WorldWideScience

Sample records for spot preliminary investigation

  1. TEVA-SPOT-GUI - Containing Preliminary Flow Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ZIP file contains the developmental, test version of TEVA-SPOT-GUI's Flow Model. The Flow Model is a new, event based water quality algorithm for EPANET. The...

  2. Investigation of Thermal Stress Distribution in Laser Spot Welding Process

    OpenAIRE

    Osamah F. Abdulateef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the laser spot welding process of low carbon steel sheet. The investigations were based on analytical and finite element analyses. The analytical analysis was focused on a consistent set of equations representing interaction of the laser beam with materials. The numerical analysis based on 3-D finite element analysis of heat flow during laser spot welding taken into account the temperature dependence of the physical properties and latent heat of transf...

  3. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    to the loudspeakers. In this paper we present a follow up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when these conditions are violated. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeakers arrangements is described. Preliminary measurement results are presented for loudspeakers placed...

  4. Some key techniques of SPOT-5 image processing in new national land and resources investigation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Changsheng; Li, Qingquan; Li, Deren

    2004-02-01

    In 1988, the detail information on land resource was investigated in China. Fourteen years later, it has changed a lot. It is necessary that the second land resource detailed investigation should be implemented. On this condition, the New National Land and Resources Investigation Project in China, which will last 12 years, has been started since 1999. The project is directly under the administration of the Ministry of Land and Resource (MLR). It was organized and implemented By China Geological, China Land Surveying and Planning Institute (CLSPI) and Information Center of MLR. It is a grand and cross century project supported by the Central Finance, based on State and public interests and strategic characteristics. Up to now, "Land Use Dynamic Monitoring By Remote Sensing," "Arable Land Resource Investigation," "Rural Collective Land Property Right Investgiation," "Establishment of Public Consulting Standardization of Cadastral Information," "Land Resource Fundamental Maps and Data Updating," "Urban Land Price Investigation and Intensive Utilization Potential Capacity Evaluation," "Farmland Classification, Gradation, and Evaluation," "Land Use Database Construction at City or County Level" 8 subprojects have had the preliminary achievements. In this project, SPOT-1/2/4 and Landsat-7 TM data were always applied to monitor land use dynamic change as the main data resource. Certainly, IRS, CBERS-2, and IKONOS data also were tested in small areas. In 2002, the SPOT-5 data, whose spatial resolution of the panchromatic image is 2.5 meters and the spectral one is 10 meters, were applied into update the land use base map at the 1:10000 scale in 26 Chinese cities. The purpose in this paper is to communicate the experience of SPOT-5 image processing with the colleagues.

  5. Investigating Biological Controls to Suppress Spotted Wing Drosophila Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spotted wing drosophila has become a major cherry pest in California. To develop sustainable management options for this highly mobile pest, we worked with cooperators at Oregon State University and the USDA to discover and import natural enemies of the fly from its native range in South Korea ...

  6. A NEW EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PLATINUM SPOT RETURNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kruse

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The global platinum market has been in downturn and unstable for five consecutive years, and thus market participants are demanding effective quantitative risk management tools. Since platinum is so widely used and serves as an important investment vehicle, the importance of risk management of platinum spot returns cannot be understated. In this paper, we take advantage of a very popular econometric model, the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH model, for platinum returns. We received two important findings by using the conventional GARCH models in explain daily platinum spot returns. First, it is crucial to introduce heavy-tailed distribution to explain conditional heavy tails; and second, the NRIG distribution performs better than the most widely-used heavy-tailed distribution, the Student’s t distribution.

  7. Activation analysis by filtered neutrons. Preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarnemark, G.; Rodinson, T.; Skaalberg, M.; Tokay, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate if measuring sensibility and precision by epithermal neutron activation analysis may be improved, different types of geological and biologic test samples were radiated. The test samples were enclosed in an extra filter of tungsten or sodium in order to reduce the flux of those neutrons that otherwise would induce interfering activity in the sample. The geological test samples consist of granites containing lanthanides which had been crushed in tung- sten carbide grinder. Normally such test samples show a interferins 1 87W-activity. By use of a tungsten filter the activity was reduced by up to 60%, which resulted in a considerable improvement of sensibility and precision of the measurement. The biologic test samples consisted of evaporated urine from patients treated with the cell poison cis-platinol. A reliable method to measure the platinum content has not existed so far. This method, however, enables platinum contents as low as about 0.1 ppm to be determined which is quite adequate. To sum up this preliminary study has demonstrated that activation analysis using filtered neutrons, correctly applied, is a satisfactory method of reducing interferences without complicated and time-consuming chemical separation procedures. (O.S.)

  8. Metacognitions about smoking: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary research has indicated that metacognitions are involved in smoking. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether specific facets of metacognition play a role in explaining smoking initiation and perseveration. Twelve individuals, self-identified as regular smokers and scoring a positive value on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence, were assessed using a semi-structured interview to investigate the following: (1) whether they held positive and/or negative metacognitive beliefs about smoking; (2) what their main goal in smoking was, and how they knew if they had achieved their goal; (3) how they directed their focus of attention when smoking; and (4) what they perceived the advantages and disadvantages of these attentional strategies to be. Results indicated that participants endorsed both positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about smoking and that the goal of smoking was to regulate negative emotion and/or to enhance cognitive functioning. Participants reported that they relied either on an internal signal, such as improvement in the emotional/cognitive state, or on a physical sign, in the form of a finished cigarette, to determine if they had achieved their goal. During an episode of smoking, half of the participants reported focusing their attention internally on thoughts and feelings or the sensations of smoking. The remainder of participants reported either an exclusively external focus of attention (e.g., the environment) or a varied focus of attention. Most participants were able to identify advantages to their attentional strategies, whereas two reported perceived disadvantages. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. WE-E-BRE-04: Dual Focal Spot Dose Painting for Precision Preclinical Radiobiological Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J; Lindsay, P [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Jaffray, D [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); The Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent progress in small animal radiotherapy systems has provided the foundation for delivering the heterogeneous, millimeter scale dose distributions demanded by preclinical radiobiology investigations. Despite advances in preclinical dose planning, delivery of highly heterogeneous dose distributions is constrained by the fixed collimation systems and large x-ray focal spot common in small animal radiotherapy systems. This work proposes a dual focal spot dose optimization and delivery method with a large x-ray focal spot used to deliver homogeneous dose regions and a small focal spot to paint spatially heterogeneous dose regions. Methods: Two-dimensional dose kernels were measured for a 1 mm circular collimator with radiochromic film at 10 mm depth in a solid water phantom for the small and large x-ray focal spots on a recently developed small animal microirradiator. These kernels were used in an optimization framework which segmented a desired dose distribution into low- and high-spatial frequency regions for delivery by the large and small focal spot, respectively. For each region, the method determined an optimal set of stage positions and beam-on times. The method was demonstrated by optimizing a bullseye pattern consisting of 0.75 mm radius circular target and 0.5 and 1.0 mm wide rings alternating between 0 and 2 Gy. Results: Compared to a large focal spot technique, the dual focal spot technique improved the optimized dose distribution: 69.2% of the optimized dose was within 0.5 Gy of the intended dose for the large focal spot, compared to 80.6% for the dual focal spot method. The dual focal spot design required 14.0 minutes of optimization, and will require 178.3 minutes for automated delivery. Conclusion: The dual focal spot optimization and delivery framework is a novel option for delivering conformal and heterogeneous dose distributions at the preclinical level and provides a new experimental option for unique radiobiological investigations

  10. WE-E-BRE-04: Dual Focal Spot Dose Painting for Precision Preclinical Radiobiological Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J; Lindsay, P; Jaffray, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent progress in small animal radiotherapy systems has provided the foundation for delivering the heterogeneous, millimeter scale dose distributions demanded by preclinical radiobiology investigations. Despite advances in preclinical dose planning, delivery of highly heterogeneous dose distributions is constrained by the fixed collimation systems and large x-ray focal spot common in small animal radiotherapy systems. This work proposes a dual focal spot dose optimization and delivery method with a large x-ray focal spot used to deliver homogeneous dose regions and a small focal spot to paint spatially heterogeneous dose regions. Methods: Two-dimensional dose kernels were measured for a 1 mm circular collimator with radiochromic film at 10 mm depth in a solid water phantom for the small and large x-ray focal spots on a recently developed small animal microirradiator. These kernels were used in an optimization framework which segmented a desired dose distribution into low- and high-spatial frequency regions for delivery by the large and small focal spot, respectively. For each region, the method determined an optimal set of stage positions and beam-on times. The method was demonstrated by optimizing a bullseye pattern consisting of 0.75 mm radius circular target and 0.5 and 1.0 mm wide rings alternating between 0 and 2 Gy. Results: Compared to a large focal spot technique, the dual focal spot technique improved the optimized dose distribution: 69.2% of the optimized dose was within 0.5 Gy of the intended dose for the large focal spot, compared to 80.6% for the dual focal spot method. The dual focal spot design required 14.0 minutes of optimization, and will require 178.3 minutes for automated delivery. Conclusion: The dual focal spot optimization and delivery framework is a novel option for delivering conformal and heterogeneous dose distributions at the preclinical level and provides a new experimental option for unique radiobiological investigations

  11. Archaeogeophysical investigations in Tiwanaku: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Lasaponara, Rosa; Leucci, Giovanni; Orefici, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Enzo

    2017-04-01

    -1450) Tiwanaku was characterized by the resurgence of regional identities and polities In spite of the rich archaeological record numerous issues, related to the function and the extension of Tiwanaku, need to be investigated especially in the monumental core which includes the pyramid of Akapana, and other ceremonial places such Kalasasaya, Putuni and Kantatallita. To this aims some geophysical investigations were performed in 2009 and 2014 in the context of multidisciplinary research including the use of satellite remote sensing [8]. This paper deals with the discussion of preliminary results of geomagnetic and GPR investigations, some of which have been verified by trial archaeological excavations which have unearthed some buried structures, improving the knowledge of the ceremonial areas of Tiwanaku. References [1] Lasaponara R., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Scardozzi G., Towards an operative use of remote sensing for exploring the past using satellite data: The case study of Hierapolis (Turkey), Remote sensing of Environment, 174 (2016) : 148-164, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2015.12.016 [2] Masini N., Lasaponara R., Rizzo E., Orefici G. 2012. Integrated Remote Sensing Approach in Cahuachi (Peru): Studies and Results of the ITACA Mission (2007-2010), In: Lasaponara R., Masini N. (Eds) 2012, Satellite Remote Sensing: a new tool for Archaeology, Springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN 978-90-481-8800-0, doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-8801-7_14; pp. 307-344 [3] Rizzo E., Masini N., Lasaponara R., Orefici G. 2010, ArchaeoGeophysical methods in the Templo del Escalonado (Cahuachi, Nasca, Perù), Near Surface Geophysics 8 (5), 433-439, doi:10.3997/1873-0604.2010030 [4] Masini N., Rizzo E., Lasaponara R., and Orefici G. 2008, Integrated remote sensing techniques for the detection of buried archaeological adobe structures: preliminary results in Cahuachi (Peru), Advances in Geosciences, 19, 75-82 [5] Lasaponara R., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R. 2014. Investigating archaeological looting

  12. Investigate Volatility Jumps in Chinese Stock Index Future and Spot Markets Based on Realized Volatility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang qiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate Chinese stock index future and spot market's volatility jumps characteristics by using recentlydeveloped jumpstest(Barndorff-Nielsenand Shephard,2004).Thedataisoneyearhigh frequencydatafromthe period19/04/2012 to 19/04/2013. The empirical results show two important points. Firstly, the logarithm of adjusted realized volatility shows a high degree of autocorrelation and folows a normal distribution nearly perfect. These characteristics show a potential high forecast ability. Secondly,thedailyrealizedvolatilityjumpsshowalowdegreeofautocorrealtionbutwithsignificantvolatilityclusters.Ingeneral,thejumps component has a low percentage in realized volatility estimation for both future and spot market. On average, there is one significant jumpswithinevery ten continue trading days.Spotmarkets showshigherdegree of jumps,anda rapidly jumpscharacterises.It implies that jumps may transmission from spot to future market, and spot market dominate future market at some degree.

  13. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned

  14. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    , modulation schemes, LEDs and LED driving conditions are analyzed. A prototype radial mode PT optimized for ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) is designed. FEM (Final Element Method) and measurements validates the PT design. A prototype PT based AC/DC converter operating from european mains is proposed......This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits...

  15. Synthesis, photophysical and preliminary investigation of the dye

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis, photophysical and preliminary investigation of the dye-sensitized solar ... with most reduction potential which might be due to increase in the conjugation of ... CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, ...

  16. An investigation of the dynamic separation of spot welds under plane tensile pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Bohan; Fan, Chunlei; Chen, Danian; Wang, Huanran; Zhou, Fenghua

    2014-01-01

    We performed ultra-high-speed tests for purely opening spot welds using plane tensile pulses. A gun system generated a parallel impact of a projectile plate onto a welded plate. Induced by the interactions of the release waves, the welded plate opened purely under the plane tensile pulses. We used the laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate. We then used a scanning electron microscope to investigate the recovered welded plates. We found that the interfacial failure mode was mainly a brittle fracture and the cracks propagated through the spot nugget, while the partial interfacial failure mode was a mixed fracture comprised ductile fracture and brittle fracture. We used the measured velocity histories to evaluate the tension stresses in the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate by applying the characteristic theory. We also discussed the different constitutive behaviors of the metals under plane shock loading and under uniaxial split Hopkinson pressure bar tests. We then compared the numerically simulated velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate with the measured results. The numerical simulations made use of the fracture stress criteria, and then the computed fracture modes of the tests were compared with the recovered results

  17. Preliminary Investigation of an Active PLZT Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, W. D.; Peters, B. R.; Reardon, P. J.; Wong, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    The design, analysis and preliminary testing of a prototype Adjustable Focus Optical Correction Lens (AFOCL) is described. The AFOCL is an active optical component composed of solid state lead lanthanum-modified zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramic with patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent surface electrodes that modulate the refractive index of the PLZT to function as an electro-optic lens. The AFOCL was developed to perform optical re-alignment and wavefront correction to enhance the performance of Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Space Observatories (ULSSO). The AFOCL has potential application as an active optical component within a larger optical system. As such, information from a wavefront sensor would be processed to provide input to the AFOCL to drive the sensed wavefront to the desired shape and location. While offering variable and rapid focussing capability (controlled wavefront manipulation) similar to liquid crystal based spatial light modulators (SLM), the AFOCL offers some potential advantages because it is a solid-state, stationary, low-mass, rugged, and thin optical element that can produce wavefront quality comparable to the solid refractive lens it replaces. The AFOCL acts as a positive or negative lens by producing a parabolic phase-shift in the PLZT material through the application of a controlled voltage potential across the ITO electrodes. To demonstrate the technology, a 4 mm diameter lens was fabricated to produce 5-waves of optical power operating at 2.051 micrometer wavelength. Optical metrology was performed on the device to measure focal length, optical quality, and efficiency for a variety of test configurations. The data was analyzed and compared to theoretical data available from computer-based models of the AFOCL.

  18. Preliminary Investigation on the Phytochemical Constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demand for honey consumption nowadays is continuously increasing worldwide due to its multiple importance from food to medicine. The medicinal value of honey lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce health benefits to man. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the two honey samples ...

  19. Preliminary Investigations Of Effectiveness Of Herbal Remedies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed some of the widely publicised herbal remedies in use for HIV infection in Nigeria, and investigated their efficacy scientifically. Those found to be efficacious will be subjected to further analysis to identify their active chemical components. The research deals directly with patients living with HIV/AIDS that ...

  20. A preliminary micronutrient investigation in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, C.M.; Cabildo, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a result of the greenhouse experiments conducted on micronutrient studies in corn. Low yields of corn in some localities despite the application of major elements points out the need for examining the micro-nutrient requirements of corn. Hence, this study aims to determine the fate of added micronutrients on major soil groups with the application of varying levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium to provide the better understanding of soil micronutrients especially in problem soil. Three soil types, four N-P-K treatments and two micronutrients (Zn and Fe) were used. The test crop was a Tinigib corn variety and sampled at tasseling and silking stages. It was found that NPK combinations of 120-60-30 kg/ha and 60-30-30 kg/ha gave better Fe and Zn fertilizer use efficiency, respectively for a given soil type. Further investigation in major soil types is recommended. (Auth.) 12 refs.; 9 tabs

  1. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY OF RHEUM EMODI

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Ashfaq Ahmad; K. W. Shah; Showkat Ahmad Wani

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical investigation of aqueous and methanolic rhizome extracts of Rheum emodi followed by their TLC profiling were carried out. Phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of diverse groups of phytoconstituents in two different extracts (aqueous and methanolic rhizome extracts). Chemical constituents also show different Rf values in two different solvent systems.

  2. Collateral Information for Equating in Small Samples: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary investigation of an empirical Bayes (EB) procedure for using collateral information to improve equating of scores on test forms taken by small numbers of examinees. Resampling studies were done on two different forms of the same test. In each study, EB and non-EB versions of two equating methods--chained linear…

  3. TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF PROVIDING LAWFULNESS IN PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnara Islamova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines current problems of reviewing crime reports of private prosecution by the preliminary investigation bodies, and the role of the prosecutor in providing lawfulness in this process. Issues are formulated to be clarified by the prosecutor in exercising supervision over the enforcement of the law in the receipt, registration and reviewing of the crime reports of private prosecution.

  4. Experimental investigation on the motion of cathode spots in removing oxide film on metal surface by vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zongqian; Jia Shenli; Wang Lijun; Yuan Qingjun; Song Xiaochuan

    2008-01-01

    The motion of vacuum arc cathode spots has a very important influence on the efficiency of removing the oxide film on the metal surface. In this paper, the characteristics of cathode spot motion are investigated experimentally. Experiments were conducted in a detachable vacuum chamber with ac (50 Hz) arc current of 1 kA (rms). A stainless steel plate covered by an oxide layer was used as the cathode. The motion of cathode spots during the descaling process was photographed by a high-speed digital camera with an exposure time of 2 μs. Experimental results indicate that the motion of cathode spots is influenced by the interaction among individual cathode jets and the position of the anode as well as the surface condition. The waveform of arc voltage is also influenced by the motion of cathode spots

  5. Investigation of Hardness Change for Spot Welded Tailored Blank in Hot Stamping Using CCT and Deformation-CCT Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogo, Yasuhiro; Kurato, Nozomi; Iwata, Noritoshi

    2018-04-01

    When an outer panel of a B-pillar is manufactured with the hot stamping process, reinforcements are spot welded on its inner side. Before reinforcements are added, the microstructure of the outer panel is martensite. However, reheating during spot welding changes the martensite to ferrite, which has a lower hardness in the heat-affected zone than in other areas. If spot welding is conducted before hot stamping for making a spot welded tailored blank, the microstructure in the spot welded tailored blank after hot stamping is martensite. This sequence of processes avoids hardness reduction due to spot welding. In this study, the hardness and microstructure around spot welded parts of the tailored blank were investigated. The results clearly showed that areas close to the spot welded parts are severely stretched during hot stamping. In addition, stretching suppresses the martensitic phase transformation and reduces the hardness. To characterize this phenomenon, a simulation was conducted that considered the effects of pre-strain on the phase transformation. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and a deformation continuous cooling transformation (DCCT) diagram were made in order to quantify the effect of the cooling rate and pre-strain on the phase transformation and hardness. The hardness was then calculated using the experimentally measured CCT and DCCT diagrams and the finite element analysis results. The calculated hardness was compared with the experimental hardness. Good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results.

  6. Investigation of Hardness Change for Spot Welded Tailored Blank in Hot Stamping Using CCT and Deformation-CCT Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogo, Yasuhiro; Kurato, Nozomi; Iwata, Noritoshi

    2018-06-01

    When an outer panel of a B-pillar is manufactured with the hot stamping process, reinforcements are spot welded on its inner side. Before reinforcements are added, the microstructure of the outer panel is martensite. However, reheating during spot welding changes the martensite to ferrite, which has a lower hardness in the heat-affected zone than in other areas. If spot welding is conducted before hot stamping for making a spot welded tailored blank, the microstructure in the spot welded tailored blank after hot stamping is martensite. This sequence of processes avoids hardness reduction due to spot welding. In this study, the hardness and microstructure around spot welded parts of the tailored blank were investigated. The results clearly showed that areas close to the spot welded parts are severely stretched during hot stamping. In addition, stretching suppresses the martensitic phase transformation and reduces the hardness. To characterize this phenomenon, a simulation was conducted that considered the effects of pre-strain on the phase transformation. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and a deformation continuous cooling transformation (DCCT) diagram were made in order to quantify the effect of the cooling rate and pre-strain on the phase transformation and hardness. The hardness was then calculated using the experimentally measured CCT and DCCT diagrams and the finite element analysis results. The calculated hardness was compared with the experimental hardness. Good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results.

  7. Investigation of shinning Spot Defect on Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonggang, Liu; Lei, Cui

    2014-01-01

    Shinning spot defects on galvanized steel sheets were studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope(SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Original Position Statistic Distribution Analysis (LIBSOPA) in this study. The research shows that the coating thickness of shinning spot defects which caused by the substrate defect is much lower than normal area, and when skin passed, the shinning spot defect area can not touch with skin pass roll which result in the surface of shinning spot is flat while normal area is rough. The different coating morphologies have different effects on the reflection of light, which cause the shinning spot defects more brighter than normal area

  8. Preliminary results of the first paleontologic investigations in Uruguayan Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, D.; Masquelin, E.; Verde, M.; Querequiz, R.

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary results of the first Uruguayan paleontollogic and biostratigraphical investigations in Antartica are presented. The field work was performed in fildes Peninsula, King George Island, near Uruguayan station Base Cientifica Antarctica Artigas.Some fossiliferous outcrops were geologic and paleontologically analyzed, among them Fossil Hills, situated in the center part of the peninsula, in front of Ardley Island, between the chinese and chilean stations.This hill is composed of fossil bearing piroclastic and epiclastic rocks, assigned to the fossil Hill Fm. Vegetal remains(petrified wood and leaf impronts) were observed and collected in this unit and it is remarkable the presence of Nothofagus sp. and invertebrate trace fossils, Cochlichmus isp and Helminthopsis isp.The depositional environment deduced from the fossil association in lacustrine, under a warm and humid climate.In the same deposits, other investigators have collected aquatic and ratite bird trace fossils. Paleontologic evidence is not contradictory with the Eocene age previously proposed for the studied deposits. (author)

  9. Preliminary results of spatially resolved ECR ion beam profile investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitzsch, L.; Stalder, M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    The profile of an ion beam produced in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) can vary greatly depending on the source settings and the ion-optical tuning. Strongly focussed ion beams form circular structures (hollow beams) as predicted by simulations and observed in experiments. Each of the rings is predicted to be dominated by ions with same or at least similar m/q-ratios due to ion-optical effects. To check this we performed a series of preliminary investigations to test the required tuning capabilities of our ion source. This includes beam focussing (A) and beam steering (B) using a 3D-movable extraction. Having tuned the source to deliver a beam of strongly focussed ions of different ion species and having steered this beam to match the transmittance area of the sector magnet we also recorded the ion charge state distribution of the strongly focussed beam profile at different, spatially limited positions (C). The preliminary results will be introduced within this paper: it appears that our 3D-movable extraction is very efficient to steer and to focus the beam strongly. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  10. An Investigation on Hot-Spot Temperature Calculation Methods of Power Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Y. Arabul; Ibrahim Senol; Fatma Keskin Arabul; Mustafa G. Aydeniz; Yasemin Oner; Gokhan Kalkan

    2016-01-01

    In the standards of IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60076-7, three different hot-spot temperature estimation methods are suggested. In this study, the algorithms which used in hot-spot temperature calculations are analyzed by comparing the algorithms with the results of an experimental set-up made by a Transformer Monitoring System (TMS) in use. In tested system, TMS uses only top oil temperature and load ratio for hot-spot temperature calculation. And also, it uses some constants from standards which ar...

  11. Preliminary investigations on high energy electron beam tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertling, Yves; Hoppe, Dietrich; Hampel, Uwe

    2010-12-15

    In computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional images of the attenuation distribution within a slice are created by scanning radiographic projections of an object with a rotating X-ray source detector compound and subsequent reconstruction of the images from these projection data on a computer. CT can be made very fast by employing a scanned electron beam instead of a mechanically moving X-ray source. Now this principle was extended towards high-energy electron beam tomography with an electrostatic accelerator. Therefore a dedicated experimental campaign was planned and carried out at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk. There we investigated the capabilities of BINP's accelerators as an electron beam generating and scanning unit of a potential high-energy electron beam tomography device. The setup based on a 1 MeV ELV-6 (BINP) electron accelerator and a single detector. Besides tomographic measurements with different phantoms, further experiments were carried out concerning the focal spot size and repeat accuracy of the electron beam as well as the detector's response time and signal to noise ratio. (orig.)

  12. Preliminary investigation of the 317 Area, ANL-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, J.; Moos, L.; Remeikis, A.

    1995-01-01

    The 317 Area at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is scheduled to undergo a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation, Act or RFI. Prior to the formal RFI, a voluntary, preliminary characterization of the 317 Area was conducted by ANL-E. The characterization results were used to formulate the RFI work plan and provided a better focus for the formal investigation. This site presents a difficult engineering challenge. The nature of the waste disposed at this site in the past includes both liquid chemicals and radioactive waste. The 317 Area is classified as a radiologically controlled area because of operations currently performed there. Present Department of Energy policy stipulates that waste material from such an area must be considered radioactive. The possible presence of hazardous constituents in the soil and groundwater would require the investigation-derived waste generated at the site be disposed as radioactive mixed waste. Besides the nature of the waste possibly contaminating this site, the geology of the site poses an equally enigmatic situation. The ANL-E site is located in a region of recessional glacial moraine deposits

  13. High quality methylome-wide investigations through next-generation sequencing of DNA from a single archived dry blood spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Karolina A; Xie, Lin Y; Nerella, Srilaxmi; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2013-05-01

    The potential importance of DNA methylation in the etiology of complex diseases has led to interest in the development of methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) aimed at interrogating all methylation sites in the human genome. When using blood as biomaterial for a MWAS the DNA is typically extracted directly from fresh or frozen whole blood that was collected via venous puncture. However, DNA extracted from dry blood spots may also be an alternative starting material. In the present study, we apply a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein enrichment-based technique in combination with next generation sequencing (MBD-seq) to assess the methylation status of the ~27 million CpGs in the human autosomal reference genome. We investigate eight methylomes using DNA from blood spots. This data are compared with 1,500 methylomes previously assayed with the same MBD-seq approach using DNA from whole blood. When investigating the sequence quality and the enrichment profile across biological features, we find that DNA extracted from blood spots gives comparable results with DNA extracted from whole blood. Only if the amount of starting material is ≤ 0.5µg DNA we observe a slight decrease in the assay performance. In conclusion, we show that high quality methylome-wide investigations using MBD-seq can be conducted in DNA extracted from archived dry blood spots without sacrificing quality and without bias in enrichment profile as long as the amount of starting material is sufficient. In general, the amount of DNA extracted from a single blood spot is sufficient for methylome-wide investigations with the MBD-seq approach.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF 'HOT-SPOTS' AS A FUNCTION OF MATERIAL REMOVAL IN A LARGE-GRAIN NIOBIUM CAVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel

    2006-01-01

    Poster - The performance of a single-cell cavity made of RRR > 200 large-grain niobium has been investigated as a function of material removal by buffered chemical polishing. Temperature maps of the cavity surface at 1.7 and 2.0 K were taken for each step of chemical etching and revealed several 'hot-spots', which contribute to the degradation of the cavity quality factor as a function of the RF surface field, mostly at high field levels. It was found that the number of 'hot-spots' decreased for larger material removal. Interestingly, the losses of the 'hot-spots' at different locations evolved differently for successive material removal. The cavity achieved peak surface magnetic fields of about of 130 mT and was limited mostly by thermal quench. By measuring the temperature dependence of the surface resistance at low field between 4.2 K and 1.7 K, the variation of niobium material parameters as a function of material removal could also be investigated. This contribution shows the results of the RF tests along with the temperature maps and the analysis of the losses caused by the 'hot-spots'.

  15. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions

  16. An epidemiologic and entomologic investigation of a cluster of Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, L; Callejas, L; McKechnie, D; Wolfe, D; Gaw, E; Hathcock, L; Childs, J

    1998-06-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) continues to be the most common fatal tick-borne illness in the United States. In August of 1996, four children attending a summer camp in Delaware were diagnosed with RMSF. This report summarizes the results of the epidemiologic and entomologic investigation conducted by the Delaware Division of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding this cluster of RMSF cases. Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of RMSF, as well as previously reported clusters of the disease, are also reviewed. A questionnaire regarding symptoms and activities was administered via telephone to 163 (73 percent) of the 223 attendees. A suspected case was defined as an illness in a person attending the camp between August 11 and 17 that occurred during the two-week period following the session, characterized by either 1) fever with one or more symptoms (i.e., headache, rash, myalgia, or fatigue) or 2) no fever with two or more symptoms. Cases of RMSF were confirmed by serologic evaluation. Seven of 13 patients with suspected RMSF submitted sera for testing. Four patients had confirmed RMSF; three were males, and the median age was 12.5 years compared with 12 years for all attendees. All confirmed patients reported fever, headache, fatigue, and rash. An increased risk of becoming ill was associated with overnight camping at site A (Odds Ratio (OR) undefined, p = 0.02), visiting or overnight camping at site B (OR undefined, p = 0.003 and 0.002), and leaving the trails when hiking (OR undefined, p = 0.02). These data suggest that development of RMSF was associated with visiting or camping at specific sites and behavior likely to increase contact with ticks. Camp supervisors were advised to educate campers regarding tick bite prevention measures, reduce underbrush around campsites, and encourage campers to remain on the trails. Health care providers should remain aware of the increased risk for RMSF during the spring, summer, and

  17. S. Burt Wolbach, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and blood-sucking arthropods: triumph of an early investigative pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, James M

    2013-02-01

    In a series of four articles published between 1916 and 1919 in The Journal of Medical Research, precursor to The American Journal of Pathology, the investigative pathologist S. Burt Wolbach unambiguously showed that Rocky Mountain spotted fever has a tick-borne mode of transmission, the causative agent replicates intracellularly, and the disease is fundamentally a vasculitis. Although underappreciated, Wolbach's tour-de-force work epitomized investigative pathology. These four articles should be mandatory reading for young investigators and are recommended also to seasoned investigators who seek reinvigoration in the beauty in their craft. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Single-sided sheet-to-tube spot welding investigated by 3D numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Chergui, Azeddine; Zhang, Wenqi

    The single-sided resistance spot welding process is analyzed by a 3D numerical study of sheet-to-tube joining. Finite element simulations are carried out in SORPAS® 3D. Two levels of electrode force and five levels of welding current are simulated. The overall effects of changing current and force...

  19. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  20. Preliminary Investigation of an Underwater Ramjet Powered by Compressed Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Shoemaker, Charles J.

    1961-01-01

    Part I contains the results of a preliminary experimental investigation of a particular design of an underwater ramjet or hydroduct powered by compressed air. The hydroduct is a propulsion device in which the energy of an expanding gas imparts additional momentum to a stream of water through mixing. The hydroduct model had a fineness ratio of 5.9, a maximum diameter of 3.2 inches, and a ratio of inlet area to frontal area of 0.32. The model was towed at a depth of 1 inch at forward speeds between 20 and 60 feet per second for airflow rates from 0.1 to 0.3 pound per second. Longitudinal force and pressures at the inlet and in the mixing chamber were determined. The hydroduct produced a positive thrust-minus-drag force at every test speed. The force and pressure coefficients were functions primarily of the ratio of weight airflow to free-stream velocity. The maximum propulsive efficiency based on the net internal thrust and an isothermal expansion of the air was approximately 53 percent at a thrust coefficient of 0.10. The performance of the test model may have been influenced by choking of the exit flow. Part II is a theoretical development of an underwater ramjet using air as "fuel." The basic assumption of the theoretical analysis is that a mixture of water and air can be treated as a compressible gas. More information on the properties of air-water mixtures is required to confirm this assumption or to suggest another approach. A method is suggested from which a more complete theoretical development, with the effects of choking included, may be obtained. An exploratory computation, in which this suggested method was used, indicated that the effect of choked flow on the thrust coefficient was minor.

  1. Infant and child feeding practices: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, A H; Spencer, A J; Szuster, F S

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this preliminary investigation was to examine the feeding practices of infants and pre-school children in Adelaide, and thereby contribute to the development of appropriate preventive dental strategies. A stratified random sample of 160 two year old and three year old pre-school children in the Adelaide Statistical District was obtained. Information about feeding practices and use of comforters or 'dummies' was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire completed by parents of the selected children. Information was collected for the age periods of 0-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months, 13-24 months and 25-36 months. Most of the children (81.8 per cent) were breast-fed at some stage. However the percentage of children being breast-fed decreased markedly across age periods, particularly to 13-24 months, when only 15.9 per cent of children were being breast-fed. Over half of the children, had been bottle-fed with infant formula at some stage. The highest percentage of children being bottle-fed with infant formula occurred in the 4-6 months (42.6 per cent) closely followed by the 7-12 months age period (37.4 per cent). Nearly two-thirds of children were bottle-fed with cow's milk at some stage. The highest percentage of children being bottle-fed with cow's milk occurred in the 13-24 months age period (49.6 per cent). A quarter (24.5 per cent) of the children were put to bed at some stage with a bottle containing cariogenic fluids. The majority of children used a 'dummy' at some stage during both day-time and night-time. Parents are in need of advice on appropriate feeding patterns for infants and young children.

  2. Preliminary investigation of the magnetostratigraphy of the Ringold Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, D.R.; Johnston, J.M.

    1979-05-01

    The Ringold Formation consists of lacustrine and fluvial deposits overlying the Columbia River Basalt. The Ringold Formation, because of its thickness, extent, and age, is an excellent unit in which to detect and possibly data the deformation that has occurred since deposition of the basalt. One objective of this study was to investigate the paleomagnetism of the upper Ringold unit exposed at one location in the White Bluffs in enough detail to resolve, with reasonable confidence, the magnetostratigraphy of the rock units sampled. The other objective was to evaluate, in a preliminary manner, the paleomagnetic favorability and magnetostratigraphy of the subsurface Ringold Formation in the Pasco Basin and at selected exposures outside the Pasco Basin. The scope of this study was the collection of 300 paleomagnetic samples, their measurement, and analysis. Samples were collected from the White Bluffs, from core recovered from six drill holes on the Hanford Site, and from two surface exposures outside the Pasco Basin. A total of 294 samples was collected, and 2928 paleomagnetic measurements were performed on these samples. The samples were measured by means of a three-axis super-conducting rock magnetometer having a sensitivity of 10 -8 emu/cm 3 and were demagnetized progressively in a 400-hertz alternating field (AF). All data were recorded and processed during measurement by an on-line computer.The declination, inclination, and intensity of magnetization of the samples from the various sections are plotted as a function of their stratigraphic position. The directions of the magnetization of the various sections are also plotted as a group on Wulff equal-angle stereonets. 22 figures, 8 tables

  3. A method to investigate drivers' acceptance of Blind Spot Detection System®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Giuliofrancesco; Simões, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Lately, with the goal of improving road safety, car makers developed and commercialised some Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) which, through the detection of blind spot areas on the vehicle's sides, could help the drivers during the overtaking and the change lane task. Despite the possible benefits to reduce lateral crashes, the overall impact on road safety of such systems have not been deeply studied yet; notably, despite some researches have been carried out, there is a lack of studies regarding the long-term usage and drivers' acceptance of those systems. In order to fill the research gap, a methodology, based on the combination of focus groups interviews, questionnaires and a small-scale field operational test (FOT), has been designed in this study; such a methodology aims at evaluating drivers' acceptance of Blind Spot Information System® and at proposing some ideas to improve the usability and user-friendliness of this (or similar) device in their future development.

  4. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  5. Midlife Transition and Women's Spirituality Groups: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsma, Elisabeth J.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe midlife transition, spirituality, and healing of relationships for members of women's spirituality groups. Ten women completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (R. Paloutzian & C. Ellison, 1982) and a 45-minute interview about spirituality, religion, life transitions, relationships, and…

  6. Structural investigations of biogenic iron oxide samples. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasoiu, M.; Kuklin, A.I.; Orelovich, O.L.; Kovalev, Yu.S.; Arzumanyan, G.M.; Kurkin, T.S.; Stolyar, S.V.; Iskhakov, R.S.; Rajkher, Yu.L.

    2008-01-01

    Some preliminary results on morphology and structure of iron oxide particles formed inside Klebsiella oxytoca bacteria are presented. In particular, by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering the effect of the bacteria age (the duration of growth) on the nanoparticles properties is studied

  7. Preliminary investigation of seasonality in the Great Berg Estuary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Slinger, JH

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available in summer, while salinities in excess of 5 x 10(-3) occur 37 km from the mouth. The role of river flow in counterbalancing the upstream dispersion of salt during the summer season is highlighted. The relevance of these findings in the preliminary...

  8. Students' Entrepreneurial Inclination at a Malaysian Polytechnic: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Ahmad Yasruddin Md; Mahmood, Nik Abdul Aziz Nik; Jaafar, Nik Azyyati Nik

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to examine students' inclination towards entrepreneurship at a Malaysian polytechnic. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of entrepreneurial intent, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived support factors and…

  9. Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for Malignancies of the Base of Skull: Treatment Planning, Acute Toxicities, and Preliminary Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshans, David R., E-mail: dgrossha@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhu, X. Ronald; Melancon, Adam [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Poenisch, Falk; Palmer, Matthew [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McAleer, Mary Frances; McGovern, Susan L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); DeMonte, Franco [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Eric L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Brown, Paul D.; Mahajan, Anita [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To describe treatment planning techniques and early clinical outcomes in patients treated with spot scanning proton therapy for chordoma or chondrosarcoma of the skull base. Methods and Materials: From June 2010 through August 2011, 15 patients were treated with spot scanning proton therapy for chordoma (n=10) or chondrosarcoma (n=5) at a single institution. Toxicity was prospectively evaluated and scored weekly and at all follow-up visits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Treatment planning techniques and dosimetric data were recorded and compared with those of passive scattering plans created with clinically applicable dose constraints. Results: Ten patients were treated with single-field-optimized scanning beam plans and 5 with multifield-optimized intensity modulated proton therapy. All but 2 patients received a simultaneous integrated boost as well. The mean prescribed radiation doses were 69.8 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]; range, 68-70 Gy [RBE]) for chordoma and 68.4 Gy (RBE) (range, 66-70) for chondrosarcoma. In comparison with passive scattering plans, spot scanning plans demonstrated improved high-dose conformality and sparing of temporal lobes and brainstem. Clinically, the most common acute toxicities included fatigue (grade 2 for 2 patients, grade 1 for 8 patients) and nausea (grade 2 for 2 patients, grade 1 for 6 patients). No toxicities of grades 3 to 5 were recorded. At a median follow-up time of 27 months (range, 13-42 months), 1 patient had experienced local recurrence and a second developed distant metastatic disease. Two patients had magnetic resonance imaging-documented temporal lobe changes, and a third patient developed facial numbness. No other subacute or late effects were recorded. Conclusions: In comparison to passive scattering, treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy displayed improved high-dose conformality. Clinically, the treatment was well tolerated, and

  10. The Red Queen model of recombination hot-spot evolution: a theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrille, Thibault; Duret, Laurent; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2017-12-19

    In humans and many other species, recombination events cluster in narrow and short-lived hot spots distributed across the genome, whose location is determined by the Zn-finger protein PRDM9. To explain these fast evolutionary dynamics, an intra-genomic Red Queen model has been proposed, based on the interplay between two antagonistic forces: biased gene conversion, mediated by double-strand breaks, resulting in hot-spot extinction, followed by positive selection favouring new PRDM9 alleles recognizing new sequence motifs. Thus far, however, this Red Queen model has not been formalized as a quantitative population-genetic model, fully accounting for the intricate interplay between biased gene conversion, mutation, selection, demography and genetic diversity at the PRDM9 locus. Here, we explore the population genetics of the Red Queen model of recombination. A Wright-Fisher simulator was implemented, allowing exploration of the behaviour of the model (mean equilibrium recombination rate, diversity at the PRDM9 locus or turnover rate) as a function of the parameters (effective population size, mutation and erosion rates). In a second step, analytical results based on self-consistent mean-field approximations were derived, reproducing the scaling relations observed in the simulations. Empirical fit of the model to current data from the mouse suggests both a high mutation rate at PRDM9 and strong biased gene conversion on its targets.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms'. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Dry-run of site investigation planning using the manual for preliminary investigation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamura, Shigeki; Miwa, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Shiratsuchi, Hiroshi; Horio, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    A stepwise site selection process has been adopted for geological disposal of HLW in Japan. Literature surveys, followed by preliminary investigations (PI) and, finally, detailed investigations in underground facilities will be carried out in the successive selection stages. In the PI stage, surface-based investigations such as borehole surveys and geophysical prospecting will be implemented. In order to conduct the PI appropriately and efficiently within a restricted timeframe and budget, planning and management of PI are very important. NUMO therefore compiled existing knowledge and experience in the planning and managing of investigations in the form of manuals to be used to improve and maintain internal expertise. The first editions of the two manuals were prepared on the basis of experience overseas, and then they were revised by taking technological environment, laws and regulation in Japan into consideration. This paper introduces the procedure of PI planning using manual as well as the results of the dry-run, with the Yokosuka area as a hypothetical PI area, where the monstraction study is under way. Based on the dry-run, applicability of the manual is checked and, at the same time, further revisions are made to improve the content. (author)

  12. Preliminary investigation into aerosol mobilization resulting from fusion reactor disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, J.P.; Bourham, M.A.; Gilligan, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental system has been developed to study disruption-induced aerosol mobilization for fusion accident analysis. The SIRENS high heat flux facility at North Carolina State University has been modified to closely simulate disruption conditions expected in tokamak reactors. A hot vapor is formed by an ablation-controlled arc and expansion cooled into a glass chamber, where particle condensation and growth occur. The particles are collected and analyzed for relevant transport properties (e.g. size distribution and shape). Particle characterization methods are discussed, and preliminary results based on simple analysis techniques are given. 2 refs., 6 figs

  13. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  14. On the Issue of the Concepts Ratio "Criminal Prosecution", "Charge", "Suspicion", "Preliminary Investigation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemlyanitsin E. I.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to correlate such legal categories as "criminal prosecution", "charge", "suspicion", "preliminary investigation". Here is presented the comparative analysis of charge and suspicion as inherent elements of the agencies activities exercising criminal prosecution.

  15. The Effects of Battalion Staff Stabilization on Individual and Unit Performance: A Preliminary Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ardison, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    ... (six of the seven units). Although improvements in leadership skills and abilities were associated with longer command team tenure, the results are those of a preliminary investigation and not intended for generalization to the Army-at-large.

  16. Preliminary investigation of liquid phase sintering in ferrous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1975-04-01

    Liquid phase sintering was utilized to achieve, by a simple compaction and sintering procedure involving short times and moderate temperatures, a virtually full dense high carbon Fe:C alloy and high boron Fe:B alloy. Parameters such as powder characteristics and mixing, compacting pressure, heating program and the liquid phase fraction were found to influence the sintered density. The response of the Fe:C alloy to a heat treatment is reported along with preliminary experiments in the iron base ternary system Fe:W:C. Residual porosities observed in microstructures of certain liquid phase sintered compacts were accounted for by a proposed capillary flow of the liquid phase and a local densification competing against an overall densification. Some general recommendations are made for liquid phase sintering of powder aggregates. 15 fig., 7 tables

  17. Hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis in the dried blood spots investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Alicja; Wietecha-Posłuszny, Renata; Mendys, Agata; Wójtowicz, Anna; Łydżba-Kopczyńska, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a new methodology using the combination of the hyperspectral imaging and the dry blood spot (DBS) collecting. Application of the hyperspectral imaging is fast and non-destructive. DBS method offers the advantage also on the micro-invasive blood collecting and low volume of required sample. During experimental step, the reflected light was recorded by two hyperspectral systems. The collection of 776 spectral bands in the VIS-NIR range (400-1000 nm) and 256 spectral bands in the SWIR range (970-2500 nm) was applied. Pixel has the size of 8 × 8 and 30 × 30 µm for VIS-NIR and SWIR camera, respectively. The obtained data in the form of hyperspectral cubes were treated with chemometric methods, i.e., minimum noise fraction and principal component analysis. It has been shown that the application of these methods on this type of data, by analyzing the scatter plots, allows a rapid analysis of the homogeneity of DBS, and the selection of representative areas for further analysis. It also gives the possibility of tracking the dynamics of changes occurring in biological traces applied on the surface. For the analyzed 28 blood samples, described method allowed to distinguish those blood stains because of time of apply.

  18. Preliminary risk assessment of the Mexican Spotted Owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Pratt, L.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that the Department of Energy takes special precautions to protect the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida). In order to do so, risk to the owl presented by radiological and nonradiological contaminants must be estimated. A preliminary risk assessment on the Mexican Spotted Owl in two Ecological Exposure Units (EEUs) was performed using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Quotient method, the FORTRAN model ECORSK4, and a geographic information system. Estimated doses to the owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime were compared against toxicological reference doses generating hazard indices (HIs) and hazard quotients (HQs) for three risk source types. The average HI was 0.20 for EEU-21 and 0.0015 for EEU-40. Under the risk parameter assumptions made, hazard quotient results indicated no unacceptable risk to the owl, including a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes a linear additive toxicity type. An HI of 1.0 was used as the evaluative criteria for determining the acceptability of risk. This value was exceeded (1.06) in only one of 200 simulated potential nest sites. Cesium-137, Ni, {sup 239}Pu, Al and {sup 234}U we`re among the constituents with the highest partial HQs. Improving model realism by weighting simulated owl foraging based on distance from potential nest sites decreased the estimated risk by 72% (0.5 HI units) for EEU-21 and by 97.6% (6.3E-02 HI units) for EEU-40. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, owl habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at acceptably low levels.

  19. Preliminary risk assessment of the Mexican Spotted Owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Pratt, L.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that the Department of Energy takes special precautions to protect the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida). In order to do so, risk to the owl presented by radiological and nonradiological contaminants must be estimated. A preliminary risk assessment on the Mexican Spotted Owl in two Ecological Exposure Units (EEUs) was performed using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Quotient method, the FORTRAN model ECORSK4, and a geographic information system. Estimated doses to the owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime were compared against toxicological reference doses generating hazard indices (HIs) and hazard quotients (HQs) for three risk source types. The average HI was 0.20 for EEU-21 and 0.0015 for EEU-40. Under the risk parameter assumptions made, hazard quotient results indicated no unacceptable risk to the owl, including a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes a linear additive toxicity type. An HI of 1.0 was used as the evaluative criteria for determining the acceptability of risk. This value was exceeded (1.06) in only one of 200 simulated potential nest sites. Cesium-137, Ni, 239 Pu, Al and 234 U we're among the constituents with the highest partial HQs. Improving model realism by weighting simulated owl foraging based on distance from potential nest sites decreased the estimated risk by 72% (0.5 HI units) for EEU-21 and by 97.6% (6.3E-02 HI units) for EEU-40. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, owl habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at acceptably low levels

  20. Preliminary Investigations of Eddy Current Effects on a Spinning Disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piggott, W T; Walston, S; Mayhall, D

    2006-01-01

    The design of the positron source target for the International Linear Collider (ILC) envisions a Ti6Al4V wheel rotating in a large magnetic field (5-10 Tesla) being impacted by a photon beam to produce positrons. One of the many challenges for this system is determining how large a motor will be needed to spin the shaft. The wheel spinning in the magnetic field induces an eddy current in the wheel, which retards the spinning motion of the wheel. Earlier calculations by Mayhall [1] have shown that those eddy forces could be quite large, and resulted in the preliminary design being moved from a solid disk to a rim and spoke design, as shown in Figure 1. A series of experiments with a spinning metal disk were run at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to provide experimental validation of the Maxwell 3D simulations. This report will give a brief outline of the experimental setup and results. In addition, earlier work by Smythe [2] will be used to compare with the experimental results

  1. Investigation of Sorption and Diffusion Mechanisms, and Preliminary Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sankar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. Several monovalent and divalent cation exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water. Experiments were performed using tritiated water feed solution containing tritium at the high end of the range (1 mCi/mL) anticipated in a nuclear fuel processing system that includes both acid and water streams recycling. The tritium concentration was about 0.1 ppm. The permeate was recovered under vacuum. The HTO/H2O selectivity and separation factor calculated from the measured tritium concentrations ranged from 0.99 to 1.23, and 0.83-0.98, respectively. Although the membrane performance for HTO separation was lower than expected, several encouraging observations including molecular sieving and high vapor permeance are reported. Additionally, several new approaches are proposed, such as tuning the sorption and diffusion properties offered by small pore LTA zeolite materials, and cation exchanged aluminosilicates with high metal loading. It is hypothesized that substantially improved preferential transport of tritium (HTO) resulting in a more concentrated permeate can be achieved. Preliminary economic analysis for the membrane-based process to concentrate tritiated water is also discussed.

  2. Experimental investigation into methane hydrate production during three-dimensional thermal stimulation with five-spot well system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Xiao-Sen; Li, Gang; Zhang, Yu; Li, Bo; Chen, Zhao-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The production behaviors of methane hydrate are obtained in the 3-D simulator. • The thermal stimulation method with a five-spot well is used for hydrate production. • The water and gas production, efficiency, recovery, production rate are analyzed. • The effect of injection rate change on the production behavior is investigated. - Abstract: The cubic hydrate simulator (CHS) is used to study the methane hydrate production behaviors in porous media by the thermal stimulation with a five-spot well system. The hot water injection rates range from 10.0 to 40.0 ml/min. The thermal stimulation process is analyzed, and the conclusions are that the hydrate decomposition boundary moves from the central point to the surroundings gradually and finally covers almost the entire hydrate field in the CHS during the thermal stimulation process. The heat conduction plays a more significant role than the convection for the heat diffusion in the thermal stimulation process. The increasing injection rate of the hot water enhances the rate of hydrate decomposition, shortens the production time, and decreases the water production volumes, while it has little influence on the final gas production volumes. Furthermore, the change of the hot water injection rate (R inj ) has little influence on the final gas recovery, however, the higher R inj leads to the higher average production rate and the lower energy efficiency

  3. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery, Genotyping and Their Preliminary Applications for Population Genetic Inference in Spotted Sea Bass (Lateolabrax maculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs allow identifying fine-scale population genetic structure and genomic regions under selection. The spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus is a non-model species of ecological and commercial importance and widely distributed in northwestern Pacific. A total of 22 648 SNPs was discovered across the genome of L. maculatus by paired-end sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-PE for 30 individuals from two populations. The nucleotide diversity (π for each population was 0.0028±0.0001 in Dandong and 0.0018±0.0001 in Beihai, respectively. Shallow but significant genetic differentiation was detected between the two populations analyzed by using both the whole data set (FST = 0.0550, P < 0.001 and the putatively neutral SNPs (FST = 0.0347, P < 0.001. However, the two populations were highly differentiated based on the putatively adaptive SNPs (FST = 0.6929, P < 0.001. Moreover, a total of 356 SNPs representing 298 unique loci were detected as outliers putatively under divergent selection by FST-based outlier tests as implemented in BAYESCAN and LOSITAN. Functional annotation of the contigs containing putatively adaptive SNPs yielded hits for 22 of 55 (40% significant BLASTX matches. Candidate genes for local selection constituted a wide array of functions, including binding, catalytic and metabolic activities, etc. The analyses with the SNPs developed in the present study highlighted the importance of genome-wide genetic variation for inference of population structure and local adaptation in L. maculatus.

  4. Preliminary investigation into the cause of acid mine water induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An approach to risk assessment of possible earthquake scenarios in the City of Johannesburg (CoJ) is proposed. The approach aims to assess potential damage to infrastructure and loss of life in the case of an earthquake. The results of such an assessment may provide justification for more detailed investigations.

  5. The Privatization of College Counseling Services: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Larry; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates 31 colleges and 1 state system of 21 colleges that addressed privatizing counseling services. A small number of colleges were found to have adopted different models of outsourcing, and some had considered outsourcing but not pursued it. Discusses advantages, disadvantages, factors affecting decision making, and levels of success. (JPS)

  6. Preliminaries to an investigation of reduced product set finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Principles of financial product synthesis from a few basic financial products constitute an interesting research topic inspired by Islamic finance. We make an effort to answer general questions that should be answered before starting to investigate the main issues concerning this topic with the

  7. Preliminaries to an investigation of reduced product set finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Principles of financial product synthesis from a few basic financial products constitute an interesting research topic inspired by Islamic finance. We make an effort to answer general questions that should be answered before starting to investigate the main issues concerning this topic with the

  8. A preliminary investigation into genotype x environment interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to investigate a possible genotype by environment interaction in first calf South African Holstein cows for both production and reproduction traits. Data from 100 975 cows on a total mixed ration (TMR) and 22 083 pasture based cows were used. These cows were the progeny of 4 391 sires and ...

  9. Preliminary investigation on the conversion of aquaculture solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conversion of aquaculture solid wastes into single cell protein (SCP) for fish feed through solid state fermentation using three fungi species, Aspergilus niger, Trichodema viride and Rhizopus species were investigated. Solid aquaculture waste was collected from the sedimentation unit of a re-circulating aquaculture farm in ...

  10. Thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities of andrographis paniculata - a preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M. M.A.; Shohel, M. [North South Univ., Dhaka (Bangladesh). Dept. of Pharmaceutical; Uddin, M. M.N. [University of Chittagong (Bangladesh). Dept. of Pharmacy

    2014-07-15

    An attempt has been made to investigate thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata whole plant. Phytochemical constituents of A. paniculata were assessed by human erythrocyte and the results were compared with standard streptokinase (SK). Moreover, the plant extracts were compared with the antibiotic kanamycin to investigate antibacterial activity against several microorganisms. Glycosides, steroids, phenols, alkaloid and tannins were found in the ethanol extract of whole plant. Crude ethanol extract (P<0.05) and soluble fraction of ethanol extract (P<0.05) have shown thrombolytic properties. Crude ethanol extract, n-hexane soluble fractions and carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of ethanol extract of the whole plant have shown antimicrobial activities against common gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. The results of current study justify thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities of A. paniculata. (author)

  11. Thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities of andrographis paniculata - a preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.A.; Shohel, M.; Uddin, M.M.N.

    2014-01-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata whole plant. Phytochemical constituents of A. paniculata were assessed by human erythrocyte and the results were compared with standard streptokinase (SK). Moreover, the plant extracts were compared with the antibiotic kanamycin to investigate antibacterial activity against several microorganisms. Glycosides, steroids, phenols, alkaloid and tannins were found in the ethanol extract of whole plant. Crude ethanol extract (P<0.05) and soluble fraction of ethanol extract (P<0.05) have shown thrombolytic properties. Crude ethanol extract, n-hexane soluble fractions and carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of ethanol extract of the whole plant have shown antimicrobial activities against common gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. The results of current study justify thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities of A. paniculata. (author)

  12. Preliminary investigation of aluminum combustion in air and steam.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallenbeck, Amos Edward.

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. The goal of the experiment is to understand the role of metal-steam combustion in the explosion of underwater shaped cnarges. An apparatus was constructed to investigate combustion of aluminum in stes.m. For background information, aluminum wires (1 mm diameter, 50 mm length) were ignited in air by high current (480 amperes) . Tests in air and steam were photographed using 35 mm color slides and 16 mm movies (4300 fr...

  13. Social perception: historic-philosophical and psychological preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Pocelujko

    2015-01-01

    The article investigates the prerequisite analysis of social perception in different epistemological, psychological General (socio­psychological) theories. Epistemology is the philosophy section, which explores the general premise of cognitive activity, the ratio of knowledge and reality, establishing the terms of true and certain knowledge creates a stable foundation for the study of social perception. Depending on a particular epistemological concepts can differentiate different understandi...

  14. Hot Spots in the Earth's Crust. Crustal Evolution Education Project. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.

    Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) modules were designed to: (1) provide students with the methods and results of continuing investigations into the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge to man's activities and (2) to be used by teachers with little or no previous background in the…

  15. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1 in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available, 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition, and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available. The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2, the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research.

  16. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, K.; Pastula, E., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the 15-month investigation now in the analysis phase is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area, jointly acquired by private and professional fishermen and NASA and NOAA/NMFS elements, in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data.

  17. The effect of stuttering on communication: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; Ferguson, Alison

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a study in which Systemic Functional Linguistics was applied to describe how people who stutter use language. The aim of the study was to determine and describe any differences in language use between a group of 10 adults who stutter and 10 matched normally-fluent speakers. In addition to formal linguistic analyses, analyses drawn from Systemic Functional Linguistics were used to further investigate the expression of both syntactic and semantic complexity. The findings from this study replicated previous findings of Packman et al. in which they found that the language used by people who stutter was significantly less complex than the control group. Another major finding was that adults who stuttered used the linguistic resource of modality significantly less than the normally-fluent matched peers. The implications these strategies have on communication and social participation will be discussed.

  18. A preliminary investigation on the topology of Chinese climate networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge-Li, Wang; Tsonis, Anastasios A

    2009-01-01

    Complex networks have been studied across many fields of science in recent years. In this paper, we give a brief introduction of networks, then follow the original works by Tsonis et al (2004, 2006) starting with data of the surface temperature from 160 Chinese weather observations to investigate the topology of Chinese climate networks. Results show that the Chinese climate network exhibits a characteristic of regular, almost fully connected networks, which means that most nodes in this case have the same number of links, and so-called super nodes with a very large number of links do not exist there. In other words, though former results show that nodes in the extratropical region provide a property of scale-free networks, they still have other different local fine structures inside. We also detect the community of the Chinese climate network by using a Bayesian technique; the effective number of communities of the Chinese climate network is about four in this network. More importantly, this technique approaches results in divisions which have connections with physics and dynamics; the division into communities may highlight the aspects of the dynamics of climate variability. (geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics)

  19. Preliminary Investigation of the Process Capabilities of Hydroforging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Alzahrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroforging is a hybrid forming operation whereby a thick tube is formed to a desired geometry by combining forging and hydroforming principles. Through this process hollow structures with high strength-to-weight ratio can be produced for applications in power transmission systems and other structural components that demands high strength-to-weight ratio. In this process, a thick tube is deformed by pressurized fluid contained within the tube using a multi-purpose punch assembly, which is also used to feed tube material into the die cavity. Fluid pressure inside the thick tube is developed by volume change governed by the movement of the punch assembly. In contrast to the conventional tube hydroforming (THF, the hydroforging process presented in this study does not require external supply of pressurized fluid to the deforming tube. To investigate the capability of hydroforging process, an experimental setup was developed and used to hydroforge various geometries. These geometries included hollow flanged vessels, hexagonal flanged parts, and hollow bevel and spur gears.

  20. Investigation of mixing and diffusion processes in hybrid spot laser-MIG keyhole welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J; Tsai, H L

    2009-01-01

    In hybrid laser-MIG keyhole welding, anti-crack elements can be added into the weld pool through a filler metal in anticipation of compensating mass loss, preventing porosity formation and improving compositional and mechanical properties of the welds. Understanding the mixing and diffusion of the filler metal in the molten pool is vital to achieve these desired objectives. In this study, mathematical models and associated numerical techniques have been developed to investigate the mixing and diffusion processes in hybrid laser-MIG keyhole welding. The transient interactions between droplets and weld pool and dynamics of the melt flow are studied. The effects of key process parameters, such as droplet size (wire diameter), droplet generation frequency (wire feed speed) and droplet impinging speed, on mixing/diffusion are systematically investigated. It was found that compositional homogeneity of the weld pool is determined by the competition between the mixing rate and the solidification rate. A small-size filler droplet together with high generation frequency can increase the latitudinal diffusion of the filler metal into the weld pool, while the large-size droplet along with the low generation frequency helps to get more uniform longitudinal diffusion. Increasing the impinging velocity of the filler droplet can improve the latitudinal diffusion of the filler metal. However, a high impinging velocity can cause a lower diffusion zone in the upper part of the welds. This study provides a good foundation for optimizing the hybrid laser-MIG keyhole welding process to achieve quality welds with desired properties.

  1. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechmann, Samuel N., E-mail: stechmann@wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2014-08-15

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy–clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes.

  2. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stechmann, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy–clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes

  3. A preliminary investigation of daily variability of stuttering in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Christopher D; Leslie, Paula; Quesal, Robert W; Yaruss, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Variability in frequency of stuttering has made the results of treatment outcome studies difficult to interpret. Many factors that affect variability have been investigated; yet the typical range of variability experienced by speakers remains unknown. This study examined the day-to-day variability in the percentage of syllables containing stuttered and nonstuttered disfluencies in the speech of six adult speakers in three spontaneous speaking situations and two reading tasks. The frequency of moments stuttering during the tasks were compared within and between speakers and days to document the degree of variability in stuttering frequency and explore whether there were any consistent patterns. The Stuttering Severity Instrument-Fourth Edition (SSI-4) and Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering for Adults (OASES-A) were also tested for day-to-day variability. Correlations between frequency, severity, and life impact were made. The primary result of this study was the large range over which frequency of stuttering varied from day to day for the same individual. This variability did not correlate with any measures of stuttering severity but did correlate with life impact as measured by the OASES-A. No global pattern was detected in variability from day to day within or between participants. However, there were significantly more nonstuttered disfluencies present during the spontaneous speaking tasks than during the reading tasks. The day-to-day variability in the life impact of the disorder (OASES-A) was less than the day-to-day variability in observable stuttering behavior (percentage of syllables stuttered and SSI-4). Frequency of stuttering varies significantly from situation to situation and day to day, with observed variability exceeding the degree of change often reported in treatment outcomes studies from before to after treatment. This variability must be accounted for in future clinical and scientific work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  4. Music therapy assessment in school settings: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B L; Smith, D S

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken in response to music therapists working in school settings for information relating to the availability of music therapy assessments and the feasibility of standardizing an assessment instrument for music therapists to use in school settings. Five research questions were identified, and the music therapy literature was surveyed to compile responses to those questions. Three different online data bases (ERIC, PsycINFO, and Article 1st) were used, covering articles published between 1980 and 1997. Individual hand searches were done of the Arts in Psychotherapy, Journal of Music Therapy, Journal of Research in Music Education, Journal of the International Association of Music for the Handicapped, Music Therapy and Music Therapy Perspectives. The questions and responses were as follows: 1. Which music-based assessment tools are being used with children with disabilities? Little commonality in assessment tools being used by music therapists and researchers was discovered. Of the total 41 studies, 20 (49%) reported using a "named" or "titled" assessment tool, and in the remaining 51% of studies, the authors reported using an untitled, and usually experimenter-designed, original assessment tool. 2. Have certain assessments been used in more than one study? Very limited replication of existing assessments was found. Of the 16 "named" assessments, only 3 were found to be used in more than one research study. 3. Are the actual assessments published along with the articles describing their use? Only 3 of the 20 studies using named assessments were published along with the journal article. Of the remaining 21 studies using original, experimenter-designed assessment tools, only 6 (28%) had the assessment instrument published with the article. 4. What is the primary purpose for using the assessment? Six primary purposes emerged from the review of the literature: to compare with data obtained from other assessment measures or from other

  5. A Preliminary Investigation into the Information Sharing Behavior of Social Media Users after a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides the results of a preliminary investigation into the information sharing behavior of social media users after a natural disaster. The results indicate that users shared information that they thought victims would find useful. On the other hand, they reported that they usually do not or never share information considered useful to…

  6. Using Web-Based Homework to Teach Principles of Microeconomics: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jeannette C.; Mitchell, Johanna E.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates an interactive web-based homework designed to increase student understanding in a principles of microeconomics course. Employing concepts from Action Research, the preliminary investigation was undertaken based on assumptions about the efficacy of online educational resources. Do students who do well on online homework improve…

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of a Randomized Dependent Group Contingency for Hallway Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshais, Meghan A.; Fisher, Alyssa B.; Kahng, SungWoo

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a preliminary investigation of a randomized dependent group contingency to decrease disruptive behavior during hallway transitions. Two first-graders, identified by their classroom teacher, participated in this study. A multiple baseline across transitions was used to evaluate the effects of the randomized dependent group contingency…

  8. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  9. A Preliminary Investigation into Parents' Concerns about Programming Education in Japanese Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukiko; Kanoh, Hiroko; Adachi, Kinya

    2017-01-01

    To investigate parents' concerns about programming education in primary school, a preliminary online survey was carried out as a first step of the study. The result of the survey shows that parents seem to think that aim of programming education in primary school is not only learning coding. [For the complete proceedings, see ED579395.

  10. A preliminary investigation of fine sediment dynamics in Cumbarjua canal, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehta, A; Nayak, B.U.; Hayter, E

    A preliminary field investigation was carried out in a 10 km reach of Cumbarjua Canal, Goa, India, where the sediment is in the fine size range, and the flow is primarily tide-induced. Results based on observations made during February, 1980...

  11. Investigation on the Mechanism and Failure Mode of Laser Transmission Spot Welding Using PMMA Material for the Automotive Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Liu, Baoguang; Liu, Wei; Zhong, Xuejiao; Jiang, Yingjie; Liu, Huixia

    2017-01-01

    To satisfy the need of polymer connection in lightweight automobiles, a study on laser transmission spot welding using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is conducted by using an Nd:YAG pulse laser. The influence of three variables, namely peak voltages, defocusing distances and the welding type (type I (pulse frequency and the duration is 25 Hz, 0.6 s) and type II (pulse frequency and the duration is 5 Hz, 3 s)) to the welding quality was investigated. The result showed that, in the case of the same peak voltages and defocusing distances, the number of bubbles for type I was obviously more than type II. The failure mode of type I was the base plate fracture along the solder joint, and the connection strength of type I was greater than type II. The weld pool diameter:depth ratio for type I was significantly greater than type II. It could be seen that there was a certain relationship between the weld pool diameter:depth ratio and the welding strength. By the finite element simulation, the weld pool for type I was more slender than type II, which was approximately the same as the experimental results.

  12. Investigation on the Mechanism and Failure Mode of Laser Transmission Spot Welding Using PMMA Material for the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Liu, Baoguang; Liu, Wei; Zhong, Xuejiao; Jiang, Yingjie; Liu, Huixia

    2017-01-01

    To satisfy the need of polymer connection in lightweight automobiles, a study on laser transmission spot welding using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is conducted by using an Nd:YAG pulse laser. The influence of three variables, namely peak voltages, defocusing distances and the welding type (type I (pulse frequency and the duration is 25 Hz, 0.6 s) and type II (pulse frequency and the duration is 5 Hz, 3 s)) to the welding quality was investigated. The result showed that, in the case of the same peak voltages and defocusing distances, the number of bubbles for type I was obviously more than type II. The failure mode of type I was the base plate fracture along the solder joint, and the connection strength of type I was greater than type II. The weld pool diameter:depth ratio for type I was significantly greater than type II. It could be seen that there was a certain relationship between the weld pool diameter:depth ratio and the welding strength. By the finite element simulation, the weld pool for type I was more slender than type II, which was approximately the same as the experimental results. PMID:28772383

  13. Investigation on the Mechanism and Failure Mode of Laser Transmission Spot Welding Using PMMA Material for the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy the need of polymer connection in lightweight automobiles, a study on laser transmission spot welding using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA is conducted by using an Nd:YAG pulse laser. The influence of three variables, namely peak voltages, defocusing distances and the welding type (type I (pulse frequency and the duration is 25 Hz, 0.6 s and type II (pulse frequency and the duration is 5 Hz, 3 s to the welding quality was investigated. The result showed that, in the case of the same peak voltages and defocusing distances, the number of bubbles for type I was obviously more than type II. The failure mode of type I was the base plate fracture along the solder joint, and the connection strength of type I was greater than type II. The weld pool diameter:depth ratio for type I was significantly greater than type II. It could be seen that there was a certain relationship between the weld pool diameter:depth ratio and the welding strength. By the finite element simulation, the weld pool for type I was more slender than type II, which was approximately the same as the experimental results.

  14. Investigations on the Effects of Five Different Plant Extracts on the Two-Spotted Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervin Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arac.: Tetranychidae, is an economic pest worldwide including Turkey, causing serious damage to vegetables, flowers, and fruit crops. In recent years, broad-spectrum insecticides/miticides have been used to control this pest in Turkey. Control is difficult mainly due to resistance to conventional pesticides. This study was conducted to determine efficacy of pesticides extracted from five different plants [i.e., Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae, Rhododendron luteum S. (Ericaceae, Helichrysum arenarium L. (Asteraceae, Veratrum album L. (Liliaceae, and Tanacetum parthenium L. (Asteraceae] against this mite. Bioassays were tested by two different methods to determine the effects of varying concentrations. Experiments were performed using 3 cm diameter leaf disk from unsprayed bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. In addition, the effects of the extracts on reproduction and oviposition were investigated. The extract yielded high mortality. In the lowest-concentration bioassays, the adult mites laid lower numbers of eggs compared to the untreated control. No ovicidal effect was observed.

  15. Bier spots

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Yorulmaz,; Seray Kulcu Cakmak; Esra Ar?; Ferda Artuz

    2015-01-01

    Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elu...

  16. Moral and Property Harm as Consequence of Violation of Reasonable Time of Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibiamin N. Nuriev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the article is that it examines the provisions of the criminal procedure law on a reasonable time of preliminary investigation, the consequences of violation of a reasonable period of preliminary investigation. A formula is proposed that makes it possible to make a clearer idea of a reasonable time as a border in the criminal procedural time between conditionally permitted and absolutely unacceptable. In the Author's opinion, the consequences of a violation of a reasonable period is the person's moral and (or property damage. The Author recommends that in the Federal Law of April 30, 2010, No. 68-FZ, replace the concept of “significance of consequences” with the notion of “harm”.

  17. Investigation of polarized-proton target materials by differential calorimetry: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.; Hill, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple differential calorimeter was designed and operated for an investigation of the thermodynamic properties of polarized target materials. The calibration and use of the calorimeter are discussed, after a brief exposition of our motivation for this work. The results of a preliminary study of target materials is presented with emphasis on the relevance of the glass state to dynamic polarization in chemically-doped targets

  18. Monetary Policy Committee and Monetary Policy Conduct in Nigeria: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ekor, Maxwell; Saka, Jimoh; Adeniyi, Oluwatosin

    2014-01-01

    The study provides an incisive but preliminary investigation into the activities of the monetary policy committee of the central bank of Nigeria and the implications for monetary policy, using the standard deviation measure of volatility and the ordinary least square method. The findings show that the ‘internal’ members and majority of the ‘external’ members have different preferences as shown in the voting patterns. Also, there has been reduction in inflation, money and stock markets vola...

  19. Small-angle neutron scattering investigations of Co-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanga, Dorina; Balasoiu, Maria; Soloviov, Dmitro; Balasoiu-Gaina, Alexandra-Maria; Puscasu, Emil; Lupu, Nicoleta; Stan, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    Preliminary small-angle neutron scattering investigations on aqueous suspensions of several cobalt doped ferrites (CoxFe3-xO4, x=0; 0.5; 1) nanoparticles prepared by chemical co-precipitation method, are reported. The measurements were accomplished at the YuMO instrument in function at the IBR-2 reactor. Results of intermediary data treatment are presented and discussed.

  20. An Investigation of the Measurement Properties of the Spot-the-Word Test In a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Andrew; Christensen, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Intellectual ability is assessed with the Spot-the-Word (STW) test (A. Baddeley, H. Emslie, & I. Nimmo Smith, 1993) by asking respondents to identify a word in a word-nonword item pair. Results in moderate-sized samples suggest this ability is resistant to decline due to dementia. The authors used a 3-parameter item response theory model to…

  1. Investigation of a turbulent spot and a tripped turbulent boundary layer flow using time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, A.; Geisler, R.; Elsinga, G.E.; Scarano, F.; Dierksheide, U.

    2007-01-01

    In this feasibility study the tomographic PIV technique has been applied to time resolved PIV recordings for the study of the growth of a turbulent spot in a laminar flat plate boundary layer and to visualize the topology of coherent flow structures within a tripped turbulent flat plate boundary

  2. Experimental investigation of cathode spots and plasma jets behavior subjected to two kinds of axial magnetic field electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Shenli; Qian, Zhonghao; Shi, Zongqian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, cathode spot plasma jet (CSPJ) rotation and cathode spots behavior subjected to two kinds of large diameter axial magnetic field (AMF) electrode (cup-shaped and coil-shaped) are studied and analyzed based on experiments. The influence of gap distances on the CSPJ rotational behavior is analyzed. Experimental results show that CSPJ rotational phenomena extensively exist in the vacuum interrupters, and CSPJ rotational direction is along the direction of composite magnetic field (mainly the combination of the axial and azimuthal components). For coil-shaped and cup-shaped AMF electrodes, the rotational or inclination phenomena before the current peak value are much more significant than that after current peak value (for the same arc current), which is related to the larger ratio of azimuthal magnetic field B_t and AMF B_z (B_t/B_z). With the increase of the gap distance, the AMF strength decreases, when the arc current is kept as constant, the azimuthal magnetic field is kept invariable, the ratio between azimuthal magnetic field and AMF is increased, which results in the increase of rotational effect. For cathode spots motion, compared with cup-shaped electrode, coil-shaped electrode has the inverse AMF direction. The Robson drift direction of cathode spots of coil-shaped electrode is opposite to that of cup-shaped electrode. With the increase of gap distance, the Robson angle is decreased, which is associated with the reduced AMF strength. Erosion imprints of anode and cathode are also related to the CSPJ rotational phenomena and cathode spots behavior. The noise of arc voltage in the initial arcing stage is related to the weaker AMF.

  3. Experimental investigation of cathode spots and plasma jets behavior subjected to two kinds of axial magnetic field electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Shenli; Qian, Zhonghao; Shi, Zongqian [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, cathode spot plasma jet (CSPJ) rotation and cathode spots behavior subjected to two kinds of large diameter axial magnetic field (AMF) electrode (cup-shaped and coil-shaped) are studied and analyzed based on experiments. The influence of gap distances on the CSPJ rotational behavior is analyzed. Experimental results show that CSPJ rotational phenomena extensively exist in the vacuum interrupters, and CSPJ rotational direction is along the direction of composite magnetic field (mainly the combination of the axial and azimuthal components). For coil-shaped and cup-shaped AMF electrodes, the rotational or inclination phenomena before the current peak value are much more significant than that after current peak value (for the same arc current), which is related to the larger ratio of azimuthal magnetic field B{sub t} and AMF B{sub z} (B{sub t}/B{sub z}). With the increase of the gap distance, the AMF strength decreases, when the arc current is kept as constant, the azimuthal magnetic field is kept invariable, the ratio between azimuthal magnetic field and AMF is increased, which results in the increase of rotational effect. For cathode spots motion, compared with cup-shaped electrode, coil-shaped electrode has the inverse AMF direction. The Robson drift direction of cathode spots of coil-shaped electrode is opposite to that of cup-shaped electrode. With the increase of gap distance, the Robson angle is decreased, which is associated with the reduced AMF strength. Erosion imprints of anode and cathode are also related to the CSPJ rotational phenomena and cathode spots behavior. The noise of arc voltage in the initial arcing stage is related to the weaker AMF.

  4. Bier spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elucidated, Bier spots have been suggested to be a vascular anomaly caused by vasoconstriction of small vessels. In addition, several diseases have been proposed to be associated with Bier spots, including scleroderma renal crisis, cryoglobulinemia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, alopecia areata and hypoplasia of the aorta, although it has not been shown whether these associations are casual or coincidental. The clinical presentation of Bier spots is quite typical. These tiny whitish macules easily become prominent when the affected limb is placed in a dependent position and fade away when the limb is raised. Here we report a case of Bier spots in a 32-year-old male patient with characteristical clinical manifestations.

  5. High quality methylome-wide investigations through next-generation sequencing of DNA from a single archived dry blood spot

    OpenAIRE

    Aberg, Karolina A.; Xie, Lin Y.; Nerella, Srilaxmi; Copeland, William E.; Costello, E. Jane; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    The potential importance of DNA methylation in the etiology of complex diseases has led to interest in the development of methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) aimed at interrogating all methylation sites in the human genome. When using blood as biomaterial for a MWAS the DNA is typically extracted directly from fresh or frozen whole blood that was collected via venous puncture. However, DNA extracted from dry blood spots may also be an alternative starting material. In the present study,...

  6. [Scanning electron microscopic investigations of cutting edge quality in lamellar keratotomy using the Wavelight femtosecond laser (FS-200) : What influence do spot distance and an additional tunnel have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, T; Höche, T; Heichel, J

    2018-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers (fs-lasers) are established cutting instruments for the creation of LASIK flaps. Previous studies often showed even rougher surfaces after application of fs-laser systems compared to lamellar keratotomy with mechanical microkeratomes. When cutting the cornea with fs-lasers, an intrastromal gas development occurs, which has a potentially negative influence on the cutting quality if the gas cannot be dissipated; therefore, manufacturers have chosen the way of gas assimilation in so-called pockets. The investigated system creates a tunnel which opens under the conjunctiva. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a tunnel as well as the influence of different spot distances on the quality of cut surfaces and edges. In this experimental study on freshly enucleated porcine eyes (n = 15), the following cuts were carried out with the FS-200 (Wavelight, Erlangen, Germany): 1. standard setting (spot and line separation 8 µm), 2. with tunnel for gas drainage, 3. without gas-conducting tunnel, 4. with increased spot spacing (spot and line separation 9 μm instead of 8 μm) and 5. with reduced spot spacing (spot and line separation 7 μm instead of 8 μm). Subsequently, scanning electron microscopy (FEI Quanta 650, Hillsboro, OR) of the cut edges and surfaces as well as the gas drain tunnel were performed. The evaluation was based on an established score. The current fs-laser system (200 Hz) is able to create smooth cutting surfaces and sharp edges. The changed density of laser pulses compared to the standard settings with a reduced or increased distance between the pulses, did not achieve any further improvement in the surface quality. The gas-conducting tunnel could be detected by scanning electron microscope. In the case of cutting without a tunnel, roughened surfaces and irregularities on the cutting edges were found. When the FS-200 fs-laser is used, LASIK cuts with very smooth cut surfaces and sharp cutting

  7. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  8. Spotted inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions

  9. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-04-19

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B(12) injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management.

  10. Facilitating programming comprehension for novice learners with multimedia approach: A preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Subashini; Salam, Sobihatun Nur Abdul

    2017-10-01

    This research paper presents the preliminary investigation on the use of an interactive multimedia courseware named MAFPro, to facilitate C Programming lessons for novice learners. The courseware utilizes the elements of multimedia that focus on enhancing learners' programming comprehension. Among the aspects that were examined were the students' programming comprehension and their perceived motivation of MAFPro. This study was carried out in a survey design method with the participation of 30 undergraduates who are novice learners. The data analysis indicates that the multimedia courseware, MAFPro that has been used in the C programming classroom has a significant difference on the undergraduates' programming comprehension. The students also perceived MAFPro as motivating and engaging.

  11. Fracture permeability under effect of normal and shear stress: A preliminary experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, S.; Manteufel, R.D.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The change in fracture permeability under mechanical loads have been investigated. An apparatus has been developed to measure change in fracture permeability, when a single fracture is subjected to normal and shear stress. Both radial and linear flow experiments have been conducted by modifying a direct shear test apparatus. Preliminary results suggest a 35-percent change in fracture permeability under normal stress to 8 MPa and nearly 350 percent under shear displacement of 9.9254 m (1 in.) at 5 MPa normal stress. Effort is underway to separate the permeability change due to gouge material production from that of due to dilation

  12. In Vivo Investigation of the Safety and Efficacy of Pulsed Dye Laser with Two Spot Sizes in Port-Wine Stain Treatment: A Prospective Side-by-Side Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxin; Ying, Hanru; Chen, Yijie; Qiu, Yajing; Chen, Hui; Jin, Yunbo; Yang, Xi; Wang, Tianyou; Ma, Gang; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2017-09-01

    Pulsed dye laser (PDL) with 7 and 10 mm spot sizes is widely used on a regular basis for the treatment of port-wine stain (PWS). No studies have reported on the differences in efficacy outcomes resulting from the use of different laser spot sizes in the treatment of PWS by PDL. Thus, an in vivo investigation into the differences in safety and efficacy of treatment between two spot sizes (7 vs. 10 mm) of PWS by PDL was conducted. A total of 35 PWS patients underwent three treatment sessions by using a 595 nm wavelength PDL (Vbeam ® , Candela Corp) with two laser settings: (1) 7 mm spot size, radiant exposure of 12 J/cm 2 and (2) 10 mm spot size, radiant exposure of 10 J/cm 2 . Cryogen spray cooling and 1.5 msec pulse duration were applied. Therapeutic outcomes were evaluated by visual and chromametric evaluation 3 months after the final treatment. Average blanching rates were 34.03% and 36.51% at sites treated by PDL with 7 and 10 mm laser spot sizes, respectively (p spot sizes were similar. PDL with a 10 mm laser spot size is more efficacious with lower radiant exposure than PDL with a 7 mm spot size; it can also reduce the treatment time.

  13. R and D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-State Studies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary Layout Option Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI (at) Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed RandD activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac

  14. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  15. A preliminary investigation into the measurement of global thunderstorm incidence and electrosphere potential at Sanae, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    One of the atmospheric parameters that may be affected by variations in the electrosphere potential is thunderstorm activity. The author made preliminary investigations into the simultaneous monitoring of global thunderstorm incidence and electrosphere potential. The author looked at the structure of the sun and the earth solar activity and solar emissions as well as the sun-weather relationships. Measurement were made by the author during 1978 at Sanae, Antarctica. The objective was to investigate the fluctuations of global thunderstorm activity and electrosphere potential and to establish some link between these and with solar activity. Potential gradient of the lower atmosphere was measured by means of a field mill and fluctuations taken to be representative of those of the electrosphere potential. Thunderstorm incidence was monitored by measurement of extra low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic noise radiated by lightning. A dipole or loop antenna was used for the recording of extra low frequency electromagnetic noise. A computer program was developed to facilitate the data analysis

  16. Investigation of the Effect of Small Hardening Spots Created on the Sample Surface by Laser Complex with Solid-State Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozdrina, O.; Zykov, I.; Melnikov, A.; Tsipilev, V.; Turanov, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation of the effect of small hardening spots (about 1 mm) created on the surface of a sample by laser complex with solid-state laser. The melted area of the steel sample is not exceed 5%. Steel microhardness change in the region subjected to laser treatment is studied. Also there is a graph of the deformation of samples dependence on the tension. As a result, the yield plateau and plastic properties changes were detected. The flow line was tracked in the series of speckle photographs. As a result we can see how mm surface inhomogeneity can influence on the deformation and strength properties of steel.

  17. Preliminary investigation of airgap electrospun silk-fibroin-based structures for ligament analogue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, S A; McClure, M J; Ayres, C E; Simpson, D G; Bowlin, G L

    2011-01-01

    The process of electrospinning has proven to be highly beneficial for use in a number of tissue-engineering applications due to its ease of use, flexibility and tailorable properties. There have been many publications on the creation of aligned fibrous structures created through various forms of electrospinning, most involving the use of a metal target rotating at high speeds. This work focuses on the use of a variation known as airgap electrospinning, which does not use a metal collecting target but rather a pair of grounded electrodes equidistant from the charged polymer solution to create highly aligned 3D structures. This study involved a preliminary investigation and comparison of traditionally and airgap electrospun silk-fibroin-based ligament constructs. Structures were characterized with SEM and alignment FFT, and underwent porosity, permeability, and mechanical anisotropy evaluation. Preliminary cell culture with human dermal fibroblasts was performed to determine the degree of cellular orientation and penetration. Results showed airgap electrospun structures to be anisotropic with significantly increased porosity and cellular penetration compared to their traditionally electrospun counterparts.

  18. Preliminary Investigation on the Behavior of Pore Air Pressure During Rainfall Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Min, Ng Soon; Hasliza Hamzah, Nur; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd; Madun, Aziman; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    This paper focused on the preliminary investigation of pore air pressure behaviour during rainfall infiltration in order to substantiate the mechanism of rainfall induced slope failure. The actual behaviour or pore air pressure during infiltration is yet to be clearly understood as it is regularly assumed as atmospheric. Numerical modelling of one dimensional (1D) soil column was utilized in this study to provide a preliminary insight of this highlighted uncertainty. Parametric study was performed by using rainfall intensities of 1.85 x 10-3m/s and 1.16 x 10-4m/s applied on glass beads to simulate intense and modest rainfall conditions. Analysis results show that the high rainfall intensity causes more development of pore air pressure compared to low rainfall intensity. This is because at high rainfall intensity, the rainwater cannot replace the pore air smoothly thus confining the pore air. Therefore, the effect of pore air pressure has to be taken into consideration particularly during heavy rainfall.

  19. Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Kyrala, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer

  20. Preliminary observation on breeding three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus (Leach, 1814), solely fed with wild caught amphipods under ex-situ condition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murugan, A.; Dhanya, S.; Pawar, H.; Sreepada, R.A.; Rajagopal, S.; Balasubramanian, T.

    male length (HT in mm) 12.5 0.8 12.1 – 13.3 14 Adult female length (HT in mm) 12.7 0.91 12.4 – 13.1 14 Adult male wet weight (g) 7.1 0.59 6.5 – 7.4 14 Adult female wet weight (g) 7.8 0.73 6.7 – 8.2 14 Table 2. Captive breeding of the three spotted...

  1. Preliminary Investigations into the Development of Textile Based Temperature Sensor for Healthcare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kennon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human body temperature is an important sign of physical condition in terms of comfort, heat or cold stresses, and of performance. This paper presents the preliminary investigation into the design, manufacturing and testing of the textile based temperature sensor. This sensing fabric may be employed to measure the temperature of the human body on a continuous basis over extensive periods of time, outside the clinical environment. The sensing fabric was manufactured on an industrial scale flat-bed knitting machine by laying-in the sensing element (in the form of fine metal wire into the double layer knitted structure. The operational principle of the sensing fabric is based on the inherent tendency of metal wire to change in its electrical resistance because of the change in its temperature. An experimental resistance-temperature relationship showed promising validation in comparison with their modeled counterparts.

  2. Obtainment of silica nanofiber and its preliminary investigation and its effects as reinforcement in polymeric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, R.S.; Oliveira, G.L.; Silva, F.D.C.; Teofilo, E. T.; Farias, R.C.; Menezes, R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Silica is widely used as fillers in polymers, and may confer flame retardant characteristics and improve mechanical properties. their use usually occurs as spherical nanoparticles or short fibers of. Studies using this reinforce in the form of nanofibers are promising. This analysis proposes to obtain silica nanofibers by blowspinning method in solution (SBS), and investigate its application in polymeric matrix. To synthesize the silica nanofibers it was used a precursor solution that has been subjected to SBS process and calcined for forming the silica layer. The DR-X indicated the obtainment of amorphous silica phase and SEM showed the the fibers are at the nanometer scale. Silica nanofibers were incorporated into filmogenic solution Polyamide 6. Preliminary results showed no improvement in mechanical properties. Future stages propose to verify that the surface chemical modification of silica nanofibers enables interaction charge / matrix. (author)

  3. Raman scattering investigation of the water-bridge phenomenon: Some preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Aliotta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A floating water-bridge is formed if a high-voltage direct current is applied between two beakers filled of chemically pure water. Raman spectra of the OH-stretching region have been obtained at ambient condition of temperature and pressure. These preliminary results seem to indicate that the hydrogen-bond structure is only slightly modified by the presence of the electric field applied to form the floating water-bridge in agreement with recent neutron scattering investigation. In fact, the polarized Raman spectrum of the pure water and of the water-bridge is almost superimposable. We are planning to carry out further spectroscopic analysis, at different thermodynamic conditions, for better understanding the role played by the hydrogen-bond in driving the formation of the floating water-bridge.

  4. Investigation of fracture-matrix interaction: Preliminary experiments in a simple system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Paramount to the modeling of unsaturated flow and transport through fractured porous media is a clear understanding of the processes controlling fracture-matrix interaction. As a first step toward such an understanding, two preliminary experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of matrix imbibition on water percolation through unsaturated fractures in the plane normal to the fracture. Test systems consisted of thin slabs of either tuff or an analog material cut by a single vertical fracture into which a constant fluid flux was introduced. Transient moisture content and solute concentration fields were imaged by means of x-ray absorption. Flow fields associated with the two different media were significantly different owing to differences in material properties relative to the imposed flux. Richards' equation was found to be a valid means of modeling the imbibition of water into the tuff matrix from a saturated fracture for the current experiment

  5. a Preliminary Investigation on Comparison and Transformation of SENTINEL-2 MSI and Landsat 8 Oli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Lou, S.; Fan, Q.; Li, J.; Wang, C.; Claverie, M.

    2018-05-01

    A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON COMPARISON AND TRANSFORMATION OF SENTINEL-2 MSI AND LANDSAT 8 OLI Timely and accurate earth observation with short revisit interval is usually necessary, especially for emergency response. Currently, several new generation sensors provided with similar channel characteristics have been operated onboard different satellite platforms, including Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8. Joint use of the observations by different sensors offers an opportunity to meet the demands for emergency requirements. For example, through the combination of Landsat and Sentinel-2 data, the land can be observed every 2-3 days at medium spatial resolution. However, differences are expected in radiometric values (e.g., channel reflectance) of the corresponding channels between two sensors. Spectral response function (SRF) is taken as an important aspect of sensor settings. Accordingly, between-sensor differences due to SRFs variation need to be quantified and compensated. The comparison of SRFs shows difference (more or less) in channel settings between Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI). Effect of the difference in SRF on corresponding values between MSI and OLI was investigated, mainly in terms of channel reflectance and several derived spectral indices. Spectra samples from ASTER Spectral Library Version 2.0 and Hyperion data archives were used in obtaining channel reflectance simulation of MSI and OLI. Preliminary results show that MSI and OLI are well comparable in several channels with small relative discrepancy (model is not ensured when the target belongs to another spectra collection. If an improper transformation model is selected, the between-sensor discrepancy will even largely increase. In conclusion, improvement in between-sensor consistency is possibly a challenge, through linear transformation based on model(s) generated from other spectra collections.

  6. Preliminary safety evaluation, based on initial site investigation data. Planning document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan

    2002-12-01

    This report is a planning document for the preliminary safety evaluations (PSE) to be carried out at the end of the initial stage of SKBs ongoing site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The main purposes of the evaluations are to determine whether earlier judgements of the suitability of the candidate area for a deep repository with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of borehole data and to provide feed-back to continued site investigations and site specific repository design. The preliminary safety evaluations will be carried out by a safety assessment group, based on a site model, being part of a site description, provided by a site modelling group and a repository layout within that model suggested by a repository engineering group. The site model contains the geometric features of the site as well as properties of the host rock. Several alternative interpretations of the site data will likely be suggested. Also the biosphere is included in the site model. A first task for the PSE will be to compare the rock properties described in the site model to previously established criteria for a suitable host rock. This report gives an example of such a comparison. In order to provide more detailed feedback, a number of thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical analyses of the site will also be included in the evaluation. The selection of analyses is derived from the set of geosphere and biosphere analyses preliminarily planned for the comprehensive safety assessment named SR-SITE, which will be based on a complete site investigation. The selection is dictated primarily by the expected feedback to continued site investigations and by the availability of data after the PSE. The repository engineering group will consider several safety related factors in suggesting a repository layout: Thermal calculations will be made to determine a minimum distance between canisters avoiding canister surface temperatures above 100 deg C

  7. Preliminary Findings in the Development of a Theoretical Framework for Investigating ICT Integration in Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthagar Narasuman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The following report is the result of a preliminary investigation in the development of a theoretical framework for investigating ICT integration, particularly in TESL (Teaching of English as a Second Language teacher training. The study is primarily an empirical effort to develop a theoretical framework for investigating ICT integration in TESL teacher training. In identifying the predictive variables for the framework, the researchers conducted an intensive review of the literature which included a review of various models used in studies on ICT integration. The contributing variables identified in the present study were age, gender, experience, ICT proficiency, attitude, access to ICT infrastructure, support services, and exposure to ICT professional development programmes. In developing the framework, the study sought to determine the extent to which the observed variability in ICT integration could be predicted by these factors. The sample comprised 266 respondents working at the faculty or English Language Unit in various teacher training institutions across the country. The study predominantly employed quantitative methods of data collection. Interview data was used to corroborate information derived from the survey data.

  8. Preliminary investigation of cement materials in the Taif area, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Conrad

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of possible sources of cement rock in the Taft area was made during the latter part of August 1968. Adequate deposits of limestone, clay, quartz conglomerate and sandstone, and pisolitic iron ore, yet no gypsum, were located to support a Cement plant should it prove feasible to establish one in this area. These materials, made up mostly of Tertiary and later sediments, crop out in isolated, inconspicuous low hills in a north- trending belt, 10 to 15 kilometers wide, lying about 90 kilometers to-the east of At Taft. The belt extends for more than 90 kilometers from the vicinity of Jabal 'An in the south to the crushed rock pits at Radwan and beyond in the north. The area is readily accessible either from the Talf-Riyadh highway or from the Taif-Bishah road presently under construction. The limestone, which is quite pure and dense in some localities but dolomitic, argillaceous, and cherty in others, occurs in a variety of colors and would make suitable decorative building stone. The volcanic rocks of the Harrat Hadan, lying directly to the east of the limestone belt, include volcanic ash beds some of which may have been altered to bentonitlc clays. Others may have been lithified and might be suitable for light-weight aggregate. These possibilities remain to be investigated. Precambrian metamorphic rocks lying directly to the south and southeast of Taif were also investigated as possible cement rock sources, but no suitable material was found here.

  9. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Lawlor, Brian A; Coen, Robert F; O'Mara, Shane M

    2011-08-04

    Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient's daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory), associative memory (face-name pairings), spatial memory (route learning and recall), and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months), 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  10. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Brian A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient's daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory, associative memory (face-name pairings, spatial memory (route learning and recall, and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months, 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  11. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: a preliminary investigation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irish, Muireann

    2011-08-04

    Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient\\'s daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants\\' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory), associative memory (face-name pairings), spatial memory (route learning and recall), and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months), 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  12. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  13. Preliminary investigation of genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.P.; Rajapaksha, W.R.A.K.J.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)

  14. Preliminary investigation of an atmospheric microplasma using Raman and Thomson laser scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Bradley; Adams, Steven

    2014-10-01

    A triple grating spectrometer system has been coupled with an ultraviolet laser at 266 nm for the purpose of investigating Rayleigh, Raman, and Thomson scattering within atmospheric plasma sources. Such laser interactions present a non-invasive diagnostic to investigate small scale atmospheric plasma sources, which have recently garnered interest for applications in remote optical sensing, materials processing, and environmental decontamination. In this work, the laser scatter and temperature relationship were calibrated with a heated nitrogen cell held at atmospheric pressure while subsequent scattering measurements were made in atmospheric discharges composed of nitrogen and air. An adjustable electrode configuration and dc circuit were assembled to produce a microdischarge operating in normal glow mode, thus providing a non-thermal plasma in which the translational, rotational, vibrational and electron temperatures are not in equilibrium. Preliminary results include measurements of these temperatures, which were calculated by fitting simulated scattering spectra to the experimental data obtained using the triple grating spectrometer. Measured temperatures were also compared with those obtained using standard optical emission spectroscopy methods. Special thanks to the NRC Research Associateship Program.

  15. A preliminary investigation into the suitability of South African anthracites for Soderberg electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krynauw, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    As part of an investigation into ways of improving the quality of Soderberg electrodes made in South Africa, a mineralogical, geochemical and petrographical examination was made of some South African anthracites in comparison with anthracites from North Vietnam and Germany. The results of X-ray diffraction on raw and calcined anthracites and the analyses of the macerals in raw anthracites indicated that the sample from North Vietnam, which is an anthracite that is used in Japan for Soderberg-electrode paste, has a very high vitrinite content, low sulphur and phoshorus contents, and, when it has been calcined, contains more graphite than the other samples examined. The samples from the South African collieries, Balgray and Brockwell, contain more sulphur and phosphorus, and much less vitrinite, than the North Vietnamese samples. The anthracite from Natal Anthracite Colliery Ltd contains sulphur and phosphorus in amounts similar to those of the North Vietnamese anthracite, but it has a low vitrinite content. All three South African anthracites contain similar, low amounts of graphite when they have been calcined. The German anthracite, when calcined, contains intermediate amounts of vitrinite and graphite. Chemical analyses of the ash showed that there are major differences in the composition of the ash and the mineralogy of the various anthracites. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that the most important requisite for graphitisation is a high vitrinite content

  16. A preliminary investigation: the impact of microscopic condenser on depth of field in cytogenetic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liqiang; Qiu, Yuchen; Li, Zheng; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2013-02-01

    As one of the important components of optical microscopes, the condenser has a considerable impact on system performance, especially on the depth of field (DOF). DOF is a critical technical feature in cytogenetic imaging that may affect the efficiency and accuracy of clinical diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of microscopic condenser on DOF using a prototype of transmitted optical microscope, based on objective and subjective evaluations. After the description of the relationship between condenser and objective lens and the theoretical analysis of the condenser impact on system numerical aperture and DOF, a standard resolution pattern and several cytogenetic samples are adopted to assess the condenser impact on DOF, respectively. The experimental results of these objective and subjective evaluations are in agreement with the theoretical analysis and show that, under the specific intermediate range of condenser numerical aperture ( NAcond ), the DOF value decreases with the increase of NAcond . Although the above qualitative results are obtained under the experimental conditions with a specific prototype system, the methods presented in this preliminary investigation could offer useful guidelines for optimizing operational parameters in cytogenetic imaging.

  17. A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON COMPARISON AND TRANSFORMATION OF SENTINEL-2 MSI AND LANDSAT 8 OLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON COMPARISON AND TRANSFORMATION OF SENTINEL-2 MSI AND LANDSAT 8 OLI Timely and accurate earth observation with short revisit interval is usually necessary, especially for emergency response. Currently, several new generation sensors provided with similar channel characteristics have been operated onboard different satellite platforms, including Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8. Joint use of the observations by different sensors offers an opportunity to meet the demands for emergency requirements. For example, through the combination of Landsat and Sentinel-2 data, the land can be observed every 2–3 days at medium spatial resolution. However, differences are expected in radiometric values (e.g., channel reflectance of the corresponding channels between two sensors. Spectral response function (SRF is taken as an important aspect of sensor settings. Accordingly, between-sensor differences due to SRFs variation need to be quantified and compensated. The comparison of SRFs shows difference (more or less in channel settings between Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI. Effect of the difference in SRF on corresponding values between MSI and OLI was investigated, mainly in terms of channel reflectance and several derived spectral indices. Spectra samples from ASTER Spectral Library Version 2.0 and Hyperion data archives were used in obtaining channel reflectance simulation of MSI and OLI. Preliminary results show that MSI and OLI are well comparable in several channels with small relative discrepancy (< 5 %, including the Costal Aerosol channel, a NIR (855–875 nm channel, the SWIR channels, and the Cirrus channel. Meanwhile, for channels covering Blue, Green, Red, and NIR (785–900 nm, the between-sensor differences are significantly presented. Compared with the difference in reflectance of each individual channel, the difference in derived spectral index is more

  18. Preliminary Geophysical Investigations of the Ship Rock Diatreme, Navajo Nation, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, E. M.; McCarthy, L.; Namingha, G.; Bank, C.; Noblett, J.; Semken, S.

    2003-12-01

    Magnetic and gravity data were collected at the Ship Rock minette neck and dikes, part of the Navajo volcanic field in the central Colorado Plateau, to investigate their subsurface structure. The deep root system of Ship Rock, an exhumed Oligocene maar-diatreme complex, has not been resolved. The diatreme is largely composed of minette tuff-breccia with a large wallrock fraction, whereas the dikes are composed of hypabyssal minette. The country rock is the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale. Density and magnetic contrasts between the igneous rock and surrounding shale suggest that the buried structure of Ship Rock can be imaged. Preliminary geophysical investigations were carried out in order to test this hypothesis. We collected magnetic and gravitational data along four lines selected to transect the major south and northeast dikes and to partly encircle the diatreme. Modeling differently sized, oriented and shaped intrusions, we created theoretical Free Air anomaly curves to try to match the two clearest anomalies. Modeling necessitates (i) that the major north-south dike dips west and (ii) the presence of a high-density, deep body near the diatreme. The Free Air anomaly curves show that smaller dikes might not be detected from gravity data; however, they are necessary to determine the presence of large, dense bodies. Although not modeled, the magnetics curves show that smaller dikes can easily be detected. Our study results are promising, and we plan a more thorough investigation in the future which will produce a magnetic map to determine if further buried dikes exist in the vicinity, and measure gravity along additional profiles to better constrain the location of the dense body at depth.

  19. The NET articulated boom: Preliminary investigations and justification for a full scale prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppan, A.

    1990-12-01

    The articulated boom system is the favourite in-vessel handling system for NET which will be used to maintain or replace in-vessel components during short term interventions. The testbed EDITH is the prototype of this system and is the logical step between the proof of principle of the system, which is already performed by the JET articulated boom, and the operational equipment for NET. EDITH is required to demonstrate that maintenance of plasma facing components can be carried out with the anticipated reliability and time. To achieve this aim EDITH is based on the experience of the JET boom and will be constructed in full scale, supplemented by a full scale mock-up. A further goal of EDITH is to allow the testing of boom components and subassemblies. The results of preliminary investigations for the boom are summarized, the need of the testbed EDITH and a full scale mock-up is discussed and both EDITH and the mock-up are described. (orig.) [de

  20. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinakhom, F.; Mongkolphantha, S.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  1. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Julia dos Santos; Murta, Michele; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Gil-Santana, Hélcio; Guimarães, Anthony Erico; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-01-01

    In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.

  2. Preliminary investigations on the preparation of gold nanoparticles intrinsically radiolabeled with 199Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimalnath, K.V.; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Radiolabeled nanoparticles are of great interest in the current perspective of the nuclear medicine. Water dispersible materials with nanoscale dimensions are finding role in biomedical application owing to their size. These particles can access otherwise unreachable regions in tumor mainly due to Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. Nanoparticles of gold (AuNPs) can bind to a wide range of biologically active molecules with functional groups that have high affinity for the gold surface. Sulfur containing compounds (e.g. thiols, disulfides), organic phosphates, amines, PEG, etc. are some of the well known surface modifiers. Functional thiolates, oligonucleotides, peptides and PEGs are introduced upon subsequent bimolecular substitution of a ligand by a functional thiol easily attached to AuNPs. Owing to its favourable decay characteristics 199 Au (T 1/2 = 3.15 d, E âmax = 474 keV, Eg 158.4 keV (36.9 %) and 208.2 keV (8.4 %)) is an attractive radionuclide for theragnostic applications. In the present work, we have carried out preliminary radiochemical investigations on the preparation of gold nanoparticles intrinsically radiolabeled with 199 Au for its potential utility as a theragnostic agent targeted delivery to the tumors

  3. The Transition into the Workforce by Early-Career Geoscientists, a Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C.

    2017-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute's Geoscience Student Exit Survey asks recent graduates about their immediate plans after graduation. Though some respondents indicate their employment or continuing education intention, many of the respondents are still in the process of looking for a job in the geosciences. Recent discussions about geoscience workforce development have focused on the critical technical and professional skills that graduates need to be successful in the workforce, but there is little data about employment success and skills development as early-career geoscientists. AGI developed a short preliminary survey to follow up with past participants in AGI's Exit Survey investigating their career path, their skills development after entering the workforce, and their opinions on skills and knowledge they wished they had prior to entering the workforce. The results from this survey will begin to indicate the occupation availability for early-career geoscientists, the continuing education completed by these recent graduates, and the possible attrition away from the geoscience workforce. This presentation presents the results from this short survey and the implications for further research in this area of workforce development and preparation.

  4. Preliminary Tests in the NACA Tank to Investigate the Fundamental Characteristics of Hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth E.; Land, Norman S.

    1940-01-01

    This preliminary investigation was made to study the hydrodynamic properties and general behavior of simple hydrofoils. Six 5- by 30-inch plain, rectangular hydrofoils were tested in the NACA tank at various speeds, angles of attack and depths below the water surface. Two of the hydrofoils had sections representing the sections of commonly used airfoils, one had a section similar to one developed Guidoni for use with hydrofoil-equipped seaplane floats, and three had sections designed to have constant chordwise pressure distributions at given values of the lift coefficient for the purpose of delaying the speed at which cavitation begins. The experimental results are presented as curves of the lift and drag coefficients plotted against speed for the various angles of attack and depths for which the hydrofoils were tested. A number of derived curves are included for the purpose of better comparing the characteristics of the hydrofoils and to show the effects of depth. Several representative photographs show the development of cavitation on the the upper surface of the hydrofoils. The results indicate that properly designed hydrofoil sections will have excellent characteristics and that the speed at which cavitation occurs may be delayed to an appreciable extent by the use of suitable sections.

  5. Preliminary investigations of the significance of the ingestion pathway following accidental releases with actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, C.

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary accident consequence assessments have been performed with the computer code UFOMOD to study the significance of the ingestion pathway in accidental releases with actinides. The investigation was based on the release category K1 of the 'Risk Oriented Analysis of the SNR 300', in which a higher fraction of actinides is released than in the worst release category for an LWR. The analysis was carried out using the currently implemented food chain transport model WASH-1400/BSU and data from the dynamic model from the MARC methodology. To study the influence of the time of the accident on the food chain-related results, releases in January and July were considered by means of the MARC data. In this report the differences are presented between both food chain transport models for transuranium elements and those which are observed in the potential doses due to ingestion, the areas affected by food-bans and the late health effects when using both models and taking the influence of the season into account. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Job Stress and Dyadic Synchrony in Police Marriages: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROBERTS, NICOLE A.; LEONARD, RACHEL C.; BUTLER, EMILY A.; LEVENSON, ROBERT W.; KANTER, JONATHAN W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite reports documenting adverse effects of stress on police marriages, few empirical studies focus on actual emotional behaviors of officers and spouses. In this preliminary investigation, 17 male police officers and their nonpolice wives completed daily stress diaries for 1 week and then participated in a laboratory-based discussion about their respective days. Conversations were video-recorded and coded for specific emotional behaviors reflecting hostility and affection, which are strong predictors of marital outcomes. We examined associations between officers’ job stress (per diaries and the Police Stress Survey) and couples’ emotional behavior (mean levels and behavioral synchrony) using a dyadic repeated measures design capitalizing on the large number of observations available for each couple (1020 observations). When officers reported more job stress, they showed less hostility, less synchrony with their wives’ hostility, and more synchrony with their wives’ affection; their wives showed greater synchrony with officers’ hostility and less synchrony with officers’ affection. Therefore, for officers, greater job stress was associated with less behavioral negativity, potentially less attunement to wives’ negativity, but potentially greater attunement to wives’ affection—perhaps a compensatory strategy or attempt to buffer their marriage from stress. These attempts may be less effective, however, if, as our synchrony findings may suggest, wives are focusing on officers’ hostility rather than affection. Although it will be important to replicate these results given the small sample, our findings reveal that patterns of behavioral synchrony may be a key means to better understand how job stress exacts a toll on police marriages. PMID:23763686

  7. Semantic Feature Training for the Treatment of Anomia in Alzheimer Disease: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Kieran J; Copland, David A; van Hees, Sophia; Byrne, Gerard J; Angwin, Anthony J

    2016-03-01

    This is a preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of semantic feature training for the treatment of anomia in Alzheimer disease (AD). Anomia is a common clinical characteristic of AD. It is widely held that anomia in AD is caused by the combination of cognitive deficits and progressive loss of semantic feature information. Therapy that aims to help participants relearn or retain semantic features should, therefore, help treat anomia in AD. Two men with AD and one man with progressive nonfluent aphasia received 10 treatment sessions focused on relearning the names of 20 animals and 20 fruits. Within each category, half of the items were of high and half were of low typicality. We individualized treatment items to each participant, using items that each had not named correctly at baseline. Treatment sessions consisted of naming, category sorting, and semantic feature verification tasks. Both participants with AD showed post-treatment improvements in naming, and one maintained the treatment effects at 6-week follow-up. The semantic category of the treatment items influenced post-treatment outcomes, but typicality did not. In contrast to the participants with AD, the man with progressive nonfluent aphasia had no improvement in naming ability. Our results suggest the potential viability of semantic feature training to treat anomia in AD and, therefore, the need for further research.

  8. Preliminary applications of the new Neptune two-phase CFD solver to pressurized thermal shock investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucker, M.; Laviaville, J.; Martin, A.; Bechaud, C.; Bestion, D.; Coste, P.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this communication is to present some preliminary applications to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) investigations of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) two-phase flow solver of the new NEPTUNE thermal-hydraulics platform. In the framework of plant life extension, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) integrity is a major concern, and an important part of RPV integrity assessment is related to PTS analysis. In the case where the cold legs are partially filled with steam, it becomes a two-phase problem and new important effects occur, such as condensation due to the Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) injections of sub-cooled water. Thus, an advanced prediction of RPV thermal loading during these transients requires sophisticated two-phase, local scale, 3-dimensional codes. In that purpose, a program has been set up to extend the capabilities of the NEPTUNE two-phase CFD solver. A simple set of turbulence and condensation model for free surface steam-water flow has been tested in simulation of an ECC high pressure injection representing facility, using a full 3-dimensional mesh and the new NEPTUNE solver. Encouraging results have been obtained but it should be noticed that several sources of error can compensate for one another. Nevertheless, the computation presented here allows to be reasonable confident in the use of two-phase CFD in order to carry out refined analysis of two-phase PTS scenarios within the next years

  9. Energy and raw material potentials of wood residue in the Pacific Coast States: a summary of a preliminary feasibility investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Grantham; Eldon Estep; John M. Pierovich; Harold Tarkow; Thomas C. Adams

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of a preliminary investigation of feasibility of using wood residue to meet energy and raw material needs in the Pacific Coast States. Magnitude of needs was examined and volume of logging-residue and unused mill residue was estimated. Costs of obtaining and preprocessing logging residue for energy and pulp and particle board raw material were...

  10. Preliminary investigations of the chemical speciation of plutonium in natural waters of the northeastern and southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberts, J. J.; Wahlgren, M. A.; Nelson, D. M.; Rowland, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary investigation indicated that the concentration of fallout /sup 240/Pu in lake water from the northeast differs from that in the southeast or from snowmelt and that the submicron size distribution and charge distributions appear different for the various water samples.

  11. Bimanual elbow robotic orthoses: preliminary investigations on an impairment force feedback rehabilitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eHerrnstadt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today’s robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance.Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover studies suggest limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy.In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A Bimanual Wearable Robotic Device (BWRD with a Master-Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three one-hour sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre and post training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post assessment was performed at the end of the last training session.The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force feedback movements, force feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to

  12. LOD 1 VS. LOD 2 - Preliminary Investigations Into Differences in Mobile Rendering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, C.; Altenbuchner, J.

    2013-09-01

    The increasing availability, size and detail of 3D City Model datasets has led to a challenge when rendering such data on mobile devices. Understanding the limitations to the usability of such models on these devices is particularly important given the broadening range of applications - such as pollution or noise modelling, tourism, planning, solar potential - for which these datasets and resulting visualisations can be utilized. Much 3D City Model data is created by extrusion of 2D topographic datasets, resulting in what is known as Level of Detail (LoD) 1 buildings - with flat roofs. However, in the UK the National Mapping Agency (the Ordnance Survey, OS) is now releasing test datasets to Level of Detail (LoD) 2 - i.e. including roof structures. These datasets are designed to integrate with the LoD 1 datasets provided by the OS, and provide additional detail in particular on larger buildings and in town centres. The availability of such integrated datasets at two different Levels of Detail permits investigation into the impact of the additional roof structures (and hence the display of a more realistic 3D City Model) on rendering performance on a mobile device. This paper describes preliminary work carried out to investigate this issue, for the test area of the city of Sheffield (in the UK Midlands). The data is stored in a 3D spatial database as triangles and then extracted and served as a web-based data stream which is queried by an App developed on the mobile device (using the Android environment, Java and OpenGL for graphics). Initial tests have been carried out on two dataset sizes, for the city centre and a larger area, rendering the data onto a tablet to compare results. Results of 52 seconds for rendering LoD 1 data, and 72 seconds for LoD 1 mixed with LoD 2 data, show that the impact of LoD 2 is significant.

  13. Preliminary Investigation on Generation of Electricity Using Micro Wind Turbines Placed on A Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Chaudhary

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the prominent resources for renewable energy and it is traditionally extracted using stationary wind turbines. However, it can also be extracted using mini or micro wind turbines on a moving body, such as an automobile, while cruising at high speeds on freeways. If the electricity is produced using air flowing around the vehicle without affecting aerodynamic performance of the vehicle, it can be used to charge up the battery or power up additional accessories of the vehicle. For the first time, in the present work, a preliminary investigation was carried out to generate electricity by utilizing air flow on a moving car. Initially, a correlation between the car speed and wind velocity was established using an anemometer. Placing a set of two micro wind turbines along with two micro generators on the rear end of the car trunk, the present study investigated the feasibility of generating electricity from these micro wind turbines while evaluating the effect of drag force on the performance of the car through the experimental approach and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. Both approaches confirmed negligible effect of drag force on the vehicle performance in terms of gas mileage and changes in drag coefficient values. Following these studies, the micro wind turbines were also tested for electricity generation at various cruising speeds of the car ranging from 50 to 80 mph on the freeways. The voltage and power generated always showed an increasing trend with increasing the car speed, however they saturated when a cut off limit was setup with the voltage controllers. A maximum voltage of 3.5 V and a maximum current of 0.8 A were generated by each micro wind turbine when a cut off limit was used along with a load consisting of four LED bulbs in parallel with 3.5 V and 0.2 A rating each. On the other hand, when the tests were repeated without using the cut-off limit, a maximum voltage of 18.91 V and a maximum current

  14. [Preliminary investigation on the pathogeny, diagnosis and treatment of chondromalacia patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Q B; Wu, Z H; Wang, Y P; Lin, J; Qiu, G X

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the preliminary investigation on chondromalacia patella at our department in recent years. A random cluster sampling survey covering 2743 normal persons was carried out. The prevalence rate is 36.2%. It was found that, applying transmission electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods on to cartilage tissues of the abnormal region, articular cartilage necrosis was in direct proportion with the abnormal pressure, while the restoration capability of local chondrocytes was in inverse proportion with pathological changes and the pressure. The chondromalacia patella was produced by repeated abnormal stress acting on the cartilage. The stress derived from the uncongruency and the decreasing in the contact area of patellofemoral joint when the subluxation or tilt of patellae was caused by the abnormal anatomical and biomechanical relationship. The initial lesion was at the matrix of cartilage, the collagen network was disrupted, then proteoglycan was lost. The microenvironment of chondrocytes was changed with degradation of matrix. So the chondrocytes became degenerative and necrosis from superficial to deep layer, then feed back the matrix again. Finally, the total cartilage layer might disappear, and the bone under cartilage might proliferate. At late stage, the cartilage was completely destroyed and had no self-restorative ability. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. It is highly suggested axis radiograph of the knee with the tibiae tuberositas localization are helpful to early diagnosis. Furthermore, JKY-Muscle Rehabilitation Instrument is invented for non-operative therapy. It enhances muscle power by selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator to relieve pain and correct subluxation of patella with 90% efficiency (63% of excellent-effective rate). In late stage, patellofemoral replacement is recommended. The excellent-effective rate is 86.3%.

  15. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco. © 2014

  16. Novel Biomarkers of Physical Activity Maintenance in Midlife Women: Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Bosak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The precision health initiative is leading the discovery of novel biomarkers as important indicators of biological processes or responses to behavior, such as physical activity. Neural biomarkers identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI hold promise to inform future research, and ultimately, for transfer to the clinical setting to optimize health outcomes. This study investigated resting-state and functional brain biomarkers between midlife women who were maintaining physical activity in accordance with the current national guidelines and previously acquired age-matched sedentary controls. Approval was obtained from the Human Subjects Committee. Participants included nondiabetic, healthy weight to overweight (body mass index 19–29.9 kg/m2 women (n = 12 aged 40–64 years. Control group data were used from participants enrolled in our previous functional MRI study and baseline resting-state MRI data from a subset of sedentary (<500 kcal of physical activity per week midlife women who were enrolled in a 9-month exercise intervention conducted in our imaging center. Differential activation of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and greater connectivity with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC was identified between physically active women and sedentary controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, these differences in biomarkers of physical activity maintenance did not reach statistical significance. Preliminary evidence in this small sample suggests that neural biomarkers of physical activity maintenance involve activations in the brain region associated with areas involved in implementing goal-directed behavior. Specifically, activation of the IFG and connectivity with the dlPFC is identified as a neural biomarker to explain and predict long-term physical activity maintenance for healthy aging. Future studies should evaluate these biomarker links with relevant clinical correlations.

  17. Preliminary organic geochemical investigation of the Kimmeridgian oil shales. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P F.V.; Douglas, A G

    1980-01-01

    The Kimmeridge oil shales have assumed renewed significance because of their role as the prime source-rock for North Sea oil, and because of the need to assess their potential as a possible future supply of shale oil. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation of selected Kimmeridge oil shales. The immature shales are rich in organic matter with a dominantly marine type II kerogen showing evidence of algal contributions and a general sparsity of land-derived, higher plant detritus. Column chromatographic and capillary column gas chromatographic examinations of bitumens, pyrolysates and pyrolysis gas chromatograms of kerogen isolates show a predominance of aromatics in the hydrocarbon fractions, with bitumen n-alkane gas chromatograms showing evidence of algal-derived organic matter with n-alkane maxima in the n-C/sub 17/ region. Possible contributions from lower land plants are indicated by a second n-alkane maximum at n-C/sub 23/, whilst higher land plant detritus makes only a limited contribution. Reflected light microscopic examination of the shales also shows a general sparsity of recognizable land-derived woody or herbaceous material. Shale oil compositions reflect their pyrolytic origin, with unsaturates forming a large part of the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction, together with significant amounts of isoprenoid alkanes; organic sulphur compounds are also prominent in the hydrocarbon fractions. Finally, considerable amounts of sterane and pentacyclic triterpane hydrocarbons have been found in the bitumen aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions, their distributions allowing Blackstone samples to be differentiated from those of lower stratigraphic levels.

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  19. Preliminary Investigation Of Emirati Women Entrepreneurship In The UAE Motivating Factors Challenges And Government Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rehan Shahnawaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this research is to conduct an in depth preliminary investigation of the Emirati Women Entrepreneurship in the UAE in terms of the factors motivating the Emirati women to engage in the entrepreneurial activities challenges and issues faced by them in that process and initiatives taken by the government of UAE in overcoming those challenges and in encouraging promoting and safeguarding their interests. Methodology This research is an exploratory one due to the fact that the topic of the research strongly requires an in depth analysis or investigation of the underlying motivating factors challenges and issues and the government initiatives taken on behalf of Emirati women entrepreneurs. The research has used qualitative content analysis technique in which the existing literature secondary data on women and Emirati women entrepreneurship was gathered and discussed to serve the purpose of the research such as from other published researches internet searches and books. DiscussionsFindings The research explored an array of factors motivating the Emirati women towards entrepreneurship and the challenges and issues they come across in that process. The motivating factors were divided into positive and negative factors with main emphasis on the positive factors. Among the positive motivating factors were the Emiratization change in the organizational culture and beliefs relaxation of social and cultural structures inde-pendence and self-improvement and development. The negative motivating factors were the necessity unacceptable working conditions inflexible work hours wage gap between males and females and job frustrations. The major challenges and issues they usually come across are traditions cultural religious and social restrictions lack of managerial experience and basic business knowledge low self-confidence and determination male prejudice stereotyping and preconception minimal networking gender based promotional

  20. Preliminary laboratory investigation of thermally treated recycled concrete aggregate for general use in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.; Brouwer, J.P.; Mulder, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with a preliminary laboratory study to assess the effectiveness of thermal treatment methods to improve the quality of recycled concrete aggregate. The samples used for the study consisted of sieved fractions of crushed concrete that were subjected to various thermal treatments at

  1. Lunar Flight Study Series: Volume 4. Preliminary Investigation of the Astronautics of Earth - Moon Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Nolan J.

    1963-01-01

    Preliminary information on flight profiles, velocity budgets and launch windows for Apollo and Support Vehicle flights is presented in this report. A newly conceived method of establishing a flight mechanical classification of the earth-moon transits is discussed. The results are empirical and are designed to contribute to the mission mode selection.

  2. A Preliminary Investigation into the Search Behaviour of Users in a Collection of Digitized Broadcast Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Skov, Mette; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of large digitized audio-visual collections within digital humanities have recently been made available for users. Often access to digitized audio-visual collections is hampered by little and inconsistent metadata. This paper presents the preliminary findings from a study of ...

  3. Preliminary investigations for technology assessment of 99Mo production from LEU [low enriched uranium] targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chaiko, D.J.; Heinrich, R.R.; Kucera, E.T.; Jensen, K.J.; Poa, D.S.; Varma, R.; Vissers, D.R.

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary studies on the effects of substituting low enriched uranium (LEU) for highly enriched uranium (HEU) in targets for the production of fission product 99 Mo. Issues that were addressed are: (1) purity and yield of the 99 Mo//sup 99m/Tc product, (2) fabrication of LEU targets and related concerns, and (3) radioactive waste. Laboratory experimentation was part of the efforts for issues (1) and (2); thus far, radioactive waste disposal has only been addressed in a paper study. Although the reported results are still preliminary, there is reason to be optimistic about the feasibility of utilizing LEU targets for 99 Mo production. 37 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  4. The use and effectiveness of the eLib subject gateways: a preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, M.; Burton, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Internet subject gateways were set up under the Electronic Libraries Programme (eLib) in order to address some of the problems of searching the Internet which have been identified by information professionals, i.e. locating relevant, good quality information. This preliminary study examines the extent to which academics in two universities use three eLib subject gateways (EEVL, OMNI and SOSIG). The results are generally encouraging for the eLib programme, but it is necessary for the gateways ...

  5. Preliminary investigation of ultrasonic shear wave holography with a view to the inspection of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, E.E.; Clare, A.B.; Shepherd, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The manner in which holography would fit into the general scheme of pressure vessel inspection is discussed. Compared to conventional A, B and C presentations holography requires a different processing of the ultrasonic signal and a mechanical scan which may be more demanding than that normally provided for a C display. Preliminary results are presented of the examination of artificial defects in steel plate using shear wave holography. (author)

  6. Method for laser spot welding monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassero, Giorgio

    1994-09-01

    As more powerful solid state laser sources appear on the market, new applications become technically possible and important from the economical point of view. For every process a preliminary optimization phase is necessary. The main parameters, used for a welding application by a high power Nd-YAG laser, are: pulse energy, pulse width, repetition rate and process duration or speed. In this paper an experimental methodology, for the development of an electrooptical laser spot welding monitoring system, is presented. The electromagnetic emission from the molten pool was observed and measured with appropriate sensors. The statistical method `Parameter Design' was used to obtain an accurate analysis of the process parameter that influence process results. A laser station with a solid state laser coupled to an optical fiber (1 mm in diameter) was utilized for the welding tests. The main material used for the experimental plan was zinc coated steel sheet 0.8 mm thick. This material and the related spot welding technique are extensively used in the automotive industry, therefore, the introduction of laser technology in production line will improve the quality of the final product. A correlation, between sensor signals and `through or not through' welds, was assessed. The investigation has furthermore shown the necessity, for the modern laser production systems, to use multisensor heads for process monitoring or control with more advanced signal elaboration procedures.

  7. Management and Data Management Plan for Remedial Investigation at Fort George G. Meade Landfill and Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation at the Former Gaithersburg NIKE Control and Launch Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, D

    1989-01-01

    Work assignments under this contract will include a Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation at the former Gaithersburg NIKE Control and Launch Areas and a Remedial Investigation at the Fort Meade...

  8. Automated Spot Mammography for Improved Imaging of Dense Breasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M

    2004-01-01

    ... image that better distinguishes masses from overlapping tissues. Preliminary studies with a prototype device and breast simulating test objects showed promise, but spot compression didn't always separate the tissues as much as desired...

  9. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, Arie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  10. Preliminary investigation on determination of radionuclide distribution in field tracing test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Guo Zede; Li Shushen; Kamiyama, Hideo.

    1993-12-01

    Field tracing tests for radionuclide migration have been conducted by using 3 H, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs, in the natural unsaturated loess zone at field test site of China Institute for Radiation Protection. It is necessary to obtain confidable distribution data of the radionuclides in the test site, in order to evaluate exactly the migration behavior of the radionuclides in situ. An available method to determine the distribution was proposed on the basis of preliminary discussing results on sampling method of soils from the test site and analytical method of radioactivity in the soils. (author)

  11. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... of typical analytical workloads and real spot price traces. SpotADAPT's suggested deployments are comparable to the theoretically optimal ones, and in particular, it shows good cost benefits for the budget optimization -- on average SpotADAPT is at most 0.3% more expensive than the theoretically optimal...

  12. A preliminary investigation of the initiation of pitting corrosion in austenitic stainless steels and nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginson, A.

    1984-01-01

    Pitting corrosion in a number of austenitic stainless steels and nickel-based alloys that differ widely in their resistance to corrosion was studed by electrochemical and electron-optical techniques. The effect of contamination of the sulphuric acid electrolyte by chloride ions was also investigated. Preliminary results for the surface analysis of samples of 316 stainless steel by Auger electron spectroscopy are presented, and suggestions are included for further application of this technique to the examination of pitting corrosion. A comprehensive review of the literature concerning the initiation of pitting corrosion is included

  13. Archaeological Palimpsest Dissection at Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain) through Microstratigraphic Investigation of Combustion Structures. Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Égüez, Natalia; Mallol, Carolina; Mangado, Xavier; Tejero, José Miguel; Fullola, Josep Maria

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary data from ongoing microstratigraphic investigations of Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain), a Magdalenian karstic cave site in North western Catalonia. Excavations of the Upper Magdalenian levels are currently underway, with radiometric dates between 15,690 and 16,390 cal BP. This period has yielded a complex anthropogenic sedimentary deposit including combustion features and local accumulations of anthropogenic debris near the cave walls. On of the working hypothesis is that the Magdalenian hunter-gatherers who occupied the site did so for short periods, possibly seasonally. Support of this hypothesis comes the presence of overlapping, very thin flat combustion structures, which appear to have been short-lived and close to each other in time. In order to investigate this issue, we carried out micromorphological analysis of some of the mentioned combustion features. Preliminary results show significant microstratification and presence of unburned spherulites mixed in with reprecipitated calcitic wood ash, both of which point towards the existence of hiatuses between combustion events. This is supported by the observation of scattered, lightly burned microscopic flint and bone fragments in the sediment between ash layers, which could represent renewed occupation floor debris. Our case study adds to the growing number of combustion feature microstratigraphic investigations contributing to a correct characterization of anthropogenic palimpsest deposits. Key words: Microstratigraphy; Micromorphology; Magdalenian; Combustion features; Wood ash; Palimpsest; Iberian Peninsula.

  14. Developing VoIP Honeypots: a Preliminary Investigation into Malfeasant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Valli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 30 years ago PABX systems were compromised by hackers wanting to make long distance calls at some other entities expense. This activity faded as telephony became cheaper and PABX systems had countermeasures installed to overcome attacks. Now the world has moved onto the provision of telephony via broadband enabled Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP with this service now being provided as a replacement for conventional fixed wire telephony by major telecommunication providers worldwide. Due to increasing bandwidth it is possible for systems to support multiple voice connections simultaneously. The networked nature of the Internet allows for attackers of these VoIP systems to enumerate and potentially attack and compromise a wide range of vulnerable systems. This paper is an outline of preliminary research into malfeasant VoIP activity on the Internet.

  15. Head-Up Auditory Displays for Traffic Collision Avoidance System Advisories: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.

    1993-01-01

    The advantage of a head-up auditory display was evaluated in a preliminary experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two auditory conditions: standard one-earpiece presentation and two-earpiece three-dimensional (3D) audio presentation. Twelve commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility advanced concepts flight simulator. Scenario software generated visual targets corresponding to aircraft that would activate a traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) aural advisory; the spatial auditory position was linked to the visual position with 3D audio presentation. Results showed that crew members using a 3D auditory display acquired targets approximately 2.2 s faster than did crew members who used one-earpiece head- sets, but there was no significant difference in the number of targets acquired.

  16. Preliminary investigation of changes in x-ray multilayer optics subjected to high radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockaday, M.P.; Blake, R.L.; Grosso, J.S.; Selph, M.M.; Klein, M.M.; Matuska, W. Jr.; Palmer, M.A.; Liefeld, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of metal multilayers was exposed to high x-ray flux using Sandia National Laboratories' PROTO II machine in the gas puff mode. Fluxes incident on the multilayers above 700 MW/cm 2 in total radiation, in nominal 20 ns pulses, were realized. The neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines were used to probe the x-ray reflectivity properties of the multilayers as they underwent change of state during the heating pulse. A fluorescer-fiber optic-streak camera system was used to monitor the changes in x-ray reflectivity as a function of time and irradiance. Preliminary results are presented for a W/C multilayer. Work in progress to model the experiment is discussed. 13 refs., 4 figs

  17. An inventory to assess empathic concern for disability and accessibility: development and preliminary psychometric investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide Miyahara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultivating empathy and prosocial attitude towards disability is a first step for university students to become the leaders of society and professions to create accessible environments and inclusive society. Gauging levels of empathy and prosocial attitude towards disability among the students is important for evaluating the adequacy of disability training and education. We developed and conducted an initial psychometric validation of a novel inventory in Japanese and English languages to assess Empathic Concern for Disability and Accessibility (ECDA in Japan and New Zealand. Preliminary psychometric evaluation indicates strong internal consistency in the Japanese sample (α = .96 and the New Zealand sample (α = .93. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a four-factor solution for both samples. The present study has resulted in the development of the ECDA that demonstrated initial support for internal consistency and construct validity. The ECDA may be used for the cross-cultural comparisons of disability training and education.

  18. Preliminary investigation of a videogame prototype for cigarette and marijuana prevention in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lindsay R; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Pendergrass, Tyra M; Sawyer, Benjamin G; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2018-02-09

    Videogames are becoming increasingly popular to deliver health interventions; however, their role in the primary prevention of cigarette and marijuana use has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary test of the efficacy of a role-playing videogame prototype, smokeSCREEN, aimed at developing knowledge and behavioral skills associated with primary prevention of cigarette and marijuana use. The authors also explored participants' gameplay experience. This study employed a 1-group pretest-posttest design with 25 adolescent boys and girls aged 11 to 14 years (M age = 11.56, SD = 0.77) who had never tried cigarettes or marijuana. Participants played four 1-hour gameplay sessions over a 2-week period. Assessments of knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes, perceived norms, and intentions related to cigarette and marijuana prevention were collected at baseline and 2-week and 12-week follow-ups. Ratings of gameplay experience were collected after the 2 weeks of gameplay. One-way repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted. Findings are (1) improvements in knowledge for both cigarette (Wilks' λ = 0.62, F(2, 23) = 7.21, P = .004) and marijuana (Wilks' λ = 0.67, F(2, 23) = 5.75, P = .009) use from pre- to post-gameplay that were characterized by large effects; and (2) nonsignificant trends in the expected direction emerged for changes in self-efficacy and perceived norms related to both cigarettes and marijuana that were characterized by medium-large effects. Overall, the players provided positive reports of their experience with the smokeSCREEN videogame prototype. These findings provide preliminary evidence that a videogame has the potential to influence key cognitive and motivational variables and can be an engaging means to deliver a cigarette and marijuana prevention intervention.

  19. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michele L; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Appleton, Allison A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2017-04-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiṣ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5-20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  1. Preliminary site investigation for LL and IL radwaste disposal for Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen; Chen Zhangru

    1993-01-01

    With the purpose of selecting a disposal site for the low- and intermediate-level radwastes arising from Qinshan NPP, site investigations were carried out in several districts of Zhejiang Province. Investigation objectives included the circumstances of geology, hydrogeology, environmental ecology, and social economy. On the basis of collected data, five possible sites were recommended for policy-making reference and further investigation

  2. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susko, Michele L.; Bloom, Michael S.; Neamtiu, Iulia A.; Appleton, Allison A.; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Anastasiu, Doru

    2017-01-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiá¹£ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5–20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1 µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. - Highlights: • We assessed low level drinking water arsenic as a predictor of fecundability. • Arsenic did

  3. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susko, Michele L. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Bloom, Michael S., E-mail: mbloom@albany.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Neamtiu, Iulia A. [Health Department, Environmental Health Center, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); IMOGEN Research Institute, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Appleton, Allison A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Surdu, Simona [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Pop, Cristian [Physico-chemical and Biotoxicological Analysis Laboratory, Environmental Health Center, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cluj School of Public Health - College of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Fitzgerald, Edward F. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Anastasiu, Doru [University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeș”, Timișoara (Romania); Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Emergency County Hospital, Timișoara (Romania); and others

    2017-04-15

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiá¹£ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5–20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1 µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. - Highlights: • We assessed low level drinking water arsenic as a predictor of fecundability. • Arsenic did

  4. Neuropsychological presentation and adaptive skills in high-functioning adolescents with visual impairment: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, R; Pring, L; Schepers, A; Isaacs, D P; Dale, N J

    2017-01-01

    Studies in infants and young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) have indicated early developmental vulnerabilities, conversely research with older children and adults have highlighted areas of cognitive strength. A minimal amount is known, however, about the possible combination of strengths and weaknesses in adolescence, and this present study therefore aims to explore the neuropsychological presentation and adaptive behavior profile in high-functioning adolescents with congenital VI. Participants completed a battery of commonly used neuropsychological measures assessing memory, executive function, and attention. The measures utilized focused on auditory neuropsychological function, because only subtests that could be completed with auditory administration were suitable for this sample. Parents completed standardized measures of adaptive behavior, executive function, and social communication. Compared to aged-based norms for normal sight, adolescents with VI demonstrated strengths in aspects of working memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, performance across the neuropsychological battery was within or above the average range for the majority of the sample. In contrast, parent-report measures indicated areas of weakness in adaptive functioning, social communication, and behavioral executive functioning. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence that relative to fully sighted peers, high-functioning adolescents with VI present with an uneven profile of cognitive and adaptive skills, which has important implications for assessment and intervention.

  5. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-01-01

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study

  6. Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foreman, K.M.

    1981-12-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach is suggested for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system. A preliminary economic asessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kw rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1979 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

  7. A phenomenographic investigation into Information Literacy in nursing practice - preliminary findings and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Information Literacy is essential to 'evidence-based practice'; without the ability to locate evidence, evidence-based practice is rendered extremely difficult if not impossible. There is currently little evidence to show how Information Literacy is experienced by nurses or what its parameters are within evidence-based practice and therefore whether Information Literacy educational interventions are actually promoting the correct knowledge and skills. Using phenomenographic interviews the author will attempt to discover how nurses experience Information Literacy. Insights from the findings will be used to map out its parameters and to put forward a theoretical model for a course or module to develop it effectively. This article presents preliminary findings, including 7 draft categories of description of how Information Literacy is experienced in nursing. This pilot study indicates that the complete findings may be of significant potential value in the promotion and development of Information Literacy education in nursing. It is argued that such insights into how nurses actually experience the phenomenon of Information Literacy can be used to develop potentially more effective, research-based, educational interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary investigations of the winter ecology of Long-billed Curlews in coastal Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Edwardson, Jeremy W.; Austin, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, the distribution of the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus) has contracted dramatically in the eastern one-half of its historic range. The species has been designated as a "Bird of Conservation Concern" and focal species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, a species of concern by several states, and a "Highly Imperiled" species in the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan. The uncertain outlook for this species has contributed to a plethora of research on Long-billed Curlews, most of which have focused on breeding and nesting ecology of the species. Gaps remain in information about factors affecting population dynamics on the winter grounds and the linkages between Long-billed Curlew populations on the breeding range, migration routes, and winter range. To begin filling those gaps, a pilot study was done to evaluate (1) curlew use of nocturnal roost sites, (2) use of public outreach to locate curlews and contribute to preliminary assessment of foraging habitat use, (3) six different methods to capture curlews, and (4) movements by curlews on wintering areas. The study area includes the lower Texas coast, which harbors the eastern-most dense populations of Long-billed Curlews in North America.

  9. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  10. Preliminary investigation on the deformation rates of the Nazimiye Fault (Eastern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sançar, Taylan

    2016-04-01

    The complex tectonic setting of the eastern Mediterranean is mainly shaped by the interaction between three major plates, Eurasian, African, and Arabian plates, with additional involvement from the smaller Anatolian Scholle. The internal deformation of the Anatolian Scholle is mainly accommodated along NW-striking dextral and NE-striking sinistral faults, which are explained by the Prandtl Cell model by Şengör (1979). Although some of these strike-slip faults, such as Tuzgölü, Ecemiş and Malatya-Ovacık faults, have long been documented, the Nazimiye Fault (NF) is only presented in very recent studies (Kara et al. 2013; Emre et al. 2012). The aim of the study is to understand intra-plate deformation of the Anatolian Scholle, by studying the morphotectonic structures along the NF. The study area located close to the eastern boundary of Anatolia, roughly on the wedge that is delimited by the North and East Anatolian shear zones and the Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone. After the preliminary remote sensing analyses and field observations, I mapped the locations of the different terrace treads along the Pülümür River, which is strongly deflected by the activity of the NF. This dextral strike-slip fault, is not only characterized with the deformation of the Pülümür River, but also it shows many beheaded streams, pressure ridges, hot springs and travertines along its course. I sampled one of the alluvial fans for cosmogenic dating at the eastern section of the NF, where about 20 m of dextral offset was measured at the margins of the incised stream. Moreover, additional sampling was performed from different terrace levels along the Pülümür River, in order not only to estimate the min. horizontal rate, but also to quantify the vertical deformation. Moreover, I applied morphometric indices to understand the tectonic control on the local morphology along the NF. Transverse Topographic Symmetry Factor was used to show the relative degree of tectonic activity along the

  11. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  12. Preliminary results of paleoseismic investigations of Quaternary faults on eastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Site characterization of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires detailed knowledge of the displacement histories of nearby Quaternary faults. Ongoing paleoseismic studies provide data on the amount and rates of Quaternary activity on the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, and Stagecoach Road faults along the eastern margin of the mountain over varying time spans of 0-700 ka to perhaps 0-30 ka, depending on the site. Preliminary stratigraphic interpretations of deposits and deformation at many logged trenches and natural exposures indicate that each of these faults have experienced from 3 to 8 surface-rupturing earthquakes associated with variable dip-slip displacements per event ranging from 5 to 115 cm, and commonly in the range of 20 to 85 cm. Cumulative dip-slip offsets of units with broadly assigned ages of 100-200 ka are typically less than 200 cm, although accounting for the effects of possible left normal-oblique slip could increase these displacements by factors of 1.1 to 1.7. Current age constraints indicate recurrence intervals of 10 4 to 10 5 years (commonly between 30 and 80 k.y.) and slip rates of 0.001 to 0.08 mm/yr (typically 0.01-0.02 mm/yr). Based on available timing data, the ages of the most recent ruptures varies among the faults; they appear younger on the Stagecoach Road Fault (∼5-20 ka) relative to the southern Paintbrush Canyon and Bow Ridge faults (∼30-100 ka)

  13. Spectral investigation of hot-spot and cavity resonance effects on the terahertz radiation emitted from high-Tc superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystal mesa structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Kazuo; Watanabe, Chiharu; Minami, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Klemm, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation emitted from high-Tc superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ mesa structures in the case of single mesa and series-connected mesas is investigated by the FTIR spectroscopic technique while observing its temperature distribution simultaneously by a SiC photoluminescence technique. Changing the bias level, sudden jumps of the hot-spot position were clearly observed. Although the radiation intensity changes drastically associated with the jump of the hot spot position, the frequency is unaffected as long as the voltage per junction is kept constant. Since the frequency of the intense radiation satisfies the cavity resonance condition, we confirmed that the cavity resonance is of primarily importance for the synchronization of whole intrinsic Josephson junctions in the mesa for high power radiation. This work was supported in part by the Grant-in-Aid for challenging Exploratory Research, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT).

  14. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benkirane, A.; Noury, S.; Hartskeerl, R. A.; Goris, M. G. A.; Ahmed, A.; Nally, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated,

  15. Dynamic Reconfiguration Of FPGA Nodes In A Distributed Computing System: A Preliminary Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nixon, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Trinity College, Dublin to investigate a specialized portion of a heterogeneous information system, specifically, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based nodes...

  16. Preliminary investigation of the relationship between capillary pore pressure and early shrinkage cracking of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design experimental laboratory equipment and perform experiments to investigate the basic physical processes that occur in concrete for periods of several hours to several days after mixing. The study was conducted in...

  17. A Preliminary Videofluoroscopic Investigation of Swallowing Physiology and Function in Individuals with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waito, Ashley A; Steele, Catriona M; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Genge, Angela; Argov, Zohar

    2018-05-03

    Dysphagia is one of the primary symptoms experienced by individuals with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD). However, we lack understanding of the discrete changes in swallowing physiology that are seen in OPMD, and the resulting relationship to impairments of swallowing safety and efficiency. This study sought to describe the pathophysiology of dysphagia in a small sample of patients with OPMD using a videofluoroscopy examination (VFSS) involving 3 × 5 mL boluses of thin liquid barium (22% w/v). The aim of this study is to extend what is known about the pathophysiology of dysphagia in OPMD, by quantifying changes in swallow timing, kinematics, safety, and efficiency, measured from VFSS. This study is a secondary analysis of baseline VFSS collected from 11 adults (4 male), aged 48-62 (mean 57) enrolled in an industry-sponsored phase 2 therapeutic drug trial. Blinded raters scored the VFSS recordings for safety [Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS)], efficiency [Normalized Residue Ratio Scale (NRRS)], timing [Pharyngeal Transit Time (PTT), Swallow Reaction Time (SRT), Laryngeal Vestibule Closure Reaction Time (LVCrt), Upper Esophageal Sphincter Opening Duration (UESD)], and kinematics (hyoid movement, pharyngeal constriction, UES opening width). Impairment thresholds from existing literature were defined to characterize swallowing physiology and function. Further, Fisher's Exact tests and Pearson's correlations were used to conduct a preliminary exploration of associations between swallowing physiology (e.g., kinematics, timing) and function (i.e., safety, efficiency). Compared to published norms, we identified significant differences in the degree of maximum pharyngeal constriction, hyoid movement distance and speed, as well as degree and timeliness of airway closure. Unsafe swallowing (PAS ≥ 3) was seen in only 3/11 patients. By contrast, clinically significant residue (i.e., NRRS scores ≥ 0.09 vallecular; ≥ 0.2 pyriform) was seen in

  18. Effects of Filter Ventilation on Behavioral Economic Demand for Cigarettes: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; O'Connor, Richard J; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-07-23

    The majority of cigarettes sold in the United States and abroad feature filter ventilation holes designed to dilute mainstream smoke. Although initially intended to produce a safer cigarette, data instead suggest that filter ventilation increases total harm from smoking. In the present study, we examined the effects of blocking ventilation holes on behavioral economic demand for cigarettes (i.e., consumption as a function of price). In a within-subjects design, regular smokers (N = 15) of ventilated cigarettes sampled vent-blocked cigarettes for 3 days. Subsequently, they completed three sessions in which they used an experimental income to purchase vent-blocked and/or control cigarettes across a range of prices. Participants also completed the Drug Effects/Liking Scale. In sessions in which only one cigarette type was available, demand measures were undifferentiated between cigarette types. However, in sessions in which both cigarettes were available at equivalent prices, significantly greater preference for ventilated control cigarettes emerged in demand measures. Regardless of session type, participants also rated vent-blocked cigarettes more poorly in the Drug Effects/Liking Scale (more bad effects, fewer good effects, and less liking, desire, and less likely to use again). Removing filter ventilation reduced cigarette abuse liability, as measured by behavioral economic demand and the Drug Effects/Liking Scale. However, reduced demand was only apparent when both cigarette types were concurrently available. This selective effect suggests that regulatory action banning filter ventilation would only reduce cigarette consumption when effective substitutes for vent-blocked cigarettes are available. This preliminary study indicates that regulatory action designed to ban or restrict cigarette filter ventilation may decrease cigarette abuse liability as measured by both behavioral economic demand and self-report measures. However, effects of removing filter ventilation

  19. White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

  20. Preventive Activities of Preliminary Investigation Bodies in Respect of Crime Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Timko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the prevention of victimization by the investigation and inquiry divisions of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation. It defines the main forms and methods of working with the victim during the investigation of a crime aimed at reducing the possibility of again becoming a victim of criminal assault. The organizational and legal directions of victimological prevention are analyzed, the necessity of developing effective mechanisms for assessing the activities of the units of internal affairs agencies in crime prevention is justified.

  1. Comparative resilience of soil and natural zeolite against adverse features of a municipal sewage. A preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buondonno, A.; Coppola, E.; Capra, G.F.; De Riso, S.; Duras, M.G.; Selis, G.; Vacca, S.; Colella, C.

    2008-01-01

    A research was started aiming at evaluating the possible use of natural zeolites as exchange conditioners to improve and make durable the soil resilience against the adverse effects of the use of anomalous waters for irrigation purposes. This paper deals with a preliminary investigation on the comparative resilience of an Entisol with poor exchange properties and of a Neapolitan yellow tuff (NYT) sample against the adverse features of a dirty municipal sewage (DSW). Results showed that NYT treatment largely and significantly improved the poor soil exchange activity. In particular. NYT exchange sites selectively took up ammonium from DSW. As a consequence, ammonium was trapped, then protected against losses in the environment and, concurrently, exchangeable cations, such as K and Ca, were made free as plant nutrients. The results highlight the possible positive role of zeolitized tuff in restoring and sustaining soil resilience.

  2. A preliminary investigation of the distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Cona tidal marsh (Venice Lagoon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, S.; Costa, F.; Vazzoler, S.; Zonta, R.

    1988-01-01

    Data are from the two series of surface sediment sampling in an interface area between the Venice Lagoon and the mainland. The distribution of heavy metals gives a correlation with polluted sourcesites-identified in the channel systems with a highly polluted input-and allows us to identify the localities of accumulation. Restricted to the estuary of the river tributary transporting a high concentration of pollutants into a tidal marsh area of the lagoon, the study shows the effect of the fresh water forcing to distribute heavy metals on surface sediments. Within the scope of this preliminary investigation, indications from sampling identify a sector of the 'palude of Cona' in this estuary, which is highly suitable for detailed studies on precesses affecting heavy-metal distributions in bottom surface sediments of shallow-water areas

  3. Comparison between digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance angiography in investigation of nonlacunar ischemic stroke in young patients: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Fregni, Felipe; Puglia, Paulo; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Yamamoto, Fabio Iuji; Coracini, Karen F; Scaff, Milberto

    2006-06-01

    We preliminarily investigated the relevance of performing digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in addition to magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in definition of ischemic stroke etiology in young patients. DSAs and MRAs from 17 young patients with nonlacunar ischemic stroke were blindly analyzed and their impact on stroke management was evaluated. Etiologies were the same considering results of either DSA or MRA in 12/17 cases. In 15/17 patients no changes would have been made in treatment, regardless of the modality of angiography considered. These preliminary results suggest that DSA may be redundant in two thirds of ischemic strokes in young patients. Further larger prospective studies are necessary to determine indications of DSA in this age group.

  4. Preliminary Results from Initial Investigations of Ceres' Cratering Record from Dawn Imaging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Michael, Gregory; Ivanov, Boris A.; Kneissl, Thomas; Neesemann, Adrian; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    The highly successful Dawn mission [1] finished data collection at Vesta in 2012 and is now on its way to the dwarf planet Ceres. According to the current Ceres approach timeline of the Dawn mission, the ground resolution of the Dawn FC camera [2] will be about 10 times better than Hubble data [3] at the time of the presentation of this work. This may allow for identification of craters about 15 km in diameter. Initial mapping of sample areas may provide enough information of the cratering record in order to compare it with the theoretical Ceres crater production function we present at the 46th LPSC conference (March 16-20, 2015, The Woodlands, Texas) [4]. Our preliminary crater production function for Ceres is derived from the assumption of an icy crust just below a thin surface layer of dust [5], and a projectile population that is very similar to the one that impacted the Moon [6]. In order to scale the lunar cratering record to Ceres we use the Ivanov scaling laws [7], which allow for crater scaling based on parameters that can be derived from observations. The lunar-like approach gave reasonable good results for the crater production function on the asteroids Vesta, Ida, Lutetia and Gaspra [8]. Since the lunar surface is of basaltic composition, the correct scaling between the different materials is challenging. One crucial parameter is the transition diameter from simple to complex craters. Based on the simple to complex transition diameter on Iapetus, an icy satellite of Saturn, we expect this transition at about 12 km crater size at Ceres. This value may be slightly different due to the different temperatures at Ceres and Iapetus. If the simple to complex transition is observed at much larger diameters, the reason could be a substantial fraction of rock in the shallow subsurface of Ceres. In an ice-rich surface material high relaxation rates may also be expected that could change the shape of the crater production function. A thorough geological mapping

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of the Suitability of Aquatics for People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherne, Cian; Coughlan, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Aquatics is an under-researched but possibly appropriate form of activity for people with severe to profound intellectual disabilities (SPIDs). Aim: The current pilot study investigates the suitability of an aquatics programme for service users with SPIDs. Method: Four service users with SPID completed an 8-12-session aquatics…

  6. Role of Working Memory in Children's Understanding Spoken Narrative: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, James W.; Polunenko, Anzhela; Marinellie, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of phonological short-term memory (PSTM), attentional resource capacity/allocation, and processing speed on children's spoken narrative comprehension was investigated. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) completed a digit span task (PSTM), concurrent verbal processing and storage (CPS) task (resource capacity/allocation), auditory-visual…

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Shoenberger, Deacon; Hayes, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design.…

  9. Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Althea T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Twohig, Michael P; Shoenberger, Deacon; Hayes, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. Self-reported marijuana use, confirmed through oral swabs, reached zero levels for all participants at posttreatment. At a 3-month follow-up, 1 partici...

  11. Preliminary investigation of candidate specimens for the Egyptian environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawky, S.; Amer, H.; Schladot, J.D.; Ostapczuk, P.; Emons, H.; Abou El-Nour, F.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of establishing an environmental monitoring program related to environmental specimen banking in egypt, some candidate specimens from the aquatic environment (Fish muscle, fish liver; mussels) were investigated. The selection of specimens and sampling sites is described. Specimens are chemically characterised with respect to some major and trace elements and the results are compared with data obtained from comparable specimens collected in aquatic ecosystems of germany

  12. Preliminary optical coherence tomography investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărcăuteanu, Corina; Demjan, Enikö; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Motoc, Adrian; Lighezan, Rodica; Vasile, Liliana; Hughes, Mike; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2010-02-01

    Aim and objectives. The morphology and position of the temporo-mandibular disc are key issues in the diagnosis and treatment of arthrogenous temporo-mandibular disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy are used today to identify: flattening of the pars posterior of the disc, perforation and/or adhesions in the pars intermedia of the disc and disc displacements. The present study proposes the investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Material and methods. 8 human temporo-mandibular joint discs were harvested from dead subjects, under 40 year of age, and conserved in formalin. They had a normal morphology, with a thicker pars posterior (2,6 mm on the average) and a thinner pars intermedia (1mm on the average). We investigated the disc samples using two different OCT systems: an en-face OCT (time domain (TD)-OCT) system, working at 1300 nm (C-scan and B-scan mode) and a spectral OCT system (a Fourier domain (FD)-OCT) system , working at 840 nm (B-scan mode). Results. The OCT investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint discs revealed a homogeneous microstructure. The longer wavelength of the TD-OCT offers a higher penetration depth (2,5 mm in air), which is important for the analysis of the pars posterior, while the FD-OCT is much faster. Conclusions: OCT is a promising imaging method for the microstructural characterization of the temporo-mandibular disc.

  13. Preliminary data report of investigations conducted at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted ecological studies at the Salmon Site (SS), Lamar County, Mississippi, from the middle of June 1992 to the end of April 1993. The studies are part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) being conducted by the DOE. The RI/FS is the methodology under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA) for evaluating hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). The Salmon Site is not listed on the NPL but DOE has voluntarily elected to conduct the evaluation of the SS in accordance with CERCLA/SARA. As part of the remedial investigation, baseline human health and ecological risk assessments will be conducted. These baseline risk assessments will evaluate the potential impact on human health and the environment if remedial actions are not conducted, identify locations where additional information needs to be collected, help determine whether remedial actions are necessary, and provide justification for performing remedial actions. This report describes the sampling activities conducted between February and April 1993 to aid in evaluating the possible environmental impacts at the SS tailored to the specific circumstances and conditions found there. The initial investigations included identification of the flora and fauna in and around the SS, with particular emphasis on identifying sensitive environments, endangered species and their habitats, and those species consumed by humans or found in human food chains

  14. Preliminary investigation of the interaction between radiologists and digital radiologic work stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.L.; McNeill, K.M.; Maloney, K.; Mockbee, B.

    1987-01-01

    Using a work station built in the authors' department, they conducted an investigation into the interaction between radiologist and a digital radiologic work station. A survey provided information regarding the experience of 18 radiologists with digital technology and their expectations of its benefits. They ranked the potential attributes of digital work stations, with spatial resolution first, followed by contrast resolution, ease of use, speed, ease of learning, and cost. Observation of the radiologists' interaction with the work station has provided recommendations for implementation of functions. The authors conclude that radiologic work station user interfaces must be intuitive and support the radiologist's task without increasing the time or effort required for the task

  15. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...... system - high content of heavy metals - high emissions of particulate matter and PAH This investigation deals with the problem of separation due to high shear stress in the injection system. It is shown that the viscosity of the injected fuel can be used to estimate whether the emulsion has separated...

  16. Preliminary investigations of equilibrium reconstruction quality during ELMy and ELM-free phases on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Orsitto, F.P.; Gerasimov, S.

    2013-01-01

    On JET, the magnetic topology is normally derived from the code EFIT, which solves the Grad–Shafranov equation with constraints imposed by the available measurements, typically the pick-up coils. Both the code and the measurements are expected to perform worse during ELMs. To assess this hypothesis, various statistical indicators, based on the values of the residuals and their probability distribution, have been calculated. They all show that the quality of EFIT reconstructions is clearly better in absence of ELMs. How the responsibility, for the lower quality of the reconstructions, is shared between the measurements and EFIT is a subject under investigation. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  17. Preliminary Investigation of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone Based on Fused Deposition Modeling for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK fabricated by fused deposition modeling for medical applications was evaluated in terms of mechanical strength and in vitro cytotoxicity in this study. Orthogonal experiments were firstly designed to investigate the significant factors on tensile strength. Nozzle temperature, platform temperature, and the filament diameter were tightly controlled for improved mechanical strength performance. These sensitive parameters affected the interlayer bonding and solid condition in the samples. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometry analysis was secondly conducted to compare the functional groups in PEEK granules, filaments, and printed parts. In vitro cytotoxicity test was carried out at last, and no toxic substances were introduced during the printing process.

  18. Purple spot damage dynamics investigated by an integrated approach on a 1244 A.D. parchment roll from the Secret Vatican Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Luciana; Thaller, Maria Cristina; Vendittozzi, Giulia; Mejia, Astrid Yazmine; Mercuri, Fulvio; Orlanducci, Silvia; Rubechini, Alessandro

    2017-09-07

    Ancient parchments are commonly attacked by microbes, producing purple spots and detachment of the superficial layer. Neither standard cultivation nor molecular methods (DGGE) solved the issue: causative agents and colonization model are still unknown. To identify the putative causal agents, we describe the 16 S rRNA gene analysis (454-pyrosequencing) of the microbial communities colonizing a damaged parchment roll dated 1244 A.D. (A.A. Arm. I-XVIII 3328, Vatican Secret Archives). The taxa in damaged or undamaged areas of the same document were different. In the purple spots, marine halotolerant Gammaproteobacteria, mainly Vibrio, were found; these microorganisms are rare or absent in the undamaged areas. Ubiquitous and environmental microorganisms were observed in samples from both damaged and undamaged areas. Pseudonocardiales were the most common, representing the main colonizers of undamaged areas. We hypothesize a successional model of biodeterioration, based on metagenomic data and spectroscopic analysis of pigments, which help to relate the damage to a microbial agent. Furthermore, a new method (Light Transmitted Analysis) was utilized to evaluate the kind and entity of the damage to native collagen. These data give a significant advance to the knowledge in the field and open new perspectives to remediation activity on a huge amount of ancient document.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Mendelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1, n=14 or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2, n=17. Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  20. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna; White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Schmid, Lorrie; Riggsbee, Jan; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer; Dawson, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together® , for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: "long-term" (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or "short-term" (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  1. The poststall nonlinear dynamics and control of an F-18: A preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, William N.

    1988-01-01

    The successful high angle of attack (HAOA) operation of fighter aircraft will necessarily require the introduction of a new onboard control methodology that address the nonlinearity of the system when flown at the stall/poststall limits of the craft's flight envelope. As a precursor to this task, a researcher endeavored to familarize himself with the dynamics of one specific aircraft, the F-18, when it is flown at HAOA. This was accomplished by conducting a number of real time flight sorties using the NASA-Langley Research Center's F-18 simulator, which was operated with a pilot in the loop. In addition to developing a first hand familarity with the aircraft's dynamic characteristic at HAOA, work was also performed to identify the input/output operational footprint of the F-18's control surfaces. This investigator proposes to employ the nonlinear models of the plant identified this summer in a subsequent research effort that will make it possible to fly the F-18 effectively at poststall angles of attack. The controller design used there will rely on a new technique proposed by this investigator that provides for the automatic generation of online optimal control solutions for nonlinear dynamic systems.

  2. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents' perceptions of problematic use. The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to "virtual addictions".

  3. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Methods: Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents’ perceptions of problematic use. Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. Conclusions: The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to “virtual addictions”. PMID:25215213

  4. Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Preparation and preliminary in-vitro investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodi, G.; Pala, A.; Barbu, E.; Peptanariu, D.; Hritcu, D.; Popa, M.I.; Tamba, B.I.

    2016-01-01

    Carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) synthesized from commercially available polysaccharide was formulated into nanoparticles via ionic gelation using trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) as cross-linking agent. Characterisation using a range of analytical techniques (FTIR, NMR, GPC, TGA and DLS) confirmed the CMGG structure and revealed the effect of the CMGG and STMP concentration on the main characteristics of the obtained nanoformulations. The average nanoparticle diameter was found to be around 208 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Experiments using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour of the nanoformulations loaded with Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model drug (loading capacity in excess of 83%), as monitored by UV–Vis. While dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed, the nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at concentrations below 0.3 mg/mL. Results obtained so far suggest that carboxymethylated guar gum nanoparticles formulated with STMP warrant further investigations as polysaccharide based biocompatible drug nanocarriers. - Highlights: • Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles preparation by ionic gelation • The optimum synthesis system designed particles around 200 nm • The nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at specific concentrations • The loaded formulations evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour • The results encourage further investigations as polysaccharidic drug nanocarriers

  5. Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Preparation and preliminary in-vitro investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodi, G., E-mail: gianina.dodi@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi (Romania); SCIENT — Research Centre for Instrumental Analysis, Bucharest (Romania); Pala, A. [University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Barbu, E. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Peptanariu, D. [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania); Hritcu, D.; Popa, M.I. [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi (Romania); Tamba, B.I. [“Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-06-01

    Carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) synthesized from commercially available polysaccharide was formulated into nanoparticles via ionic gelation using trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) as cross-linking agent. Characterisation using a range of analytical techniques (FTIR, NMR, GPC, TGA and DLS) confirmed the CMGG structure and revealed the effect of the CMGG and STMP concentration on the main characteristics of the obtained nanoformulations. The average nanoparticle diameter was found to be around 208 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Experiments using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour of the nanoformulations loaded with Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model drug (loading capacity in excess of 83%), as monitored by UV–Vis. While dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed, the nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at concentrations below 0.3 mg/mL. Results obtained so far suggest that carboxymethylated guar gum nanoparticles formulated with STMP warrant further investigations as polysaccharide based biocompatible drug nanocarriers. - Highlights: • Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles preparation by ionic gelation • The optimum synthesis system designed particles around 200 nm • The nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at specific concentrations • The loaded formulations evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour • The results encourage further investigations as polysaccharidic drug nanocarriers.

  6. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  7. Chemical analysis of the elements in UZrNb alloy at CDTN: preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Palmieri, Helena Eugenia L.; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Souza, Adalberto Leles de

    2012-01-01

    The complete determination of major, minor, and impurity element contents in nuclear fuel is essential for quality assurance in the production of nuclear fuels. The control over all the stages of the development of nuclear fuel involves a combination of different analytical methods such as spectrometric methods. The goal of our investigation is to develop and evaluate procedures for the determination of main elements and carbon impurity present in some uranium alloys. In this paper the element contents in U2.5Zr7.5Nb, U3Zr9Nb alloys and U6Nb, in weight percent, were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), wavelength dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (XRF/WDS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The total carbon was determined using a carbon analyzer in which the sample is oxidized to carbon dioxide (IR absorption). It was observed a satisfactory correlation between the results obtained by employed methods. (author)

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2006-03-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  10. Design and 4D Printing of Cross-Folded Origami Structures: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Joanne Ee Mei; An, Jia; Feng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Yue; Chua, Chee Kai; Liu, Yong

    2018-03-03

    In 4D printing research, different types of complex structure folding and unfolding have been investigated. However, research on cross-folding of origami structures (defined as a folding structure with at least two overlapping folds) has not been reported. This research focuses on the investigation of cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thickness with single homogeneous material. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the impact of multi-material components and horizontal hinge thickness. In the case of multi-material structures, the hybrid material composition has a significant impact on the overall maximum strain and Young's modulus properties. In the case of single material structures, the shape recovery speed is inversely proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness, while the flexural or bending strength is proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness. A hinge with a thickness of 0.5 mm could be folded three times prior to fracture whilst a hinge with a thickness of 0.3 mm could be folded only once prior to fracture. A hinge with a thickness of 0.1 mm could not even be folded without cracking. The introduction of a physical hole in the center of the folding/unfolding line provided stress relief and prevented fracture. A complex flower petal shape was used to successfully demonstrate the implementation of overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines using both single material segments and multi-material segments. Design guidelines for establishing cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thicknesses with single or homogeneous material were established. These guidelines can be used to design and implement complex origami structures with overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines. Combined overlapping folding structures could be implemented and allocating specific hole locations in the overall designs could be

  11. Design and 4D Printing of Cross-Folded Origami Structures: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Ee Mei Teoh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 4D printing research, different types of complex structure folding and unfolding have been investigated. However, research on cross-folding of origami structures (defined as a folding structure with at least two overlapping folds has not been reported. This research focuses on the investigation of cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thickness with single homogeneous material. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the impact of multi-material components and horizontal hinge thickness. In the case of multi-material structures, the hybrid material composition has a significant impact on the overall maximum strain and Young’s modulus properties. In the case of single material structures, the shape recovery speed is inversely proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness, while the flexural or bending strength is proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness. A hinge with a thickness of 0.5 mm could be folded three times prior to fracture whilst a hinge with a thickness of 0.3 mm could be folded only once prior to fracture. A hinge with a thickness of 0.1 mm could not even be folded without cracking. The introduction of a physical hole in the center of the folding/unfolding line provided stress relief and prevented fracture. A complex flower petal shape was used to successfully demonstrate the implementation of overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines using both single material segments and multi-material segments. Design guidelines for establishing cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thicknesses with single or homogeneous material were established. These guidelines can be used to design and implement complex origami structures with overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines. Combined overlapping folding structures could be implemented and allocating specific hole locations in the overall

  12. Design and 4D Printing of Cross-Folded Origami Structures: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Joanne Ee Mei; Feng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    In 4D printing research, different types of complex structure folding and unfolding have been investigated. However, research on cross-folding of origami structures (defined as a folding structure with at least two overlapping folds) has not been reported. This research focuses on the investigation of cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thickness with single homogeneous material. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the impact of multi-material components and horizontal hinge thickness. In the case of multi-material structures, the hybrid material composition has a significant impact on the overall maximum strain and Young’s modulus properties. In the case of single material structures, the shape recovery speed is inversely proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness, while the flexural or bending strength is proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness. A hinge with a thickness of 0.5 mm could be folded three times prior to fracture whilst a hinge with a thickness of 0.3 mm could be folded only once prior to fracture. A hinge with a thickness of 0.1 mm could not even be folded without cracking. The introduction of a physical hole in the center of the folding/unfolding line provided stress relief and prevented fracture. A complex flower petal shape was used to successfully demonstrate the implementation of overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines using both single material segments and multi-material segments. Design guidelines for establishing cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thicknesses with single or homogeneous material were established. These guidelines can be used to design and implement complex origami structures with overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines. Combined overlapping folding structures could be implemented and allocating specific hole locations in the overall designs could be

  13. A preliminary analysis of incident investigation reports of an integrated steel plant: some reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A; Maiti, J; Gaikwad, V N

    2018-06-01

    Large integrated steel plants employ an effective safety management system and gather a significant amount of safety-related data. This research intends to explore and visualize the rich database to find out the key factors responsible for the occurrences of incidents. The study was carried out on the data in the form of investigation reports collected from a steel plant in India. The data were processed and analysed using some of the quality management tools like Pareto chart, control chart, Ishikawa diagram, etc. Analyses showed that causes of incidents differ depending on the activities performed in a department. For example, fire/explosion and process-related incidents are more common in the departments associated with coke-making and blast furnace. Similar kind of factors were obtained, and recommendations were provided for their mitigation. Finally, the limitations of the study were discussed, and the scope of the research works was identified.

  14. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Todor; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry. (paper)

  15. A preliminary investigation of the EBT2 radiochromic films response to low energy fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydarous, Abdulkadir, E-mail: Aydarous@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Al-Hawiah, Taif, PO Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St North, Oshawa, ON, L1H 7K4 (Canada); Aslam [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St North, Oshawa, ON, L1H 7K4 (Canada); Waker, Anthony [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St North, Oshawa, ON, L1H 7K4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2012-07-15

    EBT2 radiochromic films were used to study the relative dose distribution of the neutron field. The correlation between the beam current and the optical density showed good linear dependence with a correlation coefficient exceeding 98%. At any given beam energy, neutron dose rates can be changed by a factor of 40 without changing the neutron spectrum. This result is consistent with what was found by the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter measurements. The uniformity of the neutron field was inspected by the optical density profile of the exposed film. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing a 2D image for neutron field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of EBT2 sensitivity to neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studying the effect of irradiation parameters (beam energy and beam current) to the measured optical density.

  16. Preliminary investigation of PAGAT polymer gel radionuclide dosimetry of Tc-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kelly; Bailey, Dale; Hill, Brendan; Baldock, Clive

    2009-05-01

    PAGAT polymer gel was investigated as a suitable dosimeter materials for measuring absorbed dose from the unsealed source radionuclide Tc-99m. Differing amounts of Tc-99m over the range of 25-5000 MBq were introduced into a normoxic polymer gel mixture (PAGAT) in sealed nitrogen-filled P6 glass vials. After irradiation the gels were evaluated using MRI more than 48 hours after preparation to allow for radioactive decay. The dose delivered to the vial was also calculated empirically. R2 versus total activity curves were obtained over a number of experiments and these were used to evaluate the relationship between the amount of gel polymerization and the dose deposited by the radionuclide. A linear response up to 1000 MBq (corresponding to 20Gy) was displayed and was still behaving monotonically at 5000 MBq. Polymer gels offer the potential to measure radiation dose three-dimensionally using MRI.

  17. Report of preliminary investigations on the next-generation large-scale synchrotron radiation facility projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Special Committee for Future Project of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research investigated the construction-projects of the large-scaled synchrotron radiation facilities which are presently in progress in Japan. As a result, the following both projects are considered the very valuable research-project which will carry the development of Japan's next-generation synchrotron radiation science: 1. the 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facilities (SPring-8) projected to be constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research under the sponsorship of Science Technology Agency at Harima Science Park City, Hyogo Pref., Japan. 2. The project to utilize the Tristan Main Ring (MR) of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics as the radiation source. Both projects are unique in research theme and technological approach, and complemental each other. Therefore it has been concluded that both projects should be aided and ratified by the Society. (M.T.)

  18. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  19. [Investigation on Mobile Phone Based Thermal Imaging System and Its Preliminary Application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fufeng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The technical structure of a low-cost thermal imaging system (TIM) lunched on a mobile phone was investigated, which consists of a thermal infrared module and mobile phone and application software. The designing strategies and technical factors toward realizing various TIM array performances are interpreted, including sensor cost and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD). In the software algorithm, a mechanism for scene-change detection was implemented to optimize the efficiency of non-uniformity correction (NUC). The performance experiments and analysis indicate that the NETD of the system can be smaller than 150 mK when the integration time is larger than 16 frames. Furthermore, a practical application for human temperature monitoring during physical exercise is proposed and interpreted. The measurement results support the feasibility and facility of the system in the medical application.

  20. Working memory and proverb comprehension in adolescents with traumatic brain injury: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Catherine A; Nippold, Marilyn A; Gillon, Gail T

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between working memory and comprehension of low-familiarity proverbs in adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten adolescents, aged 12-21 years who had suffered a TBI prior to the age of 10 years and 10 individually age-matched peers with typical development participated in the study. The participants listened to short paragraphs containing a proverb and interpreted the meaning of the proverb using a forced-choice task. In addition, participants engaged in a task that evaluated working memory ability. Analysis revealed that individuals with TBI differed from their non-injured peers in their understanding of proverbs. In addition, working memory capacity influenced performance for all participants. The importance of considering working memory when evaluating figurative language comprehension in adolescents with TBI is highlighted. Implications for future research, particularly with regard to varying working memory and task demands, are considered.

  1. Preliminary investigation on reliability of genomic estimated breeding values in the Danish and Swedish Holstein Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Gregersen, V R

    2010-01-01

    or no effects, and a single prior distribution common for all SNP. It was found that, in general, the model with a common prior distribution of scaling factors had better predictive ability than any mixture prior models. Therefore, a common prior model was used to estimate SNP effects and breeding values......Abstract This study investigated the reliability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in the Danish Holstein population. The data in the analysis included 3,330 bulls with both published conventional EBV and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After data editing, 38,134 SNP markers...... were available. In the analysis, all SNP were fitted simultaneously as random effects in a Bayesian variable selection model, which allows heterogeneous variances for different SNP markers. The response variables were the official EBV. Direct GEBV were calculated as the sum of individual SNP effects...

  2. Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise in Finland: A preliminary investigation introducing the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karukivi, Max; Kortekangas-Savolainen, Outi; Saxén, Ulla; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria

    2015-10-01

    Teaching medical professionalism is increasingly acknowledged as an important aspect of medical education. The Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise (P-MEX) is an assessment tool for evaluating medical professionalism, but no studies using it as a self-assessment instrument have been reported. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation of the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument as an assessment and self-assessment measure. The sample in the present cross-sectional study comprised all 23 medical students and recent graduates (15 females and 8 males) participating in a summer school of psychiatry program in 2014. The two-month program combines clinical work with multifaceted teaching and intensive tutoring. At the end of the program, the participants' medical professionalism was assessed by the tutors and other members of the work community as well as the students themselves using the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument. The P-MEX scores were compared, using the Friedman test. The mean values and SD for the P-MEX assessments were as follows: tutor assessment 3.26±0.21, work community assessment 3.32±0.26 and self-assessment 3.01±0.07. No significant gender differences were observed. The tutor and work community assessments were significantly correlated (r=0.573, p=0.040), but the self-assessment scores did not correlate with either of the other assessments. Overall, the students evaluated their skills significantly poorer in comparison to the other assessments. Although the small sample size limits the generalization of these preliminary results, the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument appears to be a feasible measure of medical professionalism. The instrument can also be used as a self-assessment instrument, but subjective evaluations should be complemented with external assessments or feedback in order to take individual and cultural aspects into account.

  3. Preliminary investigations of a mixed standard-flip core for a TRIGA Mark II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringle, John C.; Johnson, A.G.; Anderson, T.V.

    1974-01-01

    Several years ago it became apparent that due to our rapidly- increasing use rate, we would need a substantial amount of new fuel by late 1974 or early 1975. After investigations and discussions with GA, we decided that FLIP fuel would best meet our requirements for maximum fuel economy and high peak pulsing power. A proposal was submitted to the AEC for fuel assistance, and late in 1973 we were awarded a grant of $61,875. This will allow us to buy 3 FLIP-fueled-follower control rods, 1 instrumented FLIP fuel element, and 26 standard FLIP elements, giving us then a mixed core of approximately one-third FLIP and two-thirds standard elements. License amendments to accommodate this change are rather straightforward; modifications to the Technical Specifications will be somewhat more involved. The largest revisions which we envision are to our Safety Analysis Report. Although a few reactors have operated with a full FLIP core, and a few others have converted to mixed standard-FLIP cores, none of these has a standard Mark II core configuration. Those who have already converted to a mixed core have data and calculations which may be helpful to us, but the extent to which we can use these remains to be seen. The present status of our investigations into the analysis of a mixed standard-FLIP core will be presented. Any problems in calculational methods, finding appropriate data, modifications to Technical Specifications, etc., will be identified, and suggestions and help in these areas will be welcomed. (author)

  4. Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

    1993-11-01

    The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa

  5. Preliminary biocompatibility investigation of magnetic albumin nanosphere designed as a potential versatile drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevanato L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Luciana Estevanato1, Débora Cintra1, Nayara Baldini1, Flávia Portilho1, Luzirlane Barbosa1, Olímpia Martins2, Bruno Lacava3, Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela1, Antônio Cláudio Tedesco2, Sônia Báo1, Paulo C Morais4, Zulmira GM Lacava11Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 2Departamento de Química, Laboratório de Fotobiologia e Fotomedicina, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, 3Instituto de Química, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, 4Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, BrazilBackground: The magnetic albumin nanosphere (MAN, encapsulating maghemite nanoparticles, was designed as a magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS able to perform a variety of biomedical applications. It is noteworthy that MAN was efficient in treating Ehrlich's tumors by the magnetohyperthermia procedure.Methods and materials: In this study, several nanotoxicity tests were systematically carried out in mice from 30 minutes until 30 days after MAN injection to investigate their biocompatibility status. Cytometry analysis, viability tests, micronucleus assay, and histological analysis were performed.Results: Cytometry analysis and viability tests revealed MAN promotes only slight and temporary alterations in the frequency of both leukocyte populations and viable peritoneal cells, respectively. Micronucleus assay showed absolutely no genotoxicity or cytotoxicity effects and histological analysis showed no alterations or even nanoparticle clusters in several investigated organs but, interestingly, revealed the presence of MAN clusters in the central nervous system (CNS.Conclusion: The results showed that MAN has desirable in vivo biocompatibility, presenting potential for use as a MDDS, especially in CNS disease therapy.Keywords: nanotoxicity, nanoparticle, genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, brain

  6. Preliminary investigations of a mixed standard-flip core for a TRIGA Mark II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringle, John C; Johnson, A G; Anderson, T V [Oregon State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    Several years ago it became apparent that due to our rapidly- increasing use rate, we would need a substantial amount of new fuel by late 1974 or early 1975. After investigations and discussions with GA, we decided that FLIP fuel would best meet our requirements for maximum fuel economy and high peak pulsing power. A proposal was submitted to the AEC for fuel assistance, and late in 1973 we were awarded a grant of $61,875. This will allow us to buy 3 FLIP-fueled-follower control rods, 1 instrumented FLIP fuel element, and 26 standard FLIP elements, giving us then a mixed core of approximately one-third FLIP and two-thirds standard elements. License amendments to accommodate this change are rather straightforward; modifications to the Technical Specifications will be somewhat more involved. The largest revisions which we envision are to our Safety Analysis Report. Although a few reactors have operated with a full FLIP core, and a few others have converted to mixed standard-FLIP cores, none of these has a standard Mark II core configuration. Those who have already converted to a mixed core have data and calculations which may be helpful to us, but the extent to which we can use these remains to be seen. The present status of our investigations into the analysis of a mixed standard-FLIP core will be presented. Any problems in calculational methods, finding appropriate data, modifications to Technical Specifications, etc., will be identified, and suggestions and help in these areas will be welcomed. (author)

  7. Roaming behaviour of dogs in four remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia: preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S; Burleigh, A; Dürr, S; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the home range (HR) and investigate the potential predictors for roaming of 58 dogs in four Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory. Prospective study. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to the dogs for 1-4 days, recording location fixes every 1-3 min. Utilisation distributions (UDs) and extended (95% isopleth) and core (50% isopleth) HRs of dogs were determined. Potential predictors of roaming were assessed. Estimated core (median, 0.27 ha) and extended (median, 3.1 ha) HRs differed significantly (P = 0.0225 and 0.0345, respectively) between the four communities; dogs in the coastal community travelled significantly (P < 0.0001) more per day than dogs in the three inland communities studied. Significant associations were found between extended HR size and sex (P = 0.0050) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0218), and between core HR size and sex (P = 0.0010), neuter status (P = 0.0255) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0025). Entire males roamed more than neutered females. The core HR of dogs with poor/fair body condition scores (BCSs) was larger than dogs with ideal/obese BCSs (P = 0.0394). Neutered male dogs also travelled more per day than entire female dogs (P = 0.0475). Roaming information can be used to inform the management of dogs in remote communities and to design disease control programs. Widespread data collection across the Northern Territory should be undertaken to further investigate the associations found in this study, considering that data were collected during relatively short periods of time in one season. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D. [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pinto, Frank [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B. [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

  9. Poster - 08: Preliminary Investigation into Collapsed-Cone based Dose Calculations for COMS Eye Plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Hali; Menon, Geetha; Sloboda, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of model-based dose calculations using a collapsed-cone algorithm for COMS eye plaques loaded with I-125 seeds. Methods: The Nucletron SelectSeed 130.002 I-125 seed and the 12 mm COMS eye plaque were incorporated into a research version of the Oncentra® Brachy v4.5 treatment planning system which uses the Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine (ACE) algorithm. Comparisons of TG-43 and high-accuracy ACE doses were performed for a single seed in a 30×30×30 cm 3 water box, as well as with one seed in the central slot of the 12 mm COMS eye plaque. The doses along the plaque central axis (CAX) were used to calculate the carrier correction factor, T(r), and were compared to tabulated and MCNP6 simulated doses for both the SelectSeed and IsoAid IAI-125A seeds. Results: The ACE calculated dose for the single seed in water was on average within 0.62 ± 2.2% of the TG-43 dose, with the largest differences occurring near the end-welds. The ratio of ACE to TG-43 calculated doses along the CAX (T(r)) of the 12 mm COMS plaque for the SelectSeed was on average within 3.0% of previously tabulated data, and within 2.9% of the MCNP6 simulated values. The IsoAid and SelectSeed T(r) values agreed within 0.3%. Conclusions: Initial comparisons show good agreement between ACE and MC doses for a single seed in a 12 mm COMS eye plaque; more complicated scenarios are being investigated to determine the accuracy of this calculation method.

  10. Poster - 08: Preliminary Investigation into Collapsed-Cone based Dose Calculations for COMS Eye Plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Hali; Menon, Geetha; Sloboda, Ron [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, and University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, and University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, and University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of model-based dose calculations using a collapsed-cone algorithm for COMS eye plaques loaded with I-125 seeds. Methods: The Nucletron SelectSeed 130.002 I-125 seed and the 12 mm COMS eye plaque were incorporated into a research version of the Oncentra® Brachy v4.5 treatment planning system which uses the Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine (ACE) algorithm. Comparisons of TG-43 and high-accuracy ACE doses were performed for a single seed in a 30×30×30 cm{sup 3} water box, as well as with one seed in the central slot of the 12 mm COMS eye plaque. The doses along the plaque central axis (CAX) were used to calculate the carrier correction factor, T(r), and were compared to tabulated and MCNP6 simulated doses for both the SelectSeed and IsoAid IAI-125A seeds. Results: The ACE calculated dose for the single seed in water was on average within 0.62 ± 2.2% of the TG-43 dose, with the largest differences occurring near the end-welds. The ratio of ACE to TG-43 calculated doses along the CAX (T(r)) of the 12 mm COMS plaque for the SelectSeed was on average within 3.0% of previously tabulated data, and within 2.9% of the MCNP6 simulated values. The IsoAid and SelectSeed T(r) values agreed within 0.3%. Conclusions: Initial comparisons show good agreement between ACE and MC doses for a single seed in a 12 mm COMS eye plaque; more complicated scenarios are being investigated to determine the accuracy of this calculation method.

  11. A preliminary investigation of materialism and impulsiveness as predictors of technological addictions among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A; Pirog, Stephen F

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims The primary objective of the present research is to investigate the drivers of technological addiction in college students - heavy users of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study places cell phone and instant messaging addiction in the broader context of consumption pathologies, investigating the influence of materialism and impulsiveness on these two technologies. Clearly, cell phones serve more than just a utilitarian purpose. Cell phones are used in public and play a vital role in the lives of young adults. The accessibility of new technologies, like cell phones, which have the advantages of portability and an ever increasing array of functions, makes their over-use increasingly likely. Methods College undergraduates (N = 191) from two U.S. universities completed a paper and pencil survey instrument during class. The questionnaire took approximately 15-20 minutes to complete and contained scales that measured materialism, impulsiveness, and mobile phone and instant messaging addiction. Results Factor analysis supported the discriminant validity of Ehrenberg, Juckes, White and Walsh's (2008) Mobile Phone and Instant Messaging Addictive Tendencies Scale. The path model indicates that both materialism and impulsiveness impact the two addictive tendencies, and that materialism's direct impact on these addictions has a noticeably larger effect on cell phone use than instant messaging. Conclusions The present study finds that materialism and impulsiveness drive both a dependence on cell phones and instant messaging. As Griffiths (2012) rightly warns, however, researchers must be aware that one's addiction may not simply be to the cell phone, but to a particular activity or function of the cell phone. The emergence of multi-function smart phones requires that research must dig beneath the technology being used to the activities that draw the user to the particular technology.

  12. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POLYMORPHISM AT CAST LOCUS AND THE QUALITY OF PORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Đurkin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in order to investigate a relationship between polymorphisms on the calpastatin gene (CAST and pig meat quality traits. The investigation was carried out on 29 gilts and barrows, crosses of Large White x German Landrace randomly selected at slaughter line. Pigs were slaughtered at 130-150 kg of live weight and blood samples were taken for genomic DNA analysis. The following indicators of meat quality and meat chemical composition were evaluated: pH and electric conductivity measured 45 minutes post mortem in m. Longissimus dorsi (LD muscle and in M. Semimembranosus (SM muscle; electric conductivity measured at the same locations after 24h of cooling; drip loss (determined by “bag method”; colour (measured with Minolta chromameter and expressed as Hunter L, a, b values; instrumental tenderness assessed as Warner-Bratzler (WB shear force and moisture, fat, protein and collagen content (% determined on cooked LD muscle after 24h of thawing. The amplification products of the CAST gene were digested with HinfI restriction endonuclease and three genotypes (AA, BB and AB were revealed. Statistical analysis showed that meat originated from pigs of AB genotype had the lowest WB shear force and the highest protein content of cooked LD muscle. As for the indicators of technological meat quality, statistically significant differences (p<0.05 were found between genotype AA and both BB and AB genotype for electric conductivity measured in LD muscle after 24h of cooling, as well as between BB and both AA and AB genotypes for drip loss.

  13. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Pinto, Frank; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content

  14. A preliminary mixed-method investigation of trust and hidden signals in medical consultations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Riva

    Full Text Available Several factors influence patients' trust, and trust influences the doctor-patient relationship. Recent literature has investigated the quality of the personal relationship and its dynamics by considering the role of communication and the elements that influence trust giving in the frame of general practitioner (GP consultations.We analysed certain aspects of the interaction between patients and GPs to understand trust formation and maintenance by focusing on communication channels. The impact of socio-demographic variables in trust relationships was also evaluated.A cross-sectional design using concurrent mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods was employed. One hundred adults were involved in a semi-structured interview composed of both qualitative and quantitative items for descriptive and exploratory purposes. The study was conducted in six community-based departments adjacent to primary care clinics in Trento, Italy.The findings revealed that patients trusted their GP to a high extent by relying on simple signals that were based on the quality of the one-to-one communication and on behavioural and relational patterns. Patients inferred the ability of their GP by adopting simple heuristics based mainly on the so-called social "honest signals" rather than on content-dependent features. Furthermore, socio-demographic variables affected trust: less literate and elderly people tended to trust more.This study is unique in attempting to explore the role of simple signals in trust relationships within medical consultation: people shape trust and give meaning to their relationships through a powerful channel of communication that orbits not around words but around social relations. The findings have implications for both clinicians and researchers. For doctors, these results suggest a way of thinking about encounters with patients. For researchers, the findings underline the importance of analysing some new key factors around trust for

  15. Preliminary investigation on welding and cutting methods for first wall support leg in ITER blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, Kensuke; Suzuki, Satoshi; Enoeda, Mikio; Kakudate, Satoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Akiba, Masato

    2006-08-01

    Concept of a module type of blanket has been applied to ITER shield blanket, of which size is typically 1mW x 1mH x 0.4mB with the weight of 4 ton, in order to enhance its maintainability and fabricability. Each shield blanket module consists of a shield block and four first walls which are separable from the shield block for the purpose of reduction of an electro-magnetic force in disruption events, radio-active waste reduction in the maintenance work and cost reduction in fabrication process. A first wall support leg, a part of the first wall component located between the first wall and the shield block, is required not only to be connected metallurgically to the shield block in order to withstand the electro-magnetic force and coolant pressure, but also to be able to replace the first wall more than 2 times in the hot cell during the life time of the reactor. Therefore, the consistent structure where remote handling equipment can be access to the joint and carry out the welding/cutting works perfectly to replace the first wall in the hot cell is required in the shield blanket design. This study shows an investigation of the blanket module no.10 design with a new type of the first wall support leg structure based on Disc-Cutter technology, which had been developed for the main pipe cutting in the maintenance phase and was selected out of a number of candidate methods, taking its large advantages into account, such as 1) a post-treatment can be eliminated in the hot cell because of no making material chips and of no need of lubricant, 2) the cut surface can be rewelded without any machining. And also, a design for the small type of Disc-Cutter applied to the new blanket module no.10 has been investigated. In conclusion, not only the good performance of Disc-Cutter technology applied to the updated blanket module, but also consistent structure of the simplified shield blanket module including the first wall support leg in order to satisfy the requirements in the

  16. Preliminary investigation on the extension of shelf-life of boiled Chub mackerel by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P; Prombubesara, C; Songprasertchai, S

    1971-12-31

    The influence of irradiation on the extension of shelf-life of boiled Chub mackerel stored at room temperature (25-30{sup 0}C) was investigated. It was found that boiled Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 Mrad could be kept with good organoleptic properties at room temperature for 5, 8, and 11 days respectively; while the unirradiated sample could be kept for only 2 days. Boiled Chub mackerel used in this study was found to be heavily contaminated with microorganisms. Irradiation at doses mentioned caused reduction of more than 99% of bacteria. Bacillus and Acinetobacter were found to predominate in the irradiated boiled mackerel. The predominant flora in unirradiated boiled mackerel included Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, and Proteus. E. coli was always detected in unirradiated samples and was occasionally detected only in samples irradiated at 0.1 Mrad. Trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) content, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content, and total bacterial count (TBC) were used as indices of decomposition of both irradiated and unirradiated samples. TMA-N and TBC were found to be good indices of quality of only unirradiated boiled Chub mackerel, whereas TVB-N was found to be a good index of quality of both irradiated and unirradiated samples.

  17. Comparison of attention training and cognitive therapy in the treatment of social phobia: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Juliet; Abbott, Maree J; Smith, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Prominent models of social phobia highlight the role played by attentional factors, such as self-focused attention, in the development and maintenance of social phobia. Elevated self-focused attention is associated with increases in self-rated anxiety. Treatments that aim to modify and change attentional processes, specifically self-focused attention, will have a direct effect on social phobia symptoms. Thus, Attention Training targets attentional focus. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Attention Training in comparison to an established treatment for social phobia, Cognitive Therapy. Participants (Intention-to-treat = 45; completers = 30) were allocated to either 6 weeks of Attention Training or Cognitive Therapy. It was hypothesized that both treatments would be effective in reducing social phobia symptoms, but that Attention Training would work primarily by reducing levels of self-focused attention. The results found an overall effectiveness of both treatment conditions in reducing social phobia symptoms. However, Attention Training significantly improved scores on the Self-Focused Attention questionnaire and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation questionnaire compared to Cognitive Therapy. Attention Training seems to be a promising treatment for social phobia.

  18. Preliminary Investigation of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Lamp in Open Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Wang Wei-Wei; Chang Xi-Jiang; Liang Rong-Qing

    2011-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) lamp is investigated by using sinusoidal power with a 10 kHz frequency in open air at atmospheric pressure. With increasing applied voltages, the different discharge phenomena appear. At relatively low voltages, the discharge states are general stochastic filamentary discharges with weak light. However, at relatively high voltages, the walls of quartz tubes are heated sharply by plasma, and then the dazzling light is emitted very quickly to form the DBD Lamp, corresponding to the low maintaining voltage that is lower than the ignited voltage. The discharge state or mode of the DBD lamp that corresponds to the glow discharge is deduced according to the wave form of the circuit current, which is evidently different from the filamentary discharges. Under these conditions, the spectrum of the DBD lamp is continuous in the range 400–932 nm, which is scanned in the range 300–932 nm. It is also shown that there is another discharge state or mode that is different from the traditional filamentary discharges. Therefore, it is concluded that the discharge state or mode of the DBD lamp is a glow discharge. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  19. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary Investigation of Acoustical Properties of Concrete Containing Oil Palm Shell as an Aggregate Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanariah, J.; Zaiton, H.; Musli Nizam, Y.; Khairulzan, Y.; Dianah, M.; Nadirah, D.; Hanifi, O. Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Research has been so far focused extensively on mechanical properties of oil palm shell (OPS) concrete but less on sound properties. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate whether concrete containing OPS can be applied in the field of road noise barrier. The acoustic properties of the samples were determined by using an impedance tube connected to a sound source. The noise reduction coefficient (NRC) and weighted sound absorption coefficient (αw) which is more commonly use in the road traffic noise barrier field were calculated according to BS EN ISO 11654:1997. Compressive strengths of samples were also determined by using compressive test. The results presented that the compressive strength of the OPS composites decreased as increased in w/c wit minimum of 20.44 N/mm2 at 28 days for w/c = 0.6 but still satisfactory for structural use. The sound absorption coefficient demonstrated that they were decreased as the w/c are higher with typical curve of two peaks at 315Hz and 1000Hz. All samples were then can be classified as class E as 0.5< αw < 0.25 and should be classified as L due to favourable deviation higher than 0.25 for 250 Hz.

  1. Preliminary Investigation on Life Cycle Inventory of Powder Bed Fusion of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Piili, Heidi; Leino, Maija; Salminen, Antti

    Manufacturing of work pieces from stainless steel with laser additive manufacturing, known also as laser sintering or 3D printing may increase energy and material efficiency. The use of powder bed fusion offers advantages to make parts for dynamic applications of light weight and near-net-shape products. Due to these advantages among others, PBF may also reduce emissions and operational cost in various applications. However, there are only few life cycle assessment studies examining this subject despite its prospect to business opportunity. The application of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) in Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) provides a distinct evaluation of material and energy consumption. LCI offers a possibility to improve knowledge of process efficiency. This study investigates effect of process sustainability in terms of raw material, energy and time consumption with PBF and CNC machining. The results of the experimental study indicated lower energy efficiency in the production process with PBF. This study revealed that specific energy consumption in PBF decreased when several components are built simultaneously than if they would be built individually. This is due to fact that energy consumption per part is lower. On the contrary, amount of energy needed to machine on part in case of CNC machining is lower when parts are done separately.

  2. Social skills and executive function among youth with sickle cell disease: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Molly; Wolfe, Kelly; Lebensburger, Jeffrey; Nieman, Jilian; Barnes, Margaux; Nolan, William; King, Allison; Madan-Swain, Avi

    2014-06-01

    To explore the relationship between executive function (EF) and social skills in youth with sickle cell disease (SCD).   20 youth with SCD completed objective tests of EF (Tasks of Executive Control; Animal Sorting subtest from the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment-Second Edition), an IQ screener, and paper-and-pencil measures of social skills (Social Skills Improvement System [SSIS]). Primary caregivers completed paper-and-pencil measures of EF (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function) and social skills (SSIS).   EF scores from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function related to parent- and child-reported social skills such that EF deficits correlated with poorer overall and domain-specific social skills. Similarly, EF scores from the Animal Sorting test related to child-reported social skills. Worse parent-reported EF predicted worse parent-reported social skills above the variance accounted for by IQ.   EF is related to social skills and may be necessary for successful social interaction among youth with SCD. These results provide rationale and guidance for future larger-scale investigations of EF and social skills among children with SCD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Calcium antagonistic effects of Chinese crude drugs: Preliminary investigation and evaluation by 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu; Liao Jiali; Jin Jiannan

    2005-01-01

    Coronary and other diseases in cardiac or brain blood vessels are considered to be due to the excessive influx of Ca 2+ into cytoplasm. If Ca 2+ channels in cell membrane are blocked by medicines or other substances with considerable calcium antagonistic effects, these diseases might be cured or controlled. The influence of some Chinese crude drugs, including Crocus sativus, Carthamus tinctorius, Ginkgo biloba and Bulbus allii macrostemi on Ca 2+ influx in isolated rat aortas was investigated by using 45 Ca as a radioactive tracer, and their calcium antagonistic effects were evaluated. It can be noted that Ca 2+ uptake in isolated rat aorta rings in normal physiological status was not markedly altered by these drugs, whereas the Ca 2+ influxes induced by norepinephrine of 1.2 μmol/L and KCl of 100 mmol/L were significantly inhibited by Crocus, Carthamus and Bulbus in a concentration-dependent manner, but not by Ginkgo. The results show that extracellular Ca 2+ influx through receptor-operated Ca 2+ channels and potential-dependent Ca 2+ channels can be blocked by Crocus, Carthamus and Bulbus. This implies that these Chinese crude drugs have obvious calcium antagonistic effects

  4. Preliminary investigation of thermal behaviour of PCM based latent heat thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Octavian G.; Fechete Tutunaru, Lucian; Bode, Florin; Balan, Mugur C.

    2018-02-01

    Solid-liquid phase change is used to accumulate and release cold in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) in order to reduce energy consumption of air cooling system in buildings. The storing capacity of the LHTES depends greatly on the exterior air temperatures during the summer nights. One approach in intensifying heat transfer is by increasing the air's velocity. A LHTES was designed to be integrated in the air cooling system of a building located in Bucharest, during the month of July. This study presents a numerical investigation concerning the impact of air inlet temperatures and air velocity on the formation of solid PCM, on the cold storing capacity and energy consumption of the LHTES. The peak amount of accumulated cold is reached at different air velocities depending on air inlet temperature. For inlet temperatures of 14°C and 15°C, an increase of air velocity above 50% will not lead to higher amounts of cold being stored. For Bucharest during the hottest night of the year, a 100 % increase in air velocity will result in 5.02% more cold being stored, at an increase in electrical energy consumption of 25.30%, when compared to the reference values.

  5. A preliminary investigation on the effects of characteristics and contractual behaviour on civil engineering project performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, W. N. W.; Adnan, H.; Yusuwan, N.; Maisham, M.; Hassan, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The significant role of civil engineering project is not only to make the lives of people easier and secure but also to trigger the economic growth by providing infrastructure facilities as well as job opportunities. As it is dominantly initiated by government sectors, performance of the civil engineering projects is always observed. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of civil engineering project and the contractual behavior of the key participants and how do these two factors affect civil engineering projects performance. Literature reviews, content analysis and questionnaires survey were conducted to undertake the research. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed and 10 questionnaires were returned, resulting in a 20% response rate. The research unveiled that performance of civil engineering projects are influenced greatly by the ability to handle the unpredictable character of the civil engineering projects and adequate behavioral management. Apart from that, balancing the factors with high quality of workmanship, avoidance or well managed conflicts and high satisfaction level will ensure performance in projects.

  6. A Preliminary Experimental Investigation of Wet Fine Erosion in Two-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, H. H.; Luthfi, Haziq; Ngo, Nguyet-Tran; Hassan, Suhaimi; Pao, William

    2018-03-01

    Solid particles below 62 μm is classified as fine. In oil producing operation, the most commonly used downhole sand screen can only capture solid particles of 140 μm and above. Most predictive erosion model is limited to particle size of 100 μm with single phase flow assumption because it is commonly believed that erosion due to particles below 100 μm is insignificant and typically ignored by oil and gas consultants when proposing facilities design. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of fines particle on mild steel plate in two-phase flow at different collision angles. A two phase flow loop was set up. The average size of fine particle was 60 μm, mixed with water with sand to water ratio at 1:65 wt/wt. The mild steel plates were oriented at three different impact angles which are -30°, 30° and 90°, with respect to the horizon. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), surface roughness and Vickers micro hardness techniques were used to quantify the effects of fine particle on the exposed surface.

  7. Cultural and language differences in voice quality perception: a preliminary investigation using synthesized signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Edwin M-L; Murdoch, Bruce; Hird, Kathryn; Lau, Polly; Ho, Elaine Mandy

    2008-01-01

    Perceptual voice evaluation is a common clinical tool. However, to date, there is no consensus yet as to which common quality should be measured. Some available evidence shows that voice quality is a language-specific property which may be different across different languages. The familiarity of a language may affect the perception and reliability in rating voice quality. The present study set out to investigate the effects of listeners' cultural and language backgrounds on the perception of voice qualities. Forty speech pathology students from Australia and Hong Kong were asked to rate the breathy and rough qualities of synthesized voice signals in Cantonese and English. Results showed that the English stimulus sets as a whole were rated less severely than the Cantonese stimuli by both groups of listeners. In addition, the male Cantonese and English breathy stimuli were rated differently by the Australian and Hong Kong listeners. These results provided some evidence to support the claim that cultural and language backgrounds of the listeners would affect the perception for some voice quality types. Thus, the cultural and language backgrounds of judges should be taken into consideration in clinical voice evaluation. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-05-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB.

  9. Preliminary Investigation of Time Remaining Display on the Computer-based Emergency Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryono, T. J.; Gofuku, A.

    2018-02-01

    One of the important thing in the mitigation of accidents in nuclear power plant accidents is time management. The accidents should be resolved as soon as possible in order to prevent the core melting and the release of radioactive material to the environment. In this case, operators should follow the emergency operating procedure related with the accident, in step by step order and in allowable time. Nowadays, the advanced main control rooms are equipped with computer-based procedures (CBPs) which is make it easier for operators to do their tasks of monitoring and controlling the reactor. However, most of the CBPs do not include the time remaining display feature which informs operators of time available for them to execute procedure steps and warns them if the they reach the time limit. Furthermore, the feature will increase the awareness of operators about their current situation in the procedure. This paper investigates this issue. The simplified of emergency operating procedure (EOP) of steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident of PWR plant is applied. In addition, the sequence of actions on each step of the procedure is modelled using multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and influenced propagation rule. The prediction of action time on each step is acquired based on similar case accidents and the Support Vector Regression. The derived time will be processed and then displayed on a CBP user interface.

  10. Splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition problem without the unphysical, axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to study the splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow, a feature first discovered by E.R. Lindgren (Arkiv Fysik 15, 1959). It has been widely believed that spot splitting is a mysterious stochastic process that has general implications on the lifetime and sustainability of wall turbulence. We address the following two questions: (1) What is the dynamics of turbulent spot splitting in pipe transition? Specifically, we look into any possible connection between the instantaneous strain rate field and the spot splitting. (2) How does the passive scalar field behave during the process of pipe spot splitting. In this study, the turbulent spot is introduced at the inlet plane through a sixty degree wide numerical wedge within which fully-developed turbulent profiles are assigned over a short time interval; and the simulation Reynolds numbers are 2400 for a 500 radii long pipe, and 2300 for a 1000 radii long pipe, respectively. Numerical dye is tagged on the imposed turbulent spot at the inlet. Splitting of the imposed turbulent spot is detected very easily. Preliminary analysis of the DNS results seems to suggest that turbulent spot slitting can be easily understood based on instantaneous strain rate field, and such spot splitting may not be relevant in external flows such as the flat-plate boundary layer.

  11. Preliminary investigation of novel bone graft substitutes based on strontium-calcium-zinc-silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D; Carroll, G; Towler, M R; Freeman, C; Farthing, P; Brook, I M

    2009-01-01

    Bone graft procedures typically require surgeons to harvest bone from a second site on a given patient (Autograft) before repairing a bone defect. However, this results in increased surgical time, excessive blood loss and a significant increase in pain. In this context a synthetic bone graft with excellent histocompatibility, built in antibacterial efficacy and the ability to regenerate healthy tissue in place of diseased tissue would be a significant step forward relative to current state of the art philosophies. We developed a range of calcium-strontium-zinc-silicate glass based bone grafts and characterised their structure and physical properties, then evaluated their in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility using standardised models from the literature. A graft (designated BT109) of composition 0.28SrO/0.32ZnO/0.40 SiO(2) (mol fraction) was the best performing formulation in vitro shown to induce extremely mild cytopathic effects (cell viability up to 95%) in comparison with the commercially available bone graft Novabone (cell viability of up to 72%). Supplementary to this, the grafts were examined using the standard rat femur healing model on healthy Wister rats. All grafts were shown to be equally well tolerated in bone tissue and new bone was seen in close apposition to implanted particles with no evidence of an inflammatory response within bone. Complimentary to this BT109 was implanted into the femurs of ovariectomized rats to monitor the response of osteoporotic tissue to the bone grafts. The results from this experiment indicate that the novel grafts perform equally well in osteoporotic tissue as in healthy tissue, which is encouraging given that bone response to implants is usually diminished in ovariectomized rats. In conclusion these materials exhibit significant potential as synthetic bone grafts to warrant further investigation and optimisation.

  12. Enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary perfusion imaging in diagnosing pulmonary embolism: preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaoyong; Du Jing; Zhang Zhaoqi; Guo Xi; Yan Zixu; Jiang Hong; Wang Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance pulmonary perfusion imaging (MRPP) in diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) compared with enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography (MRPA) and pulmonary radionuclide perfusion imaging. Methods: Fourteen patients were definitely diagnosed as PE, whose ages were from 19 to 71 years old and mean 45.5 ± 19.8 years old. All patients under went MRPA and MRPP and 3 patients were examined again after thrombolytic treatment. Five patients underwent pulmonary radionuclide perfusion imaging. Setting ROI in top, middle, bottom of lung area and abnormal area respectively, we detected signal intensity and time-signal curve to obtain the transformation rate of signal (TROS) during perfusion peak value. Results: In 14 pulmonary embolism patients, MRPA found 62 branches of pulmonary artery obstruction. Fifty-five abnormal pulmonary perfusion zones were found by MRPP, and the above results were very alike. The coincidence was 88.71%. In 14 cases, MRPP could show 25 subsegments lesion below segments. In 5 patients who had both results Of MRPP and ECT at the same time. MRPP shows 33 perfusion defect zones and 37 segments were found by ECT, the sensitivity was 89.19%. After thrombolytic treatment, both the status of the affected pulmonary artery improved markedly and perfusion defect zones reduced obviously in 3 cases by MRPP and MRPA. TROS in normal perfusion zones perfusion defect zones and low perfusion zones had significant difference (t=22.882, P<0.01). Conclusion: Contrast enhanced MR pulmonary perfusion can show both perfusion defect zones and low perfusion zones in pulmonary embolism. Time-signal curve can show the period of maximum no perfusion zones in pulmonary artery embolism zones. And the amplitude of fluctuation is small with miminum TROS. MRPP has significant values especially in showing pulmonary artery embolism in segments and subsegments. Using both MRPP and

  13. Sweet taste preference in binge-eating disorder: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Erica L; Breithaupt, Lauren; Watson, Hunna J; Peat, Christine M; Baker, Jessica H; Bulik, Cynthia M; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals with high liking for sweets are at increased risk for binge eating, which has been minimally investigated in individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED). Forty-one adults (85% female, 83% white) with binge eating concerns completed a sweet taste test and measures of eating disorder behaviors and food cravings. A subset of participants with BED completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; N=21) and a 24-hour dietary recall (N=26). Regression models were used to compare highest sweet preferers (HSP [N=18]) to other sweet preferers (OSP [N=23]) and were used to assess associations between sweet taste preference and outcome variables. Effect sizes (ηp 2 ) for differences between HSP and OSP ranged from small (≤0.01) to large (≥0.24); group differences were statistically nonsignificant except for 24-hour caloric intake (ηp 2 =0.16, p=0.04), protein intake (ηp 2 =0.16, p=0.04), and insulin sensitivity index (ηp 2 =0.24, p=0.04), which were higher in HSP, and postprandial insulin, which was smaller in HSP (ηp 2 =0.27, p=0.03). Continuous analyses replicated postprandial insulin response. Compared with OSP, HSP reported numerically higher binge-eating frequency (ηp 2 =0.04), over-eating frequency (ηp 2 =0.06), and carbohydrate intake (ηp 2 =0.14), and they exhibited numerically smaller postprandial glucose AUC (ηp 2 =0.16). Sweet taste preference may have implications for glucose regulation, binge-eating frequency, and nutrient intake in BED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary investigation of phosphorus adsorption onto two types of iron oxide-organic matter complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinlong; Jiang, Tao; Yao, Ying; Lu, Song; Wang, Qilei; Wei, Shiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Iron oxide (FeO) coated by natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous. The associations of minerals with organic matter (OM) significantly changes their surface properties and reactivity, and thus affect the environmental fate of pollutants, including nutrients (e.g., phosphorus (P)). In this study, ferrihydrite/goethite-humic acid (FH/GE-HA) complexes were prepared and their adsorption characteristics on P at various pH and ionic strength were investigated. The results indicated that the FeO-OM complexes showed a decreased P adsorption capacity in comparison with bare FeO. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) decreased in the order of FH (22.17 mg/g)>FH-HA (5.43 mg/g)>GE (4.67 mg/g)>GE-HA (3.27 mg/g). After coating with HA, the amorphous FH-HA complex still showed higher P adsorption than the crystalline GE-HA complex. The decreased P adsorption observed might be attributed to changes of the FeO surface charges caused by OM association. The dependence of P adsorption on the specific surface area of adsorbents suggests that the FeO component in the complexes is still the main contributor for the adsorption surfaces. The P adsorptions on FeO-HA complexes decreased with increasing initial pH or decreasing initial ionic strength. A strong dependence of P adsorption on ionic strength and pH may demonstrate that outer-sphere complexes between the OM component on the surface and P possibly coexist with inner-sphere surface complexes between the FeO component and P. Therefore, previous over-emphasis on the contributions of original minerals to P immobilization possibly over-estimates the P loading capacity of soils, especially in humic-rich areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Intradiscal electrothermal treatment for discogenic back pain: experimental investigation and preliminary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Wen; Teng Gaojun; He Shicheng; Guo Jinhe; Deng Gang; Zhu Guangyu; Li Guozhao; Ding Huijuan; Shen Zhiping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness and the safety of IDET for chronic discogenic low back pain. Methods: Standard intradiscal electrothermal treatment were performed in two adjacent disc levels (L3-4, L4-5) of two domestic pigs. MRI were available at pretreatment, posttreatment of 1,2 weeks, and then the two animals were killed respectively at 1,2 weeks after the procedure. The specimens were then undergone thin sectioned and subjected to humatoxylin and eosin staining for histological investigation. 23 patients (totally 29 discs, including L2-3 to L5-S1) with chronic symptoms underwent IDET for clinical study. VAS (Visual Analog Scale) pain scores were collected before the treatment, 1 week and 3 months after the procedure. One way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: 4 discs of standard IDET models have been set up in two pigs showing normal MRI T2W1 signal of nucleus pulposus immediately after the procedure, but the high signal extent of the central part of the nucleo pulposus shrinked with conspicuous peripheral low signal changes during the following 1-2 W. Degeneration and shrinkage of nucleo-pulposus with lecolized fibrous ring thickening were found pathologically but without damage to nurve roots and epidural sac. 29 discs in 23 patients were performed successfully, without complication. The follow-up evaluation of 1 week and 3 months after the treatment showing significant differences with those before the treatment on was scores 65.3% and 78.9% respectively (P<0.0001). Conclusions: IDET is safe and effective for chronic discogenic low back pain. (authors)

  16. α-Tocopherol/chitosan-based nanoparticles: characterization and preliminary investigations for emulsion systems application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira

    2014-02-01

    The processes of lipids oxidation represent a great concern for the consumer health because they are one of the major causes of quality deterioration in fat-containing products. One of the most effective methods of delaying lipid oxidation consists in incorporating antioxidants. The present investigation describes the formulation of chitosan and novel glycol chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with α-Tocopherol (αToc-NPs). The obtained NPs were characterized by various techniques, such as particle size (showing mean diameters in the range 335-503 nm) and zeta potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were, then, added in the preparation of oil-in-water simple emulsion both to make the lipophilic αToc available in an aqueous medium and to prevent emulsion oxidation. For this purpose, a new highly sensitive, simple and solvent-free method based on a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of αToc in aqueous medium. All the parameters influencing SPME, including fiber coating, time and temperature extraction, pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions, have been carefully screened. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin in the αToc-NPs and its release from NPs-enriched simple emulsion formulations. SPME provided high recovery yields and the limits of detection and of quantification in emulsion were 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mg, respectively. The precision of the method has been also estimated. The delay of the lipid oxidation by the proposed formulations has been evaluated exploiting the Kreis test on αToc-NPs-enriched emulsions.

  17. A telemetry experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated fish in South Africa was investigated by conducting a tracking experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in the East Kleinemonde Estuary. The telemetry equipment comprised two VEMCO V8 transmitters and a ...

  18. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described

  19. Cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2-year-olds’ speech-sound discrimination: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2014-02-01

    This preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2-year-olds’ speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/ no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds. Twenty typically developing 2-year-olds completed the newly modified toddler change/no-change procedure. Behavioral tests and parent report questionnaires were used to measure several cognitive and linguistic constructs. Stepwise linear regression was used to relate discrimination sensitivity to the cognitive and linguistic measures. In addition, discrimination results from the current experiment were compared with those from 2-year-old children tested in a previous experiment. Receptive vocabulary and working memory explained 56.6% of variance in discrimination performance. Performance was not different on the modified toddler change/no-change procedure used in the current experiment from in a previous investigation, which used the original version of the procedure. The relationship between speech discrimination and receptive vocabulary and working memory provides further evidence that the procedure is sensitive to the strength of perceptual representations. The role for working memory might also suggest that there are specific subject-related, nonsensory factors limiting the applicability of the procedure to children who have not reached the necessary levels of cognitive and linguistic development.

  20. Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations: in vitro evaluation and preliminary investigation of in vivo performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sami; El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; El-Latif Badawi, Alia Abd; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-08-18

    Granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron) is a potent antiemetic that has been proven to be effective in acute and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy. Granisetron suffers from reduced oral bioavailability (≈60%) due to hepatic metabolism. In this study the combined advantage of provesicular carriers and buccal drug delivery has been explored aiming to sustain effect and improve bioavailability of granisetron via development of granisetron provesicular buccoadhesive tablets with suitable quality characteristics (hardness, drug content, in vitro release pattern, exvivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioadhesion behavior). Composition of the reconstituted niosomes from different prepared provesicular carriers regarding type of surfactant used and cholesterol concentration significantly affected both entrapment efficiency (%EE) and vesicle size. Span 80 proniosome-derived niosomes exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size than those derived from span 20. Also, the effect of %EE and bioadhesive polymer type on in vitro drug release and in vivo performance of buccoadhesive tablets was investigated. Based on achievement of required in vitro release pattern (20-30% at 2h, 40-65% at 6h and 80-95% at 12h), in vivo swelling behavior, and in vivo adhesion time (>14 h) granisetron formulation (F19, 1.4 mg) comprising HPMC:carbopol 974P (7:3) and maltodextrin coated with the vesicular precursors span 80 and cholesterol (9:1) was chosen for in vivo study. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed higher bioavailability of buccal formulation relative to conventional oral formulation of granisetron (AUC0-∞ is 89.97 and 38.18 ng h/ml for buccal and oral formulation, respectively). A significantly lower and delayed Cmax (12.09±4.47 ng/ml, at 8h) was observed after buccal application compared to conventional oral tablet (31.66±10.15 ng/ml, at 0.5 h). The prepared provesicular buccoadhesive tablet of granisetron (F19) might help bypass hepatic first

  1. A preliminary study investigating the factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level

  2. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  3. SU-E-T-510: Interplay Between Spots Sizes, Spot / Line Spacing and Motion in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, TK

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In proton beam configuration for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT), one can define the spacing between spots and lines of scanning as a ratio of given spot size. If the spacing increases, the number of spots decreases which can potentially decrease scan time, and so can whole treatment time, and vice versa. However, if the spacing is too large, the uniformity of scanned field decreases. Also, the field uniformity can be affected by motion during SSPT beam delivery. In the present study, the interplay between spot/ line spacing and motion is investigated. Methods We used four Gaussian-shape spot sizes with 0.5cm, 1.0cm, 1.5cm, and 2.0cm FWHM, three spot/line spacing that creates uniform field profile which are 1/3*FWHM, σ/3*FWHM and 2/3*FWHM, and three random motion amplitudes within, +/−0.3mm, +/−0.5mm, and +/−1.0mm. We planned with 2Gy uniform single layer of 10×10cm2 and 20×20cm2 fields. Then, mean dose within 80% area of given field size, contrubuting MU per each spot assuming 1cGy/MU calibration for all spot sizes, number of spots and uniformity were calculated. Results The plans with spot/line spacing equal to or smaller than 2/3*FWHM without motion create ∼100% uniformity. However, it was found that the uniformity decreases with increased spacing, and it is more pronounced with smaller spot sizes, but is not affected by scanned field sizes. Conclusion It was found that the motion during proton beam delivery can alter the dose uniformity and the amount of alteration changes with spot size which changes with energy and spot/line spacing. Currently, robust evaluation in TPS (e.g. Eclipse system) performs range uncertainty evaluation using isocenter shift and CT calibration error. Based on presented study, it is recommended to add interplay effect evaluation to robust evaluation process. For future study, the additional interplay between the energy layers and motion is expected to present volumetric effect

  4. A preliminary investigation on microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar Al to Cu friction stir welds prepared using silver interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh N. Pandya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to its solid-state nature, friction stir welding (FSW process can be considered a better alternative for dissimilar welding metals. However, like fusion welding techniques, in friction stir welding growth of thick layers of brittle intermetallics - Cu9Al4 and CuAl2 is a significant issue. One solution to this problem is the use of the suitable interlayer material. Use of interlayer material modifies the joint microstructure with the replacement of thick, brittle intermetallics by more ductile intermetallics in a thin layer or particle form. The present study is a preliminary investigation about joining of AA6082-O to pure copper joints with and without silver (Ag wire interlayer. Friction stir welded joints were characterized regarding optical microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD analysis, microhardness measurement, tensile testing and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM based fractography. The Al-Cu weld prepared using silver interlayer was stronger than without it. The higher strength of the weld with silver interlayer is attributed to the formation of a composite type of structure with intercalation of more ductile Ag2Al intermetallics along with dispersion of Ag particles in stir zone.

  5. A preliminary investigation of sleep quality in functional neurological disorders: Poor sleep appears common, and is associated with functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christopher D; Kyle, Simon D

    2017-07-15

    Functional neurological disorders (FND) are disabling conditions for which there are few empirically-supported treatments. Disturbed sleep appears to be part of the FND context; however, the clinical importance of sleep disturbance (extent, characteristics and impact) remains largely unknown. We described sleep quality in two samples, and investigated the relationship between sleep and FND-related functional impairment. We included a sample recruited online via patient charities (N=205) and a consecutive clinical sample (N=20). Participants completed validated measures of sleep quality and sleep characteristics (e.g. total sleep time, sleep efficiency), mood, and FND-related functional impairment. Poor sleep was common in both samples (89% in the clinical range), which was characterised by low sleep efficiency (M=65.40%) and low total sleep time (M=6.05h). In regression analysis, sleep quality was negatively associated with FND-related functional impairment, accounting for 16% of the variance and remaining significant after the introduction of mood variables. These preliminary analyses suggest that subjective sleep disturbance (low efficiency, short sleep) is common in FND. Sleep quality was negatively associated with the functional impairment attributed to FND, independent of depression. Therefore, sleep disturbance may be a clinically important feature of FND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary investigation into the use of solar PV systems for residential application in Bandar Sri Iskandar, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimas, F.A.; Gillani, S.I.; Ans, M.S. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    In the near future, Malaysia is expected to be a net importer of oil, and the nation will have to face issues related to the security of supply and economic consequences. It is also anticipated that the energy demand for the country will increase with the increase in population and GDP. Realizing the situation, it is important that further emphasis is given into the diversification of energy resources. One method is the exploitation of renewable energy to minimize the effects of global warming. Photovoltaic technology is widely used around the world in locations with scarce power generation options. It is used for various applications and Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system is one of them. However, photovoltaic is still expensive compared to conventional methods of generating electricity. So a careful design of the system is required to ensure economic viability. This study describes a preliminary investigation of a solar PV system for residential applications in Bandar Sri Iskandar. Sizing procedures based on the peak sun hour concept is described for a Malaysian typical terraced house. Current and voltage measurements of the solar panel were carried out to predict the output under actual conditions at the site.

  7. Preliminary Investigations of The Bioarchaeology of Medieval Giecz (XI-XII C.: Examples of Trauma and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnew Amanda M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human skeletal remains from past populations are an invaluable source to objectively study biological history. The combined biological and cultural assessment of bioarchaeology offers a unique perspective on the adaptation of people to their environment. This study summarizes a portion of ongoing work to decipher trends related to health and lifestyle in early medieval (XI-XII c. Giecz, Poland. The skeletal assemblage from Giecz, the “Giecz Collection”, represents a community positioned at a major center of political, economic, and religious power during this important time in Polish history. Non-violent traumatic injuries were investigated to elucidate trends related to possible types and rigor of activities and linear femoral growth trends were analyzed to assess patterns of stress. Preliminary results suggest that all members of the community (men, women, and adolescents contributed to a lifestyle characterized by repetitive hard-work. Furthermore, it appears that most individuals suffered from health insults negatively affecting their development and perhaps their mortality.

  8. Development of a mobility and fuel strategy for Germany. Preliminary investigation; Entwicklung einer Mobilitaets- und Kraftstoffstrategie fuer Deutschland. Voruntersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    Mobility is a key element in our society and often synonymous with traffic. It is desirable to secure a clean and diversified energy supply, to design a more sustainable transport structure and to minimize the burden on people and environment. This requires an updating of the fuel strategy 2004 and its progress toward a comprehensive mobility strategy and fuel strategy. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration presents a preliminary investigation of the development of a mobility strategy and fuel strategy in Germany. Over the past ten years, the transport sector has reduced its energy consumption only slightly. The targets for the energy reduction now are -10 % up to 2020 and -40 % up to 2050. The transport sector challenges a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In order to advance the necessary energy political as well as climate political changes the Federal Government wants to develop a comprehensive mobility strategy and fuel strategy. For this purpose, the contribution under consideration provides nine concrete recommendations for action for this.

  9. Preliminary investigation results as applied to utilization of Ukrainian salt formations for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhunova, S.B.; Khrushchov, D.P.; Petrichenko, O.I.

    1994-01-01

    The salt-bearing formations have been investigated in five regions of Ukraine. Upper Devonian and Lower Permian evaporite formations in Dnieper-Donets Depression and in the NW part of Donets basin are considered to be promising for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Rock salt occurs there either as bedded salts or as salt pillows and salt diapirs. Preliminary studies have resulted in selection of several candidate sites that show promise for construction of a subsurface pilot lab. Ten salt domes and two sites in bedded salts have been proposed for further exploration. Based on microstructural studies it is possible to separate the body of a salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt blocks of different genesis, i.e.: (a) blocks characteristic of initial undisturbed sedimentary structure; (b) flow zones; (c) sliding planes; (d) bodies of loose or uncompacted rock salt. Ultramicrochemical examination of inclusions in halite have shown that they are composed of more than 40 minerals. It is emphasized that to assess suitability of a structure for construction of subsurface lab, and also the potential construction depth intervals, account should be taken of the results of ultra microchemical and microstructural data

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC Effluent Discharge Options on Global OTEC Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Nihous

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple algorithm previously used to evaluate steady-state global Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC resources is extended to probe the effect of various effluent discharge methodologies. It is found that separate evaporator and condenser discharges potentially increase OTEC net power limits by about 60% over a comparable mixed discharge scenario. This stems from a relatively less severe degradation of the thermal resource at given OTEC seawater flow rates, which corresponds to a smaller heat input into the ocean. Next, the most practical case of a mixed discharge into the mixed layer is found to correspond to only 80% of the so-called baseline case (mixed discharge at a water depth of initial neutral buoyancy. In general, locating effluent discharges at initial neutral-buoyancy depths appears to be nearly optimal in terms of OTEC net power production limits. The depth selected for the OTEC condenser effluent discharge, however, has by far the greatest impact. Clearly, these results are preliminary and should be investigated in more complex ocean general circulation models.

  11. Serotonin and Dopamine Gene Variation and Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahavi, Arielle Y; Sabbagh, Mark A; Washburn, Dustin; Mazurka, Raegan; Bagby, R Michael; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James L; Ravindran, Arun; Harkness, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    Theory of mind-the ability to decode and reason about others' mental states-is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression. Ninety-six young adults (38 depressed, 58 non-depressed) completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task' and a non-mentalistic control task. Genetic associations were only found for the depressed group. Specifically, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a positive valence was seen in those homozygous for the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene, 9-allele carriers of DAT1, and long-allele carriers of DRD4. In contrast, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a negative valence was seen in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and 10/10 homozygotes of DAT1. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for integrating social cognitive and neurobiological models of etiology in major depression.

  12. Serotonin and Dopamine Gene Variation and Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Y Zahavi

    Full Text Available Theory of mind-the ability to decode and reason about others' mental states-is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, dopamine transporter (DAT1, dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4, and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression. Ninety-six young adults (38 depressed, 58 non-depressed completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task' and a non-mentalistic control task. Genetic associations were only found for the depressed group. Specifically, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a positive valence was seen in those homozygous for the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene, 9-allele carriers of DAT1, and long-allele carriers of DRD4. In contrast, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a negative valence was seen in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and 10/10 homozygotes of DAT1. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for integrating social cognitive and neurobiological models of etiology in major depression.

  13. Extending Big-Five Theory into Childhood: A Preliminary Investigation into the Relationship between Big-Five Personality Traits and Behavior Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrler, David J.; McGhee, Ron L.; Evans, J. Gary

    1999-01-01

    Investigation conducted to link Big-Five personality traits with behavior problems identified in childhood. Results show distinct patterns of behavior problems associated with various personality characteristics. Preliminary data indicate that identifying Big-Five personality trait patterns may be a useful dimension of assessment for understanding…

  14. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  15. Preliminary investigation into laser high voltage interaction in the case of streamer-to-leader process using a high power CO2 laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    West, NJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preliminary small-scale experiments conducted in order to investigate the influence of intensely focused laser light produced by a CO2 laser on high voltage fields. The laser used operated at a maximum energy of 430 mJ per...

  16. Preliminary investigation of stereotactic body radiation therapy for medically inoperable stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jindong; Lu Changxing; Wang Jiaming; Liu Jun; Li Hongxuan; Wang Changlu; Gao Lanting; Zhao Lei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and treatment-related toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with medically inoperable stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: SBRT was applied to 30 patients, including clinically staged T 1 , T 2 (≤5 cm) or T 3 (chest wall primary tumors only), N 0 , M 0 ,biopsy-confirmed NSCLC. All patients were precluded from lobotomy because of physical condition or comorbidity. No patients developed tumors of any T-stage in the proximal zone. SBRT was performed with the total dose of 50 Gy to 70 Gy in 10 - 11 fractions during 12 - 15 days. prescription line was set onthe edge of the PTV. Results: The follow-up rate was 100%. The number of patients who completed the 1-, and 2-year follow-up were 15, and 10, respectively. All 30 patients completed therapy as planned. The complete response (CR), partial response (PR) and stable disease (SD) rates were 37%, 53% and 3%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 16 months (range, 4-36 months), Kaplan-Meier local control at 2 years was 94%. The 2-year overall survival was 84% and the 2-year cancer specific survival was 90%. Seven patients(23%) developed Grade 2 pneumonitis, no grade > 2 acute or late lung toxicity was observed. No one developed chest wall pain. Conclusions: It is feasible to deliver 50 Gy to 70 Gy of SBRT in 10 - 11 fractions for medically inoperable patients with stage I / II NSCLC. It was associated with low incidence of toxicities and provided sustained local tumor control.The preliminary investigation indicated the cancer specific survival probability of SBRT was high. It is necessary to perform similar investigation in a larger number of patients with long-term follow-up. (authors)

  17. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  18. Investigating the Adult Ixodid Tick Populations and Their Associated Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia Bacteria at a Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Hotspot in Western Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout Fryxell, Rebecca T; Hendricks, Brain M; Pompo, Kimberly; Mays, Sarah E; Paulsen, Dave J; Operario, Darwin J; Houston, Allan E

    2017-08-01

    Ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are two common bacterial tick-borne diseases in the southeastern United States. Ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichiae transmitted by Amblyomma americanum and rickettsiosis is caused by rickettsiae transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis. These ticks are common and have overlapping distributions in the region. The objective of this study was to identify Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species associated with questing ticks in a Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) hotspot, and identify habitats, time periods, and collection methods for collecting questing-infected ticks. Using vegetation drags and CO 2 -baited traps, ticks were collected six times (May-September 2012) from 100 sites (upland deciduous, bottomland deciduous, grassland, and coniferous habitats) in western Tennessee. Adult collections were screened for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia (simultaneous polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) and Rickettsia using genus-specific PCRs, and resulting positive amplicons were sequenced. Anaplasma and Ehrlichia were only identified within A. americanum (Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Panola Mountain Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov.); more Ehrlichia-infected A. americanum were collected at the end of June regardless of habitat and collection method. Rickettsia was identified in three tick species; "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" from A. americanum, R. parkeri and R. andeanae from A. maculatum, and R. montanensis ( = montana) from D. variabilis. Overall, significantly more Rickettsia-infected ticks were identified as A. americanum and A. maculatum compared to D. variabilis; more infected-ticks were collected from sites May-July and with dragging. In this study, we report in the Tennessee RMSF hotspot the following: (1) Anaplasma and Ehrlichia are only found in A. americanum, (2) each tick species has its own Rickettsia species, (3) a majority of questing-infected ticks are collected May-July, (4) A

  19. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrade, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    Arc spots are usually highly unstable and jump statistically over the cathode surface. In a magnetic field parallel to the surface, preferably they move in the retrograde direction; i.e., opposite to the Lorentzian rule. If the field is inclined with respect to the surface, the spots drift away at a certain angle with respect to the proper retrograde direction (Robson drift motion). These well-known phenomena are explained by one stability theory

  1. Preliminary investigation of the effects of sea-level rise on groundwater levels in New Haven, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerklie, David M.; Mullaney, John R.; Stone, Janet R.; Skinner, Brian J.; Ramlow, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    New Haven area and from new information on groundwater levels collected during October 2009-June 2010. For the scenario with a 3-ft rise in sea level and no increase in recharge, simulated groundwater levels near the coast rose 3 ft; this increased water level tapered off toward a discharge area at the only nontidal stream in the study area. Simulated stream discharge increased at the nontidal stream because of the increased gradient. Although groundwater levels rose, the simulated difference between the groundwater levels in the aquifer and the increased sea level declined, indicating that the depth to the interface between freshwater and saltwater may possibly decline. Simulated water levels were affected by rise in sea level even in areas where the water table was at 17-24 ft (5.2-7.3 m) above current (2011) sea level. For the scenario with increased recharge, simulated groundwater levels were as much as an additional foot higher at some locations in the study area. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that groundwater levels in coastal areas can be expected to rise and may rise higher if groundwater recharge also increases. This finding has implications for the disposal of stormwater through infiltration, a low-impact development practice designed to improve water quality and reduce overland peak discharge. Other implications include increased risk of basement flooding and increased groundwater seepage into underground sewer pipes and utility corridors in some areas. These implications will present engineering challenges to New Haven and Yale University. The preliminary model developed for this study can be the starting point for further simulation of future alternative scenarios for sea-level rise and recharge. Further simulations could identify those areas of New Haven where infrastructure may be at greatest risk from rising levels of groundwater. The simulations described in this report have limitations due to the preliminary scope of the work

  2. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2011-12-01

    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  4. Comparison of effects of uncomplicated canine babesiosis and canine normovolaemic anaemia on abdominal splanchnic Doppler characteristics - a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Koma

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to compare uncomplicated canine babesiosis (CB and experimentally induced normovolaemic anaemia (EA using Doppler ultrasonography of abdominal splanchnic vessels. Fourteen dogs with uncomplicated CB were investigated together with 11 healthy Beagles during severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state as a control group. Canine babesiosis was compared with severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state using Doppler variables of the abdominal aorta, cranial mesenteric artery (CMA, coeliac, left renal and interlobar, and hilar splenic arteries, and the main portal vein. Patterns of haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were broadly similar and were characterised by elevations in velocities and reductions in resistance indices in all vessels except the renal arteries when compared with the physiological state. Aortic and CMA peak systolic velocities and CMA end diastolic and time-averaged mean velocities in CB were significantly lower (P < 0.023 than those in severe EA. Patterns of renal haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were similar. However, the renal patterns differed from those of aortic and gastrointestinal arteries, having elevations in vascular resistance indices, a reduction in end diastolic velocity and unchanged time-averaged mean velocity. The left renal artery resistive index in CB was significantly higher (P < 0.025 than those in EA and the physiological state. Renal interlobar artery resistive and pulsatility indices in CB were significantly higher (P < 0.016 than those of moderate EA and the physiological state. The similar haemodynamic patterns in CB and EA are attributable to anaemia, while significant differencesmayadditionally be attributed to pathophysiological factors peculiar to CB.

  5. Delayed P100-Like Latencies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Investigation Using Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiski, Hanni S. M.; Ní Riada, Sinéad; Lalor, Edmund C.; Gonçalves, Nuno R.; Nolan, Hugh; Whelan, Robert; Lonergan, Róisín; Kelly, Siobhán; O'Brien, Marie Claire; Kinsella, Katie; Bramham, Jessica; Burke, Teresa; Ó Donnchadha, Seán; Hutchinson, Michael; Tubridy, Niall; Reilly, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Conduction along the optic nerve is often slowed in multiple sclerosis (MS). This is typically assessed by measuring the latency of the P100 component of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) using electroencephalography. The Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis (VESPA) method, which involves modulating the contrast of a continuous visual stimulus over time, can produce a visually evoked response analogous to the P100 but with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and potentially higher sensitivity to individual differences in comparison to the VEP. The main objective of the study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the utility of the VESPA method for probing and monitoring visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. The latencies and amplitudes of the P100-like VESPA component were compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients, and multiple sclerosis subgroups. The P100-like VESPA component activations were examined at baseline and over a 3-year period. The study included 43 multiple sclerosis patients (23 relapsing-remitting MS, 20 secondary-progressive MS) and 42 healthy controls who completed the VESPA at baseline. The follow-up sessions were conducted 12 months after baseline with 24 MS patients (15 relapsing-remitting MS, 9 secondary-progressive MS) and 23 controls, and again at 24 months post-baseline with 19 MS patients (13 relapsing-remitting MS, 6 secondary-progressive MS) and 14 controls. The results showed P100-like VESPA latencies to be delayed in multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls over the 24-month period. Secondary-progressive MS patients had most pronounced delay in P100-like VESPA latency relative to relapsing-remitting MS and controls. There were no longitudinal P100-like VESPA response differences. These findings suggest that the VESPA method is a reproducible electrophysiological method that may have potential utility in the assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. PMID:26726800

  6. Delayed P100-Like Latencies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Investigation Using Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni S M Kiiski

    Full Text Available Conduction along the optic nerve is often slowed in multiple sclerosis (MS. This is typically assessed by measuring the latency of the P100 component of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP using electroencephalography. The Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis (VESPA method, which involves modulating the contrast of a continuous visual stimulus over time, can produce a visually evoked response analogous to the P100 but with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and potentially higher sensitivity to individual differences in comparison to the VEP. The main objective of the study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the utility of the VESPA method for probing and monitoring visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. The latencies and amplitudes of the P100-like VESPA component were compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients, and multiple sclerosis subgroups. The P100-like VESPA component activations were examined at baseline and over a 3-year period. The study included 43 multiple sclerosis patients (23 relapsing-remitting MS, 20 secondary-progressive MS and 42 healthy controls who completed the VESPA at baseline. The follow-up sessions were conducted 12 months after baseline with 24 MS patients (15 relapsing-remitting MS, 9 secondary-progressive MS and 23 controls, and again at 24 months post-baseline with 19 MS patients (13 relapsing-remitting MS, 6 secondary-progressive MS and 14 controls. The results showed P100-like VESPA latencies to be delayed in multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls over the 24-month period. Secondary-progressive MS patients had most pronounced delay in P100-like VESPA latency relative to relapsing-remitting MS and controls. There were no longitudinal P100-like VESPA response differences. These findings suggest that the VESPA method is a reproducible electrophysiological method that may have potential utility in the assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

  7. Preliminary experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-CHP system for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Noie, S.H.; Akbarzadeh, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The continual increases in energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions, call for efficient use of energy resources. Decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) technology provides an alternative for the world to meet and solve energy-related problems including energy shortages, energy supply security, emission control and conservation of energy. This paper presents the preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired micro-CHP system for residential buildings based on an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Isopentane was used as the ORC working fluid in consideration of several criteria including its environmentally-friendly characteristics. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the developed system at different heat source temperatures of nominally 85, 80, 75, 70, and 65 °C. The maximum electrical power output of 77.4 W was generated at heating water entry temperature of 84.1 °C, corresponding to net cycle electrical efficiency of 1.66%. Further work will be done with a view to increasing the cycle electrical efficiency by using more efficient components, in particular the expander and generator. - Highlights: •A natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-scale CHP system has been developed and tested. •The good agreement between the mechanical and gross power validates the assumptions. •A vane expander suits a micro-CHP system based on an organic Rankine cycle. •A vane expander does not suit power generation by a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC). •Domestic gas-fired ORC systems may reduce reliance on central power stations

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Simpevarp subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Simpevarp subarea are: to determine, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in the report SKB-TR--00-12. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that even considering remaining uncertainties, the Simpevarp subarea meets all safety requirements and most of the safety preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Simpevarp subarea. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Still, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry within the Simpevarp subarea would allow for a more specified layout, although the sensitivity analysis shows that the space needed is rather robust with respect to uncertainties in the zones. There is substantial uncertainty in the discrete fracture network (DFN) model

  9. Rock mass evaluation for predicting tunnel constructability in the preliminary investigation stage. Phenomena causing difficult tunneling and rockburst prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Koichi; Sawada, Masataka; Inohara, Yoshiki; Shidahara, Takumi; Hatano, Teruyoshi

    2011-01-01

    For the selection of the Detailed Investigation Areas for HLW disposal, predicting the tunnel constructability is one of the requirements together with assessing long-term safety. This report is the 1st of the three papers dealing with the evaluation of tunnel constructability. This paper deals with the geological factors relating to difficult tunneling such as squeezing, rockburst, and others. Also it deals with the prediction of rockburst. The 2nd paper will deal with the prediction of squeezing. The 3rd paper deals with the engineering characteristics of rock mass through rock mass classification. This paper about difficult tunneling has been based upon analysis of more than 500 tunneling reports about 280 tunnel constructions. The causes of difficult tunneling are related to (1) underground water, (2) mechanical properties of the rock, or (3) others such as gas. The geological factors for excessive water inflow are porous volcanic product of Quarternary, fault crush zone and hydrothermally altered zone of Green Tuff area, and degenerated mixed rock in accretionary complex. The geological factors for squeezing are solfataric clay at Quarternary volcanic zone, fault crush zone and hydrothermally altered zone of Green Tuff area, mudstone and fault crush zone of sedimentary rock of Neogene and later. Information useful for predicting rockburst has been gathered from previous reports. In the preliminary investigation stage, geological survey, geophysical survey and borehole survey from the surface are the source of information. Therefore rock type, P-wave velocity from seismic exploration and in-situ rock stress from hydrofracturing have been considered. Majority of rockburst events occurred at granitic rock, excluding coal mine where different kind of rockburst occurred at pillars. And P-wave velocity was around 5 km/s at the rock of rockburst events. Horizontal maximum and minimum stresses SH and Sh have been tested as a criterion for rockburst. It has been

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Acute Alcohol on Dopamine Transmission as Assessed by [11 C]-(+)-PHNO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruchselvam, Thulasi; Wilson, Alan A; Boileau, Isabelle; Le Foll, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies exploring the effect of acute alcohol on dopamine (DA) levels have yielded inconsistent results, with only some studies suggesting increased synaptic DA levels after an alcohol challenge. The D 2 /D 3 agonist radiotracer, [ 11 C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin ([ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO), has greater sensitivity to synaptic DA fluctuation than previously used antagonist radiotracers and is in principle more suitable for imaging alcohol-induced changes in DA. Its high affinity for the D 3 receptor also enables measuring changes in D 3 -rich brain areas which have previously been unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol reduces [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO binding in the striatum and in D 3 -rich extra-striatal areas. Eight healthy drinkers underwent 2 [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO PET scans following alcohol and placebo in a randomized, single-blind, crossover design. [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO binding in the striatum and in the extra-striatal regions were compared between the 2 scans. Acute alcohol administration did not significantly reduce [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO binding in either the limbic striatum (d = 0.64), associative striatum (d < 0.20), or the sensorimotor striatum (d < 0.15). Similarly, there were no changes in binding in the D 3 -rich areas of the ventral pallidum (d = 0.53), substantia nigra (d < 0.15), or globus pallidus (d < 0.15). However, greater percent change in [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO binding (ΔBP ND ) between scans was related to lower blood alcohol levels. Using the agonist radiotracer, [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO, our preliminary findings suggest that alcohol is not associated with robust changes in tracer binding in striatal or extra-striatal regions. However, we found that changes in [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO binding following alcohol are dependent on blood alcohol levels suggesting that increases in DA may occur at lower stimulating doses. The effect of lower doses of alcohol on DA warrants further investigation in a

  11. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to provide

  12. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  13. Preliminary investigations on a NTP cargo shuttle for earth to moon orbit payload transfer based on a particle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, X.; Proust, E.; Gervaise, F.; Baraer, L.; Naury, S.; Linet, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    MAPS, a 3-year study program on NTP has recently been launched at CEA following the conclusions of a preliminary scoping study of an NTP system for earth to moon orbit cargo shuttle missions. This paper presents the main results of this scoping study, and gives an outline of the MAPS program. (authors). 5 figs., 11 tabs., 7 refs

  14. Preliminary investigations on a NTP cargo shuttle for earth to moon orbit payload transfer based on a particle bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raepsaet, X; Proust, E; Gervaise, F; Baraer, L; Naury, S; Linet, F L [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Bresson, C F; Coriolis, C.C. de; Bergeron, I T.A.; Bourquin, L V; Clech, L V; Devaux, L V; Chevillot, L V; Augier, E V [EAMEA, 50 - Cherbourg (France)

    1995-12-01

    MAPS, a 3-year study program on NTP has recently been launched at CEA following the conclusions of a preliminary scoping study of an NTP system for earth to moon orbit cargo shuttle missions. This paper presents the main results of this scoping study, and gives an outline of the MAPS program. (authors). 5 figs., 11 tabs., 7 refs.

  15. A preliminary investigation on the epithermal flux depression effect due to cadmium box in a multiplying medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.

    1983-01-01

    Cadmium boxes are widely used as filter in Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) for the irradiation of samples in epithermal neutrons. By virtue of being an absorber the cadmium boxes produce epithermal flux depression in the medium surrounding them. A preliminary study of this effect was carried out (author)

  16. Application of an aviation model of incident reporting and investigation to the neurosurgical scenario: method and preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Paolo; Caldiroli, Dario; Acerbi, Francesco; Scholtze, Maurizio; Piro, Alfonso; Schiariti, Marco; Orena, Eleonora F; Castiglione, Melina; Broggi, Morgan; Perin, Alessandro; DiMeco, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Incident reporting systems are universally recognized as important tools for quality improvement in all complex adaptive systems, including the operating room. Nevertheless, introducing a safety culture among neurosurgeons is a slow process, and few studies are available in the literature regarding the implementation of an incident reporting system within a neurosurgical department. The authors describe the institution of an aviation model of incident reporting and investigation in neurosurgery, focusing on the method they have used and presenting some preliminary results. In 2010, the Inpatient Safety On-Board project was developed through cooperation between a team of human factor and safety specialists with aviation backgrounds (DgSky team) and the general manager of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta. In 2011, after specific training in safety culture, the authors implemented an aviation-derived prototype of incident reporting within the Department of Neurosurgery. They then developed an experimental protocol to track, analyze, and categorize any near misses that happened in the operating room. This project officially started in January 2012, when a dedicated team of assessors was established. All members of the neurosurgical department were asked to report near misses on a voluntary, confidential, and protected form (Patient Incident Reporting System form, Besta Safety Management Programme). Reports were entered into an online database and analyzed by a dedicated team of assessors with the help of a facilitator, and an aviation-derived root cause analysis was performed. Since January 2012, 14 near misses were analyzed and classified. The near-miss contributing factors were mainly related to human factors (9 of 14 cases), technology (1 of 14 cases), organizational factors (3 of 14 cases), or procedural factors (1 of 14 cases). Implementing an incident reporting system is quite demanding; the process should involve all of the people who work within

  17. Diet, Environments, and Gut Microbiota. A Preliminary Investigation in Children Living in Rural and Urban Burkina Faso and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta De Filippo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the main factors that affects the composition of gut microbiota. When people move from a rural environment to urban areas, and experience improved socio-economic conditions, they are often exposed to a “globalized” Western type diet. Here, we present preliminary observations on the metagenomic scale of microbial changes in small groups of African children belonging to the same ethnicity and living in different environments, compared to children living on the urban area of Florence (Italy. We analyzed dietary habits and, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, gut microbiota profiles from fecal samples of children living in a rural village of Burkina Faso (n = 11, of two groups of children living in different urban settings (Nanoro town, n = 8; Ouagadougou, the capital city, n = 5 and of a group of Italian children (n = 13. We observed that when foods of animal origin, those rich in fat and simple sugars are introduced into a traditional African diet, composed of cereals, legumes and vegetables, the gut microbiota profiles changes. Microbiota of rural children retain a geographically unique bacterial reservoir (Prevotella, Treponema, and Succinivibrio, assigned to ferment fiber and polysaccharides from vegetables. Independently of geography and ethnicity, in children living in urban areas these bacterial genera were progressively outcompeted by bacteria more suited to the metabolism of animal protein, fat and sugar rich foods, similarly to Italian children, as resulted by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, a predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene. Consequently, we observed a progressive reduction of SCFAs measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, in urban populations, especially in Italian children, respect to rural ones. Our results even if in a limited number of individuals point out that dietary habit modifications

  18. The ability to mentally represent action is associated with low motor ability in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2012-05-01

    Theory and anatomical research suggest that the ability to mentally represent intended actions affect level of execution. This study presents preliminary data examining the association between children's ability to mentally represent action and general motor ability. Children aged 7- to 10 years were assessed for motor imagery ability using a simulation of reach task and motor ability via the Movement ABC-2. Motor ability values, based on percentile rank, ranged from 2 to 91, with a mean of 36. The overall correlation between mental representation and motor ability yielded a moderately positive relationship (r = .39). Interestingly, when looking at motor ability subcategories, only Balance was significant in the model, explaining 20% of the variance. These results provide preliminary evidence that children's motor ability and the ability to mentally represent action are associated in a positive direction. Furthermore, given the results for Balance, we speculate that there are clinical implications regarding work with potentially at-risk children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Lessons learned from the preliminary performance assessment exercise for the Vienne site strategies for investigating the granodiorite confinement capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebon, P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the three sites under study by ANDRA is located on the Poitou shoal in the Vienne Department. The granitic basement rock is overlain by a 160 m thick layer of Jurassic sediments containing two seasonally pumped aquifers. The preliminary hydrogeological model of the granitic basement assumed that regional flow is SE-NW, and circulates in the hecto-metric fractures, and that groundwater flow velocity is very low. A preliminary performance assessment exercise focusing on the geological barrier was carried out based on these assumptions and a disposal concept where radwaste is stored in separate granodiorite 'blocks' delimited by the water-bearing fractures. As regards of the granodioritic blocks, the programme goals include analysing of detailed structure, obtaining uncontaminated samples of interstitial ground water in order to determine its physicochemical properties and evaluating transport and retention parameters. (author)

  20. Preliminary structural investigations of the Eut-L shell protein of the ethanolamine ammonia-lyase metabolosome of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolakakis, Kiel; Ohtaki, Akashi; Newton, Keith; Chworos, Arkadiusz; Sagermann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary X-ray analysis of crystals of the bacterial microcompartment shell protein Eut-L from Escherichia coli is reported. The ethanolamine ammonia-lyase microcompartment is composed of five different shell proteins that have been proposed to assemble into symmetrically shaped polyhedral particles of varying sizes. Here, preliminary X-ray analysis of crystals of the bacterial microcompartment shell protein Eut-L from Escherichia coli is reported. Cloning, overexpression and purification resulted in highly pure protein that crystallized readily under many different conditions. In all cases the protein forms thin hexagonal plate-shaped crystals belonging to space group P3 that are of unusually high stability against different solvent conditions. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å using synchrotron radiation but proved to be radiation-sensitive. Preparations of heavy-atom-derivatized crystals for use in determining the three-dimensional structure are under way

  1. Concurrent Multidisciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Final Report: Advanced Long-Life Lander Investigating the Venus Environment (ALIVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    The COncurrent Multidisciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Team partnered with the Applied Research Laboratory to perform a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program study to evaluate chemical based power systems for keeping a Venus lander alive (power and cooling) and functional for a period of days. The mission class targeted was either a Discovery ($500M) or New Frontiers ($750M to $780M) class mission.

  2. [Study on Hexagonal Super-Lattice Pattern with Light Spot and Dim Spot in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Dong, Li-fang; Niu, Xue-jiao; Zhang, Chao

    2016-02-01

    The hexagonal super-lattice pattern composed of the light spot and the dim spot is firstly observed and investigated in the discharge of gas mixture of air and argon by using the dielectric barrier discharge device with double water electrodes. It is found that the dim spot is located at the center of its surrounding three light spots by observing the discharge image. Obviously, the brightness of the light spot and the dim spot are different, which indicates that the plasma states of the light spot and the dim spot may be different. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the light spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the light spot and the dim spot are calculated. Based on the relative intensity ratio of the line at 391.4 nm and the N₂ line at 394.1 nm, the average electron energies of the light spot and the dim spot are investigated. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the light spot and the dim spot. The experiment shows that the molecule vibration temperature, average electron energy and the electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the light spot in the same argon content. The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the light spot and dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 70% to 95%, while average electron energies of the light spot and dim spot decrease gradually. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the decisive effect on the formation of the dim spot. The experiment above plays an important role in studying the formation mechanism of the hexagonal super-lattice pattern with light spot and

  3. TV spots' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  4. Newborn screening blood spot analysis in the UK: influence of spot size, punch location and haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, A J; Bernstone, L; Hall, S K

    2016-03-01

    In dried blood spot analysis, punch location and variations in applied sample volume and haematocrit can produce different measured concentrations of analytes. We investigated the magnitude of these effects in newborn screening in the UK. Heparinized blood spiked with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, octanoyl carnitine (C8), and immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was spotted onto filter paper: (i) at a constant haematocrit of 50% at various volumes, and (ii) at a range of haematocrits using a constant volume. Subpunches (3.2 mm) of the dried blood spots were then analysed. Compared with a central punch from a 50 µL blood spot with 50% haematocrit, 10 µL spots can have significantly lower measured concentrations of all analytes, with decreases of 15% or more observed for leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Punching at the edge of a spot can increase measured concentrations up to 35%. Higher haematocrit decreased measured TSH and C8 yet increased amino acids and IRT by 15% compared with 50% haematocrit. Lower haematocrits had the opposite effect, but only with higher concentrations of some analytes. Differences in blood spot size, haematocrit and punch location substantially affect measured concentrations for analytes used in the UK newborn screening programme, and this could affect false positive and negative rates. To minimize analytical bias, these variables should be controlled or adjusted for where possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-01-01

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The author...

  6. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  7. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    regions of the star, they found that the ‘colour’ of the X-rays, which corresponds to their energy, changed as Geminga rotated. In particular, they could clearly see a distinct colour change when the hot spot came into view and then disappeared behind the star. This research closes the gap between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from neutron stars. XMM-Newton has shown that they both can originate through the same physical mechanism, namely the acceleration of charged particles in the magnetosphere of these degenerate stars. "XMM-Newton’s Geminga observation has been particularly fruitful," said Norbert Schartel, ESA’s Project Scientist for XMM-Newton. "Last year, it yielded the discovery of the source tails and now it has found its rotating hot spot." Caraveo is already applying this new technique to other pulsating neutron stars observed by XMM-Newton looking for hot spots. This research represents an important new tool for understanding the physics of neutron stars. Notes for editors The original paper appeared on 16 July 2004, in Science magazine, under the title 'Phase-resolved spectroscopy of Geminga shows rotating hotspot(s)'. Besides P. Caraveo, the author list includes A. De Luca, S. Mereghetti, A. Pellizzoni and G. Bignami. During the search to track down this elusive celestial object, a co-author on the paper, Giovanni Bignami, named it Geminga almost 30 years ago. He was Principal Investigator of XMM-Newton's EPIC camera from 1987 to 1997 and is now Director of the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (CESR, Toulouse). Geminga was first glimpsed as a mysterious source of gamma rays, coming from somewhere in the constellation Gemini by NASA's SAS-2 spacecraft in 1973. While searching to pin down its exact location and nature, Bignami named it Geminga because it was a ‘Gemini gamma-ray source’. As an astronomer in Milan, Italy, he was also aware that in his native dialect ‘gh'èminga’ means ‘it is not there’, which he found amusing. It

  8. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  9. Impact of spot charge inaccuracies in IMPT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke C; Depauw, Nicolas; Clasie, Ben; Giunta, Marina; Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M

    2017-08-01

    Spot charge is one parameter of pencil-beam scanning dose delivery system whose accuracy is typically high but whose required value has not been investigated. In this work we quantify the dose impact of spot charge inaccuracies on the dose distribution in patients. Knowing the effect of charge errors is relevant for conventional proton machines, as well as for new generation proton machines, where ensuring accurate charge may be challenging. Through perturbation of spot charge in treatment plans for seven patients and a phantom, we evaluated the dose impact of absolute (up to 5× 10 6 protons) and relative (up to 30%) charge errors. We investigated the dependence on beam width by studying scenarios with small, medium and large beam sizes. Treatment plan statistics included the Γ passing rate, dose-volume-histograms and dose differences. The allowable absolute charge error for small spot plans was about 2× 10 6 protons. Larger limits would be allowed if larger spots were used. For relative errors, the maximum allowable error size for small, medium and large spots was about 13%, 8% and 6% for small, medium and large spots, respectively. Dose distributions turned out to be surprisingly robust against random spot charge perturbation. Our study suggests that ensuring spot charge errors as small as 1-2% as is commonly aimed at in conventional proton therapy machines, is clinically not strictly needed. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  11. Effects of spot size and spot spacing on lateral penumbra reduction when using a dynamic collimation system for spot scanning proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyer, Daniel E; Hill, Patrick M; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R; Flynn, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the reduction in lateral dose penumbra that can be achieved when using a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for spot scanning proton therapy as a function of two beam parameters: spot size and spot spacing. This is an important investigation as both values impact the achievable dose distribution and a wide range of values currently exist depending on delivery hardware. Treatment plans were created both with and without the DCS for in-air spot sizes (σ air ) of 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm as well as spot spacing intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm. Compared to un-collimated treatment plans, the plans created with the DCS yielded a reduction in the mean dose to normal tissue surrounding the target of 26.2–40.6% for spot sizes of 3–9 mm, respectively. Increasing the spot spacing resulted in a decrease in the time penalty associated with using the DCS that was approximately proportional to the reduction in the number of rows in the raster delivery pattern. We conclude that dose distributions achievable when using the DCS are comparable to those only attainable with much smaller initial spot sizes, suggesting that the goal of improving high dose conformity may be achieved by either utilizing a DCS or by improving beam line optics. (note)

  12. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Paul; Wu, Xiaodong; Blin, Guillaume; Vialette, Stéphane; Flynn, Ryan; Hyer, Daniel; Wang, Dongxu

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU) of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot; it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot that a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D) CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight [Monitor Unit (MU)] for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated. For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm), D95% to the planning target volume (PTV) was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX) dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm), without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3 mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  13. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. Materials and Methods: The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight (MU for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated.Results: For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm, D95% to the planning target volume (PTV was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm, without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. Conclusion: The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  14. The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonance imaging environment: a preliminary investigation of tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Williams, Tim M; Sessa, Ben; Tyacke, Robin J; Rich, Ann S; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2011-11-01

    This study sought to assess the tolerability of intravenously administered psilocybin in healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-magnetic resonance imaging environment as a preliminary stage to a controlled investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of psilocybin on cerebral blood flow and activity. The present pilot study demonstrated that up to 2 mg of psilocybin delivered as a slow intravenous injection produces short-lived but typical drug effects that are psychologically and physiologically well tolerated. With appropriate care, this study supports the viability of functional magnetic resonance imaging work with psilocybin.

  15. Verification study on technology for preliminary investigation for HLW geological disposal. Part 2. Verification of surface geophysical prospecting through establishing site descriptive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Goto, Keiichiro; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Muramoto, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    The Yokosuka demonstration and validation project using Yokosuka CRIEPI site has been conducted since FY 2006 as a cooperative research between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project are to examine and to refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment of properties of geological environment in the stage of Preliminary Investigation for HLW geological disposal. Within Preliminary Investigation technologies, surface geophysical prospecting is an important means of obtaining information from deep geological environment for planning borehole surveys. In FY 2010, both seismic prospecting (seismic reflection and vertical seismic profiling methods) for obtaining information about geological structure and electromagnetic prospecting (magneto-telluric and time domain electromagnetic methods) for obtaining information about resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of salt water/fresh water boundary to a depth of over several hundred meters were conducted in the Yokosuka CRIEPI site. Through these surveys, the contribution of geophysical prospecting methods in the surface survey stage to improving the reliability of site descriptive models was confirmed. (author)

  16. Preliminary investigations into the mineralogy and potential uses of the stilbite rich turfs from Kratovo-Zletovo volcanic area, Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazev, K.; Sijakova-Ivanova, T.; Panov, Z.; Zajkova-Paneva, V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of investigation of the stilbite (NaCa 2 Al 5 Si 1 3O 3 6–14H 2 O) rich tuffs from Rajcani and Kriva Krusa. Investigation tuffs are situated in the south part of the Kratovo–Zletovo volcanic district and they are a part of this big volcanic complex. No presence of zeolites in these tuffs is determined in all previous ublications. In our investigation we found out that stilbite, about 57%, is presented in Rajcani deposit while in Kriva Krusa stilbite is presented by 27%. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and ammonium exchange capacity (AEC) values for samples from Rajcani deposit are in the range of 69–82meq/100g for CECs and 71–87 meq/100 g for AECs. Kriva Krusa deposits are in the range of 94–102 meq/100 g for CECs and 109–114 meq/100 g for AECs. All the values show that these tuffs could be very effective in a wide range of applications such as waste water ammonium removal, in animal nutrition, fertilizers, fish farming, additives to cement and others. The preliminary results of this study warrant further characterization, because these zeolitic tuffs have not received an overall and systematic study of their physical and chemical properties, necessary for the exploitation and utilization

  17. Molecular and histological characterization of age spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonseon; Yin, Lanlan; Smuda, Christoph; Batzer, Jan; Hearing, Vincent J.; Kolbe, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Age spots, also called solar lentigines and lentigo senilis, are light brown to black pigmented lesions of various sizes that typically develop in chronically sun-exposed skin. It is well known that age spots are strongly related to chronic sun exposure and are associated with photodamage and an increased risk for skin cancer, however, the mechanism(s) underlying their development remain poorly understood. We used immunohistochemical analysis and microarray analysis to investigate the processes involved in their formation, focusing on specific markers associated with the functions and proliferation of melanocytes and keratinocytes. A total of 193 genes were differentially expressed in age spots but melanocyte pigment genes were not among them. The increased expression of keratins 5 and 10, markers of basal and suprabasal keratinocytes, respectively, in age spots suggests that the increased proliferation of basal keratinocytes combined with the decreased turnover of suprabasal keratinocytes leads to the exaggerated formation of rete ridges in lesional epidermis which in turn disrupts the normal processing of melanin upwards from the basal layer. Based on our results, we propose a model for the development of age spots that explains the accumulation of melanin and the development of extensive rete ridges in those hyperpigmented lesions. PMID:27621222

  18. Preliminary investigations of Monte Carlo Simulations of neutron energy and LET spectra for fast neutron therapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroc, T.K.

    2009-01-01

    No fast neutron therapy facility has been built with optimized beam quality based on a thorough understanding of the neutron spectrum and its resulting biological effectiveness. A study has been initiated to provide the information necessary for such an optimization. Monte Carlo studies will be used to simulate neutron energy spectra and LET spectra. These studies will be bench-marked with data taken at existing fast neutron therapy facilities. Results will also be compared with radiobiological studies to further support beam quality ptimization. These simulations, anchored by this data, will then be used to determine what parameters might be optimized to take full advantage of the unique LET properties of fast neutron beams. This paper will present preliminary work in generating energy and LET spectra for the Fermilab fast neutron therapy facility.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of the Long-Term Outcome of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Jacqueline R.; Fortune, Meghan R.; Farchione, Todd J.; Barlow, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a preliminary examination of long-term outcomes on a broad range of affective disorder symptoms treated with a newly developed intervention: The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP). Method Maintenance of treatment gains at long-term follow-up (LTFU) were explored in patients (n = 15, mean age = 32.27; 60% female) who completed a clinical trial of the UP. Results Treatment gains observed at 6-month follow-up (6MFU) on measures of clinical severity, general symptoms of depression and anxiety, and a measure of symptom interference in daily functioning were largely maintained 12 months later (at an average of 18 months posttreatment), and any significant changes from 6MFU to LTFU reflected small increases in symptoms that remained, on average, in the subclinical range. Conclusions These findings provide the first initial support for the durability of broad treatment gains following transdiagnostic treatment. PMID:25113056

  20. Preliminary Investigation on the Effects of Shockwaves on Water Samples Using a Portable Semi-Automatic Shocktube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessley, G. Jims John

    2017-10-01

    The propagation of shock waves through any media results in an instantaneous increase in pressure and temperature behind the shockwave. The scope of utilizing this sudden rise in pressure and temperature in new industrial, biological and commercial areas has been explored and the opportunities are tremendous. This paper presents the design and testing of a portable semi-automatic shock tube on water samples mixed with salt. The preliminary analysis shows encouraging results as the salinity of water samples were reduced up to 5% when bombarded with 250 shocks generated using a pressure ratio of 2. 5. Paper used for normal printing is used as the diaphragm to generate the shocks. The impact of shocks of much higher intensity obtained using different diaphragms will lead to more reduction in the salinity of the sea water, thus leading to production of potable water from saline water, which is the need of the hour.

  1. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  2. Finite Element and Experimental Study of Shunting in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedian Choobi, M.; Nielsen, C. V.; Bay, N.

    2015-01-01

    This research is focused on one of the problems frequently encountered in spot welding in industry. In many applications several spot welds are made close to each other. The spots made after the first spot may become smaller in size due to shunt effect. A numerical and experimental study has been...... conducted to investigate the effect of shunting on nugget size in spot welding of HSLA steel sheets. Different cases with different spacing between weld spots have been examined. The nugget sizes have been measured by metallographic examination and have been compared with 3D finite element simulations...

  3. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  4. A coupled mechanical-hydrological investigation of crystalline rocks: Annual technical progress report, proposed test matrix, and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastian, R.J.; Voss, C.F.; Apted, M.J.; Shotwell, L.R.

    1988-02-01

    This report reviews the Fracture Flow Behavior in Rock Study being performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study's objective is to determine the feasibility of predicting mechanical-hydrological behavior of natural rock fractures by accurately characterizing fracture surface topography and mineralization. A laboratory-scale facility is currently being used to ensure optimum control of variables. Devising a technique to study small-scale samples is the first step to understanding the complex coupled processes encountered in geomechanics and hydrology. The major accomplishments during fiscal year 1987 were initial development of the innovative testing method, identification of appropriate specimens, substantial renovation to the facility, completion of several sets of experiments, and procurement of hardware components for a laser-imaging device used to characterize fracture surfaces. A complete set of preliminary results and findings is presented in this report. These results, gathered from a basalt core with a natural fracture, have demonstrated that the methodology is valid, and definite trends in the data are readily apparent. 10 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  5. Preliminary investigation into the pressing process of sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum biomass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, M.; Khelifi, M.; Vanasse, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science and Agri-Food Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Corn is the main source for biofuel production in North America. However, both sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum crops represent an interesting alternative to corn for ethanol production because of their high biomass yield under a wide range of environmental conditions and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. Coproducts such as pressing residues can be also be utilized so that nothing is lost in the process. However, in order to improve the extraction of juice for ethanol production, the pressing process of this biomass must be optimized. Preliminary experiments were therefore conducted to optimize the juice extraction from sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum using 2 different presses, notably a screw press and a manually operated hydraulic press. Both types of biomass were either chopped finely or coarsely and were exposed to various pressures with the hydraulic press. The volume of juice extracted from both crops increased linearly with increasing pressure. Sweet sorghum appeared to be a better feedstock for ethanol production because it produced about 0.03 to 0.06 litre of juice per kg of biomass more than sweet pearl millet. Juice extraction was more effective with the screw press, but only a small difference was noted between the 2 chopping modes.

  6. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms among men in residential substance use treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott E; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-01-01

    The comorbidity between eating disorders (EDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is of particular concern given the high rates of mortality, relapse and poor treatment outcomes associated with both disorders. As a result, there has been a growing impetus within the field to elucidate factors that might influence and aid treatment for this comorbidity. One such factor is dispositional mindfulness, as past literature has demonstrated a significant relationship between mindfulness and both EDs and SUDs. However, we are unaware of any research that has examined the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and ED symptoms in a sample of men in residential treatment for SUDs. Medical records from 152 men were included in the current study. Alcohol and drug use and problems, ED symptoms, and dispositional mindfulness were assessed with self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that dispositional mindfulness was inversely related to ED symptoms after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age. Although results are preliminary and continued research in this area is needed, our findings suggest that there may be potential usefulness in targeting and enhancing mindfulness among patients in residential treatment for SUDs with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms (e.g., EDs).

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic investigation of a low-pH native insulin monomer with flexible behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youshang; Whittingham, Jean L; Turkenburg, Johan P; Dodson, Eleanor J; Brange, Jens; Dodson, G Guy

    2002-01-01

    Insulin naturally aggregates as dimers and hexamers, whose structures have been extensively analysed by X-ray crystallography. Structural determination of the physiologically relevant insulin monomer, however, is an unusual challenge owing to the difficulty in finding solution conditions in which the concentration of insulin is high enough for crystallization yet the molecule remains monomeric. By utilizing solution conditions known to inhibit insulin assembly, namely 20% acetic acid, crystals of insulin in the monomeric state have been obtained. The crystals are strongly diffracting and a data set extending to 1.6 A has recently been collected. The crystals nominally belong to the space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.80, c = 54.61 A, giving rise to one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Preliminary electron-density maps show that whilst most of the insulin monomer is well ordered and similar in conformation to other insulin structures, parts of the B-chain C-terminus main chain adopt more than one conformation.

  8. Preliminary site characterization radiological monitoring plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The activities described in this plan occur in the early phases of site characterization. This document presents the Preliminary Site Characterization Radiological Monitoring Plan (PSCRMP) for collecting and evaluating data in support of the NNWSI Project. The PSCRMP defines and identifies control procedures for the monitoring activities. The PSCRMP activity will utilize integrating radon monitoring devices, a continuous radon monitor, and a particulate air sampler. These instruments will be used to establish the baseline radioactivity and/or radioactivity released due to early site characterization activities. The sections that follow provide a general project description, the specifics of the monitoring program, and the practices that will be employed to ensure the validity of the collected data by integrating quality assurance into all activities. Section 2 of this document describes the regulatory base of this document. Section 3 describes the site characterization activities which may lead to release of radioactivity. Section 4 provides a description of the potential sources of radioactivity that site characterization could generate. Section 5 summarizes the sampling and monitoring methodology, which will be used to monitor the potential sources of radioactivity. The network of sampling and monitoring equipment is described in Section 6, and Section 7 summarizes the systems operation activities. The data reporting activities are described in Section 8. Finally, a description of the Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) activities is provided in Section 9. Appendix A contains a summary of the procedures to be used in this program, and Appendix B contains technical specification on equipment and services. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  9. A preliminary investigation of alpha-lipoic acid treatment of antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eosu; Park, Dong-Wha; Choi, Song-Hee; Kim, Jae-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Sang

    2008-04-01

    Weight gain and other metabolic disturbances have now become discouraging, major side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs). The novel strategies required to counteract these serious consequences, however, should avoid modulating the activities of the neurotransmitter receptors involved because those receptors are the therapeutic targets of AAPDs. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme that plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), which is known to modulate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues, would ameliorate AAPD-induced weight gain. We describe the case series of a 12-week ALA trial in schizophrenia patients treated with AAPDs. Two of 7 enrolled subjects were dropped from the study because of noncompliance and demand for new medication to treat depressive symptoms, respectively. The mean (SD) weight loss was 3.16 (3.20) kg (P = 0.043, last observation carried forward; median, 3.03 kg; range, 0-8.85 kg). On average, body mass index showed a significant reduction (P = 0.028) over the 12 weeks. During the same period, a statistically significant reduction was also observed in total cholesterol levels (P = 0.042), and there was a weak trend toward the reduction in insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) (P = 0.080). Three subjects reported increased energy subjectively. The total scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale did not vary significantly during the study. These preliminary data suggest the possibility that ALA can ameliorate the adverse metabolic effects induced by AAPDs. To confirm the benefits of ALA, more extended study is warranted.

  10. A new biomarker of hedonic eating? A preliminary investigation of cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lustig, Robert H; Hecht, Frederick M; Kristeller, Jean; Woolley, Josh; Adam, Tanja; Dallman, Mary; Epel, Elissa

    2014-03-01

    Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI=31.1±4.8) prior to the start of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindfulness intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those with little or no nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An in vivo investigation of photoplethysmographic signals and preliminary pulse oximetry estimation from the bowel using a new fiberoptic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Michelle; Samuels, Neal; Randive, Nilesh; Langford, Richard M; Kyriacou, Panayiotis A

    2011-05-01

    The continuous monitoring of splanchnic organ oxygen saturation could make the early detection of inadequate tissue oxygenation feasible, reducing the risk of hypoperfusion, severe ischemia, multiple organ failure, and, ultimately, death. Current methods for assessing splanchnic perfusion have not been widely accepted for use in the clinical care environment. In an attempt to overcome the limitations of the current techniques, a new fiberoptic photoplethysmographic (PPG)/pulse oximetry sensor was developed as a means of assessing splanchnic organ perfusion during surgery in humans. A new fiberoptic splanchnic pulse oximeter and an optically identical fiberoptic finger pulse oximeter have been developed. Simultaneous PPG signals and preliminary estimates of arterial oxygen saturation from the bowel (small and large) and finger were obtained in 17 patients (3 men and 14 women) undergoing open laparotomy. Good quality PPG signals were obtained from the small and large bowel and from the finger in all patients (lower 95% confidence limit for the proportion was 0.64). Comparisons of blood oxygen saturation values acquired when using the splanchnic and the finger fiberoptic sensors and a commercial finger pulse oximeter indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between them (all P>0.454). A Bland and Altman plot of the difference between blood oxygen saturation values from the bowel fiberoptic pulse oximeter and the fiberoptic finger pulse oximeter against their mean showed that the limits of agreement between the 2 pulse oximeters were -3.8% and 4.2% for small bowel measurements, and -3.4% and 4.3% for large bowel measurements. The 95% prediction interval for the difference between the 2 devices was between -4.2% and 4.7%. This study demonstrated that good quality PPG signals can be obtained from the bowel using a new fiberoptic sensor. Further evaluation is required to determine whether fiberoptic pulse oximetry of the bowel may provide a

  12. Preliminary results of ERTS-investigations by W-German investigations. [multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and hydrogeology of Argentina Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlfeld, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.

  13. A preliminary investigation on the interaction between sol-gel immobilized glucose oxidase and freely diffusing glucose by means of two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, I.; Portaccio, M.; De Rosa, M.; Lepore, M.

    2013-02-01

    To study immobilized protein interactions with dissolved substrates is a very important topic both from a fundamental and technological standpoint. In the present report we illustrate the preliminary results obtained on sol-gel immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) using a standard de-scanned two-photon microscope based on a modified confocal scanhead with internal detectors and a Ti:sapphire laser as a source. Data acquisition conditions were preliminary defined using functionalized beads of different dimensions. Various sol-gel supports were then investigated by monitoring endogeneous fluorescence due to the flavoadenine (FAD) molecules, present in GOD. Linear absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy along with Fourier Transform Infrared microscopy were employed for a full-optical characterization of the samples. The results show that GOD immobilization processes can be successfully monitored in some cases and also the interaction with glucose could be studied by this approach. This assessment holds potentials to better understand the characteristic of immobilized enzymes biocatalysis and to develop new biosensing schemes.

  14. A preliminary investigation for application of an advanced x-ray diffraction analyzer to in-process texture assessment of aluminum alloy sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruud, C.O.; Snoha, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary investigation was to assess the possibility of the use of rapid x-ray diffraction technology to nondestructively distinguish various texture conditions of aluminum can stock. Twelve samples of aluminum alloy can stock sheet were supplied by two manufacturers. The samples varied in thickness from 0.128 to 0.0124 inch and in texture from 2.8% to 11.0% as measured by a cup drawing earing test. The results for Cu K-alpha and Cr K-alpha radiation on suites of aluminum can stock samples from two manufacturers, in both hot rolled can stock precursor gages of 0.80 and 0.125 inch and in the final gage, show there is a good correlation between the peak intensity area function and the texture. These preliminary results provide an indication that the instrumentation and techniques applied could be optimized and refined for application to rapid, in-process nondestructive inspection of rolled aluminum can stock

  15. A preliminary, controlled investigation of magnesium L-aspartate hydrochloride for illicit cocaine and opiate use in methadone-maintained patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Arthur; Kantak, Kathleen; Copenhaver, Michael; Avants, S Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Based on pre-clinical studies suggesting that magnesium (Mg) reduces cocaine self-administration and potentiates the antinociceptive effects of morphine, we conducted a preliminary randomized clinical trial investigating Mg for the treatment of illicit cocaine and opiate use. Eighteen methadone-maintained patients who used illicit opiates and cocaine received either Mg (732 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Overall, findings showed that the percentage of urine screens testing positive for opiates in the Mg group (22.6%) was half that of the placebo group (46.4%), p = .04; the difference was even greater in the "medication compliant" sample (Mg: 16.3%, placebo: 47.9%), p = .02. Cocaine craving was lower in the Mg compared to the placebo group, but there was no difference between groups in cocaine use. These preliminary findings suggest that Mg may have a beneficial effect for reducing illicit opiate use. It is possible that a higher dose of Mg than was used in this study may be needed to decrease cocaine use.

  16. Development of an In Vitro PIV Setup for Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Aortic Compliance on Flow Patterns and Hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsen, Martin; Arenz, Christian; Neidlin, Michael; Liao, Sam; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Sonntag, Simon J

    2017-09-01

    The aorta with its compliance plays a major role in hemodynamics as it saves a portion of ejected blood during systole which is then released in diastole. The aortic compliance decreases with increasing age, which is related to several cardiovascular imparities and diseases. Changes in flow patterns and pressure curves, due to varying aortic compliance, are difficult to investigate in vivo. As a result, the aim of the present work was to develop an in vitro setup enabling standardized investigations on the effect of compliance changes on flow patterns and pressure curves. Therefore an experimental setup with an anatomically correct silicone phantom of the aortic arch was developed, suitable for optical flow measurements under pulsatile inflow conditions. The setup was developed for precise adjustments of different compliances and optical flow measurements. Particle image velocimetry measurements were carried out downstream of the aortic valve in the center plane perpendicular to the valve with compliance adjusted between 0.62 × 10 -3 to 1.82 × 10 -3  mmHg -1 . Preliminary results of the in vitro investigations showed that decreases in compliance results in significant increases in pressure changes with respect to time (dp/dt) and altered pressure curves in the aortic arch. In terms of flow, an increased aortic stiffness lead to higher mean velocities and decreased vortex development in the aortic sinuses. As in vivo validation and translation remains difficult, the results have to be considered as preliminary in vitro insights into the mechanisms of (age-related) compliance changes.

  17. Preliminary investigation of the effect of air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration on the properties of cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Galluci, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    For preliminary assessment of the engineering properties of concrete with air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration (APC) the possible reactivity of APC and the effect of APC on cement hydration were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, chemical shrinkage (pychnometry), thermal...... analysis (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, compressive strength development was measured and impregnated plane sections were prepared. The APC was from a Danish wet process plant. Although the APC contained high amounts of chloride (approx. 10%) and heavy......% and 20% APC showed a major retarding effect of APC on the development of hydration. The APC was found to be pozzolanic. Chemical shrinkage measurements indicated early expansive reactions of pastes with the APC including evolution of air. Crack formation was observed in mortars with APC, and strength...

  18. Radiochemical studies, pre-clinical investigation and preliminary clinical evaluation of "1"7"0Tm-EDTMP prepared using in-house freeze-dried EDTMP kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tapas; Shinto, Ajit; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai K.; Sarma, Haladhar D.; Mohammed, Sahiralam Khan; Mitra, Arpit; Lad, Sangita; Rajan, M.G.R.; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to formulate "1"7"0Tm-EDTMP using an in-house freeze-dried EDTMP kit and evaluate its potential as a bone pain palliation agent. Patient dose of "1"7"0Tm-EDTMP was prepared with high radiochemical purity using the lyophilized kit at room temperature within 15 min. Pre-clinical evaluation in normal Wistar rats revealed selective skeletal accumulation with extended retention. Preliminary clinical investigation in 8 patients with disseminated skeletal metastases exhibited selective uptake in the bone and retention therein for a long duration. - Highlights: • Formulation of patient dose of "1"7"0Tm-EDTMP using freeze-dried EDTMP kit. • Radiochemical studies and pre-clinical evaluation of the agent in animal model. • Clinical evaluation in eight cancer patients with disseminated skeletal metastases.

  19. An investigation of the feasibility of building a harbor on the West coast of South America using explosive power of nuclear weapons, a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodtner, H. H.

    1971-12-31

    There is an interest in discovering the various peace time uses of nuclear explosives. One of the proposals is the building of harbors. There are several ports along the west coast of South America where lighterage is necessary. This implies a need for expanded harbor facilities. The problem is to find a good location for creating a harbor, and the feasibility of accomplishing this with the use of nuclear force. Feasibility includes blast effects, radiation hazards, the number of weapons needed, and economic considerations. Economic considerations include the cost of treating a harbor of sufficient depth and area, the building of harbor facilities, and the estimated savings and advantages of the new harbor. Several meetings were held with naval personnel of the Military Liaison group at UCRL to discuss the general problems of harbors. Thirty-three different ports were given a preliminary investigation.

  20. Preliminary results of a multidisciplinary geophysical investigation in an archaeological area near Rome, with remains of a vast imperial age Roman villa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, F.; Sapia, V.; Marchetti, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present preliminary results of a multidisciplinary geophysical investigation applied to the subsoil imaging of the archaeological site of Cocciano, near Rome. The area was place of a series of archaeological findings, which are generally recognized as the remains of a vast Roman villa of the imperial age, notably attributed to Emperor Tiberius. We acquired capacitive coupled resistivity data along two parallel profiles and we performed a magnetic survey over a small subset of the survey area. The recovered resistivity models suggest the presence of a shallow, sub-horizontal, resistive layer (ρ > 350 Ωm), of slightly variable thickness (2 - 3 m), which we interpret as the response of ancient substructions overlying a relatively low-resistive layer, which we ascribe to the geological substratum. Processed magnetic data show a clear magnetic signature aligned to form a curve-shaped anomaly right at the prosecution of a nearby, partially exposed, ancient wall.

  1. Rupture of a high pressure gas or steam pipe in a tunnel: a preliminary investigation of the jet thrust exerted on a tunnel barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1988-04-01

    On power plant, if a high pressure pipe containing high temperature gas or steam were to rupture, sensitive equipment necessary for safety shutdown of the plant could possibly be incapacitated if exposed to the subsequent high temperature environment. In many plant configurations the high pressure pipework is contained in tunnels where it is possible to construct barriers which isolate one section of the plant from another, thereby restricting the spread of the high temperature fluid/air mixture. This paper describes a preliminary experimental investigation of the magnitude of the thrust likely to be exerted on such barriers by a gas jet issuing from the failed pipe. Measurements of the thrust exerted on a flat plate by normal impingement of a highly underexpanded gas jet are in agreement with a semi-quantitative analysis assuming conservation of the axial momentum of the jet. (author)

  2. Models of spots and flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in recent years have shown that there are many more ways to drive a plasma out of equilibrium than to preserve equilibrium. In that sense, it is perhaps easier to understand why flares should occur in a stellar atmosphere than why a long-lived feature such as a dark spot should persist. The author summarizes work on the equilibrium structure of cool spots in the sun and stars. Since spots involve complex interactions between convective flows and magnetic fields, he needs to refer to observations for help in identifying the dominant processes which should enter into the modelling. His summary therefore begins by discussing certain relevant properties of spots in the solar atmosphere. The next sections deal with the magnetic fields in spots, the stability of spots, spot cooling and missing flux. The author concludes that spots should be viewed not simply as cool areas, but rather as engines which do the work of converting the energy of convective flows into flare-compatible form. (Auth.)

  3. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  4. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  5. Resistance Spot Welding with Middelfrequency-Inverter Weling Gun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun......The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun...

  6. Exploring the Social Capital of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Their Parents: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cara L.; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Whitfield, Jessica; Duncan, Jill

    2018-01-01

    The study explored the social capital of Australian adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and their parents, and investigated the relationship between social capital and individual characteristics, language, literacy, and psychosocial outcomes. Sixteen adolescents (ages 11-14 years) and 24 parents enrolled in the Longitudinal Outcomes…

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of Associations between Disorders of Behavior and Language in Children with Chronic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B.; Ruppert, Elizabeth S.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between language and behavior disorders was investigated. The teacher and parents of 12 children in a special public preschool for children with documented chronic otitis media and language disorders completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist. Most deviant behavior was reported on scales measuring cognitive and social-interactive…

  8. Preliminary investigation of an electromyography-controlled video game as a home program for persons in the chronic phase of stroke recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso Brown, Elena V; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Fechko, Amber S; Price, Robert; Gilbertson, Torey; Moritz, Chet T

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the preliminary effectiveness of surface electromyography (sEMG) biofeedback delivered via interaction with a commercial computer game to improve motor control in chronic stroke survivors. Single-blinded, 1-group, repeated-measures design: A1, A2, B, A3 (A, assessment; B, intervention). Laboratory and participants' homes. A convenience sample of persons (N=9) between 40 and 75 years of age with moderate to severe upper extremity motor impairment and at least 6 months poststroke completed the study. The electromyography-controlled video game system targeted the wrist muscle activation with the goal of increasing selective muscle activation. Participants received several laboratory training sessions with the system and then were instructed to use the system at home for 45 minutes, 5 times per week for the following 4 weeks. Primary outcome measures included duration of system use, sEMG during home play, and pre/post sEMG measures during active wrist motion. Secondary outcomes included kinematic analysis of movement and functional outcomes, including the Wolf Motor Function Test and the Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory-9. One third of participants completed or exceeded the recommended amount of system use. Statistically significant changes were observed on both game play and pre/post sEMG outcomes. Limited carryover, however, was observed on kinematic or functional outcomes. This preliminary investigation indicates that use of the electromyography-controlled video game impacts muscle activation. Limited changes in kinematic and activity level outcomes, however, suggest that the intervention may benefit from the inclusion of a functional activity component. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Death on the digital landscape: a preliminary investigation into the grief process and motivations behind participation in the online memoriam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnoto, Michael J; Sirianni, Joseph M; Ortega, Christopher R; Stefanone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, individuals are bonding and maintaining relationships online. These digital representations of ourselves allow us to connect with others in ways previously not possible. One behavior that is growing in online presentations of self is grieving after the death of an individual in our social network. This work investigates the outcomes of online grieving from a transcorporeal communication model perspective, and draws conclusions on the outcomes of online grief behaviors.

  10. Preliminary investigation of anomalous relativistic electron beam deposition into a 1017 to 1020 cm-3 density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1978-04-01

    Based upon recent theoretical and experimental advances, the potential for using a 10 to 30 MeV electron beam to heat a 10 17 to 10 20 cm -3 density plasma has been investigated. Taking into account anode foil scattering, external magnetic field strength, electron-ion collision rate, beam self-magnetic field discontinuity, and plasma temperature, a coupling efficiency of 15 to 50% is achievable for such a plasma. Moreover, the beam generator requirements seem to be within present pulse power technology

  11. Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation: Tooele Army Depot, Utah. Volume 1. North Area and Facilities at Hill Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-12

    and by James M. Montgomery (JMM) Inc., (1987) were typically yellowish brown to grayish orange with varying amounts of pink , red, black, yellow or...investigation. The following findings were presented in the report. " The grondwater floy velocity was calculated to range from 6 x 10 to 1 x 10- cm/second...U ol ti -f s - -~ - 0 F.X I I I4 I I I4 I 1 0 0-1 of TNT contamination (e.g., pink soils) was observed. However, during an onsite visit performed by

  12. A preliminary investigation of vertical crustal movements in the United Kingdom in the context of subsurface nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Two types of change will influence the environment of a subsurface nuclear waste isolation facility: natural geological changes and changes caused by the construction of the waste repository and introduction of the waste. This report is concerned with vertical crustal movements, which are an expression of natural geological changes. Vertical crustal movements observed outside the United Kingdom are reviewed, and vertical movements in a test region of the UK investigated by comparison of geodetic levellings. The implications of vertical crustal movement to waste isolation facilities and some potentially valuable lines of research are discussed. (author)

  13. Preliminary investigation of microbiological effect for radioactive waste disposal system. 1. Experimental investigation of tolerance of some bacterias under alkaline and reducing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yui, Mikazu; Mihara, Morihiro; Fukunaga, Sakae; Asano, Hidekazu.

    1995-01-01

    Activities and tolerance of some bacteria were investigated under alkaline and reducing conditions for geological disposal. A fermenter was used to control pH and Eh with a liquid culture inoculated with sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-producing bacteria (MPB) and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). Growth of SRB was obtained at maximum pH 8.6 (Eh -340 mV) or maximum Eh -100 mV (pH 7). Ranges of Eh for the growth of MPB and SOB were estimated to be less than -210 mV at pH8, and more than +240 mV at pH 7.5, respectively. Activity for SOB was not observed in the pH range more than 8. (author)

  14. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm: Preliminary note of analysis of data from spring 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    In February 1998, the Ministry of the Environment gave Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.a. approval to erect a wind farm, capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk off the west coast of Jutland. Construction activities at Horns Rev started in September 2001 and were finished in summer 2002. The entire project has been organised as a demonstration project to assess the technical, economic and environmental constraints on the future development of electric power production in Danish offshore environments. Within the framework of the environmental programme, bird investigations have been carried out in relation to the risk of collision between birds and wind turbines since 2002. To provide the latest update on the results from the bird investigations, this note presents results compiled during spring 2004 and deals with a preliminary analysis of effects on birds present at Horns Rev during commercial operation of the Horns Rev wind farm. Due to the remoteness of the area it has not been possible to obtain base-line investigation of bird occurrence and behaviour at the wind farm site. (au)

  15. Ablation of clinically relevant kidney tissue volumes by high-intensity focused ultrasound: Preliminary results of standardized ex-vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, Axel; Peters, Kristina; Knoll, Thomas; Marlinghaus, Ernst; Alken, Peter; Jenne, Jürgen W; Michel, Maurice Stephan

    2006-11-01

    To investigate strategies to achieve confluent kidney-tissue ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Our model of the perfused ex-vivo porcine kidney was used. Tissue ablation was performed with an experimental HIFU device (Storz Medical, Kreuzlingen, Switzerland). Lesion-to-lesion interaction was investigated by varying the lesion distance (5 to 2.5 mm), generator power (300, 280, and 260 W), cooling time (10, 20, and 30 seconds), and exposure time (4, 3, and 2 seconds). The lesion rows were analyzed grossly and by histologic examination (hematoxylin-eosin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide staining). It was possible to achieve complete homogeneous ablation of a clinically relevant tissue volume but only by meticulous adjustment of the exposure parameters. Minimal changes in these parameters caused changes in lesion formation with holes within the lesions and lesion-to-lesion interaction. Our preliminary results show that when using this new device, HIFU can ablate a large tissue volume homogeneously in perfused ex-vivo porcine tissue under standardized conditions with meticulous adjustment of exposure parameters. Further investigations in vivo are necessary to test whether large tissue volumes can be ablated completely and reliably despite the influence of physiologic tissue and organ movement.

  16. Preliminary clinical experience using the method of 31P MR spectroscopy in investigations of neuromuscular diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Horska, A.; Grosmanova, A.; Urban, P.; Suchanek, M.; Jirasek, A.

    1990-01-01

    31 P MR spectroscopy was used to investigate neuromuscular diseases of various origin in 35 patients, mostly children. In devising the procedure of MR examination and of evaluation of results, pattern recognition analysis was used. According to the results of 31 P MR spectroscopy, the patients can be divided into three groups. Group A comprises patients with severe muscular lesions such as Duchenne dystrophy. The second, B group is characterized by milder atrophic changes of muscle fibres. The third group comprises dubious cases. The 31 P MRS method was also used for investigating the development of the disease in time - a decrease in parameter P CR /P i (P CR is an indicator of phosphocreatinine and P i an indicator of inorganic phosphate) corresponds to a deterioration of the clinical condition of patients from group one. In group B fairly stable values of the parameter were observed. An increase in P CR /P i was also observed during administration of Prednisone in a patient with child polymyositis. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 23 refs

  17. Preliminary investigations of the copper/bismuth/tin system in a proposed new net-shaping process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnamara, D.S.; Meltcalfe, R.D.; Krezalek, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Mixed-phase near net-shape forming processes such as semi-solid and thixotropic moulding are receiving increasing interest. Problems met in these processes include homogenisation of the semi-solid melt and temperature control in the semi-solid region. Injection moulding of a paste of solid particles of relatively high melting point in a liquid metal matrix removes the need for precision temperature control. Ideally the process should also require neither mechanical stirring nor agitation. In this project, powder precursors are subjected to uniaxial compaction to improve particle distribution and provide good metal-to-metal contact. Static heating tests to determine the composition of the mixed-phase melt and dynamic tests to investigate the homogeneity, density and net shape of extruded samples have been carried out. Initial investigations have concentrated on copper particles suspended in a near-eutectic bismuth-tin alloy. This provides a good density match between liquid and solid phases, a low temperature melt, and good optical contrast for traditional metallography. We used the scanning electron microscope to highlight fine detail of microstructural features, and electron probe microanalysis for compositional information on the resultant material. Detailed results are presented. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  18. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, S.

    1991-05-01

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole

  19. Preliminary investigation of actinide and xenon reactivity effects in accelerator transmutation of waste high-flux systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.R.; Henderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of an unstable positive reactivity growth in an accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW)-type high-flux system is investigated. While it has always been clear that xenon is an important actor in the reactivity response of a system to flux changes, it has been suggested that in very high thermal flux transuranic burning systems, a positive, unstable reactivity growth could be caused by the actinides alone. Initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change caused by the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or startup. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response caused by the actinides. The capabilities and applications of both the current actinide model and the xenon model are discussed. Finally, the need for a complete dynamic model for the high-flux fluid-fueled ATW system is addressed

  20. Preliminary Investigation on Turbulent Flow in Tight-lattice Rod Bundle with Twist-mixing Vane Spacer Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chiyoung; Kwack, Youngkyun; Park, Juyong; Shin, Changhwan; In, Wangkee

    2013-01-01

    Our research group has investigated the effect of P/D difference on the behavior of turbulent rod bundle flow without the mixing vane spacer grid, using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and MIR (Matching Index of Refraction) techniques for tight lattice fuel rod bundle application. In this work, using the tight-lattice rod bundle with a twist-mixing vane spacer grid, the turbulent rod bundle flow is preliminarily examined to validate the PIV measurement and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation. The turbulent flow in the tight-lattice rod bundle with a twist-mixing vane spacer grid was preliminarily examined to validate the PIV measurement and CFD simulation. Both were in agreement with each other within a reasonable degree of accuracy. Using PIV measurement and CFD simulation tested in this work, the detailed investigations on the behavior of turbulent rod bundle flow with the twist-mixing vane spacer grid will be performed at various conditions, and reported in the near future

  1. Value of micro-CT as an Investigative Tool for Osteochondritis Dissecans. A preliminary study with comparison to histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, A.; Bergmann, I.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Heiss, C.; Schrader, C.; Roemer, F.W.; Lynch, J.A.; Genant, H.K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate micro computed tomography (micro-CT) for the assessment of osteochondritis dissecans in comparison with histology. Material and Methods: Osteochondritis dissecans lesions of 3 patients were evaluated using micro-CT (0.125 mA, 40 keV, 60 m slice thickness, 60 m isotropic resolution, entire sample) and light microscopy (toluidine blue, 3-5 m slice thickness). The methods were compared regarding preparation time, detectability of tissue types and morphologic features of bone and cartilage. Results: Non-destructive micro-CT imaging of the entire sample was faster than histologic preparation of a single slice for light microscopy. Morphologic features of bone and cartilage could be imaged in a comparable way to histology. It was not possible to image cells or different tissue types of bone and cartilage with micro-CT. Conclusion: Micro-CT is a fast, non-destructive tool that may be a supplement or, if detailed histologic information is not necessary, an alternative to light microscopy for the investigation of osteochondritis dissecans. Osteochondritis dissecans micro-CT histology comparative investigation

  2. A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification.

  3. A preliminary investigation of the mechanism of anti-pain and counter-injury effects of the acupuncture anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with dialectical materialism and by dint of experimental acupuncture anaesthesia, the present investigation has: (1) Made an objective evaluation of the efficiency of acupuncture anaesthesia. (2) Brought forth some experimental evidence about the material basis of the anti-pain and counter-injury effect of acupuncture anaesthesia as well as the significance of its induction period. (3) Proposed the concept of humoral anaesthesia and its technique in order to improve the efficiency of animal laparotomies with acupuncture anaesthesia. Furthermore, it attempts to offer a theoretical explanation of the process of acupuncture anaesthesia under the combination of Chinese and Western medical theories and thereby gives some support to the "meridian-cerebral cortex-viscera inter-correlation hypothesis."

  4. Exploring the Social Capital of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Their Parents: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cara L; Ching, Teresa Y; Whitfield, Jessica; Duncan, Jill

    2018-01-01

    The study explored the social capital of Australian adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and their parents, and investigated the relationship between social capital and individual characteristics, language, literacy, and psychosocial outcomes. Sixteen adolescents (ages 11-14 years) and 24 parents enrolled in the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study completed an online questionnaire on social capital and psychosocial outcomes. Information about demographics, language, and literacy was retrieved from the LOCHI study database. On average, parent-rated social capital was positively related to adolescent-rated social capital, but not to child outcomes. Aspects of adolescent-reported social capital were significantly related to the adolescents' language and reading skills, but not to psychosocial outcomes. This study gives support to the promotion of social capital in adolescents who are DHH and their families, and considers how social capital promotion could be applied in interventions.

  5. The Helpfulness of Spiritually Influenced Group Work in Developing Self-Awareness and Self-Esteem: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Coholic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an exploratory study that investigated the helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work with eight adult women who shared a history of substance abuse. The overall purpose of the group was to help participants develop their self-awareness and self-esteem. The group, which was contextualized in transpersonal theory, was organized around the following themes and experiential exercises: meditation, mindfulness practice, dream work, stream of consciousness writing, the shadow self, and other arts-based processes. Grounded-theory analysis of group sessions and individual interviews with the participants found that the participants perceived the group to be helpful in developing their self-awareness and self-esteem. While the participants identified different aspects of the group as spiritual, making-meaning was one practice that was consistently described as a spiritually sensitive process. The results of this study in this emergent field are promising and suggestions are provided for future research.

  6. Technology-Based Communication and the Development of Interpersonal Competencies Within Adolescent Romantic Relationships: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal associations between adolescents’ technology-based communication and the development of interpersonal competencies within romantic relationships. A school-based sample of 487 adolescents (58% girls; Mage = 14.1) participated at two time points, one year apart. Participants reported (1) proportions of daily communication with romantic partners via traditional modes (in person, on the phone) versus technological modes (text messaging, social networking sites) and (2) competence in the romantic relationship skill domains of negative assertion and conflict management. Results of cross-lagged panel models indicated that adolescents who engaged in greater proportions of technology-based communication with romantic partners reported lower levels of interpersonal competencies one year later, but not vice versa; associations were particularly strong for boys. PMID:28876524

  7. Technology-Based Communication and the Development of Interpersonal Competencies Within Adolescent Romantic Relationships: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated longitudinal associations between adolescents' technology-based communication and the development of interpersonal competencies within romantic relationships. A school-based sample of 487 adolescents (58% girls; M age  = 14.1) participated at two time points, one year apart. Participants reported (1) proportions of daily communication with romantic partners via traditional modes (in person, on the phone) versus technological modes (text messaging, social networking sites) and (2) competence in the romantic relationship skill domains of negative assertion and conflict management. Results of cross-lagged panel models indicated that adolescents who engaged in greater proportions of technology-based communication with romantic partners reported lower levels of interpersonal competencies one year later, but not vice versa; associations were particularly strong for boys. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  8. Preliminary feasibility assessment on the investigation of bronchogenic adenocarcinoma angiogenesis with dynamic multi-slice spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shenjiang; Xiao Xiangsheng; Li Huimin; Liu Shiyuan; Li Chengzhou; Zhang Chenshi; Tao Zhiwei

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility on the investigation of bronchogenic adenocarcinoma angiogenesis with dynamic multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) . Methods: 27 patients with bronchogenic adenocarcinomas (diameter ≤4 cm) underwent multi-location dynamic contrast material-enhanced (90 ml, 4 ml/s) serial CT. These dynamic images were processed with the 'time lapse' software and the 'functional CT' software. Peak heights of bronchogenic adenocarcinoma and the aorta, perfusion and mean transit time (MTT) were measured. Ratio of peak height of the bronchogenic adenocarcinoma to that of the aorta was calculated. Perfusion and mean transit time images were obtained. Results: Peak height of bronchogenic adenocarcinoma was (36.66 ± 13.53) HU. No statistically significant difference in the peak height was found between our results and the results of Ukihide et al (mean peak height 34.1 HU) (t =0.981, P = 0.335). Bronchogenic adenocarcinoma-to-aorta ratio was (15.72±4.66 )%. The difference in bronchogenic adenocarcinoma -to-aorta ratio between our results and the results of Zhang and Kono (mean malignant SPN-to-aorta ratio 14.6%) did not reach statistical significance (t=1.244, P=0.225). The mean perfusion value (3.278 ml·min - · kg -1 ) was in the range of that (1.36-2.98 ml·min -1 ·kg -1 ) measured with a single photon emission CT (SPECT). Mean transit time was (17.60 ± 4.52) s. Conclusion: It is feasible to investigate bronchogenic adenocarcinoma angiogenesis with dynamic MSCT

  9. Spotting psychopaths using technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Sarah; Adeli, Hojjat

    2015-01-01

    For the past three and a half decades, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the self-report Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) have been the standard measures for the diagnosis of psychopathy. Technological approaches can enhance these diagnostic methodologies. The purpose of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art review of various technological approaches for spotting psychopathy, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and other measures. Results of EEG event-related potential (ERP) experiments support the theory that impaired amygdala function may be responsible for abnormal fear processing in psychopathy, which can ultimately manifest as psychopathic traits, as outlined by the PCL-R or PPI-R. Imaging studies, in general, point to reduced fear processing capabilities in psychopathic individuals. While the human element, introduced through researcher/participant interactions, can be argued as unequivocally necessary for diagnosis, these purely objective technological approaches have proven to be useful in conjunction with the subjective interviewing and questionnaire methods for differentiating psychopaths from non-psychopaths. Furthermore, these technologies are more robust than behavioral measures, which have been shown to fail.

  10. Feasibility of a Miniature Esophageal Heat Exchange Device for Rapid Therapeutic Cooling in Newborns: Preliminary Investigations in a Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingley, John; Okano, Satomi; Planas, Silvia; Chakkarapani, Elavazhagan

    2018-03-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after neonatal encephalopathy, commonly provided by 72 hours of whole-body cooling using a wrap, limits parents' physical contact with their infants affecting bonding and may not be suitable for encephalopathic preterm infants with fragile skin. Alternative cooling methods are unavailable for this population. We investigated in a neonatal pig model the feasibility of achieving a 3.5°C reduction in rectal temperature (T rectal ) similar to clinical TH protocols from 38.5°C (normothermia for pigs) to a target of 35°C ± 0.2°C, using a novel neonatal esophageal heat exchanger (NEHE), compared its efficacy to passive cooling, and investigated its ability to maintain target T rectal . Ventilated and anesthetized Landrace/Large white newborn pigs had the NEHE inserted. Water at adjustable temperatures and rates flowed down a central tube, returning up a surrounding distensible blind ending latex tube in a continuous loop. An initial experiment guided four subsequent cycles of passive cooling (30 minutes), rewarming to 38.5°C, active esophageal cooling to 35°C ± 0.2°C, active maintenance of target T rectal (30 minutes), and rewarming. We compared surface, rectal temperature, and hemodynamic changes among passive, active, and maintenance phases, and esophageal histopathology against control. Compared with passive cooling, esophageal cooling achieved target T rectal significantly earlier (71.3 minutes vs. 17.25 minutes, p = 0.003) with significantly greater rates of reduction in rectal (p = 0.0002) and surface (p = 0.005) temperatures and heart rate (p = 0.04). A water temperature of 39.1°C-40.2°C at a flow of 108-120 mL/min maintained T rectal around 35°C ± 0.2°C. The higher peak heart rate and blood pressure within 8 minutes of the maintenance phase (p = 0.04) subsequently stabilized. Histopathology showed congestion, edema, and neutrophil infiltration with increasing cycles. Esophageal cooling is

  11. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  12. Muscle-Cooling Intervention to Reduce Fatigue and Fatigue-Induced Tremor in Novice and Experienced Surgeons: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lauren; Dancisak, Michael; Korndorffer, James

    2016-10-01

    A localized, intermittent muscle-cooling protocol was implemented to determine cooling garment efficacy in reducing upper extremity muscular fatigue and tremor in novice ( n  = 10) and experienced surgeons ( n  = 9). Subjects wore a muscle-cooling garment while performing multiple trials of a forearm exercise and paired suturing task to induce muscular fatigue and exercise-induced tremor. A reduction in tremor amplitude and an extension in time to fatigue were expected with muscle cooling as compared with control trials. Each subject completed an intervention session (5°C cooling condition) and a control session (32°C or thermal neutral condition). A paired samples t test indicated that tremor amplitude was significantly reduced ( t [8] = 1.89458; p  effect was not significant. Time to fatigue and suture time improved in both cohorts with muscle cooling, but the effect did not reach significance. Results from the pilot work suggest muscle cooling as an intervention for reduction of fatigue and tremor is very promising, warranting further investigation. Surgical specialties that require prolonged procedures might benefit more from this intervention.

  13. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3. [remotely sensed distribution and abundance of gamefish in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, K. J. (Principal Investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of fisheries significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature, and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data. Cloud cover and delayed receipt have inhibited the use of Skylab data. The first step toward establishing the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data to assess amd monitor the distribution of ocean gamefish has been taken with the successful identification of fisheries significant oceanographic parameters and the demonstration of the capability of measuring most of these parameters remotely.

  14. A Preliminary Investigation of General and Technique-specific Assessments for the Evaluation of Laparoscopic Technical Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergis, Ashley; Steigerwald, Sarah

    2017-10-07

    Background  Both general and technique-specific assessments of technical skill have been validated in surgical education. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between the objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) and the global operative assessment of laparoscopic skills (GOALS) rating scales using a high-fidelity porcine laparoscopic cholecystectomy model. Methods Post-graduate year-one general surgery and urology residents (n=14) performed a live laparoscopic porcine cholecystectomy. Trained surgeons rated their performance using OSATS and GOALS assessment scales. Results Pearson's correlation coefficient between OSATS and GOALS was 0.96 for overall scores. It ranged from 0.78 - 0.89 for domains that overlapped between the two scales. Conclusion There is a very high correlation between OSATS and GOALS. This implies that they likely measure similar constructs and that either may be used for summative-type assessments of trainee skill. However, further investigation is needed to determine if technique-specific assessments may provide more useful feedback in formative evaluation.

  15. Preliminary Investigation of Workplace-Provided Compressed Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction with Pediatric Medical Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Kelly; Mische Lawson, Lisa; Andrews, Stephanie; Pecora, Jodi; Boyd, Sabra

    2017-11-01

    Mindfulness practices, including mindfulness meditation, show promise for decreasing stress among health care providers. This exploratory study investigates the feasibility of a two-day compressed mindfulness-based stress reduction (cMBSR) course provided in the hospital workplace with pediatric health care social workers. The standard course of Jon Kabat-Zinn's MBSR requires a participant commitment to eight weeks of instruction consisting of one 2.5-hour-per-week class, a single day retreat, and 45 minutes of practice for six of seven days each week. Commitments to family, work, caregiving, education, and so on, as well as limitations such as distance, may prevent health care providers from participating in a standard MBSR course. Using t tests, researchers measured the effect of cMBSR on (a) positive and negative experiences in pediatric social work, (b) perceived stress, (c) mindfulness, and (d) caring self-efficacy (as a component of patient- and family-centered care). Results included significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention outcome variables on the Professional Quality of Life Secondary Traumatic Stress subscale, the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, and the Caring Efficacy Scale. Findings found adequate evidence for the feasibility of cMBSR design and for a need of a more rigorous study of the effects of the cMBSR intervention. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  16. Technical Note: Preliminary investigations into the use of a functionalised polymer to reduce diffusion in Fricke gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. T., E-mail: s164.smith@qut.edu.au; Masters, K.-S.; Hosokawa, K.; Blinco, J. P.; Trapp, J. V. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000 (Australia); Crowe, S. B. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, Australia and Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane 4006 (Australia); Kairn, T. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, Australia and Genesis Cancer Care Queensland, Brisbane 4066 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: A modification of the existing PVA-FX hydrogel has been made to investigate the use of a functionalised polymer in a Fricke gel dosimetry system to decrease Fe{sup 3+} diffusion. Methods: The chelating agent, xylenol orange, was chemically bonded to the gelling agent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to create xylenol orange functionalised PVA (XO-PVA). A gel was created from the XO-PVA (20% w/v) with ferrous sulfate (0.4 mM) and sulfuric acid (50 mM). Results: This resulted in an optical density dose sensitivity of 0.014 Gy{sup −1}, an auto-oxidation rate of 0.0005 h{sup −1}, and a diffusion rate of 0.129 mm{sup 2} h{sup −1}; an 8% reduction compared to the original PVA-FX gel, which in practical terms adds approximately 1 h to the time span between irradiation and accurate read-out. Conclusions: Because this initial method of chemically bonding xylenol orange to polyvinyl alcohol has inherently low conversion, the improvement on existing gel systems is minimal when compared to the drawbacks. More efficient methods of functionalising polyvinyl alcohol with xylenol orange must be developed for this system to gain clinical relevance.

  17. A preliminary experimental investigation of peer influence on risk-taking among adolescent smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, Eleonora; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Schepis, Ty S; Lejuez, C W; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2013-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that peer influence plays a significant role in a variety of adolescent risk-taking behaviors, including tobacco use. We attempted to establish this relationship in a controlled laboratory setting. We modified the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) task to include a peer component to investigate whether peer influences alter risk-taking behaviors. Thirty-nine adolescents (22 smokers, 17 non-smokers) completed one experimental session during which the standard and peer BART were presented in counterbalanced order, with the dependent measures being adjusted mean number of pumps and explosions. We also examined the relationship of changes in the BART (standard-peer) to personality measures of impulsivity (BIS-11) and resistance to peer influence (RPI). A significant interaction of BART type and smoking status was present (p=.05); specifically smokers had a greater increase in the number of explosions by 2.27 (SD=3.12) compared to an increase of .29 (SD=2.87) by non-smokers. BIS-11 scores were related to peer-influenced BART changes: those who were more impulsive experienced greater changes in risk-taking, but no similar relationships were observed for the RPI. These results suggest that peer influences enhance risk-taking among adolescents, and that smokers may be more susceptible to these influences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary Investigations of Some Engineering Properties for the Use of Different Soils in Waste Disposal Cover System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman, R.O.

    2008-01-01

    Near surface disposal facilities are designed to provide long term isolation for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes from the human environment by means of multi-barriers system, which consists of a combination of natural and engineering barriers that act passively to isolate the waste. Adequate and reliable multi-layer engineered cover system is required by the long-term safety concept for waste disposal to control moisture and percolation, promote surface water runoff, minimize erosion, and prevent direct exposure to the waste. In this work, investigations of some engineering properties that are utilized in hydrological and geotechnical design of capillary barrier have been estimated for different local soil textures. Measurements of the physical properties of the studied soil textures have been conducted to determine their suitability for the utilization in engineered cover system for near surface disposal facility. The soil water characteristics have been estimated from the measured physical properties using Vereeckens pedotransfer functions. The critical pressure head for different combinations of soils have been evaluated and the thickness of the finer layer has been calculated. Also some mechanical properties, angle of internal friction and the cohesion, have been estimated using pedotransfer function. The pre-compression stresses have been evaluated and the slope stability of the designed barriers has been quantified by comparing the factor of safety for each studied case for different slope values

  19. Investigation on raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres and its preliminary application for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao, E-mail: yanjuntaonihao@163.com [Wuhan Polytechnic University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China); Li, Zhanfeng; Wang, Hongyan; Cui, Xuejun [Jilin University, College of Chemistry (China)

    2013-09-15

    A series of raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel process, which was based on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} particles as the outer shell were compactly assembled on the surface of PS, and then magnetic-hollow nanospheres were obtained by calcination. Different synthesis conditions including the amount of NH{sub 4}OH, TEOS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and the adding time of PS were systematically investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions on the morphology and structure. The prepared magnetic-hollow nanospheres were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM images exhibited that the obtained samples with the perfect spherical profile and large cavities structure were well monodisperse and uniform under the optimized condition. Zeta-potential analysis was employed to make clear the formation mechanism of raspberry-like PS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} composite nanosphere. Moreover, the drug release of ibuprofen experiment results demonstrated that the magnetic-hollow nanospheres could be used as a drug carrier to slowly release and deliver drugs.

  20. Time-resolved three-dimensional magnetic resonance velocity mapping of chronic thoracic aortic dissection. A preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo; Sekine, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Keiji; Takagi, Ryo; Kumita, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Yuriko

    2011-01-01

    The blood flow patterns of chronic thoracic aortic dissection are complicated, and their clinical significance remains unknown. We evaluated the technical and clinical potentials of time-resolved 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping for assessing these patterns. We used data collected from time-resolved 3D phase-contrast MR imaging of 16 patients with chronic thoracic aortic dissection to generate time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping that included 3D streamline and path line. We investigated blood flow patterns of this disease in the mapping and compared them with the morphological changes of the patent false lumen. Time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping visualized rapid flow at the entry and in the true lumen immediately distal to the entry. We observed slower helical or laminar flow in the patent false lumen. In patients with disease progression, slower helical flow following rapid entry jet collided with the outer wall of the false lumen and was also observed in a growing ulcer-like projection. We showed the potential of time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping for visualizing pathologic flow patterns related to chronic thoracic aortic dissection. (author)

  1. The Association between Food Addiction and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Imperatori

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing focus on early maladaptive schemas (EMSs as core features associated with eating psychopathology. The aims of the present study were to assess in overweight and obese women: (i the association between dysfunctional eating patterns (i.e., food addiction and binge eating and EMSs, and (ii the association between food addiction and EMSs after controlling for potential confounding variables (i.e., binge eating severity and psychopathology. Participants were 70 overweight and obese women seeking low-energy-diet therapy. The patients were administered self-report measures investigating food addiction, binge eating, EMSs, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Food addiction severity was strongly associated with all main schema domains. Binge eating severity was positively related to disconnection/rejection (r = 0.41; p < 0.01, impaired limits (r = 0.26; p < 0.05, and other-directedness domains (r = 0.27; p < 0.05. The disconnection/rejection schema was independently associated with food addiction severity, after controlling for the presence of other potential confounding variables (i.e., binge eating severity and psychopathology suggesting that this domain may be a crucial factor for the development of food addiction.

  2. The evacuation of British children during World War II: a preliminary investigation into the long-term psychological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D; Davies, S; Steele, H

    2003-09-01

    The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former evacuees with 43 people who were children during the war but not evacuated. No differences between the groups were found in terms of demographic variables or exposure to war-related events. All participants completed a range of standardized self-report questionnaires. Findings indicated that former evacuees were more likely to have insecure attachment styles and lower levels of present psychological well-being. Satisfaction with, but not quantity of, current social support was found to mediate the relationship between attachment style and present psychological well-being. Conclusions are limited due to the method of measurement of attachment style, non-randomized design and method of recruitment. Nevertheless, findings offer an indication that the experience of evacuation is associated with long-term psychological vulnerability through its relationship with insecure attachment.

  3. Investigation on raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres and its preliminary application for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao; Li, Zhanfeng; Wang, Hongyan; Cui, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    A series of raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres were successfully synthesized via the sol–gel process, which was based on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene. The Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 particles as the outer shell were compactly assembled on the surface of PS, and then magnetic-hollow nanospheres were obtained by calcination. Different synthesis conditions including the amount of NH 4 OH, TEOS, Fe 3 O 4 , and the adding time of PS were systematically investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions on the morphology and structure. The prepared magnetic-hollow nanospheres were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement. SEM and TEM images exhibited that the obtained samples with the perfect spherical profile and large cavities structure were well monodisperse and uniform under the optimized condition. Zeta-potential analysis was employed to make clear the formation mechanism of raspberry-like PS@Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 composite nanosphere. Moreover, the drug release of ibuprofen experiment results demonstrated that the magnetic-hollow nanospheres could be used as a drug carrier to slowly release and deliver drugs

  4. Compositional Variation and Bioactivity of the Leaf Essential Oil of Montanoa guatemalensis from Monteverde, Costa Rica: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria D. Flatt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Montanoa guatemalensis is a small to medium-sized tree in the Asteraceae that grows in Central America from Mexico south through Costa Rica. There have been no previous investigations on the essential oil of this tree. Methods: The leaf essential oils of M. guatemalensis were obtained from different individual trees growing in Monteverde, Costa Rica, in two different years, and were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. Results: The leaf oils from 2008 were rich in sesquiterpenoids, dominated by α-selinene, β-selinene, and cyclocolorenone, with lesser amounts of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene. In contrast, the samples from 2009 showed no α- or β-selinene, but large concentrations of trans-muurola-4(14,5-diene, β-cadinene, and cyclocolorenone, along with greater concentrations of α-pinene and limonene. The leaf oils were screened for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities and did show selective cytotoxic activity on MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells. Conclusion: M. guatemalensis leaf oil, rich in cyclocolorenone, α-selinene, and β-selinene, showed selective in vitro cytotoxic activity to MDA-MB-231 cells. The plant may be a good source of cyclocolorenone.

  5. Preliminary investigation of the potential for transient vapor release events during in situ vitrification based on thermal- hydraulic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.S.; Woosley, S.L.; Lessor, D.L.; Strachan, C.

    1992-07-01

    This study investigates a possible cause of molten glass displacements that occurred during two recent in situ vitrification (ISV) tests. The study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. It is hypothesized that these glass displacements are caused by large gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt and bursting at its surface. These bubbles cause the molten surface to upwell and possibly overflow. When the bubbles burst, molten glass is thrown from the melt surface and the volume of gas contained in the bubble is released into the hood. Both of these phenomena are undesirable because the molten soil ejected from the melt is dangerous to operating personnel and can damage equipment. The sudden gas release can cause a temporary pressurization of the hood, allowing potentially contaminated gas to escape to the atmosphere. This study attempts to explain the conditions necessary for formation of large gas bubbles in the melt so that future glass displacements can be avoided

  6. Preliminary investigation of the potential for transient vapor release events during in situ vitrification based on thermal- hydraulic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.S.; Woosley, S.L.; Lessor, D.L.; Strachan, C.

    1992-07-01

    This study investigates a possible cause of molten glass displacements that occurred during two recent in situ vitrification (ISV) tests. The study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. It is hypothesized that these glass displacements are caused by large gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt and bursting at its surface. These bubbles cause the molten surface to upwell and possibly overflow. When the bubbles burst, molten glass is thrown from the melt surface and the volume of gas contained in the bubble is released into the hood. Both of these phenomena are undesirable because the molten soil ejected from the melt is dangerous to operating personnel and can damage equipment. The sudden gas release can cause a temporary pressurization of the hood, allowing potentially contaminated gas to escape to the atmosphere. This study attempts to explain the conditions necessary for formation of large gas bubbles in the melt so that future glass displacements can be avoided.

  7. Submarine geo-hazards on the eastern Sardinia-Corsica continental margin based on preliminary pipeline route investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, S.; Taliana, D.; Giacomini, L.; Herisson, C.; Bonnemaire, B.

    2011-03-01

    The understanding of the morphology and the shallow geo-hazards of the seafloor is a major focus for both academic and private industry research. On November and December 2009 a geophysical pipeline survey was carried out by Fugro Oceansismica S.p.A. (FOSPA) and FUGRO France (FFSA) for DORIS Engineering on behalf of GRTgaz (Engineering centre, Transmission Pipe Department; http://www.grtgaz.com) which are currently investigating the possibility of laying a pipeline between Sardinia and Corsica as a spur line from the planned GALSI Project. The Project, "Alimentation de la Corse en gaz naturel", consists of a corridor 100 km long and 1.0 km wide along the Corsica-Sardinia shelf. The integration of the multibeam, sidescan sonar and sparker data provided a high resolution seafloor mapping for geo-hazard assessment. In this article the data acquired along a break of slope section (approximately 20 km × 1.5 km), in the eastern sector of the Strait of Bonifacio are described. The area was abandoned during the survey, because of its unsuitability. Indeed, in this area the continental shelf, approximately 100 m deep and deepening gently eastward, is characterized by an uneven morphology, with different seabed features such as Beach- rocks mainly NNW-SSE oriented. Also, the continuity of the continental margin, identified around -110/-115 m, is interrupted by four canyon heads which incise the slope and are associated with glide deposits.

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of Temperature Dependency of a Shape Memory Actuator with Time-Based Control in Aircraft Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otibar, Dennis; Weirich, Antonia; Kortenjann, Marcus; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) possess an array of unique functional properties which are influenced by a complex interaction of different factors. Due to thermal sensitivity, slight changes in the environmental temperature may cause the properties to change significantly. This poses a huge challenge especially for the use of SMAs as actuators. The most common and elementary activation strategy of SMA actuators is based on the duration of activation and cooling with constant activation parameters. However, changing environmental influences cause the necessity to modify these parameters. This circumstance needs to be especially considered in the design process of actuator controls. This paper focuses on investigating the influence of environmental temperature changes on time-based activated SMA actuators. The results of the described experiments form the base for designing reactive control strategies for SMA actuators used in alternating environments. An example for application fields with changing environments and particularly changing temperatures are aircraft related implementations. This area also stands to benefit from the actuators’ advantages in ecological efficiency.

  9. Seismic VSP and HSP surveys on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinen, J.; Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P.

    1992-10-01

    Seismic reflection surveys in boreholes were carried out for Teollisuuden Voima Oy at five sites in Finland (Eurajoki Olkiluoto, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Kuhmo Romuvaara and Sievi Syyry). The vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) surveys were a part of the investigation programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose was to detect fractured zones, lithological contacts and other anomalies in the structure of the rockmass and to determine their position and orientation. Horizontal Seismic Profiling (HSP) was used at the Olkiluoto site, additionally to VSP. The data has been organized in profiles containing seismograms recorded from the same shotpoint (shot gathers). One of the most powerful processing methods used with this project has been the Image Space Filtering, a new technique, which has been developed (in the project) for seismic reflection studies in crystalline rock. The method can be applied with other rock types where steeply inclined or vertical anomalies are of interest. It acts like a multichannel filter, enhancing the reflected events and also as an interpretation tool, to estimate the strength and position of the reflectors. This approach has been of great help in emphasizing the weak reflections from uneven and sometimes vanishing interfaces encountered in crystalline

  10. A preliminary investigation into the impact of a pesticide combination on human neuronal and glial cell lines in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Coleman

    Full Text Available Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health.

  11. Preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    Results are presented of a preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. The objective of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and to obtain a broad overview of the physical and economic factors which would have an effect on the suitability of the oil shale formations for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. These physical and economic factors are discussed in sections on magnitude of the oil shales, waste disposal relations with oil mining, cavities requirements, hydrological aspects, and study requirements

  12. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

    2014-01-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  13. Preliminary Findings from an Investigation of Zika Virus Infection in a Patient with No Known Risk Factors - Utah, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Carolyn; Dunn, Angela; Savage, Harry; Faraji, Ary; Rubin, Mike; Risk, Ilene; Garcia, Wendy; Cortese, Margaret; Novosad, Shannon; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth Raquel; Crain, Jacqueline; Hill, Mary; Atkinson, Annette; Peterson, Dallin; Christensen, Kimberly; Dimond, Melissa; Staples, J Erin; Nakashima, Allyn

    2016-09-16

    On July 12, 2016, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) was notified by a clinician caring for an adult (patient A) who was evaluated for fever, rash, and conjunctivitis that began on July 1. Patient A had not traveled to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission; had not had sexual contact with a person who recently traveled; and had not received a blood transfusion, organ transplant, or mosquito bites (1). Patient A provided care over several days to an elderly male family contact (the index patient) who contracted Zika virus abroad. The index patient developed septic shock with multiple organ failure and died in the hospital on June 25, 2016. The index patient's blood specimen obtained 2 days before his death had a level of viremia approximately 100,000 times higher than the average level reported in persons infected with Zika virus (2). Zika virus infection was diagnosed in patient A by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing on a urine specimen collected 7 days after symptom onset. In addition, a serum specimen collected 11 days after symptom onset, after patient A's symptoms had resolved, was positive for antibodies to Zika virus by Zika immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) and had neutralizing antibodies detected by plaque-reduction neutralization testing (PRNT). Working with Salt Lake and Davis County Health Departments, UDOH requested assistance from CDC with an investigation to determine patient A's exposures and determine a probable source of infection.

  14. A preliminary investigation of the environmental impact of a thermal power plant in relation to PCB contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Kadir; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2011-07-01

    The most significant application of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is in transformers and capacitors. Therefore, power plants are important suspected sources for entry of PCBs into the environment. In this context, the levels and distribution of PCBs in sediment, soil, ash, and sludge samples were investigated around Seyitömer thermal power plant, Kütahya, Turkey. Moreover, identity and contribution of PCB mixtures were predicted using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. United States Environmental Protection Agency methods were applied during sample preparation, extraction (3540C), cleanup (3660B, 3665A, 3630C), and analysis (8082A). ΣPCB concentrations in the region ranged from not detected to 385 ng/g dry weight, with relatively higher contamination in sediments in comparison to soil, sludge, and ash samples collected from around the power plant. Congener profiles of the sediment and soil samples show penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyls as the major homolog groups. The results from the CMB model indicate that PCB contamination is largely due to Clophen A60/A40 and Aroclor 1254/1254(late)/1260 release into the sediment and sludge samples around the thermal power plant. Since there are no other sources of PCBs in the region and the identity of PCB sources estimated by the CMB model mirrors PCB mixtures contained in transformers formerly used in the plant, the environmental contamination observed especially in sediments is attributed to the power plant. Release of PCBs over time, as indicated by the significant concentrations observed even in surface samples, emphasizes the importance of the need for better environmental management.

  15. Localization of epileptogenic zones in Lennox–Gastaut syndrome using frequency domain source imaging of intracranial electroencephalography: a preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae-Hyun; Jung, Young-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Youn; Im, Chang-Hwan; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Kim, Heung Dong; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Although intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) has been widely used to localize epileptogenic zones in epilepsy, visual inspection of iEEG recordings does not always result in a favorable surgical outcome, especially in secondary generalized epilepsy such as Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Various computational iEEG analysis methods have recently been introduced to confirm the visual inspection results. Of these methods, high gamma oscillation in iEEG has attracted interest because a series of studies have reported a close relationship between epileptogenic zones and cortical areas with high gamma oscillation. Meanwhile, frequency domain source imaging of EEG and MEG oscillations has proven to be a useful auxiliary tool for identifying rough locations of epileptogenic zones. To the best of our knowledge, however, frequency domain source imaging of high gamma iEEG oscillations has not been studied. In this study, we investigated whether the iEEG-based frequency domain source imaging of high gamma oscillation (60–100 Hz) would be a useful supplementary tool for identifying epileptogenic zones in patients with secondary generalized epilepsy. The method was applied to three successfully operated on LGS patients, whose iEEG contained some ictal events with distinct high gamma oscillations before seizure onset. The resultant cortical source distributions were compared with surgical resection areas and with high gamma spectral power distributions on the intracranial sensor plane. While the results of the sensor-level analyses contained many spurious activities, the results of frequency domain source imaging coincided better with the surgical resection areas, suggesting that the frequency domain source imaging of iEEG high gamma oscillations might help enhance the accuracy of pre-surgical evaluations of patients with secondary generalized epilepsy. (paper)

  16. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  17. Preliminary results of lab-scale investigations of products of incomplete combustion during incineration of primary and mixed digested sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, C M; Bagnuolo, G; Gianico, A; Mininni, G; Pastore, C; Mascolo, G

    2016-03-01

    Separation between primary and secondary sludge treatment could be a valuable solution for sludge management. According to this approach, secondary sludge can be conveniently used in agriculture while primary sludge could be easily dried and incinerated. It follows that some concern may arise from incinerating primary sludge with respect to the current practice to incinerate mixed digested sludge. Incineration of primary and mixed digested municipal sludge was investigated with a lab-scale equipment in terms of emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) during incineration failure modes. PICs can be grouped in three sub-categories, namely aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), compounds with a single aromatic ring, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After-burning temperature was the most important parameter to be controlled in order to minimize emissions of alkanes and alkenes. As for mono-aromatic compounds, benzene and toluene are the most thermally resistant compounds, and in some cases, an after-burning temperature of 1100 °C was not enough to get the complete destruction of benzene leading to a residual emission of 18 mg/kgsludge. PAHs showed an opposite trend with respect to aliphatic and mono-aromatic hydrocarbons being the thermal failure mode the main responsible of PIC emissions. A proper oxygen concentration is more important than elevated temperature thus reflecting the high thermal stability of PAHs. Overall, obtained results, even though obtained under flameless conditions that are different from those of the industrial plants, demonstrated that separation of primary and secondary sludge does not pose any drawbacks or concern regarding primary sludge being disposed of by incineration even though it is more contaminated than mixed digested sludge in terms of organic pollutants.

  18. Preliminary investigation on the effects of biological and synthetic insecticides on large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L. larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of cabbage pests is oriented towards the use of efficient but high-risk insecticides, some of them being endocrine disruptors. Biopesticides are more environment-friendly, operator-and consumers-safe, but they have low initial toxicity, low efficacy to advanced larval stages, and they require certain knowledge of pest and host biology. In our laboratory experiments we have investigated the effects of formulated synthetic pyrethroid cypermethrin (0.3 l/ha and biological products - formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (2 and 3/ha and Spinosad (0.1 l/ha - on large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L. larvae-instars 2, 3, 4 and 5. The effect of insecticides was inversely proportional to larval instars. Btk effect could be improved if tank-mixed with cypermethrin. The mixing of ready-made products allows a reduction 3 and 6 times compared with the recommended dose, still obtaining satisfactory results. Rate of leaf damage was reduced when tank mixtures were used. Use of two products in mixture would be of significance especially for control of advanced late instars late in season, when Btk action alone is insufficient. Spinosad was effective in inducing mortality and reducing leaf damage by all larval instars, therefore we assume that the dose could be reduced. Feeding rate and mortality are equally important parameters when assessing biopesticide efficacy. This strategy should also reduce the possibility of inducing resistance in pest population. It also tends to reduce the residues in commodities and is good solution in production of hygienic and health safe food.

  19. Performance evaluation of micro thermoelectric module for hot spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ook Joong; Lee, Kong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The experimental and numerical study is carried out to investigate the availability of micro TEM for hot spot cooling of an IC chip. It is found that an acrylic plate integrating with copper plate and imbedded micro TEM represents good hot spot cooling of the IC chip when CO2 laser is used to hot spot heating. Effective active local cooling phenomena by the TEM are well investigated by experiment. The measured temperature drop in the hot spot point is compared to numerical result using the TAS program for every case. Numerical result shows good agreement with experiment using some appropriate thermal and thermoelectric properties of TEM and TIM obtained by trial and error. Measurement of thermo-physical properties such as contact thermal resistance and thickness of liquid TIM is difficult but can be estimated by numerical analysis

  20. Portable XRF as a valuable device for preliminary in situ pigment investigation of wooden inventory in the Trski Vrh Church in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnica, V.; Skaric, K.; Mudronja, D.; Pavlicic, M.; Peranic, I.; Jembrih-Simbuerger, D.; Schreiner, M.; Fazinic, S.; Jaksic, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was the investigation of pigments from the painted wooden inventory of the pilgrimage church of Saint Mary of Jerusalem in Trski Vrh - one of the most beautiful late-baroque sacral ensembles in Croatia. Being an object of high relevance for the national cultural heritage, an extensive research on the wooden polychromy was undertaken in order to work out a proposal for a conservation treatment. It consists mainly of two painted and gilded layers (the original one from the 18th century and a later one from 1903), partly overpainted during periodic conservation treatments in the past. The approach was to carry out extensive preliminary in situ pigment investigations using a portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) device, and only the problems not resolved by this method on site were further analyzed using sophisticated laboratory equipment. Therefore, the XRF results acted as a valuable guideline for subsequent targeted sampling actions, thus minimizing the sampling damage. Important questions not answered by XRF (identification of organic pigments, ultramarine, etc.) were subsequently resolved using additional ex situ laboratory methods, primarily μ-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) at the nuclear microprobe of the Rudjer Boskovic accelerator facility as well as μ-Raman spectroscopy at the Institute of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. It is shown that by the combination of these often complementary methods a thorough characterization of each pigment can be obtained, allowing for a proper strategy of the conservation treatment. (orig.)

  1. determination of sex in south african blacks by discriminant function analysis of mandibular linear dimensions : A preliminary investigation using the zulu local population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel; O'Higgins, Paul; Oxnard, Charles E; Dadour, Ian

    2006-12-01

    The determination of sex is a critical component in forensic anthropological investigation. The literature attests to numerous metrical standards, each utilizing diffetent skeletal elements, for sex determination in South A frican Blacks. Metrical standards are popular because they provide a high degree of expected accuracy and are less error-prone than subjective nonmetric visual techniques. We note, however, that there appears to be no established metric mandible discriminant function standards for sex determination in this population.We report here on a preliminary investigation designed to evaluate whether the mandible is a practical element for sex determination in South African Blacks. The sample analyzed comprises 40 nonpathological Zulu individuals drawn from the R.A. Dart Collection. Ten linear measurements, obtained from mathematically trans-formed three-dimensional landmark data, are analyzed using basic univariate statistics and discriminant function analyses. Seven of the 10 measurements examined are found to be sexually dimorphic; the dimensions of the ramus are most dimorphic. The sex classification accuracy of the discriminant functions ranged from 72.5 to 87.5% for the univariate method, 92.5% for the stepwise method, and 57.5 to 95% for the direct method. We conclude that the mandible is an extremely useful element for sex determination in this population.

  2. Preliminary investigation of hybrid bioartificial liver support system in treatment of HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU Shaoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo construct a hybrid bioartificial liver support system and to investigate its safety and efficacy in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF. MethodsA hollow fiber bioreactor was constructed using cultured HepG2 cells transfected with human augmenter of liver regeneration gene. Patients with HBV-related ACLF who were hospitalized in our hospital from May 2009 to August 2011 were randomly divided into treatment group (n=10 and control group (n=10. The treatment group was treated using the hybrid bioartificial liver support system, while the control group was treated with conventional plasma exchange. Comparison of means between the two groups was made by independent-samples t test, and comparison of variables before and after treatment was made by paired t test. ResultsOf the 10 patients in treatment group, 7 had improvement in clinical symptoms and were discharged, 1 died of hepatic encephalopathy, 1 died of hepatorenal syndrome, and 1 died of liver failure after discharge. Of the 10 patients in control group, 5 survived, 1 underwent liver transplantation, and 4 died of liver failure. Before treatment, the treatment group and control group had model for end-stage liver disease (MELD scores of 24.26±2.54 and 24.71±2.79, respectively, without significant difference between the two groups (t=1.971, P=0.064. The treatment group had MELD scores of 21.71±2.92, 22.10±4.46, and 19.90±5.43 after 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks, respectively, of treatment. At the end of one-year follow-up, the mean serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were 14.24 ng/ml in treatment group and 11.32 ng/ml in control group, and no space-occupying lesions in the liver were found through abdominal ultrasound. ConclusionThe constructed hybrid bioartificial liver support system is effective and safe in the treatment of HBV-related ACLF.

  3. Preliminary investigations on picoplankton-related precipitation of alkaline-earth metal carbonates in meso-oligotrophic lake Geneva (Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Jaquet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a routine water-quality survey in meso-oligotrophic lake Geneva (Switzerland, suspended matter was collected by filtration on 0.2 μm membranes in July and August 2012 at the depth of maximal chlorophyll a (Chl a concentration (2 mg m–3. Examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous dark and gelatinous patches occluding the pores of the membranes, containing high numbers of picoplanktonic cells and, in places, clusters of high-reflectance smooth microspheres (1-2 μm in diameter. Their chemical composition, determined by semi-quantitative, energy-dispersive X ray spectroscopy (EDS showed magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca, strontium (Sr and barium (Ba (alkaline earth metals to be the dominant cations. Among the anions, phosphorus (P and carbon (C were present, but only the latter is considered here (as carbonate. The microspheres were subdivided into four types represented in a Ca-Sr-Ba ternary space. All types are confined within a domain bound by Ca>45, Sr<10 and Ba<50 (in mole %. Type I, the most frequent, displays a broad variability in Ba/Ca, even within a given cluster. Types II and III are devoid of Ba, but may incorporate P. Type IV contains only Ca. The Type I composition resembles that of benstonite, a Group IIA carbonate that was recently found as intracellular granules in a cyanobacterium from alkaline lake Alchichica (Mexico.Lake Geneva microspheres are solid, featureless and embedded in a mucilage-looking substance in the vicinity of, but seemingly not inside, picoplanktonic cells morphologically similar to Chlorella and Synechococcus. In summer 2012, the macroscopic physico-chemical conditions in lake Geneva epilimnion were such as to allow precipitation of Ca but not of Sr and Ba carbonates. Favourable conditions did exist, though, in the micro-environment provided by the combination of active picoplankton and a mucilaginous envelope. Further studies are ongoing to investigate the

  4. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons as non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL): Preliminary investigation on effects of cement doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Si-Hyun, E-mail: sihyun2@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Batchelor, Bill [Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The reactivities of various types of iron mixtures to degrade chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCE, TCE and 1,1,1-TCA) in the form of non-aqueous phase liquids were investigated. The iron mixtures included a mixture of Fe(II) and Portland cement (Fe(II)-C), a mixture of Fe(II), Fe(III) and Ca(OH){sub 2} (Fe(II/III)-L), and a mixture of Fe(II), Fe(III), Ca(OH){sub 2}, and Portland cement (Fe(II/III)-C). When the same amount of Fe(II) was used, Fe(II)-C was more reactive with chlorinated ethylenes (i.e. PCE and TCE) than Fe(II/III)-L. The reductive pathway for high concentrations of total PCE (i.e. above solubility) with Fe(II)-C was determined to be a combination of two-electron transfer, {beta}-elimination and hydrogenolysis. Increasing the cement dose from 5% to 10% in Fe(II)-C did not affect PCE dechlorination rates, but it did favor the {beta}-elimination pathway. In addition, when Fe(II/III)-C with 5%C was used, PCE dechlorination was similar to that by Fe(II)-C, but this mixture did not effectively degrade TCE. A modified second-order kinetic model was developed and shown to appropriately describe degradation of TCE at high concentrations. Fe(II/III)-L effectively degraded high concentrations of 1,1,1-TCA at rates that were similar to those obtained with Fe(II)-C using 10% C. Moreover, both increasing cement doses and the presence of Fe(III) increased dechlorination rates of 1,1,1-TCA, which was mainly through the hydrogenolysis pathway. The reactivity of Fe(II/III)-L was strongly dependent on the target compound (i.e. less reactivity with TCE, more with 1,1,1-TCA). Therefore, Fe(II/III)-L could be a potential mixture for degrading 1,1,1-TCA, but it should be modified to degrade TCE more effectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCE yield indicated that PCE dechlorination was through hydrogenolysis and {beta}-elimination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-elimination, especially PCE to dichloroacetylene, was favored with the higher cement doses. Black

  5. Preliminary geochemical, microbiological, and epidemiological investigations into possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and kidney disease in northwestern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Gifford, Amie M.; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E.; Shi, Runhua; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C.; Kolak, Jonathan; Warwick, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    detected in 4/8 (50 percent) of the surface water sites sampled. These initial results suggest that additional investigation into these relationships is warranted.

  6. Hemocyte responses of Dreissena polymorpha following a short-term in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Preliminary investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couleau, Nicolas; Techer, Didier [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France); Pagnout, Christophe [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, Metz, F-57070 (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, iCEINT, http://www.i-ceint.org (France); Jomini, Stephane [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, Metz, F-57070 (France); Foucaud, Laurent; Laval-Gilly, Philippe; Falla, Jairo [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France); Bennasroune, Amar, E-mail: amar.bennasroune@univ-metz.fr [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France)

    2012-11-01

    The widespread use of titanium-based nanoparticles and their environmental release may pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms within freshwater ecosystems. Suspension-feeder invertebrates like bivalve molluscs represent a unique target group for nanoparticle toxicology. The aim of this work was to investigate the short-term responses of Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes after in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NP). For this purpose, freshwater mussels were exposed to P25 TiO{sub 2} NP at the concentrations of 0.1, 1, 5 and 25 mg/L during 24 h. Viability, phagocytosis activity and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation level of ERK 1/2 and p38 in hemocytes extracted from exposed mussels were compared to those from control specimens. Results demonstrated an inhibition of the phagocytosis activity after exposure to TiO{sub 2} NP at 0.1 and 1 mg/L. Similar trends, albeit less pronounced, were reported for higher concentrations of NP. Transmission electron microscopy showed for the first time the internalization of TiO{sub 2} NP into Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes. Besides, exposure to NP increased the ERK 1/2 phosphorylation levels in all treatments. Concerning the phosphorylation level of p38, only exposures to 5 and 25 mg/L of NP induced significant p38 activation in comparison to that of the control. Finally, these short-term effects observed at environmentally relevant concentrations highlighted the need for further studies concerning ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticle release into an aquatic environment. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phagocytosis inhibition at TiO{sub 2} NP exposure concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Internalization of TiO{sub 2} NP in freshwater mussel hemocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased phosphorylation level of p38 and ERK 1/2 after in vivo exposure to TiO{sub 2} NP.

  7. Preliminary study on the use of the 137Cs method for soil erosion investigation in the pampean region of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujan, A.; Yanez, M.S.; Santanatoglia, O.J.; Chagas, C.; Massobrio, M.; Castiglioni, M.; Ciallella, H.; Fernandez, J.

    2000-01-01

    Soil erosion is the most important degradation process in Argentine. According to the estimation of 4.9 million ha in Pampa Ondulada Region, 1.600.000 ha (36% of agricultural soils) are affected by the erosion. Field measurements of soil erosion and sediment deposition using classical techniques are difficult, time consuming, and expensive but indispensable to feed the prediction models for conservation practices design and farm planning. Many authors have reported that the measurement of fallout nuclides is useful tool to characterize geomorphical processes. Walling and He proposes models for converting 137 Cs depletion/enrichment amounts to net soil loss/deposition. These models are based in the comparison between a reference 137 Cs profile in a long term undisturbed site (control site) and the 137 Cs profiles in the suspected eroded or deposited sites in the landscape. The aim of this study is to provide a complete and well representative set of data on the erosion intensity in topographical conditions for the Pampa Ondulada Region in Argentine by using a tracer technique. The study area is a small watershed (about 300 ha), located in Arroyo del Tala medium basin, within Partido of San Pedro in Buenos Aires Province, Argentine. This paper presents a group of results from a detailed investigation of erosion and sediment delivery, within a 49 ha cultivated field study site in this watershed. The base of sampling strategy is the grid approach. A reference inventory, representing the local fallout input, was searched for at a site experiencing neither erosion nor deposition. Radiocaesium analyses were made at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority Laboratory by a GE Hp detector. To make an interpretation of 137 Cs distribution of soil losses and sedimentation, the Mass Balance Model 2 was used (Walling and He 1997). The erosion/deposition rates from Mass Balance Model 2 are in the range of 0 to -30 t·ha -1 ·y -1 for erosion, and 0 to 19 t·ha -1 ·y -1 for deposition

  8. Preliminary Investigation of Myo-Inositol Phosphates Produced by ASUIA279 Phytase on MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohd. Yusoff

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytate or myo-inositol hexakisphosphates (IP6 is widely distributed in plants like rice brans. The production of myo-inositol phosphate intermediates has received much attention due to the remarkable potential health benefits offered by the compounds. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the partially purified myo-inositol phosphate fractions and commercial IP1 and IP6 were investigated against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The study showed that the commercial standard IP1 and IP6 showed good inhibition towards the MCF-7 cell line. The MCF-7 cells growth was inhibited in minimum concentration of myo-inositol phosphates (<1000 µg/ml. However, no inhibition observed on the MCF-7 cell line by the myo-inositol phosphates fractions partially purified from rice bran at concentration <1000 ?g/ml. The inhibition of MCF-7 was only observed at concentration more than 30 mg/ml with more than 40% cells were inhibited. This indicates that the partially purified rice bran myo-inositol phosphates degraded by ASUIA279 phytase on MCF-7 breast cancer cells exhibit positive results towards the inhibition of cancer cells growth at relatively high concentration..KEYWORDS: myo-inositol phosphates, phytase, MCF-7,  cancerABSTRAK: Fitat atau myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 dikenali umum teragih di dalam tumbuhan seperti dedak padi. Penghasilan perantaraan fosfat myo-inositol mendapat perhatian memandangkan ia berpotensi tinggi dalam kesihatan. Dalam kajian ini, kesitotoksikan sebahagian daripada fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen, IP1 komersil dan IP6 komersil dikaji terhadap produk yang berupa sel kekal (cell lines kanser payu dara MCF-7. Tumbesaran sel MCF-7 direncatkan dalam pekatan minima fosfat myo-inositol (<1000 μg/ml. Tetapi, tidak ada perencatan dilihat terhadap sel kekal MCF-7 oleh sebahagian fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen daripada dedak padi pada kepekatan <1000 mg/ml. Perencatan MCF-7 hanya dilihat pada kepekatan lebih daripada 30 mg/ml dengan lebih

  9. A preliminary linkage map using spotted melanic laboratory strains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    0.0 cMK (LG-XV) to 138 cMK (LG-VII). Three of the 22 ... performed) distributed on LG-I, II, III, VII and IX (figure 3). Estimation of ... Several important factors, particularly expedited RAPD markers production such as the use of polyacryalmide.

  10. Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Karsch, Leonhard [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, Jörg [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    dose profiles are in agreement with reference measurements. An inherent drawback of the scintillator is the nonlinear light output for high stopping-power radiation due to the quenching effect. It impacts the depth dose curves measured with the dosimeter. For single Bragg peak distributions this leads to a peak to plateau ratio of 2.8 instead of 4.5 for the reference ionization chamber measurement. Furthermore, the transmission of the clinical bremsstrahlung beams through the scintillator leads to the saturation of one camera, making dose reconstructions in that case presently not feasible.Conclusions: It is shown that distributions of scintillation light generated by proton or electron beams can be reconstructed by the dosimetry system within minutes. The quenching apparent for proton irradiation, and the yet not precisely determined position dependency of the imaging scale, require further investigation and corrections. Upgrading the prototype with larger or inorganic scintillators would increase the detectable proton and electron energy range. The presented results show that the determination of 3D dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography is a promising dosimetry method.

  11. Investigating the possibility of a syntactic impairment in the semantic variant of PPA using a constrained production task: Preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cupit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, syntactic skills are generally thought to be preserved, while in the non-fluent variant (nfvPPA syntactic impairment is a core diagnostic feature (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011. There are, however, some indications in the literature that syntactic processing may not be entirely normal in svPPA. Most studies of syntactic production in svPPA have used unconstrained tasks and have found no syntactic impairment (e.g., Bird et al., 2000; Kave et al., 2007. In the two published studies that have found a syntactic impairment in svPPA, one used a constrained task (Benedet et al., 2006, and the other (Meteyard & Patterson, 2009 did not. However, the authors of the latter article suggested that the observed syntactic errors were subtle. They also suggested that a syntactic impairment in svPPA might not be observed in spontaneous language samples due to an overreliance on simpler structures. In the current study, we used a constrained sentence production task to compare the syntactic abilities of individuals with nfvPPA, svPPA and healthy controls longitudinally, to investigate the existence of a syntactic impairment in the different PPA variants. We predicted that by using a constrained task we would observe a syntactic impairment in both variants of PPA. We tested 18 participants with nfvPPA, 13 with svPPA and 23 control participants. They were tested up to three separate times, with approximately one year between sessions. Groups were matched on age and years of education. The patient groups were matched on Mini Mental State Examination score (Folstein, Folstein & McHugh, 1975 and estimated time post onset of initial symptoms, but the nfvPPA group scored higher than the svPPA group on the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001. We used the sentence production task from Caplan and Hanna (1998 to elicit active, passive, dative and dative-passive sentences. A mixed ANOVA (Group X

  12. Investigation of study items for the patterns of care study in the radiotherapy of laryngeal cancer: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Ahn, Sung Ja; Kim, Il Han

    2003-01-01

    the use of combined modality treatments between glottic and supraglottic cancers (p=0.20). In all patients, 6 MV X-ray was used with conventional fractionation. The fraction size was 2 Gy in 80% of glottic cancer patients compared with 1.8 Gy in 59% of the patients with supraglottic cancers. The mean total dose delivered to primary lesions were 65.98 Gy and 70.15 Gy in glottic and supraglottic patients treated, respectively with radiation alone. Based on the collected data, 12 modules with 90 items were developed for the study of the patterns of care in laryngeal cancer. The study items for laryngeal cancer were developed. In the near future, a web system will be established based on the items investigated, and then a nation-wide analysis on laryngeal cancer will be processed for the standardization and optimization of radiotherapy

  13. Original Article PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, ... the seeds are used in the treatment of skin infections. ... Screening with DPPH showed prominent antioxidant spots on silica at Rf 0.8, 0.5, 0.4 .... underpins conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, ..... As a follow-up to the preliminary TLC studies.

  14. Mutagenicity studies with the mouse spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocke, E.; Wild, D.; Eckhardt, K.; King, M.T.

    1983-04-01

    The mammalian spot test, which detects somatic gene mutations in mouse embryos, was investigated with selected chemicals to (a) further validate this test system ethylnitrosourea, ethyl methanesulfonate, 2-acetylaminofluorene and colchicine (ENU, EMS, 2AAF), and (b) evaluate the mutagenic potential, in a whole-mammal system, of environmental compounds that had been previously recognized as mutagens in other mammalian or submammalian test systems (1,2-dichloroethane, hydroquinone, nitrofurantoin, o-phenylenediamine, fried sausage extract). Of these substances, ENU, EMS and 2AAF were significantly mutagenic, 1,2-dichloroethane was probably weakly mutagenic. The ENU data were used to estimate the number of pigment precursor cells present at the time of treatment (day 9.25). We also describe in this report the use of a fluorescence microscope for classification of hairs from spots on the coat of C57BL/6JHan X T hybrids.

  15. Numerical optimisation in spot detector design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Apperloo, W.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    1997-01-01

    Spots are image details resulting from objects, the projections of which are so small that the inner structure of these objects cannot be resolved from their image. Spot detectors are image operators aiming at the detection and localisation of spots in the image. Most spot detectors can be tuned

  16. Managing emerging threats to spotted owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Yi Wan; Joseph L. Ganey; Christina D. Vojta; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The 3 spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies in North America (i.e., northern spotted owl [S. o. caurina], California spotted owl [S. o. occidentalis], Mexican spotted owl [S. o. lucida]) have all experienced population declines over the past century due to habitat loss and fragmentation from logging. Now, the emerging influences of climate change, high-severity...

  17. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  18. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  19. The stethoscope: some preliminary investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsby, P; Parry, G; Smith, D

    2003-01-01

    Textbooks, clinicians, and medical teachers differ as to whether the stethoscope bell or diaphragm should be used for auscultating respiratory sounds at the chest wall. Logic and our results suggest that stethoscope diaphragms are more appropriate. PMID:14707247

  20. Targeting premeal anxiety in eating disordered clients and normal controls: a preliminary investigation into the use of mindful eating vs. distraction during food exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Denise D; Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Warren, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Studies have demonstrated that negative affect increases prior to food intake in individuals diagnosed with an eating disorder. Mindfulness has been supported empirically to treat experiential avoidance stemming from anxiety. Thus, the current objective in this study is to empirically compare mindfulness vs. thought suppression invention during a food exposure in both clinical and nonclinical samples. In a 2 (Group: clinical vs. nonclinical) × 2 (INTERVENTION: mindfulness vs. distraction) counterbalanced within treatment design, the current investigation sought to determine the differential effectiveness of a brief mindfulness intervention vs. a brief distraction intervention in women diagnosed with AN and BN in a clinical and nonclinical sample during a food exposure. Results indicated that the eating disorder group reported a significant increase in negative affect after the mindfulness intervention as compared to the distraction intervention, whereas the nonclinical group reported a significant decrease in negative affect after the mindfulness intervention as compared to the distraction intervention. Preliminary findings suggest that clinicians may want to proceed cautiously when using mindful eating in those with severe eating disorders during the early stages of food exposure. Limitations and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. High-pressure single-crystal neutron diffraction (to 20 kbar) using a pulsed source: Preliminary investigation of Tl3PSe4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkire, R.W.; Larson, A.C.; Vergamini, P.J.; Schirber, J.E.; Morosin, B.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique is described for performing high-pressure single-crystal neutron diffraction [up to 20 kbar (2GPa) at room temperature], using a BeCu pressure cell, an area detector and the Los Alamos National Laboratory pulsed neutron source. Success of this method depends on the increase in information available with a multi-wavelength pulse neutron source, a novel orientation of a cylindrically symmetric pressure cell with its axis coincident with the neutron beam and a specific crystal orientation within the pressure cell. Bragg scattering from the pressure cell is avoided and background for a given 2theta is constant. For a crystal of orthorhombic or higher symmetry oriented with the incident beam passing midway between the major lattice vectors, it will be possible to refine a complete three-dimensional structure with data collected from only one pressure loading. Preliminary investigations of Tl 3 PSe 4 lattice parameters (space group Pcmn) at 15(1)kbar yielded linear compressibilities (. 1000 in kbar -1 ) of Ksub(a) = 1.05(8), Ksub(b) = 1.50(10), Ksub(c) = 1.20(8). The anisotropic compressibility is explained by examination of the ambient-pressure room-temperature structure. (orig.)

  2. Visual-spatial memory may be enhanced with theta burst deep brain stimulation of the fornix: a preliminary investigation with four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan P; Sweet, Jennifer A; Bailey, Christopher M; Munyon, Charles N; Luders, Hans O; Fastenau, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    Memory loss after brain injury can be a source of considerable morbidity, but there are presently few therapeutic options for restoring memory function. We have previously demonstrated that burst stimulation of the fornix is able to significantly improve memory in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The present study is a preliminary investigation with a small group of cases to explore whether theta burst stimulation of the fornix might improve memory in humans. Four individuals undergoing stereo-electroencephalography evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy were enrolled. All participants were implanted with an electrode into the proximal fornix and dorsal hippocampal commissure on the language dominant (n = 3) or language non-dominant (n = 1) side, and stimulation of this electrode reliably produced a diffuse evoked potential in the head and body of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Each participant underwent testing of verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test), visual-spatial memory (Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test), and visual confrontational naming (Boston Naming Test Short Form) once per day over at least two consecutive days using novel test forms each day. For 50% of the trials, the fornix electrode was continuously stimulated using a burst pattern (200 Hz in 100 ms trains, five trains per second, 100 µs, 7 mA) and was compared with sham stimulation. Participants and examiners were blinded to whether stimulation was active or not, and the order of stimulation was randomized. The small sample size precluded use of inferential statistics; therefore, data were analysed using descriptive statistics and graphic analysis. Burst stimulation of the fornix was not perceived by any of the participants but was associated with a robust reversible improvement in immediate and delayed performance on the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test. There were no apparent differences on either Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test or Boston Naming

  3. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  4. Hot spots and heavily dislocated regions in multicrystalling silicon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The formation mechanism and the electrical consequences of hot spots have been investigated in multicrystalline solar cells. The hot spots were revealed by means of an infrared camera when the cells are reverse biassed in the dark. The minority carrier diffusion length (L n ), the photovoltage (V oc ) and the photocurrent (J sc ) were measured in the hot spot area and far from this zone thanks to mesa diodes. Dark forward I-V curves lead to values of ideality factor (M) and reverse saturation current (J o ). It is found that J o and M are higher in the hot spot area, while J sc , V oc and at a less extent L n are smaller. Large densities of dislocations and lineages structures are revealed in the abnormally heated regions

  5. Stress hot spots in viscoplastic deformation of polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollett, A D; Li, J; Rohrer, G S; Lebensohn, R A; Groeber, M; Choi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The viscoplastic deformation of polycrystals under uniaxial loading is investigated to determine the relationship between hot spots in stress and their location in relation to the microstructure. A 3D full-field formulation based on fast Fourier transforms for the prediction of the viscoplastic deformation of poly-crystals is used with rate-sensitive crystal plasticity. Two measured polycrystalline structures are used to instantiate the simulations, as well as a fully periodic synthetic polycrystal adapted from a simulation of grain growth. Application of (Euclidean) distance maps shows that hot spots in stress tend to occur close to grain boundaries. It is also found that low stress regions lie close to boundaries. The radial distribution function of the hot spots indicates clustering. Despite the lack of texture in the polycrystals, the hot spots are strongly concentrated in (1 1 0) orientations, which can account for the observed clustering. All three microstructures yield similar results despite significant differences in topology

  6. Verification of the anatomy and newly discovered histology of the G-spot complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrzenski, A; Krajewski, P; Ganjei-Azar, P; Wasiutynski, A J; Scheinberg, M N; Tarka, S; Fudalej, M

    2014-10-01

    To expand the anatomical investigations of the G-spot and to assess the G-spot's characteristic histological and immunohistochemical features. An observational study. International multicentre. Eight consecutive fresh human female cadavers. Anterior vaginal wall dissections were executed and G-spot microdissections were performed. All specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The tissues of two women were selected at random for immunohistochemical staining. The primary outcome measure was to document the anatomy of the G-spot. The secondary outcome measures were to identify the histology of the G-spot and to determine whether histological samples stained with H&E are sufficient to identify the G-spot. The anatomical existence of the G-spot was identified in all women and was in a diagonal plane. In seven (87.5%) and one (12.5%) of the women the G-spot complex was found on the left or right side, respectively. The G-spot was intimately fused with vessels, creating a complex. A large tangled vein-like vascular structure resembled an arteriovenous malformation and there were a few smaller feeding arteries. A band-like structure protruded from the tail of the G-spot. The size of the G-spot varied. Histologically, the G-spot was determined as a neurovascular complex structure. The neural component contained abundant peripheral nerve bundles and a nerve ganglion. The vascular component comprised large vein-like vessels and smaller feeding arteries. Circular and longitudinal muscles covered the G-complex. The anatomy of the G-spot complex was confirmed. The histology of the G-spot presents as neurovascular tissues with a nerve ganglion. H&E staining is sufficient for the identification of the G-spot complex. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. A preliminary carbon and nitrogen isotopic investigation of bone collagen from skeletal remains recovered from a Pre-Columbian burial site, Matanzas Province, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhay, W.M.; Chinique de Armas, Y.; Rodriguez Suárez, R.; Arredondo, C.; Smith, D.G.; Armstrong, S.D.; Roksandic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Collagen isotope (carbon and nitrogen) based reconstruction of paleodiets. ► Human remains recovered from Canimar Abajo, Matanzas Province, Cuba. ► Individuals consumed marine resource diets supplemented with terrestrial plants. ► Trophic level and isotope shifts for breastfed and weaned infant/juveniles (I/J). ► I/J evidence of weaning through distinct δ 15 N enrichments and δ 13 C depletions. - Abstract: This preliminary study investigates the diet of a population of humans (n = 28) recovered from a shell-matrix site of Canimar Abajo on the Canimar River, Matanzas Province, Cuba. The site is characterized by two cemetery levels separated by a layer of occupation/ritual/midden activity that lasted 1.5 ka. Stable C (δ 13 C) and N (δ 15 N) isotope analysis of human bone collagen samples obtained from individuals (7 infant/juveniles, and 21 adults) from both cemetery levels was conducted in order to reconstruct the diet of these two populations, investigate the relative importance of marine vs. terrestrial resources, and reveal any sex- and age-related distinctions in their food sources. Initial indications suggest that individuals from both cemetery levels consumed diets that were marine resource intensive but also supplemented with varied additions of terrestrial (mostly plant) resources. This supplementation is particularly evident in the later cemetery population. Though there are no significant differences in diet according to sex, there is a trophic level and terrestrial-based shift for breastfed and weaning infant/juveniles. The infant/juveniles showed evidence of being weaned through distinct δ 15 N enrichments and δ 13 C depletions over adult females

  8. Poisson's spot and Gouy phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, I. G.; Soldati, Rodolfo; Cabral, L. A.; de Oliveira, J. G. G.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    Recently there have been experimental results on Poisson spot matter-wave interferometry followed by theoretical models describing the relative importance of the wave and particle behaviors for the phenomenon. We propose an analytical theoretical model for Poisson's spot with matter waves based on the Babinet principle, in which we use the results for free propagation and single-slit diffraction. We take into account effects of loss of coherence and finite detection area using the propagator for a quantum particle interacting with an environment. We observe that the matter-wave Gouy phase plays a role in the existence of the central peak and thus corroborates the predominantly wavelike character of the Poisson's spot. Our model shows remarkable agreement with the experimental data for deuterium (D2) molecules.

  9. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  10. Political liberalism and religious claims: Four blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either 'liberal' or 'fundamentalist' and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation.

  11. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  12. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  13. Statistical hot spot analysis of reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1974-05-01

    This report is an introduction into statistical hot spot analysis. After the definition of the term 'hot spot' a statistical analysis is outlined. The mathematical method is presented, especially the formula concerning the probability of no hot spots in a reactor core is evaluated. A discussion with the boundary conditions of a statistical hot spot analysis is given (technological limits, nominal situation, uncertainties). The application of the hot spot analysis to the linear power of pellets and the temperature rise in cooling channels is demonstrated with respect to the test zone of KNK II. Basic values, such as probability of no hot spots, hot spot potential, expected hot spot diagram and cumulative distribution function of hot spots, are discussed. It is shown, that the risk of hot channels can be dispersed equally over all subassemblies by an adequate choice of the nominal temperature distribution in the core

  14. Magnetite nanoparticles coated with β-cyclodextrin functionalized-ionic liquid: Synthesis and its preliminary investigation as a new sensing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinniah, Subathra; Mohamad, Sharifah; Manan, Ninie S.A., E-mail: niniemanan@um.edu.my

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • A novel of β-cyclodextrin functionalized-ionic liquid coated with magnetite nanoparticles is prepared via co-precipitation method. • The architecture of the material is successfully characterized and confirmed that β-cyclodextrin-functionalized-ionic liquid, has been effectively coated onto surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles. • Vibration Sample Magnetometer analysis confirmed that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL able to attain an excellent magnetic properties. • Preliminary electrochemical study shows that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL able to recognize Biphenol A. - Abstract: In this study, a novel surface of modified magnetite nanoparticles Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was coated with β-cyclodextrin-funclionalized ionic liquid (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL) via the co-precipitation method in alkaline salt medium. β-Cyclodextrin-functionalized-ionic liquid has been effectively coated onto the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles. The instruments used to investigate the architecture are: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Powder Diffraction, Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry, Transmission Electron Microscope, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller isotherm. A Vibration Sample Magnetometer analysis verified that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL attained excellent magnetic properties. The analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope shows that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL produced monodisperse particles with minimal aggregation. Moreover, electrochemical studies have revealed that this new material showed outstanding ability to recognize Bisphenol A with lower electrochemical potential at 0.5 V than other comparative materials, as well as a higher detection current. Thus, this material has promising potential as a new electrode material in sensor applications.

  15. Magnetite nanoparticles coated with β-cyclodextrin functionalized-ionic liquid: Synthesis and its preliminary investigation as a new sensing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinniah, Subathra; Mohamad, Sharifah; Manan, Ninie S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel of β-cyclodextrin functionalized-ionic liquid coated with magnetite nanoparticles is prepared via co-precipitation method. • The architecture of the material is successfully characterized and confirmed that β-cyclodextrin-functionalized-ionic liquid, has been effectively coated onto surface of Fe 3 O 4 magnetite nanoparticles. • Vibration Sample Magnetometer analysis confirmed that the Fe 3 O 4 -β-CD-IL able to attain an excellent magnetic properties. • Preliminary electrochemical study shows that Fe 3 O 4 -β-CD-IL able to recognize Biphenol A. - Abstract: In this study, a novel surface of modified magnetite nanoparticles Fe 3 O 4 was coated with β-cyclodextrin-funclionalized ionic liquid (Fe 3 O 4 -β-CD-IL) via the co-precipitation method in alkaline salt medium. β-Cyclodextrin-functionalized-ionic liquid has been effectively coated onto the surface of Fe 3 O 4 magnetite nanoparticles. The instruments used to investigate the architecture are: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Powder Diffraction, Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry, Transmission Electron Microscope, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller isotherm. A Vibration Sample Magnetometer analysis verified that the Fe 3 O 4 -β-CD-IL attained excellent magnetic properties. The analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope shows that the Fe 3 O 4 -β-CD-IL produced monodisperse particles with minimal aggregation. Moreover, electrochemical studies have revealed that this new material showed outstanding ability to recognize Bisphenol A with lower electrochemical potential at 0.5 V than other comparative materials, as well as a higher detection current. Thus, this material has promising potential as a new electrode material in sensor applications.

  16. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, James C.; Henke, Kevin [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Engle, Mark A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Blake, Donald R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California - Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Stracher, Glenn B. [East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA 30401 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO{sub 2} peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO{sub 2} and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg{sup 0}, in excess of 500 and 2100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. (author)

  17. Preliminary investigations into macroscopic attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared imaging of intact spherical domains: spatial resolution and image distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everall, Neil J; Priestnall, Ian M; Clarke, Fiona; Jayes, Linda; Poulter, Graham; Coombs, David; George, Michael W

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes preliminary investigations into the spatial resolution of macro attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging and the distortions that arise when imaging intact, convex domains, using spheres as an extreme example. The competing effects of shallow evanescent wave penetration and blurring due to finite spatial resolution meant that spheres within the range 20-140 microm all appeared to be approximately the same size ( approximately 30-35 microm) when imaged with a numerical aperture (NA) of approximately 0.2. A very simple model was developed that predicted this extreme insensitivity to particle size. On the basis of these studies, it is anticipated that ATR imaging at this NA will be insensitive to the size of intact highly convex objects. A higher numerical aperture device should give a better estimate of the size of small spheres, owing to superior spatial resolution, but large spheres should still appear undersized due to the shallow sampling depth. An estimate of the point spread function (PSF) was required in order to develop and apply the model. The PSF was measured by imaging a sharp interface; assuming an Airy profile, the PSF width (distance from central maximum to first minimum) was estimated to be approximately 20 and 30 microm for IR bands at 1600 and 1000 cm(-1), respectively. This work has two significant limitations. First, underestimation of domain size only arises when imaging intact convex objects; if surfaces are prepared that randomly and representatively section through domains, the images can be analyzed to calculate parameters such as domain size, area, and volume. Second, the model ignores reflection and refraction and assumes weak absorption; hence, the predicted intensity profiles are not expected to be accurate; they merely give a rough estimate of the apparent sphere size. Much further work is required to place the field of quantitative ATR-FT-IR imaging on a sound basis.

  18. Theoretical studies of a hybrid ejector CO2 compression cooling system for vehicles and preliminary experimental investigations of an ejector cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiangjie; Worall, Mark; Omer, Siddig; Su, Yuehong; Riffat, Saffa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Waste heat from vehicle exhausted gas was used as heat source for ejector. ► Ejector acts as the main interface between ejector and CO 2 VC sub-system. ► The effect of sub-cooling was analyzed. ► COP of ejector cooling system was measured between 0.2 and 0.5 during experiments. ► Enhanced ejector and vapour compression system. -- Abstract: This paper presents theoretical investigations into a hybrid ejector and CO 2 vapour compression (VC) system for road transport cooling. The purpose is to utilise the waste heat from exhaust gas and the VC sub-system to drive the ejector system, whose cooling effect will be employed to subcool the VC sub-system. Exploitation of the energy consumption ratio between ejector sub-system and CO 2 VC sub-system indicated that the more energy obtained from exhausted gas, the better system performance could be achieved for CO 2 VC sub-system, and hence higher cooling capacity of the VC sub-system at the same compression power. Thermodynamic simulations of two sub-systems and the hybrid system were presented. The results indicated that, at boiler temperature of 120 °C, evaporator temperature of 10 °C, a COP of 0.584 was achieved for hybrid system, with 22% improvement over a single ejector cycle. Preliminary experimental studies were carried out on a single ejector cycle, with boiler temperatures between 115 °C and 130 °C, and evaporator temperatures between 5 °C and 10 °C. The effects of various operation conditions on the overall ejector operation were coherently analysed. The COP of the ejector sub-system from experimental results was approximately 85% compared with simulation results, which showed a good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental results.

  19. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  20. A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

  1. A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-01-01

    Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

  2. Mapping the Hot Spots: A Zoning Approach to Space Analysis and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Adam; Carpenter, Russell; Hensley, Emily; Strong, Kelsey; Williams, ReBecca; Winter, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a preliminary approach to space design developed and implemented in Eastern Kentucky University's Noel Studio for Academic Creativity. The approach discussed here is entitled "hot spots," which has allowed the research team to observe trends in space usage and composing activities among students. This approach has…

  3. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Dugger, Katie M.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  4. Judging a salmon by its spots: environmental variation is the primary determinant of spot patterns in Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Katarina M; Solberg, Monica F; Besnier, Francois; Thorsen, Anders; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Skaala, Øystein; Malde, Ketil; Glover, Kevin A

    2018-04-12

    In fish, morphological colour changes occur from variations in pigment concentrations and in the morphology, density, and distribution of chromatophores in the skin. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved in most species. Here, we describe the first investigation into the genetic and environmental basis of spot pattern development in one of the world's most studied fishes, the Atlantic salmon. We reared 920 salmon from 64 families of domesticated, F1-hybrid and wild origin in two contrasting environments (Hatchery; tanks for the freshwater stage and sea cages for the marine stage, and River; a natural river for the freshwater stage and tanks for the marine stage). Fish were measured, photographed and spot patterns evaluated. In the Hatchery experiment, significant but modest differences in spot density were observed among domesticated, F1-hybrid (1.4-fold spottier than domesticated) and wild salmon (1.7-fold spottier than domesticated). A heritability of 6% was calculated for spot density, and a significant QTL on linkage group SSA014 was detected. In the River experiment, significant but modest differences in spot density were also observed among domesticated, F1-hybrid (1.2-fold spottier than domesticated) and wild salmon (1.8-fold spottier than domesticated). Domesticated salmon were sevenfold spottier in the Hatchery vs. River experiment. While different wild populations were used for the two experiments, on average, these were 6.2-fold spottier in the Hatchery vs. River experiment. Fish in the Hatchery experiment displayed scattered to random spot patterns while fish in the River experiment displayed clustered spot patterns. These data demonstrate that while genetics plays an underlying role, environmental variation represents the primary determinant of spot pattern development in Atlantic salmon.

  5. Motion Interplay as a Function of Patient Parameters and Spot Size in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Lomax, Antony; Sharp, Greg; Shackleford, James; Choi, Noah; Willers, Henning; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Quantify the impact of respiratory motion on the treatment of lung tumors with spot scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials 4D Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the interplay effect, which results from relative motion of the tumor and the proton beam, on the dose distribution in the patient. Ten patients with varying tumor sizes (2.6-82.3cc) and motion amplitudes (3-30mm) were included in the study. We investigated the impact of the spot size, which varies between proton facilities, and studied single fractions and conventionally fractionated treatments. The following metrics were used in the analysis: minimum/maximum/mean dose, target dose homogeneity and 2-year local control rate (2y-LC). Results Respiratory motion reduces the target dose homogeneity, with the largest effects observed for the highest motion amplitudes. Smaller spot sizes (σ≈3mm) are inherently more sensitive to motion, decreasing target dose homogeneity on average by a factor ~2.8 compared to a larger spot size (σ≈13mm). Using a smaller spot size to treat a tumor with 30mm motion amplitude reduces the minimum dose to 44.7% of the prescribed dose, decreasing modeled 2y-LC from 87.0% to 2.7%, assuming a single fraction. Conventional fractionation partly mitigates this reduction, yielding a 2y-LC of 71.6%. For the large spot size, conventional fractionation increases target dose homogeneity and prevents a deterioration of 2y-LC for all patients. No correlation with tumor volume is observed. The effect on the normal lung dose distribution is minimal: observed changes in mean lung dose and lung V20 are interplay using a large spot size and conventional fractionation. For treatments employing smaller spot sizes and/or in the delivery of single fractions, interplay effects can lead to significant deterioration of the dose distribution and lower 2y-LC. PMID:23462423

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  7. Characterisation and deployment of an immobilised pH sensor spot towards surface ocean pH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jennifer S; Achterberg, Eric P; Rérolle, Victoire M C; Abi Kaed Bey, Samer; Floquet, Cedric F A; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2015-10-15

    The oceans are a major sink for anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide, and the uptake causes changes to the marine carbonate system and has wide ranging effects on flora and fauna. It is crucial to develop analytical systems that allow us to follow the increase in oceanic pCO2 and corresponding reduction in pH. Miniaturised sensor systems using immobilised fluorescence indicator spots are attractive for this purpose because of their simple design and low power requirements. The technology is increasingly used for oceanic dissolved oxygen measurements. We present a detailed method on the use of immobilised fluorescence indicator spots to determine pH in ocean waters across the pH range 7.6-8.2. We characterised temperature (-0.046 pH/°C from 5 to 25 °C) and salinity dependences (-0.01 pH/psu over 5-35), and performed a preliminary investigation into the influence of chlorophyll on the pH measurement. The apparent pKa of the sensor spots was 6.93 at 20 °C. A drift of 0.00014 R (ca. 0.0004 pH, at 25 °C, salinity 35) was observed over a 3 day period in a laboratory based drift experiment. We achieved a precision of 0.0074 pH units, and observed a drift of 0.06 pH units during a test deployment of 5 week duration in the Southern Ocean as an underway surface ocean sensor, which was corrected for using certified reference materials. The temperature and salinity dependences were accounted for with the algorithm, R=0.00034-0.17·pH+0.15·S(2)+0.0067·T-0.0084·S·1.075. This study provides a first step towards a pH optode system suitable for autonomous deployment. The use of a short duration low power illumination (LED current 0.2 mA, 5 μs illumination time) improved the lifetime and precision of the spot. Further improvements to the pH indicator spot operations include regular application of certified reference materials for drift correction and cross-calibration against a spectrophotometric pH system. Desirable future developments should involve novel

  8. The spot market and the spot price: applicability and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of spot prices and their relationship to long-term contracting is addressed. The author is associated with Nuexco, which originally was called the Nuclear Exchange Corporation. They use the term Exchange Value which originated in the idea that Nuexco operated an exchange 'bank' - those with too much uranium could 'bank it', those with short-term needs could borrow from the 'bank'. If the borrower repaid slightly more or less the difference was settled using the 'exchange value'. This became used for longer-term transactions and now settling the monthly value is an important part of Nuexco's activities. The exact nature of the Exchange Value is defined. Now more and more buyers are insisting on spot market related pricing even where this is not meaningfully related to uranium production costs. (U.K.)

  9. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  10. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero; Danila Khikhlukha; J. M. Solano-Altamirano; Raquel Dormido; Natividad Duro

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presente...

  11. Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US

  12. A preliminary investigation of the impact of oily skin on quality of life and concordance of self-perceived skin oiliness and skin surface lipids (sebum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Niu, Y; Zhong, S; Liu, H; Zhen, Y; Saint-Leger, D; Verschoore, M

    2013-10-01

    This preliminary study investigated both the impact of oily skin on quality of life (QoL) and the agreement between subjective oily skin self-assessment and objective skin surface sebum measurement in young to middle-aged Chinese women in Beijing. A 18-item Chinese version of the Oily Skin Self-Image Questionnaire (OSSIQ) was used to assess the impact of oily skin on QoL in 300 healthy female subjects (age groups: 20-25; 26-30; 31-35,). The subjects were divided equally into the oily skin group and the non-oily skin group based on their self-perception of skin oiliness. The level of skin surface lipids (SSL) was measured on the middle of the forehead, and both cheeks using the Sebumeter(®). In order to assess the agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL, we tentatively used the SSL median value as a dividing point to regroup all subjects. The results indicate that the Chinese version of the OSSIQ distinguished the oily skin group from the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had significant higher emotional status score and behavior score when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had higher SSL when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group, especially in younger age groups. The agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL was moderately strong in younger age groups, and declined with age. These results strongly suggest that having oily skin can cause a significant negative impact on QoL among Chinese women. The Chinese version of the OSSIQ is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the impact of oily skin on QoL. The accuracy of oily skin self-assessment declines with age. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. A preliminary qualitative investigation into the relationship between pre-, peri- and post-migration factors/experiences and the psychological well-being of adolescent male Afghani asylum seekers living in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Button, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the influence of pre-, peri- and post-migration experiences on the psychological well-being of adolescent male Afghani asylum seekers living in the UK. It aims to provide a preliminary investigation of these experiences using the participants’ own voice in order to contribute towards addressing a gap in the research field and guide ongoing outreach, social and clinical work with this population, both locally, and nationally. Eight adolescent Afghani asylum seek...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.11 - Spot checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot checks. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.11 Spot checks. (a) CCC... CCC access to the farm and storage facility as necessary to conduct collateral inspections, or “spot...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1435 - Maxwell spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maxwell spot. 886.1435 Section 886.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1435 Maxwell spot. (a) Identification. A Maxwell spot is an AC...

  16. Spot på samtalen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneris, Sophie; Jensen, Tanja Dall; Caswell, Dorte

    Spot på samtalen sætter fokus på det, der konkret foregår i samtaler mellem borgere og de beskæftigelsesfaglige medarbejdere i jobcentrene. Da de udsatte grupper i mange tilfælde er langt fra arbejdsmarkedet, er interessen rettet mod, hvilke forhold i kontakten med beskæftigelsessystemet, der...... har betydning hvilke indsatser ledige modtager, men også hvordan de modtager dem. Her rettes blikket mod den centrale del af den beskæftigelsespolitiske indsats som samtalerne udgør. I Spot på samtalen er blikket rettet mod de dynamikker, mønstre og mekanismer, der kommer i spil i samtalerne i...

  17. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  18. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the ma...... electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. Microhardness measurements and lap-shear tensile tests completed the investigations of the welded samples and allow evaluation of the quality of the welds.......In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the main...... parameters to control friction stir welding, the influence of the rotational speed of the tool was investigated. Three different rotational speeds (500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively) were applied. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated with reflected light microscopy, scanning...

  19. Vocal complexity and sociality in spotted paca (Cuniculus paca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Stella G C; Sousa-Lima, Renata S; Tokumaru, Rosana S; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G; Nogueira, Selene S C

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of sociality is related to many ecological factors that act on animals as selective forces, thus driving the formation of groups. Group size will depend on the payoffs of group living. The Social Complexity Hypothesis for Communication (SCHC) predicts that increases in group size will be related to increases in the complexity of the communication among individuals. This hypothesis, which was confirmed in some mammal societies, may be useful to trace sociality in the spotted paca (Cuniculus paca), a Neotropical caviomorph rodent reported as solitary. There are, however, sightings of groups in the wild, and farmers easily form groups of spotted paca in captivity. Thus, we aimed to describe the acoustic repertoire of captive spotted paca to test the SCHC and to obtain insights about the sociability of this species. Moreover, we aimed to verify the relationship between group size and acoustic repertoire size of caviomorph rodents, to better understand the evolution of sociality in this taxon. We predicted that spotted paca should display a complex acoustic repertoire, given their social behavior in captivity and group sightings in the wild. We also predicted that in caviomorph species the group size would increase with acoustic repertoire, supporting the SCHC. We performed a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based on acoustic parameters of the vocalizations recorded. In addition, we applied an independent contrasts approach to investigate sociality in spotted paca following the social complexity hypothesis, independent of phylogeny. Our analysis showed that the spotted paca's acoustic repertoire contains seven vocal types and one mechanical signal. The broad acoustic repertoire of the spotted paca might have evolved given the species' ability to live in groups. The relationship between group size and the size of the acoustic repertoires of caviomorph species was confirmed, providing additional support for the SCHC in yet another group of diverse mammals

  20. Measurement of laser spot quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Treptau, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of measuring spot quality are compared. We examine in detail various figures of merit such as full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at 1/(e exp 2) maximum, Strehl ratio, and encircled energy. Our application is optical data storage, but results can be applied to other areas like space communications and high energy lasers. We found that the optimum figure of merit in many cases is Strehl ratio.

  1. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  2. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuan Fang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index is also necessary since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemo...

  3. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  5. Spot formation of radiation particles by electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical etching (ECE) spot formation from the top of chemical etching (CE) spot was confirmed by a series of experiments. One of polycarbonate (Iupilon) could not make the spot, because ECE spot had grown up before the microscope confirming the CE spot. Clear CEC spots by α-ray and neutron were found on Harzlas and Baryotrak, both improvements of CR-39. Under the same etching conditions, the growth of ECE spot on Harzlas was more rapid than Baryotrak, but both spots were almost the same. All CE spot by α-ray produced the CEC spots, but a part of CE circle spot by neutron formed them. (S.Y.)

  6. Mikrostruktur udvikling i trip-stål under frictionstir spot svejsning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the feasibility of joining TRIP steel by Friction Stir Spot Welding is investigated. The aim is to produce successful welds and to get a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring in the microstructure during welding. One of the primary parameters in Friction Stir Spot...

  7. Outbreak of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylin Hidalgo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF is a tick-borne disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Although RMSF was first reported in Colombia in 1937, it remains a neglected disease. Herein, we describe the investigation of a large cluster of cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in a new area of Colombia.

  8. Outbreak of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Córdoba, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Miranda, Jorge; Heredia, Damaris; Zambrano, Pilar; Vesga, Juan Fernando; Lizarazo, Diana; Mattar, Salim; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2011-02-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Although RMSF was first reported in Colombia in 1937, it remains a neglected disease. Herein, we describe the investigation of a large cluster of cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in a new area of Colombia.

  9. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  10. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  11. Preliminary I&C Design for LORELEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, S.; Kaufman, Y.; Guttmann, E. B.; Levy, S.; Amidan, D.; Gdalyho, B.; Cahana, T.; Ellenbogen, A.; Arad, M.; Weiss, Y.; Sasson, A.; Ferry, L.; Bourrelly, F.; Cohen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the preliminary I&C design for LORELEI experiment The preliminary design deals with considerations regarding appropriate safety and service instrumentation. The determined closed loop control rules for temperature and position will be implemented in the detailed design. The Computer Aided Operator Decisions System (CAODS) will be used for prediction of hot spot temperature and thickness of oxidation layer using Baker-Just correlation. The proposed hybrid simulation system comprising of both virtual and real hardware will be in-cooperated for LORELEI verification. It will perform both integration cold tests for a partial hardware loop and virtual tests for the final I&C design

  12. Spreading of Trisiloxanes on Thin Water Film: Dry Spot Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Ovunda NJOBUENWU

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation of the spreading of trisiloxanes EO6, EO7, EO8, EO9 and sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS on thin films which are 320 microns in thickness; the concentrations covered are above the CMC. The spreading of SDS is accompanied by the formation of a “dry spot” which advances in time roughly as t1/4. The trisiloxanes spreading gave rise to dry spot formation that was accompanied by “irregularities”, which corresponded to an abrupt jump in the plot of dry spot radius versus time. The behaviour is attributed to a variety of factors: disjoining pressure effects or the fact that the Petri dish was too small so that backward propagating waves were set up due to reflections from the walls which interacted with the outspreading dry spot.

  13. Simulation of the Focal Spot of the Accelerator Bremsstrahlung Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, V.; Bespalov, V.

    2016-06-01

    Testing of thick-walled objects by bremsstrahlung radiation (BR) is primarily performed via high-energy quanta. The testing parameters are specified by the focal spot size of the high-energy bremsstrahlung radiation. In determining the focal spot size, the high- energy BR portion cannot be experimentally separated from the low-energy BR to use high- energy quanta only. The patterns of BR focal spot formation have been investigated via statistical modeling of the radiation transfer in the target material. The distributions of BR quanta emitted by the target for different energies and emission angles under normal distribution of the accelerated electrons bombarding the target have been obtained, and the ratio of the distribution parameters has been determined.

  14. Preliminary investigation of two areas in New York State in terms of possible potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy. [Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachsen, Y.W.

    1978-09-27

    Two areas in New York State were studied in terms of possible long range potential for geothermal energy: the Adirondack Mountains which are undergoing contemporary doming, and an anomalous circular feature centered on Panther Mountain in the Catskill Mountains. The Adirondack Mountains constitute an anomalously large, domical uplift on the Appalachian foreland. The domical configuration of the area undergoing uplift, combined with subsidence at the northeastern perimeter of the dome, argues for a geothermal rather than glacioisostatic origin. A contemporary hot spot near the crust-mantle boundary is proposed as the mechanism of doming, based on analogy with uplifts of similar dimensions elsewhere in the world, some of which have associated Tertiary volcanics. The lack of thermal springs in the area, or high heat flow in drill holes up to 370 m deep, indicates that the front of the inferred thermal pulse must be at some depth greater than 1 km. From isopach maps by Rickard (1969, 1973), it is clear that the present Adirondack dome did not come into existence until sometime after Late Devonian time. Strata younger than this are not present to provide further time stratigraphic refinement of this lower limit. However, the consequent radial drainage pattern in the Adirondacks suggests that the dome is a relatively young tectonic feature. Using arguments based on fixed hot spots in central Africa, and the movement of North American plate, Kevin Burke (Appendix I) suggests that the uplift may be less than 4 m.y. old.The other area of interest, the Panther Mountain circular feature in the Catskill Mountains, was studied using photogeology, gravity and magnetic profiling, gravity modeling, conventional field methods, and local shallow seismic refraction profiling.

  15. PyTranSpot: A tool for multiband light curve modeling of planetary transits and stellar spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvan, Ines G.; Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Fossati, L.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Lammer, H.; Guenther, E. W.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2018-02-01

    Several studies have shown that stellar activity features, such as occulted and non-occulted starspots, can affect the measurement of transit parameters biasing studies of transit timing variations and transmission spectra. We present PyTranSpot, which we designed to model multiband transit light curves showing starspot anomalies, inferring both transit and spot parameters. The code follows a pixellation approach to model the star with its corresponding limb darkening, spots, and transiting planet on a two dimensional Cartesian coordinate grid. We combine PyTranSpot with a Markov chain Monte Carlo framework to study and derive exoplanet transmission spectra, which provides statistically robust values for the physical properties and uncertainties of a transiting star-planet system. We validate PyTranSpot's performance by analyzing eleven synthetic light curves of four different star-planet systems and 20 transit light curves of the well-studied WASP-41b system. We also investigate the impact of starspots on transit parameters and derive wavelength dependent transit depth values for WASP-41b covering a range of 6200-9200 Å, indicating a flat transmission spectrum.

  16. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.D.; Midgley, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae). which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Mate flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania. Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies

  17. Comparing the spot prices from Powernext and EEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, A.; Armstrong, M.

    2005-01-01

    EEX, as well as a high degree of similarity. The second section studies the time correlations between the two time series. Rather than using auto and cross correlations which are sensitive to the estimate of the mean, we have chosen to use vario-grams. The third section focuses on the buy and sell curves that effectively determine the spot prices. Some preliminary conclusions are given in the fourth section

  18. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of Malaysian Student’s Daily Use of Mobile Devices as Potential Tools for STEM in a Local University Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsul Arrieya Ariffin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile learning is a fairly new approach to the educational paradigm where learning is concerned.  The usage of mobile learning may also be extended to various fields including Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM.   As Malaysia is lagging behind in STEM, this research is conducted to study preliminary information concerning mobile learning in a local university context, particularly, STEM. The method for this research is a descriptive survey. The results indicate that students already have some skills in using mobile phones, particularly multimedia skills, which can be applied to STEM.

  20. Collaboration spotting for dental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A

    2014-10-06

    The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to Dental Science. In order to create a Sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro--maxillo--facial critical size defects, namely the use of Porous HydroxyApatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex--vivo of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. We produced the Sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on--line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state--of--the--art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used for Dental Science and produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped