WorldWideScience

Sample records for spot localized broadcast

  1. Relation between 'no broadcasting' for noncommuting states and 'no local broadcasting' for quantum correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunlong; Li Nan; Cao Xuelian

    2009-01-01

    The no-broadcasting theorem, first established by Barnum et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2818 (1996)], states that a set of quantum states can be broadcast if and only if it constitutes a commuting family. Quite recently, Piani et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090502 (2008)] showed, by using an ingenious and sophisticated method, that the correlations in a single bipartite state can be locally broadcast if and only if the state is effectively a classical one (i.e., the correlations therein are classical). In this Brief Report, under the condition of nondegenerate spectrum, we provide an alternative and significantly simpler proof of the latter result based on the original no-broadcasting theorem and the monotonicity of the quantum relative entropy. This derivation motivates us to conjecture the equivalence between these two elegant yet formally different no-broadcasting theorems and indicates a subtle and fundamental issue concerning spectral degeneracy which also lies at the heart of the conflict between the von Neumann projection postulate and the Lueders ansatz for quantum measurements. This relation not only offers operational interpretations for commutativity and classicality but also illustrates the basic significance of noncommutativity in characterizing quantumness from the informational perspective.

  2. On locality of Generalized Reed-Muller codes over the broadcast erasure channel

    KAUST Repository

    Alloum, Amira

    2016-07-28

    One to Many communications are expected to be among the killer applications for the currently discussed 5G standard. The usage of coding mechanisms is impacting broadcasting standard quality, as coding is involved at several levels of the stack, and more specifically at the application layer where Rateless, LDPC, Reed Slomon codes and network coding schemes have been extensively studied, optimized and standardized in the past. Beyond reusing, extending or adapting existing application layer packet coding mechanisms based on previous schemes and designed for the foregoing LTE or other broadcasting standards; our purpose is to investigate the use of Generalized Reed Muller codes and the value of their locality property in their progressive decoding for Broadcast/Multicast communication schemes with real time video delivery. Our results are meant to bring insight into the use of locally decodable codes in Broadcasting. © 2016 IEEE.

  3. Cellular localization of the Escherichia coli SpoT protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, D R; Cashel, M

    1995-01-01

    The SpoT protein of Escherichia coli serves as a source of degradation as well as an apparent source of synthesis of (p)ppGpp. Since the subcellular localization of SpoT might be a clue to its function, we have used SpoT-specific antisera to analyze cell extracts fractionated on sucrose gradients. We find that the SpoT protein is not bound to ribosomes or to either inner or outer membrane fractions. Although the SpoT protein is found in large aggregates, its localization is probably cytosolic.

  4. Digital broadcasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Hyeong

    1999-06-01

    This book contains twelve chapters, which deals with digitization of broadcast signal such as digital open, digitization of video signal and sound signal digitization of broadcasting equipment like DTPP and digital VTR, digitization of equipment to transmit such as digital STL, digital FPU and digital SNG, digitization of transmit about digital TV transmit and radio transmit, digital broadcasting system on necessity and advantage, digital broadcasting system abroad and Korea, digital broadcasting of outline, advantage of digital TV, ripple effect of digital broadcasting and consideration of digital broadcasting, ground wave digital broadcasting of DVB-T in Europe DTV in U.S.A and ISDB-T in Japan, HDTV broadcasting, satellite broadcasting, digital TV broadcasting in Korea, digital radio broadcasting and new broadcasting service.

  5. A study of fatigue life prediction for automotive spot weldment using local strain approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Song In; Yu, Hyo Sun; Na, Sung Hun; Na, Eui Gyun

    2000-01-01

    The fatigue crack initiation life is studied on automotive spot weldment made from cold rolled carbon steel(SPC) sheet by using DCPDM and local strain approach. It can be found that the fatigue crack initiation behavior in spot weldment can be definitely detected by DCPDM system. The local stresses and strains are estimated by elastic-plastic FEM analysis and the alternative approximate method based on Neuber's rule were applied to predict the fatigue life of spot weldment. A satisfactory correlation between the predicted life and experimental life can be found in spot weldment within a factor of 4

  6. Localization of the hot spots in a pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Leisheng; Lee, Wooram; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-01-01

    The pebble bed reactor (PBR) is a candidate reactor type for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is one of the Generation-IV reactor types. The HTGR design concept exhibits excellent safety features due to the low power density and the large amount of graphite present in the core which gives a large thermal inertia in an accident such as loss of coolant. The conclusions are made and may contribute to a better design of a PBR core and a closer inspection of the local hot spots to avoid destruction of pebbles from happening. Thermal field of a PBR core is investigated in this study. Specifically, experiments on measuring the pebbles' surface temperature are performed. It is found that the upper pebble has an overall higher temperature profile than the other pebbles and the stagnation zone under does not increase its surface's temperature. In addition, the temperature profile of the side pebble shows a concave form and it keeps decreasing from the contact point to the vertex in the lower pebble. Lastly, the maximum temperature difference among these points is 5.83 deg. C. These findings above are validated by CFX simulations under two different turbulence models (k-e, SST) and two contact areas (diameter of 6mm and 3.5mm). By contrasting the temperature variation trends of all simulation cases, it is concluded that SST turbulence model with 20% intensity shows a better agreement with the experiment result, nevertheless, slightly deviation is also found in terms of total temperature difference and the peak appears in position 17-19 in experiments

  7. Localization of the hot spots in a pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Leisheng; Lee, Wooram; Lee, Jaeyoung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The pebble bed reactor (PBR) is a candidate reactor type for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is one of the Generation-IV reactor types. The HTGR design concept exhibits excellent safety features due to the low power density and the large amount of graphite present in the core which gives a large thermal inertia in an accident such as loss of coolant. The conclusions are made and may contribute to a better design of a PBR core and a closer inspection of the local hot spots to avoid destruction of pebbles from happening. Thermal field of a PBR core is investigated in this study. Specifically, experiments on measuring the pebbles' surface temperature are performed. It is found that the upper pebble has an overall higher temperature profile than the other pebbles and the stagnation zone under does not increase its surface's temperature. In addition, the temperature profile of the side pebble shows a concave form and it keeps decreasing from the contact point to the vertex in the lower pebble. Lastly, the maximum temperature difference among these points is 5.83 deg. C. These findings above are validated by CFX simulations under two different turbulence models (k-e, SST) and two contact areas (diameter of 6mm and 3.5mm). By contrasting the temperature variation trends of all simulation cases, it is concluded that SST turbulence model with 20% intensity shows a better agreement with the experiment result, nevertheless, slightly deviation is also found in terms of total temperature difference and the peak appears in position 17-19 in experiments.

  8. Bluetooth broadcasting

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The wireless technology Bluetooth has rapidly become more commonly supported by electronic devices like mobile phones and PDAs. Several companies are currently developing Bluetooth broadcasting systems to use for marketing. This report is a result of researching the use of Bluetooth broadcasting for delivering information for more general purposes, how well Bluetooth actually works for broadcasting, and also on the topic of user privacy. Results: Broadcasting with Bluetooth did w...

  9. Probabilistic broadcasting of mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lvjun; Li Lvzhou; Wu Lihua; Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the non-broadcasting theorem proved by Barnum et al is a fundamental principle of quantum communication. As we are aware, optimal broadcasting (OB) is the only method to broadcast noncommuting mixed states approximately. In this paper, motivated by the probabilistic cloning of quantum states proposed by Duan and Guo, we propose a new way for broadcasting noncommuting mixed states-probabilistic broadcasting (PB), and we present a sufficient condition for PB of mixed states. To a certain extent, we generalize the probabilistic cloning theorem from pure states to mixed states, and in particular, we generalize the non-broadcasting theorem, since the case that commuting mixed states can be exactly broadcast can be thought of as a special instance of PB where the success ratio is 1. Moreover, we discuss probabilistic local broadcasting (PLB) of separable bipartite states

  10. Generalized method for sorting Shack-Hartmann spot patterns using local similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Daniel G.; Greivenkamp, John E.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity and dynamic range of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is enhanced when the spots produced by the lenslet array are allowed to shift more than one lenslet radius from their on-axis positions. However, this presents the problem of accurately and robustly associating the spots with their respective subapertures. This paper describes a method for sorting spots that takes advantage of the local spot position distortions to unwrap the spot pattern. The described algorithm is both simple and robust and also applicable to any lenslet array geometry that can be described as a two-dimensional lattice, including hexagonal arrays, which are shown here to be more efficient than square arrays

  11. Broadcasting house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattrup, Peter Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Regarding the transformation of the Danish Broadcasting Hq. (1934-1945) in Frederiksberg by Vilhelm Lauritzen into the Royal Danish Academy of Music. Analysis, principles, flexibility and change.......Regarding the transformation of the Danish Broadcasting Hq. (1934-1945) in Frederiksberg by Vilhelm Lauritzen into the Royal Danish Academy of Music. Analysis, principles, flexibility and change....

  12. Broadcasting of inseparability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Satyabrata; Choudhury, B S; Chakrabarty, Indranil

    2006-01-01

    Suppose we are given an entangled pair and asked how well we can produce two entangled pairs starting from a given entangled pair using only local operations. To respond to this question, we study broadcasting of entanglement using a state-dependent quantum cloning machine as a local copier. We show that the length of the interval for probability-amplitude-squared α 2 for broadcasting of entanglement using a state-dependent cloner can be made larger than the length of the interval for probability-amplitude-squared for broadcasting entanglement using a state-independent cloner. Further we show that there exists a local state-dependent cloner which gives better quality copy (in terms of average fidelity) of an entangled pair than the local universal cloner

  13. CATV and the Broadcasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Bill

    Competition between cable television systems (CATV) and regular broadcast stations concerns pay-TV and distant signal importation. The pay-TV that CATV provides competes with the networks by "siphoning" away sports and feature films, while the distant signals that CATV imports to a local market "fragment" the local audience and…

  14. TV spots' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  15. Restricted broadcast process theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Ghassemi; W.J. Fokkink (Wan); A. Movaghar; A. Cerone; S. Gruner

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a process algebra for modeling and reasoning about Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and their protocols. In our algebra we model the essential modeling concepts of ad hoc networks, i.e. local broadcast, connectivity of nodes and connectivity changes. Connectivity and

  16. The critical spot eraser—a method to interactively control the correction of local hot and cold spots in IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Süss, Philipp; Bortz, Michael; Küfer, Karl-Heinz; Thieke, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Common problems in inverse radiotherapy planning are localized dose insufficiencies like hot spots in organs at risk or cold spots inside targets. These are hard to correct since the optimization is based on global evaluations like maximum/minimum doses, equivalent uniform doses or dose–volume constraints for whole structures. In this work, we present a new approach to locally correct the dose of any given treatment plan. Once a treatment plan has been found that is acceptable in general but requires local corrections, these areas are marked by the planner. Then the system generates new plans that fulfil the local dose goals. Consequently, it is possible to interactively explore all plans between the locally corrected plans and the original treatment plan, allowing one to exactly adjust the degree of local correction and how the plan changes overall. Both the amount (in Gy) and the size of the local dose change can be navigated. The method is introduced formally as a new mathematical optimization setting, and is evaluated using a clinical example of a meningioma at the base of the skull. It was possible to eliminate a hot spot outside the target volume while controlling the dose changes to all other parts of the treatment plan. The proposed method has the potential to become the final standard step of inverse treatment planning. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org (paper)

  17. The Effect of Contact Angle on Dynamics of Dry Spots Spreading in a Horizontal Layer of Liquid at Local Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of equilibrium contact angle on dynamics of dry spot spreading at disruption of a horizontal water layer heated locally from the substrate was studied using the high-speed Schlieren technique. Different methods of working surface processing were applied; this allowed variations of the equilibrium contact angle from 27±6° to 74±9° without a change in thermal properties of the system. It is found out that substrate wettability significantly affects the propagation velocity of dry spot and its final size. It is also found out that the velocity of contact line propagation is higher in the areas of substrate with a higher temperature.

  18. Economic Theory and Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Benjamin J.

    Focusing on access to audience through broadcast time, this paper examines the status of research into the economics of broadcasting. The paper first discusses the status of theory in the study of broadcast economics, both as described directly and as it exists in the statement of the basic assumptions generated by prior work and general…

  19. Theme Issue: European Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this document separate articles deal with the following topics: recommendations for future British broadcasting policies that recently were proposed to the British Parliament by the Committee on the Future of Broadcasting; specific media goals set by the Swedish Committee on Broadcasting; communications policy making in Austria; a new…

  20. Applied Anthropology in Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Three different applied media anthropology projects are described. These projects stem from the broadcasters' legal need to know about the community (community ascertainment), the broadcasters' need to know about the station audience (audience profile), and the broadcasters' desire to change a community (action projects). (Author)

  1. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that are...

  2. WHO OWNS THE BROADCASTING TELEVISION NETWORK BUSINESS IN INDONESIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendra WIDYATAMA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting TV occupies a significant position in the community. Therefore, all the countries in the world give attention to TV broadcasting business. In Indonesia, the government requires TV stations to broadcast locally, except through networking. In this state, there are 763 private TV companies broadcasting free to air. Of these, some companies have many TV stations and build various broadcasting networks. In this article, the author reveals the substantial TV stations that control the market, based on literature studies. From the data analysis, there are 14 substantial free to network broadcast private TV broadcasters but owns by eight companies; these include the MNC Group, EMTEK, Viva Media Asia, CTCorp, Media Indonesia, Rajawali Corpora, and Indigo Multimedia. All TV stations are from Jakarta, which broadcasts in 22 to 32 Indonesian provinces.

  3. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  4. Pinite-cordierite from spotted slate of the Brajkovac contact metamorphic aureole (Dudovica locality, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasković Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic very low to low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Bukulja-Lazarevac Unit designated as Drina, Golija and Birač formations are contact metamorphosed by the intrusion of the Tertiary Brajkovac granodiorite into spotted slates and hornfelses. In some parts, they are slightly migmatized at the contact. In addition to their outcrops found at the western, eastern and northern parts of the formation, these rocks are also found in boreholes near Dudovica at about 8 km south-west from the pluton. There, at a depth of 110 m, the spotted slates comprise oval to ellipsoid pinite-rich spots which can be regarded as incipient cordierite porphyroblasts (up to 5 mm in diameter overgrowing the existing regional foliation. They are composed of cryptocrystalline mixture of a very fine sericitic material ± light glassy orange „film“ (some kind of an amorphous gel-like material often mixed with limonite matter and are abundant in inclusions: minute quartz and dusty ore minerals (magnetite prevail. In addition, within some spots an increased number of xenotime and monazite inclusions are noted. Minute flakes of neobiotite are formed at the expense of quartz-sericite-chlorite matrix. The secondary chlorite occurring as overgrowths on pinite-cordierite spots shows variable composition (brunsvigite to diabandite. The Mg/Fe+Mg ratio of cryptocrystalline pinitic mixture ranges from 0.14-0.67. The Si vs AlIV+AlVI relations deviate from the ideal muscovite-phengite join due to Tschermak substitution towards chloritic composition or a more complex mixture, including clay minerals (which reflected a decrease of Altot and Si with increase of Fe2+. Obtained data indicates that the cordierite-pinite spots can be related to contact metamorphic processes that occurred within the temperature range 300-450°C. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176019 i br. 176016

  5. Conduction-driven cooling of LED-based automotive LED lighting systems for abating local hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saati, Ferina; Arik, Mehmet

    2018-02-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED)-based automotive lighting systems pose unique challenges, such as dual-side packaging (front side for LEDs and back side for driver electronics circuit), size, harsh ambient, and cooling. Packaging for automotive lighting applications combining the advanced printed circuit board (PCB) technology with a multifunctional LED-based board is investigated with a focus on the effect of thermal conduction-based cooling for hot spot abatement. A baseline study with a flame retardant 4 technology, commonly known as FR4 PCB, is first compared with a metal-core PCB technology, both experimentally and computationally. The double-sided advanced PCB that houses both electronics and LEDs is then investigated computationally and experimentally compared with the baseline FR4 PCB. Computational models are first developed with a commercial computational fluid dynamics software and are followed by an advanced PCB technology based on embedded heat pipes, which is computationally and experimentally studied. Then, attention is turned to studying different heat pipe orientations and heat pipe placements on the board. Results show that conventional FR4-based light engines experience local hot spots (ΔT>50°C) while advanced PCB technology based on heat pipes and thermal spreaders eliminates these local hot spots (ΔT<10°C), leading to a higher lumen extraction with improved reliability. Finally, possible design options are presented with embedded heat pipe structures that further improve the PCB performance.

  6. Time-Zone-Pattern Satellite Broadcasting Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Victor; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Imbriale, William A.; Cohen, Herb; Cagnon, Ronald R.

    1988-01-01

    Direct-broadcast satellite antenna designs provide contoured beams to match four time zones in 48 contiguous states and spot beams for Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico presented in 29-page report. Includes descriptions of procedures used to arrive at optimized designs. Arrangements, amplitudes, and phases of antenna feeds presented in tables. Gain contours shown graphically. Additional tables of performance data given for cities in service area of Eastern satellite.

  7. Broadcast Coded Slotted ALOHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Brännström, Frederik; Graell i Amat, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose an uncoordinated medium access control (MAC) protocol, called all-to-all broadcast coded slotted ALOHA (B-CSA) for reliable all-to-all broadcast with strict latency constraints. In B-CSA, each user acts as both transmitter and receiver in a half-duplex mode. The half-duplex mode gives ...

  8. Olympic Broadcast Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Žižka, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Title: Olympic Broadcast Rights Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to analyse the revenue derived from the sale of the broadcasting rights to the Olympics by Olympic Movement. In the thesis are analysed the total sum of revenue, selected territory and compared the proportion that belongs to the International Olympic Committee and the Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games. The secondary objective is to adapt and calculation of the conversion mechanism for the transfer of amou...

  9. Localization of the Hot Spot in the Gap of Pebble Bed of Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor(VHTGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sa Ya; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Jae Young

    2010-01-01

    Pebble Bed Reactor(PBR) has been investigated intensively due to its benefits in management, but its complicated flow geometry requests reliable analytical methods. Hassan and Lee et al. have been made three dimensional computational methods. Hassan also measured local velocity fields with Particle Tracking Velocimetry(PTV), in small sized packed bed using liquid coolant, and Lee et al. measured flow field in the 2-dimensional wind tunnel with a hot wire system. In the present study, we develop the scaled up wind tunnel of pebble bed to use air as coolant in the same Reynolds number condition, as 21614, of the PBMR-250MWth. In order to measure the local surface temperature, the heating system and temperature measurement system were installed and heat transfer analogy was performed. The local surface temperature data shows that the predicted hot spots by Lee et al. at the top and bottom of the pebble by the velocity field measurement are reasonable, but the heat conduction is prior than contact effect at contact points

  10. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  11. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  12. Local device parameter extraction of a concentrator photovoltaic cell under solar spot illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munji, M.K.; Okullo, W.; van Dyk, E.E.; Vorster, F.J. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P O Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    Focused sunlight can act as a localized source of excess minority carriers in a solar cell. Current signal generated by these carriers gives considerable information about the electrical properties of the cell's material. Point by point current-voltage data were measured for a back point-contact concentrator photovoltaic cell when illuminated by focused sunlight. Two numerical curve fitting procedures: a non-linear two-point interval division and particle swarm optimization algorithm were then applied to extract local parameters (i.e. as function of position) from the current-voltage data at each measurement point. Extracted parameters plotted yields relative spatial information about the electrical properties of a solar cell in a two or three dimensional mapping. The curve fitting routines applied to current-voltage data reveal that performance parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power and fill factor show distinct variations in the vicinity of the observed current reducing feature. The relative values of the diode ideality factors, series resistance, shunt resistance and reverse saturation currents from both methods showed no significant measurable features that could be distinguished. This shows that the observed reduction in photo-induced current was due to severe recombination in the bulk or around the highly diffused point contacts and not the quality of the multiple p-n junctions of the cell. These approaches allow one to obtain a set of parameters at each local point on the cell which are reasonable and representative of the physical system. (author)

  13. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj; Sahul Hameed, A.S.; Kwang, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  14. Data broadcasting: merging digital broadcasting with the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    , and for what means it can be used. It also analyses data broadcasting from the perspectives of both the medium and business. * Features the latest developments in electronic media * Discusses the major media opportunities of data broadcasting * Shows how data broadcasting can overcome many notorious problems...... and developers in the telecommunications, software, hardware and media industries of the main commercial, editorial and technical opportunities of data broadcasting....

  15. The quandry of benchmarking broadcasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karonis, N T; Supinski, B R

    1999-01-01

    A message passing library's implementation of broadcast communication can significantly affect the performance of applications built with that library. In order to choose between similar implementations or to evaluate available libraries, accurate measurements of broadcast performance are required. As we demonstrate, existing methods for measuring broadcast performance are either inaccurate or inadequate. Fortunately, we have designed an accurate method for measuring broadcast performance. Measuring broadcast performance is not simple. Simply sending one broadcast after another allows them to proceed through the network concurrently, thus resulting in accurate per broadcast timings. Existing methods either fail to eliminate this pipelining effect or eliminate it by introducing overheads that are as difficult to measure as the performance of the broadcast itself. Our method introduces a measurable overhead to eliminate the pipelining effect

  16. From Broadcast to Podcast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibiger, Bo

    2007-01-01

    This paper will present the development from broadcasted educational television up to the actual use of streaming video and mobile units in eLearning. The paper will discuss the following topics: what can we learn from history? – and what are the new challenges and possibilities in mobile...

  17. Virtue Broadcasting - directorate change

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Board of Virtue Broadcasting Plc ("Virtue") have announced the appointment of Mr. Klaus Ackerstaff as the CEO of the main Board. He began his professional career at CERN, where he was responsible for the IT infrastructure of the OPAL (particle physics) project (1/2 page).

  18. On the quantitative Amido Black B staining of protein spots in agar gel at low local protein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.T.

    1962-01-01

    Protein spots in agar gel of identical protein content but different in surface area are found to bind different amounts of dye upon staining with Amido Black B. The lower the protein concentration within the agar gel, the more the Amido Black B content of the spot falls short of the value expected

  19. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  20. Quality of Life and Toxicity From Passively Scattered and Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, Thomas J.; Munsell, Mark F.; Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quyhn Nhu; Mathai, Benson; Zhu, X. Ron; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Amos, Richard A.; Dong, Lei; Mahmood, Usama; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.; Hoffman, Karen E.; McGuire, Sean E.; Lee, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL)/toxicity in men treated with proton beam therapy for localized prostate cancer and to compare outcomes between passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer enrolled on a prospective QOL protocol with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were reviewed. Comparative groups were defined by technique (PSPT vs SSPT). Patients completed Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires at baseline and every 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. Clinically meaningful differences in QOL were defined as ≥0.5 × baseline standard deviation. The cumulative incidence of modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity and argon plasma coagulation were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 226 men received PSPT, and 65 received SSPT. Both PSPT and SSPT resulted in statistically significant changes in sexual, urinary, and bowel Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite summary scores. Only bowel summary, function, and bother resulted in clinically meaningful decrements beyond treatment completion. The decrement in bowel QOL persisted through 24-month follow-up. Cumulative grade ≥2 GU and GI toxicity at 24 months were 13.4% and 9.6%, respectively. There was 1 grade 3 GI toxicity (PSPT group) and no other grade ≥3 GI or GU toxicity. Argon plasma coagulation application was infrequent (PSPT 4.4% vs SSPT 1.5%; P=.21). No statistically significant differences were appreciated between PSPT and SSPT regarding toxicity or QOL. Conclusion: Both PSPT and SSPT confer low rates of grade ≥2 GI or GU toxicity, with preservation of meaningful sexual and urinary QOL at 24 months. A modest, yet clinically meaningful, decrement in bowel QOL was seen throughout follow-up. No toxicity or QOL differences between PSPT and SSPT were identified. Long-term comparative results in a

  1. An interference cancellation strategy for broadcast in hierarchical cell structure

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cell structure is considered, where public safety broadcasting is fulfilled in a femtocell located within a macrocell. In the femtocell, also known as local cell, an access point broadcasts to each local node (LN) over an orthogonal frequency sub-band independently. Since the local cell shares the spectrum licensed to the macrocell, a given LN is interfered by transmissions of the macrocell user (MU) in the same sub-band. To improve the broadcast performance in the local cell, a novel scheme is proposed to mitigate the interference from the MU to the LN while achieving diversity gain. For the sake of performance evaluation, ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is quantified and a corresponding closed-form expression is obtained. By comparing with the traditional scheme that suffers from the MU\\'s interference, numerical results substantiate the advantage of the proposed scheme and provide a useful tool for the broadcast design in hierarchical cell systems.

  2. An interference cancellation strategy for broadcast in hierarchical cell structure

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Aï ssa, Sonia; Eltawil, Ahmed M.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cell structure is considered, where public safety broadcasting is fulfilled in a femtocell located within a macrocell. In the femtocell, also known as local cell, an access point broadcasts to each local node (LN) over an orthogonal frequency sub-band independently. Since the local cell shares the spectrum licensed to the macrocell, a given LN is interfered by transmissions of the macrocell user (MU) in the same sub-band. To improve the broadcast performance in the local cell, a novel scheme is proposed to mitigate the interference from the MU to the LN while achieving diversity gain. For the sake of performance evaluation, ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is quantified and a corresponding closed-form expression is obtained. By comparing with the traditional scheme that suffers from the MU's interference, numerical results substantiate the advantage of the proposed scheme and provide a useful tool for the broadcast design in hierarchical cell systems.

  3. Gossip-Based Broadcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João; Pereira, José; Rodrigues, Luís

    Gossip, or epidemic, protocols have emerged as a powerful strategy to implement highly scalable and resilient reliable broadcast primitives on large scale peer-to-peer networks. Epidemic protocols are scalable because they distribute the load among all nodes in the system and resilient because they have an intrinsic level of redundancy that masks node and network failures. This chapter provides an introduction to gossip-based broadcast on large-scale unstructured peer-to-peer overlay networks: it surveys the main results in the field, discusses techniques to build and maintain the overlays that support efficient dissemination strategies, and provides an in-depth discussion and experimental evaluation of two concrete protocols, named HyParView and Plumtree.

  4. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  5. Financing Public Service Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lund, Anker Brink

    2012-01-01

    Broadcasting (PSB) financing regimes in Europe, concluding that Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden may still be considered conventional, licence fee PSB countries, but with some interesting differences in relation to competitive and market oriented alternatives of resource provision......Recently several European countries have abolished the traditional public service licence fee system, replacing it with direct public funding. But except for Iceland, the Nordic countries have not followed suit. The article discusses this development within a comparative framework of Public Service...

  6. Quantitative assessment of local perfusion change in acute intracerebral hemorrhage areas with and without "dynamic spot sign" using CT perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fan; Sui, Binbin; Liu, Liping; Su, Yaping; Sun, Shengjun; Li, Yingying

    2018-01-01

    Background Positive "dynamic spot sign" has been proven to be a potential risk factor for acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) expansion, but local perfusion change has not been quantitatively investigated. Purpose To quantitatively evaluate perfusion changes at the ICH area using computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging. Material and Methods Fifty-three patients with spontaneous ICH were recruited. Unenhanced computed tomography (NCCT), CTP within 6 h, and follow-up NCCT were performed for 21 patients in the "spot sign"-positive group and 32 patients in the control group. Cerebral perfusion change was quantitatively measured on regional cerebral blood flow/regional cerebral blood volume (rCBF/rCBV) maps. Regions of interest (ROIs) were set at the "spot-sign" region and the whole hematoma area for "spot-sign"-positive cases, and at one of the highest values of three interested areas and the whole hematoma area for the control group. Hematoma expansion was determined by follow-up NCCT. Results For the "spot-sign"-positive group, the average rCBF (rCBV) values at the "spot-sign" region and the whole hematoma area were 21.34 ± 15.24 mL/min/100 g (21.64 ± 21.48 mL/100g) and 5.78 ± 6.32 mL/min/100 g (6.07 ± 5.45 mL/100g); for the control group, the average rCBF (rCBV) values at the interested area and whole hematoma area were 2.50 ± 1.83 mL/min/100 g (3.13 ± 1.96 mL/100g) and 3.02 ± 1.80 mL/min/100 g (3.40 ± 1.44 mL/100g), respectively. Average rCBF and rCBV values of the "spot-sign" region were significantly different from other regions ( P spot-sign"-positive and control groups were 25.24 ± 19.38 mL and -0.41 ± 1.34 mL, respectively. Conclusion The higher perfusion change at ICH on CTP images may reflect the contrast extravasation and be associated with the hematoma expansion.

  7. Local and sex-specific biases in crossover vs. noncrossover outcomes at meiotic recombination hot spots in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Esther; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination initiated by programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) yields two types of interhomolog recombination products, crossovers and noncrossovers, but what determines whether a DSB will yield a crossover or noncrossover is not understood. In this study, we analyzed the influence of sex and chromosomal location on mammalian recombination outcomes by constructing fine-scale recombination maps in both males and females at two mouse hot spots located in different regions of the same chromosome. These include the most comprehensive maps of recombination hot spots in oocytes to date. One hot spot, located centrally on chromosome 1, behaved similarly in male and female meiosis: Crossovers and noncrossovers formed at comparable levels and ratios in both sexes. In contrast, at a distal hot spot, crossovers were recovered only in males even though noncrossovers were obtained at similar frequencies in both sexes. These findings reveal an example of extreme sex-specific bias in recombination outcome. We further found that estimates of relative DSB levels are surprisingly poor predictors of relative crossover frequencies between hot spots in males. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of mammalian meiotic recombination can be biased, that this bias can vary depending on location and cellular context, and that DSB frequency is not the only determinant of crossover frequency. PMID:26251527

  8. Implications of Internet on Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    One of the main challenges within broadcasting research in the recent years has been to understand the evolution from traditional broadcasting to digital broadcasting. The aim of this paper is to step further and give an analysis of Internet’s influence on traditional broadcasting services....... In this analysis an inter-disciplinary approach is used, where technological, economic, political and cultural drivers and barriers in this development are identified. It is then shown to what degree these parameters and the inter-relation between them influence this development....

  9. 47 CFR 76.66 - Satellite broadcast signal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carriers are required to carry digital-only stations upon request in markets in which the satellite carrier... digital signals of each television broadcast station that is located in a local market in Alaska or Hawaii... retransmits a local television station signal back into the local market of that television station for...

  10. Interference mitigation for broadcast in hierarchical cell structure networks: Transmission strategy and area spectral efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Salama, Khaled N.; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cell structure (HCS) is considered, where an access point (AP) broadcasts to local nodes (LNs) over orthogonal frequency subbands within a local cell located in a macrocell. Since the local cell shares the spectrum

  11. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of... concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by § 93.116... make a categorical hot-spot finding that (93.116(a) is met without further hot-spot analysis for any...

  12. Evolution of broadcast content distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.

  13. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1988-12-01

    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  14. Broadcasting, Reacting, Engaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Symmetric communication and relationship building are core principles of public relations, which have been highlighted for CSR communication. In this paper three different communication strategies for CSR communication in Twitter are developed, of which each contributes differently...... to the ideals of symmetric communication and relationship building. The framework is then applied to analyze how companies use the micro-blogging service Twitter for CSR communication. Design/methodology/approach - Social network analysis is used to identify the 30 most central corporate accounts in a CSR...... Twitter-Network. From these accounts over 40´000 tweets are extracted and manually coded. Anova is applied to investigate differences in the weighting of CSR topics between the different strategies. Findings - The analysis reveals that corporations adhere to a broadcasting strategy or a reactive strategy...

  15. A Resource Curriculum in Broadcast Media. Bulletin No. 8025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herian, Roger; Moen, Mary

    A resource for teachers who design instructional programs in broadcast media, this curriculum guide consists of eight units which deal with the nature of broadcast media, broadcast programming and public interest, broadcast advertising, broadcast regulation, societal effects of broadcasting, broadcasting and future technology, radio broadcasting,…

  16. An Adaption Broadcast Radius-Based Code Dissemination Scheme for Low Energy Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shidi; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Anfeng; Xiong, Naixue; Cai, Zhiping; Wang, Tian

    2018-05-10

    Due to the Software Defined Network (SDN) technology, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are getting wider application prospects for sensor nodes that can get new functions after updating program codes. The issue of disseminating program codes to every node in the network with minimum delay and energy consumption have been formulated and investigated in the literature. The minimum-transmission broadcast (MTB) problem, which aims to reduce broadcast redundancy, has been well studied in WSNs where the broadcast radius is assumed to be fixed in the whole network. In this paper, an Adaption Broadcast Radius-based Code Dissemination (ABRCD) scheme is proposed to reduce delay and improve energy efficiency in duty cycle-based WSNs. In the ABCRD scheme, a larger broadcast radius is set in areas with more energy left, generating more optimized performance than previous schemes. Thus: (1) with a larger broadcast radius, program codes can reach the edge of network from the source in fewer hops, decreasing the number of broadcasts and at the same time, delay. (2) As the ABRCD scheme adopts a larger broadcast radius for some nodes, program codes can be transmitted to more nodes in one broadcast transmission, diminishing the number of broadcasts. (3) The larger radius in the ABRCD scheme causes more energy consumption of some transmitting nodes, but radius enlarging is only conducted in areas with an energy surplus, and energy consumption in the hot-spots can be reduced instead due to some nodes transmitting data directly to sink without forwarding by nodes in the original hot-spot, thus energy consumption can almost reach a balance and network lifetime can be prolonged. The proposed ABRCD scheme first assigns a broadcast radius, which doesn’t affect the network lifetime, to nodes having different distance to the code source, then provides an algorithm to construct a broadcast backbone. In the end, a comprehensive performance analysis and simulation result shows that the proposed

  17. An Adaption Broadcast Radius-Based Code Dissemination Scheme for Low Energy Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidi Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the Software Defined Network (SDN technology, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are getting wider application prospects for sensor nodes that can get new functions after updating program codes. The issue of disseminating program codes to every node in the network with minimum delay and energy consumption have been formulated and investigated in the literature. The minimum-transmission broadcast (MTB problem, which aims to reduce broadcast redundancy, has been well studied in WSNs where the broadcast radius is assumed to be fixed in the whole network. In this paper, an Adaption Broadcast Radius-based Code Dissemination (ABRCD scheme is proposed to reduce delay and improve energy efficiency in duty cycle-based WSNs. In the ABCRD scheme, a larger broadcast radius is set in areas with more energy left, generating more optimized performance than previous schemes. Thus: (1 with a larger broadcast radius, program codes can reach the edge of network from the source in fewer hops, decreasing the number of broadcasts and at the same time, delay. (2 As the ABRCD scheme adopts a larger broadcast radius for some nodes, program codes can be transmitted to more nodes in one broadcast transmission, diminishing the number of broadcasts. (3 The larger radius in the ABRCD scheme causes more energy consumption of some transmitting nodes, but radius enlarging is only conducted in areas with an energy surplus, and energy consumption in the hot-spots can be reduced instead due to some nodes transmitting data directly to sink without forwarding by nodes in the original hot-spot, thus energy consumption can almost reach a balance and network lifetime can be prolonged. The proposed ABRCD scheme first assigns a broadcast radius, which doesn’t affect the network lifetime, to nodes having different distance to the code source, then provides an algorithm to construct a broadcast backbone. In the end, a comprehensive performance analysis and simulation result shows that

  18. Broadcast Services. Information Bulletin No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Radio and television broadcasting is authorized and regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Following a brief description of the development of broadcasting, broadcast regulations, and the Commission, this report examines various aspects of the subject pertaining to the fairness doctrine, political broadcasting, advertising, sale…

  19. GPS Ephemeris Message Broadcast Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J

    2005-01-01

    The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...

  20. The effect of dry spots on heat transfer in a locally heated liquid film moving under the action of gas flow in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, D. V.; Tkachenko, E. M.; Bykovskaya, E. F.

    2017-11-01

    Intensive evaporation of a thin liquid film, moving in a flat micro-/minichannel under the action of gas flow is very promising for the use in cooling systems of modern semiconductor devices with localized heat sources of high intensity. In this work, using the high-speed visualization, the effect of the formation of dry spots on heat transfer in a locally heated liquid film shear-driven in a channel was investigated. It was found that the maximum intensity of heat removal from the heater is achieved in the mode, when the film flow continuity is broken. During the experiment the total area of dry spots increases with increasing heat flux and heater temperature, but when the heater reaches a certain temperature (≈100°C), the total area begins to decrease. However, the length of contact line increases with increasing heat flux and reaches a maximum in the pre-crisis regime. Intensive evaporation in the region of the contact line may explain the achievement of high heat fluxes in the shear-driven liquid film.

  1. Bier spots

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Yorulmaz,; Seray Kulcu Cakmak; Esra Ar?; Ferda Artuz

    2015-01-01

    Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elu...

  2. How we use online broadcasting - Web TV - for community engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Conway, F. M.; Matti, J.; Palmer, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Arizona Geological Survey uses online broadcasting (Webcast or 'Web TV') to help fulfill our statutory mission to 'Inform, advise and assist the public in matters concerning the geological processes, materials and landscapes and the development and use of the mineral resources of this state.' We launched a monthly online broadcast called 'Arizona Mining Review' via Livestream, a low-cost or free video streaming service. The show provides news, interviews, and discussions about mining and mineral resources topics of interest in Arizona, the nation's second largest non-fuel mining state. The costs to set up and broadcast are minor. Interviews with local guests are held in a corner of the AZGS conference room with easy chairs and a couch; long-distance interviews are held via Skype. The broadcast originates from a desktop computer with a webcam, a $60 microphone, three sets of earbud headphones and a powered amplifier. During broadcasts, we supplement interview footage with slides, photos, or video clips that we have or are provided by guests. Initial broadcasts were live; recordings of these were later uploaded to our YouTube channel. Because scheduling and executing a live Internet broadcast is stressful and demanding for both the production team and guests, we recently elected to record and produce episodes prior to broadcasting them. This allows us more control over supplementary materials used during the broadcast; it also permits us to record the broadcast using a high-definition digital video camera that cannot be used for streaming video. In addition to the Arizona Mining Review, we record conferences and workshops and special presentations on topical issues. A video on the recently discovered Little Chino fault has drawn over 3,000 views. Our latest presentations are short 1-2 minute 'video abstracts' delivered by authors of new publications released by the Survey. These include maps and graphics from the reports to help illustrate the topics and their

  3. Water vapor estimation using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ohta, H.; Hanado, H.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Shiga, N.; Kido, K.; Yasuda, S.; Goto, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Amagai, J.; Imamura, K.; Fujieda, M.; Iwai, H.; Sugitani, S.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    A method of estimating water vapor (propagation delay due to water vapor) using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves is proposed. Our target is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather forecast for severe weather phenomena such as localized heavy rainstorms in urban areas through data assimilation. In this method, we estimate water vapor near a ground surface from the propagation delay of digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. A real-time delay measurement system with a software-defined radio technique is developed and tested. The data obtained using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves show good agreement with those obtained by ground-based meteorological observation. The main features of this observation are, no need for transmitters (receiving only), applicable wherever digital terrestrial broadcasting is available and its high time resolution. This study shows a possibility to estimate water vapor using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. In the future, we will investigate the impact of these data toward numerical weather forecast through data assimilation. Developing a system that monitors water vapor near the ground surface with time and space resolutions of 30 s and several kilometers would improve the accuracy of the numerical weather forecast of localized severe weather phenomena.

  4. Obstacles to broadcasting for national integration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amienyi, O P

    1989-01-01

    In Nigeria, the media is the major government vehicle to achieve national integration. The problems arise from the approximately 250 ethnic groups speaking many languages. Television and radio have caused disintegration by emphasizing alienation and polarization rather than unity. With more than 178 languages there are major problems for radio and television. The government leaders have promoted a strong interest in creating a unified society through broadcasting, but at the same time have allowed media managers to operate towards goals of ethnic protection. Religion is also a factor that hinders broadcasting for national unity, since there are Hausa and Muslim in the north, Catholic in the south-east, and in the south-west there are many African ethnic religions. More than 60% of the local programming on television is keyed to local religious subjects. Illiteracy is also a problem in the use of broadcasting in the goal of national integration. Only through education of a socially conscious people can the religious fanaticism, ethnocentrism, and tribalism be overcome to form a united nation. Broadcasting can play an important role consistent with the needs of society as a whole. Managers in broadcasting must be well educated, well trained and understand the needs and ambitions of society. They need to support these needs and ambitions, and be constructively critical when necessary for the betterment of society.

  5. Bier spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elucidated, Bier spots have been suggested to be a vascular anomaly caused by vasoconstriction of small vessels. In addition, several diseases have been proposed to be associated with Bier spots, including scleroderma renal crisis, cryoglobulinemia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, alopecia areata and hypoplasia of the aorta, although it has not been shown whether these associations are casual or coincidental. The clinical presentation of Bier spots is quite typical. These tiny whitish macules easily become prominent when the affected limb is placed in a dependent position and fade away when the limb is raised. Here we report a case of Bier spots in a 32-year-old male patient with characteristical clinical manifestations.

  6. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  7. Spotted inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions

  8. 77 FR 2242 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ...] Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... Corporation, Inc., proposing the allotment of Channel 228A at Pike Road, Alabama, as its second local service. A staff engineering analysis indicates that Channel 228A can be allotted to Pike Road consistent...

  9. 77 FR 64792 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...] Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... Corporation, Inc., proposing the allotment of Channel 228A at Pike Road, Alabama, as the community's second local service. A staff engineering analysis indicates that Channel 228A can be allotted to Pike Road...

  10. 77 FR 38761 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposal rule..., Inc., proposing the allotment of Channel 228A at Pike Road, Alabama, as the community's second local... Pike Road allotment. It is the Commission's policy to refrain from making an allotment to a community...

  11. 78 FR 71557 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Tohatchi, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...] Radio Broadcasting Services; Tohatchi, New Mexico AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Channel 268C2, Tohatchi, New Mexico, as a first local service under the Tribal Priority. A staff... [Amended] 0 2. Section 73.202(b), the Table of FM Allotments under New Mexico, is amended by adding...

  12. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  13. Static analysis of topology-dependent broadcast networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    changing network topology is a crucial ingredient. In this paper, we develop a static analysis that automatically constructs an abstract transition system, labelled by actions and connectivity information, to yield a mobility-preserving finite abstraction of the behaviour of a network expressed......Broadcast semantics poses significant challenges over point-to-point communication when it comes to formal modelling and analysis. Current approaches to analysing broadcast networks have focused on fixed connectivities, but this is unsuitable in the case of wireless networks where the dynamically...... in a process calculus with asynchronous local broadcast. Furthermore, we use model checking based on a 3-valued temporal logic to distinguish network behaviour which differs under changing connectivity patterns. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  14. Health Education by Open Broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICIT Report, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This issue focuses on uses and techniques of radio for educational purposes in developing nations. Two health education projects are described which are utilizing open broadcasting to attract a mass audience of listeners not committed to a structured radio education program. Kenya's Swahili language radio serial, "Giving Birth and Caring for your…

  15. Broadcast and Aggregation in BBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a process calculus BBC that has both forms of communication. For both many-to-one and one-to-many communication, it is often a natural assumption that communication is bounded; this reflects two distinct aspects of the limitations of a medium. In the case of broadcast, ...

  16. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part III. Frequency Modulation Broadcasting Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This third part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers frequency modulation broadcasting stations. It contains two sections: one indexed alphabetically by country and city, and the…

  17. Anthropologists and Broadcasting: Roles and Entry Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.; Topper, Martin

    1976-01-01

    The article describes some of the roles open to anthropologists in radio and television. Entry strategies for occupying these roles include taking the first step in approaching the broadcast station, learning about broadcasting, and communicating anthropology to the broadcasters. (Author/NQ)

  18. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  19. Radiofrequency exposure amongst employees of mobile network operators and broadcasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litchfield, Ian; Sorahan, Tom; Tongeren, Martie van

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about personal exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields amongst employees in the telecommunications industry responsible for installing and maintaining transmitters. IARC classified RF exposure as a possible carcinogen, although evidence from occupational studies was judged to be inadequate. Hence, there is a need for improved evidence of any potentially adverse health effects amongst the workforce occupationally exposed to RF radiation. In this study, results are presented from an exposure survey using data from personal monitors used by employees in the broadcasting and telecommunication industries of the UK. These data were supplemented by spot measurements using broadband survey metres and information on daily work activities provided by employee questionnaires. The sets of real-time personal data were categorised by four types of site determined by the highest powered antenna present (high, medium or low power and ground-level sites). For measurements gathered at each type of site, the root mean square and a series of box plots were produced. Results from the daily activities diaries suggested that riggers working for radio and television broadcasters were exposed to much longer periods as compared to colleagues working for mobile operators. Combining the results from the measurements and daily activity diaries clearly demonstrate that exposures were highest for riggers working for broadcasting sites. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to carry out exposure surveys within these populations that will provide reliable estimates of exposure that can be used for epidemiological studies of occupational groups exposed to RF fields. (authors)

  20. Unified broadcast in sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg; Jurdak, Raja; Kusy, Branislav

    2011-01-01

    of the network stack. UB is implemented as a transparent layer between the link and network layers, where it delays, schedules, and combines broadcasts from upper layer protocols before transmission on the wireless channel. Our empirical results in simulation and on a testbed show that UB can decrease...... the overall packet transmissions in the network by more than 60%, corresponding to more than 40% energy savings, without requiring new interfaces or affecting the correctness of the upper layer protocols....

  1. Broadcast scheduling for mobile advertising

    OpenAIRE

    De Reyck, B.; Degraeve, Z.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a broadcast scheduling system developed for a precision marketing firm specialized in location-sensitive permission-based mobile advertising using SMS (Short Message Service) text messaging. Text messages containing advertisements were sent to registered customers when they were shopping in one of two shopping centers in the vicinity of London. The ads typically contained a limited-time promotional offer. The company's problem was deciding which ads to send out to which customers ...

  2. Using the interactive distance learning broadcast format for international audiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, C.; Hylko, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1989, the National Environmental Technology Network (NETN) has been broadcasting interactive presentations on topics of national and international concern. Each interactive presentation covers such topics as decommissioning, environmental risk management, radioactive waste management, waste minimization, and total quality management. Course materials are provided to the attendees which feature case studies, legal and regulatory issues, and the application of existing and new technologies. The interactive presentations are broadcast by satellite and videotaped, allowing employees to participate who do not have convenient access to traditional classroom training resources. Over 8,000 professionals and students in the United States and several foreign countries have participated in the distance learning broadcast format, thus providing a proven and cost-effective method for managing educational and facility resources effectively. A case study is presented depicting why training, if neglected, can result in costly errors, and how the distance learning broadcast format can be expanded to assist regulatory officials, and even the local populace, in making cost-effective decisions. (author)

  3. Developments in the Regulation of Broadcasting Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Yvonne; Randle, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This Intervention provides a review of developments in the regulation of broadcast advertising within the UK. The piece focuses on the implications of media convergence on broadcast advertising, and provides a brief history and analysis of the regulation of broadcast advertising within the UK. The piece also reviews Advertising Codes and provides an overview of regulatory bodies such as OFCOM and the ASA, and their respective roles.

  4. Selective epidemic broadcast algorithm to suppress broadcast storm in vehicular ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chitra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks is the best way to spread emergency messages all over the network. With the dynamic nature of vehicular ad hoc networks, simple broadcast or flooding faces the problem called as Broadcast Storm Problem (BSP. The issue of the BSP will degrade the performance of a message broadcasting process like increased overhead, collision and dissemination delay. The paper is motivated to solve the problems in the existing Broadcast Strom Suppression Algorithms (BSSAs like p-Persistence, TLO, VSPB, G-SAB and SIR. This paper proposes to suppress the Broadcast Storm Problem and to improve the Emergency Safety message dissemination rate through a new BSSA based on Selective Epidemic Broadcast Algorithm (SEB. The simulation results clearly show that the SEB outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of ESM Delivery Ratio, Message Overhead, Collision Ratio, Broadcast Storm Ratio and Redundant Rebroadcast Ratio with decreased Dissemination Delay.

  5. Coherent detection passive optical access network enabling converged delivery of broadcast and dedicated broadband services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Prince, Kamau; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We propose a passive optical network architecture based on coherent detection for converged delivery of broadcast services from a dedicated remote broadcast server and user-specific services from a local central office. We experimentally demonstrate this architecture with mixed traffic types....... The broadcast channels were transmitted over 78 km of single mode fiber to a central office where they were multiplexed with the unicast channels for further fiber transmission over 34-km to reach the access network. Successful detection of all channels is demonstrated....

  6. Optic Fibers as a Broadcasting Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf QARKAXHIJA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast brodcasting of an information is always a challange from our daily activities. Through fast broadcasting of the information always created pre-eminence in military activities, business, researching, etc. From ancient times we know that information was orally and hand in hand broadcasted which in most of the times casused in loss of information and due to this also in loss of activities which are mentioned above. Due to information technology notably computer networks and internet overtime information started broadcasting faster. Information started broadcasting through copper wires and through wireless. Big applications started to develop with the increased use of Internet, high quality broadcasting (HD, video on demand broadcasting (VoD, triple pay broadcasting (three services on a medium, etc., then these two mediums couldn’t complete all these requests. Therfore after these problems, optic fiber began to be used as a broadcasting medium which eleminated all the defects of other mediums. Importance of this paper work is telling developing stages of optic fiber, it’s characteristics and it’s losses. Then it is shown that which devises enforce the signal of fibers and in the end all three mediums that we mentioned are compared on the basis of attributes. Findings form the paper will only enforce that knowledge we had before about optic fiber, the best broadcasting medium.

  7. 47 CFR 73.6011 - Protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of TV broadcast stations. 73.6011... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6011 Protection of TV broadcast stations. Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes...

  8. Servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinella, John E.; Davis, Kristan D.; Musselman, Roy G.; Satterfield, David L.

    2015-12-29

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer comprising a plurality of processor threads. Embodiments include an interrupt controller indicating in a plurality of local interrupt status locations that a globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include a thread determining that a local interrupt status location corresponding to the thread indicates that the globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include the thread processing one or more entries in a global interrupt status bit queue based on whether global interrupt status bits associated with the globally broadcast interrupt signal are locked. Each entry in the global interrupt status bit queue corresponds to a queued global interrupt.

  9. 8 CFR 204.13 - How can the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... description of the job to be performed; and (ii) The broadcasting expertise held by the alien, including how... broadcasts; hosts for news broadcasts, news analysis, editorial and other broadcast features; or a news analysis specialist. The term broadcaster does not include individuals performing purely technical or...

  10. Population planning broadcasts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S A

    1982-06-01

    Bangladesh's growth rate of 2.36%/year is one of the highest in the world and, if present population trends continue, Bangladesh will have 153 million people by the year 2000. The Government adopted a comprehensive population policy in 1976 and seeks to reduce the population growth rate to 0 by 1992. Bangladesh's population control program further aims to raise the contraceptive acceptance rate from the current level of 14% of eligible couples to 38% by 1985, to raise the number of current contraceptive users from 2.4 to 7.3 million couples, and to achieve a sterilization level of 3.4 million people. Radio Bangladesh, which has been broadcasting programs on family planning since 1965, is playing an important motivational role in this effort. A Population Planning Cell was established within Radio Bangladesh in 1975 and 5 subcells located throughout the country broadcast independent programs on family planning 6 days/week. Evaluative surveys have confirmed the belief that radio is the most popular form of mass communication in rural areas. 47% of respondents in 1 survey identified radio as their main source of information about family planning, although only 12% reported contraceptive usage. An important task for radio in Bangladesh is to convince listeners that family planning practice is not incompatible with Islamic ideals and to overcome other superstitions and misconceptions about contraception.

  11. Live broadcast from the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    La tête au carréTuesday, 17 June 2008 between 2.00 and 3.00 p.m.“La tête au carré”, a France Inter radio programme devoted to science, will set up its sound booth at CERN for a special broadcast on the LHC.The journalist Mathieu Vidard will interview the following guests: - Pierre Van Hove, an experimental physicist working on CMS. He is a CNRS research scientist from the Institut Hubert Curien in Strasbourg, France.- Abdelhak Djouadi is a theoretical physicist. He is a research director at the CNRS’s Laboratoire de physique théorique at Orsay, France and holder of the CNRS silver medal.- Magali Gruwe, one of the engineers in charge of LHC operations at CERN.» To take part in this live broadcast, which is open to the public, come to the Globe at 1:30 p.m. The number of places is limited.» No specialist knowledge required.» See the programme's homepage

  12. History of Satellite TV Broadcasting and Satellite Broadcasting Market in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalis KUYUCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyses the satellite broadcasting that is the first important development that emerged as a result of digitalization in communication technologies and its reflections in Turkey. As the first milestone in the globalization of television broadcasting, satellite broadcasting provided substantial contribution towards the development of the media. Satellite bro adcasting both increased the broadcasting quality and geographical coverage of the television media. A conceptual study was carried out in the first part of the study in connection with the history of satellite broadcasting in Turkey and across the world. In the research part of the study, an analysis was performed on 160 television channels that broadcast in Turkey via Turksat Satellite. Economic structure of the television channels broadcasting in Turkey via satellite was studied and an analysis was perfo rmed on the operational structure of the channels. As a result of the study, it was emphasized that the television channels broadcasting via satellite platform also use other platforms for the purpose of spreading their broadcasts and television channel ow ners make investments in different branches of the media, too. Capital owners invest in different business areas other than the media although television channels broadcasting via Turksat mostly focus on thematic broadcasting and make effort to generate ec onomic income from advertisements. Delays are encountered in the course of the convergence between the new media and television channels that broadcast only from the satellite platform and such television channels experience more economic problems than the other channels. New media and many TV broadcasting platforms emerged as a result of the developments in the communication technologies. In television broadcasting, satellite platform is not an effective platform on its own. Channels make effort to reach t o more people by using other platforms in addition to

  13. Perceptions of Advertising Influence on Broadcast News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hubert W.; Barnes, Beth E.

    2001-01-01

    Finds that while students (studying broadcast journalism or advertising) and practitioners (station news directors and agency media directors) were in agreement on the majority of opinion statements discussing advertising's influence on broadcast news content, except students were less bothered by advertising's influence on news content than were…

  14. Beyond the Anchor: Students and Broadcasting Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Rick

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the author taught a class (called "Editing for Broadcasting") for 19 neophyte newspeople through total immersion: students learned how to run a newsroom while operating one. Notes that students learned the principles and fundamentals of broadcast journalism, including news judgment, writing, editing, reporting, and…

  15. Management Theories and Broadcasting: A Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J. Robert; Hindmarsh, Wayne A.

    Today's contemporary management and motivation theories, as applied to the business of broadcasting, are the focus of the first section of this paper. It deals with the kinds and reactions of employees in broadcasting stations in relation to 11 motivational theories: (1) Theories X and Y, (2) Immaturity-Maturity Theory, (3) V Theory, (4) Z Theory,…

  16. 47 CFR 73.1217 - Broadcast hoaxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... broadcast station shall broadcast false information concerning a crime or a catastrophe if: (a) The licensee... harm would occur. A “crime” is any act or omission that makes the offender subject to criminal punishment by law. A “catastrophe” is a disaster or imminent disaster involving violent or sudden event...

  17. Broadcast Copywriting and Computer Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, William L.

    The teaching of broadcast copywriting can be enhanced by computer assisted instruction, especially in screening students' writing for adherence to classic "formulas" or "rules" for broadcast writing. Such rules might include avoiding cliches or not beginning a sentence with a subordinate clause. Other rules the computer can…

  18. Safety message broadcast in vehicular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Yuanguo; Zhuang, Weihua; Zhao, Hai

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the current research on safety message dissemination in vehicular networks, covering medium access control and relay selection for multi-hop safety message broadcast. Along with an overall overview of the architecture, characteristics, and applications of vehicular networks, the authors discuss the challenging issues in the research on performance improvement for safety applications, and provide a comprehensive review of the research literature. A cross layer broadcast protocol is included to support efficient safety message broadcast by jointly considering geographical location, physical-layer channel condition, and moving velocity of vehicles in the highway scenario. To further support multi-hop safety message broadcast in a complex road layout, the authors propose an urban multi-hop broadcast protocol that utilizes a novel forwarding node selection scheme. Additionally, a busy tone based medium access control scheme is designed to provide strict priority to safety applications in vehicle...

  19. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  20. Metadata for the description of broadcast assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis N.; Mai, Jens Erik; Burrows, Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    The Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) and public broadcasters consider Media Asset Management (MAM) of critical importance since without a concerted and cooperative plan to manage their vast library of content, broadcasters are unable to reach their potential for service in the digital age....... The concerns for Media Asset Management, human and technical, are myriad. Media Asset Management is the framework upon which many of the largest technology projects will be built, including the future interconnection system between and among CPB member stations. It is CPB's hope that its licensees...... and their partners in university, museum, and library communities, will work together to contribute to Media Asset Management solutions. These issues are not unique to Public Broadcasters. Similar issues are faced by all networks at different levels of complexity. This panel will present efforts by broadcasters...

  1. Les spots politiques télévisés britanniques : de l’anecdote télévisuelle à la mémoire collective British Party Political Broadcasts: From television anecdote to collective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Haigron

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 1950s the Party Election and Political Broadcasts (PEBs and PPBs first started as a mere anecdote. They are now the parties’ major medium to address the voters directly and political communication has entered a “television era”. As a matter of fact, this evolution implies certain consequences and constitutes a new step in the chronology of Britain’s political history. The first expression of this evolution is a shift of the space of political representation towards television. In this respect, PEBs and PPBs can be regarded as a prism through which it is possible to assess the different histories that they are part of, i.e. that of the British media , that of political communication and that of society and its changes. Yet Party Broadcasts have a bipolar relation to History. On the one hand, their message is meant to be circumstantial and linked to an election. On the other, their linguistic and iconic discourse aims at leaving a lasting print in collective memory.

  2. Lossless Compression of Broadcast Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Eriksen, N.; Faber, E.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate several techniques for lossless and near-lossless compression of broadcast video.The emphasis is placed on the emerging international standard for compression of continous-tone still images, JPEG-LS, due to its excellent compression performance and moderatecomplexity. Except for one...... cannot be expected to code losslessly at a rate of 125 Mbit/s. We investigate the rate and quality effects of quantization using standard JPEG-LS quantization and two new techniques: visual quantization and trellis quantization. Visual quantization is not part of baseline JPEG-LS, but is applicable...... in the framework of JPEG-LS. Visual tests show that this quantization technique gives much better quality than standard JPEG-LS quantization. Trellis quantization is a process by which the original image is altered in such a way as to make lossless JPEG-LS encoding more effective. For JPEG-LS and visual...

  3. Climate Matters: Increasing Climate Literacy Through Broadcast Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. J.; Placky, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    Broadcast meteorologists are among the most trusted members of the media landscape and they have a unique opportunity to reach the broad public with information about climate change. A recent survey by Maibach, et al. (2015) has shown that more than 90% of TV weathercasters think that their audience is at least somewhat interested in learning about the local impacts of climate change and 7 in 10 think that it is appropriate for them to report the science of climate change to their audience. But about half of these TV weathercasters have experienced obstacles to reporting climate change - citing lack of time to research and produce material, in addition to lack of access to appropriate visuals/graphics and access to trusted scientific information. Climate Matters is an NSF funded program that partners with broadcast meteorologists to deliver scientifically sound climate change information to the public that is local and relevant. A team of climate scientists, meteorologists, data analysts, journalists, and multimedia artists analyze and prepare content on a weekly basis so that it may be readily included in a broadcast weather segment, online or during community outreach. The program started as a pilot project with just one meteorologist in 2010 before Climate Central launched a full-time, nationwide program in 2012. Since then, Climate Matters has grown to include over 250 meteorologists strong and in more than 100 markets across the country, including Spanish language TV stations.

  4. Radiofrequency Exposure Amongst Employees of Mobile Network Operators and Broadcasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Ian; van Tongeren, Martie; Sorahan, Tom

    2017-06-15

    Little is known about personal exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields amongst employees in the telecommunications industry responsible for installing and maintaining transmitters. IARC classified RF exposure as a possible carcinogen, although evidence from occupational studies was judged to be inadequate. Hence, there is a need for improved evidence of any potentially adverse health effects amongst the workforce occupationally exposed to RF radiation. In this study, results are presented from an exposure survey using data from personal monitors used by employees in the broadcasting and telecommunication industries of the UK. These data were supplemented by spot measurements using broadband survey metres and information on daily work activities provided by employee questionnaires. The sets of real-time personal data were categorised by four types of site determined by the highest powered antenna present (high, medium or low power and ground-level sites). For measurements gathered at each type of site, the root mean square and a series of box plots were produced. Results from the daily activities diaries suggested that riggers working for radio and television broadcasters were exposed to much longer periods as compared to colleagues working for mobile operators. Combining the results from the measurements and daily activity diaries clearly demonstrate that exposures were highest for riggers working for broadcasting sites. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to carry out exposure surveys within these populations that will provide reliable estimates of exposure that can be used for epidemiological studies of occupational groups exposed to RF fields. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  6. PrECast: An Efficient Crypto-Free Solution for Broadcast-Based Attacks in IPv4 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Hanna

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting is one of the essential features in the Internet Protocol Ver 4 (IPv4. Attackers often exploit this feature of the IP protocol to launch several attacks against a network or an individual host. Attackers may either be a part of a Local Area Network (LAN or outside a LAN to launch these attacks. There are numerous papers available in the literature to solve problems resulting from IP broadcasting. However, all these solutions target a specific problem that results from IP broadcasting. Furthermore, these solutions use either a computationally-intensive cryptographic scheme, the a priori relation between the host and the network or a modified protocol stack at every host. In this paper, we provide a seamless and transparent solution to eliminate IP broadcasting and thus eliminate all problems related to IP broadcasting. Our proposed solution is crypto-free and does not need any modification to the protocol stack.

  7. 47 CFR 74.705 - TV broadcast analog station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV broadcast analog station protection. 74.705... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.705 TV broadcast analog station protection. (a) The TV broadcast...

  8. 47 CFR 73.4102 - FAA communications, broadcast of.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FAA communications, broadcast of. 73.4102 Section 73.4102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4102 FAA communications...

  9. Political Broadcast Advertising and Primary Election Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanat, John

    1974-01-01

    Results of a research project which hypothisized that: Other things being equal, the heavier a candidate's usage of broadcast advertising in a primary election campaign, the greater will be his share of the votes in the election. (Author/HB)

  10. Mass storage system by using broadcast technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Manabe, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Morita, Youhei; Nozaki, Tadao; Sasaki, Takashi; Watase, Yoshiyuko; Yamasaki, Tokuyuki

    1996-01-01

    There are many similarities between data recording systems for high energy physics and broadcast systems; the data flow is almost one-way, requires real-time recording; requires large-scale automated libraries for 24-hours operation, etc. In addition to these functional similarities, the required data-transfer and data-recording speeds are also close to those for near future experiments. For these reasons, we have collaborated with SONY Broadcast Company to study the usability of broadcast devices for our data storage system. Our new data storage system consists of high-speed data recorders and tape-robots which are originally based on the digital video-tape recorder and the tape-robot for broadcast systems. We are also studying the possibility to use these technologies for the online data-recording system for B-physics experiment at KEK. (author)

  11. The Digital Dividend of Terrestrial Broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The “digital revolution” of the last two decades has pervaded innumerable aspects of our daily lives and changed our planet irreversibly. The shift from analog to digital broadcasting has facilitated a seemingly infinite variety of new applications—audience interactivity being but one example. The greater efficiency and compression of digital media have endowed broadcasters with a “digital dividend” of spare transmission capacity over and above the requirements of terrestrial broadcasting. The question is, who will use it, and how? Comparing the European experience with that of broadcasters elsewhere in the world, the author sketches the current status of international frequency management, quantifies the value of the “dividend” itself, analyzes the details of the analog-to-digital switchovers already completed, and posits what the future holds for the sector. As we grapple with new devices, inconceivable a mere generation ago, that allow us to access digital media instantly, anywhere and at any...

  12. 47 CFR 0.434 - Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stations and pending broadcast applications. 0.434 Section 0.434 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Commission § 0.434 Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications... broadcast stations, pending applications for such stations, and rulemaking proceedings involving amendments...

  13. Phase transformation and local mechanical properties of TRIP steel in a simulated and real resistance spot weld process; Phasenumwandlung und lokale mechanische Eigenschaften von TRIP Stahl beim simulierten und realen Widerstandspunktschweissprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauser, Stephan

    2013-06-01

    TRIP steels give high strength along with good ductility owing to metastable austenite to martensite phase transformation (TRIP effect) caused by mechanical load. Under the extreme process-specific heating and cooling rates of resistance spot welding, these materials may undergo modifications in their austenite portion resulting in changed mechano- technological performance locally. The prime objective of this study was therefore to carry out microstructure analyses of the spot weld area in order to identify the modified portion of austenite and the resulting changes in local mechanical performance with special consideration of the TRIP effect. First, the metastable austenite portion in the unprocessed parent metal was quantified by in-situ diffraction using high energy synchrotron radiation. Next, the basic aspects of temperature dependent austenite transformation in the heating and cooling process were investigated in furnace experiments under defined temperature profiles. Continuative Gleeble tests and furnace experiments were conducted using various temperature profiles with different peaks occurring locally in the spot welding process in order to enable systematic assessment of the influence of temperature and of heating and cooling conditions on the austenite content under real conditions. Correlation experiments between the mechanical characteristics of thermally prepared tensile specimens and the metallographically and roentgenographically determined austenite contents allowed it to ascertain the metastable, i.e. transformable austenite portions. Finally, the results were evaluated concerning their transferability to real resistance spot welds. It was demonstrated that the austenite to martensite phase transformation can come into action only in a strongly localized material area in the transition zone between heat-affected zone and base metal. Consequently, the TRIP effect does not significantly affect the strength and ductility performance in the joining

  14. The Use of Television Format Adaptation in Denmark: Public Service Broadcasters Compared to Commercial Broadcasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    brought about major changes in both production and scheduling. This paper evaluates the impact that format adaptation has had in Denmark on public service broadcasters (PSBs) compared to commercial broadcasters. To illustrate transnational differences, references are made to Germany and Australia. First......, a quantitative analysis of PSB and commercial schedules in Denmark is presented to establish the extent to which PSBs have employed formats between 2000 and 2012, and how this compares with commercial broadcasters. Secondly, a qualitative analysis looks into genre and the nature of the individual formats...... employed to assess any important differences between the formats in the two sectors. Most formats fall within entertainment and is well suited to providing the consumption friendly environment that commercial broadcasters seek to offer their advertising clients (Brennan 2012). Broadcasters also favour...

  15. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Dye and Thiol Molecules Adsorbed on Triangular Silver Nanostructures: A Study of Near-Field Enhancement, Localization of Hot-Spots, and Passivation of Adsorbed Carbonaceous Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS of thiols and dye molecules adsorbed on triangular silver nanostructures was investigated. The SERS hot-spots are localized at the edges and corners of the silver triangular particles. AFM and SEM measurements permit to observe many small clusters formed at the edges of triangular particles fabricated by nanosphere lithography. Finite-element calculations show that near-field enhancements can reach values of more than 200 at visible wavelengths, in the gaps between small spherical particles and large triangular particles, although for the later no plasmon resonance was found at the wavelengths investigated. The regions near the particles showing strong near-field enhancement are well correlated with spatial localization of SERS hot-spots done by confocal microscopy. Silver nanostructures fabricated by thermal evaporation present strong and fast fluctuating SERS activity, due to amorphous carbon contamination. Thiols and dye molecules seem to be able to passivate the undesired SERS activity on fresh evaporated silver.

  16. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Dye and Thiol Molecules Adsorbed on Triangular Silver Nano structures: A Study of Near-Field Enhancement, Localization of Hot-Spots, and Passivation of Adsorbed Carbonaceous Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.R.; Marti, O.; Fabian Enderle, F.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of thiols and dye molecules adsorbed on triangular silver nanostructures was investigated. The SERS hot-spots are localized at the edges and corners of the silver triangular particles. AFM and SEM measurements permit to observe many small clusters formed at the edges of triangular particles fabricated by nanosphere lithography. Finite-element calculations show that near-field enhancements can reach values of more than 200 at visible wavelengths, in the gaps between small spherical particles and large triangular particles, although for the later no plasmon resonance was found at the wavelengths investigated. The regions near the particles showing strong near-field enhancement are well correlated with spatial localization of SERS hot-spots done by confocal microscopy. Silver nanostructures fabricated by thermal evaporation present strong and fast fluctuating SERS activity, due to amorphous carbon contamination. Thiols and dye molecules seem to be able to passivate the undesired SERS activity on fresh evaporated silver. excitation: by far-field illumination of metal nanostructures or rough metal Raman scattering cross-section of gold-palladium target Temporal Fluctuation in SERS Temporal and spectral fluctuations.

  17. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... of typical analytical workloads and real spot price traces. SpotADAPT's suggested deployments are comparable to the theoretically optimal ones, and in particular, it shows good cost benefits for the budget optimization -- on average SpotADAPT is at most 0.3% more expensive than the theoretically optimal...

  18. Broadcast design in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates the special challenges of broadcast design in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks. It introduces two broadcast protocols in CR ad hoc networks: a quality-of-service based broadcast protocol under blind information and a fully-distributed broadcast protocol with collision avoidance. A novel unified analytical model is also presented to analyze the performance of the broadcast protocols. This is the first book dedicated to the unique broadcast design challenges in CR ad hoc networks. The authors also discuss the recent research on the performance analysis of broa

  19. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jeremy E [Rochester, MN; Faraj, Ahmad A [Rochester, MN

    2011-08-02

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together using a data communications network. The data communications network optimized for point to point data communications and is characterized by at least two dimensions. The compute nodes are organized into at least one operational group of compute nodes for collective parallel operations of the parallel computer. One compute node of the operational group assigned to be a logical root. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer includes: establishing a Hamiltonian path along all of the compute nodes in at least one plane of the data communications network and in the operational group; and broadcasting, by the logical root to the remaining compute nodes, the logical root's message along the established Hamiltonian path.

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  1. Ionospheric hot spot at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, R.W.; Sojka, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    A hot spot (or spots) can occur in the high-latitude ionosphere depending on the plasma convection pattern. The hot spot corresponds to a small magnetic local time-magnetic latitude region of elevated ion temperatures located near the dusk and/or dawn meridians. For asymmetric convection electric field patterns, with enhanced flow in either the dusk or dawn sector of the polar cap, a single hot spot should occur in association with the strong convection cell. However, on geomagnetically disturbed days, two strong convection cells can occur, and hence, two hot spots should exist. The hot spot should be detectable when the electric field in the strong convection cell exceeds about 40 mV m -1 . For electric fields of the order of 100 mV m -1 in the convection cell, the ion temperature in the hot spot is greatest at low altitudes, reaching 4000 0 K at 160 km, and decreases with altitude in the F-region. An ionospheric hot spot (or spots) can be expected at all seasons and for a wide range of solar cycle conditions

  2. Satellite broadcasting - The European experience and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan

    1991-11-01

    The use of satellites is considered as a means for developing a European transnational broadcasting system with attention given to the control of technology. A tension is described between maintaining technology as the property of one nation when the DBSs are developed for multinational program broadcasting. The simultaneous development of satellite systems is theorized to lead eventually to a single merged program for a particular nation, and the effect is considered of the regulation of cross-holding and cross-selling systems by investors.

  3. Transmission Quality Measurements in DAB+ Broadcast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilski Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital media, delivering broadcast content to customers at an acceptable level of quality is one of the most challenging tasks. The most important factor is the efficient use of available resources, including bandwidth. An appropriate way of managing the digital multiplex is essential for both the economic and technical issues. In this paper we describe transmission quality measurements in the DAB+ broadcast system. We provide a methodology for analysing parameters and factors related with the efficiency and reliability of a digital radio link. We describe a laboratory stand that can be used for transmission quality assessment on a regional and national level.

  4. 47 CFR 76.1601 - Deletion or repositioning of broadcast signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion or repositioning of broadcast signals... RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1601 Deletion or... to § 76.1601: No deletion or repositioning of a local commercial television station shall occur...

  5. 78 FR 14060 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware AGENCY: Federal Communications... waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by televisions stations... first local television service, and that Seaford will remain well-served after the reallotment because...

  6. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... broadcast station may, without specific authority from the FCC, transmit stereophonic (biphonic... broadcasting must measure the pilot subcarrier frequency as often as necessary to ensure that it is kept at all...

  7. 75 FR 10692 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... Television Commission, the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ(TV), channel *10, Birmingham... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  8. 76 FR 52632 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  9. 76 FR 35831 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  10. 76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-29, RM-11622; DA 11-335] Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Kevin R. Harding...

  11. 78 FR 44090 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Hossein Hashemzadeh...

  12. CAPITALISM VS BUSINESS ETHICS IN INDONESIA’S TELEVISION BROADCASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendra WIDYATAMA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally, in every country, there is supervision of the television broadcasting system. In Indonesia, all television broadcasting is supervised by the Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia/KPI (Indonesian Broadcasting Commission. This commission oversees broadcast television, to ensure all TV broadcasts in Indonesia comply with government regulations. Often the KPI imposes sanctions, but frequent violations still occur. This article describes the results of research on the contradiction between business interests and ethics in the television industry in Indonesia. This study uses the method of evaluation research, where researchers analyze data, here in the form of sanctions documents released by broadcasting commissions. The results reveal that all national private television stations often violate regulations. They prioritize their business interests rather than follow broadcasting guidelines, especially since KPI does not have the full authority to grant and revoke a broadcasting license. The granting and revocation of permits remains under the authority of the government, where political lobbying plays a more significant role.

  13. A Dynamic Probabilistic Based Broadcasting Scheme for MANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Kannan; Subburathinam, Karthik; Velayuthampalayam Palanisamy, Arunachalam

    2016-01-01

    MANET is commonly known as Mobile Ad Hoc Network in which cluster of mobile nodes can communicate with each other without having any basic infrastructure. The basic characteristic of MANET is dynamic topology. Due to the dynamic behavior nature, the topology of the network changes very frequently, and this will lead to the failure of the valid route repeatedly. Thus, the process of finding the valid route leads to notable drop in the throughput of the network. To identify a new valid path to the targeted mobile node, available proactive routing protocols use simple broadcasting method known as simple flooding. The simple flooding method broadcasts the RREQ packet from the source to the rest of the nodes in mobile network. But the problem with this method is disproportionate repetitive retransmission of RREQ packet which could result in high contention on the available channel and packet collision due to extreme traffic in the network. A reasonable number of routing algorithms have been suggested for reducing the lethal impact of flooding the RREQ packets. However, most of the algorithms have resulted in considerable amount of complexity and deduce the throughput by depending on special hardware components and maintaining complex information which will be less frequently used. By considering routing complexity with the goal of increasing the throughput of the network, in this paper, we have introduced a new approach called Dynamic Probabilistic Route (DPR) discovery. The Node's Forwarding Probability (NFP) is dynamically calculated by the DPR mobile nodes using Probability Function (PF) which depends on density of local neighbor nodes and the cumulative number of its broadcast covered neighbors. PMID:27019868

  14. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYEES OF BROADCASTING CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A V; Brusentsova, A V; Sokhoshko, I A; Rostikov, V P

    2015-01-01

    Hygienic assessment of working conditions of employees of the Omsk Regional Broadcasting Centre was performed on data of the analysis of materials of certification of workplaces. There were examined materials concerning 65 core profile workplaces, where 130 persons, including 35 women work. There was determined health risk for personnel in dependence on working conditions. The staff was noted to be exposed to the adverse impact of the following factors: chemical, physical (noise, general and local vibration, non-ionizing radiation, microclimate, lighting), severity and intensity ofwork. Class working conditions for 13,5% of workplaces on noise, 35.4% on non-ionizing radiation was assessed as a harmful of the first degree. Lightness indices at 78.5% of the workplaces did not meet the requirements of sanitary norms. At 7.7% of the workplaces levels of hardness of labor were assessed as harmful. The impact of such factors as biological, infrasound, ultrasound, ionizing radiation, aerosols with mainly fibrogenic action, was absent, their assessment was not carried out. Working conditions at 83.1% of workplaces were characterized as hazardous, including at 52.3% of the workplaces where there was established hazard class 3.1, at 30.7% of workplaces--Class 3.2. Among all the factors of occupational environment the largest contribution into the overall assessment of working conditions was made by the lightness factor (50.9%) and non-ionizing radiation (20.6%). The most harmful working conditions have been identified for workplaces of the operator of masthead antenna, engineer of radiocommunications, broadcasting and television, electromechanician of television (radiocommunication), (broadcasting), car driver.

  15. Hierarchical Broadcasting in the Future Mobile Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, C.E.W.; Eertink, E.H.; Fernandez, Milagros; Crnkovic, Ivica; Fohler, Gerhard; Griwodz, Carsten; Plagemann, Thomas; Gruenbacher, Paul

    2002-01-01

    We describe an architecture for the hierarchical distribution of multimedia broadcasts in the future mobile Internet. The architecture supports network as well as application-layer mobility solutions, and uses stream control functions that are influenced by available network resources, user-defined

  16. Broadcast Condom Advertising: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Herb; Houlberg, Rick

    1990-01-01

    Examines a San Francisco television station's decision to accept paid condom advertising. Notes that station leaders debated questions of public interest and public tastes in a city hard hit by AIDS. Finds that the station devised careful guidelines and began broadcasting the commercials on a trial basis. Notes that nearly all public and media…

  17. Broadcast Journalism Education and the Capstone Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Andrea; Forde, Kathy Roberts; Besley, John C.; Weir, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the current state of the television news capstone experience in accredited journalism and mass communication programs in the United States. Specifically, the authors employed a mixed-methods approach, interviewing 20 television news capstone instructors and conducting an analysis of broadcast journalism curriculum information…

  18. Strategy and Space for Broadcasting Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on results from an ongoing research project on space strategies and building values, which in-cludes a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been...

  19. Video Broadcasting Using Queue Proportional Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Toumpakaris

    2007-01-01

    using a Markov Chain approach leading to a method for approximating the packet delay distribution. Based on the resulting distribution, it is discussed how the video encoding rate can be chosen in order to reduce the expected distortion of streams transmitted through Broadcast Channels.

  20. A special broadcast of CERN's Video news

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A special edition of CERN's video news giving a complete update on the LHC project is to be broadcast in the Main Auditorium. After your lunch make a small detour to the Main Auditorium, where you see the big picture. On 14, 15 and 16 May, between 12:30 and 14:00, a special edition of CERN's video news bulletin will be broadcast in the Main Auditorium. You will have the chance get up-to-date on the LHC project and its experiments. With four years to go before the first collisions in the LHC, the LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans will present a status report on the construction of the accelerator. The spokesmen of the five LHC experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and TOTEM) will explain how the work is going and what the state of play will be in four years' time. This special video news broadcast is the result of collaboration between the CERN Audiovisual Service, the Photo Service and the External communication section. The broadcast will begin with a brand-new programme title sequence. And just as in the real c...

  1. Radio broadcasting for sustainable development in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick O. Waeber and Yvonne Orengo

    2008-12-01

    Dec 1, 2008 ... ABSTRACT. The Millennium Development Goals have been written into the Madagascar Road Map (2007 - 2012) in order to improve the Malagasy social, economic and environmental situation. The Andrew Lees Trust Radio Broadcasting Project in southern. Madagascar has been set up to alleviate ...

  2. Covering Adoption: General Depictions in Broadcast News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Susan L.; Karel, Amanda I.; Chatterjee, Karishma

    2006-01-01

    Using theories of stigma (Goffman, 1963) and media frames (Iyengar, 1991), 292 news stories pertaining to adoption that appeared on major broadcast networks between 2001 and 2004 were analyzed. Media coverage of adoptees contained more problematic than positive depictions. Although birth parents were not always depicted, adoptive parent and…

  3. Product Differentiation in Local Television News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Tony

    A study was conducted to investigate the extent to which local television stations exhibited diversity in newscast content within three midwest broadcast markets. A second objective was to describe the nature of the news content characteristic of local news stories that were broadcast by only one station within a market (or unique news stories). A…

  4. 77 FR 33098 - Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...] Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Correcting... matter of ``Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band Approval.'' This document contains corrections... of this correction relate to ``Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band Approval'' under Sec. 15...

  5. Football's coming home?: Digital reterritorialization, contradictions in the transnational coverage of sport and the sociology of alternative football broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matthew; Millward, Peter

    2012-06-01

    This article critically utilizes the work of Manuel Castells to discuss the issue of parallel imported broadcasts (specifically including live-streams) in football. This is of crucial importance to sport because the English Premier League is premised upon the sale of television rights broadcasts to domestic and overseas markets, and yet cheaper alternative broadcasts endanger the price of such rights. Evidence is drawn from qualitative fieldwork and library/Internet sources to explore the practices of supporters and the politics involved in the generation of alternative broadcasts. This enables us to clarify the core sociological themes of 'milieu of innovation' and 'locale' within today's digitally networked global society. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  6. Histories of Public Service Broadcasters on the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume details multiple and dynamic histories of relations between public service broadcasters and the World Wide Web. What does it mean to be a national broadcaster in a global communications environment? What are the commercial and public service pressures that were brought to bear...... when public service broadcasters implemented web services? How did “one- to-many” broadcasters adapt to the “many-to-many” medium of the internet? The thematic or- ganisation of this collection addresses such major issues, while each chapter offers a particular historical account of relations between...... public service broadcasters and the World Wide Web....

  7. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3572 Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast...

  8. Analysis and Implement of Broadcast Program Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jin Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the radio and TV industry and the implementation of INT (the integration of telecommunications networks, cable TV networks and the Internet, the contents of programs and advertisements is showing massive, live and interactive trends. In order to meet the security of radio and television, the broadcast of information have to be controlled and administered. In order to master the latest information of public opinion trends through radio and television network, it is necessary research the specific industry applications of broadcast program monitoring. In this paper, the importance of broadcast monitoring in public opinion analysis is firstly analysed. The monitoring radio and television programs broadcast system architecture is proposed combining with the practice, focusing on the technical requirements and implementation process of program broadcast, advertisement broadcast and TV station broadcast monitoring. The more efficient information is generated through statistical analysis, which provides data analysis for radio and television public opinion analysis.

  9. Use of Local Dynamic Electricity Prices for Indirect Control of DER Power Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2013-01-01

    the grid voltage. The algorithms generating the local prices are dynamically adjusted according to the actual realised responses to the dynamic prices. Results are presented from an adapted version of the control principle implemented and tested in DTUs experimental research power system, SYSLAB, including...... wind power, solar power, flexible load and electrical storage. The local power price generation is based on the actual Nord Pool DK2 Spot prices on hourly basis as the quasi-stationary global electricity price, and the local SYSLAB's power exchange with the national grid as basis for the dynamic price...... system. A challenge is to find a cheap, simple and robust way to requests the proper power regulation by the DER power units. The use of broadcasted, dynamic power prices and volunteer responses is one option. The paper presents a proposal for and an illustration of advanced generation of local, dynamic...

  10. Time coded distribution via broadcasting stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschiutta, S.; Pettiti, V.; Detoma, E.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of standard time signals via AM and FM broadcasting stations presents the distinct advantages to offer a wide area coverage and to allow the use of inexpensive receivers, but the signals are radiated a limited number of times per day, are not usually available during the night, and no full and automatic synchronization of a remote clock is possible. As an attempt to overcome some of these problems, a time coded signal with a complete date information is diffused by the IEN via the national broadcasting networks in Italy. These signals are radiated by some 120 AM and about 3000 FM and TV transmitters around the country. In such a way, a time ordered system with an accuracy of a couple of milliseconds is easily achieved.

  11. Buryat Ethnic Mentality and National Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagbaev E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on ways the national (in a regional aspect broadcasting impacts ethnic mind formation and its further development, the latter issues being under a main focus of Buryat State University scholars as well. They set an objective to investigate the issue from different angles, for this reason gathering within scientific projects into scholars’groups took place. In this case the group of educators, philologists and sociologists have focused on media which construct ethnic mind via interiorizing and cultivating ethnic-related ideas and images for five years. Providing a general outlook of the world, National Broadcasting (NB is a proper institutional mechanism that helps a person identify himself / herself among different ethnic groups. Ethnic identity and self-consciousness are manifested in various social and intercultural communications. This allows a person to become aware of the peculiarities of his / her and others’ ethnic communities. The outcomes of a sociological research held by the authors verify the significance of both the posed problems and the TV role. One may find theoretical and empirical data in Zandeeva, S.K. (2012, Dagbaeva, N.Zh.(2012, Dagbaev (2014, Dashinimaeva, P.P., et al (2015. Generally, national programs do contribute to integrating people of the same ethnicity into a common community, to shaping such moral qualities as humanity, love to motherland, respect for the elders and other ethnic nationalities. All these characteristics form proper rules of living in a tolerant community. At the same time, they contribute to strengthening of the feeling of ethnic unity. Beyond any doubt, NB needs a relevant assessment and interest to promote and advance its function in a modern society. On the one hand, telecommunications markets liberalize. On the other hand, broadcasting technologies have developed to a highest extent, leading to the increase of international competition [14]. Anyway, both directions force

  12. Secure Broadcasting with Uncertain Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-01-06

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper s CSI and not of its channel s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1-a ) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  13. Secure Broadcasting with Uncertain Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-03-13

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper\\'s CSI and not of its channel\\'s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1-a ) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  14. Sales plan generation problem on TV broadcasting

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Cosgun; İlkay Gultas

    2016-01-01

    Major advertisers and/or advertisement agencies purchase hundreds of slots during a given broadcast period. Deterministic optimization approaches have been well developed for the problem of meeting client requests. The challenging task for the academic research currently is to address optimization problem under uncertainty. This paper is concerned with the sales plan generation problem when the audience levels of advertisement slots are random variables with known probability distributions. T...

  15. Stochastic dynamics of genetic broadcasting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoyan, Davit A.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2017-11-01

    The complex genetic programs of eukaryotic cells are often regulated by key transcription factors occupying or clearing out of a large number of genomic locations. Orchestrating the residence times of these factors is therefore important for the well organized functioning of a large network. The classic models of genetic switches sidestep this timing issue by assuming the binding of transcription factors to be governed entirely by thermodynamic protein-DNA affinities. Here we show that relying on passive thermodynamics and random release times can lead to a "time-scale crisis" for master genes that broadcast their signals to a large number of binding sites. We demonstrate that this time-scale crisis for clearance in a large broadcasting network can be resolved by actively regulating residence times through molecular stripping. We illustrate these ideas by studying a model of the stochastic dynamics of the genetic network of the central eukaryotic master regulator NFκ B which broadcasts its signals to many downstream genes that regulate immune response, apoptosis, etc.

  16. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  17. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  18. The ongoing relevance of local journalism and public broadcasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Digitalization fundamentally changes how people consume, (re)distribute and use news. Users have increased possibilities to compose their own configurations of news media out of an increased array of different sources. In many cases, these can be accessed where-, when- and however they prefer. Ac...

  19. 76 FR 8651 - Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... provided to the public via broadcast notice to mariners, as well as through advertising on local media... regulate navigation for a limited time. Finally, the Public Broadcast Notice to Mariners will notify the... (iv) the maritime public will be advised in advance of this regulated area via Broadcast Notice to...

  20. Interference mitigation for broadcast in hierarchical cell structure networks: Transmission strategy and area spectral efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cell structure (HCS) is considered, where an access point (AP) broadcasts to local nodes (LNs) over orthogonal frequency subbands within a local cell located in a macrocell. Since the local cell shares the spectrum licensed to the macrocell, a given LN is interfered with by the macrocell user (MU)\\'s transmissions over the same subband. To improve the performance of the AP\\'s broadcast service, a novel transmission strategy is proposed to mitigate the interference from the MU to the LN while achieving diversity gain. For the purpose of performance evaluation, the ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is quantified, and the corresponding closed-form expression is obtained. By comparing with the traditional transmission scheme, which suffers from MU\\'s interference, illustrative numerical results substantiate that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than the traditional scheme as the MU-LN mean channel power gain is larger than half of the AP-LN mean channel power gain. Subsequently, we develop an optimized network design by maximizing the area spectral efficiency (ASE) of the AP\\'s broadcast in the local cell.

  1. Scheduling Broadcasts in a Network of Timelines

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad A.

    2015-05-12

    Broadcasts and timelines are the primary mechanism of information exchange in online social platforms today. Services like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram have enabled ordinary people to reach large audiences spanning cultures and countries, while their massive popularity has created increasingly competitive marketplaces of attention. Timing broadcasts to capture the attention of such geographically diverse audiences has sparked interest from many startups and social marketing gurus. However, formal study is lacking on both the timing and frequency problems. In this thesis, we introduce, motivate and solve the broadcast scheduling problem of specifying the timing and frequency of publishing content to maximise the attention received. We validate and quantify three interacting behavioural phenomena to parametrise social platform users: information overload, bursty circadian rhythms and monotony aversion, which is defined here for the first time. Our analysis of the influence of monotony refutes the common assumption that posts on social network timelines are consumed piecemeal independently. Instead, we reveal that posts are consumed in chunks, which has important consequences for any future work considering human behaviour over social network timelines. Our quantification of monotony aversion is also novel, and has applications to problems in various domains such as recommender list diversification, user satiation and variety-seeking consumer behaviour. Having studied the underlying behavioural phenomena, we link schedules, timelines, attention and behaviour by formalising a timeline information exchange process. Our formulation gives rise to a natural objective function that quantifies the expected collective attention an arrangement of posts on a timeline will receive. We apply this formulation as a case-study on real-data from Twitter, where we estimate behavioural parameters, calculate the attention potential for different scheduling strategies and, using the

  2. Energy Efficient Probabilistic Broadcasting for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2017-06-01

    In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).

  3. Emergency department visits during an Olympic gold medal television broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Vermeulen, Marian J

    2011-01-01

    Practice pattern variations are often attributed to physician decision-making with no accounting for patient preferences. To test whether a mass media television broadcast unrelated to health was associated with changes in the rate and characteristics of visits for acute emergency care. Time-series analysis of emergency department visits for any reason. Population-based sample of all patients seeking emergency care in Ontario, Canada. The broadcast day was defined as the Olympic men's gold medal ice hockey game final. The control days were defined as the 6 Sundays before and after the broadcast day. A total of 99 447 visits occurred over the 7 Sundays, of which 13 990 occurred on the broadcast day. Comparing the broadcast day with control days, we found no significant difference in the hourly rate of visits before the broadcast (544 vs 537, p = 0.41) or after the broadcast (647 vs 639, p = 0.55). In contrast, we observed a significant reduction in hourly rate of visits during the broadcast (647 vs 783, p television broadcasts can influence patient preferences and thereby lead to a decrease in emergency department visits.

  4. Equilibrium in a random viewer model of television broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Keiding, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The authors considered a model of commercial television market with advertising with probabilistic viewer choice of channel, where private broadcasters may coexist with a public television broadcaster. The broadcasters influence the probability of getting viewer attention through the amount...... number of channels. The authors derive properties of equilibrium in an oligopolistic market with private broadcasters and show that the number of firms has a negative effect on overall advertising and viewer satisfaction. If there is a public channel that also sells advertisements but does not maximize...... profits, this will have a positive effect on advertiser and viewer satisfaction....

  5. A broadcast engineering tutorial for non-engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzi, Skip

    2014-01-01

    A Broadcast Engineering Tutorial for Non-Engineers is the leading publication on the basics of broadcast technology. Whether you are new to the industry or do not have an engineering background, this book will give you a comprehensive primer of television, radio, and digital media relating to broadcast-it is your guide to understanding the technical world of radio and television broadcast engineering. It covers all the important topics such as DTV, IBOC, HD, standards, video servers, editing, electronic newsrooms, and more.

  6. Minimizing Broadcast Expenses in Clustered Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeeshan Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One way to minimize the broadcast expenses of routing protocols is to cluster the network. In clustered ad-hoc networks, all resources can be managed easily by resolving scalability issues. However, blind query broadcast is a major issue that leads to the broadcast storm problem in clustered ad-hoc networks. This query broadcast is done to carry out the route-search task that leads to the unnecessary propagation of route-query even after route has been found. Hence, this query propagation poses the problem of congestion in the network. In particular this motivates us to propose a query-control technique in such networks which works based on broadcast repealing. A huge amount of work has been devoted to propose the query control broadcasting techniques. However, such techniques used in traditional broadcasting mechanisms need to be properly extended for use in the cluster based routing architecture. In this paper, query-control technique is proposed for cluster based routing technique to reduce the broadcast expenses. Finally, we report some experiments which compare the proposed technique to other commonly used techniques including standard one-class AODV that follows TTL-sequence based broadcasting technique.

  7. Digital terrestrial television broadcasting technology and system

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Now under massive deployment worldwide, digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) offers one of the most attractive ways to deliver digital TV over the VHF/UHF band. Written by a team of experts for specialists and non-specialists alike, this book serves as a comprehensive guide to DTTB. It covers the fundamentals of channel coding and modulation technologies used in DTTB, as well as receiver technology for synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization. It also covers the recently introduced Chinese DTTB standard, using the SFN network in Hong Kong as an example.

  8. Broadcasting in America; Second Edition. A Survey of Television and Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Sydney W.

    The plan of this volume follows that of the first (1956) edition: a section on physical bases of broadcasting, one on the origin and growth of broadcasting, another on the economics of broadcasting, a fourth on the social control of broadcasting, and a final section for an assessment of the effects and influences of broadcasting. Special attention…

  9. Effects of small, intense laser spots on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, K.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations show that small diameter laser spots burn through flat foils considerably faster than larger spots. The physical mechanisms are (1) more nearly spherical divergence from the smaller spots which allows the debris to rapidly convect radially away from the small volume of laser heated plasma and (2) a variation on thermal self-focusing in which light is refracted into this volume, increasing the local heating rate

  10. Factors behind response strategies of incumbent firms to disruptive innovation: case of TV broadcasting industry

    OpenAIRE

    Markevičiūtė, Imantė

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive technologies and business models are fundamentally changing the established ‘rules of the game’ in many industries. Thus, finding an adequate response becomes a matter of survival to companies touched by disruptive innovation. The current research is attempting to reveal the factors determining the response strategy of local incumbent TV broadcasters to global disruptive innovation. In order to do so, these research objectives are pursued in order to answer the research question: t...

  11. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  12. Arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrade, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    Arc spots are usually highly unstable and jump statistically over the cathode surface. In a magnetic field parallel to the surface, preferably they move in the retrograde direction; i.e., opposite to the Lorentzian rule. If the field is inclined with respect to the surface, the spots drift away at a certain angle with respect to the proper retrograde direction (Robson drift motion). These well-known phenomena are explained by one stability theory

  13. Transitional–turbulent spots and turbulent–turbulent spots in boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional–turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a Λ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional–turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional–turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional–turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent–turbulent spots. These turbulent–turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional–turbulent spots, these turbulent–turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent–turbulent spots. PMID:28630304

  14. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-03

    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  15. 78 FR 18527 - Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service... for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses, MM Docket No. 97- 234 et...

  16. Target spot localization at neutron producing accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczki, L.; Bornemisza-Pauspertl, P.

    1980-01-01

    In the application of neutron producing accelerators it is required to know the actual position and the homogeneity of distribution of the emitted neutrons. Solid state nuclear track detectors offer a good possibility to get precise information on these without any disturbing influence on them. LR 115 2 type cellulose nitrate Kodak-Pathe Foils were irradiated with fast neutrons. When track density is higher than about 104 tracks cm -2 the damaged area can be observed with the naked eye, too. To get quantitative information the track densities were counted with manual technique. (author)

  17. Loops of Spoken Language i Danish Broadcasting Corporation News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The tempo of Danish television news broadcasts has changed markedly over the past 40 years, while the language has essentially always been conservative, and remains so today. The development in the tempo of the broadcasts has gone through a number of phases from a newsreader in a rigid structure...

  18. The Use of Computer Simulation Gaming in Teaching Broadcast Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Louis C.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a broadcast economic computer simulation and to ascertain how a lecture-computer simulation game compared as a teaching method with a more traditional lecture and case study instructional methods. In each of three sections of a broadcast economics course, a different teaching methodology was employed: (1)…

  19. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Fairbanks, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2211; MB Docket No. 10-81; RM-11600] Radio Broadcasting Services; Fairbanks, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  20. Public and Private Activity in Commercial TV Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olai Hansen, Bodil; Keiding, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We consider a model of commercial television market, where private broadcasters coexist with a public television broadcaster. Assuming that the public TV station follows a policy of Ramsey pricing whereas the private stations are profit maximizers, we consider the equilibria in this market...

  1. Religious Broadcasting in the Middle East : Content Analysis of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past decade, television broadcasting has become central in shaping public attitudes in the Middle East. Against a backdrop of authoritarian governments, political instability, war and pervasive foreign military intervention, broadcasting has emerged as a platform for expressing views and opinions that might ...

  2. Airborne evaluation/verification of antenna patterns of broadcasting stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, Ben

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method for airborne evaluation and verification of the antenna patterns of broadcasting stations. Although it is intended for governmental institutions and broadcasters it may be also of interest to anyone who wants to evaluate large radiating structures. An airborne

  3. Canal + Spain & Live Football Broadcasts: A Whole Different Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez Ortega, Vicente; Romero Santos, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn 1988 the Law for Private Television Broadcasting was approved by Spanish parliament. Three licenses were initially awarded. Soon thereafter, in 1990, three channels started broadcasting: Antena 3, Berlusconi-related Tele 5 and, against all odds, a pay channel, Canal + Spain. This

  4. 78 FR 78318 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Family Broadcasting Group, Inc. (``Family Broadcasting''), the licensee of station KSBI(TV), channel 51, Oklahoma City... instituted a freeze on the acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel...

  5. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-224; MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  6. 75 FR 67077 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2000; MB Docket No. 08-194; RM-11488] Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  7. 75 FR 1546 - Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  8. 76 FR 5119 - Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-96; MB Docket No. 11-8; RM-11618] Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...

  9. 75 FR 25119 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, DE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if technically feasible. DATES: This... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  10. 76 FR 54188 - Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-137, RM-11637; DA 11-1414] Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A...

  11. 75 FR 9859 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-307; MB Docket No. 10-49; RM-11593] Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  12. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-192, RM-11646; DA 11-1924] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  13. 76 FR 13966 - Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-33, RM-11623; DA 11-406] Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  14. 75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  15. 76 FR 5120 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-74; MB Docket No. 11-4; RM-11616] Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  16. 76 FR 3875 - Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2426; MB Docket No. 10-264; RM-11615] Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  17. 76 FR 5290 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  18. Research on the Safe Broadcasting of Television Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jin Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing way of broadcasting and television monitoring has a lot of problems in China. On the basis of the signal technical indicators monitoring in the present broadcasting and television monitoring system, this paper further extends the function of the monitoring network in order to broaden the services of monitoring business and improve the effect and efficiency of monitoring work. The problem of identifying video content and channel in television and related electronic media is conquered at a low cost implementation way and the flexible technology mechanism. The coverage for video content and identification of the channel is expanded. The informative broadcast entries are generated after a series of video processing. The value of the numerous broadcast data is deeply excavated by using big data processing in order to realize a comprehensive, objective and accurate information monitoring for the safe broadcasting of television program.

  19. Method and apparatus for scheduling broadcasts in social networks

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad Ahmed

    2016-08-25

    A method, apparatus, and computer readable medium are provided for maximizing consumption of broadcasts by a producer. An example method includes receiving selection of a total number of time slots to use for scheduling broadcasts, and receiving information regarding the producer\\'s followers. The example method further 5 includes identifying, by a processor and based on the received information, discount factors associated with the producer\\'s followers, and calculating, by the processor and based on the received information, a predicted number of competitor broadcasts during each time slot of the total number of time slots. Finally, the example method includes determining, by the processor and based on the discount factors and the predicted 10 number of competitor broadcasts during each time slot, a number of broadcasts for the producer to transmit in each time slot of the total number of time slots.

  20. Adaptive Probabilistic Broadcasting over Dense Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an idle probability-based broadcasting method, iPro, which employs an adaptive probabilistic mechanism to improve performance of data broadcasting over dense wireless ad hoc networks. In multisource one-hop broadcast scenarios, the modeling and simulation results of the proposed iPro are shown to significantly outperform the standard IEEE 802.11 under saturated condition. Moreover, the results also show that without estimating the number of competing nodes and changing the contention window size, the performance of the proposed iPro can still approach the theoretical bound. We further apply iPro to multihop broadcasting scenarios, and the experiment results show that within the same elapsed time after the broadcasting, the proposed iPro has significantly higher Packet-Delivery Ratios (PDR than traditional methods.

  1. A Tree Based Broadcast Scheme for (m, k)-firm Real-Time Stream in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, HoSung; Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Kyong Hoon; Shah, Babar; Kim, Ki-Il

    2017-11-09

    Recently, various unicast routing protocols have been proposed to deliver measured data from the sensor node to the sink node within the predetermined deadline in wireless sensor networks. In parallel with their approaches, some applications demand the specific service, which is based on broadcast to all nodes within the deadline, the feasible real-time traffic model and improvements in energy efficiency. However, current protocols based on either flooding or one-to-one unicast cannot meet the above requirements entirely. Moreover, as far as the authors know, there is no study for the real-time broadcast protocol to support the application-specific traffic model in WSN yet. Based on the above analysis, in this paper, we propose a new ( m , k )-firm-based Real-time Broadcast Protocol (FRBP) by constructing a broadcast tree to satisfy the ( m , k )-firm, which is applicable to the real-time model in resource-constrained WSNs. The broadcast tree in FRBP is constructed by the distance-based priority scheme, whereas energy efficiency is improved by selecting as few as nodes on a tree possible. To overcome the unstable network environment, the recovery scheme invokes rapid partial tree reconstruction in order to designate another node as the parent on a tree according to the measured ( m , k )-firm real-time condition and local states monitoring. Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate the superiority of FRBP compared to the existing schemes in terms of average deadline missing ratio, average throughput and energy consumption.

  2. Hot spot formation on different tokamak wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedospasov, A.V.; Bezlyudny, I.V.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal contraction phenomenon and generation of 'hot spots' due to thermoemission were described. The paper consider non-linear stages of heat contraction on the graphite, beryllium, tungsten and vanadium wall. It is shown that on the beryllium surface hot spot can't appear due to strong cooling by sublimation. For other materials the conditions of hot spot appearance due to local superheating of the wall have been calculated and their parameters were found: critical surface temperature, size of spots and their temperature profiles, heat fluxes from plasma to the spots. It have been calculated fluxes of sublimating materials from spots to the plasma. It is noticed that nominal temperature of the grafite divertor plate, accepted in ITER's project to being equal 1500 C, is lower then critical temperature of the development heat contraction due to thermoemission. (orig.)

  3. Broadcast Communication by System Frequency Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; You, Shi; Heussen, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Load controllers available today can measure AC system frequency and react to frequency deviations. A system operator can communicate to frequency sensitive loads by changing the set-points of the system’s dispatchable frequency regulation resources. Explicitly signaling system state by generating...... off-nominal system frequency values is a novel narrowband broadcast communications channel between system operators and frequency sensitive distributed energy resources (FS-DER). The feasibility of the proposed system is evaluated on an existing island power system in Denmark. This study shows...... that within standard frequency quality constraints, 4 distinct symbols are feasible on the island. However, the overarching imperative of system stability prevents the symbols from having arbitrary meanings. Higher frequency values must translate into greater consumption from loads, and vice versa. Within...

  4. Sales plan generation problem on TV broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Cosgun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Major advertisers and/or advertisement agencies purchase hundreds of slots during a given broadcast period. Deterministic optimization approaches have been well developed for the problem of meeting client requests. The challenging task for the academic research currently is to address optimization problem under uncertainty. This paper is concerned with the sales plan generation problem when the audience levels of advertisement slots are random variables with known probability distributions. There are several constraints the TV networks must meet including client budget, product category and demographic information, plan weighting by week, program mix requirements, and the lengths of advertisement slots desired by the client. We formulate the problem as a chance constrained goal program and we demonstrate that it provides a robust solution with a user specified level of reliability.

  5. User innovation in public service broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    and develop user innovations into professional content. This study follows a qualitative approach with a document study of Denmark's public service broadcast and two interviews. Findings indicate that the commitment to quality and professional content prevents managers of PSBs from outsourcing......This research aims to understand how public service media can encourage media entrepreneurship in the society to enrich user innovations as a source of ideas, products, contents, talent and creativity. The assumption is that media entrepreneurs turn users into sources of external creativity...... their production to media entrepreneurs, but they trust large media companies as external producers. This research contributes to the field by proposing that public service media can foster media entrepreneurship in a society indirectly and by creating demand for external sources of creativity. Large media...

  6. TV Broadcast Efficiency in 5G Networks from Subscriber Prospective

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2015-12-06

    The flexibility of radio access network facilitated by 5G networks opens the gateway of deploying dynamic strategies for broadcasting TV channels in an efficient way. Currently, spectrum efficiency and bandwidth efficiency are the two common metrics measuring the efficiency of a system. These metrics assess the net bitrate for a unit of spectrum bandwidth. However, there is a lack of measurement, quantifying the effectiveness of a broadcasting strategy from the user perspective. In this paper, we introduce a novel measurement approach, called broadcast efficiency which considers the mobile user as a main reference. Broadcast efficiency is calculated as the number of served audiences per unit of radio resource. From numerical analysis, we show that broadcasting unpopular TV channels dramatically decreases the broadcast efficiency. This finding is evaluated by employing multiple distributions on the size of audience among TV channels. Furthermore, by conducting a real-life simulation, we discover that a high broadcast efficiency may result in a low percentage of served audiences if the audiences of TV channels are quite evenly distributed.

  7. How much extra spot gas is there?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Th.

    2007-01-01

    With the increase of European gas demand and the sharp decrease of local supply, security of supply is becoming an ever greater issue. However, liberalization tilts the traditional equilibrium based on long term 'take or pay' contracts between big suppliers and national distribution companies. Today, buying gas on the spot market is becoming more and more important to balance supply portfolio with a fast moving market share. But the way gas spot markets are operating is not well documented. It is very difficult to assess its impact on the European security of supply. Therefore, the aim of this article is to evaluate the amount of 'spot' liquefied natural gas (LNG) that could be found in case of a major supply disruption in pipe gas delivered to Europe

  8. National association of broadcasters engineering handbook NAB engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Graham A; Osenkowsky, Thomas G; Williams, Edmund A

    2013-01-01

    The NAB Engineering Handbook provides detailed information on virtually every aspect of the broadcast chain, from news gathering, program production and postproduction through master control and distribution links to transmission, antennas, RF propagation, cable and satellite. Hot topics covered include HD Radio, HDTV, 2 GHz broadcast auxiliary services, EAS, workflow, metadata, digital asset management, advanced video and audio compression, audio and video over IP, and Internet broadcasting. A wide range of related topics that engineers and managers need to understand are also covered, includ

  9. Direct broadcast of a sporting event as televisual cultural form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct TV broadcasting of sport events is undoubtedly the focal point of interest of sport fans in sports media as well as of sponsors and investors responsible for the global mediatisation of popular sports. In this article, the centrality of direct TV broadcasts in the televisual coverage of sports, as well as in the presence of sports in new media in general is explained in the context of the impact of the mediatisation of sports upon cultural forms of TV coverage of sports. The complexity of these forms and its main features (the role of the commentator, the rules of editing, dramatisation and narrativisation in direct broadcasts are analysed.

  10. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  11. Extension of Pairwise Broadcast Clock Synchronization for Multicluster Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Suter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Time synchronization is crucial for wireless sensor networks (WSNs in performing a number of fundamental operations such as data coordination, power management, security, and localization. The Pairwise Broadcast Synchronization (PBS protocol was recently proposed to minimize the number of timing messages required for global network synchronization, which enables the design of highly energy-efficient WSNs. However, PBS requires all nodes in the network to lie within the communication ranges of two leader nodes, a condition which might not be available in some applications. This paper proposes an extension of PBS to the more general class of sensor networks. Based on the hierarchical structure of the network, an energy-efficient pair selection algorithm is proposed to select the best pairwise synchronization sequence to reduce the overall energy consumption. It is shown that in a multicluster networking environment, PBS requires a far less number of timing messages than other well-known synchronization protocols and incurs no loss in synchronization accuracy. Moreover, the proposed scheme presents significant energy savings for densely deployed WSNs.

  12. 75 FR 8070 - Closed Auction of Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for July 20, 2010; Auction 88...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... to support their claims with valuation analyses and suggested amounts or formulas for reserve prices... seek comment on factors that could reasonably have an impact on valuation of the broadcast spectrum..., Inc. Arkansas Valley Broadcasting, LLC BBK Broadcasting Big Sky Company Birach Broadcasting...

  13. 75 FR 27199 - Promoting Diversification of Ownership in the Broadcasting Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ...'' in explaining the requirements for broadcasters to certify that their advertising contracts do not... for the Commission to require broadcasters renewing their licenses to certify that their advertising... broadcast licensee, cable television system, daily newspaper, or other media outlet subject to the broadcast...

  14. 47 CFR 74.1204 - Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and... SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1204 Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations. (a) An application for an FM translator station will not be...

  15. 47 CFR 73.6026 - Broadcast regulations applicable to Class A television stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... television stations. 73.6026 Section 73.6026 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6026 Broadcast regulations applicable to Class A television stations. The following rules are applicable to Class A...

  16. 47 CFR 73.9001 - Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Redistribution control of digital television... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9001 Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts. Licensees of TV broadcast stations may utilize the...

  17. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-01-01

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The author...

  18. 78 FR 12010 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pearsall, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Broadcasting Services; Pearsall, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... (``Petitioner''), licensee of FM Station KSAG, Channel 277A, Pearsall, Texas. Petitioner proposes to amend the... be allotted at Pearsall, Texas, in compliance with the Commission's minimum distance separation...

  19. 47 CFR 76.1506 - Carriage of television broadcast signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with the Commission its Notice of Intent to establish an open video system. (m) Sports broadcast... notices unless they receive notice within a reasonable time from the appropriate programming provider that... Office of Management and Budget. ...

  20. Poland's Press and Broadcasting Under the Gierek Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanor, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Reports that the Polish press and broadcasting have been carrying more news and less propaganda since the 1970 Baltic upheavel and that the Polish media are generally allowed more freedom than media in other Communist nations. (RB)

  1. Compressive sensing for feedback reduction in MIMO broadcast channels

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Bahrami, Hamid Reza Talesh

    2014-01-01

    In multi-antenna broadcast networks, the base stations (BSs) rely on the channel state information (CSI) of the users to perform user scheduling and downlink transmission. However, in networks with large number of users, obtaining CSI from all users

  2. TV Broadcast Efficiency in 5G Networks from Subscriber Prospective

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    measuring the efficiency of a system. These metrics assess the net bitrate for a unit of spectrum bandwidth. However, there is a lack of measurement, quantifying the effectiveness of a broadcasting strategy from the user perspective. In this paper, we

  3. 77 FR 46631 - Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video...

  4. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it subsequently... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  5. 78 FR 75306 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of station WBIQ(TV), channel *39, Birmingham, Alabama... freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by television stations seeking channel substitutions in...

  6. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  7. Transmission techniques for emergent multicast and broadcast systems

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Mario Marques; Dinis, Rui; Souto, Nuno; Silva, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Describing efficient transmission schemes for broadband wireless systems, Transmission Techniques for Emergent Multicast and Broadcast Systems examines advances in transmission techniques and receiver designs capable of supporting the emergent wireless needs for multimedia broadcast and multicast service (MBMS) requirements. It summarizes the research and development taking place in wireless communications for multimedia MBMS and addresses the means to improved spectral efficiency to allow for increased user bit rate, as well as increased capacity of the digital cellular radio network.The text

  8. Broadcast Abstraction in a Stochastic Calculus for Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei; Godskesen, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    topology constraint. We allow continuous time stochastic behavior of processes running at network nodes, e.g. in order to be able to model randomized protocols. The introduction of group broadcast and an operator to help avoid flooding allows us to define a novel notion of broadcast abstraction. Finally......, we define a weak bisimulation congruence and apply our theory on an example of a leader election protocol....

  9. A dynamic analysis of consolidation in the broadcast television industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica C. Stahl

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates a dynamic oligopoly model in order to separately identify the demand-side and cost-side advantages of consolidation in the broadcast television industry. I exploit an exogenous change in regulation that led to significant industry consolidation. Using revenue and ownership data for broadcast stations over the past ten years, I estimate the effect of ownership changes on revenue. I recover costs by examining patterns in ownership changes that are left unexplained by revenu...

  10. Productivity and its Decomposition in the Japanese Broadcasting Market

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Sumiko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to calculate the total factor productivity (TFP) as well as scale economies of Japanese terrestrial broadcasters and examine the industry’s characteristics through the decomposition of TFP growth. In order to calculate TFP growth rate, a variable cost function is estimated using data on twenty-five broadcasters for the period 1997–2002, and the TFP growth rate is decomposed into three sources: output effect, capital adjustment and technical change. Calculation rev...

  11. Broadcasted Location-Aware Data Cache for Vehicular Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Akira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the exploitation of advances in information technology, for example, mobile computing and wireless communications in ITS (intelligent transport systems. Classes of applications that can benefit from such an infrastructure include traffic information, roadside businesses, weather reports, entertainment, and so on. There are several wireless communication methods currently available that can be utilized for vehicular applications, such as cellular phone networks, DSRC (dedicated short-range communication, and digital broadcasting. While a cellular phone network is relatively slow and a DSRC has a very small communication area, one-segment digital terrestrial broadcasting service was launched in Japan in 2006, high-performance digital broadcasting for mobile hosts has been available recently. However, broadcast delivery methods have the drawback that clients need to wait for the required data items to appear on the broadcast channel. In this paper, we propose a new cache system to effectively prefetch and replace broadcast data using "scope" (an available area of location-dependent data and "mobility specification" (a schedule according to the direction in which a mobile host moves. We numerically evaluate the cache system on the model close to the traffic road environment, and implement the emulation system to evaluate this location-aware data delivery method for a concrete vehicular application that delivers geographic road map data to a car navigation system.

  12. Broadcasted Location-Aware Data Cache for Vehicular Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenya Sato

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the exploitation of advances in information technology, for example, mobile computing and wireless communications in ITS (intelligent transport systems. Classes of applications that can benefit from such an infrastructure include traffic information, roadside businesses, weather reports, entertainment, and so on. There are several wireless communication methods currently available that can be utilized for vehicular applications, such as cellular phone networks, DSRC (dedicated short-range communication, and digital broadcasting. While a cellular phone network is relatively slow and a DSRC has a very small communication area, one-segment digital terrestrial broadcasting service was launched in Japan in 2006, high-performance digital broadcasting for mobile hosts has been available recently. However, broadcast delivery methods have the drawback that clients need to wait for the required data items to appear on the broadcast channel. In this paper, we propose a new cache system to effectively prefetch and replace broadcast data using “scope” (an available area of location-dependent data and “mobility specification” (a schedule according to the direction in which a mobile host moves. We numerically evaluate the cache system on the model close to the traffic road environment, and implement the emulation system to evaluate this location-aware data delivery method for a concrete vehicular application that delivers geographic road map data to a car navigation system.

  13. Performance Analysis of Reuse Distance in Cooperative Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmi Grönkvist

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative broadcasting is a promising technique for robust broadcast with low overhead and delay in mobile ad hoc networks. The technique is attractive for mission-oriented mobile communication, where a majority of the traffic is of broadcast nature. In cooperative broadcasting, all nodes simultaneously retransmit packets. The receiver utilizes cooperative diversity in the simultaneously received signals. The retransmissions continue until all nodes are reached. After the packet has traveled a specific number of hops out from the source, denoted as reuse distance, the source node transmits a new broadcast packet in the time slot used for the previous broadcast packet. If the reuse distance is too small, interference causes packet loss in intermediate nodes. In the literature, a reuse distance of three is common. With an analysis based on a realistic interference model and real terrain data, we show that a reuse distance of at least four is necessary to avoid packet loss in sparsely connected networks, especially for high spectral efficiencies. For frequency hopping, widely used in military systems, we propose a novel method. This method almost eliminates interference for a reuse distance of three, increasing the throughput by 33% compared to systems with a reuse distance of four.

  14. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  15. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  16. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-04-19

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B(12) injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management.

  17. KFC Server: interactive forecasting of protein interaction hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Steven J; LeGault, Laura; Mitchell, Julie C

    2008-07-01

    The KFC Server is a web-based implementation of the KFC (Knowledge-based FADE and Contacts) model-a machine learning approach for the prediction of binding hot spots, or the subset of residues that account for most of a protein interface's; binding free energy. The server facilitates the automated analysis of a user submitted protein-protein or protein-DNA interface and the visualization of its hot spot predictions. For each residue in the interface, the KFC Server characterizes its local structural environment, compares that environment to the environments of experimentally determined hot spots and predicts if the interface residue is a hot spot. After the computational analysis, the user can visualize the results using an interactive job viewer able to quickly highlight predicted hot spots and surrounding structural features within the protein structure. The KFC Server is accessible at http://kfc.mitchell-lab.org.

  18. A Novel Strategy Using Factor Graphs and the Sum-Product Algorithm for Satellite Broadcast Scheduling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Chieh

    This paper presents a low complexity algorithmic framework for finding a broadcasting schedule in a low-altitude satellite system, i. e., the satellite broadcast scheduling (SBS) problem, based on the recent modeling and computational methodology of factor graphs. Inspired by the huge success of the low density parity check (LDPC) codes in the field of error control coding, in this paper, we transform the SBS problem into an LDPC-like problem through a factor graph instead of using the conventional neural network approaches to solve the SBS problem. Based on a factor graph framework, the soft-information, describing the probability that each satellite will broadcast information to a terminal at a specific time slot, is exchanged among the local processing in the proposed framework via the sum-product algorithm to iteratively optimize the satellite broadcasting schedule. Numerical results show that the proposed approach not only can obtain optimal solution but also enjoys the low complexity suitable for integral-circuit implementation.

  19. Indirect control of DSRs for regulating power provision and solving local congestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Inducing a shift in the electricity consumption using a broadcasted dynamic price for the energy is often proposed as a resource for providing regulating power and it is becoming an increasing research focus for enabling higher penetration of renewable energy in the current power system. This paper...... with the CIGRE’ MV reference network with 346 electrically heated buildings as Demand Side Resources, DSRs. The dynamic hourly price of the regulating power provided by Nord Pool Spot market has been used as indirect control signal for the flexible demand....... shows how using indirect control (or control by price) without any precautions, might easily lead to congestions in nearly saturated distribution grids. An auto tuning local controller which acts on the price signal at distribution level is proposed for solving the congestion. Simulations are performed...

  20. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  1. SURVEI PENANGANAN BROADCAST STORM PROBLEM PADA PROTOKOL ROUTING AODV DI MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indera Zainul Muttaqien

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Komunikasi multi-hop pada lingkungan MANET dapat melibatkan broadcast paket dalam proses route discovery. Protokol routing pada MANET akan melakukan broadcast paket RREQ dan menjalarkannya ke node tujuan secepat dan seefisien mungkin, dimana paket RREQ dari rute yang optimal adalah paket RREQ yang terlebih dahulu sampai ke tujuan. Aktifitas broadcast yang tidak terkontrol dapat menyebabkan suatu kondisi yang disebut broadcast storm problem. Broadcast storm problem dapat berdampak pada terganggunya kinerja dari protokol routing akibat adanya packet redundancy, contention, dan collision. Broadcast storm problem dapat ditangani dengan membatasi jumlah node yang dapat melakukan broadcast. Tujuan utama dari pembuatan makalah ini adalah merangkum beberapa mekanisme terbaru yang telah diakukan oleh para peneliti untuk menangani broadcast storm problem. Kami juga menyajikan perbandingan dari mekanisme tersebut berdasarkan karakteristik dari mekanisme ditinjau dari kesesuaian dengan beberapa skema penanganan broadcast storm problem yang diajukan oleh peneliti sebelumnya, kebutuhan informasi tertentu antar node, lingkungan uji coba dan apakah mekanisme ini dapat diterapkan pada protokol routing lainnya.

  2. Digital terrestrial broadcasting receiver in the U.K; Eikoku chijoha digital hoso jushinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Digital terrestrial broadcasting is broadcasted in parallel with existing UHF analog broadcasting, whereas each of allocated channel frequencies can transmit five to six programs simultaneously. Each home can receive a number of programs with the existing antenna without a need of installing a new satellite antenna or cable. Among the countries of the world running forward to digitization of broadcasting all at once, the U.K. develops advancing movements and leads the world by starting the digital terrestrial broadcasting. In addition to the digitized broadcasting of conventional analog broadcasting programs, the `Ondigitals` (broadcasting operators) have started newly the pay broadcasting. Toshiba has been selected as one of the six developers and manufacturers of digital terrestrial broadcasting receivers, and has developed the digital terrestrial broadcasting receiver DTB2000. For the modulation system, the orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) was chosen as a system being strong against ghost and most suitable for digital terrestrial broadcasting. In addition, the receiver is equipped with software download function by using the broadcasting waves, and the common interface being the communication specification specified in the DVB (digital video broadcasting) to provide future function expandability. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Effect Through Broadcasting System Access Point For Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Marlina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most universities are already implementing wired and wireless network that is used to access integrated information systems and the Internet. At present it is important to do research on the influence of the broadcasting system through the access point for video transmitter learning in the university area. At every university computer network through the access point must also use the cable in its implementation. These networks require cables that will connect and transmit data from one computer to another computer. While wireless networks of computers connected through radio waves. This research will be a test or assessment of how the influence of the network using the WLAN access point for video broadcasting means learning from the server to the client. Instructional video broadcasting from the server to the client via the access point will be used for video broadcasting means of learning. This study aims to understand how to build a wireless network by using an access point. It also builds a computer server as instructional videos supporting software that can be used for video server that will be emitted by broadcasting via the access point and establish a system of transmitting video from the server to the client via the access point.

  4. DETECTING LASER SPOT IN SHOOTING SIMULATOR USING AN EMBEDDED CAMERA

    OpenAIRE

    Soetedjo, Aryuanto; Mahmudi, Ali; Ibrahim Ashari, M.; Ismail Nakhoda, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of an embedded camera system for detecting laser spot in the shooting simulator. The proposed shooting simulator uses a specific target box, where the circular pattern target is mounted. The embedded camera is installed inside the box to capture the circular pattern target and laser spot image. To localize the circular pattern automatically, two colored solid circles are painted on the target. This technique allows the simple and fast color tracking to trac...

  5. Characteristics of hybrid broadcast broadband television (HbbTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Branimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the working principle of hybrid broadcast-broadband TV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV - HbbTV. The architecture of HbbTV system is given, the principle of its operation, as well as an overview of HbbTV specification standards that are in use, with their basic characteristics. Here are described the services provided by Hybrid TV. It is also provided an overview of the distribution of HbbTV services in Europe in terms of the number of TV channels that HbbTV services offer, the number of active hybrid TV devices, HbbTV standards which are in use and models of broadcast networks used to distribute HbbTV service.

  6. Seamless Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting Using Adaptive Error Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Lentisco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia services over mobile networks present several challenges, such as ensuring a reliable delivery of multimedia content, avoiding undesired service disruptions, or reducing service latency. HTTP adaptive streaming addresses these problems for multimedia unicast services, but it is not efficient from the point of view of radio resource consumption. In Long-Term Evolution (LTE networks, multimedia broadcast services are provided over a common radio channel using a combination of forward error correction and unicast error recovery techniques at the application level. This paper discusses how to avoid service disruptions and reduce service latency for LTE multimedia broadcast services by adding dynamic adaptation capabilities to the unicast error recovery process. The proposed solution provides a seamless mobile multimedia broadcasting without compromising the quality of the service perceived by the users.

  7. Model-Based Speech Signal Coding Using Optimized Temporal Decomposition for Storage and Broadcasting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athaudage, Chandranath R. N.; Bradley, Alan B.; Lech, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    A dynamic programming-based optimization strategy for a temporal decomposition (TD) model of speech and its application to low-rate speech coding in storage and broadcasting is presented. In previous work with the spectral stability-based event localizing (SBEL) TD algorithm, the event localization was performed based on a spectral stability criterion. Although this approach gave reasonably good results, there was no assurance on the optimality of the event locations. In the present work, we have optimized the event localizing task using a dynamic programming-based optimization strategy. Simulation results show that an improved TD model accuracy can be achieved. A methodology of incorporating the optimized TD algorithm within the standard MELP speech coder for the efficient compression of speech spectral information is also presented. The performance evaluation results revealed that the proposed speech coding scheme achieves 50%-60% compression of speech spectral information with negligible degradation in the decoded speech quality.

  8. A Tree Based Broadcast Scheme for (m, k-firm Real-Time Stream in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HoSung Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various unicast routing protocols have been proposed to deliver measured data from the sensor node to the sink node within the predetermined deadline in wireless sensor networks. In parallel with their approaches, some applications demand the specific service, which is based on broadcast to all nodes within the deadline, the feasible real-time traffic model and improvements in energy efficiency. However, current protocols based on either flooding or one-to-one unicast cannot meet the above requirements entirely. Moreover, as far as the authors know, there is no study for the real-time broadcast protocol to support the application-specific traffic model in WSN yet. Based on the above analysis, in this paper, we propose a new (m, k-firm-based Real-time Broadcast Protocol (FRBP by constructing a broadcast tree to satisfy the (m, k-firm, which is applicable to the real-time model in resource-constrained WSNs. The broadcast tree in FRBP is constructed by the distance-based priority scheme, whereas energy efficiency is improved by selecting as few as nodes on a tree possible. To overcome the unstable network environment, the recovery scheme invokes rapid partial tree reconstruction in order to designate another node as the parent on a tree according to the measured (m, k-firm real-time condition and local states monitoring. Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate the superiority of FRBP compared to the existing schemes in terms of average deadline missing ratio, average throughput and energy consumption.

  9. Resource Allocation Management for Broadcast/Multicast Services

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente Iglesias, Alejandro de la; Pérez Leal, Raquel; García-Armada, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Ponencia presentada en: XXX Simposium Nacional de la Unión Científica Internacional de Radio, los dias 2 y 4 septiembre 2015, en Pamplona (españa). Video services are expected to become more than 70% of the mobile traffic in 2020. Broadcast and multicast service is the most efficient mechanism to deliver the same content to many users. Not only focusing on venue casting, but also distributing many other media such as software updates and breaking news, 5G broadcasting is a key driver to a...

  10. Resource allocation for multichannel broadcasting visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam-Tuan; Jang, Yeong Min

    2015-11-01

    Visible light communication (VLC), which offers the possibility of using light sources for both illumination and data communications simultaneously, will be a promising incorporation technique with lighting applications. However, it still remains some challenges especially coverage because of field-of-view limitation. In this paper, we focus on this issue by suggesting a resource allocation scheme for VLC broadcasting system. By using frame synchronization and a network calculus QoS approximation, as well as diversity technology, the proposed VLC architecture and QoS resource allocation for the multichannel-broadcasting MAC (medium access control) protocol can solve the coverage limitation problem and the link switching problem of exhibition service.

  11. Nationwide survey, assessment, and replacement designs of tank systems at 430 emergency broadcast stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraj, R.; Whitaker-Sheppard, L.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), acting on behalf of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), undertook a program to bring into compliance federally-owned underground storage tanks (USTs) at radio and television stations, which are part of the Broadcast Station Protection Program (BSPP) of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS). These USTs supply fuel (diesel and gasoline) to emergency generators and are located on private property. Woodward-Clyde Federal Services is under contract with FEMA to provide assistance in all phases of the program. The BSPP is designed to protect selected stations that are participants in the EBS, which support emergency preparedness and response operations. Technical standards for installation, spill and overfill protection, corrosion protection, and leak detection for underground storage tanks (UST) were promulgated by the EPA, as described in 53 Federal Register 37082 (September 23, 1988). December 1998 was established as a compliance data for corrosion protection and spill/overfill protection. A compliance period of December 1989 to December 1993 was established for leak detection devices, depending on the UST installation date. Several states have promulgated underground storage tank regulations that are more stringent than the federal requirements. Local agencies in several states may have additional UST requirements. All federal, state, and local UST requirements must be satisfied under a compliance program. The approach and methodology employed by FEMA are presented

  12. Models of spots and flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in recent years have shown that there are many more ways to drive a plasma out of equilibrium than to preserve equilibrium. In that sense, it is perhaps easier to understand why flares should occur in a stellar atmosphere than why a long-lived feature such as a dark spot should persist. The author summarizes work on the equilibrium structure of cool spots in the sun and stars. Since spots involve complex interactions between convective flows and magnetic fields, he needs to refer to observations for help in identifying the dominant processes which should enter into the modelling. His summary therefore begins by discussing certain relevant properties of spots in the solar atmosphere. The next sections deal with the magnetic fields in spots, the stability of spots, spot cooling and missing flux. The author concludes that spots should be viewed not simply as cool areas, but rather as engines which do the work of converting the energy of convective flows into flare-compatible form. (Auth.)

  13. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  14. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  15. Architecture and Design of IP Broadcasting System Using Passive Optical Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Sugawa, Jun; Ashi, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Kenichi

    We propose an IP broadcasting system architecture using passive optical networks (PON) utilizing the optical broadcast links of a PON with a downstream bandwidth allocation algorithm to provide a multi-channel IP broadcasting service to home subscribers on single broadband IP network infrastructures. We introduce the design and adaptation of the optical broadcast links to effectively broadcast video contents to home subscribers. We present a performance analysis that includes the downstream bandwidth utilization efficiency of the broadcast link and the bandwidth control of the IP broadcasting and Internet data. Our analysis and simulation results show that the proposed system can provide 100 HDTV channels to every user over fiber lines. We also propose an IPTV channel selection mechanism in an ONT by selecting a broadcast stream. We developed and evaluated a prototype that can achieve a 15-msec IPTV channel selection speed.

  16. An Efficient Live TV Scheduling System for 4G LTE Broadcast

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong; Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    Traditional live television (TV) broadcasting systems are proven to be spectrum inefficient. Therefore, researchers propose to provide TV services on fourth-generation (4G) long-term evolution (LTE) networks. However, static broadcast, a typical

  17. 75 FR 29537 - Draft Transportation Conformity Guidance for Quantitative Hot-spot Analyses in PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Quantitative Hot- spot Analyses in PM 2.5 and PM 10 Nonattainment and Maintenance Areas AGENCY: Environmental... finalized, this guidance would help state and local agencies complete quantitative PM 2.5 and PM 10 hot-spot... projects. A hot-spot analysis includes an estimation of project-level emissions, air quality modeling, and...

  18. 70 LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL AS A CONSTITUENT OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    power to superintend the funds accruing to the Local Governments, they do not have the liberty to misapply .... provided by the Government of a state; allocation of wave-lengths for wireless, broadcasting and television transmission;. Item 67 ...

  19. 76 FR 12292 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Kualapuu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-323; MB Docket No. 09-189; RM-11564] Radio Broadcasting Services; Kualapuu, HI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Audio Division, at the request of Kemp Communications, Inc., allots FM Channel 296C2 at Kualapuu, Hawaii...

  20. Audience Research in American Broadcasting: The Early Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Donald

    The basic arrangements and practices of American broadcast audience research and measurement were established during the first decade (1920-29) of the field's existence, and were motivated by commercial and competing institutional concerns within the broader context of evolving forms of imagination and expression. A review of the evidence found in…

  1. 76 FR 56657 - Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...-174] Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection requirements contained in the regulations for issues relating to the unlicensed use of the TV bands (TV White Space). The information collection requirements were approved on September 7, 2011 by...

  2. Northern goshawk broadcast surveys: Hawk response variables and survey cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Joy; Richard T. Reynolds; Douglas G. Leslie

    1994-01-01

    We examined responses of Northern Goshawks (Accipter gentilis) to taped broadcast calls of conspecifics in tree-harvest areas and around alternate goshawk nests on Kaibab National Forest, Arizona, in 1991 and 1992. Forest areas totaling 476 km2 were systematically surveyed for goshawks. Ninety responses by adult and juvenile goshawks were elicited...

  3. Retrieving relevant and interesting tweets during live television broadcasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Zhu, Y.; Koot, G.; Redi, J.; Niamut, O.

    2015-01-01

    The use of social TV applications to enhance the experience of live event broadcasts has become an increasingly common practice. An event profile, defined as a set of keywords relevant to an event, can help to track messages related to these events on social networks. We propose an event profiler

  4. Resource development and experiments in automatic SA broadcast news transcription

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kamper, H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available development purposes: a 20 hour corpus of South African English (SAE) broadcast news, a 109M word corpus of South African newspaper text collected for language modelling purposes, and a 60k word SAE pronunciation dictionary. The development of our system...

  5. How to Write News for Broadcast and Print Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dary, David

    This book is a primer on the techniques of news writing and the application of those principles to print and broadcast journalism. Chapters include: "The News Media," which presents a brief history of journalism and the foundations on which it is based; "What Is News?"; "Gathering News," which discusses news beats, reporters' qualifications, and…

  6. 76 FR 5521 - Innovation in the Broadcast Television Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... broadcasters serving minority, foreign language and niche interests that might have smaller audiences and lower... signals, including those not specifically raised in this NPRM. Improving Reception of VHF TV Service 34... band that can cause interference, and reception of VHF signals requires physically larger antennas that...

  7. Broadcasting in Iceland: Cultural Protectionism and U.S. Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Tim

    Icelanders are a highly literate people, their culture tied together by perhaps the most complete written tradition of any modern nation. No wonder, then, that the tiny island country seemed in no rush to develop a television broadcasting system. Indeed, it is questionable whether television would have been in demand at all if not for outside…

  8. 76 FR 62642 - Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Characteristic,'' (July 6, 2010), as listed below: (i) A/53, Part 1:2007, ``Digital Television System'' (January... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-1432] Digital Broadcast Television..., Radio, Television. Accordingly, 47 CFR part 73 is corrected by making the following correcting...

  9. Unsupervised Speaker Change Detection for Broadcast News Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a speaker change detection system for news broadcast segmentation based on a vector quantization (VQ) approach. The system does not make any assumption about the number of speakers or speaker identity. The system uses mel frequency cepstral coefficients and change detection...

  10. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2236; MB Docket No. 10-108] Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The staff deletes FM Channel 299C2 at Pacific Junction, Iowa, because the record in this...

  11. Using Digital Watermarking for Securing Next Generation Media Broadcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Dominik; Gaines, Seán

    The Internet presents a problem for the protection of intellectual property. Those who create content must be adequately compensated for the use of their works. Rights agencies who monitor the use of these works exist in many jurisdictions. In the traditional broadcast environment this monitoring is a difficult task. With Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and Next Generation Networks (NGN) this situation is further complicated.

  12. 76 FR 67397 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Llano, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...] Radio Broadcasting Services; Llano, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... substituting Channel 242C3 for vacant Channel 293C3, at Llano, Texas. The proposal is part of a contingently... required for the allotment of Channel 242C3 at Llano, Texas, because the proposed allotment is located...

  13. 78 FR 27342 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Moran, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Broadcasting Services; Moran, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... service at Moran, Texas. Channel 281A can be allotted at Moran, Texas, in compliance with the Commission's... parties should serve petitioner as follows: Katherine Pyeatt, 215 Cedar Springs Rd., 1605, Dallas, Texas...

  14. 78 FR 42700 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Matagorda, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... Broadcasting Services; Matagorda, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... FM Channel 252A at Matagorda, Texas. This allotment change is part of a hybrid rule making and FM... 291A at Matagorda, Texas, is located within 320 kilometers (199 miles) of the U.S.-Mexican border...

  15. 75 FR 3641 - Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-40; MB Docket No. 09-210; RM-11583] Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1211 - Broadcast of lottery information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, shall broadcast any advertisement of or information concerning any lottery... section shall not apply to an advertisement, list of prizes or other information concerning: (1) A lottery... and ancillary to the primary business of that organization. (18 U.S.C. 1307(a); 102 Stat. 3205). (d)(1...

  17. Surveillance discourse in UK broadcasting since the Snowden revelations

    OpenAIRE

    Lischka, Juliane A

    2015-01-01

    The surveillance discourse in British broadcast news since the Snowden revelations covers justifications and challenges. Justification focuses on authorisation and rationalisation strategies stating terror threats explicitly, which are often expressed by governmental actors. Delegitimation strategies predominantly use moralising and mythopoetic arguments of civil liberties and are expressed by Snowden himself, politicians, rarely by journalists, non-governmental organisations, and very rarely...

  18. Will broadcasters survive in the online and digital domain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurdijk, A.

    2007-01-01

    Digital television and the internet are fundamentally changing media markets. Consumers have access to an increasing amount of news, information and entertainment. In addition to traditional media companies such as publishers and broadcasters new players enter the market as content producers,

  19. Reinventing public service broadcasting in Europe: prospects, promises and problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardoel, J.L.H.; d'Haenens, L.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    New information technologies, liberalizing policies and rapidly changing societies – from mono- to multicultural – entail serious consequences for the prospects of European public service broadcasters in a network society. The European concept of PSB as a comprehensive and universal service is

  20. The Status of Broadcast Education in Institutions of Higher Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Garland C.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed different departments that offer undergraduate degrees in radio-television-film. Compared (1) philosophies; (2) semester hours offered and required in radio-television-film; (3) faculty qualifications; (4) dollars invested in equipment and training facilities; and (5) student enrollment degree data. Departments included broadcasting,…

  1. 76 FR 49697 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  2. 78 FR 58470 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 13-182; RM-11701; DA 13-1882] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  3. 76 FR 33656 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-29; RM-11622, DA 11-949] Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  4. 76 FR 19275 - Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-8; RM-11618, DA 11-516] Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal...

  5. 75 FR 13681 - Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... not less than one very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if technically... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  6. 76 FR 18415 - Television Broadcasting Services; New Haven, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 09-123; RM-11546, DA 11-501] Television Broadcasting Services; New Haven, CT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  7. 76 FR 19276 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-4; RM-11616, DA 11-530] Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  8. 77 FR 33997 - Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... freeze on the acceptance of rulemaking petitions by full power television stations requesting channel... filed by full power television stations seeking to relocate from channel 51 pursuant to a voluntary...

  9. 76 FR 20248 - Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 10-264; RM-11615, DA 11-572] Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  10. 76 FR 68124 - Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 09-115, RM-11543; DA 11-1502] Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission denies a petition for reconsideration of an August 12...

  11. 75 FR 19907 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-606; MB Docket No. 10-49; RM-11593] Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  12. 76 FR 71909 - Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-137; RM-11637, DA 11-1863] Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  13. 76 FR 44280 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-74; RM-11630, DA 11-1185] Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...

  14. 76 FR 27914 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619, DA 11-750] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). [[Page 27915

  15. 75 FR 3695 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ (TV), channel *10... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  16. 76 FR 28946 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-74, RM-11630; DA 11-746] Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman...

  17. 76 FR 66250 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Community Television of Ohio License, LLC (``Community Television''), the licensee of station WJW (TV), channel 8, Cleveland...

  18. 76 FR 18497 - Television Broadcasting Services; Augusta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-54, RM-11624; DA 11-499] Television Broadcasting Services; Augusta, GA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division, Media...

  19. 76 FR 68117 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission grants a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee, LLC... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  20. 75 FR 13236 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-395; MB Docket No. 10-19; RM-11589] Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  1. 75 FR 81190 - Television Broadcasting Services; Yuma, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2365; MB Docket No. 02-151; RM-10453] Television Broadcasting Services; Yuma, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Dismissal. SUMMARY: The Commission dismisses the petition for rulemaking filed by Arizona Western College, requesting...

  2. Bluetooth Broadcasting : How far can we go? An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Jong, Remko de; Nes, Joel de

    2009-01-01

    Bluetooth is a wireless communication technology to build small networks of devices. It was designed as a cable replacement technology. Given its widespread adoption, especially in mobile devices, new uses are possible today. For instance, one can broadcast messages to nomadic users based on their

  3. Experimental Study of Tensile Test in Resistance Spot Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebbal Habib

    Full Text Available Abstract Resistance spot welding (RSW is a widely used joining process for fabricating sheet metal assemblies in automobile industry .In comparison with other welding processes the RSW is faster and easier for automation. This process involves electrical, thermal and mechanical interactions. Resistance spot welding primarily takes place by localized melting spot at the interface of the sheets followed by its quick solidification under sequential control of pressure water-cooled electrode and flow of required electric current for certain duration. In this work the tensile tests were studied, the results obtained show that the type material, the overlap length, the angle of the rolling direction and the thickness of the sheet have an influence in resistance spot welding process.

  4. Performance evaluation of micro thermoelectric module for hot spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ook Joong; Lee, Kong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The experimental and numerical study is carried out to investigate the availability of micro TEM for hot spot cooling of an IC chip. It is found that an acrylic plate integrating with copper plate and imbedded micro TEM represents good hot spot cooling of the IC chip when CO2 laser is used to hot spot heating. Effective active local cooling phenomena by the TEM are well investigated by experiment. The measured temperature drop in the hot spot point is compared to numerical result using the TAS program for every case. Numerical result shows good agreement with experiment using some appropriate thermal and thermoelectric properties of TEM and TIM obtained by trial and error. Measurement of thermo-physical properties such as contact thermal resistance and thickness of liquid TIM is difficult but can be estimated by numerical analysis

  5. 47 CFR 74.1205 - Protection of channel 6 TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of channel 6 TV broadcast stations... 6 TV broadcast stations. The provisions of this section apply to all applications for construction... applicant and each affected TV Channel 6 broadcast station licensee or permittee concurring with the...

  6. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed on...

  7. 47 CFR 74.601 - Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.601 Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations. (a) TV pickup stations. A land mobile station used for the transmission of TV program material and related communications...

  8. Between Postage Stamps and Digitalization: The Changing Roles of Educational Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Frederic

    1995-01-01

    Provides a broadcasting practitioner's perspective of educational broadcasting in Europe, and how, with data compression, the emergence of more television channels can affect the educationalist and public service broadcasting. Discusses technological development, equal access to education, cultural maintenance, advertising, future outlooks, and…

  9. 75 FR 76731 - Request for Comment for Report on In-State Broadcast Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Report on In-State Broadcast Programming AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice... to submit a report on in- state broadcast programming to the appropriate Congressional committees no.... REPORT ON IN-STATE BROADCAST PROGRAMMING. Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... a different language. (b) Television and Class A television licensees in Puerto Rico may enter into...

  11. 77 FR 22755 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of Meeting of the Broadcasting Board of Governors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of Meeting of the Broadcasting Board of Governors DATE AND TIME: Friday, April 20, 2012, 10 a.m. PLACE: Office of Cuba Broadcasting, 4201... Strategy and Budget Committee on the implementation of the BBG strategy and a report from the Governance...

  12. Retrieving Radio News Broadcasts in Danish: Accuracy and Categorization of Unrecognized Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Lund, Haakon; Troelsgaard, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Digital archives of radio news broadcasts can possibly be made searchable by combining speech recognition with information retrieval. We explore this possibility for the retrieval of news broadcasts in Danish. An average of 84% of the words in the broadcasts was recognized. Most of the unrecogniz...

  13. Tearing the Fabric of Canada: The Broadcast Media and Canadian Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elaine F.

    This paper explores the perceived threat of American cultural "imperialism" in Canada, the effect of constant exposure to American broadcasting on the Canadian national identity, the role broadcasting plays in shaping Canadian identity, and the efforts by the Canadian government to "Canadianize" its broadcasting. A brief…

  14. System optimization for peer-to-peer multi hop video broadcasting in wireless ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedeoglu, V.; Atici, C.; Salman, F.S.; Sunay, M.O.

    2008-01-01

    We consider peer-to-peer video broadcasting using cooperation among peers in an ad hoc wireless network. As opposed to the traditional single hop broadcasting, multiple hops cause an increase in broadcast video quality while creating interference and increasing transmission delay. We develop

  15. 78 FR 59230 - Special Local Regulations; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, Between Davis Dam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... period via the Local Notice to Mariners and local advertising by the event sponsor. If the Captain of the... enforced for the full duration stated on this notice, he or she may use a Broadcast Notice to Mariners or...

  16. Spotting psychopaths using technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Sarah; Adeli, Hojjat

    2015-01-01

    For the past three and a half decades, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the self-report Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) have been the standard measures for the diagnosis of psychopathy. Technological approaches can enhance these diagnostic methodologies. The purpose of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art review of various technological approaches for spotting psychopathy, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and other measures. Results of EEG event-related potential (ERP) experiments support the theory that impaired amygdala function may be responsible for abnormal fear processing in psychopathy, which can ultimately manifest as psychopathic traits, as outlined by the PCL-R or PPI-R. Imaging studies, in general, point to reduced fear processing capabilities in psychopathic individuals. While the human element, introduced through researcher/participant interactions, can be argued as unequivocally necessary for diagnosis, these purely objective technological approaches have proven to be useful in conjunction with the subjective interviewing and questionnaire methods for differentiating psychopaths from non-psychopaths. Furthermore, these technologies are more robust than behavioral measures, which have been shown to fail.

  17. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  18. Children's exposure assessment of radiofrequency fields: Comparison between spot and personal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegi, Mara; Huss, Anke; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Guxens, Mònica; Birks, Laura Ellen; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David; Röösli, Martin; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana

    2018-05-24

    Radiofrequency (RF) fields are widely used and, while it is still unknown whether children are more vulnerable to this type of exposure, it is essential to explore their level of exposure in order to conduct adequate epidemiological studies. Personal measurements provide individualized information, but they are costly in terms of time and resources, especially in large epidemiological studies. Other approaches, such as estimation of time-weighted averages (TWAs) based on spot measurements could simplify the work. The aims of this study were to assess RF exposure in the Spanish INMA birth cohort by spot measurements and by personal measurements in the settings where children tend to spend most of their time, i.e., homes, schools and parks; to identify the settings and sources that contribute most to that exposure; and to explore if exposure assessment based on spot measurements is a valid proxy for personal exposure. When children were 8 years old, spot measurements were conducted in the principal settings of 104 participants: homes (104), schools and their playgrounds (26) and parks (79). At the same time, personal measurements were taken for a subsample of 50 children during 3 days. Exposure assessment based on personal and on spot measurements were compared both in terms of mean exposures and in exposure-dependent categories by means of Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's kappa and McNemar test. Median exposure levels ranged from 29.73 (in children's bedrooms) to 200.10 μW/m 2 (in school playgrounds) for spot measurements and were higher outdoors than indoors. Median personal exposure was 52.13 μW/m 2 and median levels of assessments based on spot measurements ranged from 25.46 to 123.21 μW/m 2 . Based on spot measurements, the sources that contributed most to the exposure were FM radio, mobile phone downlink and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial, while indoor and personal sources contributed very little (altogether spot measurements, with the latter

  19. The Scatter Search Based Algorithm to Revenue Management Problem in Broadcasting Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishdad, Arezoo; Sharifyazdi, Mehdi; Karimpour, Reza

    2009-09-01

    The problem under question in this paper which is faced by broadcasting companies is how to benefit from a limited advertising space. This problem is due to the stochastic behavior of customers (advertiser) in different fare classes. To address this issue we propose a mathematical constrained nonlinear multi period model which incorporates cancellation and overbooking. The objective function is to maximize the total expected revenue and our numerical method performs it by determining the sales limits for each class of customer to present the revenue management control policy. Scheduling the advertising spots in breaks is another area of concern and we consider it as a constraint in our model. In this paper an algorithm based on Scatter search is developed to acquire a good feasible solution. This method uses simulation over customer arrival and in a continuous finite time horizon [0, T]. Several sensitivity analyses are conducted in computational result for depicting the effectiveness of proposed method. It also provides insight into better results of considering revenue management (control policy) compared to "no sales limit" policy in which sooner demand will served first.

  20. An Efficient Live TV Scheduling System for 4G LTE Broadcast

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2016-01-01

    Traditional live television (TV) broadcasting systems are proven to be spectrum inefficient. Therefore, researchers propose to provide TV services on fourth-generation (4G) long-term evolution (LTE) networks. However, static broadcast, a typical broadcasting method over cellular network, is inefficient in terms of radio resource usage. To solve this problem, the audience-driven live TV scheduling (ADTVS) framework is proposed, to maximize radio resource usage when providing TV broadcasting services over LTE networks. ADTVS, a system-level scheduling framework, considers both available radio resources and audience preferences, in order to dynamically schedule TV channels for broadcasting at various time and locations. By conducting a simulation using real-life data and scenarios, it is shown that ADTVS significantly outperforms the static broadcast method. Numerical results indicate that, on average, ADTVS enables substantial improvement to broadcast efficiency and conserves considerable amount of radio resources, while forgoing less than 5% of user services compared to the benchmark system.

  1. Dried blood spots as a source of anti-malarial antibodies for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corran, Patrick H; Cook, Jackie; Lynch, Caroline; Leendertse, Heleen; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Griffin, Jamie; Cox, Jonathan; Abeku, Tarekegn; Bousema, Teun; Ghani, Azra C; Drakeley, Chris; Riley, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Background Blood spots collected onto filter paper are an established and convenient source of antibodies for serological diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. Although recommendations for the storage and analysis of small molecule analytes in blood spots exist, there are no published systematic studies of the stability of antibodies under different storage conditions. Methods Blood spots, on filter paper or glass fibre mats and containing malaria-endemic plasma, were desiccated and stored at various temperatures for different times. Eluates of these spots were assayed for antibodies against two Plasmodium falciparum antigens, MSP-119 and MSP2, and calculated titres used to fit an exponential (first order kinetic) decay model. The first order rate constants (k) for each spot storage temperature were used to fit an Arrhenius equation, in order to estimate the thermal and temporal stability of antibodies in dried blood spots. The utility of blood spots for serological assays was confirmed by comparing antibodies eluted from blood spots with the equivalent plasma values in a series of samples from North Eastern Tanzania and by using blood spot-derived antibodies to estimate malaria transmission intensity in this site and for two localities in Uganda. Results Antibodies in spots on filter paper and glass fibre paper had similar stabilities but blood was more easily absorbed onto filter papers than glass fibre, spots were more regular and spot size was more closely correlated with blood volume for filter paper spots. Desiccated spots could be stored at or below 4°C for extended periods, but were stable for only very limited periods at ambient temperature. When desiccated, recoveries of antibodies that are predominantly of IgG1 or IgG3 subclasses were similar. Recoveries of antibodies from paired samples of serum and of blood spots from Tanzania which had been suitably stored showed similar recoveries of antibodies, but spots which had been stored for extended periods

  2. Modeling of Slovak Language for Broadcast News Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STAŠ Ján

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes recent progress in the development the Slovak language models for transcription of spontaneous speech such as broadcast news, educational talks and lectures, or meetings. This work extends previous research oriented on the automatic transcription of dictated speech and brings some new extensions for improving perplexity and robustness of the Slovak language models trained on the web-based and electronic language resources for being more precise in recognition of spontaneous speech. These improvements include better text preprocessing, document classification, class-based and filled pauses modeling, web-data augmentation and fast model adaptation to the target domain. Experiments have been performed on the four different evaluation data sets, including judicial and newspaper readings, broadcast news recordings and parliament proceedings with the Slovak transcription system. Preliminary results show significant decrease of the word error rate for multiple transcription system configurations of acoustic and language models.

  3. Broadcasting collective operation contributions throughout a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Ahmad [Rochester, MN

    2012-02-21

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting collective operation contributions throughout a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together through a data communications network. Each compute node has a plurality of processors for use in collective parallel operations on the parallel computer. Broadcasting collective operation contributions throughout a parallel computer according to embodiments of the present invention includes: transmitting, by each processor on each compute node, that processor's collective operation contribution to the other processors on that compute node using intra-node communications; and transmitting on a designated network link, by each processor on each compute node according to a serial processor transmission sequence, that processor's collective operation contribution to the other processors on the other compute nodes using inter-node communications.

  4. Broadcast media and the dissemination of weather information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J.

    1973-01-01

    Although television is the public's most preferred source of weather information, it fails to provide weather reports to those groups who seek the information early in the day and during the day. The result is that many people most often use radio as a source of information, yet preferring the medium of television. The public actively seeks weather information from both radio and TV stations, usually seeking information on current conditions and short range forecasts. forecasts. Nearly all broadcast stations surveyed were eager to air severe weather bulletins quickly and often. Interest in Nowcasting was high among radio and TV broadcasters, with a significant portion indicating a willingness to pay something for the service. However, interest among TV stations in increasing the number of daily reports was small.

  5. Finding Minimum-Power Broadcast Trees for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, Payman; Gray, Andrew; Das, Arindam; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed; Marks, Robert, II

    2004-01-01

    Some algorithms have been devised for use in a method of constructing tree graphs that represent connections among the nodes of a wireless communication network. These algorithms provide for determining the viability of any given candidate connection tree and for generating an initial set of viable trees that can be used in any of a variety of search algorithms (e.g., a genetic algorithm) to find a tree that enables the network to broadcast from a source node to all other nodes while consuming the minimum amount of total power. The method yields solutions better than those of a prior algorithm known as the broadcast incremental power algorithm, albeit at a slightly greater computational cost.

  6. Numerical optimisation in spot detector design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Apperloo, W.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    1997-01-01

    Spots are image details resulting from objects, the projections of which are so small that the inner structure of these objects cannot be resolved from their image. Spot detectors are image operators aiming at the detection and localisation of spots in the image. Most spot detectors can be tuned

  7. Managing emerging threats to spotted owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Yi Wan; Joseph L. Ganey; Christina D. Vojta; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The 3 spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies in North America (i.e., northern spotted owl [S. o. caurina], California spotted owl [S. o. occidentalis], Mexican spotted owl [S. o. lucida]) have all experienced population declines over the past century due to habitat loss and fragmentation from logging. Now, the emerging influences of climate change, high-severity...

  8. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  9. Music stations in czech TV broadcasting and their presenters

    OpenAIRE

    Klementová, Ema

    2013-01-01

    This thesis compares two significant music televisions in Czech television broadcasting, MTV and TV Óčko. Also it describes the development and history of the first American music television MTV and also it provides a view to some similar features of the development of the American MTV and the development of the Czech music televisions. Both Czech music televisions are also compared in terms of the program structure. The practical part of this thesis is based on interviews with four presenter...

  10. Secure Broadcasting with Imperfect Channel State Information at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Rezki, Zouheir; Khisti, Ashish; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper’s CSI and not of its channel’s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1−) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  11. Reliability of Broadcast Communications Under Sparse Random Linear Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Suzie; Johnson, Oliver; Tassi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Ultra-reliable Point-to-Multipoint (PtM) communications are expected to become pivotal in networks offering future dependable services for smart cities. In this regard, sparse Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) techniques have been widely employed to provide an efficient way to improve the reliability of broadcast and multicast data streams. This paper addresses the pressing concern of providing a tight approximation to the probability of a user recovering a data stream protected by this kin...

  12. Altmark, Article 86(2) and Public Service Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Frands

    2008-01-01

    En analyse af EU-Kommissionens 17 Beslutninger angående statsstøtte til Public Service Broadcasting, der er truffet efter afsigelse af Altmark-dommen i juli 2003. Kommissionen har i alle tilfælde først analyseret om de fire Altmark-krav er opfyldt, og det er aldrig tilfældet. dernæst har den godk...

  13. An Improved Ant Colony Broadcasting Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Jiang; Rigui Zhou; Shuqun Yang; Qiulin Ding

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in nano-technology have made it possible to develop a large variety of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-miniaturized low-power devices that integrate sensing, special-purpose computing, and wireless communications capabilities. A sensor network is a collection of many small devices, each with sensing, computation, and communication capability. It has many potential applications, such as building surveillance and environmental monitoring. Broadcasting is defined that com...

  14. Secure Broadcasting with Imperfect Channel State Information at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2015-11-13

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper’s CSI and not of its channel’s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1−) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  15. The Search for Resilience Weak Spots in Automotive Mixed-Signal Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerzerho, V.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Bollen, G-J; Xing, Y

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the search for and resulting effects of resilience weak spots in a commercial Local Interconnect Network (LIN) transceiver. Industrial reliability simulations based on aging of devices have been used to locate these weak spots. The objective is to improve the resilience of the

  16. Quantum broadcasting problem in classical low-power signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzing, Dominik; Steudel, Bastian

    2007-01-01

    We prove a no-broadcasting theorem for the Holevo information of a noncommuting ensemble stating that no operation can generate a bipartite ensemble such that both copies have the same information as the original. We argue that upper bounds on the average information over both copies imply lower bounds on the quantum capacity required to send the ensemble without information loss. This is because a channel with zero quantum capacity has a unitary extension transferring at least as much information to its environment as it transfers to the output. For an ensemble being the time orbit of a pure state under a Hamiltonian evolution, we derive such a bound on the required quantum capacity in terms of properties of the input and output energy distribution. Moreover, we discuss relations between the broadcasting problem and entropy power inequalities. The broadcasting problem arises when a signal should be transmitted by a time-invariant device such that the outgoing signal has the same timing information as the incoming signal had. Based on previous results we argue that this establishes a link between quantum information theory and the theory of low power computing because the loss of timing information implies loss of free energy

  17. Radio broadcasting: a conceptual challenge in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia R. Del Bianco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the partial results of research carried out by the Observatory of Public Radio Broadcasting of Latin America on the changes occurring in the public radio and TV systems in 10 Latin American countries, under the aspects of functioning models, management, financing, and social participation. After the rising to power of governments linked to parties from the left, we verified that communication policies are being established, which aim at closing the gap between traditional state broadcasting stations and the notion of public. This considers the principles that characterize the action of this media, determined by UNESCO (2001: universality, diversity, independence, and differentiation of content in the programming. A hundred and forty broadcasting stations were analyzed from the perspective of being public based on two criteria: those that are under the control of the State direct or indirectly, by means of concessions for use without profit for foundations, companies, and public universities; and those that receive public financing. Based on the analysis of the data, five trend tendencies were observed: the construction of a new regulatory framework; the creation of public companies instead of legal centralized state structures; the institution of relatively autonomous deliberative councils responsible for overseeing the management of the stations; the diversification of funding sources in an attempt to reverse the dependence on government resources; and the renewal of the programming with the opening for independent production.

  18. Relay-based information broadcast in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhongyan; Han, Zeyu; Tang, Wallace K. S.; Lin, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Information broadcast (IB) is a critical process in complex network, usually accomplished by flooding mechanism. Although flooding is simple and no prior topological information is required, it consumes a lot of transmission overhead. Another extreme is the tree-based broadcast (TB), for which information is disseminated via a spanning tree. It achieves the minimal transmission overhead but the maintenance of spanning tree for every node is an obvious obstacle for implementation. Motivated by the success of scale-free network models for real-world networks, in this paper, we investigate the issues in IB by considering an alternative solution in-between these two extremes. A novel relay-based broadcast (RB) mechanism is proposed by employing a subset of nodes as relays. Information is firstly forwarded to one of these relays and then re-disseminated to others through the spanning tree whose root is the relay. This mechanism provides a trade-off solution between flooding and TB. On one hand, it saves up a lot of transmission overhead as compared to flooding; on the other hand, it costs much less resource for maintenance than TB as only a few spanning trees are needed. Based on two major criteria, namely the transmission overhead and the convergence time, the effectiveness of RB is confirmed. The impacts of relay assignment and network structures on performance are also studied in this work.

  19. Analysis and Transceiver Design for the MIMO Broadcast Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Hunger, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with the optimization-based joint design of the transmit and receive filters in   MIMO broadcast channel in which the user terminals may be equipped with several antenna elements. Furthermore, the maximum performance of the system in the high power regime as well as the set of all feasible quality-of-service requirements is analyzed. First, a fundamental duality is derived that holds between the MIMO broadcast channel and virtual MIMO multiple access channel. This duality construct allows for the efficient solution of problems originally posed in the broadcast channel in the dual domain where a possibly hidden convexity can often be revealed. On the basis of the established duality result, the gradient-projection algorithm is introduced as a tool to solve constrained optimization problems to global optimality under certain conditions. The gradient-projection tool is then applied to solving the weighted sum rate maximization problem which is a central optimization that arises in any network u...

  20. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  1. Motion Interplay as a Function of Patient Parameters and Spot Size in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Lomax, Antony; Sharp, Greg; Shackleford, James; Choi, Noah; Willers, Henning; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Quantify the impact of respiratory motion on the treatment of lung tumors with spot scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials 4D Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the interplay effect, which results from relative motion of the tumor and the proton beam, on the dose distribution in the patient. Ten patients with varying tumor sizes (2.6-82.3cc) and motion amplitudes (3-30mm) were included in the study. We investigated the impact of the spot size, which varies between proton facilities, and studied single fractions and conventionally fractionated treatments. The following metrics were used in the analysis: minimum/maximum/mean dose, target dose homogeneity and 2-year local control rate (2y-LC). Results Respiratory motion reduces the target dose homogeneity, with the largest effects observed for the highest motion amplitudes. Smaller spot sizes (σ≈3mm) are inherently more sensitive to motion, decreasing target dose homogeneity on average by a factor ~2.8 compared to a larger spot size (σ≈13mm). Using a smaller spot size to treat a tumor with 30mm motion amplitude reduces the minimum dose to 44.7% of the prescribed dose, decreasing modeled 2y-LC from 87.0% to 2.7%, assuming a single fraction. Conventional fractionation partly mitigates this reduction, yielding a 2y-LC of 71.6%. For the large spot size, conventional fractionation increases target dose homogeneity and prevents a deterioration of 2y-LC for all patients. No correlation with tumor volume is observed. The effect on the normal lung dose distribution is minimal: observed changes in mean lung dose and lung V20 are interplay using a large spot size and conventional fractionation. For treatments employing smaller spot sizes and/or in the delivery of single fractions, interplay effects can lead to significant deterioration of the dose distribution and lower 2y-LC. PMID:23462423

  2. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  3. 3D-TOFSIMS characterization of black spots in polymer light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulle-Lieuwma, C.W.T.; Weijer, P. van de

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence and formation of black spots areas in PolyLED devices has been studied by time-of-flight SIMS (TOFSIMS). The composition, shape and position of the black spots is visualised by three-dimensional (3D)-TOFSIMS depth-profiling. It has been established that the formation of non-emissive spots is due to the growth of aluminium oxide clusters at the AlBa/polymer interface. Electron injection in the black spots is lost by the resulting local increase of the resistivity of the cathode

  4. Distributed Constrained Stochastic Subgradient Algorithms Based on Random Projection and Asynchronous Broadcast over Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlong Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a distributed constrained optimization problem over a time-varying network, where each agent only knows its own cost functions and its constraint set. However, the local constraint set may not be known in advance or consists of huge number of components in some applications. To deal with such cases, we propose a distributed stochastic subgradient algorithm over time-varying networks, where the estimate of each agent projects onto its constraint set by using random projection technique and the implement of information exchange between agents by employing asynchronous broadcast communication protocol. We show that our proposed algorithm is convergent with probability 1 by choosing suitable learning rate. For constant learning rate, we obtain an error bound, which is defined as the expected distance between the estimates of agent and the optimal solution. We also establish an asymptotic upper bound between the global objective function value at the average of the estimates and the optimal value.

  5. Quantum broadcast communication and authentication protocol with a quantum one-time pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yan; Xu Chun-Xiang; Zhang Shi-Bin; Yan Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    A quantum broadcast communication and authentication protocol with a quantum one-time pad based on the Greenberger—Horne—Zeilinger state is proposed. A binary string is used to express the identity of the receiver, which is encoded as a single sequence of photons. The encoded photon sequence acts as a detection sequence and implements authentication. An XOR operation serves as a one-time pad and is used to ensure the security of the protocol. The binary string is reused even in a noisy channel and proves to be unconditionally secure. In contrast with the protocols proposed by Wang et al. [Chin. Phys. 16 1868 (2007)] and Yang et al. [Chin. Phys. B 19 070304 (2010)], the protocol in this study implements the identity authentication with a reusable binary string; no hash function or local unitary operation is used. The protocol in this study is also easier to implement and highly efficient without losing security. (general)

  6. Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E.; Huchery, Cindy; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; McClanahan, Tim R.; Maina, Joseph; Maire, Eva; Kittinger, John N.; Hicks, Christina C.; Mora, Camilo; Allison, Edward H.; D'Agata, Stephanie; Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Crowder, Larry; Williams, Ivor D.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Edgar, Graham; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Green, Alison L.; Hardt, Marah J.; Beger, Maria; Friedlander, Alan; Campbell, Stuart J.; Holmes, Katherine E.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew J.; Cruz-Motta, Juan J.; Booth, David J.; Chabanet, Pascale; Gough, Charlie; Tupper, Mark; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Mouillot, David

    2016-07-01

    Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world’s coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the ‘outliers’—places where ecosystems are substantially better (‘bright spots’) or worse (‘dark spots’) than expected, given the environmental conditions and socioeconomic drivers they are exposed to. Here we compile data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide and develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to generate expectations of how standing stocks of reef fish biomass are related to 18 socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. We identify 15 bright spots and 35 dark spots among our global survey of coral reefs, defined as sites that have biomass levels more than two standard deviations from expectations. Importantly, bright spots are not simply comprised of remote areas with low fishing pressure; they include localities where human populations and use of ecosystem resources is high, potentially providing insights into how communities have successfully confronted strong drivers of change. Conversely, dark spots are not necessarily the sites with the lowest absolute biomass and even include some remote, uninhabited locations often considered near pristine. We surveyed local experts about social, institutional, and environmental conditions at these sites to reveal that bright spots are characterized by strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, high levels of local engagement in management, high dependence on marine resources, and beneficial environmental conditions such as deep-water refuges. Alternatively, dark spots are characterized by intensive capture and storage technology and a recent history of environmental shocks. Our results suggest that investments in strengthening fisheries

  7. Plasmonic electromagnetic hot spots temporally addressed by photoinduced molecular displacement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, M. L.; Plain, J.; Bachelot, R.; Vial, A.; Royer, P.; Gray, S. K.; Montgomery, J. M.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Univ. de Technologie de Troyes

    2009-04-23

    We report the observation of temporally varying electromagnetic hot spots in plasmonic nanostructures. Changes in the field amplitude, position, and spatial features are induced by embedding plasmonic silver nanorods in the photoresponsive azo-polymer. This polymer undergoes cis?trans isomerization and wormlike transport within resonant optical fields, producing a time-varying local dielectric environment that alters the locations where electromagnetic hot spots are produced. Finite-difference time-domain and Monte Carlo simulations that model the induced field and corresponding material response are presented to aid in the interpretation of the experimental results. Evidence for propagating plasmons induced at the ends of the rods is also presented.

  8. 78 FR 68995 - Special Local Regulation; Southern California Annual Marine Events for the San Diego Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... notification of this enforcement period via the Local Notice to Mariners and local advertising by the event... Broadcast Notice to Mariners or other communications coordinated by the event sponsor to grant general...

  9. 78 FR 72019 - Special Local Regulation; Southern California Annual Marine Events for the San Diego Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... period via the Local Notice to Mariners and local advertising by the event sponsor. If the Captain of the... enforced for the full duration stated on this notice, he or she may use a Broadcast Notice to Mariners or...

  10. 78 FR 66844 - Special Local Regulation; Southern California Annual Marine Events for the San Diego Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... notification of this enforcement period via the Local Notice to Mariners and local advertising by the event... Broadcast Notice to Mariners or other communications coordinated by the event sponsor to grant general...

  11. Poisson's spot and Gouy phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, I. G.; Soldati, Rodolfo; Cabral, L. A.; de Oliveira, J. G. G.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    Recently there have been experimental results on Poisson spot matter-wave interferometry followed by theoretical models describing the relative importance of the wave and particle behaviors for the phenomenon. We propose an analytical theoretical model for Poisson's spot with matter waves based on the Babinet principle, in which we use the results for free propagation and single-slit diffraction. We take into account effects of loss of coherence and finite detection area using the propagator for a quantum particle interacting with an environment. We observe that the matter-wave Gouy phase plays a role in the existence of the central peak and thus corroborates the predominantly wavelike character of the Poisson's spot. Our model shows remarkable agreement with the experimental data for deuterium (D2) molecules.

  12. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  13. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  14. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  15. AN IMPROVED FUZZY CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR MICROARRAY IMAGE SPOTS SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Biju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An automatic cDNA microarray image processing using an improved fuzzy clustering algorithm is presented in this paper. The spot segmentation algorithm proposed uses the gridding technique developed by the authors earlier, for finding the co-ordinates of each spot in an image. Automatic cropping of spots from microarray image is done using these co-ordinates. The present paper proposes an improved fuzzy clustering algorithm Possibility fuzzy local information c means (PFLICM to segment the spot foreground (FG from background (BG. The PFLICM improves fuzzy local information c means (FLICM algorithm by incorporating typicality of a pixel along with gray level information and local spatial information. The performance of the algorithm is validated using a set of simulated cDNA microarray images added with different levels of AWGN noise. The strength of the algorithm is tested by computing the parameters such as the Segmentation matching factor (SMF, Probability of error (pe, Discrepancy distance (D and Normal mean square error (NMSE. SMF value obtained for PFLICM algorithm shows an improvement of 0.9 % and 0.7 % for high noise and low noise microarray images respectively compared to FLICM algorithm. The PFLICM algorithm is also applied on real microarray images and gene expression values are computed.

  16. Statistical hot spot analysis of reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1974-05-01

    This report is an introduction into statistical hot spot analysis. After the definition of the term 'hot spot' a statistical analysis is outlined. The mathematical method is presented, especially the formula concerning the probability of no hot spots in a reactor core is evaluated. A discussion with the boundary conditions of a statistical hot spot analysis is given (technological limits, nominal situation, uncertainties). The application of the hot spot analysis to the linear power of pellets and the temperature rise in cooling channels is demonstrated with respect to the test zone of KNK II. Basic values, such as probability of no hot spots, hot spot potential, expected hot spot diagram and cumulative distribution function of hot spots, are discussed. It is shown, that the risk of hot channels can be dispersed equally over all subassemblies by an adequate choice of the nominal temperature distribution in the core

  17. An Efficient Periodic Broadcasting with Small Latency and Buffer Demand for Near Video on Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Nan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting Protocols can efficiently transmit videos that simultaneously shared by clients with partitioning the videos into segments. Many studies focus on decreasing clients' waiting time, such as the fixed-delay pagoda broadcasting (FDPB and the harmonic broadcasting schemes. However, limited-capability client devices such as PDAs and set-top boxes (STBs suffer from storing a significant fraction of each video while it is being watched. How to reduce clients' buffer demands is thus an important issue. Related works include the staircase broadcasting (SB, the reverse fast broadcasting (RFB, and the hybrid broadcasting (HyB schemes. This work improves FDPB to save client buffering space as well as waiting time. In comparison with SB, RFB, and HyB, the improved FDPB scheme can yield the smallest waiting time under the same buffer requirements.

  18. Broadcast Expenses Controlling Techniques in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The blind flooding of query packets in route discovery more often characterizes the broadcast storm problem, exponentially increases energy consumption of intermediate nodes and congests the entire network. In such a congested network, the task of establishing the path between resources may become very complex and unwieldy. An extensive research work has been done in this area to improve the route discovery phase of routing protocols by reducing broadcast expenses. The purpose of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of existing broadcasting techniques for the route discovery phase, in order to bring about an efficient broadcasting technique for determining the route with minimum conveying nodes in ad-hoc networks. The study is designed to highlight the collective merits and demerits of such broadcasting techniques along with certain conclusions that would contribute to the choice of broadcasting techniques.

  19. Technological, political and economic changes and their implications for the evolution of broadcasting services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is changes in the market for broadcasting services as a result of technological, political, and economic drivers. Broadcasting services can be categorised as a part of the ICT-based information and knowledge intensive services that have gone through radical changes...... and demand sites, scarcity of transmission resources, and the historical aspects that make the development of the broadcasting service market different from other information and knowledge intensive services....

  20. Counter-Based Broadcast Scheme Considering Reachability, Network Density, and Energy Efficiency for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Young; Seo, Dong-Yoon; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2018-01-04

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is emerging as an innovative method for gathering information that will significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of infrastructure systems. Broadcast is a common method to disseminate information in WSNs. A variety of counter-based broadcast schemes have been proposed to mitigate the broadcast-storm problems, using the count threshold value and a random access delay. However, because of the limited propagation of the broadcast-message, there exists a trade-off in a sense that redundant retransmissions of the broadcast-message become low and energy efficiency of a node is enhanced, but reachability become low. Therefore, it is necessary to study an efficient counter-based broadcast scheme that can dynamically adjust the random access delay and count threshold value to ensure high reachability, low redundant of broadcast-messages, and low energy consumption of nodes. Thus, in this paper, we first measure the additional coverage provided by a node that receives the same broadcast-message from two neighbor nodes, in order to achieve high reachability with low redundant retransmissions of broadcast-messages. Second, we propose a new counter-based broadcast scheme considering the size of the additional coverage area, distance between the node and the broadcasting node, remaining battery of the node, and variations of the node density. Finally, we evaluate performance of the proposed scheme compared with the existing counter-based broadcast schemes. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing schemes in terms of saved rebroadcasts, reachability, and total energy consumption.

  1. Introduction to “International Broadcasting and Public Diplomacy in the 21st Century”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Rawnsley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available International broadcasting remains a key activity in public diplomacy. In this Introduction I discuss how international broadcasting has long been associated with the projection of foreign policy interests, from an instrument of empire building in the 1920s and 1930s, through the Cold War and beyond. In particular, the Introduction evaluates how modern Information Communications Technologies, especially the internet and social media, have transformed the way international broadcasting contributes to public diplomacy.

  2. Comparison of effectiveness of advertising expenses during broadcasts of main hockey events

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlová, Natálie

    2017-01-01

    Title: Comparison of effectiveness of advertising expenses during broadcasts of main hockey events Objectives: The main goal of this dissertation is to compare the amount of money invested into the commercial advertisement during sport broadcasts at the ČT sport channel with viewer ratings. The used metric is a coefficient computed as a ratio between the viewer rating of the particular broadcast and the corresponding advertisement cost, normalized using Cost per Thousand method. Another goal ...

  3. Unequal Error Protected JPEG 2000 Broadcast Scheme with Progressive Fountain Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhao; Xu, Mai; Yin, Luiguo; Lu, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel scheme, based on progressive fountain codes, for broadcasting JPEG 2000 multimedia. In such a broadcast scheme, progressive resolution levels of images/video have been unequally protected when transmitted using the proposed progressive fountain codes. With progressive fountain codes applied in the broadcast scheme, the resolutions of images (JPEG 2000) or videos (MJPEG 2000) received by different users can be automatically adaptive to their channel qualities, i.e. ...

  4. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm x 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25°C air temperature, 20-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm), and heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm"2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈ 200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm"2. Finally, this work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  5. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle; Neely, Jason; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-03-01

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm × 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25 °C air temperature, 20%-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm) and applied heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm2. This work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  6. 47 CFR 1.4000 - Restrictions impairing reception of television broadcast signals, direct broadcast satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and (B) That is one meter or less in diameter or diagonal measurement; (iii) An antenna that is used... notice regarding potential radiofrequency safety hazards, e.g., information regarding the safe minimum...-adopted limits for radiofrequency exposure specified in § 1.1310 of this chapter. (d) Local governments or...

  7. Fast spot-based multiscale simulations of granular drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Wong, Yee Lok; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2009-05-22

    We develop a multiscale simulation method for dense granular drainage, based on the recently proposed spot model, where the particle packing flows by local collective displacements in response to diffusing"spots'" of interstitial free volume. By comparing with discrete-element method (DEM) simulations of 55,000 spheres in a rectangular silo, we show that the spot simulation is able to approximately capture many features of drainage, such as packing statistics, particle mixing, and flow profiles. The spot simulation runs two to three orders of magnitude faster than DEM, making it an appropriate method for real-time control or optimization. We demonstrateextensions for modeling particle heaping and avalanching at the free surface, and for simulating the boundary layers of slower flow near walls. We show that the spot simulations are robust and flexible, by demonstrating that they can be used in both event-driven and fixed timestep approaches, and showing that the elastic relaxation step used in the model can be applied much less frequently and still create good results.

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  9. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Colagrosso

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  10. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colagrosso Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  11. Satellite Media Broadcasting with Adaptive Coding and Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gardikis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM is a feature incorporated into the DVB-S2 satellite specification, allowing real-time adaptation of transmission parameters according to the link conditions. Although ACM was originally designed for optimizing unicast services, this article discusses the expansion of its usage to broadcasting streams as well. For this purpose, a general cross-layer adaptation approach is proposed, along with its realization into a fully functional experimental network, and test results are presented. Finally, two case studies are analysed, assessing the gain derived by ACM in a real large-scale deployment, involving HD services provision to two different geographical areas.

  12. The prototype message broadcast system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.; Skegg, R.

    1990-11-01

    A prototype unified message broadcast system to handle the site-wide distribution of all control system messages for the Superconducting Super Collider is presented. The messages are assembled in the control room area and encapsulated for transmission via a general fiber-optic link system to devices distributed throughout 70 miles of tunnels. An embedded timing signal is used by the distribution system to ensure that messages arrive at all devices simultaneously. Devices receive messages using a special receiver sub-system. A simple version of this system is to be used in the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) at the SSC site in 1991. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    that these are constructed in adherence with the IR’s formal neutrality as provided by the turn-taking system for the news interview. The paper suggests that debate interview cannot be adequately understood as organised according to one turn-taking system, but rather as organised by the turn-taking system for news......In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...

  14. Digital video and audio broadcasting technology a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology - A Practical Engineering Guide' deals with all the most important digital television, sound radio and multimedia standards such as MPEG, DVB, DVD, DAB, ATSC, T-DMB, DMB-T, DRM and ISDB-T. The book provides an in-depth look at these subjects in terms of practical experience. In addition it contains chapters on the basics of technologies such as analog television, digital modulation, COFDM or mathematical transformations between time and frequency domains. The attention in the respective field under discussion is focussed on aspects of measuring t

  15. Use of virtual sets in the broadcasting of major events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesáreo Fernández Fernández, PhD.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, the BBC virtual studios expert, Danny Popkin, criticised the television industry for making a poor use of virtual technology. Ten years later the situation has not improved significantly. So far, virtual studios are seen just as good technological tools to save money and time in the production of news, children’s programming, commercials and elections coverage. However, the virtual studio must also enhance realism, improve the presentation of information, and increase entertainment. In order to help broadcasters achieving these goals, this article describes six examples of special television programmes, from 1996 to 2009, which presented some ideas to improve the quality and richness of the audiovisual language.

  16. Parametric Design of Outdoor Broadcasting Studio Based on Schema Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly demonstrates that the schema is an important way for the architect to cognize architecture form logic. It connects schema to algorithm of parametric design in order to seek the “algorithm schema” generation in parametric design of architecture. Meanwhile, this paper discusses the generative process and methods of the “algorithm schema” in parametric design of architecture by describing a case of outdoor broadcasting studio of Hunan Economic Radio. It also reveals the importance of “algorithm schema” for the cognition and architectural form logic generation.

  17. The prototype message broadcast system for the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.; Skegg, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype unified message broadcast system to handle the site-wide distribution of all control system messages for the Superconducting Super Collider. The messages are assembled in the control room area and encapsulated for transmission via a general fiber-optic link system to devices distributed throughout 70 miles of tunnels. An embedded timing signal is used by the distribution system to ensure that messages arrive at all devices simultaneously. Devices receive messages using a special receiver sub-system

  18. TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND BROADCASTING: A QUESTION OF REGULATORY DISSOCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalini Torquato Gonçalves de Barros

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The legislation governing the communication in Brazil is marked by significant normative paradox between the telecommunication and broadcasting services, from the privatization of the sector at the time of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Among the factors that contribute to the establishment of such situation are practices of patronage, inherent in the Brazilian political culture. In the same manner, the communication sector of Brazil follows an opposite direction to the worldwide trend of technological and legislative convergence besides weakening the State with regard to the compliance of its regulatory role, especially because it is vulnerable to pressures from more influential sector actors.

  19. The inflationary origin of the Cold Spot anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno Sánchez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Single-field inflation, arguably the simplest and most compelling paradigm for the origin of our Universe, is strongly supported by the recent results of the Planck satellite and the BICEP2 experiment. The results from Planck, however, also confirm the presence of a number of anomalies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), whose origin becomes problematic in single-field inflation. Among the most prominent and well-tested of these anomalies is the Cold Spot, which constitutes the only significant deviation from Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's non-detection of primordial non-Gaussianity on smaller scales thus suggests the existence of a physical mechanism whereby significant non-Gaussianity is generated on large angular scales only. In this Letter, we address this question by developing a localized version of the inhomogeneous reheating scenario, which postulates the existence of a scalar field able to modify the decay of the inflaton on localized spatial regions only. We demonstrate that if the Cold Spot is due to an overdensity in the last scattering surface, the localization mechanism offers a feasible explanation for it, thus providing a physical mechanism for the generation of localized non-Gaussianity in the CMB. If, on the contrary, the Cold Spot is caused by a newly discovered supervoid (as recently claimed), we argue that the localization mechanism, while managing to enhance underdensities, may well shed light on the rarity of the discovered supervoid

  20. The inflationary origin of the Cold Spot anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno Sánchez, Juan C., E-mail: juan.c.bueno@correounivalle.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Santiago de Cali (Colombia); Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Cra 3 Este # 47A-15, Bogotá D.C. 110231 (Colombia); Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Ciudad Universitaria, Bucaramanga 680002 (Colombia); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-12

    Single-field inflation, arguably the simplest and most compelling paradigm for the origin of our Universe, is strongly supported by the recent results of the Planck satellite and the BICEP2 experiment. The results from Planck, however, also confirm the presence of a number of anomalies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), whose origin becomes problematic in single-field inflation. Among the most prominent and well-tested of these anomalies is the Cold Spot, which constitutes the only significant deviation from Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's non-detection of primordial non-Gaussianity on smaller scales thus suggests the existence of a physical mechanism whereby significant non-Gaussianity is generated on large angular scales only. In this Letter, we address this question by developing a localized version of the inhomogeneous reheating scenario, which postulates the existence of a scalar field able to modify the decay of the inflaton on localized spatial regions only. We demonstrate that if the Cold Spot is due to an overdensity in the last scattering surface, the localization mechanism offers a feasible explanation for it, thus providing a physical mechanism for the generation of localized non-Gaussianity in the CMB. If, on the contrary, the Cold Spot is caused by a newly discovered supervoid (as recently claimed), we argue that the localization mechanism, while managing to enhance underdensities, may well shed light on the rarity of the discovered supervoid.

  1. Hot spots in energetic materials generated by infrared and ultrasound, detected by thermal imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S; Dlott, Dana D

    2014-02-01

    We have observed and characterized hot spot formation and hot-spot ignition of energetic materials (EM), where hot spots were created by ultrasonic or long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) exposure, and were detected by high-speed thermal microscopy. The microscope had 15-20 μm spatial resolution and 8.3 ms temporal resolution. LWIR was generated by a CO2 laser (tunable near 10.6 μm or 28.3 THz) and ultrasound by a 20 kHz acoustic horn. Both methods of energy input created spatially homogeneous energy fields, allowing hot spots to develop spontaneously due to the microstructure of the sample materials. We observed formation of hot spots which grew and caused the EM to ignite. The EM studied here consisted of composite solids with 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine crystals and polymer binders. EM simulants based on sucrose crystals in binders were also examined. The mechanisms of hot spot generation were different with LWIR and ultrasound. With LWIR, hot spots were most efficiently generated within the EM crystals at LWIR wavelengths having longer absorption depths of ∼25 μm, suggesting that hot spot generation mechanisms involved localized absorbing defects within the crystals, LWIR focusing in the crystals or LWIR interference in the crystals. With ultrasound, hot spots were primarily generated in regions of the polymer binder immediately adjacent to crystal surfaces, rather than inside the EM crystals.

  2. The spot market and the spot price: applicability and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of spot prices and their relationship to long-term contracting is addressed. The author is associated with Nuexco, which originally was called the Nuclear Exchange Corporation. They use the term Exchange Value which originated in the idea that Nuexco operated an exchange 'bank' - those with too much uranium could 'bank it', those with short-term needs could borrow from the 'bank'. If the borrower repaid slightly more or less the difference was settled using the 'exchange value'. This became used for longer-term transactions and now settling the monthly value is an important part of Nuexco's activities. The exact nature of the Exchange Value is defined. Now more and more buyers are insisting on spot market related pricing even where this is not meaningfully related to uranium production costs. (U.K.)

  3. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  4. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero; Danila Khikhlukha; J. M. Solano-Altamirano; Raquel Dormido; Natividad Duro

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presente...

  5. Evaluation of Topology-Aware Broadcast Algorithms for Dragonfly Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorier, Matthieu; Mubarak, Misbah; Ross, Rob; Li, Jianping Kelvin; Carothers, Christopher D.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2016-09-12

    Two-tiered direct network topologies such as Dragonflies have been proposed for future post-petascale and exascale machines, since they provide a high-radix, low-diameter, fast interconnection network. Such topologies call for redesigning MPI collective communication algorithms in order to attain the best performance. Yet as increasingly more applications share a machine, it is not clear how these topology-aware algorithms will react to interference with concurrent jobs accessing the same network. In this paper, we study three topology-aware broadcast algorithms, including one designed by ourselves. We evaluate their performance through event-driven simulation for small- and large-sized broadcasts (in terms of both data size and number of processes). We study the effect of different routing mechanisms on the topology-aware collective algorithms, as well as their sensitivity to network contention with other jobs. Our results show that while topology-aware algorithms dramatically reduce link utilization, their advantage in terms of latency is more limited.

  6. Automated quality control in a file-based broadcasting workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina

    2014-04-01

    Benefit from the development of information and internet technologies, television broadcasting is transforming from inefficient tape-based production and distribution to integrated file-based workflows. However, no matter how many changes have took place, successful broadcasting still depends on the ability to deliver a consistent high quality signal to the audiences. After the transition from tape to file, traditional methods of manual quality control (QC) become inadequate, subjective, and inefficient. Based on China Central Television's full file-based workflow in the new site, this paper introduces an automated quality control test system for accurate detection of hidden troubles in media contents. It discusses the system framework and workflow control when the automated QC is added. It puts forward a QC criterion and brings forth a QC software followed this criterion. It also does some experiments on QC speed by adopting parallel processing and distributed computing. The performance of the test system shows that the adoption of automated QC can make the production effective and efficient, and help the station to achieve a competitive advantage in the media market.

  7. Information-theoretic limitations on approximate quantum cloning and broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemm, Marius; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-07-01

    We prove quantitative limitations on any approximate simultaneous cloning or broadcasting of mixed states. The results are based on information-theoretic (entropic) considerations and generalize the well-known no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems. We also observe and exploit the fact that the universal cloning machine on the symmetric subspace of n qudits and symmetrized partial trace channels are dual to each other. This duality manifests itself both in the algebraic sense of adjointness of quantum channels and in the operational sense that a universal cloning machine can be used as an approximate recovery channel for a symmetrized partial trace channel and vice versa. The duality extends to give control of the performance of generalized universal quantum cloning machines (UQCMs) on subspaces more general than the symmetric subspace. This gives a way to quantify the usefulness of a priori information in the context of cloning. For example, we can control the performance of an antisymmetric analog of the UQCM in recovering from the loss of n -k fermionic particles.

  8. Communicating with Islamic Communication and Broadcasting English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina masruuroh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper Teacher Talk (TT used in the EFL classroom contributes to the effective communication in  TEFL. Teachers who are expected to implement proper and effective teacher talk are apparently seeing this as one of the most complicated elements to be appropriately integrated in EFL class due to the different context between target language and first language and also the excessive target language exposure that is given by English teacher to the students as one of authentic learning process in the classroom. Many research focus on researching effective TT strategy in general EFL classroom, however, there is ony limited number of them that focuses on researching this concept in Islamic classroom with its Islamic culture, Islamic learners and Islamic situations. This descriptive qualitative study discussed and proposed the effective teacher talks in supporting the success of teaching english as a foreign language classroom in Islamic context. This article had anaysed the interview result from 7 English-Islamic lecturers in Islamic Broadcasting and Communication Learners (KPI major and used TT features which later focussed on its ammount, diction and questioning type under SLA theory. This article aims to explain why and what types of language of the proper communication style and strategies should be applied by the English lecturers in Islamic higher education for having the effective teacher talk to English-Islamic  learners, specifically to Islamic Broadcasting and Communication Learners, that could contribute to a professional development in English Language Teaching.

  9. RSS based CERN Alerter. Information broadcast to all CERN offices.

    CERN Multimedia

    Otto, R

    2007-01-01

    Nearly every large organization uses a tool to broadcast messages and information across the internal campus (messages like alerts announcing interruption in services or just information about upcoming events). These tools typically allow administrators (operators) to send "targeted" messages which are sent only to specific groups of users or computers, e/g only those located in a specified building or connected to a particular computing service. CERN has a long history of such tools: CERNVMS€™s SPM_quotMESSAGE command, Zephyr and the most recent the NICE Alerter based on the NNTP protocol. The NICE Alerter used on all Windows-based computers had to be phased out as a consequence of phasing out NNTP at CERN. The new solution to broadcast information messages on the CERN campus continues to provide the service based on cross-platform technologies, hence minimizing custom developments and relying on commercial software as much as possible. The new system, called CERN Alerter, is based on RSS (Really Simpl...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.11 - Spot checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot checks. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.11 Spot checks. (a) CCC... CCC access to the farm and storage facility as necessary to conduct collateral inspections, or “spot...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1435 - Maxwell spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maxwell spot. 886.1435 Section 886.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1435 Maxwell spot. (a) Identification. A Maxwell spot is an AC...

  12. Distinct Rayleigh scattering from hot spot mutant p53 proteins reveals cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ho Joon; Nguyen, Anh H; Kim, Yeul Hong; Park, Kyong Hwa; Kim, Doyoun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Sim, Sang Jun

    2014-07-23

    The scattering of light redirects and resonances when an electromagnetic wave interacts with electrons orbits in the hot spot core protein and oscillated electron of the gold nanoparticles (AuNP). This report demonstrates convincingly that resonant Rayleigh scattering generated from hot spot mutant p53 proteins is correspondence to cancer cells. Hot spot mutants have unique local electron density changes that affect specificity of DNA binding affinity compared with wild types. Rayleigh scattering changes introduced by hot-spot mutations were monitored by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) shift changes. The LSPR λmax shift for hot-spot mutants ranged from 1.7 to 4.2 nm for mouse samples and from 0.64 nm to 2.66 nm for human samples, compared to 9.6 nm and 15 nm for wild type and mouse and human proteins, respectively with a detection sensitivity of p53 concentration at 17.9 nM. It is interesting that hot-spot mutants, which affect only interaction with DNA, launches affinitive changes as considerable as wild types. These changes propose that hot-spot mutants p53 proteins can be easily detected by local electron density alterations that disturbs the specificity of DNA binding of p53 core domain on the surface of the DNA probed-nanoplasmonic sensor. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Spot på samtalen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneris, Sophie; Jensen, Tanja Dall; Caswell, Dorte

    Spot på samtalen sætter fokus på det, der konkret foregår i samtaler mellem borgere og de beskæftigelsesfaglige medarbejdere i jobcentrene. Da de udsatte grupper i mange tilfælde er langt fra arbejdsmarkedet, er interessen rettet mod, hvilke forhold i kontakten med beskæftigelsessystemet, der...... har betydning hvilke indsatser ledige modtager, men også hvordan de modtager dem. Her rettes blikket mod den centrale del af den beskæftigelsespolitiske indsats som samtalerne udgør. I Spot på samtalen er blikket rettet mod de dynamikker, mønstre og mekanismer, der kommer i spil i samtalerne i...

  14. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  16. Measurement of laser spot quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Treptau, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of measuring spot quality are compared. We examine in detail various figures of merit such as full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at 1/(e exp 2) maximum, Strehl ratio, and encircled energy. Our application is optical data storage, but results can be applied to other areas like space communications and high energy lasers. We found that the optimum figure of merit in many cases is Strehl ratio.

  17. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  18. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuan Fang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index is also necessary since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemo...

  19. Broadcast Advertising of Medical Products and Services: Its Regulation by Other Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jon T.

    1972-01-01

    Restraints imposed on medical advertising through the broadcast media reflect a worldwide concern for public protection in a sensitive area, where problems of ignorance and misrepresentation are enlarged by false hope. The author examines the broadcast codes of seventeen free-world nations, with respect to their provisions on medical advertising.…

  20. Student and Professional Attitudes Regarding Advertising Influence on Broadcast News Content: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hubert W.; Barnes, Beth E.

    Students studying Broadcast Journalism or Advertising and professionals working in those fields were surveyed on their attitudes regarding advertising influence on broadcast news content. This study compares the attitudes of the students and practitioners in the respective professions. While students and professionals agreed on a majority of…

  1. 78 FR 75563 - Commission Policies and Procedures Under the Communications Act, Foreign Investment in Broadcast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... competitive opportunities (ECO) approach for broadcast foreign ownership similar to that applied in common... Technology, a firm that consults with financial institutions and broadcast owners. Adelante Comments at 1-2... threats and national security issues have arisen as technology has advanced,\\33\\ we do not believe that...

  2. 47 CFR 73.4082 - Comparative broadcast hearings-specialized programming formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comparative broadcast hearings-specialized programming formats. 73.4082 Section 73.4082 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Comparative broadcast hearings—specialized programming formats. (a) See Memorandum Opinion and Order, FCC 80...

  3. High data-rate video broadcasting over 3G wireless systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atici, C.; Sunay, M.O.

    2007-01-01

    In cellular environments, video broadcasting is a challenging problem in which the number of users receiving the service and the average successfully decoded video data-rate have to be intelligently optimized. When video is broadcasted using the 3G packet data standard, 1xEV-DO, the code space may

  4. Can a Small Minority Institution of Higher Education Develop a Business Oriented Broadcast Management Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Louis C.

    Broadcast stations throughout the nation are being challenged by the Federal Communications Commission and by private organizations to hire blacks to fill job openings in production and management. Therefore, Xavier University of Louisiana decided to embark on a program to develop a broadcast management program under the auspices of the marketing…

  5. Flight Extraction and Phase Identification for Large Automatic Dependent Surveillance–Broadcast Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    AUTOMATIC dependent surveillance–broadcast (ADS-B) [1,2] is widely implemented in modern commercial aircraft and will become mandatory equipment in 2020. Flight state information such as position, velocity, and vertical rate are broadcast by tens of thousands of aircraft around the world constantly

  6. Business of the Spirit. Ghanaian broadcast media and the commercial exploitation of Pentecostalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article takes a critical look at Ghana's rapidly evolving broadcasting scene and in particular at the expansion and popularity of religious broadcasting. Sketching the developments of the Ghanaian media landscape, it analyses the changing politics of representing religion in this field. The

  7. Picture-Quality Optimization for the High Definition TV Broadcast Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimou, A.; Van der Vleuten, R.J.; De Haan, G.

    2007-01-01

    The High Definition scene is constantly changing. The arrival of Full HD flat panel displays, the constant improvement of the AVC encoder, and the trend towards 1920x1080 progressive broadcasting have changed the balances of the High Definition broadcasting chain. It is, therefore, required to

  8. All-optical broadcast and multicast technologies based on PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Lingyun; Wang, Ju; Hu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    All-optical 1×4 broadcast and 1×3 multicast experiments of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) signal based on a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide are demonstrated in this letter. Clear opened eye diagrams and error-free performance are achieved for the broadcast...

  9. 47 CFR 73.674 - Digital television transition notices by broadcasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... broadcasters. 73.674 Section 73.674 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... of the following per day: (i) Graphic display. A graphic super-imposed during programming content... least five (5) seconds. (ii) Animated graphic. A moving or animated graphic that ends up as a countdown...

  10. Augmenting a TV Broadcast with Synchronised User Generated Video and Relevant Social Network Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Veenhuizen, A.T.; Kaptein, A.M.; Niamut, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    As TNO, we have developed an Augmented Live Broadcast use case, using components from the FP7 STEER project. In this use case, a television broadcast of a live event is augmented with user generated content. This user generated content consists of videos made by users at the event, and also of

  11. 76 FR 79113 - Amendment of Service and Eligibility Rules for FM Broadcast Translator Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... of Service and Eligibility Rules for FM Broadcast Translator Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications... authorizing the use of FM translators with licenses or permits in effect as of May 1, 2009, to rebroadcast the... and Eligibility Rules for FM Broadcast Translator Stations, published at 74 FR 45126, September 1...

  12. Feedback Halves the Dispersion for Some Two-User Broadcast Channels with Common Message

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Yang, Wei; Durisi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the maximum coding rate achievable on a two-user broadcast channel for the case where a common- message is transmitted using fixed-blocklength codes with feed- back. Specifically, we focus on a family of broadcast channels com- posed of two antisymmetric Z-channels. For this setup,...

  13. On the Performance of Counter-Based Broadcast Scheme for Mobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite its simplicity, it can result in high redundant retransmission, contention and collision, a phenomenon collectively referred to as the broadcast storm problem. Counter-based broadcast scheme has been proposed to mitigate this inherent problem and it relies on counter threshold value for rebroadcast decision. Thus ...

  14. 77 FR 71104 - Determination of Reasonable Rates and Terms for Noncommercial Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... full-time students 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Level 1 =20% Feature Music programming: Population count..., Composers and Publishers (``ASCAP''); SESAC, Inc.; Broadcast Music, Inc. (``BMI''); Educational Media Foundation (``EMF''); Music Reports, Inc. (``MRI''); National Public Radio, the Public Broadcasting Service...

  15. Hard Content, Fab Front-End : Archiving Websites of Dutch Public Broadcasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, L; Blom, J; Medjoune, L; Pop, R; van Gorp, Jasmijn; Huurdeman, H; Haaijer, L

    2014-01-01

    Although there are a great variety of web archiving projects around the world, there are not many that focus explicitly on websites of broadcasters. The reason is that funds are often lacking to do this, and that broadcaster websites are difficult to archive, due to their dynamic and audiovisual

  16. 76 FR 4078 - Television Broadcasting Services; North Pole and Plattsburgh, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2443; MM Docket No. 99-238; RM-9669] Television Broadcasting Services; North Pole and Plattsburgh, NY AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  17. Pacific Nations Broadcasting II; Proceedings of the Conference (23rd, San Francisco, April 1973).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Benjamin, Ed.

    Having as its goal the further development of understanding through the communications media, this document examines the utilization of broadcast media from both technological and sociological vantages. The papers contained herein were presented at the twenty-third annual Broadcast Industry Conference held at California State University in San…

  18. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  20. Spot formation of radiation particles by electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical etching (ECE) spot formation from the top of chemical etching (CE) spot was confirmed by a series of experiments. One of polycarbonate (Iupilon) could not make the spot, because ECE spot had grown up before the microscope confirming the CE spot. Clear CEC spots by α-ray and neutron were found on Harzlas and Baryotrak, both improvements of CR-39. Under the same etching conditions, the growth of ECE spot on Harzlas was more rapid than Baryotrak, but both spots were almost the same. All CE spot by α-ray produced the CEC spots, but a part of CE circle spot by neutron formed them. (S.Y.)

  1. DVB-H vs. DVB-NGH: A survey and comparison for the evolution of mobile TV broadcasting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bembe, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DVB-NGH (Digital Video Broadcasting-Next Generation Handheld) is the next generation technology for mobile TV broadcasting. It integrates both satellite and terrestrial techniques, which is vital in supporting rich media content for mobile handheld...

  2. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  3. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  4. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  5. Magnetic fields of AM band radio broadcast signals at the Richmond Field Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Alex; Frangos, William

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive sensing of the shallow subsurface is necessary for detection and delineation of buried hazardous wastes, monitoring of the condition of clay containment caps, and a variety of other purposes. Electromagnetic methods have proven to be effective in environmental site characterization where there is a need for increased resolution in subsurface characterization. Two considerations strongly suggest the use of frequencies between 100 kHz and 100 MHz for such applications: 1) the induction response of many targets is small due to small size, and 2) a need to determine both the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity which are related to chemistry and hydrology. Modeling and physical parameter studies confirm that measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz can resolve variations in subsurface conductivity and permittivity. To provide the necessary technology for shallow subsurface investigations, we propose to exploit the concept of electromagnetic impedance, the ratio of orthogonal horizontal electric and magnetic fields. Prior to assembling the equipment for measuring surface impedance using controlled, local source it was felt prudent to measure the surface impedance of geological materials at the University of California at Berkeley's Richmond Field (RFS) using ambient energy in the broadcast band. As a first step toward this intermediate goal, we have examined and characterized local AM band radio signals in terms of both signal strength and polarization of the magnetic component as received at RFS. In addition, we have established the viability of a commercial radio-frequency magnetic sensor

  6. Production Contracts and the Spot Market Price of Hogs

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel D.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of production contracts in the hog sector has reduced the number of spot market transactions, raised concerns about price manipulation and helped to spur legislation requiring price reporting by packers. Using data from the 2002 and 2007 Censuses of Agriculture, this study looks for evidence of market manipulation by examining whether the local prevalence of contracting affects the average price received by independent producers. The empirical approach uses a fixed-effects ...

  7. The fine art of surfacing: its efficacy in broadcast spawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moláček, Jan; Denny, Mark; Bush, John W M

    2012-02-07

    Many organisms reproduce by releasing gametes into the surrounding fluid. For some such broadcast spawners, gametes are positively or negatively buoyant, and, as a result, fertilization occurs on a two-dimensional surface rather than in the bulk of the air or water. We here rationalize this behaviour by considering the encounter rates of gametes on the surface and in the fluid bulk. The advantage of surfacing is quantified by considering an infinitely wide body of water of constant depth. Differential loss rates at the surface and in the bulk are considered and their influence on the robustness of surface search assessed. For small and moderate differential loss rates, the advantage of surfacing is very robust and significant; only for large loss rate differences can the advantage of surfacing be nullified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sports broadcasting, journalism and the challenge of new media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Frandsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the challenge faced by established media organisations integrating digital media in their production. Using a case study of a Danish broadcaster’s use of blogs in their coverage of major sports events, it is argued that the challenge is strategic in a broader sense, as the move to digital platforms is influenced by economic, organisational as well as conceptual parameters for roles. It is argued that in order to understand the potential and challenges of this case, the peculiarities of the role of sports journalists in broadcasting have to be taken into consideration. The case illustrates how their distinctive engagement with their topic and the audience makes some of them more prone to work for pleasure and produce for the digital platform on very unclear conditions, just as it influences the interaction that takes place in the blogs in various ways.

  9. THE CONFLICT OF MEDIA RIGHTS IN SPORTS BROADCASTING ON RADIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Puentes Rivera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has increased the financing needs in all areas. The communication has fueled, among others, the conflict between traditional media companies and organizers of sporting events broadcast rights payments. Based on the legal conflict, political and even social that has lived in Spain for the years 2011 and 2012 between the Professional Football League, which seeks to impose a fee radios similar to the television for access to soccer fields and retransmit meetings, and radio stations, which are opposed to such payment and defend their constitutional right to report freely, this paper analyzes the limits between freedom of information and the right to audiovisual content marketing, law enforcement return that the European Union will recognize the organizers of sporting events and the ability to influence the major media on political power to bring legislation into its economic interests.

  10. Newspaper Review Show in the Broadcast Media Space in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Nyarko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ghana’s public sphere has witnessed a growing media presence which has enhanced the relay of information to the citizenry. By this, society is given a full spectrum of alternatives to access media. Amid this atmosphere is a platform labeled the “Newspaper Review Show” which appears to have generated some sort of contention since its inception among newspaper publishers on one hand and broadcast stations on the other. Using an exploratory qualitative approach, this study has shown that review of newspaper content is pervasive in the landscape and the selective style of review of major agenda has affected readership, revenue of newspaper outlets, and reading culture, among others. However, the article also contended that falling readership is attributed to some factors other than only review of newspaper content.

  11. Transportable IOT measurement station for direct-broadcast satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Michael

    A transportable 11.7-12.5-GHz flux-density measurement facility for use in the in-orbit testing (IOT) of the FRG TV-Sat direct-broadcast satellites is described. Major components include a 1.2-m-diameter antenna, the fluxmeter, a radiometer to determine atmospheric attenuation, a weather station, and a control and data-processing computer; all of the components are mounted on a 5.10 x 2.35 x 2.70-m trailer. IOT performance parameters include gain/temperature ratio 15.9 dB/K, measurement range -97 to -117 dBW/sq m, measurement accuracy less than 0.5 dB rms, and measurement rate 250-650 msec. Photographs and a block diagram are provided.

  12. Automatic loudness control in short-form content for broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Leandro da S; Vieira, Maurílio N; Yehia, Hani C

    2017-03-01

    During the early years of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) loudness calculation standard for sound broadcasting [ITU-R (2006), Rec. BS Series, 1770], the need for additional loudness descriptors to evaluate short-form content, such as commercials and live inserts, was identified. This work proposes a loudness control scheme to prevent loudness jumps, which can bother audiences. It employs short-form content audio detection and dynamic range processing methods for the maximum loudness level criteria. Detection is achieved by combining principal component analysis for dimensionality reduction and support vector machines for binary classification. Subsequent processing is based on short-term loudness integrators and Hilbert transformers. The performance was assessed using quality classification metrics and demonstrated through a loudness control example.

  13. Compressive sensing for feedback reduction in MIMO broadcast channels

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2014-09-01

    In multi-antenna broadcast networks, the base stations (BSs) rely on the channel state information (CSI) of the users to perform user scheduling and downlink transmission. However, in networks with large number of users, obtaining CSI from all users is arduous, if not impossible, in practice. This paper proposes channel feedback reduction techniques based on the theory of compressive sensing (CS), which permits the BS to obtain CSI with acceptable recovery guarantees under substantially reduced feedback overhead. Additionally, assuming noisy CS measurements at the BS, inexpensive ways for improving post-CS detection are explored. The proposed techniques are shown to reduce the feedback overhead, improve CS detection at the BS, and achieve a sum-rate close to that obtained by noiseless dedicated feedback channels.

  14. Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today’s media landscape. PMID:27218659

  15. Does egg competition occur in marine broadcast-spawners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D J; Evans, J P

    2005-09-01

    When the availability of sperm limits female reproductive success, competition for sperm, may be an important broker of sexual selection. This is because sperm limitation can increase the variance in female reproductive success, resulting in strong selection on females to compete for limited fertilization opportunities. Sperm limitation is probably common in broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, making these excellent candidates for investigating scramble competition between broods of eggs and its consequences for female reproductive success. Here, we report our findings from a series of experiments that investigate egg competition in the sessile, broadcast-spawning polychaete Galeolaria caespitosa. We initially tested whether the order in which eggs encounter sperm affects their fertilization success at two ecologically relevant current regimes. We used a split-clutch-split--ejaculate technique to compare the fertilization success of eggs from individual females that had either first access (competition-free treatment) or second access (egg competition treatment) to a batch of sperm. We found that fertilization success depended on the order in which eggs accessed sperm; eggs that were assigned to the competition-free treatment exhibited significantly higher fertilization rates than those assigned to the egg competition treatment at both current speeds. In subsequent experiments we found that prior exposure of sperm to eggs significantly reduced both the quantity and quality of sperm available to fertilize a second clutch of eggs, resulting in reductions in fertilization success at high and low sperm concentrations. These findings suggest that female traits that increase the likelihood of sperm-egg interactions (e.g. egg size) will respond to selection imposed by egg competition.

  16. 78 FR 11222 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Production of Five Live Satellite/Internet Broadcasts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... each broadcast. Significant contribution to the development of the storyboard will come from designated... the storyboard/rundown development for each broadcast, must be carefully developed. The following... clips for inclusion in the storyboard of a broadcast and to allow sufficient time for editing. These...

  17. 75 FR 71148 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Production of Seven Live Satellite/Internet Broadcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... storyboard will come from designated content experts, the talent selected to appear in the broadcast, and NIC.... Therefore, the content development process, as part of the storyboard development for each broadcast, must... ensure ample time for considering the clips for inclusion in the storyboard of a broadcast and to allow...

  18. National Workplace Literacy Program. Garment-Related Bilingual (English and Chinese) Broadcast Lessons. Book 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ha Yin

    A compilation of transcripts of 100 bilingual English/Chinese broadcast lessons for workers in the garment industry is presented. The lessons are part of the New York Chinatown Manpower Project's Workplace Literacy Program. With the support of the Sino Radio Broadcast Corporation, the lessons are broadcast daily in the morning and again after the…

  19. Mechanistic study on black and grey spot growth in OLEDs performed on laser-ablated pinholes in the cathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, P. van de; Bouten, P.C.P.; Fledderus, H.; Janssen, R.R.; Winter, S.H.P.M. de; Akkerman, H.B.

    2017-01-01

    Local laser ablation of the cathode of OLEDs has been applied to create a population of pinholes of the same size. This enables the direct comparison at different conditions of black spots and grey spots in the emission of OLEDs as a result of water ingress into the device. We confirmed earlier

  20. Simulations of Electron Transport in Laser Hot Spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.; Valeo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Simulations of electron transport are carried out by solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the diffusive approximation. The system of a single laser hot spot, with open boundary conditions, is systematically studied by performing a scan over a wide range of the two relevant parameters: (1) Ratio of the stopping length over the width of the hot spot. (2) Relative importance of the heating through inverse Bremsstrahlung compared to the thermalization through self-collisions. As for uniform illumination [J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 (1988) 1665], the bulk of the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) present a super-Gaussian dependence. However, as a result of spatial transport, the tails are observed to be well represented by a Maxwellian. A similar dependence of the distributions is also found for multiple hot spot systems. For its relevance with respect to stimulated Raman scattering, the linear Landau damping of the electron plasma wave is estimated for such VD Fs. Finally, the nonlinear Fokker-Planck simulations of the single laser hot spot system are also compared to the results obtained with the linear non-local hydrodynamic approach [A.V. Brantov et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 2742], thus providing a quantitative limit to the latter method: The hydrodynamic approach presents more than 10% inaccuracy in the presence of temperature variations of the order delta T/T greater than or equal to 1%, and similar levels of deformation of the Gaussian shape of the Maxwellian background

  1. New public dataset for spotting patterns in medieval document images

    Science.gov (United States)

    En, Sovann; Nicolas, Stéphane; Petitjean, Caroline; Jurie, Frédéric; Heutte, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    With advances in technology, a large part of our cultural heritage is becoming digitally available. In particular, in the field of historical document image analysis, there is now a growing need for indexing and data mining tools, thus allowing us to spot and retrieve the occurrences of an object of interest, called a pattern, in a large database of document images. Patterns may present some variability in terms of color, shape, or context, making the spotting of patterns a challenging task. Pattern spotting is a relatively new field of research, still hampered by the lack of available annotated resources. We present a new publicly available dataset named DocExplore dedicated to spotting patterns in historical document images. The dataset contains 1500 images and 1464 queries, and allows the evaluation of two tasks: image retrieval and pattern localization. A standardized benchmark protocol along with ad hoc metrics is provided for a fair comparison of the submitted approaches. We also provide some first results obtained with our baseline system on this new dataset, which show that there is room for improvement and that should encourage researchers of the document image analysis community to design new systems and submit improved results.

  2. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  3. Collaboration spotting for dental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A

    2014-10-06

    The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to Dental Science. In order to create a Sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro--maxillo--facial critical size defects, namely the use of Porous HydroxyApatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex--vivo of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. We produced the Sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on--line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state--of--the--art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used for Dental Science and produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped

  4. Collaboration Spotting for oral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to oral medicine. In order to create a sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro-maxillo-facial critical size defects, namely the use of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex vivo of mesenchymal stem cells. We produced the sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on-line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state-of-the-art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used in oral medicine as is produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped technologies in

  5. Motion Interplay as a Function of Patient Parameters and Spot Size in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Lomax, Antony; Sharp, Greg; Shackleford, James; Choi, Noah; Willers, Henning; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of respiratory motion on the treatment of lung tumors with spot scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the interplay effect, which results from relative motion of the tumor and the proton beam, on the dose distribution in the patient. Ten patients with varying tumor sizes (2.6-82.3 cc) and motion amplitudes (3-30 mm) were included in the study. We investigated the impact of the spot size, which varies between proton facilities, and studied single fractions and conventionally fractionated treatments. The following metrics were used in the analysis: minimum/maximum/mean dose, target dose homogeneity, and 2-year local control rate (2y-LC). Results: Respiratory motion reduces the target dose homogeneity, with the largest effects observed for the highest motion amplitudes. Smaller spot sizes (σ ≈ 3 mm) are inherently more sensitive to motion, decreasing target dose homogeneity on average by a factor 2.8 compared with a larger spot size (σ ≈ 13 mm). Using a smaller spot size to treat a tumor with 30-mm motion amplitude reduces the minimum dose to 44.7% of the prescribed dose, decreasing modeled 2y-LC from 87.0% to 2.7%, assuming a single fraction. Conventional fractionation partly mitigates this reduction, yielding a 2y-LC of 71.6%. For the large spot size, conventional fractionation increases target dose homogeneity and prevents a deterioration of 2y-LC for all patients. No correlation with tumor volume is observed. The effect on the normal lung dose distribution is minimal: observed changes in mean lung dose and lung V 20 are <0.6 Gy(RBE) and <1.7%, respectively. Conclusions: For the patients in this study, 2y-LC could be preserved in the presence of interplay using a large spot size and conventional fractionation. For treatments using smaller spot sizes and/or in the delivery of single fractions, interplay effects can lead to significant deterioration of the

  6. Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepma, C.J.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W.; De Jong, F.; Overmars, P.

    2006-01-01

    This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection

  7. Bulging of pressure tubes at hot spots under LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manu, C.; Shewfelt, R.S.W.; Wright, A.C.D.; Aboud, R.; Lau, J.H.K.; Sanderson, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    During certain postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) in a CANDU reactor, some fuel channels can become highly voided within a very short time. Although the pressure tubes are heated mainly by convection and thermal radiation during the LOCA transient, additional heat flow occurs through the bearing pads that are in contact with the pressure tribe. This contact can lead to local hot spots and associated thermal stresses in the pressure tube wall. The two factors that affects the behavior of the pressure tubes during LOCA conditions are the internal pressure and the local heating. Although the effect of internal pressure and of axially uniform temperature has been studied elsewhere, the effect of the local heating on the pressure tube behavior has not been modelled before. This paper shows that the bulging of a pressure tube at a hot spot is the result of the thermal stresses that are developed in a pressure tube during a LOCA transient. To isolate the local heating effect from the internal pressure, a series of single-effect experiments was performed. In these experiments, sections of a CANDU pressure tube were subjected to local heating only. The thermal profile and the local deformation were measured function of time. To quantify the effect of the thermal stresses on the bulging of pressure tubes at hot spots and to develop numerical tools that can predict such bulging, finite element analyses were performed rising the ABAQUS finite element computer code. Use of the measured thermal profiles in the ABAQUS finite element analysis, resulted in very good agreement between the predicted and measured displacements. (author)

  8. THE ROLE OF BROADCASTING AGENCY TO BUILD THE LEGAL COMPLIANCE OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Rukitasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Broadcasting has become part of peoples’ lives needs for information, entertainment and education. Broadcasting agency as mass communication media play a role to shape the behavior of political, social, and economic in every society, in order to establish the public legal compliance through broadcasting activities that are counseling and law clarification, it takes effective communication media so that the target is expected to be achieved through increased the quality broadcast programs and attractive containing understanding and knowledge about the law will be able to increase publics’ consciousness and legal compliance. This study using sociological-juridical approach by analyzing the empirical data in order to understand the social and legal responsibilities and functions of broadcasting as a mass communication media is effective in disseminating the law and the formation of values, the result of study drawn through the broadcast media were able to create a culture norms, it means the function of media is not only as a transmitter of information to disseminate the law to the public but also it can have the effect of influencing and encouraging the change of behavior towards the law-abiding. Keywords: Broadcasting Agency, Law Compliance, Society

  9. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  10. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  11. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  12. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

  13. X-ray spot filmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray apparatus is described which includes a spot filmer for feeding sheets of unexposed film one at a time into a vacuum evacuable cassette for exposure, and for returning exposed film sheets to an exposed film magazine. The spot filmer has a housing defining a light-tight enclosure. The film magazines are insertable through a door into the housing and into a film feed mechanism. The film feed mechanism unlatches, opens and positions the magazines; it then feeds a sheet of unexposed film into the vacuum evacuable cassette, releases the film sheet so the cassette can position the film sheet for exposure, and closes the film magazines. An orthogonal drive system positions the vacuum evacuable cassette to expose selected film sheet portions and returns the cassette to a retracted position. The film feed mechanism opens the magazines, feeds the exposed film sheet into the exposed film magazine, and closes the magazines. A film identification system is provided for forming an identifying image on a marginal portion of each film sheet

  14. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuanfang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2007-06-01

    The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index would be also interesting since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry which uses two large beams. In this case, the images of the particle formed by the reflected and refracted light, known as glare spots, are separated in space. When a particle passes in the probe volume, the two parts in a signal obtained by a detector in forward direction are then separated in time. If two detectors are used the phase differences between two signals, the distance and the intensity ratio of reflected and refracted parts can be obtained and they provide rich information about the particle diameter and its refractive index, as well as its velocity. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of such a configuration with two theoretical models: geometrical optics and rigorous electromagnetism solution.

  15. Oil futures and spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samii, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  16. Educational Television Broadcasting in Germany: Prevailing Practices, Existing Challenges and Adoptable Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Television is widely used for educational purposes but has still not achieved its fullest potential neither in developed nor in developing countries. This worldwide under performance invite experts and academics to join hands to search causes and provide suggestions to make television a better and popular learning tool. Guided by this philosophy, the present paper analyzes the educational television broadcasting in Germany from different perspectives. The focus of analysis includes measures and practices adopted by German institutions/broadcasters to promote educational television. Besides dealing with these issues, the paper discusses existing challenges and suggests best adoptable educational television broadcasting polices from Germany to promote educational television in global perspectives.

  17. Sémiotická analýza předvánočních spotů mobilní sítě Oskar/Vodafone

    OpenAIRE

    Harastejová, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The diploma thesis "semiotic analysis of pre Christmas commercial spots of the Oskar/Vodafone network" deals with an analysis of this cell phone operator television advertising which has been broadcasted after its enter onto the Czech market. The thesis has been set in the context of symbolic interactionism and semiotics, or theoretical and terminological framework by a French semiotician Ronald Barthes and his conception of a sign and the process of its meaning construction. The study is dra...

  18. X-ray polarization studies of plasma focus experiments with a single hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M.J.; Baronova, E.O.

    2004-01-01

    In high current pulse discharges of the plasma focus (PF) type, inside the collapsing pinch column, there are formed local micro-regions of high-density and high-temperature plasma, so-called hot spots. Individual hot spots are separated in space and time. Each hot spot is characterized by its specific electron concentration and temperature, as well as by the emission of x-ray lines with different polarization. When numerous hot spots are produced it is impossible to determine local plasma parameters and to interpret the polarization effects. To eliminate this problem this study was devoted to the realization of PF-type discharges with single hot spot only. It has been achieved by a choice of the electrode configuration, which facilitated the formation of a single hot spot emitting intense x-ray lines. At the chosen experimental conditions it was possible to determine local plasma parameters and to demonstrate evident differences in the polarization of the observed x-ray lines. (author)

  19. Linguistic Features of Persuasive Communication: The Case of DRTV Short Form Spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Komar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct response television commercials (DRTV exhibit a very specific style of speech and delivery whose main function is to boost the product’s value and sales. This paper presents the findings of the structural and the linguistic analyses of three English DRTV short form spots as seen on Highstreet TV. The emphasis is on the verbal strategies used by advertisers to get the consumers’ attention, develop their interest and desire to own the product and to convince them to purchase it. These strategies include different lexical, syntactic and prosodic features. The structural analysis focuses mainly on non-verbal strategies of broadcasting advertisements whose purpose is to inspire interest and credibility in potential consumers.

  20. 44 CFR 350.5 - Criteria for review and approval of State and local radiological emergency plans and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... completeness.) (3) Arrangements for requesting and effectively using assistance resources have been made... and what their initial actions should be in an emergency (e.g., listening to a local broadcast station...

  1. Hot spot detection for breast cancer in Ki-67 stained slides: image dependent filtering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, M. Khalid Khan; Downs-Kelly, Erinn; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2014-03-01

    We present a new method to detect hot spots from breast cancer slides stained for Ki67 expression. It is common practice to use centroid of a nucleus as a surrogate representation of a cell. This often requires the detection of individual nuclei. Once all the nuclei are detected, the hot spots are detected by clustering the centroids. For large size images, nuclei detection is computationally demanding. Instead of detecting the individual nuclei and treating hot spot detection as a clustering problem, we considered hot spot detection as an image filtering problem where positively stained pixels are used to detect hot spots in breast cancer images. The method first segments the Ki-67 positive pixels using the visually meaningful segmentation (VMS) method that we developed earlier. Then, it automatically generates an image dependent filter to generate a density map from the segmented image. The smoothness of the density image simplifies the detection of local maxima. The number of local maxima directly corresponds to the number of hot spots in the breast cancer image. The method was tested on 23 different regions of interest images extracted from 10 different breast cancer slides stained with Ki67. To determine the intra-reader variability, each image was annotated twice for hot spots by a boardcertified pathologist with a two-week interval in between her two readings. A computer-generated hot spot region was considered a true-positive if it agrees with either one of the two annotation sets provided by the pathologist. While the intra-reader variability was 57%, our proposed method can correctly detect hot spots with 81% precision.

  2. OFDM and MC-CDMA for broadband multi-user communications WLANs and broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "OFDM systems have experienced increased attention in recent years and have found applications in a number of diverse areas including telephone-line based ADSL links, digital audio and video broadcasting systems, and wireless local area networks. OFDM is being considered for the next-generation of wireless systems both with and without direct sequence spreading and the resultant spreading-based multi-carrier CDMA systems have numerous attractive properties. This volume provides the reader with a broad overview of the research on OFDM systems during their 40-year history. Part I commences with an easy to read conceptual, rather than mathematical, treatment of the basic design issues of OFDM systems. The discussions gradually deepen to include adaptive single and multi-user OFDM systems invoking adaptive turbo coding. Part II introduces the taxonomy of multi-carrier CDMA systems and deals with the design of their spreading codes and the objective of minimising their crest factors. This part also compares the be...

  3. SU-E-T-510: Interplay Between Spots Sizes, Spot / Line Spacing and Motion in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, TK

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In proton beam configuration for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT), one can define the spacing between spots and lines of scanning as a ratio of given spot size. If the spacing increases, the number of spots decreases which can potentially decrease scan time, and so can whole treatment time, and vice versa. However, if the spacing is too large, the uniformity of scanned field decreases. Also, the field uniformity can be affected by motion during SSPT beam delivery. In the present study, the interplay between spot/ line spacing and motion is investigated. Methods We used four Gaussian-shape spot sizes with 0.5cm, 1.0cm, 1.5cm, and 2.0cm FWHM, three spot/line spacing that creates uniform field profile which are 1/3*FWHM, σ/3*FWHM and 2/3*FWHM, and three random motion amplitudes within, +/−0.3mm, +/−0.5mm, and +/−1.0mm. We planned with 2Gy uniform single layer of 10×10cm2 and 20×20cm2 fields. Then, mean dose within 80% area of given field size, contrubuting MU per each spot assuming 1cGy/MU calibration for all spot sizes, number of spots and uniformity were calculated. Results The plans with spot/line spacing equal to or smaller than 2/3*FWHM without motion create ∼100% uniformity. However, it was found that the uniformity decreases with increased spacing, and it is more pronounced with smaller spot sizes, but is not affected by scanned field sizes. Conclusion It was found that the motion during proton beam delivery can alter the dose uniformity and the amount of alteration changes with spot size which changes with energy and spot/line spacing. Currently, robust evaluation in TPS (e.g. Eclipse system) performs range uncertainty evaluation using isocenter shift and CT calibration error. Based on presented study, it is recommended to add interplay effect evaluation to robust evaluation process. For future study, the additional interplay between the energy layers and motion is expected to present volumetric effect

  4. On locality of Generalized Reed-Muller codes over the broadcast erasure channel

    KAUST Repository

    Alloum, Amira; Lin, Sian Jheng; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2016-01-01

    , and more specifically at the application layer where Rateless, LDPC, Reed Slomon codes and network coding schemes have been extensively studied, optimized and standardized in the past. Beyond reusing, extending or adapting existing application layer packet

  5. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra [University of Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN, Lyon (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Pomarède, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-09-20

    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.

  6. Global Broadcast Service Reach Back Via Ultra High Frequency Demand Assigned Multiple Access Satellite Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    .... An integral part of the user pull is the reach back channel. The reach back channel allows users to speciiy the information they need broadcast and tailor the information to meet their mission needs...

  7. Global Broadcast Service Reach Back via Ultra High Frequency Demand Assigned Multiple Satellite Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    .... An integral part of the user pull is the reach back channel. The reach back channel allows users to specify' the information they need broadcast and tailor the information to meet their mission needs...

  8. Topology-oblivious optimization of MPI broadcast algorithms on extreme-scale platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid; Quintin, Jean-Noë l; Lastovetsky, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    operations for particular architectures by taking into account either their topology or platform parameters. In this work we propose a simple but general approach to optimization of the legacy MPI broadcast algorithms, which are widely used in MPICH and Open

  9. The large satellite program of ESA and its relevance for broadcast missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, H.-H.; Herdan, B. L.

    1981-03-01

    In an investigation of the market prospects and payload requirements of future communications satellites, it was concluded that during the next 15 years many space missions will demand larger satellite platforms than those currently available. These platforms will be needed in connection with direct-broadcasting satellites, satellites required to enhance capacities in the case of traditional services, and satellites employed to introduce new types of satellite-based communications operating with small terminals. Most of the larger satellites would require the Ariane III capability, corresponding to about 1400 kg satellite mass in geostationary orbit. Attention is given to L-SAT platform capabilities and broadcast payload requirements, taking into account a European direct-broadcast satellite and Canadian direct-broadcast missions.

  10. The role of the public service broadcasting in the european countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budacia Elisabeta Andreea

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting in particular has seen remarkable change from the days of single-channel public broadcasting systems. The audiovisual “explosion” is a cultural, social and economic phenomenon of global dimension. The audiovisual sector forms an essential part of Europe’s economic and cultural influence in the world. The fundamental principle of the Union’s audiovisual policy is to provide for the free circulation of reception of trans frontier broadcasts. So the European audiovisual industry is likely to become a stronger and more competitive player on the global scene. The future of public service broadcasting in Europe is increasingly challenged by unfavorable external factors, such as intensifying competition from commercial media, media concentrations, political and economic interests adversary to independent media, and by internal difficulties, such as cost ineffectiveness.

  11. On the analysis of human mobility model for content broadcasting in 5G networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2018-02-15

    Today\\'s mobile service providers aim at ensuring end-to-end performance guarantees. Hence, ensuring an efficient content delivery to end users is highly required. Currently, transmitting popular contents in modern mobile networks rely on unicast transmission. This result into a huge underutilization of the wireless bandwidth. The urban scale mobility of users is beneficial for mobile networks to allocate radio resources spatially and temporally for broadcasting contents. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive analysis on a human activity/mobility model and the content broadcasting system in 5G mobile networks. The objective of this work is to describe how human daily activities could improve the content broadcasting efficiency. We achieve the objective by analyzing the transition probabilities of a user traveling over several places according to the change of states of daily human activities. Using a reallife simulation, we demonstrate the relationship between the human mobility and the optimization objective of the content broadcasting system.

  12. 213 Re-Positioning Nigeria's Radio Broadcast as a Catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    challenge by the Nigeria radio broadcast that needs not waste time to counter the ... revolution in technology has brought radio even closer to Africans than ever before ..... information and better education make people want to change''. (156).

  13. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with limited CSI feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-10-27

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over block-fading channels with limited channel knowledge at the transmitter. More particularly, we analyze the effect of having imperfect channel state information (CSI) via a finite rate feedback on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. First, we partially characterize the ergodic secrecy capacity of the system when the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, i.e., common message transmission. Then, we look at the independent messages case, where the transmitter broadcasts multiple independent messages to the legitimate receivers. For this case, we present lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy sum-capacity. In both scenarios, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback links becomes large, hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  14. An Investigation into the Passive Detection of Point Targets Using FM Broadcasts or White Noise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindstrom, Chadwick

    1998-01-01

    Over the past three years, researchers at the University of Washington have been developing a multistatic radar system that uses commercial FM radio broadcasts to detect plasma waves in the ionosphere...

  15. 37 CFR 381.6 - Performance of musical compositions by other public broadcasting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to this section shall furnish to ASCAP, BMI and SESAC, upon request, a music-use report during one... total population data, from a research company generally recognized in the broadcasting industry, for...

  16. On minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay for instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ai-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay experienced by all the receivers of generalized instantly decodable network coding (IDNC). Unlike the sum decoding delay, the maximum decoding delay as a

  17. Broadcast Scheduling Strategy Based on the Priority of Real.Time Data in a Mobile Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJin-cait; LiuYun-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Data broadcast is an important data dissemination approach in mobile environment. On broadcast channel,scalability and efficiency of data transmission are satisfied. In a mobile environment, there exists a kind of real-time database application in which both the transactions and data can have their timing constraints and priorities of different levels.In order to meet the requirement of real-time data disseminaring and retrieving, a broadcast scheduling strategy HPF-ED F (Highest Priority First with Earlier Deadline and Frequency) is proposed under the BoD (Broadcast on Demand) model. Using the strategy, data items are scheduled according to their priority the transaction imposed on them or system set for them. The strategy also considers other characteristics of data items such as deadline and popularity of data. The extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Results show that it can achieve excellent performance compared with existing strategies.

  18. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using

  19. Energy-Aware Broadcasting and Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Cross-Layering Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wieselthier, Jeffrey E; Nguyen, Gam D; Ephremides, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    ...) problems, especially when energy-aware operation is required. To address the specific problem of energy-aware tree construction in wireless ad hoc networks, we have developed the Broadcast Incremental Power (BIP...

  20. SWIPT in Multiuser MIMO Decode-and-Forward Relay Broadcasting Channel with Energy Harvesting Relays

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a multiuser multiple- input multiple-output (MIMO) decode-and-forward (DF) relay broadcasting channel (BC) with single source, multiple energy harvesting relays and multiple destinations. Since the end-to-end sum rate

  1. The Use of International Television Formats by Public-Service Broadcasters in Australia, Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esser, Andrea; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    adaptations, as Jérôme Bourdon has noted, had no history here because they “contradicted almost everything public service broadcasting stood for” (2012: 114). Even though in many countries PSBs are also expected to provide entertainment, next to quality information and educational material, the overall idea...... the world is such, that it would be no exaggeration to speak of ‘creative destruction’ (Schumpeter 1942). How has this impacted on the production and provision of public-service broadcasting? Public-service broadcasters historically have different objectives to private commercial broadcasters and format...... of structural differences between the respective television markets. Moreover, a closer analysis of the genre and content of those formats employed, shows that the PSBs studied, even when buying and adapting formats from abroad, have tended to choose formats that fulfil the public-service remit....

  2. 47 CFR 27.63 - Disturbance of AM broadcast station antenna patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immediate vicinity of AM broadcast stations are responsible for measures necessary to correct disturbance of... the FCC for the AM station, if the disturbance occurred as a result of such construction or...

  3. 47 CFR 22.371 - Disturbance of AM broadcast station antenna patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... construct or modify towers in the immediate vicinity of AM broadcast stations are responsible for measures... radiation parameters specified by the FCC for the AM station, if the disturbance occurred as a result of...

  4. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation messages...

  5. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with limited CSI feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over block-fading channels with limited channel knowledge at the transmitter. More particularly, we analyze the effect of having imperfect channel state information (CSI) via a finite rate feedback on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. First, we partially characterize the ergodic secrecy capacity of the system when the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, i.e., common message transmission. Then, we look at the independent messages case, where the transmitter broadcasts multiple independent messages to the legitimate receivers. For this case, we present lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy sum-capacity. In both scenarios, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback links becomes large, hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  6. The Accuracy and Correction of Fuel Consumption from Controller Area Network Broadcast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ragatz, Adam C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Fuel consumption (FC) has always been an important factor in vehicle cost. With the advent of electronically controlled engines, the controller area network (CAN) broadcasts information about engine and vehicle performance, including fuel use. However, the accuracy of the FC estimates is uncertain. In this study, the researchers first compared CAN-broadcasted FC against physically measured fuel use for three different types of trucks, which revealed the inaccuracies of CAN-broadcast fueling estimates. To match precise gravimetric fuel-scale measurements, polynomial models were developed to correct the CAN-broadcasted FC. Lastly, the robustness testing of the correction models was performed. The training cycles in this section included a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. The mean relative differences were reduced noticeably.

  7. A Secure Network Coding Based on Broadcast Encryption in SDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By allowing intermediate nodes to encode the received packets before sending them out, network coding improves the capacity and robustness of multicast applications. But it is vulnerable to the pollution attacks. Some signature schemes were proposed to thwart such attacks, but most of them need to be homomorphic that the keys cannot be generated and managed easily. In this paper, we propose a novel fast and secure switch network coding multicast (SSNC on the software defined networks (SDN. In our scheme, the complicated secure multicast management was separated from the fast data transmission based on the SDN. Multiple multicasts will be aggregated to one multicast group according to the requirements of services and the network status. Then, the controller will route aggregated multicast group with network coding; only the trusted switch will be allowed to join the network coding by using broadcast encryption. The proposed scheme can use the traditional cryptography without homomorphy, which greatly reduces the complexity of the computation and improves the efficiency of transmission.

  8. [Evaluation of medication advertising broadcast on radio stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Almária Mariz; Carvalho, Maria Cleide Ribeiro Dantas de

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this paper was to evaluate advertising for medication broadcast on radio stations in Natal, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, from April to September 2008 and from April to September 2010. The advertising was recorded and transcribed in order to conduct legal analysis and content analysis based on the precepts of Laurence Bardin. Both the advertising recorded during the first stage (regulated by RDC 102/00) and the second stage (regulated by RDC 96/08) contained some form of legal violation. Content analysis detected practically the same violations in both stages, namely the lack of information regarding adverse effects of the medication, appeal to consumption, exaggeration of efficiency/effectiveness and abusive exploitation of illness. Despite the inclusion of more modern and restrictive legislation, radio advertising continues to violate the law blatantly, committing abuse and disrespecting the population's entitlement to good health. The study reveals the need for medication advertising to be dealt with in a broader context, in other words to be treated as a public health concern. It must take into consideration the socio-historical scenario in which it evolved, since the legislation alone is insufficient to combat abuse committed to the detriment of public health.

  9. Music and its Impact on Musicians in Broadcasting Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Milani

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Sound is an inseparable part of human life and provides us with lovely experiences such as listening to music. Musicians from classical orchestras to rock groups are exposed to high decibel of sounds. Musicians playing percussion musical instruments are exposed to high level of impact noise and players of Brass musical instruments are highly exposed to noise peaks higher than 100dB. Woodwind players are enduring the risk of posing directly in front of Brass players. Based on the above-mentioned risks for hearing loss clinical consideration of noise induced hearing loss in musicians is highly required. In the current study we were aimed at examining hearing stratus of classic and traditional musicians by means of pure tone audiometry in Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting. 33 subjects were evaluated aged between 22 to 59 years old. Their musical experience was variable between 6 to 45 years. The study demonstrated that most of the musicians in this study suffered bilateral high frequency hearing loss with a notch in the frequency range of 4-8 KHz.

  10. Stealth Advertising: The Commercialization of Television News Broadcasts in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Chernov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-phase study deals with the phenomenon of “stealth advertising” in Canada. This concept refers to the encroachment of commercially tinted messages into broadcast news segments. Different theories of commercial speech were used as a theoretical framework. The study combined mixed methods, content analysis and in-depth interviews. The first phase concentrated on the frequency and actual time spent airing commercially influenced messages in television newscast segments. The sample consisted of eight randomly selected English-language markets across Canada including news stations affiliated with CBC, CTV and Global. Seventy-five newscasts were recorded and content-analyzed. The analysis demonstrated that private television stations used more explicit and aggressive stealth advertising than publicly owned ones. In subsequent interviews, the news directors and sales managers of some of these stations denied that they yield to outside commercial pressures but admitted they may include messages with commercial content if these have public interest value. In the second phase thirty-nine newscasts of a news station affiliated with Global were recorded and content-analyzed, showing high numbers of commercially influenced messages and corroborating previous research findings. Subsequent interviews showed some news decision-makers accept the inclusion of commercially tinted news segments, thus eroding the divide between editorial and commercial contents. This study is intended to contribute to the empirical basis for pursuing the question of corruption of news by surreptitious commercial content.

  11. Post-settlement survivorship in two Caribbean broadcasting corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret W.

    2014-12-01

    The post-settlement phase of broadcast-spawned coral life histories is poorly known due to its almost complete undetectability and, hence, presumed low abundance in the field. We used lab-cultured settled polyps of two important Caribbean reef-building species with negligible larval recruitment to quantify early post-settlement survivorship (6-9 weeks) over multiple years/cohorts and differing orientation on a reef in the Florida Keys. Orbicella faveolata showed significantly and consistently better survivorship in vertical rather than horizontal orientation, but no discernable growth overall. Meanwhile, Acropora palmata showed no significant difference in survivorship between orientations, but significantly greater growth in the horizontal orientation. Both species showed significant variation in mean survivorship between cohorts of different years; 0-47 % for O. faveolata and 12-49 % for A. palmata over the observed duration. These results demonstrate wide variation in success of cohorts and important differences in the larval recruitment capacities of these two important but imperiled reef-building species.

  12. Integrating Communication and Navigation: Next Generation Broadcast Service (NGBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    NASA Goddard has been investing in technology demonstrations of a beacon service, now called Next Generation Broadcast Services (NGBS). NGBS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). NGBS will provide an S-band beacon messaging source and radio navigation available to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below, increasing the autonomy and resiliency of onboard communication and navigation. NGBS will deliver both one-way radiometric (Doppler and pseudorange) and fast forward data transport services to users. Portions of the overall forward data volume will be allocated for fixed message types while the remaining data volume will be left for user forward command data. The NGBS signal will reside within the 2106.43 MHz spectrum currently allocated for the Space Networks multiple access forward (MAF) service and a live service demonstration is currently being planned via the 2nd and 3rd generation TDRS satellites.

  13. Piloting Telepresence-Enabled Education and Outreach Programs from a UNOLS Ship - Live Interactive Broadcasts from the R/V Endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Coleman, D.; Donovan, S.; Sanders, R.; Gingras, A.; DeCiccio, A.; Bilbo, E.

    2016-02-01

    The University of Rhode Island's R/V Endeavor was recently equipped with a new satellite telecommunication system and a telepresence system to enable live ship-to-shore broadcasts and remote user participation through the Inner Space Center. The Rhode Island Endeavor Program, which provides state-funded ship time to support local oceanographic research and education, funded a 5-day cruise off the Rhode Island coast that involved a multidisciplinary team of scientists, engineers, students, educators and video producers. Using two remotely operated vehicle (ROV) systems, several dives were conducted to explore various shipwrecks including the German WWII submarine U-853. During the cruise, a team of URI ocean engineers supported ROV operations and performed engineering tests of a new manipulator. Colleagues from the United States Coast Guard Academy operated a small ROV to collect imagery and environmental data around the wreck sites. Additionally, a team of engineers and oceanographers from URI tested a new acoustic sound source and small acoustic receivers developed for a fish tracking experiment. The video producers worked closely with the participating scientists, students and two high school science teachers to communicate the oceanographic research during live educational broadcasts streamed into Rhode Island classrooms, to the public Internet, and directly to Rhode Island Public Television. This work contributed to increasing awareness of possible career pathways for the Rhode Island K-12 population, taught about active oceanographic research projects, and engaged the public in scientific adventures at sea. The interactive nature of the broadcasts included live responses to questions submitted online and live updates and feedback using social media tools. This project characterizes the power of telepresence and video broadcasting to engage diverse learners and exemplifies innovative ways to utilize social media and the Internet to draw a varied audience.

  14. Robust Radio Broadcast Monitoring Using a Multi-Band Spectral Entropy Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Ibarrola, Antonio; Chávez, Edgar; Tellez, Eric Sadit

    Monitoring media broadcast content has deserved a lot of attention lately from both academy and industry due to the technical challenge involved and its economic importance (e.g. in advertising). The problem pose a unique challenge from the pattern recognition point of view because a very high recognition rate is needed under non ideal conditions. The problem consist in comparing a small audio sequence (the commercial ad) with a large audio stream (the broadcast) searching for matches.

  15. Management, restructuring and industrial relations : organizational change within the United Kingdom broadcasting industry, 1979-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade researchers began to remedy a literature deficit in the study of broadcasting institutions – addressing in particular the issues of labour process, restructuring and industrial relations. This thesis which considers management change, industrial relations and restructuring within the United Kingdom (‘UK’) broadcasting industry employs a case study format with a view to highlighting the variations of industry (macro) and firm (micro) based restructuring. Organizational chang...

  16. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  17. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  18. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  19. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  20. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.