atomic contacts to the energy of protein binding hot spot. PMID:21689480

  13. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  14. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  15. Spot på interaktive teknologier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Spot på interaktive teknologier Af Anthony Lewis Brooks, PhD Associate Professor, Aalborg University & Director SensoramaLab Den verdensomspændende paraplyorganisation for it-foreninger IFIP har netop afholdt sin årlige ”International Conference on Entertainment Computing”. Se her, hvad tre af top...... fra hele verden for at sætte fokus på, hvordan de nyeste teknologier inden for digital underholdning, kan bruges i forskellige sammenhænge. Bag begivenheden står IFIP, som DANSK IT er repræsenteret i. I år var der blandt andet spot på wearables og andre interaktive teknologier. Leila Alem fra den...

  16. spots de campaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Juárez Gámiz

    2007-01-01

    publicidad política en televisión. Ilustrado por los spots televisivos, el debate se ha centrado en el alto costo que representa para los contribuyentes, a través de los partidos políticos, la producción y transmisión de estos mensajes. El presente trabajo consiste en un análisis de contenido de una muestra de spots transmitidos por las tres principales fuerzas electorales en México durante la campaña presidencial de 2006. El objetivo es identificar, de manera sistemática, características particulares en el formato y contenido de estos mensajes a la luz de su función persuasiva e informativa.

  17. Mutagenicity studies with the mouse spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocke, E.; Wild, D.; Eckhardt, K.; King, M.T.

    1983-04-01

    The mammalian spot test, which detects somatic gene mutations in mouse embryos, was investigated with selected chemicals to (a) further validate this test system ethylnitrosourea, ethyl methanesulfonate, 2-acetylaminofluorene and colchicine (ENU, EMS, 2AAF), and (b) evaluate the mutagenic potential, in a whole-mammal system, of environmental compounds that had been previously recognized as mutagens in other mammalian or submammalian test systems (1,2-dichloroethane, hydroquinone, nitrofurantoin, o-phenylenediamine, fried sausage extract). Of these substances, ENU, EMS and 2AAF were significantly mutagenic, 1,2-dichloroethane was probably weakly mutagenic. The ENU data were used to estimate the number of pigment precursor cells present at the time of treatment (day 9.25). We also describe in this report the use of a fluorescence microscope for classification of hairs from spots on the coat of C57BL/6JHan X T hybrids.

  18. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  19. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Edwin J; Olson, Gary S; Weiner, Scott J; Paddock, Christopher D

    2003-04-14

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is still the most lethal tick-vectored illness in the United States. We examine the dilemmas facing the clinician who is evaluating the patient with possible Rocky Mountain spotted fever, with particular attention to the following 8 pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment: (1) waiting for a petechial rash to develop before diagnosis; (2) misdiagnosing as gastroenteritis; (3) discounting a diagnosis when there is no history of a tick bite; (4) using an inappropriate geographic exclusion; (5) using an inappropriate seasonal exclusion; (6) failing to treat on clinical suspicion; (7) failing to elicit an appropriate history; and (8) failing to treat with doxycycline. Early diagnosis and proper treatment save lives.

  20. Parametric Simulations of the Great Dark Spots of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaolong; Le Beau, R.

    2006-09-01

    Observations by Voyager II and the Hubble Space Telescope of the Great Dark Spots (GDS) of Neptune suggest that large vortices with lifespans of years are not uncommon occurrences in the atmosphere of Neptune. The variability of these features over time, in particular the complex motions of GDS-89, make them challenging candidates to simulate in atmospheric models. Previously, using the Explicit Planetary Isentropic-Coordinate (EPIC) General Circulation Model, LeBeau and Dowling (1998) simulated the GDS-like vortex features. Qualitatively, the drift, oscillation, and tail-like features of GDS-89 were recreated, although precise numerical matches were only achieved for the meridional drift rate. In 2001, Stratman et al. applied EPIC to simulate the formation of bright companion clouds to the Great Dark Spots. In 2006, Dowling et al. presented a new version of EPIC, which includes hybrid vertical coordinate, cloud physics, advanced chemistry, and new turbulence models. With the new version of EPIC, more observation results, and more powerful computers, it is the time to revisit CFD simulations of the Neptune's atmosphere and do more detailed work on GDS-like vortices. In this presentation, we apply the new version of EPIC to simulate GDS-89. We test the influences of different parameters in the EPIC model: potential vorticity gradient, wind profile, initial latitude, vortex shape, and vertical structure. The observed motions, especially the latitudinal drift and oscillations in orientation angle and aspect ratio, are used as diagnostics of these unobserved atmospheric conditions. Increased computing power allows for more refined and longer simulations and greater coverage of the parameter space than previous efforts. Improved quantitative results have been achieved, including voritices with near eight-day oscillations and comparable variations in shape to GDS-89. This research has been supported by Kentucky NASA EPSCoR.

  1. Spot på fysisk aktivitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Børge; Bertelsen, Katrine; Sørensen, Karsten

    Bogen henvender sig primært til det pædagogiske personale i skolen, som ønsker inspiration og viden til, hvordan man aktivt kan inddrage eleverne i en bevægelsesorden, som lægger op til, at eleverne lærer at forholde sig til deres forskellige bevægelsesareaner der fylder deres hverdag. "PlaySpot...

  2. Forecasting European thermal coal spot prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Krzemień

    2015-01-01

    Finally, in order to analyse the time series model performance a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN was used and its performance compared against the whole AR(2 process. Empirical results obtained confirmed that there is no statistically significant difference between both methods. The GRNN analysis also allowed pointing out the main drivers that move the European Thermal Coal Spot prices: crude oil, USD/CNY change and supply side drivers.

  3. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail: taj355@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  4. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  5. Ambitious Survey Spots Stellar Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    -dimensional geometry of the Magellanic system. Chris Evans from the VMC team adds: "The VISTA images will allow us to extend our studies beyond the inner regions of the Tarantula into the multitude of smaller stellar nurseries nearby, which also harbour a rich population of young and massive stars. Armed with the new, exquisite infrared images, we will be able to probe the cocoons in which massive stars are still forming today, while also looking at their interaction with older stars in the wider region." The wide-field image shows a host of different objects. The bright area above the centre is the Tarantula Nebula itself, with the RMC 136 cluster of massive stars in its core. To the left is the NGC 2100 star cluster. To the right is the tiny remnant of the supernova SN1987A (eso1032). Below the centre are a series of star-forming regions including NGC 2080 - nicknamed the "Ghost Head Nebula" - and the NGC 2083 star cluster. The VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey is one of six huge near-infrared surveys of the southern sky that will take up most of the first five years of operations of VISTA. Notes [1] VISTA ― the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy ― is the newest telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile. VISTA is a survey telescope working at near-infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest survey telescope. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. The telescope is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 m across. In photographic terms it can be thought of as a 67-megapixel digital camera with a 13 000 mm f/3.25 mirror lens. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries

  6. Log-based identification of sweet spots for effective fracs in shale reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashmy, K.; Barnett, C.; Jonkers, J. [Weatherford (United States); Abueita, S. [Anadarko Petroleum (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Shale reservoir exploitation requires horizontal hydro-fracturing, often in a multi-stage configuration. Fracture stages are usually evenly spaced along the horizontal well, regardless of reservoir characteristics, even though wireline logs or logging-while-drilling (LWD) methods could be used to determine sweet spots for more cost-effective fracturing locations. This paper aims to show how failure to take into consideration a reservoir's geological properties can lead to less effective exploitation, and then goes on to describe logging techniques, LWD and wireline logs combined, and their usefulness in effectively placing fracturing stages on a reservoir's sweet spots. By studying logs from different LWD and wireline log techniques, such as gamma ray, resistivity, X-ray fluorescence or shockwave sonic measurements for different existing wells, the study shows how sweet spots, where kerogen concentration is higher, with higher porosity, can be determined. These logging techniques, requiring low investments, offer a variety of methods for identifying sweet spots in shale reservoirs, and fracturing only these spots will avoid unnecessary expenditure on frac stages in zones with poor reservoir characteristics.

  7. Population variability of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A concentrations in spot urine samples versus 24- or 48-h collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista L Yorita; Lorber, Matthew; Koch, Holger M; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Morgan, Marsha K

    2012-11-01

    Human exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) can be assessed through urinary biomonitoring, but methods to infer daily intakes assume that spot sample concentrations are comparable to daily average concentrations. We evaluate this assumption using human biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States (US). The German data comprised three regional studies with spot samples and one with full-day samples analyzed for phthalate metabolites. The US data included: a study on DEHP metabolites and BPA involving eight persons supplying all urine voids (from which 24-h samples were constructed) for seven consecutive days; NHANES spot sample data on DEHP metabolites and BPA; and a regional study of children with 48-h samples analyzed for BPA. In the German data, measures of central tendency differed, but spot and 24-h samples showed generally comparable variance including 95th percentiles and maxima equidistant from central tendency measures. In contrast, the US adult data from the eight-person study showed similar central tendencies for phthalate metabolites and BPA, but generally greater variability for the spot samples, including higher 95th percentiles and maxima. When comparing children's BPA concentrations in NHANES spot and 48-h samples, distributions showed similar central tendency and variability. Overall, spot urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites and BPA have variability roughly comparable with corresponding 24-h average concentrations obtained from a comparable population, suggesting that spot samples can be used to characterize population distributions of intakes. However, the analysis also suggests that caution should be exercised when interpreting the high end of spot sample data sets.

  8. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William L.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  9. Elastodynamic spot testing - assessing serviceability of aging elastomer parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracie, B.; Metcalfe, R.; Wensel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The properties of all polymers change with time as a function of their environment. Traditional practice has been to replace these parts according to generic time limits based on estimates of worst case material properties and conditions. This is overly-conservative in many cases, and creates unnecessary maintenance work and costs for replacement and disposal. Much of this could be avoided if the serviceability of elastomeric parts such as seals, diaphragms, gaskets, cable insulation and hoses could be reassessed on a routine basis. Elastodynamic spot testing offers a way to do this. Parts can be sampled while in service or storage to compare their as-new and used (or aged) elastodynamic properties. This data can usually be correlated with the results of functional tests to prove that material properties have not degraded to the point where the part could fail. This spot testing is similar to a micro-hardness test, but includes stress-relaxation and subsequent recovery. It provides a nondestructive means to assess the effective age of the material at a point, or several points, on a part. Sampling of hardness alone is rarely sufficient to know whether a part is still functional because this overlooks the material's viscoelastic and strength properties. An elastodynamic spot tester has been used to test different sizes, shapes and hardnesses of elastomeric parts at different levels of strain, i.e., indentation depths. An initial test program has given informative relaxation and recovery data, showing repeatability and comparing well with finite element analysis of the indentation process. Tests of aged 0-rings and diaphragms have revealed different elastodynamic properties, depending on the elastomer compound and aging conditions. (author)

  10. Trace-fossil assemblages with a new ichnogenus in "spotted"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimo, Vladimír; Tomašových, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Highly-bioturbated "spotted" limestones and marls (Fleckenmergel-Fleckenkalk facies) of the Early Jurassic, which were deposited in broad and recurrent deep-shelf habitats of the Northern Tethys, are characterized by rare benthic carbonate-producing macroinvertebrates. To address this paradox, we analyse trace-fossil assemblages in a ~85 m-thick succession of Pliensbachian spotted deposits (Zliechov Basin, Western Carpathians). They are dominated by infaunal and semi-infaunal deposit-feeders, with 9 ichnogenera and pyritized tubes of the semi-infaunal foraminifer Bathysiphon, being dominated by Chondrites, Lamellaeichnus (new ichnogenus), and Teichichnus. Lamellaeichnus, represented by a horizontal basal cylindrical burrow and an upper row of stacked convex-up gutters, was produced by a mobile deposit-feeder inhabiting shallow tiers because it is crossed by most other trace fossils. We show that the spotty appearance of the deposits is generated by a mixture of (1) dark, organic-rich shallow- and deep-tier traces (TOC = 0.16-0.36), and (2) light grey, organic-poor mottled or structurless sediment (TOC = 0.09-0.22). The higher TOC in shallow-tier burrows of Lamellaeichnus demonstrates that uppermost sediment layers were affected by poor redox cycling. Such conditions imply a limited mixed-layer depth and inefficient nutrient recycling conditioned by hypoxic bottom-waters, allowed by poor circulation and high sedimentation rates in depocenters of the Zliechov Basin. Hypoxic conditions are further supported by (1) dominance of trace-fossils produced by infaunal deposit feeders, (2) high abundance of hypoxiatolerant agglutinated foraminifer Bathysiphon, and (3) high abundance of Chondrites with ~0.5 mm-sized branches. Oxygen-deficient bottom-conditions can thus simultaneously explain the rarity of benthic carbonate-producing macroinvertebrates and high standing abundance of tolerant soft-shell and agglutinated organisms in spotted deposits.

  11. Karolinske psychodynamic profile (KAPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Birgit Bork; Søgaard, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil......psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil...

  12. Bilateral Macular Roth Spots as a Manifestation of Subacute Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglowska, Karolina; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Kiszka, Agnieszka; Koss, Michael J; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Rejdak, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of impaired vision in the right eye (OD). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (LogMAR) was 1.1 for the right eye and 0.0 for the left eye (OS). Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhages resembling Roth spots in both macular regions. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed intraretinal pseudocysts and hyperreflective deposits in the areas corresponding to the Roth spots. Conducted blood tests revealed elevated D-dimer concentration, increased total number of neutrophils, high C-reactive protein concentration, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Procalcitonin concentration, platelet count, and body temperature were within normal ranges. A blood culture was ordered and yielded Streptococcus mitis and intravenous antibiotics were started immediately. The patient started complaining of chest and left calf pain. The systemic examination revealed infective endocarditis accompanied by bicuspid aortic valve and paravalvular abscess formation. The patient underwent cardiac surgery with mechanical aortic valve implantation. After recovery, the patient's visual acuities improved fully. Control ophthalmic examination, including SD-OCT, showed no abnormalities.

  13. A rough multi-factor model of electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new continuous-time mathematical model of electricity spot prices which accounts for the most important stylized facts of these time series: seasonality, spikes, stochastic volatility, and mean reversion. Empirical studies have found a possible fifth stylized fact, roughness, and our approach explicitly incorporates this into the model of the prices. Our setup generalizes the popular Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based multi-factor framework of and allows us to perform statistical tests to distinguish between an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based model and a rough model. Further, through the multi-factor approach we account for seasonality and spikes before estimating – and making inference on – the degree of roughness. This is novel in the literature and we present simulation evidence showing that these precautions are crucial for accurate estimation. Lastly, we estimate our model on recent data from six European energy exchanges and find statistical evidence of roughness in five out of six markets. As an application of our model, we show how, in these five markets, a rough component improves short term forecasting of the prices. - Highlights: • Statistical modeling of electricity spot prices • Multi-factor decomposition • Roughness • Electricity price forecasting

  14. Bilateral Macular Roth Spots as a Manifestation of Subacute Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Ceglowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of impaired vision in the right eye (OD. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA (LogMAR was 1.1 for the right eye and 0.0 for the left eye (OS. Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhages resembling Roth spots in both macular regions. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT showed intraretinal pseudocysts and hyperreflective deposits in the areas corresponding to the Roth spots. Conducted blood tests revealed elevated D-dimer concentration, increased total number of neutrophils, high C-reactive protein concentration, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Procalcitonin concentration, platelet count, and body temperature were within normal ranges. A blood culture was ordered and yielded Streptococcus mitis and intravenous antibiotics were started immediately. The patient started complaining of chest and left calf pain. The systemic examination revealed infective endocarditis accompanied by bicuspid aortic valve and paravalvular abscess formation. The patient underwent cardiac surgery with mechanical aortic valve implantation. After recovery, the patient’s visual acuities improved fully. Control ophthalmic examination, including SD-OCT, showed no abnormalities.

  15. New 40Ar/39Ar age progression for the Louisville hot spot trail and implications for inter-hot spot motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Gowen, Molly D.; Colwell, Lauren E.; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Lonsdale, Peter F.; Mahoney, John J.; Duncan, Robert A.

    2011-12-01

    In this study we present 42 new 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating age determinations that contribute to an updated age progression for the Louisville seamount trail. Louisville is the South Pacific counterpart to the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount trail, both trails representing intraplate volcanism over the same time interval (˜80 Ma to present) and being examples of primary hot spot lineaments. Our data provide evidence for an age-progressive trend from 71 to 21 Ma. Assuming fixed hot spots, this makes possible a direct comparison to the Hawaiian-Emperor age progression and the most recent absolute plate motion (APM) model (WK08G) of Wessel and Kroenke (2008). We observe that for the Louisville seamount trail the measured ages are systematically older relative to both the WK08G model predictions and Hawaiian seamount ages, with offsets ranging up to 6 Myr. Taking into account the uncertainty about the duration of eruption and magmatic succession at individual Louisville volcanoes, these age offsets should be considered minimum estimates, as our sampling probably tended to recover the youngest lava flows. These large deviations point to either a contribution of inter-hot spot motion between the Louisville and Hawaiian hot spots or to a more easterly location of the Louisville hot spot than the one inferred in the WK08G model. Both scenarios are investigated in this paper, whereby the more eastern hot spot location (52.0°S, 134.5°W versus 52.4°S, 137.2°W) reduces the average age offset, but still results in a relatively large maximum offset of 3.7 Myr. When comparing the new ages to the APM models (S04P, S04G) by Steinberger et al. (2004) that attempt to compensate for the motion of hot spots in the Pacific (Hawaii) or globally (Hawaii, Louisville, Reunion and Walvis), the measured and predicted ages are more in agreement, showing only a maximum offset of 2.3 Myr with respect to the S04G model. At face value these more advanced APM models, which consider both plate and

  16. Probabilistic modelling of the high-pressure arc cathode spot displacement dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulombe, Sylvain

    2003-01-01

    A probabilistic modelling approach for the study of the cathode spot displacement dynamic in high-pressure arc systems is developed in an attempt to interpret the observed voltage fluctuations. The general framework of the model allows to define simple, probabilistic displacement rules, the so-called cathode spot dynamic rules, for various possible surface states (un-arced metal, arced, contaminated) and to study the resulting dynamic of the cathode spot displacements over one or several arc passages. The displacements of the type-A cathode spot (macro-spot) in a magnetically rotating arc using concentric electrodes made up of either clean or contaminated metal surfaces is considered. Experimental observations for this system revealed a 1/f -tilde1 signature in the frequency power spectrum (FPS) of the arc voltage for anchoring arc conditions on the cathode (e.g. clean metal surface), while it shows a 'white noise' signature for conditions favouring a smooth movement (e.g. oxide-contaminated cathode surface). Through an appropriate choice of the local probabilistic displacement rules, the model is able to correctly represent the dynamic behaviours of the type-A cathode spot, including the FPS for the arc elongation (i.e. voltage) and the arc erosion trace formation. The model illustrates that the cathode spot displacements between re-strikes can be seen as a diffusion process with a diffusion constant which depends on the surface structure. A physical interpretation for the jumping probability associated with the re-strike event is given in terms of the electron emission processes across dielectric contaminants present on the cathode surface

  17. Stability of benzodiazepines and cocaine in blood spots stored on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfazil, Abdulkareem A; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that drug concentrations in blood can change during storage, especially at room temperature, but even labile drugs such as cocaine may be stable in dried blood spots (DBS). A new method has been developed for the analysis of hydrolytically labile drugs in blood spots on filter paper in order to assess their degradation during a storage period of one month. The drugs selected included flunitrazepam, temazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, diazepam, and cocaine. A Guthrie card 903 was spotted with 100 microL of blood containing the drugs at concentrations of 1000 ng/mL and left overnight to dry at room temperature. The filter paper was suspended in extraction buffer for 1 h with ultrasonication. Drugs were then extracted from the buffer by solid-phase extraction using Clean Screen((R)) columns and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation showed that all calibration curves were linear over the concentration range 5-200 ng/spot with correlation coefficients of 0.994-0.999. Interday and intraday precisions at three concentrations (10, 50, and 100 ng/spot) were 1.6-18.3% and 2.8-14.7%, respectively. Limits of detection were 0.29-0.74 ng/spot, and lower limits of quantitation were 0.99-2.46 ng/spot. Recoveries of all analytes were in the range 81-106%. DBS were stored in duplicate at room temperature, 4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C for up to one month. Degradation of the drugs in DBS at all storage conditions was less than for the corresponding liquid blood samples stored under similar conditions and more than 80% of each analyte could be recovered from the samples.

  18. Time Resolved X-Ray Spot Size Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Roger; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Weir, John

    2005-01-01

    A diagnostic was developed for the determination of temporal history of an X-ray spot. A pair of thin (0.5 mm) slits image the x-ray spot to a fast scintillator which is coupled to a fast detector, thus sampling a slice of the X-Ray spot. Two other scintillator/detectors are used to determine the position of the spot and total forward dose. The slit signal is normalized to the dose and the resulting signal is analyzed to get the spot size. The position information is used to compensate for small changes due to spot motion and misalignment. The time resolution of the diagnostic is about 1 ns and measures spots from 0.5 mm to over 3 mm. The theory and equations used to calculate spot size and position are presented, as well as data. The calculations assume a symmetric, Gaussian spot. The spot data is generated by the ETA II accelerator, a 2kA, 5.5 MeV, 60ns electron beam focused on a Tantalum target. The spot generated is typically about 1 mm FWHM. Comparisons are made to an X-ray pinhole camera which images th...

  19. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  20. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  1. A novel word spotting method based on recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinken, Volkmar; Fischer, Andreas; Manmatha, R; Bunke, Horst

    2012-02-01

    Keyword spotting refers to the process of retrieving all instances of a given keyword from a document. In the present paper, a novel keyword spotting method for handwritten documents is described. It is derived from a neural network-based system for unconstrained handwriting recognition. As such it performs template-free spotting, i.e., it is not necessary for a keyword to appear in the training set. The keyword spotting is done using a modification of the CTC Token Passing algorithm in conjunction with a recurrent neural network. We demonstrate that the proposed systems outperform not only a classical dynamic time warping-based approach but also a modern keyword spotting system, based on hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we analyze the performance of the underlying neural networks when using them in a recognition task followed by keyword spotting on the produced transcription. We point out the advantages of keyword spotting when compared to classic text line recognition.

  2. Crowdfunding and pluralization: comparison between the coverages of the participatory website Spot.Us and the american press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ruschel Träsel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows results of an analysis about Spot.Us, a news crowdfunding website, ran in the second half of 2010. It was a comparison between the proportions of different subjects appearing on Spot.Us and the same kind of data from of the traditional american press. There are quantitative differences between the subjects on Spot.Us' coverage and that of the american newspapers. Participatory webjournalism can be seen as a way pluralizing the journalistic coverage, as in the template proposed by Gans.

  3. A simple repeat polymorphism in the MITF-M promoter is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Baranowska Körberg

    Full Text Available The white spotting locus (S in dogs is colocalized with the MITF (microphtalmia-associated transcription factor gene. The phenotypic effects of the four S alleles range from solid colour (S to extreme white spotting (s(w. We have investigated four candidate mutations associated with the s(w allele, a SINE insertion, a SNP at a conserved site and a simple repeat polymorphism all associated with the MITF-M promoter as well as a 12 base pair deletion in exon 1B. The variants associated with white spotting at all four loci were also found among wolves and we conclude that none of these could be a sole causal mutation, at least not for extreme white spotting. We propose that the three canine white spotting alleles are not caused by three independent mutations but represent haplotype effects due to different combinations of causal polymorphisms. The simple repeat polymorphism showed extensive diversity both in dogs and wolves, and allele-sharing was common between wolves and white spotted dogs but was non-existent between solid and spotted dogs as well as between wolves and solid dogs. This finding was unexpected as Solid is assumed to be the wild-type allele. The data indicate that the simple repeat polymorphism has been a target for selection during dog domestication and breed formation. We also evaluated the significance of the three MITF-M associated polymorphisms with a Luciferase assay, and found conclusive evidence that the simple repeat polymorphism affects promoter activity. Three alleles associated with white spotting gave consistently lower promoter activity compared with the allele associated with solid colour. We propose that the simple repeat polymorphism affects cooperativity between transcription factors binding on either flanking sides of the repeat. Thus, both genetic and functional evidence show that the simple repeat polymorphism is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

  4. Periodontal and serum protein profiles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitor adalimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Ito, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamagata, Akira; Okada, Moe; Oofusa, Ken; Narita, Ichiei; Murasawa, Akira; Nakazono, Kiyoshi; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2014-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor has been shown to affect the periodontal condition of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of a fully humanized anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody, adalimumab (ADA), on the periodontal condition of patients with RA and to compare serum protein profiles before and after ADA therapy. The study participants consisted of 20 patients with RA treated with ADA. Clinical periodontal and rheumatologic parameters and serum cytokine levels were evaluated at baseline and 3 months later. Serum protein spot volume was examined with two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Proteins with significant difference in abundance before and after ADA therapy were found and identified using mass spectrometry and protein databases. The patients showed a significant decrease in gingival index (P = 0.002), bleeding on probing (P = 0.003), probing depth (P = 0.002), disease activity score including 28 joints using C-reactive protein (P protein spots obtained, nine spots were significantly decreased in abundance at reassessment, corresponding to complement factor H, phospholipase D, serum amyloid A, complement component 4, and α-1-acid glycoprotein (P periodontal condition of patients with RA, which might be related to differences in serum protein profiles before and after ADA therapy.

  5. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  6. A sensory bias has triggered the evolution of egg-spots in cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Egger

    Full Text Available Although, generally, the origin of sex-limited traits remains elusive, the sensory exploitation hypothesis provides an explanation for the evolution of male sexual signals. Anal fin egg-spots are such a male sexual signal and a key characteristic of the most species-rich group of cichlid fishes, the haplochromines. Males of about 1500 mouth-brooding species utilize these conspicuous egg-dummies during courtship--apparently to attract females and to maximize fertilization success. Here we test the hypothesis that the evolution of haplochromine egg-spots was triggered by a pre-existing bias for eggs or egg-like coloration. To this end, we performed mate-choice experiments in the basal haplochromine Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor, which manifests the plesiomorphic character-state of an egg-spot-less anal fin. Experiments using computer-animated photographs of males indeed revealed that females prefer images of males with virtual ('in-silico' egg-spots over images showing unaltered males. In addition, we tested for color preferences (outside a mating context in a phylogenetically representative set of East African cichlids. We uncovered a strong preference for yellow, orange or reddish spots in all haplochromines tested and, importantly, also in most other species representing more basal lines. This pre-existing female sensory bias points towards high-quality (carotenoids-enriched food suggesting that it is adaptive.

  7. SOAP. A tool for the fast computation of photometry and radial velocity induced by stellar spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisse, I.; Bonfils, X.; Santos, N. C.

    2012-09-01

    We define and put at the disposal of the community SOAP, Spot Oscillation And Planet, a software tool that simulates the effect of stellar spots and plages on radial velocimetry and photometry. This paper describes the tool release and provides instructions for its use. We present detailed tests with previous computations and real data to assess the code's performance and to validate its suitability. We characterize the variations of the radial velocity, line bisector, and photometric amplitude as a function of the main variables: projected stellar rotational velocity, filling factor of the spot, resolution of the spectrograph, linear limb-darkening coefficient, latitude of the spot, and inclination of the star. Finally, we model the spot distributions on the active stars HD 166435, TW Hya and HD 189733, which reproduce the observations. We show that the software is remarkably fast, allowing several evolutions in its capabilities that could be performed to study the next challenges in the exoplanetary field connected with the stellar variability. The tool is available at http://www.astro.up.pt/soap

  8. Probabilistic modelling of the high-pressure arc cathode spot displacement dynamic

    CERN Document Server

    Coulombe, S

    2003-01-01

    A probabilistic modelling approach for the study of the cathode spot displacement dynamic in high-pressure arc systems is developed in an attempt to interpret the observed voltage fluctuations. The general framework of the model allows to define simple, probabilistic displacement rules, the so-called cathode spot dynamic rules, for various possible surface states (un-arced metal, arced, contaminated) and to study the resulting dynamic of the cathode spot displacements over one or several arc passages. The displacements of the type-A cathode spot (macro-spot) in a magnetically rotating arc using concentric electrodes made up of either clean or contaminated metal surfaces is considered. Experimental observations for this system revealed a 1/f sup - sup t sup i sup l sup d sup e sup 1 signature in the frequency power spectrum (FPS) of the arc voltage for anchoring arc conditions on the cathode (e.g. clean metal surface), while it shows a 'white noise' signature for conditions favouring a smooth movement (e.g. ox...

  9. The Effect of Thermal Lamination Processes on Colorimetric Change in Spot Colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Galić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effect of laminating processes on spot colours is of great importance in the offset printing process, especially given the application versatility of spot colours. Laminating process, as a very common process and one of the first in a sequence of finishing processes in graphics production, can affect print’s visual impression to varying degrees. Spot colours, as mixtures of different ratios of inks, are subject to a change due to matt or gloss lamination process. The research examined the impact of thermal lamination processes on printed spot colours on different printing substrates. The degree of change on prints caused by laminating films in the thermal process was determined using spectrophotometric and densitometric methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the spot colour because of its specific characteristics. Research results are shown in charts and they are showing clearly the modality and the extent laminating processes effect the colorimetric difference in laminated and non-laminated prints. This scientific research provides objective conclusions that help in predicting the possible variations within the usage of laminating processes.

  10. California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) habitat use patterns in a burned landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyes, Stephanie; Roberts, Susan L.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecosystem process of mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, but there is limited scientific information addressing wildlife habitat use in burned landscapes. Recent studies have presented contradictory information regarding the effects of stand-replacing wildfires on Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis) and their habitat. While fire promotes heterogeneous forest landscapes shown to be favored by owls, high severity fire may create large canopy gaps that can fragment the closed-canopy habitat preferred by Spotted Owls. We used radio-telemetry to determine whether foraging California Spotted Owls (S. o. occidentalis) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA, showed selection for particular fire severity patch types within their home ranges. Our results suggested that Spotted Owls exhibited strong habitat selection within their home ranges for locations near the roost and edge habitats, and weak selection for lower fire severity patch types. Although owls selected high contrast edges with greater relative probabilities than low contrast edges, we did not detect a statistical difference between these probabilities. Protecting forests from stand-replacing fires via mechanical thinning or prescribed fire is a priority for management agencies, and our results suggest that fires of low to moderate severity can create habitat conditions within California Spotted Owls' home ranges that are favored for foraging.

  11. Matching between the light spots and lenslets of an artificial compound eye system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianzheng; Jian, Huijie; Zhu, Qitao; Ma, Mengchao; Wang, Keyi

    2017-10-01

    As the visual organ of many arthropods, the compound eye has attracted a lot of attention with the advantage of wide field-of-view, multi-channel imaging ability and high agility. Extended from this concept, a new kind of artificial compound eye device is developed. There are 141 lenslets which share one image sensor distributed evenly on a curved surface, thus it is difficult to distinguish the lenslets which the light spot belongs to during calibration and positioning process. Therefore, the matching algorithm is proposed based on the device structure and the principle of calibration and positioning. Region partition of lenslet array is performed at first. Each lenslet and its adjacent lenslets are defined as cluster eyes and constructed into an index table. In the calibration process, a polar coordinate system is established, and the matching can be accomplished by comparing the rotary table position in the polar coordinate system and the central light spot angle in the image. In the positioning process, the spot is paired to the correct region according to the spots distribution firstly, and the final results is determined by the dispersion of the distance from the target point to the incident ray in the region traversal matching. Finally, the experiment results show that the presented algorithms provide a feasible and efficient way to match the spot to the lenslet, and perfectly meet the needs in the practical application of the compound eye system.

  12. Volumetric Analysis of 3-D-Cultured Colonies in Wet Alginate Spots Using 384-Pillar Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Woo; Choi, Yea-Jun; Lee, Sang-Yun; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Doh, Il; Ryu, Gyu Ha; Choi, Soo-Mi

    2018-06-01

    The volumetric analysis of three-dimensional (3-D)-cultured colonies in alginate spots has been proposed to increase drug efficacy. In a previously developed pillar/well chip platform, colonies within spots are usually stained and dried for analysis of cell viability using two-dimensional (2-D) fluorescent images. Since the number of viable cells in colonies is directly related to colony volume, we proposed the 3-D analysis of colonies for high-accuracy cell viability calculation. The spots were immersed in buffer, and the 3-D volume of each colony was calculated from the 2-D stacking fluorescent images of the spot with different focal positions. In the experiments with human gastric carcinoma cells and anticancer drugs, we compared cell viability values calculated using the 2-D area and 3-D volume of colonies in the wet and dried alginate spots, respectively. The IC 50 value calculated using the 3-D volume of the colonies (9.5 μM) was less than that calculated in the 2-D area analysis (121.5 μM). We observed that the colony showed a more sensitive drug response regarding volume calculated from the 3-D image reconstructed using several confocal images than regarding colony area calculated in the 2-D analysis.

  13. Functional Roles of Acetylated Histone Marks at Mouse Meiotic Recombination Hot Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Fallahi, Mohammad; Ouizem, Souad; Liu, Qin; Li, Weimin; Costi, Roberta; Roush, William R.; Bois, Philippe R. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meiotic recombination initiates following the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the Spo11 endonuclease early in prophase I, at discrete regions in the genome coined “hot spots.” In mammals, meiotic DSB site selection is directed in part by sequence-specific binding of PRDM9, a polymorphic histone H3 (H3K4Me3) methyltransferase. However, other chromatin features needed for meiotic hot spot specification are largely unknown. Here we show that the recombinogenic cores of active hot spots in mice harbor several histone H3 and H4 acetylation and methylation marks that are typical of open, active chromatin. Further, deposition of these open chromatin-associated histone marks is dynamic and is manifest at spermatogonia and/or pre-leptotene-stage cells, which facilitates PRDM9 binding and access for Spo11 to direct the formation of DSBs, which are initiated at the leptotene stage. Importantly, manipulating histone acetylase and deacetylase activities established that histone acetylation marks are necessary for both hot spot activity and crossover resolution. We conclude that there are functional roles for histone acetylation marks at mammalian meiotic recombination hot spots. PMID:27821479

  14. Probing binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Amita; Nithin, Chandran; Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Mukherjee, Sunandan; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2016-01-29

    We use evolutionary conservation derived from structure alignment of polypeptide sequences along with structural and physicochemical attributes of protein-RNA interfaces to probe the binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites. We find that the degree of conservation varies across the RNA binding proteins; some evolve rapidly compared to others. Additionally, irrespective of the structural class of the complexes, residues at the RNA binding sites are evolutionary better conserved than those at the solvent exposed surfaces. For recognitions involving duplex RNA, residues interacting with the major groove are better conserved than those interacting with the minor groove. We identify multi-interface residues participating simultaneously in protein-protein and protein-RNA interfaces in complexes where more than one polypeptide is involved in RNA recognition, and show that they are better conserved compared to any other RNA binding residues. We find that the residues at water preservation site are better conserved than those at hydrated or at dehydrated sites. Finally, we develop a Random Forests model using structural and physicochemical attributes for predicting binding hot spots. The model accurately predicts 80% of the instances of experimental ΔΔG values in a particular class, and provides a stepping-stone towards the engineering of protein-RNA recognition sites with desired affinity. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Evaluation of SPOT imagery for the estimation of grassland biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusseux, P.; Hubert-Moy, L.; Corpetti, T.; Vertès, F.

    2015-06-01

    In many regions, a decrease in grasslands and change in their management, which are associated with agricultural intensification, have been observed in the last half-century. Such changes in agricultural practices have caused negative environmental effects that include water pollution, soil degradation and biodiversity loss. Moreover, climate-driven changes in grassland productivity could have serious consequences for the profitability of agriculture. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of remotely sensed data with high spatial resolution to estimate grassland biomass in agricultural areas. A vegetation index, namely the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and two biophysical variables, the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the fraction of Vegetation Cover (fCOVER) were computed using five SPOT images acquired during the growing season. In parallel, ground-based information on grassland growth was collected to calculate biomass values. The analysis of the relationship between the variables derived from the remotely sensed data and the biomass observed in the field shows that LAI outperforms NDVI and fCOVER to estimate biomass (R2 values of 0.68 against 0.30 and 0.50, respectively). The squared Pearson correlation coefficient between observed and estimated biomass using LAI derived from SPOT images reached 0.73. Biomass maps generated from remotely sensed data were then used to estimate grass reserves at the farm scale in the perspective of operational monitoring and forecasting.

  16. AY Ceti: A flaring, spotted star with a hot companion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.; Fekel, F.C. Jr.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    AY Ceti is a late-type single-line spectroscopic binary, a bright X-ray source (L/sub x/roughly-equal1.5 x 10 31 ergs s -1 ), and a spotted star, as evidenced by its prominent photometric wave. In this paper, we report on observations made with the IUE satellite and the VLA radio interferometer. The 1200--2000 A UV spectrum of AY Cet shows a hot stellar continuum and a very broad Lyα absorption line from a previously unobserved white dwarf secondary. The UV spectrum can be matched to the energy distribution of a (T/sub eff/ = 18,000 K, log g = 8) model atmosphere. Superposed on this hot continuum are high-excitation emission lines typical of chromospheres and transition regions of active late-type stars, e.g., the spotted RS CVn binaries. We conclude that the bright lines and soft X-ray emission of AY Cet arise from the cool primary star, rather than from mass transfer and accretion onto the secondary as has recently been proposed for the similar system 56 Peg. Two strong radio flares on AY Cet were observed. The second was rapidly variable and left-hand circularly polarized at levels up to π/sub c/ = 86 +- 5% at 20 cm wavelength. The most likely radio emission mechanism is an electron-cyclotron maser

  17. Spot detection and image segmentation in DNA microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li; Rueda, Luis; Ali, Adnan; Ngom, Alioune

    2005-01-01

    Following the invention of microarrays in 1994, the development and applications of this technology have grown exponentially. The numerous applications of microarray technology include clinical diagnosis and treatment, drug design and discovery, tumour detection, and environmental health research. One of the key issues in the experimental approaches utilising microarrays is to extract quantitative information from the spots, which represent genes in a given experiment. For this process, the initial stages are important and they influence future steps in the analysis. Identifying the spots and separating the background from the foreground is a fundamental problem in DNA microarray data analysis. In this review, we present an overview of state-of-the-art methods for microarray image segmentation. We discuss the foundations of the circle-shaped approach, adaptive shape segmentation, histogram-based methods and the recently introduced clustering-based techniques. We analytically show that clustering-based techniques are equivalent to the one-dimensional, standard k-means clustering algorithm that utilises the Euclidean distance.

  18. Hot Spots in a Network of Functional Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Pemra; Soner, Seren; Haliloglu, Turkan

    2013-01-01

    It is of significant interest to understand how proteins interact, which holds the key phenomenon in biological functions. Using dynamic fluctuations in high frequency modes, we show that the Gaussian Network Model (GNM) predicts hot spot residues with success rates ranging between S 8–58%, C 84–95%, P 5–19% and A 81–92% on unbound structures and S 8–51%, C 97–99%, P 14–50%, A 94–97% on complex structures for sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy, respectively. High specificity and accuracy rates with a single property on unbound protein structures suggest that hot spots are predefined in the dynamics of unbound structures and forming the binding core of interfaces, whereas the prediction of other functional residues with similar dynamic behavior explains the lower precision values. The latter is demonstrated with the case studies; ubiquitin, hen egg-white lysozyme and M2 proton channel. The dynamic fluctuations suggest a pseudo network of residues with high frequency fluctuations, which could be plausible for the mechanism of biological interactions and allosteric regulation. PMID:24023934

  19. Spot-Scanning Proton Arc (SPArc) Therapy: The First Robust and Delivery-Efficient Spot-Scanning Proton Arc Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xuanfeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, J. Michele; Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Stevens, Craig; Yan, Di

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel robust and delivery-efficient spot-scanning proton arc (SPArc) therapy technique. Methods and Materials: A SPArc optimization algorithm was developed that integrates control point resampling, energy layer redistribution, energy layer filtration, and energy layer resampling. The feasibility of such a technique was evaluated using sample patients: 1 patient with locally advanced head and neck oropharyngeal cancer with bilateral lymph node coverage, and 1 with a nonmobile lung cancer. Plan quality, robustness, and total estimated delivery time were compared with the robust optimized multifield step-and-shoot arc plan without SPArc optimization (Arc_m_u_l_t_i_-_f_i_e_l_d) and the standard robust optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan. Dose-volume histograms of target and organs at risk were analyzed, taking into account the setup and range uncertainties. Total delivery time was calculated on the basis of a 360° gantry room with 1 revolutions per minute gantry rotation speed, 2-millisecond spot switching time, 1-nA beam current, 0.01 minimum spot monitor unit, and energy layer switching time of 0.5 to 4 seconds. Results: The SPArc plan showed potential dosimetric advantages for both clinical sample cases. Compared with IMPT, SPArc delivered 8% and 14% less integral dose for oropharyngeal and lung cancer cases, respectively. Furthermore, evaluating the lung cancer plan compared with IMPT, it was evident that the maximum skin dose, the mean lung dose, and the maximum dose to ribs were reduced by 60%, 15%, and 35%, respectively, whereas the conformity index was improved from 7.6 (IMPT) to 4.0 (SPArc). The total treatment delivery time for lung and oropharyngeal cancer patients was reduced by 55% to 60% and 56% to 67%, respectively, when compared with Arc_m_u_l_t_i_-_f_i_e_l_d plans. Conclusion: The SPArc plan is the first robust and delivery-efficient proton spot-scanning arc therapy technique, which could potentially be

  20. Spot-Scanning Proton Arc (SPArc) Therapy: The First Robust and Delivery-Efficient Spot-Scanning Proton Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xuanfeng, E-mail: Xuanfeng.ding@beaumont.org; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, J. Michele; Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Stevens, Craig; Yan, Di

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To present a novel robust and delivery-efficient spot-scanning proton arc (SPArc) therapy technique. Methods and Materials: A SPArc optimization algorithm was developed that integrates control point resampling, energy layer redistribution, energy layer filtration, and energy layer resampling. The feasibility of such a technique was evaluated using sample patients: 1 patient with locally advanced head and neck oropharyngeal cancer with bilateral lymph node coverage, and 1 with a nonmobile lung cancer. Plan quality, robustness, and total estimated delivery time were compared with the robust optimized multifield step-and-shoot arc plan without SPArc optimization (Arc{sub multi-field}) and the standard robust optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan. Dose-volume histograms of target and organs at risk were analyzed, taking into account the setup and range uncertainties. Total delivery time was calculated on the basis of a 360° gantry room with 1 revolutions per minute gantry rotation speed, 2-millisecond spot switching time, 1-nA beam current, 0.01 minimum spot monitor unit, and energy layer switching time of 0.5 to 4 seconds. Results: The SPArc plan showed potential dosimetric advantages for both clinical sample cases. Compared with IMPT, SPArc delivered 8% and 14% less integral dose for oropharyngeal and lung cancer cases, respectively. Furthermore, evaluating the lung cancer plan compared with IMPT, it was evident that the maximum skin dose, the mean lung dose, and the maximum dose to ribs were reduced by 60%, 15%, and 35%, respectively, whereas the conformity index was improved from 7.6 (IMPT) to 4.0 (SPArc). The total treatment delivery time for lung and oropharyngeal cancer patients was reduced by 55% to 60% and 56% to 67%, respectively, when compared with Arc{sub multi-field} plans. Conclusion: The SPArc plan is the first robust and delivery-efficient proton spot-scanning arc therapy technique, which could potentially be implemented

  1. Gyrocenter Shift of Low-Temperature Plasmas and the Retrograde Motion of Cathode Spots in Arc Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. C.

    2007-01-01

    The gyrocenter shift phenomenon explained the mechanism of radial electric field formation at the high confinement mode transition in fusion devices. This Letter reports that the theory of gyrocenter shift is also applicable to low temperature high collisional plasmas such as arc discharges by the generalization of the theory resulting from a short mean free path compared with the gyroradius. The retrograde motion of cathode spots in the arc discharge is investigated through a model with the expanded formula of gyrocenter shift. It is found that a reversed electric field is formed in front of the cathode spots when they are under a magnetic field, and this reversed electric field generates a rotation of cathode spots opposite to the Amperian direction. The ion drift velocity profiles calculated from the model are in agreement with the experimental results as functions of magnetic flux density and gas pressure

  2. Methodology for diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots by spectral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a new methodology for the diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots using image processing is presented. Currently skin cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in humans. This methodology is based on Fourier spectral analysis by using filters such as the classic, inverse and k-law nonlinear. The sample images were obtained by a medical specialist and a new spectral technique is developed to obtain a quantitative measurement of the complex pattern found in cancerous skin spots. Finally a spectral index is calculated to obtain a range of spectral indices defined for skin cancer. Our results show a confidence level of 95.4%.

  3. Forecasting electricity spot-prices using linear univariate time-series models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaresma, Jesus Crespo; Hlouskova, Jaroslava; Kossmeier, Stephan; Obersteiner, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the forecasting abilities of a battery of univariate models on hourly electricity spot prices, using data from the Leipzig Power Exchange. The specifications studied include autoregressive models, autoregressive-moving average models and unobserved component models. The results show that specifications, where each hour of the day is modelled separately present uniformly better forecasting properties than specifications for the whole time-series, and that the inclusion of simple probabilistic processes for the arrival of extreme price events can lead to improvements in the forecasting abilities of univariate models for electricity spot prices. (Author)

  4. Balancing Constraints and the Sweet Spot as Coming Topics for Creativity Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is the introduction of two new concepts, ‘balancing constraints’ and ‘the sweet spot of creativity’, as promising new paths for creativity research. This is motivated by the fact that creativity research shows a growing interest in the fundamental entwinement of constraints...... the salient situations where the creative practitioner can be said to experience the ‘right’ level of constrainedness conducive to optimum creative performance. We then proceed to consider how the sweet spot can be attained by balancing constraints, i.e., by manipulating the intensity of constrainedness. More...

  5. Powerful Radio Galaxies with Simbol-X: Lobes and Hot Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, G.; Grandi, P.; Angelini, L.; Raimondi, L.; Torresi, E.; Palumbo, G. G. C.

    2009-05-01

    We present here the first Simbol-X simulations of the extended components, lobes and hot spots, of the radio galaxies. We use the paradigmatic case of Pictor A to test the capabilities of Simbol-X in this field of studies. Simulations demonstrate that Simbol-X will be able not only to perform spatially resolved studies on the lobes of radio galaxies below 10 keV but also to observe, for the first time, hard X-ray emission from the hot spots. These extremely promising results show the considerable potentiality of Simbol-X in studying interaction phenomena between relativistic plasma and surrounding environment.

  6. Powerful Radio Galaxies with Simbol-X: Lobes and Hot Spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliori, G.; Grandi, P.; Raimondi, L.; Torresi, E.; Angelini, L.; Palumbo, G. G. C.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the first Simbol-X simulations of the extended components, lobes and hot spots, of the radio galaxies. We use the paradigmatic case of Pictor A to test the capabilities of Simbol-X in this field of studies. Simulations demonstrate that Simbol-X will be able not only to perform spatially resolved studies on the lobes of radio galaxies below 10 keV but also to observe, for the first time, hard X-ray emission from the hot spots. These extremely promising results show the considerable potentiality of Simbol-X in studying interaction phenomena between relativistic plasma and surrounding environment.

  7. Seven-Spot Ladybird Optimization: A Novel and Efficient Metaheuristic Algorithm for Numerical Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel biologically inspired metaheuristic algorithm called seven-spot ladybird optimization (SLO. The SLO is inspired by recent discoveries on the foraging behavior of a seven-spot ladybird. In this paper, the performance of the SLO is compared with that of the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and artificial bee colony algorithms by using five numerical benchmark functions with multimodality. The results show that SLO has the ability to find the best solution with a comparatively small population size and is suitable for solving optimization problems with lower dimensions.

  8. Lessons from hot spot analysis for fragment-based drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Vajda, Sandor

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of binding energy hot spots at protein surfaces can provide crucial insights into the prospects for successful application of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), and whether a fragment hit can be advanced into a high affinity, druglike ligand. The key factor is the strength of the top ranking hot spot, and how well a given fragment complements it. We show that published data are sufficient to provide a sophisticated and quantitative understanding of how hot spots derive from protein three-dimensional structure, and how their strength, number and spatial arrangement govern the potential for a surface site to bind to fragment-sized and larger ligands. This improved understanding provides important guidance for the effective application of FBDD in drug discovery. PMID:26538314

  9. Genetic Spot Optimization for Peak Power Estimation in Large VLSI Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Hsiao

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating peak power involves optimization of the circuit's switching function. The switching of a given gate is not only dependent on the output capacitance of the node, but also heavily dependent on the gate delays in the circuit, since multiple switching events can result from uneven circuit delay paths in the circuit. Genetic spot expansion and optimization are proposed in this paper to estimate tight peak power bounds for large sequential circuits. The optimization spot shifts and expands dynamically based on the maximum power potential (MPP of the nodes under optimization. Four genetic spot optimization heuristics are studied for sequential circuits. Experimental results showed an average of 70.7% tighter peak power bounds for large sequential benchmark circuits was achieved in short execution times.

  10. Optimal operation strategies of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on electricity spot markets with fluctuating prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Salgi, Georges; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    on electricity spot markets by storing energy when electricity prices are low and producing electricity when prices are high. In order to make a profit on such markets, CAES plant operators have to identify proper strategies to decide when to sell and when to buy electricity. This paper describes three...... plants will not be able to achieve such optimal operation, since the fluctuations of spot market prices in the coming hours and days are not known. Consequently, two simple practical strategies have been identified and compared to the results of the optimal strategy. This comparison shows that...... independent computer-based methodologies which may be used for identifying the optimal operation strategy for a given CAES plant, on a given spot market and in a given year. The optimal strategy is identified as the one which provides the best business-economic net earnings for the plant. In practice, CAES...

  11. Lessons from Hot Spot Analysis for Fragment-Based Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R; Kozakov, Dima; Whitty, Adrian; Vajda, Sandor

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of binding energy hot spots at protein surfaces can provide crucial insights into the prospects for successful application of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), and whether a fragment hit can be advanced into a high-affinity, drug-like ligand. The key factor is the strength of the top ranking hot spot, and how well a given fragment complements it. We show that published data are sufficient to provide a sophisticated and quantitative understanding of how hot spots derive from a protein 3D structure, and how their strength, number, and spatial arrangement govern the potential for a surface site to bind to fragment-sized and larger ligands. This improved understanding provides important guidance for the effective application of FBDD in drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of Australian ETS news on wholesale spot electricity prices. An exploratory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Julien

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of news concerning the development of emissions trading in Australia (such as the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)) on wholesale electricity spot prices, by using a database of 117 news announcements from December 1, 1998 to July 1, 2009. As power producers constitute the bulk of the participants of the proposed Australian emissions trading scheme, regulatory changes (about allocation, banking, coverage, targets) are indeed likely to affect the five interconnected electricity markets in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania. We assess these effects with an ARMA(1,1)-GARCH(1,1) model, where daily electricity spot prices are regressed against exogenous variables in the mean and variance equations. This article constitutes the first empirical analysis of Australian ETS news effects on electricity wholesale spot prices. Our results show two asymmetric types of news effects, depending on their information content. (author)

  13. Experimental and computer simulation results of the spot welding process using SORPAS software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jader, M A; Cullen, J D; Athi, N; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2009-01-01

    The highly competitive nature of the automotive industry drives demand for improvements and increased precision engineering in resistance spot welding. Currently there are about 4300 weld points on the average steel vehicle. Current industrial monitoring systems check the quality of the nugget after processing 15 cars, once every two weeks. The nuggets are examined off line using a destructive process, which takes approximately 10 days to complete causing a long delay in the production process. This paper presents a simulation of the spot welding growth curves, along with a comparison to growth curves performed on an industrial spot welding machine. The correlation of experimental results shows that SORPAS simulations can be used as an off line measurement to reduce factory energy usage. The first section in your paper

  14. The impact of Australian ETS news on wholesale spot electricity prices. An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, Julien [Universite Paris Dauphine, Place du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, 75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2010-08-15

    This article investigates the impact of news concerning the development of emissions trading in Australia (such as the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)) on wholesale electricity spot prices, by using a database of 117 news announcements from December 1, 1998 to July 1, 2009. As power producers constitute the bulk of the participants of the proposed Australian emissions trading scheme, regulatory changes (about allocation, banking, coverage, targets) are indeed likely to affect the five interconnected electricity markets in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania. We assess these effects with an ARMA(1,1)-GARCH(1,1) model, where daily electricity spot prices are regressed against exogenous variables in the mean and variance equations. This article constitutes the first empirical analysis of Australian ETS news effects on electricity wholesale spot prices. Our results show two asymmetric types of news effects, depending on their information content. (author)

  15. The impact of Australian ETS news on wholesale spot electricity prices: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, Julien, E-mail: julien.chevallier@dauphine.f [Universite Paris Dauphine, Place du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, 75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2010-08-15

    This article investigates the impact of news concerning the development of emissions trading in Australia (such as the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)) on wholesale electricity spot prices, by using a database of 117 news announcements from December 1, 1998 to July 1, 2009. As power producers constitute the bulk of the participants of the proposed Australian emissions trading scheme, regulatory changes (about allocation, banking, coverage, targets) are indeed likely to affect the five interconnected electricity markets in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania. We assess these effects with an ARMA(1,1)-GARCH(1,1) model, where daily electricity spot prices are regressed against exogenous variables in the mean and variance equations. This article constitutes the first empirical analysis of Australian ETS news effects on electricity wholesale spot prices. Our results show two asymmetric types of news effects, depending on their information content.

  16. MR Persei - A new rotating, spotted flare star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Turner, G. W.; Vesper, D. N.; Schlegel, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    Spectroscopy and photometry are used to show that MR Persei, an object originally classified as a dwarf nova, is in fact a flare star. The automated CCD photometry consists of sequences of exposures within a single night as well as long-term photometry over a five-month interval. One sequence shows a 30-min flare, accompanied by post-flare 'dips'. A 0.2 mag variation with a period of about one-half day is also seen in this sequence. The long-term photometry is used to refine the period to 0.45483 d, which we attribute to the rotation of a spotted star. Evidence for membership of MR Per in the young Alpha Per cluster is considered, and found to be inconclusive.

  17. Fitting the IRI F2-profile function to measured profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinisch, B.W.; Huang Xueqin

    1997-01-01

    Comparison with profile data from ionosondes shows that the IRI bottomside F2-profiles can be improved by using better B0 and B1 parameters. The best parameters (in a least-squares sense) can be easily calculated in a numerical procedure from measured profiles presented as a sum of Chebyshev polynomials. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  18. Advanced spot quality analysis in two-colour microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetter Guillaume

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image analysis of microarrays and, in particular, spot quantification and spot quality control, is one of the most important steps in statistical analysis of microarray data. Recent methods of spot quality control are still in early age of development, often leading to underestimation of true positive microarray features and, consequently, to loss of important biological information. Therefore, improving and standardizing the statistical approaches of spot quality control are essential to facilitate the overall analysis of microarray data and subsequent extraction of biological information. Findings We evaluated the performance of two image analysis packages MAIA and GenePix (GP using two complementary experimental approaches with a focus on the statistical analysis of spot quality factors. First, we developed control microarrays with a priori known fluorescence ratios to verify the accuracy and precision of the ratio estimation of signal intensities. Next, we developed advanced semi-automatic protocols of spot quality evaluation in MAIA and GP and compared their performance with available facilities of spot quantitative filtering in GP. We evaluated these algorithms for standardised spot quality analysis in a whole-genome microarray experiment assessing well-characterised transcriptional modifications induced by the transcription regulator SNAI1. Using a set of RT-PCR or qRT-PCR validated microarray data, we found that the semi-automatic protocol of spot quality control we developed with MAIA allowed recovering approximately 13% more spots and 38% more differentially expressed genes (at FDR = 5% than GP with default spot filtering conditions. Conclusion Careful control of spot quality characteristics with advanced spot quality evaluation can significantly increase the amount of confident and accurate data resulting in more meaningful biological conclusions.

  19. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  20. Effects of spot size and spot spacing on lateral penumbra reduction when using a dynamic collimation system for spot scanning proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyer, Daniel E; Hill, Patrick M; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R; Flynn, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the reduction in lateral dose penumbra that can be achieved when using a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for spot scanning proton therapy as a function of two beam parameters: spot size and spot spacing. This is an important investigation as both values impact the achievable dose distribution and a wide range of values currently exist depending on delivery hardware. Treatment plans were created both with and without the DCS for in-air spot sizes (σ air ) of 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm as well as spot spacing intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm. Compared to un-collimated treatment plans, the plans created with the DCS yielded a reduction in the mean dose to normal tissue surrounding the target of 26.2–40.6% for spot sizes of 3–9 mm, respectively. Increasing the spot spacing resulted in a decrease in the time penalty associated with using the DCS that was approximately proportional to the reduction in the number of rows in the raster delivery pattern. We conclude that dose distributions achievable when using the DCS are comparable to those only attainable with much smaller initial spot sizes, suggesting that the goal of improving high dose conformity may be achieved by either utilizing a DCS or by improving beam line optics. (note)

  1. Laser spot detection based on reaction diffusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Dormido, R.; Duro, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-11, č. článku 315. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser spot detection * laser beam detection * reaction diffusion models * Fitzhugh-Nagumo model * reaction diffusion computation * Turing patterns Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  2. On cold spots in tumor subvolumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Wolfgang A.; Fowler, Jack F.

    2002-01-01

    Losses in tumor control are estimated for cold spots of various 'sizes' and degrees of 'cold dose'. This question is important in the context of intensity modulated radiotherapy where differential dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for targets that abut a critical structure often exhibit a cold dose tail. This can be detrimental to tumor control probability (TCP) for fractions of cold volumes even as small as 1%, if the cold dose is lower than the prescribed dose by substantially more than 10%. The Niemierko-Goitein linear-quadratic algorithm with γ 50 slope 1-3 was used to study the effect of cold spots of various degrees (dose deficit below the prescription dose) and size (fractional volume of the cold dose). A two-bin model DVH has been constructed in which the cold dose bin is allowed to vary from a dose deficit of 1%-50% below prescription dose and to have volumes varying from 1% to 90%. In order to study and quantify the effect of a small volume of cold dose on TCP and effective uniform dose (EUD), a four-bin DVH model has been constructed in which the lowest dose bin, which has a fractional volume of 1%, is allowed to vary from 10% to 45% dose deficit below prescription dose. The highest dose bin represents a simultaneous boost. For fixed size of the cold spot the calculated values of TCP decreased rapidly with increasing degrees of cold dose for any size of the cold spot, even as small as 1% fractional volume. For the four-subvolume model, in which the highest dose bin has a fractional volume of 80% and is set at a boost dose of 10% above prescription dose, it is found that the loss in TCP and EUD is moderate as long as the cold 1% subvolume has a deficit less than approximately 20%. However, as the dose deficit in the 1% subvolume bin increases further it drives TCP and EUD rapidly down and can lead to a serious loss in TCP and EUD. Since a dose deficit to a 1% volume of the target that is larger than 20% of the prescription dose may lead to serious loss of

  3. Spot Welding Characterizations With Time Variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafid; Pinitoyo, A.; History; Paidjo, Andryansyah; Sagino, Sudarmin; Tamzil, M.

    2001-01-01

    For obtain spot welding used effective data, this research is made, so that time operational of machine increasing. Welding parameters are material classification, electrical current, and weld time. All of the factors are determined welding quality. If the plate more thick, the time must be longer when the current constant. Another factor as determined welding quality are surface condition of electrode, surface condition of weld material, and material classifications. In this research, the weld machine type IP32A2 VI (110 V), Rivoira trademark is characterized

  4. What's new in Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) remains an important illness despite an effective therapy because it is difficult to diagnose and is capable of producing a fatal outcome. The pathogenesis of RMSF remains, in large part, an enigma. However, recent research has helped shed light on this mystery. Importantly, the diagnosis of RMSF must be considered in all febrile patients who have known or possible exposure to ticks, especially if they live in or have traveled to endemic regions during warmer months. Decisions about giving empiric therapy to such patients are difficult and require skill and careful judgement.

  5. Occurrence of Target Spot on Rosemary Caused by Corynespora cassiicola in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Hyu Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the development of new spot disease on the leaf and stem of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis in commercial greenhouses at Jeonju and Namwon in Korea. Incidence of target spot on rosemary was higher at the end of the rainy season with high humidity. Those symptoms were black ring spots (3−5 mm in diameter and withering on green leaves and stems. Conidiophores and conidia were formed on the infected tissue in moist chamber and conidia were shown as the cylindrical and oval types in chain, ranged from 55 to 275 μm in length, and 7 to 14 μm in width. Conidia with eight to ten pseudosepta were formed on the conidiapore. The optimum growth temperature of isolates was 30oC on the PDA medium under the dark condition. In the pathogenesis test, the target spot and withering symptoms were appeared on the leaves and stems 3 days after inoculation showing similar symptoms compared to those of in nature. The same fungus was re-isolated from infected lesion, indicating that Corynespora cassiicola caused leaf target spot and twig blight on rosemary. The rDNA ITS nucleotide sequences of the pure cultured isolate from the diseased area on rosemary showed 100% similarity to the sequences of C. cassiicola available in the GenBank database (JQ595296, JQ595297, FJ852715 and AY238606. Therefore, we report that the target spot of leaves and stems in rosemary was caused by C. cassiicola.

  6. Gravid Spot Predicts Developmental Progress and Reproductive Output in a Livebearing Fish, Gambusia holbrooki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazmi-Lokman, Nor Hakim; Purser, G. J.; Patil, Jawahar G.

    2016-01-01

    In most livebearing fish, the gravid spot is an excellent marker to identify brooding females, however its use to predict progress of embryonic development, brood size, timing of parturition and overall reproductive potential of populations remain unexplored. Therefore, to understand these relationships, this study quantified visual attributes (intensity and size) of the gravid spot in relation to key internal development in Gambusia holbrooki. Observations show that the colour of the gravid spot arises from progressive melanisation on the surface of the ovarian sac at its hind margin, rather than melanisation of the developing embryos or the skin of the brooding mother. More importantly, the gravid spot intensity and size were closely linked with both developmental stages and clutch size, suggesting their reliable use as external surrogates of key internal developmental in the species. Using predictive consistency of the gravid spot, we also determined the effect of rearing temperature (23°C and 25°C) on gestation period and parturition behaviour. The results show that gestation period was significantly reduced (F = 364.58; df = 1,48; P˃0.05) at 25°C. However there was no significant difference in average number of fry parturated in the two temperature groups (Pspot intensity is a reliable predictor of reproductive output. The parturition in the species occurred predominantly in the morning and in contrast to earlier reports, tails of the fry emerged first with a few exceptions of head-first, twin and premature births. This study demonstrates utility of the gravid spot for downstream reproductive investigations in a live-bearing fish both in the field and laboratory. The reproducibility of the relationships (intensity with both developmental stage and clutch size), imply that they are also relevant to wild populations that experience varying temperature climes and stressors, significant deviations of which may serve as indicators of environmental health and

  7. A girl with cutaneous hyperpigmentation, cafe au lait spots and ring chromosome 15 without significant deletion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morava, E.; Bartsch, O.; Czako, M.; Frensel, A.; Karteszi, J.; Kosztolanyi, G.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Ring chromosome 15 [r(15)] syndrome is characterised by specific facial features, cafe au lait spots, failure to thrive, mental retardation and typically with a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 15. We report a 2.5 year old girl showing normal growth and development, large

  8. Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Y.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.; Faraji, F.

    2013-01-01

    Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male-male

  9. Article Bone-collecting habits of spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Article Bone-collecting habits of spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta in the Kruger National Park. J.D. Skinner, J.R. Henschel, A.S. van Jaarsveld. Abstract. An examination of 18 Crocuta crocuta dens in the Kruger National Park, showed that this species can be responsible for bone assemblages at dens, more so at permanent ...

  10. 1D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; Brandenburg, Martijn

    2017-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Last year an approach was presented using a phase inversion of guided waves that propagated around the circumference of a pipe. This approach works well for larger corrosion spots, but shows significant under-sizing of small spots due to lack of sufficient phase rotation. In this paper the use of arrival time and amplitude loss of higher order circumferential passes is evaluated. Using higher order passes increases sensitivity for sizing smaller defects. Different defect profiles are assumed and the change in arrival time and amplitude loss are calculated using a wave equation based approach for different defect widths and depths. This produces a differential travel time and amplitude change map as function of defect depth and defect width. The actually measured travel time change and amplitude change produces two contours in these maps. Calculating the intersection point gives the defect dimensions. The contours for amplitude loss and travel time change are quite orthogonal, this yields a good discrimination between deep and shallow defects. The approach is evaluated using experimental data from different pipes contain artificial and real defects.

  11. Evidence of high-field radio-frequency hot spots due to trapped vortices in niobium cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciovati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting radio-frequency (rf cavities made of high-purity niobium exhibit strong anomalous rf losses starting at peak surface magnetic fields of about 90–100 mT in the gigahertz range. This phenomenon is referred to as “Q drop.” Temperature maps of the cavity surface have revealed the presence of “hot spots” in the high magnetic field region of the cavities. Several models have been proposed over the years to explain this phenomenon but there is still no experimental evidence on the mechanisms behind such hot spots. In this work we show that at least some of the hot spots are due to trapped vortices responsible for the anomalous losses. Here we report experiments in which a local thermal gradient was applied to the hot spot regions of a cavity in order to displace the vortices. Temperature maps measured before and after applying the thermal gradient unambiguously show that the hot spots do move and change their intensities, allowing us to determine changes in the hot spot positions and strengths and their effect on the cavity performance. Results on a large-grain niobium cavity clearly show a different distribution and in some cases a weakening of the intensity of the “hot spots,” suggesting new ways of improving the cavity performance without additional material treatments.

  12. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  13. PENGARUH KURS SPOT DAN KURS FORWARD DALAM MEMPREDIKSI FUTURE SPOT PADA PASAR VALAS KAWASAN ASIA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Kade Diana Yanthi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the activity in foreign exchange occur as the result of the development of international trading and increased international money and capital movement. The vast development of international economic  caused  economic relationship  among  countries  will  be  linked  to  each other  and  subsequently improve trading activities in their goods, money and capital flows. The variables used in this study are spot, forward  and future  spot. Based  on  the result  of Regression  Estimation  applied in  hypothesis on foreign currencies exchange which done simultaneously are proven able to predict future spot. The investor and international economic  actor could use spot  exchange rate and forward  exchange rate as a  short terms predictor for the next trimester in 2011.

  14. Crude oil spot market pricing: Pearsonian analysis of crude oil spot market prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinnusi, Ayo

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of crude oil pricing before describing a study of sets of 1991 spot market prices, and examining Pearson's model. Empirical distribution characteristics for 14 crude oils are tabulated, and skewness-kurtosis relationship and implication are considered. (UK)

  15. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  16. Validation and Application of a Dried Blood Spot Ceftriaxone Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Sharp, Madhu; Nunn, Troy; Salman, Sam; Moore, Brioni R.; Batty, Kevin T.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) antibiotic assays can facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies in situations where venous blood sampling is logistically and/or ethically problematic. In this study, we aimed to develop, validate, and apply a DBS ceftriaxone assay. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) DBS ceftriaxone assay was assessed for matrix effects, process efficiency, recovery, variability, and limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD). The effects of hematocrit, protein binding, red cell partitioning, and chad positioning were evaluated, and thermal stability was assessed. Plasma, DBS, and cell pellet ceftriaxone concentrations in 10 healthy adults were compared, and plasma concentration-time profiles of DBS and plasma ceftriaxone were incorporated into population PK models. The LOQ and LOD for ceftriaxone in DBS were 0.14 mg/liter and 0.05 mg/liter, respectively. Adjusting for hematocrit, red cell partitioning, and relative recovery, DBS-predicted plasma concentrations were comparable to measured plasma concentrations (r > 0.95, P 95% initial concentrations in DBS for 14 h, 35 h, 30 days, 21 weeks, and >11 months, respectively. The present DBS ceftriaxone assay is robust and can be used as a surrogate for plasma concentrations to provide valid PK and PK/PD data in a variety of clinical situations, including in studies of young children and of those in remote or resource-poor settings. PMID:26438505

  17. Hot spot exercise: 1975 (HSX-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trolan, R.T.; Wilson, R.L.; Jessen, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A special unannounced exercise, called HOT SPOT Exercise--1975 (HSX-75), was prepared to test the general capability of the LLL ALERT Program to activate and deploy the LLL and Sandia Laboratory, Livermore (SLL) component of the ERDA/ARG. The exercise activities were limited to the LLL facilities in Livermore and the Site 300 explosive test facility located approximately 15 miles southeast of Livermore. The exercise simulated an accident at a U.S. Army storage facility (Site 300). The simulated accident involved two LLL designed weapons (W-70). One weapon was dropped during unloading operations and ignited the gas tank of the weapon transporter. The subsequent fire caused a low-order detonation of the high explosive component. The fire caused dispersal of fissile material downwind from the site. A second weapon was damaged in the explosion by fragments from the first weapon. The extent of damage to the second weapon was initially unknown. The exercise was conducted on September 23, 1975. A complete description of the specific nature of the simulated accident is contained in the scenario. Umpires were assigned to evaluate and subsequently report on the effectiveness of the response. All test objectives were accomplished. The following appendices are included: operational safety procedures, photographs and site map, HOT SPOT equipment, atmospheric release advisory capability, personnel list, chronology of events, and critique comments

  18. Method for laser spot welding monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassero, Giorgio

    1994-09-01

    As more powerful solid state laser sources appear on the market, new applications become technically possible and important from the economical point of view. For every process a preliminary optimization phase is necessary. The main parameters, used for a welding application by a high power Nd-YAG laser, are: pulse energy, pulse width, repetition rate and process duration or speed. In this paper an experimental methodology, for the development of an electrooptical laser spot welding monitoring system, is presented. The electromagnetic emission from the molten pool was observed and measured with appropriate sensors. The statistical method `Parameter Design' was used to obtain an accurate analysis of the process parameter that influence process results. A laser station with a solid state laser coupled to an optical fiber (1 mm in diameter) was utilized for the welding tests. The main material used for the experimental plan was zinc coated steel sheet 0.8 mm thick. This material and the related spot welding technique are extensively used in the automotive industry, therefore, the introduction of laser technology in production line will improve the quality of the final product. A correlation, between sensor signals and `through or not through' welds, was assessed. The investigation has furthermore shown the necessity, for the modern laser production systems, to use multisensor heads for process monitoring or control with more advanced signal elaboration procedures.

  19. Insights from ecological niche modeling on the taxonomic distinction and niche differentiation between the black-spotted and red-spotted tokay geckoes (Gekko gecko)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yueyun; Chen, Chongtao; Li, Li; Zhao, Chengjian; Chen, Weicai; Huang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The black-spotted tokay and the red-spotted tokay are morphologically distinct and have largely allopatric distributions. The black-spotted tokay is characterized by a small body size and dark skin with sundry spots, while the red-spotted tokay has a relatively large body size and red spots. Based on morphological, karyotypic, genetic, and distribution differences, recent studies suggested their species status; however, their classifications remain controversial, and additional data such as e...

  20. Spot Ignition of Natural Fuels by Hot Metal Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, James Linwood

    2017-01-01

    The spot ignition of combustible material by hot metal particles is an important pathway by which wildland and urban spot fires and smolders are started. Upon impact with a fuel, such as dry grass, duff, or saw dust, these particles can initiate spot fires by direct flaming or smoldering which can transition to a flame. These particles can be produced by processes such as welding, powerline interactions, fragments from bullet impacts, abrasive cutting, and pyrotechnics. There is little publi...

  1. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  2. Quantifying spot size reduction of a 1.8 kA electron beam for flash radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris-Mog, T. J.; Moir, D. C.

    2018-03-01

    The spot size of Axis-I at the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility was reduced by 15.5% by including a small diameter drift tube that acts to aperture the outer diameter of the electron beam. Comparing the measured values to both analytic calculations and results from a particle-in-cell model shows that one-third to one-half of the spot size reduction is due to a drop in beam emittance. We infer that one-half to two-thirds of the spot-size reduction is due to a reduction in beam-target interactions. Sources of emittance growth and the scaling of the final focal spot size with emittance and solenoid aberrations are also presented.

  3. Sympatry Predicts Spot Pigmentation Patterns and Female Association Behavior in the Livebearing Fish Poeciliopsis baenschi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Monzón, Andrea J.; Scott, Laura E.; Camargo, Ashley A.; Clark, Eliza I.; Schott, Eric E.; Johnson, Jerald B.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored the possibility that differences in pigmentation patterns among populations of the fish Poeciliopsis baenschi were associated with the presence or absence of the closely related species P. turneri. If reproductive character displacement is responsible, spotting patterns in these two species should diverge in sympatry, but not allopatry. We predicted that female P. baenschi from sympatric sites should show a preference for associating with conspecifics vs. heterospecific males, but females from allopatric sites should show no such preferences. To evaluate these predictions, we compared spotting patterns and female association behaviors in populations of P. baenschi from Central Mexico. We found that both of our predictions were supported. Poeciliopsis baenschi that co-occured with P. turneri had spotting patterns significantly different than their counterparts from allopatric sites. Using a simultaneous choice test of video presentations of males, we also found that female P. baenschi from populations that co-occured with P. turneri spent significantly more time with males of their own species than with P. turneri males. In contrast, females from allopatric populations of P. baenschi showed no differences in the amount of time they spent with either conspecific or heterospecific males. Together, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that reproductive character displacement may be responsible for behavioral and spotting pattern differences in these populations of P. baenschi. PMID:28107407

  4. Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on a strict extension of the principles of spot pricing and surplus allocation, we propose a new pricing methodology that can yield unique, impartial, and robust solution. The new method has been analyzed and compared with other pricing approaches in accordance with spot pricing theory. Case studies support...

  5. Cellular localization of the Escherichia coli SpoT protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, D R; Cashel, M

    1995-01-01

    The SpoT protein of Escherichia coli serves as a source of degradation as well as an apparent source of synthesis of (p)ppGpp. Since the subcellular localization of SpoT might be a clue to its function, we have used SpoT-specific antisera to analyze cell extracts fractionated on sucrose gradients. We find that the SpoT protein is not bound to ribosomes or to either inner or outer membrane fractions. Although the SpoT protein is found in large aggregates, its localization is probably cytosolic.

  6. Impact of spot charge inaccuracies in IMPT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke C; Depauw, Nicolas; Clasie, Ben; Giunta, Marina; Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M

    2017-08-01

    Spot charge is one parameter of pencil-beam scanning dose delivery system whose accuracy is typically high but whose required value has not been investigated. In this work we quantify the dose impact of spot charge inaccuracies on the dose distribution in patients. Knowing the effect of charge errors is relevant for conventional proton machines, as well as for new generation proton machines, where ensuring accurate charge may be challenging. Through perturbation of spot charge in treatment plans for seven patients and a phantom, we evaluated the dose impact of absolute (up to 5× 10 6 protons) and relative (up to 30%) charge errors. We investigated the dependence on beam width by studying scenarios with small, medium and large beam sizes. Treatment plan statistics included the Γ passing rate, dose-volume-histograms and dose differences. The allowable absolute charge error for small spot plans was about 2× 10 6 protons. Larger limits would be allowed if larger spots were used. For relative errors, the maximum allowable error size for small, medium and large spots was about 13%, 8% and 6% for small, medium and large spots, respectively. Dose distributions turned out to be surprisingly robust against random spot charge perturbation. Our study suggests that ensuring spot charge errors as small as 1-2% as is commonly aimed at in conventional proton therapy machines, is clinically not strictly needed. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. Acute infectious purpura fulminans due to probable spotted fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kundavaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpura fulminans (PF is associated with several infections, most notably with meningococcus, staphylococcus, and streptococcus infections. However, there are few reports of association of this entity with spotted fever from India. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with fever, headache, and myalgia. On the seventh day of fever he developed nonblanching purple hemorrhagic purpura on the trunk and most prominently on the extremities consistent with purpura fulminans. Immunofluorescent assay confirmed the diagnosis of spotted fever. PF though common with rocky mountain spotted fever (RMSF is rarely seen in association with Indian tick typhus, the usual cause of spotted fever in India.

  8. Differential Expression of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus-Derived Viral Small RNAs in Infected Commercial and Experimental Host Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Neena; Koundal, Vikas; Williams, Sarah; Pappu, Hanu

    2013-01-01

    Background Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) in the infected host can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates, self-complementary regions of the viral genome or from the action of host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases on viral templates. The vsiRNA abundance and profile as well as the endogenous small RNA population can vary between different hosts infected by the same virus influencing viral pathogenicity and host response. There are no reports on the analysis of vsiRNAs of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a segmented negative stranded RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae, with two of its gene segments showing ambisense gene arrangement. The virus causes significant economic losses to numerous field and horticultural crops worldwide. Principal Findings Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)-specific vsiRNAs were characterized by deep sequencing in virus-infected experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana and a commercial, susceptible host tomato. The total small (s) RNA reads in TSWV-infected tomato sample showed relatively equal distribution of 21, 22 and 24 nt, whereas N. benthamiana sample was dominated by 24 nt total sRNAs. The number of vsiRNA reads detected in tomato was many a magnitude (~350:1) higher than those found in N. benthamiana, however the profile of vsiRNAs in terms of relative abundance 21, 22 and 24 nt class size was similar in both the hosts. Maximum vsiRNA reads were obtained for the M RNA segment of TSWV while the largest L RNA segment had the least number of vsiRNAs in both tomato and N. benthamiana. Only the silencing suppressor, NSs, of TSWV recorded higher antisense vsiRNA with respect to the coding frame among all the genes of TSWV. Significance Details of the origin, distribution and abundance of TSWV vsiRNAs could be useful in designing efficient targets for exploiting RNA interference for virus resistance. It also has major implications toward our understanding of the differential processing of vsiRNAs in antiviral

  9. Differential expression of tomato spotted wilt virus-derived viral small RNAs in infected commercial and experimental host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Mitter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs in the infected host can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates, self-complementary regions of the viral genome or from the action of host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases on viral templates. The vsiRNA abundance and profile as well as the endogenous small RNA population can vary between different hosts infected by the same virus influencing viral pathogenicity and host response. There are no reports on the analysis of vsiRNAs of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, a segmented negative stranded RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae, with two of its gene segments showing ambisense gene arrangement. The virus causes significant economic losses to numerous field and horticultural crops worldwide. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV-specific vsiRNAs were characterized by deep sequencing in virus-infected experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana and a commercial, susceptible host tomato. The total small (s RNA reads in TSWV-infected tomato sample showed relatively equal distribution of 21, 22 and 24 nt, whereas N. benthamiana sample was dominated by 24 nt total sRNAs. The number of vsiRNA reads detected in tomato was many a magnitude (~350:1 higher than those found in N. benthamiana, however the profile of vsiRNAs in terms of relative abundance 21, 22 and 24 nt class size was similar in both the hosts. Maximum vsiRNA reads were obtained for the M RNA segment of TSWV while the largest L RNA segment had the least number of vsiRNAs in both tomato and N. benthamiana. Only the silencing suppressor, NSs, of TSWV recorded higher antisense vsiRNA with respect to the coding frame among all the genes of TSWV. SIGNIFICANCE: Details of the origin, distribution and abundance of TSWV vsiRNAs could be useful in designing efficient targets for exploiting RNA interference for virus resistance. It also has major implications toward our understanding of the differential processing of vsi

  10. Effect of ambient humidity on the rate at which blood spots dry and the size of the spot produced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniff, Philip; Woodford, Lynsey; Spooner, Neil

    2013-08-01

    For shipping and storage, dried blood spot (DBS) samples must be sufficiently dry to protect the integrity of the sample. When the blood is spotted the humidity has the potential to affect the size of the spot created and the speed at which it dries. The area of DBS produced on three types of substrates were not affected by the humidity under which they were generated. DBS samples reached a steady moisture content 150 min after spotting and 90 min for humidities less than 60% relative humidity. All packaging materials examined provided some degree of protection from external extreme conditions. However, none of the packaging examined provided a total moisture barrier to extreme environmental conditions. Humidity was shown not to affect the spot area and DBS samples were ready for shipping and storage 2 h after spotting. The packing solutions examined all provided good protection from external high humidity conditions.

  11. Pinite-cordierite from spotted slate of the Brajkovac contact metamorphic aureole (Dudovica locality, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasković Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic very low to low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Bukulja-Lazarevac Unit designated as Drina, Golija and Birač formations are contact metamorphosed by the intrusion of the Tertiary Brajkovac granodiorite into spotted slates and hornfelses. In some parts, they are slightly migmatized at the contact. In addition to their outcrops found at the western, eastern and northern parts of the formation, these rocks are also found in boreholes near Dudovica at about 8 km south-west from the pluton. There, at a depth of 110 m, the spotted slates comprise oval to ellipsoid pinite-rich spots which can be regarded as incipient cordierite porphyroblasts (up to 5 mm in diameter overgrowing the existing regional foliation. They are composed of cryptocrystalline mixture of a very fine sericitic material ± light glassy orange „film“ (some kind of an amorphous gel-like material often mixed with limonite matter and are abundant in inclusions: minute quartz and dusty ore minerals (magnetite prevail. In addition, within some spots an increased number of xenotime and monazite inclusions are noted. Minute flakes of neobiotite are formed at the expense of quartz-sericite-chlorite matrix. The secondary chlorite occurring as overgrowths on pinite-cordierite spots shows variable composition (brunsvigite to diabandite. The Mg/Fe+Mg ratio of cryptocrystalline pinitic mixture ranges from 0.14-0.67. The Si vs AlIV+AlVI relations deviate from the ideal muscovite-phengite join due to Tschermak substitution towards chloritic composition or a more complex mixture, including clay minerals (which reflected a decrease of Altot and Si with increase of Fe2+. Obtained data indicates that the cordierite-pinite spots can be related to contact metamorphic processes that occurred within the temperature range 300-450°C. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176019 i br. 176016

  12. Testing a class of non-Kerr metrics with hot spots orbiting SgrA*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Center, exhibits flares in the X-ray, NIR, and sub-mm bands that may be interpreted within a hot spot model. Light curves and images of hot spots orbiting a black hole are affected by a number of special and general relativistic effects, and they can be potentially used to check whether the object is a Kerr black hole of general relativity. However, in a previous study we have shown that the relativistic features are usually subdominant with respect to the background noise and the model-dependent properties of the hot spot, and eventually it is at most possible to estimate the frequency of the innermost stable circular orbit. In this case, tests of the Kerr metric are only possible in combination with other measurements. In the present work, we consider a class of non-Kerr spacetimes in which the hot spot orbit may be outside the equatorial plane. These metrics are difficult to constrain from the study of accretion disks and indeed current X-ray observations of stellar-mass and supermassive black hole candidates cannot put interesting bounds. Here we show that near future observations of SgrA* may do it. If the hot spot is sufficiently close to the massive object, the image affected by Doppler blueshift is brighter than the other one and this provides a specific observational signature in the hot spot's centroid track. We conclude that accurate astrometric observations of SgrA* with an instrument like GRAVITY should be able to test this class of metrics, except in the more unlikely case of a small viewing angle

  13. Plasmodium falciparum HRP2 ELISA for analysis of dried blood spot samples in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lauren E; Markwalter, Christine F; Kimmel, Danielle W; Mudenda, Lwiindi; Mbambara, Saidon; Thuma, Philip E; Wright, David W

    2017-08-23

    Dried blood spots are commonly used for sample collection in clinical and non-clinical settings. This method is simple, and biomolecules in the samples remain stable for months at room temperature. In the field, blood samples for the study and diagnosis of malaria are often collected on dried blood spot cards, so development of a biomarker extraction and analysis method is needed. A simple extraction procedure for the malarial biomarker Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) from dried blood spots was optimized to achieve maximum extraction efficiency. This method was used to assess the stability of HRP2 in dried blood spots. Furthermore, 328 patient samples made available from rural Zambia were analysed for HRP2 using the developed method. These samples were collected at the initial administration of artemisinin-based combination therapy and at several points following treatment. An average extraction efficiency of 70% HRP2 with a low picomolar detection limit was achieved. In specific storage conditions HRP2 was found to be stable in dried blood spots for at least 6 months. Analysis of patient samples showed the method to have a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 89% when compared with microscopy, and trends in HRP2 clearance after treatment were observed. The dried blood spot ELISA for HRP2 was found to be sensitive, specific and accurate. The method was effectively used to assess biomarker clearance characteristics in patient samples, which prove it to be ideal for gaining further insight into the disease and epidemiological applications.

  14. Dual focal-spot imaging for phase extraction in phase-contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Edwin F.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dual focal spot imaging as a method for extracting the phase component from a phase-contrast radiography image. All measurements were performed using a microfocus tungsten-target x-ray tube with an adjustable focal-spot size (0.01 mm to 0.045 mm). For each object, high-resolution digital radiographs were obtained with two different focal spot sizes to produce matched image pairs in which all other geometric variables as well as total exposure and tube kVp were held constant. For each image pair, a phase extraction was performed using pixel-wise division. The phase-extracted image resulted in an image similar to the standard image processing tool commonly referred to as 'unsharp masking' but with the additional edge-enhancement produced by phase-contrast effects. The phase-extracted image illustrates the differences between the two images whose imaging parameters differ only in focal spot size. The resulting image shows effects from both phase contrast as well as geometric unsharpness. In weakly attenuating materials the phase-contrast effect predominates, while in strongly attenuating materials the phase effects are so small that they are not detectable. The phase-extracted image in the strongly attenuating object reflects differences in geometric unsharpness. The degree of phase extraction depends strongly on the size of the smallest focal spot used. This technique of dual-focal spot phase-contrast radiography provides a simple technique for phase-component (edge) extraction in phase-contrast radiography. In strongly attenuating materials the phase-component is overwhelmed by differences in geometric unsharpness. In these cases the technique provides a form of unsharp masking which also accentuates the edges. Thus, the two effects are complimentary and may be useful in the detection of small objects

  15. A study of Ni-based WC composite coatings by laser induction hybrid rapid cladding with elliptical spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shengfeng; Huang Yongjun; Zeng Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    Ni-based WC composite coatings by laser induction hybrid rapid cladding (LIHRC) with elliptical spot were investigated. Results indicate that the efficiency using the elliptical spot of 6 mm x 4 mm (the major and minor axis of laser beam are 6 mm and 4 mm, respectively, the major axis is parallel to the direction of laser scanning) is higher than that using the elliptical spot of 4 mm x 6 mm (the major axis is perpendicular to the direction of laser scanning). The precipitated carbides with the blocky and bar-like shape indicate that WC particles suffer from the heat damage of 'the disintegration pattern + the growth pattern', whichever elliptical spot is used at low laser scanning speed. However, at high laser scanning speed, the blocky carbides are only formed if the elliptical spot of 6 mm x 4 mm is adopted, showing that WC particles present the heat damage of 'the disintegration pattern', whereas the fine carbides are precipitated when the elliptical spot of 4 mm x 6 mm is used, showing that WC particles take on the heat damage of 'the radiation pattern'. Especially, the efficiency of LIHRC is increased much four times higher than that of the general laser cladding and crack-free ceramic-metal coatings can be obtained

  16. Association between sepsis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Marcelo Rodrigues; Namura, José Jorge

    2012-12-06

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a disease caused by the Gram-negative coccobacillus Rickettsia ricketsii which has been on the rise since the last decade in the USA. The symptoms are common to the many viral diseases, and the classic triad of fever, rash and headache is not always present when RMSF is diagnosed. It may progress to severe cases such as renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and septicaemia. This report aims to present a fulminant case of RMSF associated with sepsis. It describes a female patient's case that quickly progressed to sepsis and death. The patient showed non-specific symptoms for 5 days before being admitted to a hospital. The fact that she lived in an area highly infested with Amblyomma aureolatum ticks was unknown to the medical staff until the moment she died.

  17. Beam Expansion of Blind Spot Detection Radar Antennas Using a Radome with Defected Corrugated Inner Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayeon Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A beam expanding radome for 76.5 GHz automotive radar antennas is presented whose inner surface is engraved with corrugations. The radar used for blind spot detection (BSD requires a very wide beam width to ensure longer time for tracking out-of-sight objects. It is found that the corrugations modulate the phase velocities of the waves along the surface, which increases beam width in the far field. In addition, defects in the corrugation increase beam width even further. The presented structure satisfies the beam width requirement while keeping a low profile.

  18. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  19. Kozeny-Carman permeability relationship with disintegration process predicted from early dissolution profiles of immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Parveen; Rathi, Pooja; Kumar, Virender; Lal, Jatin; Kaur, Harmeet; Singh, Jasbir

    2017-07-01

    This study was oriented toward the disintegration profiling of the diclofenac sodium (DS) immediate-release (IR) tablets and development of its relationship with medium permeability k perm based on Kozeny-Carman equation. Batches (L1-L9) of DS IR tablets with different porosities and specific surface area were prepared at different compression forces and evaluated for porosity, in vitro dissolution and particle-size analysis of the disintegrated mass. The k perm was calculated from porosities and specific surface area, and disintegration profiles were predicted from the dissolution profiles of IR tablets by stripping/residual method. The disintegration profiles were subjected to exponential regression to find out the respective disintegration equations and rate constants k d . Batches L1 and L2 showed the fastest disintegration rates as evident from their bi-exponential equations while the rest of the batches L3-L9 exhibited the first order or mono-exponential disintegration kinetics. The 95% confidence interval (CI 95% ) revealed significant differences between k d values of different batches except L4 and L6. Similar results were also spotted for dissolution profiles of IR tablets by similarity (f 2 ) test. The final relationship between k d and k perm was found to be hyperbolic, signifying the initial effect of k perm on the disintegration rate. The results showed that disintegration profiling is possible because a relationship exists between k d and k perm . The later being relatable with porosity and specific surface area can be determined by nondestructive tests.

  20. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Chang, Chang; Moyers, Michael F; Gao, Mingcheng; Mah, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0-226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter.

  1. Demography of Northern Spotted Owls in southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Cynthia J.; Salmons, Susan E.; Forsman, Eric D.; DeStefano, Stephen; Raphael, Martin G.; Gutierrez, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) are associated with lower elevation, commercially valuable, late-successional coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest. Meta-analyses of demographic parameters indicate that Northern Spotted Owl populations are declining throughout their range (Anderson and Burnham 1992, Burnham et al. this volume). Recent research has attempted to determine whether management activities have affected the viability of Spotted Owl populations, and results have led to development of conservation plans for the species (Dawson et al. 1987, Thomas et al. 1990, Murphy and Noon 1992, USDI 1992, Thomas et al. 1993b).In the Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (USDI 1992b) threats to the species were identified as small population sizes, declining populations, limited amounts of habitat, continued loss and fragmentation of habitat, geographically isolated populations, and predation and competition from other avian species. Weather and fire are natural processes that also may affect reproductive success of Spotted Owls. Weather may be a factor in the high annual variability in fecundity of Spotted Owls, as has been suggested for other predatory bird species (Newton, 1979, 1986). However, these factors have not been addressed in previous studies of Spotted Owls.Our objectives were to estimate survival, fecundity, and annual rates of population change (l) for resident, territorial female Spotted Owls at two study areas in the coastal mountains of southwestern Oregon. We tested if the amount of rainfall was correlated with reproduction of Spotted Owls. While surveying for Spotted Owls, we documented the increased presence of Barred Owls (Strix varia), a potential competitor of Spotted Owls.

  2. Nociceptive sensations evoked from 'spots' in the skin by mild cooling and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Roman, Carolyn; Schoen, Kate; Collins, Hannah

    2008-03-01

    It was recently found that nociceptive sensations (stinging, pricking, or burning) can be evoked by cooling or heating the skin to innocuous temperatures (e.g., 29 and 37 degrees C). Here, we show that this low-threshold thermal nociception (LTN) can be traced to sensitive 'spots' in the skin equivalent to classically defined warm spots and cold spots. Because earlier work had shown that LTN is inhibited by simply touching a thermode to the skin, a spatial search procedure was devised that minimized tactile stimulation by sliding small thermodes (16 and 1mm(2)) set to 28 or 36 degrees C slowly across the lubricated skin of the forearm. The procedure uncovered three types of temperature-sensitive sites (thermal, bimodal, and nociceptive) that contained one or more thermal, nociceptive, or (rarely) bimodal spots. Repeated testing indicated that bimodal and nociceptive sites were less stable over time than thermal sites, and that mechanical contact differentially inhibited nociceptive sensations. Intensity ratings collected over a range of temperatures showed that LTN increased monotonically on heat-sensitive sites but not on cold-sensitive sites. These results provide psychophysical evidence that stimulation from primary afferent fibers with thresholds in the range of warm fibers and cold fibers is relayed to the pain pathway. However, the labile nature of LTN implies that these low-threshold nociceptive inputs are subject to inhibitory controls. The implications of these findings for the roles of putative temperature receptors and nociceptors in innocuous thermoreception and thermal pain are discussed.

  3. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a decision support tool to assist airline ramp controllers and ATC tower controllers to manage traffic on the airport surface to significantly improve efficiency and predictability in surface operations. The core function of the tool is the runway scheduler which generates an optimal solution for runway sequence and schedule of departure aircraft, which would minimize system delay and maximize runway throughput. The presentation also discusses the latest status of NASA's current surface research through a collaboration with an airline partner, where a tool is developed for airline ramp operators to assist departure pushback operations. The presentation describes the concept of the SARDA tool and results from human-in-the-loop simulations conducted in 2012 for Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport and 2014 for Charlotte airport ramp tower.

  4. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  5. Qualitative research ethics on the spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Øye, Christine; Glasdam, Stinne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The increase in medical ethical regulations and bureaucracy handled by institutional review boards and healthcare institutions puts the researchers using qualitative methods in a challenging position. Method: Based on three different cases from three different research studies...... research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Discussion and conclusion: Research...... ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop....

  6. Twin-spot laser welding of advanced high-strength multiphase microstructure steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajcar, Adam; Morawiec, Mateusz; Różański, Maciej; Stano, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    The study addresses the results concerning the laser welding of TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity) steel using a beam focused at two spots (also referred to as twin-spot laser welding). The analysis involved the effect of variable welding thermal cycles on the properties and microstructure of welded joints. The tests were performed using a linear energy of 0.048 and 0.060 kJ/mm and the laser beam power distribution of 50%:50%, 60%:40% and 70%:30%. The tests also involved welding performed using a linear energy of 0.150 kJ/mm and the laser beam power distribution of 70%:30%. In addition, the research included observations of the microstructure of the fusion zone, heat affected zone and the transition zone using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The fusion zone was composed of blocky-lath martensite whereas the HAZ (heat-affected zone) was characterised by the lath microstructure containing martensite, bainite and retained austenite. The distribution of twin-spot laser beam power significantly affected the microstructure and hardness profiles of welded joints. The highest hardness (480-505 HV), regardless of welding variants used, was observed in the HAZ.

  7. Solvent-accessible surface area: How well can be applied to hot-spot detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João M; Ramos, Rui M; Pimenta, António C; Moreira, Irina S

    2014-03-01

    A detailed comprehension of protein-based interfaces is essential for the rational drug development. One of the key features of these interfaces is their solvent accessible surface area profile. With that in mind, we tested a group of 12 SASA-based features for their ability to correlate and differentiate hot- and null-spots. These were tested in three different data sets, explicit water MD, implicit water MD, and static PDB structure. We found no discernible improvement with the use of more comprehensive data sets obtained from molecular dynamics. The features tested were shown to be capable of discerning between hot- and null-spots, while presenting low correlations. Residue standardization such as rel SASAi or rel/res SASAi , improved the features as a tool to predict ΔΔGbinding values. A new method using support machine learning algorithms was developed: SBHD (Sasa-Based Hot-spot Detection). This method presents a precision, recall, and F1 score of 0.72, 0.81, and 0.76 for the training set and 0.91, 0.73, and 0.81 for an independent test set. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Changes in Jupiter's Zonal Wind Profile Preceding and During the Juno Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Joshua; Wong, Michael H.; de Pater, Imke; Simon, Amy A.; Orton, Glenn S.; Rogers, John H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Cosentino, Richard G.; Januszewski, William; Morales-Juberias, Raul; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present five epochs of WFC3 HST Jupiter observations taken between 2009-2016 and extract global zonal wind profiles for each epoch. Jupiter's zonal wind field is globally stable throughout these years, but significant variations in certain latitude regions persist. We find that the largest uncertainties in the wind field are due to vortices or hot-spots, and show residual maps which identify the strongest vortex flows. The strongest year-to-year variation in the zonal wind profiles is the 24 deg N jet peak. Numerous plume outbreaks have been observed in the Northern Temperate Belt and are associated with decreases in the zonal velocity and brightness. We show that the 24 deg N jet peak velocity and brightness decreased in 2012 and again in late 2016, following outbreaks during these years. Our February 2016 zonal wind profile was the last highly spatially resolved measurement prior to Juno s first science observations. The final 2016 data were taken in conjunction with Juno's perijove 3 pass on 11 December 2016, and show the zonal wind profile following the plume outbreak at 24 deg N in October 2016.

  9. A hybrid model for electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity prices were highly regulated prior to the deregulation of the electric power industry. Prices were predictable, allowing generators and wholesalers to calculate their production costs and revenues. With deregulation, electricity has become the most volatile of all commodities. Electricity must be consumed as soon as it is generated due to the inability to store it in any sufficient quantity. Economic uncertainty exists because the supply of electricity cannot shift as quickly as the demand, which is highly variable. When demand increases quickly, the price must respond. Therefore, price spikes occur that are orders of magnitude higher than the base electricity price. This paper presents a robust and realistic model for spot market electricity prices used to manage risk in volatile markets. The model is a hybrid of a top down data driven method commonly used for financial applications, and a bottom up system driven method commonly used in regulated electricity markets. The advantage of the model is that it incorporates primary system drivers and demonstrates their effects on final prices. The 4 primary modules of the model are: (1) a model for forced outages, (2) a model for maintenance outages, (3) an electrical load model, and (4) a price model which combines the results of the previous 3 models. The performance of each model was tested. The forced outage model is the first of its kind to simulate the system on an aggregate basis using Weibull distributions. The overall spot price model was calibrated to, and tested with, data from the electricity market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The model performed well in simulated market prices and adapted readily to changing system conditions and new electricity markets. This study examined the pricing of derivative contracts on electrical power. It also compared a range of portfolio scenarios using a Cash Flow at Risk approach

  10. A hybrid model for electricity spot prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.L.D.

    2004-07-01

    Electricity prices were highly regulated prior to the deregulation of the electric power industry. Prices were predictable, allowing generators and wholesalers to calculate their production costs and revenues. With deregulation, electricity has become the most volatile of all commodities. Electricity must be consumed as soon as it is generated due to the inability to store it in any sufficient quantity. Economic uncertainty exists because the supply of electricity cannot shift as quickly as the demand, which is highly variable. When demand increases quickly, the price must respond. Therefore, price spikes occur that are orders of magnitude higher than the base electricity price. This paper presents a robust and realistic model for spot market electricity prices used to manage risk in volatile markets. The model is a hybrid of a top down data driven method commonly used for financial applications, and a bottom up system driven method commonly used in regulated electricity markets. The advantage of the model is that it incorporates primary system drivers and demonstrates their effects on final prices. The 4 primary modules of the model are: (1) a model for forced outages, (2) a model for maintenance outages, (3) an electrical load model, and (4) a price model which combines the results of the previous 3 models. The performance of each model was tested. The forced outage model is the first of its kind to simulate the system on an aggregate basis using Weibull distributions. The overall spot price model was calibrated to, and tested with, data from the electricity market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The model performed well in simulated market prices and adapted readily to changing system conditions and new electricity markets. This study examined the pricing of derivative contracts on electrical power. It also compared a range of portfolio scenarios using a Cash Flow at Risk approach.

  11. Phosphoproteome profiling for cold temperature perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyeon; Jang, Mi

    2011-02-01

    Temperature sensation initiates from the activation of cellular receptors when the cell is exposed to a decrease in temperature. Here, we applied a phosphoproteome profiling approach to the human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B to elucidate cellular cold-responsive processes. The primary aim of this study was to determine which intracellular changes of phosphorylation are accompanied by cold sensation. Eighteen protein spots that exhibited differentially phosphorylated changes in cells were identified. Most of the proteins that were phosphorylated after 5 or 10 min were returned to control levels after 30 or 60 min. Identified proteins were mainly RNA-related (i.e., they were involved in RNA binding and splicing). Temperature (18 and 10°C) stimuli showed homologies that were detected for time course changes in phosphoproteome. The data indicated a time-shift between two temperatures. The phosphorylation of putative cold responsive markers, such as ribosomal protein large P0 and heterochromatin-associated proteins 1, were verified by Western blotting in cells transfected with TRPM8 or TRPA1. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Outbreak of hepatitis E virus infection in Darfur, Sudan: effectiveness of real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérens, Audrey; Guérin, Philippe Jean; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Nicand, Elisabeth

    2009-06-01

    Biological samples collected in refugee camps during an outbreak of hepatitis E were used to compare the accuracy of hepatitis E virus RNA amplification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for sera and dried blood spots (concordance of 90.6%). Biological profiles (RT-PCR and serology) of asymptomatic individuals were also analyzed.

  13. 3-Methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase deficiency in Amish/Mennonite adults identified by detection of increased acylcarnitines in blood spots of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, K M; Bennett, M J; Naylor, E W; Morton, D H

    1998-03-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase (MCC) deficiency was documented in four adult women from the Amish/Mennonite population of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Metabolic and enzymatic investigations in these individuals were instituted after the detection of abnormal acylcarnitine profiles in blood spots obtained from their newborn children, in whom MCC activity was normal.

  14. A high resolution, single bunch, beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a beam monitoring system which could be used to measure beam profile, size and stability at the final forms of a beamline or collider. The system uses nonimaging bremsstrahlung optics. The immediate use for this system would be examining the final focus spot at the SLAC/FFTR

  15. Population dynamics of spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakesley, J.A.; Seamans, M.E.; Conner, M.M.; Franklin, A.B.; White, Gary C.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Munton, T.E.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; Steger, G.N.; McDonald, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    from 1,865 observations of reproductive outcomes for female spotted owls. The proportion of subadult females among all territorial females of known age ranged from 0.00 to 0.25 among study areas and years. The proportion of subadults among female spotted owls was negatively related to reproductive output (no. of young fledged/territorial F owl) for ELD and SIE. Eldorado study area and LAS showed an alternate-year trend in reproductive output, with higher output in even-numbered years. Mean annual reproductive output was 0.988 ?? 0.154 for ELD, 0.624 ?? 0.140 for LAS, 0.478 ?? 0.106 for SIE, and 0.555 ?? 0.110 for SKC. Eldorado Study Area exhibited a declining trend and the greatest variation in reproductive output over time, whereas SIE and SKC, which had the lowest reproductive output, had the lowest temporal variation. Meta-analysis confirmed that reproductive output varied among study areas. Reproductive output was highest for adults, followed by second-year subadults, and then by first-year subadults. We used 842 marked subadult and adult owls to estimate population rate of change. Modeling indicated that ??t (??t is the finite rate of population change estimated using the reparameterized JollySeber estimator Pradel 1996) was either stationary (LAS and SIE) or increasing after an initial decrease (ELD and SKC). Mean estimated ??t for the 4 study areas was 1.007 (95 CI 0.9521.066) for ELD; 0.973 (95 CI 0.9461.001) for LAS; 0.992 (95 CI 0.9661.018) for SIE; and 1.006 (95 CI 0.9471.068) for SKC. The best meta-analysis model of population trend indicated that ?? varied across time but was similar in trend among the study areas. Our estimates of realized population change (??t; Franklin et al. 2004), which we estimated as the product 1 ?? ??3 ?? ??4 ?? .?? ??k -1, were based on estimates of ??t from individual study areas and did not require estimating annual population size for each study area. Trends represented the proportion of the population size in the first ye

  16. MASCEM: EPEX SPOT Day-Ahead market integration and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Fernandes, Ricardo; Pinto, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    . It is crucial to MASCEM to have the ability to simulate as many market models and player types as possible, thus enhancing the ability to recreate the electricity markets reality in its maximum possible extent. This paper presents the EPEX Spot Day-Ahead market integration in MASCEM. EPEX Spot SE's mission...

  17. Blind spot detection & passive lane change assist systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surovtcev, I.

    2015-01-01

    The project goal was design and implementation of proof-of-concept for two systems that aim to tackle the blind spot problem of for the commercial vehicles: Blind Spot Detection and Passive Lane Change Assist functions. The system implementation was done using Rapid Control Prototype (RCP) hardware.

  18. Spot On! Engelske plakater fra mellemkrigsårene - genstandstekster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    genstandstekster til udstillingen Spot On! Engelske plakater fra mellemkrigsårene. alle tekster oversat til engelsk, men postes her i den danske udgave......genstandstekster til udstillingen Spot On! Engelske plakater fra mellemkrigsårene. alle tekster oversat til engelsk, men postes her i den danske udgave...

  19. Laser Beam Caustic Measurement with Focal Spot Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Gong, Hui; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    In industrial applications of high power CO2-lasers the caustic characteristics of the laser beam have great effects on the performance of the lasers. A welldefined high intense focused spot is essential for reliable production results. This paper presents a focal spot analyser that is developed...

  20. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...