WorldWideScience

Sample records for spot film measuring

  1. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  2. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  3. Measurement of laser spot quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Treptau, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of measuring spot quality are compared. We examine in detail various figures of merit such as full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at 1/(e exp 2) maximum, Strehl ratio, and encircled energy. Our application is optical data storage, but results can be applied to other areas like space communications and high energy lasers. We found that the optimum figure of merit in many cases is Strehl ratio.

  4. Measurement of PuO2 spot in the mixed-oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosuka, Yoshifumi; Kaneda, Kenichiro; Ishikawa, Eiji; Nakajima, Katsuaki; Kashima, Sadamitsu

    1974-01-01

    The homogeneity of mixed-oxide fuel is evaluated with the maximum diameter of PuO 2 spots. PuO 2 spot distribution is influenced by fuel production process and raw materials used. Analytical measurement of the PuO 2 spot distribution was carried out. α-autoradiograph was taken with nitrocellulose film as a detector. The film was exposed for 15 and 30 minutes to the sample pellets, and etched in 10% NaOH for 2 minutes at 60 0 C. Measurement of PuO 2 spots was performed manually with a projector. PuO 2 spot distribution was measured. There is no difference of spot distribution owing to the location in a pellet. However some discrepancy exists in spot number and maximum diameter between surface and inner part. This phenomenon is explained by considering that the diffusion on surface is more effective than in inner part in sintering process. Three pellets were taken out from a lot at random, and α-autoradiograph was taken longitudinally with a pellet and transversely with the others. PuO 2 spot number counted from three autoradiographs was about 150/cm 2 , and the standard deviation was about 1.5. No difference was observed among them. Concerning the influence of mixing method on PuO 2 spot formation, three methods were examined; ball mill mixing (with and without lining) and Kneader mixing. Kneader mixing gave the worst results in maximum spot diameter and spot distribution range. (Tai, I.)

  5. Automatic film loader for X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A light tight tunnel extends over the top of a diagnostic X-ray table. A film cassette is mounted for reciprocating in the tunnel between an X-ray exposure position and a position in which the cassette is unloaded or loaded with film automatically. Unexposed films are dispensed one at a time into the cassette from a feed magazine at one end of the tunnel. After exposure, the film is ejected from the cassette into a receiving magazine at the same end of the tunnel. (Auth.)

  6. Spreading of Trisiloxanes on Thin Water Film: Dry Spot Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Ovunda NJOBUENWU

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation of the spreading of trisiloxanes EO6, EO7, EO8, EO9 and sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS on thin films which are 320 microns in thickness; the concentrations covered are above the CMC. The spreading of SDS is accompanied by the formation of a “dry spot” which advances in time roughly as t1/4. The trisiloxanes spreading gave rise to dry spot formation that was accompanied by “irregularities”, which corresponded to an abrupt jump in the plot of dry spot radius versus time. The behaviour is attributed to a variety of factors: disjoining pressure effects or the fact that the Petri dish was too small so that backward propagating waves were set up due to reflections from the walls which interacted with the outspreading dry spot.

  7. A study of long boone measurement by CT scanogram - Comparison with spot scanogram -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Kang, Heung Sik; Jung, Jin Wook; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1987-01-01

    CT scanogram is a new technique for measuring leg length discrepancy and has many advantage as compared with conventional spot scanogram. 30 dried bones were measured by direct measurement, spot scanogram and CT scanogram. Accuracy of CT scanogram was compared with spot scanogram. For evaluation of systemic error of CT, steel rulers and dried bones were measured at two different window settings. Decentering error in spot scanogram was measured by using dried bones, and 180 spots of 30 clinical cases of Beli-thompson studies were reviewed for evaluation of incidence and degree of decentering. The results of measurements of CT and spot scanogram in ideal position and technique were equivalent to those of direct measurements. But in spot scanogram, significant errors were noted in flexion status and decentered film. 54 spot (42.9%) of 30 clinical cases were decentered more than 1 cm. In CT scanogram, decentering error was completely excluded and shortening due to flexion deformity was overcomed by lateral scanogram. CT scanogram is a simple and accurate method for leg length measurement. Thus we recommend CT scanogram as a routine use for evaluation of leg length discrepancy.

  8. Effects of small, intense laser spots on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, K.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations show that small diameter laser spots burn through flat foils considerably faster than larger spots. The physical mechanisms are (1) more nearly spherical divergence from the smaller spots which allows the debris to rapidly convect radially away from the small volume of laser heated plasma and (2) a variation on thermal self-focusing in which light is refracted into this volume, increasing the local heating rate

  9. A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

  10. A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-01-01

    Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

  11. Single-shot and single-spot measurement of laser ablation threshold for carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Lednev, Vasily N.; Pershin, Sergey M.; Obraztsova, Elena D.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Bunkin, Alexey F.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and convenient procedure for single-shot, single-spot ablation threshold measurement has been developed. It is based on the employment of cylindrical lens to obtain elliptical Gaussian laser spot. The ablated spot chords which are parallel to the minor axis were measured across the spot major axis which is proportional to the fluence cross-section thus providing wide range dependence of damaged spot size versus fluence in one spot measurement. For both conventional and new-developed ...

  12. Material influence on hot spot distribution in the nanoparticle heterodimer on film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Huang, Yingzhou; Wei, Hua; Wang, Shuxia; Zeng, Xiping; Cao, Wenbin; Wen, Weijia

    2018-04-01

    The metal nanoparticle aggregated on film, as an effective plasma enhancement pathway, has been widely used in various surface plasmon-related fields. In this study, the hot spots on the metal nanoparticle dimer composed of different materials (Agsbnd Au, Agsbnd Pd, and Agsbnd Cu) on metal (Au) film were investigated with finite element method. Based on the results, the hot spot distribution affected by the material can be confirmed by the electric field distribution of the metal nanoparticle dimer on the film. The aggregation effects of Au and Ag nanoparticles in Ausbnd Ag dimer system are not significant. However, for the Pdsbnd Ag dimer system, the hot spot aggregation effect is slightly larger than that of the Pd nanoparticle under the Ag nanoparticle. Besides, the non-uniform hot spots would bring about the light focusing phenomenon that the light intensity under Ag nanoparticle is almost 100 times greater than that under Cu nanoparticle in Agsbnd Cu dimer system. These results were further confirmed by the surface charge distribution, and analyzed based on the plasmonic hybridization theory. The data about the nanoparticle dimer on the dielectric (Si) film demonstrate the importance of induced image charges on the film surface in such a light focusing phenomenon. Our findings can enhance the understanding of the surface plasmon coupling in different materials, which may have great application prospects in surface plasmon-related fields, such as SERS, plasmonic enhanced solar cell, and plasmonic sensoring, etc.

  13. Energy stability of droplets and dry spots in a thin film model of hanging drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Luen; Chou, Kai-Seng

    2017-10-01

    The 2-D thin film equation describing the evolution of hang drops is studied. All radially symmetric steady states are classified, and their energy stability is determined. It is shown that the droplet with zero contact angle is the only global energy minimizer and the dry spot with zero contact angle is a strict local energy minimizer.

  14. SU-E-T-286: Dose Verification of Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Using GafChromic EBT3 Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C; Tang, S; Mah, D [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, NJ (United States); Chan, M [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dose verification of spot-scanning proton pencil beam is performed via planar dose measurements at several depths using an ionization-chamber array, requiring repeat irradiations of each field for each depth. Here we investigate film dosimetry which has two advantages: higher resolution and efficiency from one-shot irradiation for multiple depths. Methods: Film calibration was performed using an EBT3 film at 20-cm depth of Plastic Water (CIRS, Norfolk, VA) exposed by a 10-level step wedge on a Proteus Plus proton system (IBA, Belgium). The calibration doses ranged from 25–250 cGy(RBE) for proton energies of 170–200 MeV. A uniform 1000 cm{sup 3} dose cube and a clinical prostate combined with seminal-vesicle and pelvic-nodes plan were used for this study. All treatment plans were generated in the RayStation (RaySearch Lab, Sweden). The planar doses at different depths for both cases were measured with film using triple-channel dosimetry and the MatriXX PT (IBA Dosimetry, Germany). The Gamma passing rates, dose-difference maps, and profiles of 2D planar doses measured with EBT3 film and MatriXX, versus treatment planning system (TPS) calculations were analyzed and compared using the FilmQA Pro (Ashland Inc., Bridgewater, NJ). Results: The EBT3 film measurement results matched well with the TPS calculation data with an average passing rate >95% for 2%/2mm and are comparable with the MatriXX measurements (0.7%, 1.8%, 3.8% mean differences corresponding to 3%/3mm, 3%/2mm, 2%/2mm, respectively). Overall passing rates for EBT3 films appear higher than those with MatriXX detectors. Conclusion: The energy dependence of the film response could be minimized by calibration using proton beam with mixed energies. The greater efficiency of the dose verification using GafChromic EBT3 results in a potential cost trade-off between room capacity and film cost. EBT3 film may offer distinct advantages in highly intensity-modulated fields due to its higher resolution

  15. Gastrointestinal digital fluoroscopy: Comparison of digital pulsed progressive readout images with 100-mm spot films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, E.; Ferrucci, J.T.; Mueller, P.R.; Hahn, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    New developments in pulsed progressive readout (PPR) techniques allow short, extremely intense pulses of radiation to be used to produce a latent image which is then progressively read off the video camera and placed in 1,024 x 1,024-pixel digital storage. The resulting image is produced by a 10-20-msec pulse, reducing motion artifact to below that achievable with conventional spot film techniques, with a potential for 50%-95% dose reduction. This technique of reducing motion artifact is ideal for digital applications in gastrointestinal radiology. The authors compared 10-mm spot films and PPR digital radiographs of 86 anatomic regions in 43 patients undergoing routine barium enema and cholangiographic examinations. Parameters evaluated included display of normal and pathologic features, image contrast, and resolution. The benefits of the PPR technique include postprocessing to evaluate low contrast region and the potential for significant dose reduction

  16. Thermal analysis of continuous and patterned multilayer films in the presence of a nanoscale hot spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jia-Yang; Zheng, Jinglin

    2016-10-01

    Thermal responses of multilayer films play essential roles in state-of-the-art electronic systems, such as photo/micro-electronic devices, data storage systems, and silicon-on-insulator transistors. In this paper, we focus on the thermal aspects of multilayer films in the presence of a nanoscale hot spot induced by near field laser heating. The problem is set up in the scenario of heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR), the next-generation technology to overcome the data storage density limit imposed by superparamagnetism. We characterized thermal responses of both continuous and patterned multilayer media films using transient thermal modeling. We observed that material configurations, in particular, the thermal barriers at the material layer interfaces crucially impact the temperature field hence play a key role in determining the hot spot geometry, transient response and power consumption. With a representative generic media model, we further explored the possibility of optimizing thermal performances by designing layers of heat sink and thermal barrier. The modeling approach demonstrates an effective way to characterize thermal behaviors of micro and nano-scale electronic devices with multilayer thin film structures. The insights into the thermal transport scheme will be critical for design and operations of such electronic devices.

  17. Applying dual-laser spot positions measurement technology on a two-dimensional tracking measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hau-Wei; Chen, Chieh-Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional tracking measurement system with a tracking module, which consists of two stepping motors, two laser diodes and a four separated active areas segmented position sensitive detector (PSD). The PSD was placed on a two-dimensional moving stage and used as a tracking target. The two laser diodes in the tracking module were directly rotated to keep the laser spots on the origin of the PSD. The two-dimensional position of the target PSD on the moving stage is determined from the distance between the two motors and the tracking angles of the two laser diodes, which are rotated by the two stepping motors, respectively. In order to separate the four positional values of the two laser spots on one PSD, the laser diodes were modulated by two distinct frequencies. Multiple-laser spot position measurement technology was used to separate the four positional values of the two laser spots on the PSD. The experimental results show that the steady-state voltage shift rate is about 0.2% and dynamic cross-talk rate is smaller than 2% when the two laser spots are projected on one PSD at the same time. The measurement errors of the x and y axial positions of the two-dimensional tracking system were less than 1% in the measuring range of 20 mm. The results demonstrate that multiple-laser spot position measurement technology can be employed in a two-dimensional tracking measurement system

  18. Research Progress on Measurement Methods and Influence Factors of Thin-film Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Yibo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the size of thin-film electronic devices decreasing, the film stress became an important reason for the failure of thin film devices. Film stress not only affected the membrane structure, but also associated with film optics, electricity, mechanics and other properties, therefore film stress turned into one hot spot in the research field of thin-film materials. This paper reviewed the latest research progress of film stress, substrate curvature method, X-ray diffraction technique and Raman spectroscopy, several frequently used stress measuring techniques were compared and analyzed, and composition ratios of thin film, substrate types, magnetron sputtering process parameters (sputtering power, work pressure, substrate temperature and annealing etc. factors influencing thin film stress were summarized. It was found that substrate curvature method was suitable for measuring almost all kinds of thin film materials. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were just fit for measuring materials with characteristic peaks. Nanoindentation method required extra stress-free samples as comparison experiments. During film fabrication and annealing process, film stress usually transited from compressive to tensile status, and several factors combined together could affect stress, so film stress could be reached the minimum value or even stress-free status through setting appropriate parameters. Finally, combined with film stress research status, accurate stress measurement methods for different materials as a thin-film stress research direction were introduced, and challenges in thin film detection range were pointed out.

  19. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  20. Laser Beam Caustic Measurement with Focal Spot Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Gong, Hui; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    In industrial applications of high power CO2-lasers the caustic characteristics of the laser beam have great effects on the performance of the lasers. A welldefined high intense focused spot is essential for reliable production results. This paper presents a focal spot analyser that is developed...

  1. Experimental investigation on the motion of cathode spots in removing oxide film on metal surface by vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zongqian; Jia Shenli; Wang Lijun; Yuan Qingjun; Song Xiaochuan

    2008-01-01

    The motion of vacuum arc cathode spots has a very important influence on the efficiency of removing the oxide film on the metal surface. In this paper, the characteristics of cathode spot motion are investigated experimentally. Experiments were conducted in a detachable vacuum chamber with ac (50 Hz) arc current of 1 kA (rms). A stainless steel plate covered by an oxide layer was used as the cathode. The motion of cathode spots during the descaling process was photographed by a high-speed digital camera with an exposure time of 2 μs. Experimental results indicate that the motion of cathode spots is influenced by the interaction among individual cathode jets and the position of the anode as well as the surface condition. The waveform of arc voltage is also influenced by the motion of cathode spots

  2. Single-shot and single-spot measurement of laser ablation threshold for carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednev, Vasily N; Pershin, Sergey M; Bunkin, Alexey F; Obraztsova, Elena D; Kudryashov, Sergey I

    2013-01-01

    A simple and convenient procedure for single-shot, single-spot ablation threshold measurement is developed. It is based on the employment of cylindrical lens to obtain an elliptical Gaussian laser spot. The ablated spot chords that are parallel to the minor axis are measured across the spot major axis, which is proportional to the fluence cross-section, thus providing wide range dependence of damaged spot size versus fluence in one spot measurement. For both conventional and newly developed procedures the ablation threshold for typical Nd:YAG laser parameters (1064 nm, 10 ns) is measured as 50 ± 5 mJ cm -2 , which is one order of magnitude lower than that for bulk graphite.

  3. Effect of diffraction and film-thickness gradients on wafer-curvature measurements of thin-film stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breiland, W.G.; Lee, S.R.; Koleske, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    When optical measurements of wafer curvature are used to determine thin-film stress, the laser beams that probe the sample are usually assumed to reflect specularly from the curved surface of the film and substrate. Yet, real films are not uniformly thick, and unintended thickness gradients produce optical diffraction effects that steer the laser away from the ideal specular condition. As a result, the deflection of the laser in wafer-curvature measurements is actually sensitive to both the film stress and the film-thickness gradient. We present a Fresnel-Kirchhoff optical diffraction model of wafer-curvature measurements that provides a unified description of these combined effects. The model accurately simulates real-time wafer-curvature measurements of nonuniform GaN films grown on sapphire substrates by vapor-phase epitaxy. During thin-film growth, thickness gradients cause the reflected beam to oscillate asymmetrically about the ideal position defined by the stress-induced wafer curvature. This oscillating deflection has the same periodicity as the reflectance of the growing film, and the deflection amplitude is a function of the film-thickness gradient, the mean film thickness, the wavelength distribution of the light source, the illuminated spot size, and the refractive indices of the film and substrate. For typical GaN films grown on sapphire, misinterpretation of these gradient-induced oscillations can cause stress-measurement errors that approach 10% of the stress-thickness product; much greater errors occur in highly nonuniform films. Only transparent films can exhibit substantial gradient-induced deflections; strongly absorbing films are immune

  4. Hot-Electron Intraband Luminescence from Single Hot Spots in Noble-Metal Nanoparticle Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Klemm, Philippe; Bange, Sebastian; Lupton, John M.

    2015-08-01

    Disordered noble-metal nanoparticle films exhibit highly localized and stable nonlinear light emission from subdiffraction regions upon illumination by near-infrared femtosecond pulses. Such hot spot emission spans a continuum in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Strong plasmonic enhancement of light-matter interaction and the resulting complexity of experimental observations have prevented the development of a universal understanding of the origin of light emission. Here, we study the dependence of emission spectra on excitation irradiance and provide the most direct evidence yet that the continuum emission observed from both silver and gold nanoparticle aggregate surfaces is caused by recombination of hot electrons within the conduction band. The electron gas in the emitting particles, which is effectively decoupled from the lattice temperature for the duration of emission, reaches temperatures of several thousand Kelvin and acts as a subdiffraction incandescent light source on subpicosecond time scales.

  5. Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 Nanotube Array Films with High Photocurrent Density by Spotting Sample Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hong; Zhao, Peini; Zhang, Fanjun; Liu, Yuliang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-01-01

    Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 hybrid nanotube array films (Ag2S/CdS/TNTs) were prepared by selectively depositing a narrow-gap semiconductor—Ag2S (0.9 eV) quantum dots (QDs)—in the local domain of the CdS/TiO2 nanotube array films by spotting sample method (SSM). The improvement of sunlight absorption ability and photocurrent density of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube array films (TNTs) which were obtained by anodic oxidation method was realized because of modifying semiconductor QDs. The CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNT...

  6. X-ray tube focal spot sizes: comprehensive studies of their measurement and effect of measured size in angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Loo, L.N.; Chan, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-two focal spot sizes of four x-ray tubes were measured by the pinhole, star pattern, slit, and root-mean-square (RMS) methods under various exposure conditions. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and line spread functions (LSFs) were also determined. The star pattern focal spot sizes agreed with the effective sizes calculated from the frequencies at the first minimum of the MTF within 0.04 mm for large focal spots and within 0.01 mm for small focal spots. The focal spot size determined by the slit method was approximately equal to the width of the LSF at the cutoff level of 0.15 +/- 0.06 of the peak value. The RMS method provided the best correlation between the measured focal spot sizes and the corresponding image distributions of blood vessels. The pinhole and slit methods tended to overestimate the focal spot size, but the star pattern method tended to underestimate it. For approximately 90% of the focal spots, the average of the star and slit (or pinhole) focal spot sizes agreed with the RMS focal spot size within +/- 0.1 mm

  7. Children's exposure assessment of radiofrequency fields: Comparison between spot and personal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegi, Mara; Huss, Anke; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Guxens, Mònica; Birks, Laura Ellen; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David; Röösli, Martin; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana

    2018-05-24

    Radiofrequency (RF) fields are widely used and, while it is still unknown whether children are more vulnerable to this type of exposure, it is essential to explore their level of exposure in order to conduct adequate epidemiological studies. Personal measurements provide individualized information, but they are costly in terms of time and resources, especially in large epidemiological studies. Other approaches, such as estimation of time-weighted averages (TWAs) based on spot measurements could simplify the work. The aims of this study were to assess RF exposure in the Spanish INMA birth cohort by spot measurements and by personal measurements in the settings where children tend to spend most of their time, i.e., homes, schools and parks; to identify the settings and sources that contribute most to that exposure; and to explore if exposure assessment based on spot measurements is a valid proxy for personal exposure. When children were 8 years old, spot measurements were conducted in the principal settings of 104 participants: homes (104), schools and their playgrounds (26) and parks (79). At the same time, personal measurements were taken for a subsample of 50 children during 3 days. Exposure assessment based on personal and on spot measurements were compared both in terms of mean exposures and in exposure-dependent categories by means of Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's kappa and McNemar test. Median exposure levels ranged from 29.73 (in children's bedrooms) to 200.10 μW/m 2 (in school playgrounds) for spot measurements and were higher outdoors than indoors. Median personal exposure was 52.13 μW/m 2 and median levels of assessments based on spot measurements ranged from 25.46 to 123.21 μW/m 2 . Based on spot measurements, the sources that contributed most to the exposure were FM radio, mobile phone downlink and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial, while indoor and personal sources contributed very little (altogether spot measurements, with the latter

  8. Tear film measurement by optical reflectometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Evaluation of tear film is performed by an optical reflectometer system with alignment guided by a galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer system utilizes optical fibers to deliver illumination light to the tear film and collect the film reflectance as a function of wavelength. Film thickness is determined by best fitting the reflectance-wavelength curve. The spectral reflectance acquisition time is 15 ms, fast enough for detecting film thickness changes. Fast beam alignment of 1 s is achieved by the galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer was first used to evaluate artificial tear film on a model eye with and without a contact lens. The film thickness and thinning rate have been successfully quantified with the minimum measured thickness of about 0.3 μm. Tear films in human eyes, with and without a contact lens, have also been evaluated. A high-contrast spectral reflectance signal from the precontact lens tear film is clearly observed, and the thinning dynamics have been easily recorded from 3.69 to 1.31 μm with lipid layer thickness variation in the range of 41 to 67 nm. The accuracy of the measurement is better than ±0.58% of the film thickness at an estimated tear film refractive index error of ±0.001. The fiber-based reflectometer system is compact and easy to handle. PMID:24500519

  9. Spot-checks to measure general hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Ina L; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A variety of hygiene behaviors are fundamental to the prevention of diarrhea. We used spot-checks in a survey of 761 households in Burundi to examine whether something we could call general hygiene practice is responsible for more specific hygiene behaviors, ranging from handwashing to sweeping the floor. Using structural equation modeling, we showed that clusters of hygiene behavior, such as primary caregivers' cleanliness and household cleanliness, explained the spot-check findings well. Within our model, general hygiene practice as overall concept explained the more specific clusters of hygiene behavior well. Furthermore, the higher general hygiene practice, the more likely children were to be categorized healthy (r = 0.46). General hygiene practice was correlated with commitment to hygiene (r = 0.52), indicating a strong association to psychosocial determinants. The results show that different hygiene behaviors co-occur regularly. Using spot-checks, the general hygiene practice of a household can be rated quickly and easily.

  10. Measuring a narrow Bessel beam spot by scanning a charge-coupled device (CCD) pixel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, S K; Ram, S P; Jayabalan, J; Mishra, S R

    2010-01-01

    By scanning a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera transverse to the beam axis and observing the variation in counts on a marked pixel, we demonstrate that we can measure a laser beam spot size smaller than the size of the CCD-pixel. We find this method particularly attractive for measuring the size of central spot of a Bessel beam, for which the established scanning knife-edge method does not work appropriately because of the large contribution of the rings surrounding the central spot to the signal

  11. Beam Spot Measurement on a 400 keV Electron Accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1979-01-01

    A line probe is used to measure the beam spot radius and beam divergence at a 400 keV ICT electron accelerator, and a method is shown for reducing the line probe data in order to get the radial function.......A line probe is used to measure the beam spot radius and beam divergence at a 400 keV ICT electron accelerator, and a method is shown for reducing the line probe data in order to get the radial function....

  12. Measuring competitiveness of the EPEX spot market for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Christoph; Wozabal, David

    2013-01-01

    The issue of market concentration in electricity markets and resulting possible anti-competitive behavior of producers is a much discussed topic in many countries. We investigate the day-ahead market for electricity at the EPEX, the largest central European market for electricity. To analyze whether generating companies use their market power to influence prices, we use a conjectural variations approach as well as a direct approach to construct marginal costs of electricity production. Given the available data, we cannot reject the hypothesis that there was no systematic abuse of market power by the suppliers of electricity on the EPEX day-ahead spot market for the years 2007–2010. These results are essentially robust when restricting the sample to high load hours, which are generally considered to be the most prone to market manipulation. -- Highlights: •We investigate the efficiency of the German spot market for electricity. •We employ a conjectural variations approach and a fundamental market model. •Peak load hours and base load hours are analyzed separately. •We find that the market was competitive from 2007 to 2010 for both base and peak hours. •Policies to promote market transparency in Germany can be regarded as successful

  13. Height Resolution of Antibody Spots Measured by Spinning-Disk Interferometry on the BioCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin O’Brien

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinning-disc interferometry (SDI is a high-speed laser scanning approach to surface metrology that uses common-path interferometry to measure protein spots on a BioCD disk. The measurement sensitivity depends on the scanning pitch and on the time-base. Based on high-resolution laser scanning images of printed antibody spots, we quantify the protein sensitivity as a function of the scan parameters. For smoothly printed antibody spots scanned with a transverse spatial resolution of 1 μm, the surface height precision for a single 100 μm diameter protein spot is approximately 1 pm. This detection sensitivity sets the fundamental limit of detection for label-free BioCD biosensors performing immunoassays.

  14. Comparison between refraction measured by Spot Vision ScreeningTM and subjective clinical refractometry

    OpenAIRE

    de Jesus, Daniela Lima; Villela, Fl?vio Fernandes; Orlandin, Luis Fernando; Eiji, Fernando Naves; Dantas, Daniel Oliveira; Alves, Milton Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Spot Vision ScreeningTM as an autorefractor by comparing refraction measurements to subjective clinical refractometry results in children and adult patients. METHODS: One-hundred and thirty-four eyes of 134 patients were submitted to refractometry by Spot and clinical refractometry under cycloplegia. Patients, students, physicians, staff and children of staff from the Hospital das Clínicas (School of Medicine, University of...

  15. Measurement techniques and measurement opportunities on the spot; Messverfahren und -moeglichkeiten Vorort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llosa Isenrich, P. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Abt. Hydraulische Maschinen und Anlagen

    1997-12-31

    Verification of guarantees mostly calls for measurements on the spot. The paper deals with the guarantees that apply to small hydroelectric power stations. Already when planning a plant it should be decided what guarantees are to be demanded and how they can be verified. Specifically, measurements to verify guaranteed performance and efficiency on the spot are dealt with. Details are not given. Rather, the report wants to give an overview of methods and aspects to be taken heed of. For in-depth information, the reader is referred to the corresponding standards and guidelines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ueberpruefung von Garantien ist meistens die Durchfuehrung von Messungen vorort notwendig. Es werden die Garantien behandelt, die bei Kleinwasserkraftanlagen in Frage kommen. Bereits bei der Planung der Anlage sollte entschieden werden, welche Garantien gefordert werden sollen und wie sie ueberprueft werden koennen. Es wird speziell auf die messtechnische Ueberpruefung der Leistungs- und Wirkungsgradgarantien vorort eingegangen. Dabei werden keine Details behandelt. Es wird eher versucht ein Ueberblick ueber die Methoden und die Aspekte, die besonders beachtet werden muessen, zu vermitteln. Fuer eine Vertiefung wird auf die entsprechenden Normen und Richtlinien verwiesen. (orig.)

  16. Hot-spot measurements on the U.S.-LCT coils in the IFSMTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Dresner, L.; Fehling, D.T.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N.; McManamy, T.J.; Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.; Wintenberg, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Hot-spot temperature during a quench is a major concern for superconducting coil protection. If the allowable temperature can be increased, then the dump time constant can be made longer and the dump voltage correspondingly reduced. Thus, the insulation requirement can be less stringent and the dump operation can be safer. The U.S.-made Large Coil Task (LCT) coils are all instrumented with heaters, resistive or inductive. The hot-spot temperatures of these coils were found by repeatedly driving the conductor normal with the heaters at increasing coil currents until the normal zone propagated. The resulting hot-spot temperature was measured by the resistance of the conductor over a fixed length. The effect of dump time delay on the hot-spot temperature was also investigated. The results are compared with calculations based on various assumptions

  17. Hot-spot measurements on the US-LCT coils in the IFSMTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Dresner, L.; Fehling, D.T.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N.; McManamy, T.J.; Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.; Wintenberg, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Hot-spot temperature during a quench is a major concern for superconducting coil protection. If the allowable temperature can be increased, then the dump time constant can be made longer and the dump voltage correspondingly reduced. Thus, the insulation requirement can be less stringent and the dump operation can be safer. The US-made Large Coil Task (LCT) coils are all instrumented with heaters, resistive or inductive. The hot-spot temperatures of these coils were found by repeatedly driving the conductor normal with the heaters at increasing coil currents until the normal zone propagated. The resulting hot-spot temperature was measured by the resistance of the conductor over a fixed length. The effect of dump time delay on the hot-spot temperature was also investigated. The results are compared with calculations based on various assumptions. 4 refs., 7 figs

  18. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Lu, J.; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    is influenced by inductive noise caused by the high welding current. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage at primary side and current at secondary side. This increases the accuracy of measurement because of higher signal-noise ratio, and allows to apply to in-process......The conventional methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly done by measuring the voltage and current at secondary side of transformer in resistance welding machines, in which the measuring set-up normally interferes with the movement of electrode, and the measuring precision...

  19. Surface dose extrapolation measurements with radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Currie, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of surface dose delivered from radiotherapy x-ray beams for optimal results should be performed both inside and outside the prescribed treatment fields. An extrapolation technique can be used with radiographic film to perform surface dose assessment for open field high energy x-ray beams. This can produce an accurate two-dimensional map of surface dose if required. Results have shown that the surface percentage dose can be estimated within ±3% of parallel plate ionization chamber results with radiographic film using a series of film layers to produce an extrapolated result. Extrapolated percentage dose assessment for 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm square fields was estimated to be 15% ± 2%, 29% ± 3% and 38% ± 3% at the central axis and relatively uniform across the treatment field. The corresponding parallel plate ionization chamber measurements are 16%, 27% and 37%, respectively. Surface doses are also measured outside the treatment field which are mainly due to scattered electron contamination. To achieve this result, film calibration curves must be irradiated to similar x-ray field sizes as the experimental film to minimize quantitative variations in film optical density caused by varying x-ray spectrum with field size. (note)

  20. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side of the transfo......Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side...... of the transformer in resistance welding machines, implying defects from induction noise and interference with the leads connected to the electrodes for measuring the voltage. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage on the primary side and the current on the secondary side...

  1. HbA1c measurements from dried blood spots : validation and patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Margaretha; Bakker, Andries J; de Boer, Fokje; Kooistra, Jeltsje; de Vries, Sifra; Wolthuis, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates HbA1c measurements from dried blood spots collected on filter paper and compares HbA1c from filter paper (capillary blood) with HbA1c measured in venous blood. Methods: Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a questionnaire. The performance with the filter paper

  2. A device for the color measurement and detection of spots on the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pladellorens, Josep; Pintó, Agusti; Segura, Jordi; Cadevall, Cristina; Antó, Joan; Pujol, Jaume; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Coll, Joaquín

    2006-08-01

    In this work we present a new and fast easyâ€``to-use device which allows the measurement of color and the detection of spots on the human skin. The developed device is highly practical for relatively untrained operators and uses inexpensive consumer equipment, such as a CCD color camera, a light source composed of LEDs and a laptop. In order to perform these measurements the system takes a picture of the skin. After that, the operator selects the region of the skin to be analyzed on the image displayed and the system provides the CIELAB color coordinates, the chroma and the ITA parameter (Individual Tipology Angle), allowing the comparison with other reference images by means of the CIELAB color differences. The system also detects the spots, such as freckles, age spots, sun spots, pimples, black heads, etc., in a determined region, allowing the objective measurement of their size and area. The knowledge of the color of the skin and the detection of spots can be useful in several areas such as in dermatology applications, the cosmetics industry, the biometrics field, health care etc.

  3. A device for the color measurement and detection of spots on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pladellorens, Josep; Pintó, Agustí; Segura, Jordi; Cadevall, Cristina; Antó, Joan; Pujol, Jaume; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Coll, Joaquín

    2008-02-01

    In this work, we present a new and fast easy-to-use device that allows the measurement of color and the detection of spots on the human skin. The developed device is highly practical for relatively untrained operators and uses inexpensive consumer equipment, such as a CCD color camera, a light source composed of LEDs and a laptop. The knowledge of the color of the skin and the detection of spots can be useful in several areas such as in dermatology applications, the cosmetics industry, the biometrics field, health care, etc. In order to perform these measurements the system takes a picture of the skin. After that, the operator selects the region of the skin to be analyzed on the displayed image and the system provides the CIELAB color coordinates, the chroma and the ITA parameter (Individual Tipology Angle), allowing the comparison with other reference images by means of CIELAB color differences. The system also detects spots, such as freckles, age spots, sunspots, pimples, black heads, etc., in a determined region, allowing the objective measurement of their size and area. The colorimetric information provided by a conventional spectrophotometer for the tested samples and the computed values obtained with the new developed system are quite similar, meaning that the developed system can be used to perform color measurements with relatively high accuracy. On the other hand, the feasibility of the system in order to detect and measure spots on the human skin has also been checked over a great amount of images, obtaining results with high precision. In this work, we present a new system that may be very useful in order to measure the color and to detect spots of the skin. Its portability and easy applicability will be very useful in dermatologic and cosmetic studies.

  4. Measurements of three dimensional residual stress distribution on laser irradiated spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hirotomo; Akita, Koichi; Ohya, Shin-ichi; Sano, Yuji; Naito, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    Three dimensional residual stress distributions on laser irradiated spots were measured using synchrotron radiation to study the basic mechanism of laser peening. A water-immersed sample of high tensile strength steel was irradiated with Q-switched and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The residual stress depth profile of the sample was obtained by alternately repeating the measurement and surface layer removal by electrolytic polishing. Tensile residual stresses were observed on the surface of all irradiated spots, whereas residual stress changed to compressive just beneath the surface. The depth of compressive residual stress imparted by laser irradiation and plastic deformation zone increased with increasing the number of laser pulses irradiated on the same spot. (author)

  5. Small fields measurements with radiochromic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lopez, Antonio; Vera-Sanchez, Juan-Antonio; Lago-Martin, Jose-Domingo

    2015-01-01

    The small fields in radiotherapy are widely used due to the development of techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic radio surgery. The measurement of the dose distributions for small fields is a challenge. A perfect dosimeter should be independent of the radiation energy and the dose rate and should have a negligible volume effect. The radiochromic (RC) film characteristics fit well to these requirements. However, the response of RC films and their digitizing processes present a significant spatial inhomogeneity problem. The present work uses a method for two-dimensional (2D) measurement with RC films based on the reduction of the spatial inhomogeneity of both the film and the film digitizing process. By means of registering and averaging several measurements of the same field, the inhomogeneities are mostly canceled. Measurements of output factors (OFs), dose profiles (in-plane and cross-plane), and 2D dose distributions are presented. The field sizes investigated are 0.5 × 0.5 cm(2), 0.7 × 0.7 cm(2), 1 × 1 cm(2), 2 × 2 cm(2), 3 × 3 cm(2), 6 × 6 cm(2), and 10 × 10 cm(2) for 6 and 15 MV photon beams. The OFs measured with the RC film are compared with the measurements carried out with a PinPoint ionization chamber (IC) and a Semiflex IC, while the measured transversal dose profiles were compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The results obtained for the OFs measurements show a good agreement with the values obtained from RC films and the PinPoint and Semiflex chambers when the field size is greater or equal than 2 × 2 cm(2). These agreements give confidence on the accuracy of the method as well as on the results obtained for smaller fields. Also, good agreement was found between the measured profiles and the Monte Carlo calculated profiles for the field size of 1 × 1 cm(2). We expect, therefore, that the presented method can be used to perform accurate measurements of small fields.

  6. Measurements of hot spots and electron beams in Z-pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.

    1988-04-01

    Hot spots and Electron Beams have been observed in different types of Z-pinches. There is, however, no conclusive evidence on how either are formed although there has been much theoretical interest in both these phenomena. In this thesis, nanosecond time resolved and time correlated, X-ray and optical diagnostics, are performed on two different types of Z-pinch: a 4 kJ, 30 kV Gas Puff Z-pinch and a 28 kJ, 60 kV Plasma Focus. The aim being to study hot spots and electron beams, as well as characterise the plasma, two different Z-pinch devices. Computer codes are developed to analyse the energy and time resolved data obtained in this work. These codes model both, X-ray emission from a plasma and X-ray emission due to electron beam bombardment of a metal surface. The hot spot and electron beam parameters are measured, from the time correlated X-ray data using these computer codes. The electron beams and the hot spots are also correlated to the plasma behaviour and to each other. The results from both devices are compared with each other and with the theoretical work on hot spot and electron beam formation. A previously unreported 3-5 keV electron temperature plasma is identified, in the gas puff Z-pinch plasma, prior to the formation of the hot spots. it is shown, therefore, that the hot spots are more dense but not hotter than the surrounding plasma. Two distinct periods of electron beam generation are identified in both devices. (author)

  7. Accuracy of position measurement method using Arago spot for inertial fusion energy target tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saruta, Koichi; Tsuji, Ryusuke

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of a position measurement method using the Arago spot is reported for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) target tracking system, where the position of the target is determined by the position of the Arago spot, which is a bright spot appearing in the central portion of the diffraction pattern of a spherical obstacle. We use a He-Ne laser as the light source and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with a microscope objective lens to magnify and record the diffraction pattern of a spherical target. We examine two different algorithms to determine the center of the Arago spot in order to compare the measurement performances. The experimental results show that the position of a 5-mm-diameter target can be obtained with a measurement resolution of 1 μm and an rms measurement error of less than 0.2μm for both algorithms when the distance between the target and the microscope objective lens is 5 cm. (author)

  8. Fire prevention film spots for television ... narrator influence on knowledge and attitude changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene C. Bernardi

    1973-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of 60-second films on fire prevention, with different narrators, was tested among high school students and by exposure on commercial television channels. The narrators were Smokey Bear, a Youth, and a Ranger. All three films were effective in teaching proper fire use practices to the high school classroom audience. In commercial TV showings,...

  9. Amphibious hearing in spotted seals (Phoca largha): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-03-01

    Spotted seals (Phoca largha) inhabit Arctic regions that are facing both rapid climate change and increasing industrialization. While little is known about their sensory capabilities, available knowledge suggests that spotted seals and other ice seals use sound to obtain information from the surrounding environment. To quantitatively assess their auditory capabilities, the hearing of two young spotted seals was tested using a psychophysical paradigm. Absolute detection thresholds for tonal sounds were measured in air and under water over the frequency range of hearing, and critical ratios were determined using octave-band masking noise in both media. The behavioral audiograms show a range of best sensitivity spanning four octaves in air, from approximately 0.6 to 11 kHz. The range of sensitive hearing extends across seven octaves in water, with lowest thresholds between 0.3 and 56 kHz. Critical ratio measurements were similar in air and water and increased monotonically from 12 dB at 0.1 kHz to 30 dB at 25.6 kHz, indicating that the auditory systems of these seals are quite efficient at extracting signals from background noise. This study demonstrates that spotted seals possess sound reception capabilities different from those previously described for ice seals, and more similar to those reported for harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). The results are consistent with the amphibious lifestyle of these seals and their apparent reliance on sound. The hearing data reported herein are the first available for spotted seals and can inform best management practices for this vulnerable species in a changing Arctic.

  10. Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 Nanotube Array Films with High Photocurrent Density by Spotting Sample Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Zhao, Peini; Zhang, Fanjun; Liu, Yuliang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-12-01

    Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 hybrid nanotube array films (Ag2S/CdS/TNTs) were prepared by selectively depositing a narrow-gap semiconductor-Ag2S (0.9 eV) quantum dots (QDs)-in the local domain of the CdS/TiO2 nanotube array films by spotting sample method (SSM). The improvement of sunlight absorption ability and photocurrent density of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube array films (TNTs) which were obtained by anodic oxidation method was realized because of modifying semiconductor QDs. The CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNTs, and Ag2S/CdS/TNTs fabricated by uniformly depositing the QDs into the TNTs via the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were synthesized, respectively. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) results demonstrated that the Ag2S/CdS/TNTs prepared by SSM and other films were successfully prepared. In comparison with the four films of TNTs, CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNTs, and Ag2S/CdS/TNTs by SILAR, the Ag2S/CdS/TNTs prepared by SSM showed much better absorption capability and the highest photocurrent density in UV-vis range (320~800 nm). The cycles of local deposition have great influence on their photoelectric properties. The photocurrent density of Ag2S/CdS/TNTs by SSM with optimum deposition cycles of 6 was about 37 times that of TNTs without modification, demonstrating their great prospective applications in solar energy utilization fields.

  11. Simulation of surface cracks measurement in first walls by laser spot array thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Cuixiang; Qiu, Jinxin; Liu, Haocheng; Chen, Zhenmao, E-mail: chenzm@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    The inspection of surface cracks in first walls (FW) is very important to ensure the safe operation of the fusion reactors. In this paper, a new laser excited thermography technique with using laser spot array source is proposed for the surface cracks imaging and evaluation in the FW with an intuitive and non-contact measurement method. Instead of imaging a crack by scanning a single laser spot and superimposing the local discontinuity images with the present laser excited thermography methods, it can inspect a relatively large area at one measurement. It does not only simplify the measurement system and data processing procedure, but also provide a faster measurement for FW. In order to investigate the feasibility of this method, a numerical code based on finite element method (FEM) is developed to simulate the heat flow and the effect of the crack geometry on the thermal wave fields. An imaging method based on the gradient of the thermal images is proposed for crack measurement with the laser spot array thermography method.

  12. Blood and dried blood spot telomere length measurement by qPCR: assay considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeAnna L Zanet

    Full Text Available Measurement of telomere length is crucial for the study of telomere maintenance and its role in molecular pathophysiology of diseases and in aging. Several methods are used to measure telomere length, the choice of which usually depends on the type and size of sample to be assayed, as well as cost and throughput considerations. The goal of this study was to investigate the factors that may influence the reliability of qPCR-based relative telomere length measurements in whole blood. Day to day intra-individual variability, types of blood anticoagulant, sample storage conditions, processing and site of blood draw were investigated. Two qPCR-based methods to measure telomere length (monoplex vs. multiplex were also investigated and showed a strong correlation between them. Freezing and thawing of the blood and storage of the blood at 4°C for up to 4 days did not affect telomere length values. Telomere lengths in dried blood spots were significantly higher than both whole blood and peripheral mononuclear blood cells, and were highly correlated with both. We found that telomere length measurements were significantly higher in dried blood spots collected directly from fingertip prick compared to dried blood spots prepared with anticoagulated whole blood collected from the finger, and non-blotted whole blood taken from both finger and arm venipuncture. This suggests that DNA from cells blotted on paper is not equivalent to that collected from venipuncture whole blood, and caution should be taken when comparing between blood sample types.

  13. Comparison between refraction measured by Spot Vision Screening™ and subjective clinical refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Daniela Lima; Villela, Flávio Fernandes; Orlandin, Luis Fernando; Eiji, Fernando Naves; Dantas, Daniel Oliveira; Alves, Milton Ruiz

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Spot Vision Screening™ as an autorefractor by comparing refraction measurements to subjective clinical refractometry results in children and adult patients. One-hundred and thirty-four eyes of 134 patients were submitted to refractometry by Spot and clinical refractometry under cycloplegia. Patients, students, physicians, staff and children of staff from the Hospital das Clínicas (School of Medicine, University of São Paulo) aged 7-50 years without signs of ocular disease were examined. Only right-eye refraction data were analyzed. The findings were converted in magnitude vectors for analysis. The difference between Spot Vision Screening™ and subjective clinical refractometry expressed in spherical equivalents was +0.66±0.56 diopters (D), +0.16±0.27 D for the vector projected on the 90 axis and +0.02±0.15 D for the oblique vector. Despite the statistical significance of the difference between the two methods, we consider the difference non-relevant in a clinical setting, supporting the use of Spot Vision Screening™ as an ancillary method for estimating refraction.

  14. Comparison between refraction measured by Spot Vision ScreeningTM and subjective clinical refractometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lima de Jesus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Spot Vision ScreeningTM as an autorefractor by comparing refraction measurements to subjective clinical refractometry results in children and adult patients. METHODS: One-hundred and thirty-four eyes of 134 patients were submitted to refractometry by Spot and clinical refractometry under cycloplegia. Patients, students, physicians, staff and children of staff from the Hospital das Clínicas (School of Medicine, University of São Paulo aged 7-50 years without signs of ocular disease were examined. Only right-eye refraction data were analyzed. The findings were converted in magnitude vectors for analysis. RESULTS: The difference between Spot Vision ScreeningTM and subjective clinical refractometry expressed in spherical equivalents was +0.66±0.56 diopters (D, +0.16±0.27 D for the vector projected on the 90 axis and +0.02±0.15 D for the oblique vector. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the statistical significance of the difference between the two methods, we consider the difference non-relevant in a clinical setting, supporting the use of Spot Vision ScreeningTM as an ancillary method for estimating refraction.

  15. Comparison between refraction measured by Spot Vision ScreeningTM and subjective clinical refractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Daniela Lima; Villela, Flávio Fernandes; Orlandin, Luis Fernando; Eiji, Fernando Naves; Dantas, Daniel Oliveira; Alves, Milton Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Spot Vision ScreeningTM as an autorefractor by comparing refraction measurements to subjective clinical refractometry results in children and adult patients. METHODS: One-hundred and thirty-four eyes of 134 patients were submitted to refractometry by Spot and clinical refractometry under cycloplegia. Patients, students, physicians, staff and children of staff from the Hospital das Clínicas (School of Medicine, University of São Paulo) aged 7-50 years without signs of ocular disease were examined. Only right-eye refraction data were analyzed. The findings were converted in magnitude vectors for analysis. RESULTS: The difference between Spot Vision ScreeningTM and subjective clinical refractometry expressed in spherical equivalents was +0.66±0.56 diopters (D), +0.16±0.27 D for the vector projected on the 90 axis and +0.02±0.15 D for the oblique vector. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the statistical significance of the difference between the two methods, we consider the difference non-relevant in a clinical setting, supporting the use of Spot Vision ScreeningTM as an ancillary method for estimating refraction. PMID:26934234

  16. Two self-referencing methods for the measurement of beam spot position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyiri, Balazs J.; Smale, Jason R.; Gerig, Lee H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Two quantitative methods of measuring electron beam spot position with respect to the collimator axis of rotation (CAOR) are described. Methods: Method 1 uses a cylindrical ion chamber (IC) mounted on a jig corotational with the collimator making the relationship among the chamber, jaws, and CAOR fixed and independent of collimator angle. A jaw parallel to the IC axis is set to zero and the IC position adjusted so that the IC signal is approximately 50% of the open field value, providing a large dose gradient in the region of the IC. The cGy/MU value is measured as a function of collimator rotation, e.g., every 30°. If the beam spot does not lie on the CAOR, the signal from the ion chamber will vary with collimator rotation. Based on a measured spatial sensitivity, the distance of the beam spot from the CAOR can be calculated from the IC signal variation with rotation. The 2nd method is image based. Two stainless steel rods, 3 mm in diameter, are mounted to a jig attached to the Linac collimator. The rods, offset from the CAOR, lay in different planes normal to the CAOR, one at 158 cm SSD and the other at 70 cm SSD. As the collimator rotates the rods move tangent along an envelope circle, the centers of which are on the CAOR in their respective planes. Three images, each at a different collimator rotation, containing the shadows of both rods, are acquired on the Linac EPID. At each angle the shadow of the rods on the EPID defines lines tangent to the projection of the envelope circles. From these the authors determine the projected centers of the two circles at different heights. From the distance of these two points using the two heights and the source to EPID distance, the authors calculate the distance of the beam spot from the CAOR. Measurements with all two techniques were performed on an Elekta Linac. Measurements were performed with the beam spot in nominal clinical position and in a deliberately offset position. Measurements were also performed

  17. Two self-referencing methods for the measurement of beam spot position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyiri, Balazs J.; Smale, Jason R.; Gerig, Lee H. [Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa K1H 8L6 (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa K1H 8M5 (Canada); Elekta Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 1Z3 (Canada); Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa K1H 8L6 (Canada); Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa K1H 8M5 (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Two quantitative methods of measuring electron beam spot position with respect to the collimator axis of rotation (CAOR) are described. Methods: Method 1 uses a cylindrical ion chamber (IC) mounted on a jig corotational with the collimator making the relationship among the chamber, jaws, and CAOR fixed and independent of collimator angle. A jaw parallel to the IC axis is set to zero and the IC position adjusted so that the IC signal is approximately 50% of the open field value, providing a large dose gradient in the region of the IC. The cGy/MU value is measured as a function of collimator rotation, e.g., every 30 Degree-Sign . If the beam spot does not lie on the CAOR, the signal from the ion chamber will vary with collimator rotation. Based on a measured spatial sensitivity, the distance of the beam spot from the CAOR can be calculated from the IC signal variation with rotation. The 2nd method is image based. Two stainless steel rods, 3 mm in diameter, are mounted to a jig attached to the Linac collimator. The rods, offset from the CAOR, lay in different planes normal to the CAOR, one at 158 cm SSD and the other at 70 cm SSD. As the collimator rotates the rods move tangent along an envelope circle, the centers of which are on the CAOR in their respective planes. Three images, each at a different collimator rotation, containing the shadows of both rods, are acquired on the Linac EPID. At each angle the shadow of the rods on the EPID defines lines tangent to the projection of the envelope circles. From these the authors determine the projected centers of the two circles at different heights. From the distance of these two points using the two heights and the source to EPID distance, the authors calculate the distance of the beam spot from the CAOR. Measurements with all two techniques were performed on an Elekta Linac. Measurements were performed with the beam spot in nominal clinical position and in a deliberately offset position. Measurements were also

  18. Measurement and application of purine derivatives: Creatinine ratio in spot urine samples of ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.B.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N.; Makkar, H.P.S.

    2004-01-01

    The daily excretion of purine derivatives in urine has been used to estimate the supply of microbial protein to ruminant animals. The method provides a simple and non-invasive tool to indicate the nutritional status of farm animals. However due to the need for complete collection of urine the potential application at farm level is restricted. Research conducted under the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project has indicated that it is possible to use the purine derivatives:creatinine ratio measured in several spot urine samples collected within a day, as an index of microbial protein supply in a banding system for farm application. Some theoretical and experimental aspects in the measurement of purine derivatives:creatinine ratio in spot urine samples and the possible application of the banding system at the farm level are discussed. (author)

  19. IP-10 can be measured in dried plasma spots in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2012-01-01

    The chemokine IP-10 (CXCL10) is a candidate marker for hepatitis C virus (HCV) fibrosis monitoring. The aim of this proof-of-concept study is to assess if IP-10 measurements from dried plasma spots (DPS) are accurate in HCV-infected patients with either minimal or significant fibrosis. We measured...... IP-10 levels in plasma and DPS of 21 HCV-infected patients with cirrhosis and 19 patients with no/little fibrosis (determined with FibroScan). Cirrhotic patients had significantly higher levels of IP-10 compared to patients with minimal fibrosis. DPS and plasma measurements of IP-10 are comparable...

  20. Method to measure the position offset of multiple light spots in a distributed aperture laser angle measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoli; Cheng, Haobo; Xu, Chunyun; Feng, Yunpeng

    2017-02-20

    In this paper, an accurate measurement method of multiple spots' position offsets on a four-quadrant detector is proposed for a distributed aperture laser angle measurement system (DALAMS). The theoretical model is put forward, as well as the corresponding calculation method. This method includes two steps. First, as the initial estimation, integral approximation is applied to fit the distributed spots' offset function; second, the Boltzmann function is employed to compensate for the estimation error to improve detection accuracy. The simulation results attest to the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method, and tolerance synthesis analysis of DALAMS is conducted to determine the maximum uncertainties of manufacturing and installation. The maximum angle error is less than 0.08° in the prototype distributed measurement system, which shows the stability and robustness for prospective applications.

  1. Sensitivity of film measured off-axis ratios to film calibration curve using radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Diana; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Off-axis ratios of conical beams generated with a stereotactic radiosurgery-dedicated Linac were measured with EBT2 film and stereotactic diode. The sensitivity of both full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbras (80-20% and 90-10%, respectively), with respect to the characteristics of the film calibration curve fit, was investigated. In all cases, penumbras resulted to be more sensitive than FWHM. However, these differences were, in general, smaller than the ones found between EBT2 reference values and the stereotactic diode measurements. The larger variation in OAR parameters was found to depend on whether the fit intersected or not the origin. A 1D gamma-index analysis showed this difference can be important in all measured conical beams. (author)

  2. Measurement of Scenic Spots Sustainable Capacity Based on PCA-Entropy TOPSIS: A Case Study from 30 Provinces, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the sustainable development of scenic spots, this paper, with consideration of resource conditions, economic benefits, auxiliary industry scale and ecological environment, establishes a comprehensive measurement model of the sustainable capacity of scenic spots; optimizes the index system by principal components analysis to extract principal components; assigns the weight of principal components by entropy method; analyzes the sustainable capacity of scenic spots in each province of China comprehensively in combination with TOPSIS method and finally puts forward suggestions aid decision-making. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference for the study of the sustainable development of scenic spots and is very significant for considering the sustainable development of scenic spots and auxiliary industries to establish specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement.

  3. Measurement of Scenic Spots Sustainable Capacity Based on PCA-Entropy TOPSIS: A Case Study from 30 Provinces, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuedong; Liu, Canmian; Li, Zhi

    2017-12-22

    In connection with the sustainable development of scenic spots, this paper, with consideration of resource conditions, economic benefits, auxiliary industry scale and ecological environment, establishes a comprehensive measurement model of the sustainable capacity of scenic spots; optimizes the index system by principal components analysis to extract principal components; assigns the weight of principal components by entropy method; analyzes the sustainable capacity of scenic spots in each province of China comprehensively in combination with TOPSIS method and finally puts forward suggestions aid decision-making. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference for the study of the sustainable development of scenic spots and is very significant for considering the sustainable development of scenic spots and auxiliary industries to establish specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement.

  4. Simple turbulence measurements with azopolymer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillé, Regis; Pérez, Darío G; Morille, Yohann; Zielińska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina

    2013-04-01

    A simple method to measure the influence on the laser beam propagation by a turbid medium is proposed. This measurement is based on the inscription of a surface relief grating (SRG) on an azopolymer thin film. The grating obtained with a single laser beam after propagation into a turbulent medium is perturbed and directly analyzed by a CCD camera through its diffraction pattern. Later, by scanning the surface pattern with an atomic force microscope, the inscribed SRG is analyzed with the Radon transform. This method has the advantage of using a single beam to remotely inscribe a grating detecting perturbations during the beam path. A method to evaluate the refractive index constant structure is developed.

  5. Measurement of valence band structure in arbitrary dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Eun H.

    2012-01-01

    A new way of measuring the band structure of various dielectric materials using the secondary electron emission from Auger neutralization of ions is introduced. The first example of this measurement scheme is the magnesium oxide (MgO) films with respect to the application of the films in the display industries. The density of state in the valence bands of MgO film and MgO film with a functional layer (FL) deposited over a dielectric surface reveals that the density peak of film with a FL is considerably less than that of film, thereby indicating a better performance of MgO film with functional layer in display devices. The second example of the measurement is the boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films with respect to the application of the films to the development of solar cells. The measurement of density of state in BZO film suggests that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films may enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the band gap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals; thereby improving the conductivity of the film. Secondary electron emission by the Auger neutralization of ions is highly instrumental for the determination of the density of states in the valence band of dielectric materials.

  6. An optical spot test for the detection of dopamine in human urine using stabilized in air lipid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolelis, Dimitrios P; Drivelos, Dimitrios A; Simantiraki, Maria G; Koinis, Spyros

    2004-04-15

    The present technique describes a simple, sensitive spot test for the rapid one-shot detection of dopamine in human urine using lipid films with incorporated resorcin[4]arene receptor that are synthesized by a chemical reaction with a methacrylate polymer on a glass fiber filter. The lipid films without the receptor provided fluorescence under a UV lamp. The use of the receptor in these films quenched this fluorescence, and the color became similar to that of the filters without the lipid films. A drop of dopamine or urine containing this stimulant provided a "switching on" of the fluorescence, which allows the rapid detection of this stimulant in human urine at 10(-8) M concentrations. The novelty of the present work is that it opens new routes in the field of biosensing, i.e., development of sensitive, rapid, and simple methods for detecting species based on the fluorescence of the lipid membranes on a polymer film, and provides a spot test technique for the rapid detection of dopamine. The effect of potent interferences including a wide range of compounds usually found in human urine (i.e., ascorbic aid, glucose, leucine, glycine, tartrate, citrate, bicarbonate, and caffeine) was examined using an aqueous buffered solution that contained the potent interference and dopamine at two lower concentration levels (i.e., 3 x 10(-8)-10(-8) M). The effect of proteins and lipids was also investigated at these two lower dopamine concentration levels in aqueous buffered solution. The results showed no interferences from all these constituents at concentrations usually found in human urine samples; for example, albumin up to 3.22 g/L concentration levels did not provide any interference (i.e., no fluorescence). A drop of urine containing this stimulant provided similar results, i.e., a "switching on" of the fluorescence that allows a technique for the rapid detection of this stimulant in human urine at 10(-8) M concentrations. The technique is not based on a calibration

  7. Spot urine sodium measurements do not accurately estimate dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougher, Carly E; Rifkin, Dena E; Anderson, Cheryl AM; Smits, Gerard; Persky, Martha S; Block, Geoffrey A; Ix, Joachim H

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sodium intake influences blood pressure and proteinuria, yet the impact on long-term outcomes is uncertain in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Accurate assessment is essential for clinical and public policy recommendations, but few large-scale studies use 24-h urine collections. Recent studies that used spot urine sodium and associated estimating equations suggest that they may provide a suitable alternative, but their accuracy in patients with CKD is unknown. Objective: We compared the accuracy of 4 equations [the Nerbass, INTERSALT (International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure), Tanaka, and Kawasaki equations] that use spot urine sodium to estimate 24-h sodium excretion in patients with moderate to advanced CKD. Design: We evaluated the accuracy of spot urine sodium to predict mean 24-h urine sodium excretion over 9 mo in 129 participants with stage 3–4 CKD. Spot morning urine sodium was used in 4 estimating equations. Bias, precision, and accuracy were assessed and compared across each equation. Results: The mean age of the participants was 67 y, 52% were female, and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 31 ± 9 mL · min–1 · 1.73 m–2. The mean ± SD number of 24-h urine collections was 3.5 ± 0.8/participant, and the mean 24-h sodium excretion was 168.2 ± 67.5 mmol/d. Although the Tanaka equation demonstrated the least bias (mean: −8.2 mmol/d), all 4 equations had poor precision and accuracy. The INTERSALT equation demonstrated the highest accuracy but derived an estimate only within 30% of mean measured sodium excretion in only 57% of observations. Bland-Altman plots revealed systematic bias with the Nerbass, INTERSALT, and Tanaka equations, underestimating sodium excretion when intake was high. Conclusion: These findings do not support the use of spot urine specimens to estimate dietary sodium intake in patients with CKD and research studies enriched with patients with CKD. The parent data for this

  8. Measurement of hot spots inside the proton at HERA and LEP/LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper we discuss the measurement of regions in the proton where the density of small-χ partons is large, called 'hot spots', by means of an associated jet analysis. An analytical estimate of the cross section is presented and the jet kinematics is discussed in the HERA and LEP-LHC frame. A Monte Carlo estimate shows that the number of jets produced in deep inelastic scattering events at HERA, suitable for this analysis, amounts to a few 1000 jets for a data sample with an integrated luminosity of about 10 pb -1 . (orig.)

  9. Measurement of the thickness of thin films by backscattered protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaniego, L.E.Q.

    1976-07-01

    The method of backscattered protons has been used to measure the thickness of thin films. A monoenergetic beam of protons is directed on the film to be measured and the backscattered protons are detected with a particle detector. The film thickness is calculated from the energy spectrum of the protons. In the case of films consisting of several layers of elements with well separated atomic masses, it is possible to separate the spectra of protons scattered from the different elements, permitting a measurement of the thicknesses of the different layers. The method consists of calculating the energy loss of the protons throughout their trajectory, from the point of incidence on the film to the final detection. Thicknesses were measured for the following film combinations: gold on mylar, chromium on mylar, gold on chromium on mylar, and pure mylar. (Author) [pt

  10. Creatinine measurement on dry blood spot sample for chronic kidney disease screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alan Castro Azevedo E; Gómez, Juan Fidel Bencomo; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo; Graciano, Miguel Luis

    2016-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) screening is advisable due to its high morbidity and mortality and is usually performed by sampling blood and urine. Here we present an innovative and simpler method, by measuring creatinine on a dry blood spot on filter paper. One-hundred and six individuals at high risk for CKD were enrolled. The creatinine values obtained using both tests and the demographic data of each participant allowed us to determinate the eGFR. The adopted cutoff for CKD was an eGFR creatinine values differences (+ 0.68mg/dl to -0.55mg/dl) inside the ± 1.96 SD, without systematic differences. Measurement of creatinine on dry blood sample is an easily feasible non-invasive diagnostic test with good accuracy that may be useful to screen chronic kidney disease.

  11. Automated translating beam profiler for in situ laser beam spot-size and focal position measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, James

    2018-03-01

    We present a simple and convenient, high-resolution solution for automated laser-beam profiling with axial translation. The device is based on a Raspberry Pi computer, Pi Noir CMOS camera, stepper motor, and commercial translation stage. We also provide software to run the device. The CMOS sensor is sensitive over a large wavelength range between 300 and 1100 nm and can be translated over 25 mm along the beam axis. The sensor head can be reversed without changing its axial position, allowing for a quantitative estimate of beam overlap with counter-propagating laser beams. Although not limited to this application, the intended use for this device is the automated measurement of the focal position and spot-size of a Gaussian laser beam. We present example data of one such measurement to illustrate device performance.

  12. Spotting and validation of a genome wide oligonucleotide chip with duplicate measurement of each gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, Mads; Skov, Vibe; Eiriksdottir, Freyja; Tan, Qihua; Jochumsen, Kirsten; Fritzner, Niels; Brusgaard, Klaus; Dahlgaard, Jesper; Kruse, Torben A.

    2006-01-01

    The quality of DNA microarray based gene expression data relies on the reproducibility of several steps in a microarray experiment. We have developed a spotted genome wide microarray chip with oligonucleotides printed in duplicate in order to minimise undesirable biases, thereby optimising detection of true differential expression. The validation study design consisted of an assessment of the microarray chip performance using the MessageAmp and FairPlay labelling kits. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to demonstrate that MessageAmp was significantly more reproducible than FairPlay. Further examinations with MessageAmp revealed the applicability of the system. The linear range of the chips was three orders of magnitude, the precision was high, as 95% of measurements deviated less than 1.24-fold from the expected value, and the coefficient of variation for relative expression was 13.6%. Relative quantitation was more reproducible than absolute quantitation and substantial reduction of variance was attained with duplicate spotting. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated no significant day-to-day variation

  13. Measurements of plasma mirror reflectivity and focal spot quality for tens of picosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier-Colleoni, Pierre; Williams, Jackson; Scott, Graeme; Mariscal, Dereck. A.; McGuffey, Christopher; Beg, Farhat N.; Chen, Hui; Neely, David; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) laser at the NIF (LLNL) is high-energy ( 4 kJ) with a pulse length of 30ps, and is capable of focusing to an intensity of 1018W/cm2 with a 100 μm focal spot. The ARC laser is at an intensity which can be used to produce proton beams. However, for applications such as radiography and warm dense matter creation, a higher laser intensity may be desired to generate more energetic proton beams. One possibility to increase the intensity is to decrease the focused spot size by employing a smaller f-number optic. But it is difficult to implement such an optic or to bring the final focusing parabola closer to the target within the complicated NIF chamber geometry. A proposal is to use ellipsoidal plasma mirrors (PM) for fast focusing of the ARC laser light, thereby increasing the peak intensity. There is uncertainty, however, in the survivability and reflectivity of PM at such long pulse durations. Here, we show experimental results from the Titan laser to study the reflectivity of flat PM as a function of laser pulse length. A calorimeter was used to measure the PM reflectivity. We also observed degradation of the far and near field energy distribution of the laser after the reflection by the PM for pulse-lengths beyond 10ps. Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funded by the LLNL LDRD program: tracking code 17-ERD-039.

  14. Measurement error in longitudinal film badge data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.L.

    2002-04-01

    The classical measurement error model is that of a simple linear regression with unobservable variables. Information about the covariates is available only through error-prone measurements, usually with an additive structure. Ignoring errors has been shown to result in biased regression coefficients, reduced power of hypothesis tests and increased variability of parameter estimates. Radiation is known to be a causal factor for certain types of leukaemia. This link is mainly substantiated by the Atomic Bomb Survivor study, the Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients study, and studies of various other patients irradiated for therapeutic purposes. The carcinogenic relationship is believed to be a linear or quadratic function of dose but the risk estimates differ widely for the different studies. Previous cohort studies of the Sellafield workforce have used the cumulative annual exposure data for their risk estimates. The current 1:4 matched case-control study also uses the individual worker's film badge data, the majority of which has been unavailable in computerised form. The results from the 1:4 matched (on dates of birth and employment, sex and industrial status) case-control study are compared and contrasted with those for a 1:4 nested (within the worker cohort and matched on the same factors) case-control study using annual doses. The data consist of 186 cases and 744 controls from the work forces of four BNFL sites: Springfields, Sellafield, Capenhurst and Chapelcross. Initial logistic regressions turned up some surprising contradictory results which led to a re-sampling of Sellafield mortality controls without the date of employment matching factor. It is suggested that over matching is the cause of the contradictory results. Comparisons of the two measurements of radiation exposure suggest a strongly linear relationship with non-Normal errors. A method has been developed using the technique of Regression Calibration to deal with these in a case-control study context

  15. Measurements of purine derivatives and creatinine in spot urine samples of Chinese yellow cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Z.; Xi, W.B.; Mo, F.; Liu, J.W.; Yang, Y.F.; Chen, X.B.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using 18 Chinese Yellow Cattle located in 5 farms to study how supplementation of fermentable energy to low quality straw-based rations would improve rumen microbial protein synthesis. Within each farm, the animals were fed on five diets. Diets 1-2 were typical rice straw + by-products used by farmers and were low in fermentable energy content; Diets 3- 5 were more balanced, containing a higher content of fermentable energy. Purine derivatives (PD) and creatinine in spot urine samples were measured. The results showed that the PD to creatinine ratio was significantly higher with Diets 3-5 than with Diets 1-2. Organic matter digestibility and thus organic matter intake was also higher with Diets 3-5 compared to Diets 1-2. The results indicted that the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis could be improved by balancing the diet. (author)

  16. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  17. The effect of dry spots on heat transfer in a locally heated liquid film moving under the action of gas flow in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, D. V.; Tkachenko, E. M.; Bykovskaya, E. F.

    2017-11-01

    Intensive evaporation of a thin liquid film, moving in a flat micro-/minichannel under the action of gas flow is very promising for the use in cooling systems of modern semiconductor devices with localized heat sources of high intensity. In this work, using the high-speed visualization, the effect of the formation of dry spots on heat transfer in a locally heated liquid film shear-driven in a channel was investigated. It was found that the maximum intensity of heat removal from the heater is achieved in the mode, when the film flow continuity is broken. During the experiment the total area of dry spots increases with increasing heat flux and heater temperature, but when the heater reaches a certain temperature (≈100°C), the total area begins to decrease. However, the length of contact line increases with increasing heat flux and reaches a maximum in the pre-crisis regime. Intensive evaporation in the region of the contact line may explain the achievement of high heat fluxes in the shear-driven liquid film.

  18. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  19. Interferometric measurement of film thickness during bubble blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Mandracchia, B.; Ferraro, V.; Tammaro, D.; Di Maio, E.; Maffettone, P. L.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose digital holography in transmission configuration as an effective method to measure the time-dependent thickness of polymeric films during bubble blowing. We designed a complete set of experiments to measure bubble thickness, including the evaluation of the refractive index of the polymer solution. We report the measurement of thickness distribution along the film during the bubble formation process until the bubble`s rupture. Based on those data, the variation range and variation trend of bubble film thickness are clearly measured during the process of expansion to fracture is indicated.

  20. Dosimetric evaluation of a commercial proton spot scanning Monte-Carlo dose algorithm: comparisons against measurements and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Jatinder; Maes, Dominic; Egan, Alexander; Bowen, Stephen R; St James, Sara; Janson, Martin; Wong, Tony; Bloch, Charles

    2017-09-12

    RaySearch Americas Inc. (NY) has introduced a commercial Monte Carlo dose algorithm (RS-MC) for routine clinical use in proton spot scanning. In this report, we provide a validation of this algorithm against phantom measurements and simulations in the GATE software package. We also compared the performance of the RayStation analytical algorithm (RS-PBA) against the RS-MC algorithm. A beam model (G-MC) for a spot scanning gantry at our proton center was implemented in the GATE software package. The model was validated against measurements in a water phantom and was used for benchmarking the RS-MC. Validation of the RS-MC was performed in a water phantom by measuring depth doses and profiles for three spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) beams with normal incidence, an SOBP with oblique incidence, and an SOBP with a range shifter and large air gap. The RS-MC was also validated against measurements and simulations in heterogeneous phantoms created by placing lung or bone slabs in a water phantom. Lateral dose profiles near the distal end of the beam were measured with a microDiamond detector and compared to the G-MC simulations, RS-MC and RS-PBA. Finally, the RS-MC and RS-PBA were validated against measured dose distributions in an Alderson-Rando (AR) phantom. Measurements were made using Gafchromic film in the AR phantom and compared to doses using the RS-PBA and RS-MC algorithms. For SOBP depth doses in a water phantom, all three algorithms matched the measurements to within  ±3% at all points and a range within 1 mm. The RS-PBA algorithm showed up to a 10% difference in dose at the entrance for the beam with a range shifter and  >30 cm air gap, while the RS-MC and G-MC were always within 3% of the measurement. For an oblique beam incident at 45°, the RS-PBA algorithm showed up to 6% local dose differences and broadening of distal fall-off by 5 mm. Both the RS-MC and G-MC accurately predicted the depth dose to within  ±3% and distal fall-off to within 2

  1. Dosimetric evaluation of a commercial proton spot scanning Monte-Carlo dose algorithm: comparisons against measurements and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Jatinder; Maes, Dominic; Egan, Alexander; Bowen, Stephen R.; St. James, Sara; Janson, Martin; Wong, Tony; Bloch, Charles

    2017-10-01

    RaySearch Americas Inc. (NY) has introduced a commercial Monte Carlo dose algorithm (RS-MC) for routine clinical use in proton spot scanning. In this report, we provide a validation of this algorithm against phantom measurements and simulations in the GATE software package. We also compared the performance of the RayStation analytical algorithm (RS-PBA) against the RS-MC algorithm. A beam model (G-MC) for a spot scanning gantry at our proton center was implemented in the GATE software package. The model was validated against measurements in a water phantom and was used for benchmarking the RS-MC. Validation of the RS-MC was performed in a water phantom by measuring depth doses and profiles for three spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) beams with normal incidence, an SOBP with oblique incidence, and an SOBP with a range shifter and large air gap. The RS-MC was also validated against measurements and simulations in heterogeneous phantoms created by placing lung or bone slabs in a water phantom. Lateral dose profiles near the distal end of the beam were measured with a microDiamond detector and compared to the G-MC simulations, RS-MC and RS-PBA. Finally, the RS-MC and RS-PBA were validated against measured dose distributions in an Alderson-Rando (AR) phantom. Measurements were made using Gafchromic film in the AR phantom and compared to doses using the RS-PBA and RS-MC algorithms. For SOBP depth doses in a water phantom, all three algorithms matched the measurements to within  ±3% at all points and a range within 1 mm. The RS-PBA algorithm showed up to a 10% difference in dose at the entrance for the beam with a range shifter and  >30 cm air gap, while the RS-MC and G-MC were always within 3% of the measurement. For an oblique beam incident at 45°, the RS-PBA algorithm showed up to 6% local dose differences and broadening of distal fall-off by 5 mm. Both the RS-MC and G-MC accurately predicted the depth dose to within  ±3% and distal fall-off to within 2

  2. A precision analogue integrator system for heavy current measurement in MFDC resistance spot welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yu-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Dian; Xia, Zhen-Xin; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    In order to control and monitor the quality of middle frequency direct current (MFDC) resistance spot welding (RSW), precision measurement of the welding current up to 100 kA is required, for which Rogowski coils are the only viable current transducers at present. Thus, a highly accurate analogue integrator is the key to restoring the converted signals collected from the Rogowski coils. Previous studies emphasised that the integration drift is a major factor that influences the performance of analogue integrators, but capacitive leakage error also has a significant impact on the result, especially in long-time pulse integration. In this article, new methods of measuring and compensating capacitive leakage error are proposed to fabricate a precision analogue integrator system for MFDC RSW. A voltage holding test is carried out to measure the integration error caused by capacitive leakage, and an original integrator with a feedback adder is designed to compensate capacitive leakage error in real time. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that the new analogue integrator system could constrain both drift and capacitive leakage error, of which the effect is robust to different voltage levels of output signals. The total integration error is limited within  ±0.09 mV s −1 0.005% s −1 or full scale at a 95% confidence level, which makes it possible to achieve the precision measurement of the welding current of MFDC RSW with Rogowski coils of 0.1% accuracy class. (paper)

  3. Measuring color change of tooth enamel by in vitro remineralization of white spot lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Tolcachir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective colour determination is based on calculating the colorimetric distance (ΔE within a colour space. So far, the most used colour space in dentistry is CIE L*a*b (Comission Internationale de l´Éclairage. CIE L*C*h* has been recently developed, showing a better correlation with the perception of the human eye. Objective: To determine the ability of an in vitro remineralisation substance to blend the colour of white spot lesions (WSL with sound enamel, determining ΔE by using the CIE L*C*h* colour space. Methods: In vitro WSL was generated by immersing 10 samples obtained from human third molars in a demineralization solution for 72h. Amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized by casein phosphopeptide (CPP-ACP was then applied for 60 days while maintaining the samples in artificial saliva at 37ºC. To evaluate the colour of enamel, images were taken from the samples placed in specifically designed silicone moulds after generating the WSL (pre-stage and after remineralisation by scanning, applying the colorimetric distance equation (ΔE*CMC according to the Colour Measurement Committee. Results: Treatment with CPP-ACP caused a significant ΔE decrease with respect to the pre-stage (p<0.001, while the analysis of parameters that make up the colour showed a reduction in the difference of hue (∆H (p<0.001 and brightness (∆L (p<0.01 after applying CPP-ACP. Discussion: CPP-ACP penetrated to the depth of the white spot lesion, making its appearance similar to that of the sound enamel, probably because of the formation of different mineral phases than that of the original structure, although pores were not completely filled.

  4. Spot urine protein measurements in normotensive pregnancies, pregnancies with isolated proteinuria and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattah, Andrea; Milic, Natasa; White, Wendy; Garovic, Vesna

    2017-10-01

    We performed a prospective, longitudinal study of pregnant women presenting to their first obstetrics visits to characterize the changes in spot urine protein-to-creatinine (UPCR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR) in normotensive pregnancies, as well as identify clinical characteristics associated with isolated proteinuria and preeclampsia. We measured spot urinary albumin, protein, and creatinine at the first prenatal visit, end of the second trimester, and at delivery. In the normotensive pregnancies ( n = 142), we found that from the beginning of pregnancy to delivery, UACR increased by a median [interquartile range (IQR)] of 14.7 mg/g Cr (3.74-51.8) and UPCR by 60 mg/g Cr (30-130) ( P 300 mg/g Cr in the absence of hypertension) was identified in 19/142 (13.4%) normotensive pregnancies. Increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from early pregnancy to delivery and increases in UACR from early to midpregnancy were associated with isolated proteinuria at delivery. Twelve women developed preeclampsia. Nulliparity, early, and midpregnancy diastolic blood pressures were strongly associated with the development of preeclampsia, but early changes in UACR were not. In conclusion, women who develop isolated proteinuria at delivery have a larger increase in blood pressure than women without proteinuria and have a "microalbuminuric" phase earlier in gestation, unlike women who develop preeclampsia. These findings suggest a different mechanism of urine protein excretion in women with isolated proteinuria as compared with women with preeclampsia, where proteinuria has a more abrupt onset. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Measuring thin films using quantitative frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirota, Minori; van Limbeek, Michiel A.J.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract.: In the study of interactions between liquids and solids, an accurate measurement of the film thickness between the two media is essential to study the dynamics. As interferometry is restricted by the wavelength of the light source used, recent studies of thinner films have prompted the

  6. Residual stress measurement on propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy and study on its weak spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chaoqun; Li, Huan; Li, Jianxiong; Luo, Chuanguang; Ni, Yanbing [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2017-05-15

    This paper presented residual stress measurement on two circumferential Variable polarity plasma arc welding (VPPAW) joints and one circular closed Friction stir welding (FSW) joint on the propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy using the indentation strain-gauge method. Quite large tensile residual stresses were attached to the center and inner areas of the circular closed FSW joint. There were very large tensile stresses in some points of the two circumferential VPPAW joints, among these points, the maximum value was +253 MPa, which was about 63 % of the yield strength of 410 MPa measured in the base material. In addition, the peak of compressive residual stress was about -160 MPa. Above all, there were two typical peaks of residual stress in the circumferential VPPAW joints, one was located in the middle part while the other one was near the start/end position of the joints. Combining the result of residual stress measurement with the characteristics of the tank structure, it can be concluded that circular closed FSW joint around the flange was a weak spot on the propellant tank. And the most vulnerable point on the circular closed FSW joint has also been found.

  7. Stress measurement in thin films by geometrical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Gilstrap, P.; Rujkorakarn, R.

    1982-01-01

    A variation of Newton's rings experiment is proposed for measuring film stress. The procedure described, the geometrical optics method, is used to measure radii of curvature for a series of film depositions with Ta, Al, and Mo films. The method has a sensitivity of 1 x 10 to the 9th dyn/sq cm, corresponding to the practical radius limit of about 50 m, and a repeatability usually within five percent. For the purposes of comparison, radii are also measured by Newton's rings method and the Talysurf method; all results are found to be in general agreement. Measurement times are also compared: the geometrical optics method requires only 1/2-1 minute. It is concluded that the geometrical optics method provides an inexpensive, fast, and a reasonably correct technique with which to measure stresses in film.

  8. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  9. Hydrometeor Size Distribution Measurements by Imaging the Attenuation of a Laser Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2013-01-01

    The optical extinction of a laser due to scattering of particles is a well-known phenomenon. In a laboratory environment, this physical principle is known as the Beer-Lambert law, and is often used to measure the concentration of scattering particles in a fluid or gas. This method has been experimentally shown to be a usable means to measure the dust density from a rocket plume interaction with the lunar surface. Using the same principles and experimental arrangement, this technique can be applied to hydrometeor size distributions, and for launch-pad operations, specifically as a passive hail detection and measurement system. Calibration of a hail monitoring system is a difficult process. In the past, it has required comparison to another means of measuring hydrometeor size and density. Using a technique recently developed for estimating the density of surface dust dispersed during a rocket landing, measuring the extinction of a laser passing through hail (or dust in the rocket case) yields an estimate of the second moment of the particle cloud, and hydrometeor size distribution in the terrestrial meteorological case. With the exception of disdrometers, instruments that measure rain and hail fall make indirect measurements of the drop-size distribution. Instruments that scatter microwaves off of hydrometeors, such as the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler), vertical wind profilers, and microwave disdrometers, measure the sixth moment of the drop size distribution (DSD). By projecting a laser onto a target, changes in brightness of the laser spot against the target background during rain and hail yield a measurement of the DSD's second moment by way of the Beer-Lambert law. In order to detect the laser attenuation within the 8-bit resolution of most camera image arrays, a minimum path length is required. Depending on the intensity of the hail fall rate for moderate to heavy rainfall, a laser path length of 100 m is sufficient to measure variations in

  10. Bubble chamber film exposure for measurement by HPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxley, A.J.

    1978-03-01

    It is not easy for HPD measuring machines to detect tracks of low contrast in film from bubble chambers with bright-field illumination. Some of the basic aspects and limitations are considered in this paper. (author)

  11. Design and implementation of an external quality assessment program for HIV viral load measurements using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Lippman, Sheri A; Carmona, Sergio; Stephenson, Sophie; Cutler, Ewalde; Barnhart, Scott; Liegler, Teri

    2015-03-01

    An external quality assurance program was developed for HIV-1 RNA viral load measurements taken from dried blood spots using a reference panel and field-collected specimens. The program demonstrated that accurate and reproducible quantitation can be obtained from field-collected specimens. Residual proviral DNA may confound interpretation in virologically suppressed subjects. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. A Model to Measure Tourist Preference toward Scenic Spots Based on Social Media Data: A Case of Dapeng in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on tourist preference toward different tourism destinations has been a hot topic for decades in the field of tourism development. Tourist preference is mostly measured with small group opinion-based methods through introducing indicator systems in previous studies. In the digital age, e-tourism makes it possible to collect huge volumes of social data produced by tourists from the internet, to establish a new way of measuring tourist preference toward a close group of tourism destinations. This paper introduces a new model using social media data to quantitatively measure the market trend of a group of scenic spots from the angle of tourists’ demand, using three attributes: tourist sentiment orientation, present tourist market shares, and potential tourist awareness. Through data mining, cleaning, and analyzing with the framework of Machine Learning, the relative tourist preference toward 34 scenic spots closely located in the Dapeng Peninsula is calculated. The results not only provide a reliable “A-rating” system to gauge the popularity of different scenic spots, but also contribute an innovative measuring model to support scenic spots planning and policy making in the regional context.

  13. Automatic alignment device for focal spot measurements in the center of the field for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Marcelo A.C.; Watanabe, Alex O.; Oliveira Junior, Paulo D.; Schiabel, Homero

    2010-01-01

    Some quality control procedures used for mammography, such as focal spot evaluation, requires previous alignment of the measurement equipment with the X-ray central beam. However, alignment procedures are, in general, the most difficult task and the one that needs more time to be performed. Moreover, the operator sometimes is exposed to radiation during this procedure. This work presents an automatic alignment system for mammographic equipment that allows locating the central ray of the radiation beam and, immediately, aligns with it by dislocating itself automatically along the field. The system consists on a bidirectional moving device, connected to a CCD sensor for digital radiographic image acquisition. A computational analysis of a radiographic image, acquired at any position on the field, is performed in order to determine its positioning under the X-ray beam. Finally, a mechanical system for two moving directions, electronically controlled by a microcontroller under USB communication, makes the system to align automatically with the radiation beam central ray. The alignment process is fully automatic, fast and accurate, with no operator exposure to radiation, which allows a considerable time saving for quality control procedures achievement for mammography. (author)

  14. Real-time scatter measurement and correction in film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for real-time scatter measurement and correction in scanning film radiography is described. With this technique, collimated x-ray fan beams are used to partially reject scattered radiation. Photodiodes are attached to the aft-collimator for sampled scatter measurement. Such measurement allows the scatter distribution to be reconstructed and subtracted from digitized film image data for accurate transmission measurement. In this presentation the authors discuss the physical and technical considerations of this scatter correction technique. Examples are shown that demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Improved x-ray transmission measurement and dual-energy subtraction imaging are demonstrated with phantoms

  15. Comparison of non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael Tm; Murphy, Paul J; Blades, Kenneth J; Craig, Jennifer P

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of tear film stability is commonly used to give an indication of tear film quality but a number of non-invasive techniques exists within the clinical setting. This study sought to compare three non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques: instrument-mounted wide-field white light clinical interferometry, instrument-mounted keratoscopy and hand-held keratoscopy. Twenty-two subjects were recruited in a prospective, randomised, masked, cross-over study. Tear film break-up or thinning time was measured non-invasively by independent experienced examiners, with each of the three devices, in a randomised order, within an hour. Significant correlation was observed between instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements (p 0.05). Tear film stability values obtained from the hand-held device were significantly shorter and demonstrated narrower spread than the other two instruments (all p 0.05). Good clinical agreement exists between the instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements but not between the hand-held device and either of the instrument-mounted techniques. The results highlight the importance of specifying the instrument employed to record non-invasive tear film stability. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  16. In situ measurement of conductivity during nanocomposite film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, Christoph O.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flame-made nanosilver dynamics are elucidated in the gas-phase & on substrates. • The resistance of freshly depositing nanosilver layers is monitored. • Low T g polymers facilitate rapid synthesis of conductive films. • Conductive nanosilver films form on top of or within the polymer depending on MW. - Abstract: Flexible and electrically conductive nanocomposite films are essential for small, portable and even implantable electronic devices. Typically, such film synthesis and conductivity measurement are carried out sequentially. As a result, optimization of filler loading and size/morphology characteristics with respect to film conductivity is rather tedious and costly. Here, freshly-made Ag nanoparticles (nanosilver) are made by scalable flame aerosol technology and directly deposited onto polymeric (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) films during which the resistance of the resulting nanocomposite is measured in situ. The formation and gas-phase growth of such flame-made nanosilver, just before incorporation onto the polymer film, is measured by thermophoretic sampling and microscopy. Monitoring the nanocomposite resistance in situ reveals the onset of conductive network formation by the deposited nanosilver growth and sinternecking. The in situ measurement is much faster and more accurate than conventional ex situ four-point resistance measurements since an electrically percolating network is detected upon its formation by the in situ technique. Nevertheless, general resistance trends with respect to filler loading and host polymer composition are consistent for both in situ and ex situ measurements. The time lag for the onset of a conductive network (i.e., percolation) depends linearly on the glass transition temperature (T g ) of the host polymer. This is attributed to the increased nanoparticle-polymer interaction with decreasing T g . Proper selection of the host polymer in combination with in situ resistance monitoring

  17. Magnetic hysteresis measurements of thin films under isotropic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Patrick; Dubey, Archana; Geerts, Wilhelmus

    2000-10-01

    Nowadays, ferromagnetic thin films are widely applied in devices for information technology (credit cards, video recorder tapes, floppies, hard disks) and sensors (air bags, anti-breaking systems, navigation systems). Thus, with the increase in the use of magnetic media continued investigation of magnetic properties of materials is necessary to help in determining the useful properties of materials for new or improved applications. We are currently interested in studying the effect of applied external stress on Kerr hysteresis curves of thin magnetic films. The Ni and NiFe films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with Ar as the sputter gas (pAr=4 mTorr; Tsub=55-190 C). Seed and cap layers of Ti were used on all films for adhesion and oxidation protection, respectively. A brass membrane pressure cell was designed to apply in-plane isotropic stress to thin films. In this pressure cell, gas pressure is used to deform a flexible substrate onto which a thin magnetic film has been sputtered. The curvature of the samples could be controlled by changing the gas pressure to the cell. Magneto-Optical in-plane hysteresis curves at different values of strain were measured. The results obtained show that the stress sensitivity is dependent on the film thickness. For the 500nm NiFe films, the coercivity strongly decreased as a function of the applied stress.

  18. Simultaneous measurements of top surface and its underlying film surfaces in multilayer film structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Young-Sik; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Davies, Angela

    2017-09-19

    With the growth of 3D packaging technology and the development of flexible, transparent electrodes, the use of multilayer thin-films is steadily increasing throughout high-tech industries including semiconductor, flat panel display, and solar photovoltaic industries. Also, this in turn leads to an increase in industrial demands for inspection of internal analysis. However, there still remain many technical limitations to overcome for measurement of the internal structure of the specimen without damage. In this paper, we propose an innovative optical inspection technique for simultaneous measurements of the surface and film thickness corresponding to each layer of multilayer film structures by computing the phase and reflectance over a wide range of wavelengths. For verification of our proposed method, the sample specimen of multilayer films was fabricated via photolithography process, and the surface profile and film thickness of each layer were measured by two different techniques of a stylus profilometer and an ellipsometer, respectively. Comparison results shows that our proposed technique enables simultaneous measurements of the top surface and its underlying film surfaces with high precision, which could not be measured by conventional non-destructive methods.

  19. Hot Films on Ceramic Substrates for Measuring Skin Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffz, Greg; Leiser, Daniel; Bartlett, Jim; Lavine, Adrienne

    2003-01-01

    Hot-film sensors, consisting of a metallic film on an electrically nonconductive substrate, have been used to measure skin friction as far back as 1931. A hot film is maintained at an elevated temperature relative to the local flow by passing an electrical current through it. The power required to maintain the specified temperature depends on the rate at which heat is transferred to the flow. The heat transfer rate correlates to the velocity gradient at the surface, and hence, with skin friction. The hot-film skin friction measurement method is most thoroughly developed for steady-state conditions, but additional issues arise under transient conditions. Fabricating hot-film substrates using low-thermal-conductivity ceramics can offer advantages over traditional quartz or polyester-film substrates. First, a low conductivity substrate increases the fraction of heat convected away by the fluid, thus increasing sensitivity to changes in flow conditions. Furthermore, the two-part, composite nature of the substrate allows the installation of thermocouple junctions just below the hot film, which can provide an estimate of the conduction heat loss.

  20. Analysis of Torque Measurements on Films with Oblique Anistropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelmann, Leon; Kambersky, Vladimir; Lodder, J.C.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement method is discussed to determine the magnetic anisotropy energy in a sample without assuming an a priori model for the origins of the anisotropy. The measurement procedure involves torque measurements in five different planes. Since it is especially useful for films with an oblique

  1. Development of film dosimetric measurement system for verification of RTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Bao Shanglian; Ji Changguo; Zhang Xin; Wu Hao; Han Shukui; Xiao Guiping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To develop a novel film dosimetry system based on general laser scanner in order to verify patient-specific Radiotherapy Treatment Plan(RTP) in three-Dimensional Adaptable Radiotherapy(3D ART) and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Some advanced methods, including film saturated development, wavelet filtering with multi-resolution thresholds and discrete Fourier reconstruction are employed in this system to reduce artifacts, noise and distortion induced by film digitizing with general scanner; a set of coefficients derived from Monte Carlo(MC) simulation are adopted to correct the film over-response to low energy scattering photons; a set of newly emerging criteria, including γ index and Normalized Agreement Test (NAT) method, are employed to quantitatively evaluate agreement of 2D dose distributions between the results measured by the films and calculated by Treatment Planning System(TPS), so as to obtain straightforward presentations, displays and results with high accuracy and reliability. Results: Radiotherapy doses measured by developed system agree within 2% with those measured by ionization chamber and VeriSoft Film Dosimetry System, and quantitative evaluation indexes are within 3%. Conclusions: The developed system can be used to accurately measure the radiotherapy dose and reliably make quantitative evaluation for RTP dose verification. (authors)

  2. Homocysteine measurement in dried blood spot for neonatal detection of homocystinurias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alodaib, Ahmad N; Carpenter, Kevin; Wiley, Veronica; Wotton, Tiffany; Christodoulou, John; Wilcken, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Expanded newborn screening (NBS) leads to an increased number of false positive results, causing parental anxiety, greater follow-up costs, and the need for further metabolic investigations. We developed and validated a second-tier approach for NBS of homocystinurias by measuring the total homocysteine (tHcy) on the initial dried blood spot (DBS) samples to reduce the need for further investigation, and investigated newborn DBS homocysteine values in patients with homocystinuria. Total DBS homocysteine was measured in normal newborns, and retrospectively in newborns with established disorders, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with stable isotope-labelled internal standards for homocysteine. Analytes were separated using reverse phase chromatography with a total run time of 3 min. The method was linear over the range of 10-100 μmol/L of tHcy and showed excellent precision; intra-batch CV was 4% and inter-batch precision 6.5%. Comparison of 59 plasma values with DBS for tHcy taken at the same time showed excellent correlation, (r (2)>0.97). The reference range for current neonatal samples was 5.4-10.7 μmol/L (n=99), and for the stored neonatal samples (stored dry, sealed in plastic at room temperature for 10 years) was 1.7-5.5 μmol/L, (n=50), both being normally distributed. The clinical utility of this method was checked by retrospective analysis of stored NBS samples from patients with different forms of homocystinuria, including four different remethylating disorders. All had clear elevations of tHcy.

  3. Infrared reflectance measurement for InN thin film characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Kugumiya, Y.; Nakagawa, N.; Yamamoto, A.

    2006-01-01

    Infrared reflectance measurements of a series of InN thin films have been performed and attempt to derive carrier concentration and other physical constants for InN thin film characterization. Fitting calculations are performed by use of the dielectric function equation based on phonon-plasmon coupling model. Longitudinal and transverse optical phonon frequencies, plasma frequency and their damping parameters can be derived from fitting. From those results, electrical and phonon properties of InN and characterization of films are discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Polymer film strain gauges for measuring large elongations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratov, A. P.; Zueva, A. M.; Varakin, R. S.; Taranec, I. P.; Savenkova, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    The paper shows the possibility to print polymer strain gages, microstrip lines, coplanar waveguides, and other prints for avionics using printing technology and equipment. The methods of screen and inkjet printing have been complemented by three new operations of preparing print films for application of an electrically conductive ink layer. Such additional operations make it possible to enhance the conductive ink layer adhesion to the film and to manufacture strain gages for measuring large elongations.

  5. A method for measuring exchange stiffness in ferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girt, Erol; Huttema, W.; Montoya, E.; Kardasz, B.; Eyrich, C.; Heinrich, B.; Mryasov, O. N.; Dobin, A. Yu.; Karis, O.

    2011-01-01

    An exchange stiffness, A ex , in ferromagnetic films is obtained by fitting the M(H) dependence of two ferromagnetic layers antiferromagnetically coupled across a nonmagnetic spacer layer with a simple micromagnetic model. In epitaxial and textured structures this method allows measuring A ex between the crystallographic planes perpendicular to the growth direction of ferromagnetic films. Our results show that A ex between [0001] planes in textured Co grains is 1.54 ± 0.12 x 10 -11 J/m.

  6. Measurements of proton energy spectra using a radiochromic film stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ellison, D. M.; Steidle, Jeffrey; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Fiksel, G.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The energy spectrum of protons accelerated from the rear-side of a thin foil illuminated with ultra-intense laser light from the OMEGA EP laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was measured using a stack of radiochromic film (RCF). The film stack consisted of four layers of Gafchromic HD-V2 film and four layers of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 film. Aluminum foils of various thicknesses were placed between each piece of RCF in the stack. This arrangement allowed protons with energies of 30 MeV to reach the back layer of RCF in the stack. The stack was placed in the detector plane of a Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) spectrometer. Each piece of film in the stack was scanned using a commercially available flat-bed scanner (Epson 10000XL). The resulting optical density was converted into proton fluence using an absolute calibration of the RCF obtained at the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator laboratory. In these calibration measurements, the sensitivity of the radiochromic film was measured using monoenergetic protons produced by the accelerator. Details of the analysis procedure and the resulting proton energy spectra will be presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  7. The light spot test: Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, reliable high-throughput methods for comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice lines have become a necessity. Here, we describe the development and validation of an anxiety test, the light spot test, that allows for unsupervised, automated, high-throughput testing of mice in a home-cage system. This automated behavioral test circumvents bias introduced by pretest handling, and enables recording both baseline behavior and the behavioral test response over a prolonged period of time. We demonstrate that the light spot test induces a behavioral response in C57BL/6J mice. This behavior reverts to baseline when the aversive stimulus is switched off, and is blunted by treatment with the anxiolytic drug Diazepam, demonstrating predictive validity of the assay, and indicating that the observed behavioral response has a significant anxiety component. Also, we investigated the effectiveness of the light spot test as part of sequential testing for different behavioral aspects in the home-cage. Two learning tests, administered prior to the light spot test, affected the light spot test parameters. The light spot test is a novel, automated assay for anxiety-related high-throughput testing of mice in an automated home-cage environment, allowing for both comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice, and rapid screening of pharmacological compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of hydrogen in BCN films by nuclear reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Haruyuki; Hirose, Yukio; Sasaki, Toshihiko [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan); Awazu, Kaoru [Industrial Research Inst., of Ishikawa, Kanazawa (Japan); Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen is a very common contaminant in carbon films. It can strongly influence on mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the films. The analysis of hydrogen is therefore a crucial problem produce the films with the properties required. Ion beam techniques using nuclear reactions are effective for the quantitative determination of hydrogen concentration. A specially designed spectrometer is employed for the detailed determination of hydrogen concentrations by detecting 4.43MeV {gamma}-rays from the resonant nuclear reactions {sup 1}H({sup 15}N, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C at the 6.385MeV. In this study, the BCN films were formed on silicon substrate by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), in which boron and carbon were deposited by electron beam heating of B{sub 4}C solid and nitrogen was supplied by ion implantation simultaneously. The concentrations of hydrogen in BCN films were measured using RNRA. The mechanical properties of BCN films were evaluated using an ultra-micro-hardness tester. It was confirmed that the hardness of BCN films increased with increasing the concentration of hydrogen. (author)

  9. Experience from using plastic film in radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1999-01-01

    Plastic film is a useful detector of radon gas. The method of detection of the gas is used for several decades to measure radon concentrations both indoors and in soil. Experiences from radon measurements in Sweden indoors, in soil and in water using the plastic film Kodak LR 115-II are discussed in this report. Some examples are given from various projects. One example is taken from a large scale mapping of indoor radon levels in houses, where the building material is the main source of radon. In another example the measurements from a large scale soil radon mapping are discussed. The use of the plastic film for measurements of radon levels in water is also discussed. All the investigations are made in order to give the authorities concerned information of the radon situation and to study the connection between high indoor radon levels and various types of cancers

  10. Measurements of the sensitivity of radiochromic film using ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidle, J. A.; Shortino, J. P.; Ellison, D. M.; Freeman, C. G.; Sangster, T. C.

    2013-10-01

    Radiochromic film (RCF) is used in several diagnostics as a dosimeter that chromatically responds to incident particles. This response depends on the fluence, energy, and species of the incident particles. A 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator is used to create a monoenergetic ion beam which is scattered off a thin gold target onto a strip of RCF. A surface barrier detector is positioned behind a small hole in the film to measure the ion fluence on the nearby film. Once the film develops, it is scanned to examine its optical density. A response curve is acquired by fitting a three parameter formula to optical density and dose. These calibration curves can be used to help determine incident doses in a variety of situations.

  11. Identification of measures for prevention of black spots in organically produced stored carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Kastelein, P.; Elderson, J.; Blok, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands winter carrot for the fresh market is a cash crop for many organic growers of field vegetables. In the last few years blackish spots have been observed during storage of carrot roots. An inventory was carried out in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 including in total 42 carrot lots from 22

  12. Effect of micrometric hot spots on surface temperature measurement and flux calculation in the middle and long infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchambre, E; Counsell, G; Kirk, A

    2009-01-01

    The non-uniformity of the target temperature due to micrometric hot spots (Hermann et al 2004 Phys. Scr. T 111 98) is an explanation for the experimental fact that near-infrared measurements yield higher temperature values than mid-infrared measurements (Hildebrandt et al 2003 InfraMation 2003 Proc. (Las Vegas, USA, October 2003), Delchambre et al 2005 J. Nucl. Mater. 337-339 1069). The issue of micrometric hot spot disturbance in the surface temperature (T surf ) measurement and heat load calculation is addressed in this paper. The theoretical investigation at 3, 5 and 12 μm and experiments in the range 3.5-5 μm indicate that the surface state can play an important role in the non-uniform heating surface and consequently in the overestimation of the bulk temperature. The contribution of the hot spots to temperature measurements and flux calculations has been simulated at different wavelengths. Calculations show that (1) the overestimation of the bulk temperature decreases with the wavelength and (2) the overestimation depends on the temperature difference, ΔT, between the bulk and the micrometric hot spots. In addition, experiments have been carried out in order to compare the flux calculations at different wavelengths on different graphite (polished, dusty). The results obtained are very sensitive to the surface state pointing out the difficulties in improving the heat flux calculation model, since the surface state can change during the plasma discharges. This paper shows that the problem of non-homogenous surface temperature can be significantly diminished on working at longer wavelengths.

  13. A sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay for measuring androstenedione in serum and in blood-spot samples from neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, S.; Wallace, A.M.; Cook, B. (Stobhill Hospital, Glasgow (England))

    1989-08-01

    We developed a radioimmunoassay with a gamma-emitting radioligand to measure androstenedione in human serum and in dried blood-spot samples from newborns. Antisera were raised in rabbits against androstenedione linked to bovine serum albumin at positions 3, 6, or 11 on the steroid nucleus. Radioligands were prepared by linking ({sup 125}I)iodohistamine at positions 3, 6, or 11. Linkages were through either carboxymethyloxime or hemisuccinate bridges. All label and antibody combinations were examined, and the most sensitive and specific combination (antiserum raised against androstenedione-3-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin with an androstenedione-carboxymethyloxime-({sup 125}I)iodohistamine label) was selected for full evaluation. We report the performance of these selected reagents in an immunoassay for androstenedione in both serum and dried blood-spot samples from neonates. We measured concentrations of androstenedione in serum under normal and pathological conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and polycystic ovarian disease. Diurnal variation in normal men was observed. Androstenedione was measured in blood spots from neonates born at term or prematurely, with respiratory distress syndrome, or with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  14. A 125I-radioimmunoassay for measuring androstenedione in serum and in blood-spot samples from neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.; Wallace, A.M.; Cook, B.

    1989-01-01

    We developed a radioimmunoassay with a gamma-emitting radioligand to measure androstenedione in human serum and in dried blood-spot samples from newborns. Antisera were raised in rabbits against androstenedione linked to bovine serum albumin at positions 3, 6, or 11 on the steroid nucleus. Radioligands were prepared by linking [ 125 I]iodohistamine at positions 3, 6, or 11. Linkages were through either carboxymethyloxime or hemisuccinate bridges. All label and antibody combinations were examined, and the most sensitive and specific combination (antiserum raised against androstenedione-3-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin with an androstenedione-carboxymethyloxime-[ 125 I]iodohistamine label) was selected for full evaluation. We report the performance of these selected reagents in an immunoassay for androstenedione in both serum and dried blood-spot samples from neonates. We measured concentrations of androstenedione in serum under normal and pathological conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and polycystic ovarian disease. Diurnal variation in normal men was observed. Androstenedione was measured in blood spots from neonates born at term or prematurely, with respiratory distress syndrome, or with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

  15. Measuring solar UV radiation with EBT radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Ethan T; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Butson, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation dosimetry has been performed with the use of a radiochromic film dosimeter called Gafchromic EBT for solar radiation exposure. The film changes from a clear colour to blue colour when exposed to ultraviolet radiation and results have shown that the colour change is reproducible within ±10% at 5 kJ m -2 UV exposure under various conditions of solar radiation. Parameters tested included changes in season (summer versus winter exposure), time of day, as well as sky conditions such as cloudy skies versus clear skies. As the radiochromic films' permanent colour change occurs in the visible wavelengths the film can be analysed with a desktop scanner with the most sensitive channel for analysis being the red component of the signal. Results showed that an exposure of 5 kJ m -2 (approximately 1 h exposure in full sun during summer) produced an approximate 0.28 change in the net OD when analysed in reflection mode on the desktop scanner which is significant darkening. The main advantages of this film type, and thus the new EBT2 film which has replaced EBT for measurement of UV exposure, is the visible colour change and thus easy analysis using a desktop scanner, its uniformity in response and its robust physical strength for use in outside exposure situations. (note)

  16. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 (micro)m, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  17. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Marshall

    2010-09-20

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  18. Characterisation and deployment of an immobilised pH sensor spot towards surface ocean pH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jennifer S; Achterberg, Eric P; Rérolle, Victoire M C; Abi Kaed Bey, Samer; Floquet, Cedric F A; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2015-10-15

    The oceans are a major sink for anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide, and the uptake causes changes to the marine carbonate system and has wide ranging effects on flora and fauna. It is crucial to develop analytical systems that allow us to follow the increase in oceanic pCO2 and corresponding reduction in pH. Miniaturised sensor systems using immobilised fluorescence indicator spots are attractive for this purpose because of their simple design and low power requirements. The technology is increasingly used for oceanic dissolved oxygen measurements. We present a detailed method on the use of immobilised fluorescence indicator spots to determine pH in ocean waters across the pH range 7.6-8.2. We characterised temperature (-0.046 pH/°C from 5 to 25 °C) and salinity dependences (-0.01 pH/psu over 5-35), and performed a preliminary investigation into the influence of chlorophyll on the pH measurement. The apparent pKa of the sensor spots was 6.93 at 20 °C. A drift of 0.00014 R (ca. 0.0004 pH, at 25 °C, salinity 35) was observed over a 3 day period in a laboratory based drift experiment. We achieved a precision of 0.0074 pH units, and observed a drift of 0.06 pH units during a test deployment of 5 week duration in the Southern Ocean as an underway surface ocean sensor, which was corrected for using certified reference materials. The temperature and salinity dependences were accounted for with the algorithm, R=0.00034-0.17·pH+0.15·S(2)+0.0067·T-0.0084·S·1.075. This study provides a first step towards a pH optode system suitable for autonomous deployment. The use of a short duration low power illumination (LED current 0.2 mA, 5 μs illumination time) improved the lifetime and precision of the spot. Further improvements to the pH indicator spot operations include regular application of certified reference materials for drift correction and cross-calibration against a spectrophotometric pH system. Desirable future developments should involve novel

  19. Thickness and roughness measurements of nano thin films by interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sabzalipour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the standard optical interference fringes approach, by measuring shift of the interference fringes due to step edge of thin film on substrate, thickness of the layer has already been measured. In order to improve the measurement precision of this popular method, the interference fringes intensity curve was extracted and analyzed before and after the step preparation. By this method, one can measure a few nanometers films thickness. In addition, using the interference fringes intensity curve and its fluctuations, the roughness of surface is measured within a few nanometers accuracy. Comparison of our results with some direct methods of thickness and roughness measurements, i.e. using surface profilemeter and atomic force microscopy confirms the accuracy of the suggested improvements.

  20. A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based method for measuring propranolol on dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Villanelli, Fabio; Giocaliere, Elisa; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Filippi, Luca; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Bagnoli, Paola; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2013-05-05

    Propranolol, a non-selective beta blocker drug, is used in young infants and newborns for treating several heart diseases; its pharmacokinetics has been extensively evaluated in adult patients using extrapolation to treat pediatric population. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a method to measure propranolol levels in dried blood spots. The analysis was performed by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve in matrix was linear in the concentration range of 2.5-200 μg/L with correlation coefficient r=0.9996. Intra-day and inter-day precisions and biases were less than 8.0% (n=10) and 11.5% (n=10) respectively. The recoveries ranged from 94 to 100% and the matrix effect did not result in a severe signal suppression. Propranolol on dried blood spot showed a good stability at three different temperatures for one month. This paper describes a micromethod for measuring propranolol levels on dried blood spot, which determines a great advantage in neonates or young infants during pharmacokinetic studies because of less invasive sampling and small blood volume required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomedical sensor for transcutaneous oxygen measurements using thick film technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Yu-Zhi (Liza)

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is essential for the analysis of a patient's respiratory condition. There are several commercially available methods and systems to measure this parameter transcutaneously. However, they tend to be cumbersome and costly. To overcome the disadvantages presented, a new type of sensor for transcutaneous blood gas measurement was investigated, employing thick film technology, which is an excellent technique to produce sensors in ...

  2. Determining Confounding Sensitivities In Eddy Current Thin Film Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, Ethan; Udpa, Lalita; Smith, James A.; Wachs, Katelyn

    2016-07-01

    Determining Confounding Sensitivities In Eddy Current Thin Film Measurements Ethan Gros, Lalita Udpa, Electrical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 James A. Smith, Experiment Analysis, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls ID 83415 Eddy current (EC) techniques are widely used in industry to measure the thickness of non-conductive films on a metal substrate. This is done using a system whereby a coil carrying a high-frequency alternating current is used to create an alternating magnetic field at the surface of the instrument's probe. When the probe is brought near a conductive surface, the alternating magnetic field will induce ECs in the conductor. The substrate characteristics and the distance of the probe from the substrate (the coating thickness) affect the magnitude of the ECs. The induced currents load the probe coil affecting the terminal impedance of the coil. The measured probe impedance is related to the lift off between coil and conductor as well as conductivity of the test sample. For a known conductivity sample, the probe impedance can be converted into an equivalent film thickness value. The EC measurement can be confounded by a number of measurement parameters. It is the goal of this research to determine which physical properties of the measurement set-up and sample can adversely affect the thickness measurement. The eddy current testing is performed using a commercially available, hand held eddy current probe (ETA3.3H spring loaded eddy probe running at 8 MHz) that comes with a stand to hold the probe. The stand holds the probe and adjusts the probe on the z-axis to help position the probe in the correct area as well as make precise measurements. The signal from the probe is sent to a hand held readout, where the results are recorded directly in terms of liftoff or film thickness. Understanding the effect of certain factors on the measurements of film thickness, will help to evaluate how accurate the ETA3.3H spring

  3. Reliability and responsiveness of the Self-Efficacy in Assessing, Training and Spotting wheelchair skills (SEATS) outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paula W; Smith, Emma M; Miller, William C; Kirby, R Lee; Daoust, Geneviève

    2018-01-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the Self-Efficacy in Assessing, Training and Spotting manual wheelchair skills (SEATS-M) and Self-Efficacy in Assessing, Training and Spotting power wheelchair skills (SEATS-P). A 2-week test-retest design was used with a convenience sample of occupational and physical therapists who worked at a provincial rehabilitation centre (inpatient and outpatient services). Sixteen participants completed the SEATS-M and 18 participants completed the SEATS-P. For the SEATS-M assessment, training, spotting and documentation sections, Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.90 to 0.97, the 2-week intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 1,1 ) ranged from 0.81 to 0.95, the standard error of measurements (SEM) ranged from 5.06 to 8.70 and the smallest real differences (SRD) ranged from 6.24 to 8.18. For the SEATS-P assessment, training, spotting and documentation sections, Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 0.92, the ICCs ranged from 0.72 to 0.86, the SEMs ranged from 4.54 to 8.91 and the SRDs ranged from 5.90 to 8.27. There is preliminary evidence that both the SEATS-M and the SEATS-P have high internal consistency, good test-retest reliability and support for responsiveness. These tools can be used in evaluating clinician self-efficacy with assessing, training, spotting and documenting wheelchair skills included on the Wheelchair Skills Test. Implications for Rehabilitation There is preliminary evidence that the SEATS-M and SEATS-P are reliable and responsive outcome measures that can be used to evaluate the self-efficacy of clinicians to administer the Wheelchair Skills Program. Measurement of clinicians' self-efficacy in this area of practice may enable an enhanced understanding of the areas in which clinicians lack self-efficacy, thereby informing the development of improved knowledge translation interventions.

  4. Research on Forming Mechanisms and Controlling Measurements for Surface Light Spot Defects of Galvanizing Steel Coils for Automobile Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangmin, Wei; Haiyan, Sun; Jianqiang, Shi; Lianxuan, Wang; Haihong, Wu

    When producing high surface quality galvanizing steel coils for automobile use, there are always many light spots on the surface since Hansteel CGL No.1 has been put into operation. The defect samples were analyzed by SEM and EDS. The result shows that cause for light spot is not only one. There are more Mn and P in high strength auto sheet, which can result in difficulty to be cleaned off the oxide on the hot rolled coils, so the defects coming. This is why the defects come with high strength auto sheet. When coils galvanized, the defects can't be covered up. To the contrary, the defects will be more obvious when zinc growing on the surface. And sometimes zinc or residue can adhere to work rolls when strips passing through SPM. The deposits then press normal coating. So the light spots come more. When the defect comes from pressing, there is no defect on steel base. The causation is found and measures were taken including high pressure cleaning equipments adopted. Result shows that the defects disappeared.

  5. Imaging and thickness measurement of amorphous intergranular films using TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLaren, I.

    2004-01-01

    Fresnel fringe analysis is shown to be unreliable for grain boundaries in yttrium-doped alumina: the determined thicknesses do not agree well with those measured from high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), the asymmetry between under- and overfocus is very large, and Fresnel fringes are sometimes shown at boundaries which contain no amorphous film. An alternative approach to the analysis of HRTEM images of grain boundary films is demonstrated: Fourier filtering is used to remove the lattice fringes from the image thereby significantly enhancing the visibility of the intergranular films. The apparent film thickness shows a discrepancy between measurements from the original HRTEM image and the filtered image. It was shown that fringe delocalisation and diffuseness of the amorphous/crystalline interfaces will lead to a significant underestimate of the thickness in unprocessed HRTEM images. In contrast to this, the average thickness can be much more accurately measured from the Fourier-filtered image, provided the boundary is oriented accurately edge-on

  6. X-ray spot filmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray apparatus is described which includes a spot filmer for feeding sheets of unexposed film one at a time into a vacuum evacuable cassette for exposure, and for returning exposed film sheets to an exposed film magazine. The spot filmer has a housing defining a light-tight enclosure. The film magazines are insertable through a door into the housing and into a film feed mechanism. The film feed mechanism unlatches, opens and positions the magazines; it then feeds a sheet of unexposed film into the vacuum evacuable cassette, releases the film sheet so the cassette can position the film sheet for exposure, and closes the film magazines. An orthogonal drive system positions the vacuum evacuable cassette to expose selected film sheet portions and returns the cassette to a retracted position. The film feed mechanism opens the magazines, feeds the exposed film sheet into the exposed film magazine, and closes the magazines. A film identification system is provided for forming an identifying image on a marginal portion of each film sheet

  7. Hysteresis in YHx films observed with in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remhof, A.; Kerssemakers, J.W.J.; Molen, S.J. van der; Griessen, R.; Kooij, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    Giant hysteretic effects in the YH x hydrogen switchable mirror system are observed between x=1.9 and x=3 in pressure composition isotherms, optical and electrical properties, and mechanical stress. Polycrystalline Y films are studied by simultaneous in situ measurements of electrical resistivity, optical transmittance and x-ray diffractometry. These experiments are linked to optical microscopy of the samples. During hydrogen loading above x=1.9 the films stay in the metallic fcc phase until the optical transmittance reaches its minimum and the electrical resistance curve exhibits a characteristic feature at x=2.1. Upon further loading the system crosses the miscibility gap in which the fcc phase coexists with the hcp phase before hydrogen saturation is reached in the pure hcp phase. While the fcc phase stays at a concentration of x=2.1 in the coexistence region during loading, it remains at a concentration of x=1.9 during unloading. The hysteretic effects observed in optical transmission and electrical resistivity result from the different properties of the low concentration fcc phase YH 1.9 and the high concentration fcc phase YH 2.1 . They can be explained on the basis of the bulk phase diagram if the different stress states during loading and unloading are taken into account. These results contradict earlier interpretations of the hysteresis in thin film YH x , based on nonsimultaneous measurements of the optical and structural properties on different films

  8. Direct measurement of the near-field super resolved focused spot in InSb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assafrao, A.C.; Wachters, A.J.H.; Verheijen, M.; Nugrowati, A.M.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Armand, M.F.; Olivier, S.

    2012-01-01

    Under appropriate laser exposure, a thin film of InSb exhibits a sub-wavelength thermally modified area that can be used to focus light beyond the diffraction limit. This technique, called Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure, is a potential candidate for ultrahigh density optical data storage and

  9. Method for measuring deuterium in erbium deuteride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brangan, J.R.; Thornberg, S.M.; Keenan, M.R.

    1997-09-01

    Determining the quantity of deuterium in an erbium deuteride (ErD 2 ) film is essential for assessing the quality of the hydriding process but is a challenging measurement to make. First, the ideal gas law cannot be applied directly due to high temperature (950 degrees C) and low temperature (25 degrees C) regions in the same manifold. Additionally, the metal hydride does not release all of the deuterium rapidly upon heating and metal evaporation occurs during extended heating periods. Therefore, the method developed must provide a means to compensate for temperature inhomogeneities and the amount of deuterium retained in the metal film while heating for a minimal duration. This paper presents two thermal desorption methods used to evaluate the kinetics and equilibria of the deuterium desorption process at high temperatures (950 degrees C). Of primary concern is the evaluation of the quantity of deuterium remaining in these films at the high temperature. A multiple volume expansion technique provided insight into the kinetics of the deuterium evolution and metal evaporation from the film. Finally a repeated pump-down approach yielded data that indicated approximately 10% of the deuterium is retained in the metal film at 950 degrees C and approximately 1 Torr pressure. When the total moles of deuterium determined by this method were divided by the moles of erbium determined by ICP/AES, nearly stochiometric values of 2:1 were obtained for several erbium dideuteride films. Although this work presents data for erbium and deuterium, these methods are applicable to other metal hydrides as well

  10. Characterization of sprayed CuInS2 films by XRD and Raman spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong-Yeup; Kim, JunHo

    2010-01-01

    We studied CuInS 2 (CIS) film growth using two deposition methods, which were high electrostatic field assisted ultrasonic spray (HEFAUS) deposition and sulfurization of Cu-In metallic film. The sprayed-films were grown with chalcopyrite ordering and Cu-Au ordering mixed. In order to obtain higher quality CIS films, post-sulfurization was carried out for sprayed-films. The post-sulfurization induced improvement of crystallinity and enhancement of chalcopyrite ordering. However, it was observed that Cu-Au ordering still coexisted in the CIS film after post-sulfurization. With the same sulfurization condition, sulfurization was done to transform Cu-In metallic film into CIS film. The sulfurized metallic film was turned out to be formed as CIS film with higher crystallinity and better chalcopyrite ordering than sulfurized sprayed-films. All fabricated films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis measurements.

  11. Measurement of lower hybrid hot spots using a retarding field analyzer in Tore Supra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunn, J. P.; Petržílka, Václav; Ekedahl, A.; Fuchs, Vladimír; Gauthier, E.; Goniche, M.; Kočan, M.; Pascal, J.Y.; Saint Laurent, F.

    390-391, č. 1 (2009), s. 904-906 ISSN 0022-3115. [International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/18th./. Toledo, 26.05.2008-30.5.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Lower Hybrid * hot spots * ELECTRONS * POWER Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TXN-4VG7MW6-7&_user=6542793&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000070123&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6542793&md5=944ed4d95df86a149fa36439db6215db

  12. SU-E-T-561: Development of Depth Dose Measurement Technique Using the Multilayer Ionization Chamber for Spot Scanning Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, T; Fujitaka, S; Umezawa, M; Ito, Y; Nakashima, C; Matsuda, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a measurement technique which suppresses the difference between profiles obtained with a multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) and with a water phantom. Methods: The developed technique multiplies the raw MLIC data by a correction factor that depends on the initial beam range and water equivalent depth. The correction factor is derived based on a Bragg curve calculation formula considering range straggling and fluence loss caused by nuclear reactions. Furthermore, the correction factor is adjusted based on several integrated depth doses measured with a water phantom and the MLIC. The measured depth dose profiles along the central axis of the proton field with a nominal field size of 10 by 10 cm were compared between the MLIC using the new technique and the water phantom. The spread out Bragg peak was 20 cm for fields with a range of 30.6 cm and 6.9 cm. Raw MLIC data were obtained with each energy layer, and integrated after multiplying by the correction factor. The measurements were performed by a spot scanning nozzle at Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Japan. Results: The profile measured with the MLIC using the new technique is consistent with that of the water phantom. Moreover, 97% of the points passed the 1% dose /1mm distance agreement criterion of the gamma index. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the new technique suppresses the difference between profiles obtained with the MLIC and with the water phantom. It was concluded that this technique is useful for depth dose measurement in proton spot scanning method

  13. Bier spots

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Yorulmaz,; Seray Kulcu Cakmak; Esra Ar?; Ferda Artuz

    2015-01-01

    Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elu...

  14. Dried blood spot measurement: application in tacrolimus monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi Yuen; van der Heijden, Jaques; Hoogtanders, Karin; Christiaans, Maarten; Liu, Yan Lun; Chan, Yiu Han; Choi, Koon Shing; van de Plas, Afke; Shek, Chi Chung; Chau, Ka Foon; Li, Chun Sang; van Hooff, Johannes; Stolk, Leo

    2008-02-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry have been developed in monitoring tacrolimus levels. Our center favors the use of limited sampling strategy and abbreviated formula to estimate the area under concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)). However, it is inconvenient for patients because they have to wait in the center for blood sampling. We investigated the application of DBS method in tacrolimus level monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation approach. Duplicate venous samples were obtained at each time point (C(0), C(2), and C(4)). To determine the stability of blood samples, one venous sample was sent to our laboratory immediately. The other duplicate venous samples, together with simultaneous fingerprick blood samples, were sent to the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands. Thirty six patients were recruited and 108 sets of blood samples were collected. There was a highly significant relationship between AUC(0-12), estimated from venous blood samples, and fingerprick blood samples (r(2) = 0.96, P AUC(0-12) strategy as drug monitoring.

  15. Pulse measurement of the hot spot current in a NbTiN superconducting filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, K.; Mekki, A.; Kunwar, S.; Maneval, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    We have studied the voltage response of superconducting NbTiN filaments to a step-pulse of over-critical current I > Ic. The current induces the destruction of the Cooper pairs and initiates different mechanisms of dissipation depending on the bath temperature T. For the sample investigated, and for T above a certain T*, not far from Tc, the resistance manifests itself in the form of a phase-slip center, which turns into a normal hot spot (HS) as the step-pulse is given larger amplitudes. However, at all temperatures below T*, the destruction of superconductivity still occurs at Ic(T), but leads directly to an ever-growing HS. By lowering the current amplitude during the pulse, one can produce a steady HS and thus define a threshold HS current Ih(T). That is achieved by combining two levels of current, the first and larger one to initiate an HS, the second one to search for constant voltage response. The double diagram of the functions Ic(T) and Ih(T) was plotted in the T-range Tc/2 < T < Tc, and their crossing found at T* = (8.07 ± 0.07) K.

  16. IP-10 measured by Dry Plasma Spots as biomarker for therapy responses in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonby, Kristian; Ruhwald, Morten; Kvale, Dag; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne Ma

    2015-03-18

    Tuberculosis (TB) has huge impact on human morbidity and mortality and biomarkers to support rapid TB diagnosis and ensure treatment initiation and cure are needed, especially in regions with high prevalence of multi-drug resistant TB. Soluble interferon gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10) analyzed from dry plasma spots (DPS) has potential as an immunodiagnostic marker in TB infection. We analyzed IP-10 levels in plasma directly and extracted from DPS in parallel by ELISA from 34 clinically well characterized patients with TB disease before and throughout 24 weeks of effective anti-TB chemotherapy. We detected a significant decline of IP-10 levels in both plasma and DPS already after two weeks of therapy with good correlation between the tests. This was observed both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. In conclusion, plasma IP-10 may serve as an early biomarker for anti-TB chemotherapy responses and the IP-10 DPS method has potential to be developed into a point-of care test for use in resource-limited settings. Further studies must be performed to validate the use of IP-10 DPS in TB high endemic countries.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of 25 inflammatory markers and neurotrophins in neonatal dried blood spots by immunoassay with xMAP technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, Kristin; Thorsen, Poul; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory reactions and other events in early life may be part of the etiology of late-onset diseases, including cerebral palsy, autism, and type 1 diabetes. Most neonatal screening programs for congenital disorders are based on analysis of dried blood spot samples (DBSS), and stored...... on flowmetric Luminex xMAP technology to measure inflammatory markers and neutrophins in DBSS. RESULTS: The high-capacity 25-plex multianalyte method measured 23 inflammatory and trophic cytokines, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1), and C-reactive protein in two 3.2-mm punches from DBSS...... potential for high-capacity analysis of DBSS in epidemiologic case-control studies and, with further refinements, in neonatal screening....

  18. Device for correction of the spot dimensions and its form in the measuring CRT of the MELAS automatic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachnova, O.A.; Kryutchenko, E.V.; Utochkin, B.A.; Fedotov, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    A digital-to-analog converter is described, designed for dynamic correction of beam focusing of the measuring cathode-ray tube (CRT) of the MELAS automatic device. The described converter consists of two identical units. Every unit generates a voltage proportional to square of deviations along the X and Y axes. Output voltages of both channels are summarized by an analog adder, transformed into current and are fed to the focusing system. The computer circuit used to correct the dimensions of the CRT beam uses microcircuits with low and medium levels of integration and has the following characteristics: the maximum correcting current is 12.4 mA, the direct component of the focusing current is 0.24 A, the correcting current instability is 0.08% and the reduced temperature instability of the total focusing current is 0.004%. The employment of the converter to correct the dimension and shape of the CRT spot makes it possible to reduce the spot diameter to 18 μm at the center of the face and 22 μm at the edges of the face operating field

  19. Measurement of radiation and temperature of cathod spots in excimer laser discharge; Ekishima reza reiki hodennai ni fukumareru inkyoku kiten no kogakuteki kansoku to ondo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamitani, Y.; Nakatani, H. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-20

    Excimer laser is used in various fields such as luminous source for steppers, annealing treatment, ablation process, nuclear fusion and so on. In this paper, the radiation timing and gas temperature of cathode spots, streamer discharges and glow discharges in KrF excimer are measured by observing the radiating spectra thereof. The following conclusions are obtained from the results of the present study. Cathode spots begin to radiate at about 20ns after the discharge initiation, then the first and second radiation peaks are observed respectively when the discharge current reversing after passing zero point and the reserved discharged current approaching zero point. Streamer discharge makes flashover between electrodes at the second radiation peak of cathode spots, while the glow discharges almost disappear when streamer discharges occurring. The temperatures of cathode spots and glow discharge as 5500K and 2600K respectively are almost constant and independent upon the discharging voltage of laser. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Thermal conductivity of mesoporous films measured by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoib, B.; Filser, S.; Petermann, N.; Wiggers, H.; Stutzmann, M.; Brandt, M. S.

    2014-04-01

    We measure the in-plane thermal conductance of mesoporous Ge and SiGe thin films using the Raman-shift method and, based on a finite differences simulation accounting for the geometry of the sample, extract the in-plane thermal conductivity. For a suspended thin film of laser-sintered SiGe nanoparticles doped with phosphorus, we find an effective in-plane thermal conductivity of 0.05 W/m K in vacuum for a temperature difference of 400 K and a mean temperature of 500 K. Under similar conditions, the effective in-plane thermal conductivity of a laser-sintered undoped Ge nanoparticle film is 0.5 W/m K. Accounting for a porosity of approximately 50%, the normalized thermal conductivities are 0.1 W/m K and 1 W/m K, respectively. The thermoelectric performance is discussed, considering that the electrical in-plane conductivity is also affected by the mesoporosity.

  1. The reliability of head film measurements. 3. Tracing superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Miller, D; Molthen, R

    1976-12-01

    The superimposition of tracings from lateral skull x-ray films taken at different timepoints is an important method for assessing developmental and treatment changes through time. The usefulness of the data derived is, however, limited by the fact that the physical act of superimposing tracings is performed with some error. The magnitudes of error for superimpositions on different "planes" have not been amenable to quantitation by previously available methods. Using newly developed computer-aided techniques, we have been able to quantitate both the primary errors of tracing superimposition and the associated secondary landmark displacements for four conventionally employed anatomic reference "planes". For each reference "plane," twenty-five independent film pairs were examined independently by each of four judges. Therefore, 100 acts of tracing superimposition were available for each reference "plane." Output data are presented which appear to support the conclusion that measurement errors in tracing superimposition are a consequential factor affecting the confidence which should be placed in head film comparisons, particularly with regard to individual cases. Some consequences of this conclusion with respect to growth prediction and to the evaluation of treatment effects are considered.

  2. Glacier Changes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Derived From SPOT5 Imagery, GIS and Field- Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, A.; Arnaud, Y.; Williams, M. W.; Singh Khalsa, S.

    2007-12-01

    There is urgency in deriving an extensive dataset for deriving glacier changes within the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in a cost-effective and timely manner. Rapid glacial retreat during the last decades in this area poses a threat for water resources, hydroelectric power and local traditions. While there is some information on decadal changes in glacier extents, there still remains a paucity of mass balance measurements and glacier parameters such as hypsometry, size distribution and termini elevations. Here we investigate decadal changes in glacier parameters for Cordillera Blanca of Peru using data from Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) sensor, an old glacier inventory from 1970 aerial photography, field-based mass balance measurements and meteorological observations. Here we focus on: constructing a geospatial glacier inventory from 2003 SPOT scenes; mass balance estimations using remote sensing and field data; frequency distribution of glacier area; changes in termini elevations; hypsometry changes over time; glacier topography (slope, aspect, length/width ratio); AAR vs. mass balance for Artesonraju and Yanamarey benchmark glaciers; precipitation and temperature trends in the region. Over the last 25 years, mean temperatures increases of 0.09 deg.C/yr were greater at lower elevation than the 0.01 deg.C/yr at higher elevations, with little change in precipitation. Comparison of the new SPOT-based glacier inventory with the 1970 inventory shows that glaciers in Cordillera Blanca retreated at a rate of 0.6% per year over the last three decades, with no significant differences in the rate of area loss between E and W side. At lower elevations there is an upward shift of glacier termini along with a decrease in glacier area. Small glaciers are losing more area than large glaciers. Based on the relationship between specific mass balance (bn) and accumulation area ratio (AAR) for the two benchmark glaciers, we predicted a steady-state equilibrium line

  3. Transmission of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Possible Use of Physical Barrier as Preventive Measure (Transmisi White Spot Syndrome Virus dan Penggunaan Barier Fisik Sebagai Upaya Pencegahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit bercak putih viral hingga saat ini masih menjadi masalah dalam budidaya udang. Munculnya penyakit tersebut diikuti kematian massal, sehingga menimbulkan kerugian besar. Penyakit yang disebabkan white spots syndrome virus (WSSV menular cepat dari satu petakan tambak ke petakan lain. Penelitian bertujuan melakukan uji kuantitas WSSV pada transmisi virus baik melalui air dan kohabitasi. Metode penelitian adalah bioassay dilakukan skala laboratorium. Penularan melalui air disimulasi pada akuarium disekat dengan 3 jenis kasa berukuran pori berbeda, yaitu 300μ, 700μ dan 2 mm. Kohabitasi dilakukan dengan memelihara udang terinfeksi WSSV secara buatan dengan udang dan moluska sehat. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa WSSV menimbulkan infeksi pada udang sehat yang ditempatkan terpisah dari udang sakit menggunakan sekat kasa. Virus bercak putih juga menular secara kohabitasi udang sakit dengan udang sehat baik dari udang windu ke udang windu (sejenis maupun udang windu ke udang vannamei (berlainan jenis. Hasi penelitian menunjukkan bahwa trisipan bukan karier WSSV, karena tidak menularkan. Analisis LT-50 (lethal time 50% didapatkan bahwa udang yang diuji tantang WSSV melalui inkubasi dengan air mengandung ekstrak WSSV didapatkan konsentrasi 2,75x102 WSSV copy.mL-1 menyebabkan kematian 50% dalam waktu 108 jam atau hampir lima hari. Penggunaan kasa putih meskipun tidak sepenuhnya menahan, dapat menghambat sebagian transmisi WSSV. Hasil kajian memberikan gambaran tentang kecepatan penyebaran WSSV di lingkungan budidaya udang serta memberikan panduan bagaimana mengendalikan WSSV. Kata kunci: penyakit, transmisi WSSV, udang, kohabitasi, trisipan White spot viral disease has devastated shrimp industry in Indonesia. The emergence of this disease is always followed by massive death causing huge losses. Disease is caused by a virus namely White spots syndrome virus (WSSV is rapidly transmitted from one pond to other ponds. This study aims to quantify

  4. Finite-element analysis of the deformation of thin Mylar films due to measurement forces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael Sean; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Tran, Hy D.

    2012-01-01

    Significant deformation of thin films occurs when measuring thickness by mechanical means. This source of measurement error can lead to underestimating film thickness if proper corrections are not made. Analytical solutions exist for Hertzian contact deformation, but these solutions assume relatively large geometries. If the film being measured is thin, the analytical Hertzian assumptions are not appropriate. ANSYS is used to model the contact deformation of a 48 gauge Mylar film under bearing load, supported by a stiffer material. Simulation results are presented and compared to other correction estimates. Ideal, semi-infinite, and constrained properties of the film and the measurement tools are considered.

  5. Real-time micro-vibration multi-spot synchronous measurement within a region based on heterodyne interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ma; Xiao, Wen; Chen, Zonghui; Hao, Hongliang; Pan, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Real-time micro-vibration measurement is widely used in engineering applications. It is very difficult for traditional optical detection methods to achieve real-time need in a relatively high frequency and multi-spot synchronous measurement of a region at the same time,especially at the nanoscale. Based on the method of heterodyne interference, an experimental system of real-time measurement of micro - vibration is constructed to satisfy the demand in engineering applications. The vibration response signal is measured by combing optical heterodyne interferometry and a high-speed CMOS-DVR image acquisition system. Then, by extracting and processing multiple pixels at the same time, four digital demodulation technique are implemented to simultaneously acquire the vibrating velocity of the target from the recorded sequences of images. Different kinds of demodulation algorithms are analyzed and the results show that these four demodulation algorithms are suitable for different interference signals. Both autocorrelation algorithm and cross-correlation algorithm meet the needs of real-time measurements. The autocorrelation algorithm demodulates the frequency more accurately, while the cross-correlation algorithm is more accurate in solving the amplitude.

  6. Bier spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elucidated, Bier spots have been suggested to be a vascular anomaly caused by vasoconstriction of small vessels. In addition, several diseases have been proposed to be associated with Bier spots, including scleroderma renal crisis, cryoglobulinemia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, alopecia areata and hypoplasia of the aorta, although it has not been shown whether these associations are casual or coincidental. The clinical presentation of Bier spots is quite typical. These tiny whitish macules easily become prominent when the affected limb is placed in a dependent position and fade away when the limb is raised. Here we report a case of Bier spots in a 32-year-old male patient with characteristical clinical manifestations.

  7. Method for measuring the focal spot size of an x-ray tube using a coded aperture mask and a digital detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paolo; Mettivier, Giovanni

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate a new method based on a coded aperture mask combined with a digital x-ray imaging detector for measurements of the focal spot sizes of diagnostic x-ray tubes. Common techniques for focal spot size measurements employ a pinhole camera, a slit camera, or a star resolution pattern. The coded aperture mask is a radiation collimator consisting of a large number of apertures disposed on a predetermined grid in an array, through which the radiation source is imaged onto a digital x-ray detector. The method of the coded mask camera allows one to obtain a one-shot accurate and direct measurement of the two dimensions of the focal spot (like that for a pinhole camera) but at a low tube loading (like that for a slit camera). A large number of small apertures in the coded mask operate as a "multipinhole" with greater efficiency than a single pinhole, but keeping the resolution of a single pinhole. X-ray images result from the multiplexed output on the detector image plane of such a multiple aperture array, and the image of the source is digitally reconstructed with a deconvolution algorithm. Images of the focal spot of a laboratory x-ray tube (W anode: 35-80 kVp; focal spot size of 0.04 mm) were acquired at different geometrical magnifications with two different types of digital detector (a photon counting hybrid silicon pixel detector with 0.055 mm pitch and a flat panel CMOS digital detector with 0.05 mm pitch) using a high resolution coded mask (type no-two-holes-touching modified uniformly redundant array) with 480 0.07 mm apertures, designed for imaging at energies below 35 keV. Measurements with a slit camera were performed for comparison. A test with a pinhole camera and with the coded mask on a computed radiography mammography unit with 0.3 mm focal spot was also carried out. The full width at half maximum focal spot sizes were obtained from the line profiles of the decoded images, showing a focal spot of 0.120 mm x 0.105 mm at 35

  8. Spot measurements of radionuclides in air, water and solids with a single instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipsborn, H. von

    1998-01-01

    A unique instrument for measuring environmental radionuclides and novel methods for their concentrative sampling are described here which meet high requirements of sensitivity, easy and reliable handling, and low cost for most applications in field screening, monitoring and training. (author)

  9. Magnetic Field Measurements of the Spotted Yellow Dwarf DE Boo During 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachinda, S.; Baklanova, D.; Butkovskaya, V.; Pankov, N.

    2017-06-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of DE Boo have been performed at Crimean astrophysical observatory during 18 nights in 2001-2004. We present the result of the longitudinal magnetic field measurements on this star. The magnetic field varies from +44 G to -36 G with mean Standard Error (SE) of 8.2 G. For full array of the magnetic field measurements the difference between experimental errors and Monte Carlo errors is not statistically significant.

  10. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  11. Spotted inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions

  12. Interpretation of transport measurements in ZnO-thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petukhov, Vladimir; Stoemenos, John; Rothman, Johan; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas [Technical University of Braunschweig, Institute of High Frequency Technology, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    In order to interpret results of temperature dependent Hall measurements in heteroepitaxial ZnO-thin films, we adopted a multilayer conductivity model considering carrier-transport through the interfacial layer with degenerate electron gas as well as the upper part of ZnO layers with lower conductivity. This model was applied to the temperature dependence of the carrier concentration and mobility measured by Hall effect in a ZnO-layer grown on c-sapphire with conventional high-temperature MgO and low-temperature ZnO buffer. We also compared our results with the results of maximum entropy mobility-spectrum analysis (MEMSA). The formation of the highly conductive interfacial layer was explained by analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images taken from similar layers. (orig.)

  13. Interpretation of transport measurements in ZnO-thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Vladimir; Stoemenos, John; Rothman, Johan; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In order to interpret results of temperature dependent Hall measurements in heteroepitaxial ZnO-thin films, we adopted a multilayer conductivity model considering carrier-transport through the interfacial layer with degenerate electron gas as well as the upper part of ZnO layers with lower conductivity. This model was applied to the temperature dependence of the carrier concentration and mobility measured by Hall effect in a ZnO-layer grown on c-sapphire with conventional high-temperature MgO and low-temperature ZnO buffer. We also compared our results with the results of maximum entropy mobility-spectrum analysis (MEMSA). The formation of the highly conductive interfacial layer was explained by analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images taken from similar layers.

  14. Mapping tillage operations over peri-urban croplands using a synchronous SPOT4/ASAR ENVISAT pair and soil roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Gilliot, Jean-Marc

    2014-05-01

    Tillage operations (TOs) affect nutrient uptake, carbon sequestration, water and CO2 exchanges in soil, and therefore impact soil ecology together with biophysical processes such as soil erosion, leaching, run-off and infiltration. They are critical for parameterizing complex dynamic models of carbon and nitrogen. This study done in the framework of the Prostock-Gessol3 project presents an approach for mapping TOs of bare agricultural fields over a peri-urban area characterized by conventional tillage system in the western suburbs of Paris (France), combining synchronous SPOT4 and ENVISAT/ASAR images (HH and HV polarizations). Spatial modeling relied on 57 reference within-field areas named 'reference zones' (RZs) homogeneous for their soil properties, constructed in the vicinity of 57 roughness measurement locations and spread across 20 agricultural fields for which TOs were known. Soil roughness expressed as the standard deviation of surface height (Hrms) was estimated on the ground with a fully automatic photogrammetric method based on the processing of a set of overlapping pictures taken from different viewpoints from a simple digital camera all around a rectangular frame. The relationship was studied between the mean backscattering coefficient of the ASAR image and Hrms choosing a limited set of 28 RZs, on which successive random selections of training/validating RZs were then performed; the remaining 29 RZs were kept for validating the final map results. Six supervised per-pixel classifiers were used in order to map 2 TOs classes (seedbed&harrowed and late winter plough) in addition to 4 landuse classes (forest, urban,crops and grass, water bodies): support vector machine with polynomial kernel (pSVM), SVM with radial basis kernel (rSVM), artificial neural network (ANN), Maximum Likelihood (ML), regression tree (RT), and random forests (RF). All 6 classifiers were implemented in a bootstrapping approach in order to assess the uncertainty of map results. The

  15. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to MTR environment measurements. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to Material Testing Reactor environment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Very, F.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Combette, P.; Ferrandis, J.Y. [University Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); Fourmentel, D.; Destouches, C.; Villard, J.F. [CEA, DEN, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    The development of advanced instrumentation for in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor constitutes a main goal for the improvement of the nuclear fuel behavior knowledge. An acoustic method for fission gas release detection was tested with success during a first experiment called REMORA 3 in 2010 and 2011, and the results were used to differentiate helium and fission gas release kinetics under transient operating conditions. This experiment was lead at OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay, France). The maximal temperature on the sensor during the irradiation was about 150 deg. C. In this paper we present a thick film transducer produce by screen printing process. The screen printing of piezoelectric offers a wide range of possible applications for the development of acoustic sensors and piezoelectric structure for measurements in high temperature environment. We firstly produced a Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based paste composed of Pz27 powder from Ferroperm, CF7575 glass, and organic solvent ESL 400. Likewise a Bismuth Titanate based paste synthesized in our laboratory was produced. With these inks we produced thick film up to 130 μm by screen printing process. Material properties characterizations of these thick-film resonators are essential for device design and applications. The piezoelectric coefficients d33 and pyro-electric P(T) coefficient are investigated. The highest P(T) and d33 are respectively 80 μC.m{sup -2}.K{sup -1} and 130 μC.N{sup -1} for the PZT transducer -which validates the fabrication process-. In view of the development of this transducer oriented for high temperature and irradiation environment, we investigated the electrical properties of the transducers for different ranges of frequencies and temperature - from 20 Hz up to 40 MHz between 30 and 400 deg. C. We highlight the evolution of the impedance response and piezoelectric parameters of screen printed piezoelectric structures on alumina. Shortly an irradiation will be realized in

  16. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to MTR environment measurements. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to Material Testing Reactor environment measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very, F.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Combette, P.; Ferrandis, J.Y.; Fourmentel, D.; Destouches, C.; Villard, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The development of advanced instrumentation for in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor constitutes a main goal for the improvement of the nuclear fuel behavior knowledge. An acoustic method for fission gas release detection was tested with success during a first experiment called REMORA 3 in 2010 and 2011, and the results were used to differentiate helium and fission gas release kinetics under transient operating conditions. This experiment was lead at OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay, France). The maximal temperature on the sensor during the irradiation was about 150 deg. C. In this paper we present a thick film transducer produce by screen printing process. The screen printing of piezoelectric offers a wide range of possible applications for the development of acoustic sensors and piezoelectric structure for measurements in high temperature environment. We firstly produced a Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based paste composed of Pz27 powder from Ferroperm, CF7575 glass, and organic solvent ESL 400. Likewise a Bismuth Titanate based paste synthesized in our laboratory was produced. With these inks we produced thick film up to 130 μm by screen printing process. Material properties characterizations of these thick-film resonators are essential for device design and applications. The piezoelectric coefficients d33 and pyro-electric P(T) coefficient are investigated. The highest P(T) and d33 are respectively 80 μC.m -2 .K -1 and 130 μC.N -1 for the PZT transducer -which validates the fabrication process-. In view of the development of this transducer oriented for high temperature and irradiation environment, we investigated the electrical properties of the transducers for different ranges of frequencies and temperature - from 20 Hz up to 40 MHz between 30 and 400 deg. C. We highlight the evolution of the impedance response and piezoelectric parameters of screen printed piezoelectric structures on alumina. Shortly an irradiation will be realized in order to

  17. A 4-spot time-of-flight anemometer for small centrifugal compressor velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    The application of laser anemometry techniques in turbomachinery facilities is a challenging dilemma requiring an anemometer system with special qualities. Here, we describe the use of a novel laser anemometry technique applied to a small 4.5 kg/s, 4:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor. Sample velocity profiles across the blade pitch are presented for a single location along the rotor. The results of the intra-blade passage velocity measurements will ultimately be used to verify CFD 3-D viscous code predictions.

  18. Capacitance measurements and AC conductivity of Nickel Phthalocyanine films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, S.

    2005-01-01

    A C dark Current measurements of nickel phthalocyanine thin films using ohmic gold electrodes are investigated in the frequency range 30-10 Hz and within the temperature range 295-385 K. The A C conductivity as D Ac is found to vary as within the index s < 1, indicating a dominant hopping process at low temperatures. From the temperature dependence of A C conductivity, free carrier conduction with mean activation energy of 0.31 eV is observed at higher temperatures. Capacitance and loss tangent are found to be decreased with increasing frequency and increase with increasing temperature. Such characteristics are found to be in good qualitative agreement with existing equivalent circuit model assuming ohmic contacts

  19. Measuring and overcoming limits of the Saffman-Delbrück model for soap film viscosities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    We observe tracer particles diffusing in soap films to measure the two-dimensional (2D) viscous properties of the films. Saffman-Delbrück type models relate the single-particle diffusivity to parameters of the film (such as thickness h) for thin films, but the relation breaks down for thicker films. Notably, the diffusivity is faster than expected for thicker films, with the crossover at h/d = 5.2 ± 0.9 using the tracer particle diameter d. This indicates a crossover from purely 2D diffusion to diffusion that is more three-dimensional. We demonstrate that measuring the correlations of particle pairs as a function of their separation overcomes the limitations of the Saffman-Delbrück model and allows one to measure the viscosity of a soap film for any thickness.

  20. Radiographic film dosimetry of proton beams for depth‐dose constancy check and beam profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Anthony; Ghebremedhin, Abiel; Johnson, Matt; Patyal, Baldev

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic film dosimetry suffers from its energy dependence in proton dosimetry. This study sought to develop a method of measuring proton beams by the film and to evaluate film response to proton beams for the constancy check of depth dose (DD). It also evaluated the film for profile measurements. To achieve this goal, from DDs measured by film and ion chamber (IC), calibration factors (ratios of dose measured by IC to film responses) as a function of depth in a phantom were obtained. These factors imply variable slopes (with proton energy and depth) of linear characteristic curves that relate film response to dose. We derived a calibration method that enables utilization of the factors for acquisition of dose from film density measured at later dates by adapting to a potentially altered processor condition. To test this model, the characteristic curve was obtained by using EDR2 film and in‐phantom film dosimetry in parallel with a 149.65 MeV proton beam, using the method. An additional validation of the model was performed by concurrent film and IC measurement perpendicular to the beam at various depths. Beam profile measurements by the film were also evaluated at the center of beam modulation. In order to interpret and ascertain the film dosimetry, Monte Carlos simulation of the beam was performed, calculating the proton fluence spectrum along depths and off‐axis distances. By multiplying respective stopping powers to the spectrum, doses to film and water were calculated. The ratio of film dose to water dose was evaluated. Results are as follows. The characteristic curve proved the assumed linearity. The measured DD approached that of IC, but near the end of the spread‐out Bragg peak (SOBP), a spurious peak was observed due to the mismatch of distal edge between the calibration and measurement films. The width of SOBP and the proximal edge were both reproducible within a maximum of 5 mm; the distal edge was reproducible within 1 mm. At 5 cm depth, the

  1. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Alannah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents. There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  2. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-10-04

    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  3. A new attempt of measurement film thickness by x-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, Masao; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    In order to make film thickness measurements independent from the property or the structure of the film materials or the substrate, it is needed to adopt instead of directly utilizing the X-ray diffraction intensity, or attenuation information obtained from the substrate or film material, other new methods for measurement. Among the information obtained by X-ray diffraction, if intensity is excluded, others are F.W.H.M. and diffraction angle, only. If it is possible to investigate the film thickness dependency of the diffraction angle, it should be possible to measure the film thickness by diffraction angle. However, since diffraction angle has no film thickness dependency, it cannot be used directly for measurement. However, if we consider the principle of the X-ray diffractometer method, although it may be very slight, the substrate will be eccentric from the revolving center of the goniometer on account of the thickness of the film. If eccentricity occurs, this will cause changes in the diffraction angle. If we set the radius of the goniometer as R, diffraction angle θ, and the eccentricity from the revolving center of the specimen surface X, the deflection angle Δ2θ of 2θ may be expressed by Δ2θ = -2X · COSθ/R Thus, if X is caused by the film thickness, and by measuring the Δ2θ, it will be possible to measure the film thickness. As a result of the experiment, it was found that X-ray diffraction method can be used for the measurement of the film thickness of a few microns or above by utilizing the eccentricity caused by the film thickness. Especially it has the advantage of being able to measure thick films that X-rays will not penetrate, without being influenced by the chemical structure of the film or the substrates. (author)

  4. Mass Spectrometry Method to Measure Membrane Proteins in Dried Blood Spots for the Detection of Blood Doping Practices in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Holly D; Eichner, Daniel

    2017-09-19

    The dried blood spot (DBS) matrix has significant utility for applications in the field where venous blood collection and timely shipment of labile blood samples is difficult. Unfortunately, protein measurement in DBS is hindered by high abundance proteins and matrix interference that increases with hematocrit. We developed a DBS method to enrich for membrane proteins and remove soluble proteins and matrix interference. Following a wash in a series of buffers, the membrane proteins are digested with trypsin and quantitated by parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry methods. The DBS method was applied to the quantification of four cell-specific cluster of differentiation (CD) proteins used to count cells by flow cytometry, band 3 (CD233), CD71, CD45, and CD41. We demonstrate that the DBS method counts low abundance cell types such as immature reticulocytes as well as high abundance cell types such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. When tested in 82 individuals, counts obtained by the DBS method demonstrated good agreement with flow cytometry and automated hematology analyzers. Importantly, the method allows longitudinal monitoring of CD protein concentration and calculation of interindividual variation which is difficult by other methods. Interindividual variation of band 3 and CD45 was low, 6 and 8%, respectively, while variation of CD41 and CD71 was higher, 18 and 78%, respectively. Longitudinal measurement of CD71 concentration in DBS over an 8-week period demonstrated intraindividual variation 17.1-38.7%. Thus, the method may allow stable longitudinal measurement of blood parameters currently monitored to detect blood doping practices.

  5. Influence of test capacitor features on piezoelectric and dielectric measurement of ferroelectric films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihong; Lau, Gih Keong; Zhu, Weiguang; Chao, Chen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents both theoretical and numerical analyses of the piezoelectric and dielectric responses of a highly idealized film-on-substrate system, namely, a polarized ferroelectric film perfectly bonded to an elastic silicon substrate. It shows that both effective dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the films change with the size and configuration of the test capacitor. There exists a critical electrode size that is smaller than the diameter of the commonly used substrate. The effective film properties converge to their respective constrained values as capacitor size increases to the critical size. If capacitor size is smaller than the critical size, the surface displacement at the top electrode deviates from the net thickness change in response to an applied voltage because the film is deformable at the film/substrate interface. The constrained properties of the films depend only on those of bulk ferroelectrics but are independent of film thickness and substrate properties. The finding of the critical capacitor size together with analytical expressions of the constrained properties makes it possible to realize consistent measurement of piezoelectric and dielectric properties of films. A surface scanning technique is recommended to measure the profile of piezoresponses of the film so that the constrained properties of the film can be identified accurately.

  6. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  7. Use of treatment log files in spot scanning proton therapy as part of patient-specific quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heng; Sahoo, Narayan; Poenisch, Falk; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Li Yupeng; Li Xiaoqiang; Zhang Xiaodong; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Lee, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to assess the monitor unit (MU) values and position accuracy of spot scanning proton beams as recorded by the daily treatment logs of the treatment control system, and furthermore establish the feasibility of using the delivered spot positions and MU values to calculate and evaluate delivered doses to patients. Methods: To validate the accuracy of the recorded spot positions, the authors generated and executed a test treatment plan containing nine spot positions, to which the authors delivered ten MU each. The spot positions were measured with radiographic films and Matrixx 2D ion-chambers array placed at the isocenter plane and compared for displacements from the planned and recorded positions. Treatment logs for 14 patients were then used to determine the spot MU values and position accuracy of the scanning proton beam delivery system. Univariate analysis was used to detect any systematic error or large variation between patients, treatment dates, proton energies, gantry angles, and planned spot positions. The recorded patient spot positions and MU values were then used to replace the spot positions and MU values in the plan, and the treatment planning system was used to calculate the delivered doses to patients. The results were compared with the treatment plan. Results: Within a treatment session, spot positions were reproducible within ±0.2 mm. The spot positions measured by film agreed with the planned positions within ±1 mm and with the recorded positions within ±0.5 mm. The maximum day-to-day variation for any given spot position was within ±1 mm. For all 14 patients, with ∼1 500 000 spots recorded, the total MU accuracy was within 0.1% of the planned MU values, the mean (x, y) spot displacement from the planned value was (−0.03 mm, −0.01 mm), the maximum (x, y) displacement was (1.68 mm, 2.27 mm), and the (x, y) standard deviation was (0.26 mm, 0.42 mm). The maximum dose difference between calculated dose to

  8. Plastic properties of thin films on substrates as measured by submicron indentation hardness and substrate curvature techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, M.F.; Gardner, D.S.; Nix, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Substrate curvature and submicron indentation measurements have been used recently to study plastic deformation in thin films on substrates. In the present work both of these techniques have been employed to study the strength of aluminum and tungsten thin films on silicon substrates. In the case of aluminum films on silicon substrates, the film strength is found to increase with decreasing thickness. Grain size variations with film thickness do not account for the variations in strength. Wafer curvature measurements give strengths higher than those predicted from hardness measurements suggesting the substrate plays a role in strengthening the film. The observed strengthening effect with decreased thickness may be due to image forces on dislocations in the film due to the elastically stiffer silicon substrate. For sputtered tungsten films, where the substrate is less stiff than the film, the film strength decreases with decreasing film thickness

  9. A Study on the Thickness Measurement of Thin Film by Ultrasonic Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eung Kyo; Lee, Jae Joon; Kim, Jae Yeol

    1988-01-01

    Recently, it is gradually raised necessity that thickness of thin film is measured accurately and managed in industrial circles and medical world. In this study, regarding to the thickness of film which is in opaque object and is beyond distance resolution capacity, thickness measurement was done by MEM-cepstrum analysis of received ultrasonic wave. In measurement results, film thickness which is beyond distance resolution capacity was measured accurately. And within thickness range that don't exist interference, thickness measurement by MEM-ceptrum analysis was impossible

  10. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero; Danila Khikhlukha; J. M. Solano-Altamirano; Raquel Dormido; Natividad Duro

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presente...

  11. A comparative study of computed radiographic cephalometry and conventional cephalometry in reliability of head film measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Done; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and to find out the variability of head film measurements (landmarks identification) between Fuji computed radiographic cephalometry and conventional cephalometry. 28 Korean adults were selected. Lateral cephalometric FCR film and conventional cephalometric film of each subject was taken. Four investigators identified 24 cephalometric landmarks on lateral cephalometric FCR film and conventional cephalometric film were statistically analysed. The results were as follows : 1. In FCR film and conventional film, coefficient of variation (C.V.) of 24 landmarks was taken horizontally and vertically. 2. In comparison of significant differences of landmarks variability between FCR film and conventional film, horizontal l value of coefficient of variation showed significant differences in four landmarks among twenty-four landmarks, but vertical a value of coefficient of variation showed significant differences in sixteen landmarks among twenty-four landmarks. FCR film showed significantly less variability than conventional film in 17 subjects among 20 (4+16) subjects that sho wed significant difference.

  12. A new method for the measurement of the polarization characteristics of ferromagnetic films on ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taran, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring the polarization characteristics of ferromagnetic films on ultracold neutrons (UCN) by single-, double- and triple-transmission of UCN beam through one and the same film. To realize the method an installation has been proposed consisting of the two UCN storage traps connected with a mirror neutron guide. An investigated film is placed in the slit in the middle of the neutron guide. On both sides of the film a spin-flipper is installed bottle is equiped with three neutron values which permit filling in the bottle with UCN and allow oneto let UCN out to the neutron guide or detector. The neutrons once let out from one bottle into the neutron guide are caught by the other. The film can be moved out of the neutron guide or rotated. By manipulating with spin-flippers and the film one may take the integral polarization parameters of the film: transmission, polarizing and analysing efficiencies, so-called S-factor, which is the fourth independent linear combination of the elements of the square 2x2 transmission matrix of the film. The measurement parameters help to restore the film transmission matrix. Then a comparison is drawn with the theoretical models of UCN depolarization on transmission through a ferromagnetic film

  13. Composite depth dose measurement for total skin electron (TSE) treatments using radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Lisa M; Farrell, Thomas J; Jones, Glenn W; Hayward, Joseph E

    2003-01-01

    Total skin electron (TSE) radiotherapy is routinely used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and can be implemented using a modified Stanford technique. In our centre, the composite depth dose for this technique is achieved by a combination of two patient positions per day over a three-day cycle, and two gantry angles per patient position. Due to patient morphology, underdosed regions typically occur and have historically been measured using multiple thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). We show that radiochromic film can be used as a two-dimensional relative dosimeter to measure the percent depth dose in TSE radiotherapy. Composite depth dose curves were measured in a cylindrical, polystyrene phantom and compared with TLD data. Both multiple films (1 film per day) and a single film were used in order to reproduce a realistic clinical scenario. First, three individual films were used to measure the depth dose, one per treatment day, and then compared with TLD data; this comparison showed a reasonable agreement. Secondly, a single film was used to measure the dose delivered over three daily treatments and then compared with TLD data; this comparison showed good agreement throughout the depth dose, which includes doses well below 1 Gy. It will be shown that one piece of radiochromic film is sufficient to measure the composite percent depth dose for a TSE beam, hence making radiochromic film a suitable candidate for monitoring underdosed patient regions

  14. Thermal propagation and stability in superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Zasadzinski, J.F.; Ducharme, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal propagation and stable hot spots (normal domains) are studied in various high Tsub(c) superconducting films (Nb 3 Sn, Nb, NbN and Nb 3 Ge). A new energy balance is shown to give reasonable quantitative agreement of the dependence of the propagation velocity on the length of short normal domains. The steady state (zero velocity) measurements indicate the existence of two distinct situations for films on high thermal conductivity (sapphire) substrates. For low power per unit area the film and substrate have the same temperature, and the thermal properties of the substrate dominate. However, for higher power densities in short hot spots, the coupling is relatively weak and the thermal properties of the film alone are important. Here a connection is made between the critical current stability of superconducting films and a critical hot spot size for thermal propagation. As a result efficient heat removal is shown to dominate the stabilisation of superconducting films. The strong and weak coupling situations also lead to modifications of the models for propagation velocities on sapphire substrates. Self-healing of hot spots and other phenomena in superconducting film are explained. The potential use of the thermal propagation model in applications of superconductors, especially switches is discussed. (author)

  15. Simultaneous measurement of 25 inflammatory markers and neurotrophins in neonatal dried blood spots by immunoassay with xMAP technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, Kristin; Thorsen, Poul; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory reactions and other events in early life may be part of the etiology of late-onset diseases, including cerebral palsy, autism, and type 1 diabetes. Most neonatal screening programs for congenital disorders are based on analysis of dried blood spot samples (DBSS), and stor...

  16. An Investigation of the Measurement Properties of the Spot-the-Word Test In a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Andrew; Christensen, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Intellectual ability is assessed with the Spot-the-Word (STW) test (A. Baddeley, H. Emslie, & I. Nimmo Smith, 1993) by asking respondents to identify a word in a word-nonword item pair. Results in moderate-sized samples suggest this ability is resistant to decline due to dementia. The authors used a 3-parameter item response theory model to…

  17. Evaluation of dimensions of diagnostic X-ray tube focal spots using direct digitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Paulo R.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    1996-01-01

    An image digitalization system is proposed as an alternative method for replacing direct exposure X-ray films on the evaluation of dimensions of diagnostic X-ray tube focal spots. Results of measurements are presented and compared to nominal values

  18. A new measurement method of actual focal spot position of an x-ray tube using a high-precision carbon-interspaced grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. W.; Lim, H. W.; Jeon, D. H.; Park, C. K.; Cho, H. S.; Seo, C. W.; Lee, D. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, G. A.; Park, S. Y.; Kang, S. Y.; Park, J. E.; Kim, W. S.; Woo, T. H.; Oh, J. E.

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a new method for measuring the actual focal spot position of a diagnostic x-ray tube using a high-precision antiscatter grid and a digital x-ray detector in which grid magnification, which is directly related to the focal spot position, was determined from the Fourier spectrum of the acquired x-ray grid’s image. A systematic experiment was performed to demonstrate the viability of the proposed measurement method. The hardware system used in the experiment consisted of an x-ray tube run at 50 kVp and 1 mA, a flat-panel detector with a pixel size of 49.5 µm, and a high-precision carbon-interspaced grid with a strip density of 200 lines/inch. The results indicated that the focal spot of the x-ray tube (Jupiter 5000, Oxford Instruments) used in the experiment was located approximately 31.10 mm inside from the exit flange, well agreed with the nominal value of 31.05 mm, which demonstrates the viability of the proposed measurement method. Thus, the proposed method can be utilized for system’s performance optimization in many x-ray imaging applications.

  19. Investigation of the gafchromic film -EBT2: Features for UVR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, A.; Bero, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Important improvement in applied ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dosimetry is achieved using passive detector based on chemical or biological products. These kinds of UVR detectors change their optical properties in correlation with the dose. This work aims to investigate the gafchromic film EBT2 properties under high UVA radiation dose comparable with long exposure to solar radiations. Measurements showed that about 90% of UVA radiation beam is absorbed in single films sheet (285 μm thickness). The EBT2 film components show good stability under high ultraviolet radiation dose. The increase in film visible spectrum absorbance, under UVA irradiation, is due to the decrease in the film active and topcoat layers transmittance and not of the polyester layers degradation. The change in film absorbance at 633 nm, after UVA dose of 112 kJ/m 2 , is about two and half times more than the initial value of unexposed film A 0 , 633 nm (A 0 , 633 nm ≅0.6). The phenomenon of post-exposure stability for the studied EBT2 film is found reproducible and has a small impact on the measurement accuracy ( ≅1%). The studied EBT2 film absorbance changes depend on the applied UVR dose and not on the irradiance level. Relative divergence between the film responses, measured at different dose rates, is lower than 5% for a wide irradiance range. This dependency is justified by the variation of local responsivity in the film and also the irradiation source stability. The response linearity of the gafchromic film EBT2 has been confirmed over a wide dose rate range in the UVA spectrum.(author)

  20. Measurements of reciprocity law failure in green-sensitive X-ray films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, B A; Eisenberg, H; Bjärngard, B E

    1978-02-01

    Reciprocity law failure was measured for four brands of medical x-ray films exposed with intensifying screens. Three of the films are green light-sensitized for use in combination with green light-emitting rare-earth screens. These films showed larger reciprocity failure effects than one conventional blue-sensitive film, Dupont Cronex-2. Development conditions had a small effect on reciprocity failure. As part of the investigation, a detector was constructed with a response that accurately monitors the light emission from the double screen-cassette combination over a wide range of x-ray photon energies.

  1. The research of device for measuring film thickness of intelligent coating machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wanjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion beam sputtering machine uses computer to real time monitor the change of film thickness in the preparation process of soft X ray multilayer element fabrication. It solves the problems of uneven film thickness and too thick film thickness and so on, which exist in the original preparation process. The high-precision quartz crystal converts film thickness measurement into frequency measurement. The equal precision frequency meter based on FPGA measures the frequency. It can reduce the signal delay and interference signal of discrete components, accordingly improving the accuracy of measurement. Then it sents the count value to the host computer through the single chip microcomputer serial port. It calculates and displays the value by the GUI of LabVIEW. The experimental results show that, the relative measurement error can be decreased to 1/10, i.e., the measurement accuracy can be improved by more than ten times.

  2. Optical approach to thermopower and conductivity measurements in thin-film semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dersch, H.; Amer, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    An optical beam deflection technique is applied to measure the Joule and Peltier heat generated by electric currents through thin-film semiconductors. The method yields a spatially resolved conductivity profile and allows the determination of Peltier coefficients. Results obtained on doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon films are presented

  3. The determination of the pressure-viscosity coefficient of two traction oils using film thickness measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The pressure-viscosity coefficients of two commercial traction fluids are determined by fitting calculation results on accurate film thickness measurements, obtained at a wide range of speeds, and different temperatures. Film thickness values are calculated using a numerical method and approximation

  4. Fabrication and magnetization measurement of Ni thin films on silicon substrate by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Yang [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhao Dongxu [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China)], E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.cn; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying; Li Binghui; Lu Youming; Fan Xiwu [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2008-02-29

    Ni thin films were electrodeposited on n-Si (100) substrate from the electrolytes containing Ni(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} and CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4} at room temperature. The scanning electron microscope images of the films reveals the uniform distribution of the nickel all over the substrate surface, which illustrates that the fine Ni films on large scales could be obtained through the method of electrodeposition. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurement with the applied field parallel to the surface shows obvious hysteresis loops of the magnetic thin films. The morphology and magnetism of the Ni thin films evolves with the deposition time increasing. The effect of deposition conditions on the properties of the Ni thin films is investigated.

  5. Interferometer for measuring the dynamic surface topography of a human tear film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeau, Brian C.; Greivenkamp, John E.

    2012-03-01

    The anterior refracting surface of the eye is the thin tear film that forms on the surface of the cornea. Following a blink, the tear film quickly smoothes and starts to become irregular after 10 seconds. This irregularity can affect comfort and vision quality. An in vivo method of characterizing dynamic tear films has been designed based upon a near-infrared phase-shifting interferometer. This interferometer continuously measures light reflected from the tear film, allowing sub-micron analysis of the dynamic surface topography. Movies showing the tear film behavior can be generated along with quantitative metrics describing changes in the tear film surface. This tear film measurement allows analysis beyond capabilities of typical fluorescein visual inspection or corneal topography and provides better sensitivity and resolution than shearing interferometry methods. The interferometer design is capable of identifying features in the tear film much less than a micron in height with a spatial resolution of about ten microns over a 6 mm diameter. This paper presents the design of the tear film interferometer along with the considerations that must be taken when designing an interferometer for on-eye diagnostics. Discussions include eye movement, design of null optics for a range of ocular geometries, and laser emission limits for on-eye interferometry.

  6. Chemical Processing effects on the radiation doses measured by Film Dosimeter System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, F.

    2009-01-01

    Halide film dosimetry is a quantitative method of measurement of the radiation doses. The fog density and chemical processing of the dosimeter film affect the radiation dose measurement accuracy. This work presents the effect of the developer solution concentration on the response of the dosimetric film which different fog densities. Thus, three batches of film, dosimeters with following fog density 0.312 ± 1.31 %, 0.71 ± 0.59% and 0.77 ± 0.81 %, were irradiated to 137 Cs standard source to dose value of 1mSv. The halide films have been chemical processed at different concentrations of the developer solution: 20 %; 14.29 %; 11.11%; all other physics-chemical conditions in baths of development have been kept constants. Concentration of 20% is considered to be chemical processed standard conditions of the films. In case of the films exposed to 1 mSv dose, optical density recorded on the low fog films processed at 20% developer solution is rather closed of high fog film optical densities processed at 11.11% developer solution concentration. Also, the chemical processing effect on the image contrast was taken into consideration

  7. Comparison of different methods for measuring the passive film thickness on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Marie; Bataillon, Christian; Gwinner, Benoit; Miserque, Frédéric; Orazem, Mark E.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M.; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In situ EIS and ex situ XPS were used for the characterization of zirconium oxide films. • The film thicknesses can be obtained from the analysis of a single EIS diagram. • A convenient graphical method to extract film properties is proposed. - Abstract: In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on electrogenerated zirconium oxide films on zirconium (Zr/ZrO_2) were used to quantify the oxide film thickness and resistivity profiles through the oxide. The EIS analysis presented here takes advantage of the high-frequency domain at which the constant-phase element (CPE) behavior of the oxide film reverts to a capacitive response and the Cole-Cole representations of the complex capacitance to extract the high-frequency capacitance of the oxide film without reference to the nature of the time-constant distribution within the oxide film. The film thickness of the ZrO_2 samples measured from the high-frequency capacitance of EIS were in good agreement with the thickness obtained from XPS. Moreover, the EIS analysis presented is based on the use of the integral solution of the power law model, which allows to obtain in one single EIS experiment, both the film thickness and the resistivity profile in the ZrO_2 film. This work suggests a convenient graphical method to extract film properties and serves to validate a key assumption of the power-law model for interpretation of CPE parameters in terms of physical properties.

  8. Antimicrobial compounds in polyethylene films - characterization and content measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Marcia; Santos, Ramon V.; Perao, Leandro; Ellwangler, Manoela W.; Nonemacher, Regina F.; Moraes, Lilian T. de; Gorski, Sandro; Staub, Simone; Petzhold, Cesar L.

    2009-01-01

    Developments have been done in the packaging market to attend the continuous changes in consumer demands and also to keep safety and shelf life of products during transportation and storage. Active packaging is the most innovative concepts in the market. It has been defined as a packaging that changes its conditions to extend shelf life. The objective of this work is the production and characterization of active polyethylene films with antimicrobial compounds. The initial results show that analytical techniques as RX fluorescence and FTIR can be used to characterize and quantify these compounds in polyethylene films. (author)

  9. Measurement setup for the magnetic penetration depth and superfluid stiffness in thin superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Lorenz; Brunner, Markus Christopher Paul; Schneider, Ina; Kronfeldner, Klaus; Strunk, Christoph [Institute for exp. and appl. Physics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Bousquet, Jessica; Bustarret, Etienne [Institut NEEL, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    A mutual inductance measurement setup has been established in order to determine the magnetic penetration depths of thin film superconductors. By measuring the variation of the mutual inductance M, the temperature dependent penetration depth can be evaluated. The setup has been characterized using thin aluminum and niobium films as a reference. Temperature dependence of λ of B-doped diamond films is determined down to 0.3 K and compared with theoretical expectations. The impact of the doping ratio B/C and film thickness on λ and T{sub c} is investigated. Correlation between the film impedance σ = σ{sub 1} - i σ{sub 2} and λ is examined.

  10. The Refractive Index Measurement Of Silicon Dioxide Thin Film by the Coupling Prism Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, Anwar; Hariyanto, Sigit; Subarkah

    1996-01-01

    Refractive index of silicon dioxide thin film that doped with phosphor (SiO 2 :P) above the pure silicon dioxide substrate has been measured by light coupling prism method. The method principle is focusing the light on coupling prism base so that the light propagates into the waveguide layer while the reflected one forms a mode in the observation plane. The SiO 2 thin film as waveguide layer has a refractive index that give the thick and refractive index relation. The He-Ne laser as light source has the wavelength λ 0,6328 μm. The refractive index measurement of the thin film with the substrate refractive index n sb = 1,47 and the thin film thick d = 2μm gives n g = 1,5534 ± 0,01136. This method can distinguish the refractive index of thin film about 6% to the refractive index of substrate

  11. Dynamic measurement of the corneal tear film with a Twyman-Green interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Jason D.; Greivenkamp, John E.; Primeau, Brian C.

    2015-05-01

    An interferometer for measuring dynamic properties of the in vivo tear film on the human cornea has been developed. The system is a near-infrared instantaneous phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer. The laser source is a 785 nm solid-state laser, and the system has been carefully designed and calibrated to ensure that the system operates at eye-safe levels. Measurements are made over a 6 mm diameter on the cornea. Successive frames of interferometric height measurements are combined to produce movies showing both the quantitative and qualitative changes in the topography of the tear film surface and structure. To date, measurement periods of up to 120 s at 28.6 frames per second have been obtained. Several human subjects have been examined using this system, demonstrating a surface height resolution of 25 nm and spatial resolution of 6 μm. Examples of features that have been observed in these preliminary studies of the tear film include postblink disruption, evolution, and stabilization of the tear film; tear film artifacts generated by blinking; tear film evaporation and breakup; and the propagation of foreign objects in the tear film. This paper discusses the interferometer design and presents results from in vivo measurements.

  12. Destabilization and dry-spot nucleation in thin liquid films on partially wetting substrates using a low-pressure air-jet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, C.W.J.; Zeegers, J.C.H.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The rupture of a thin liquid film on a partially wetting substrate can be initiated by external forces. In this manuscript we present experiments and numerical simulations of the effects of a laminar axisymmetric air-jet impinging on triethylene glycol films. We numerically calculate stagnation

  13. Mobile Launch Platform Vehicle Assembly Building Area (SWMU 056) Hot Spot 3 Bioremediation Interim Measures Work Plan, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney L. Morrison; Daprato, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    This Interim Measures Work Plan (IMWP) presents an approach and design for the remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) groundwater impacts using bioremediation (biostimulation and bioaugmentation) in Hot Spot 3, which is defined by the area where CVOC (trichloroethene [TCE], cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cDCE], and vinyl chloride [VC]) concentrations are greater than 10 times their respective Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Natural Attenuation Default Concentration (NADC) [10xNADC] near the western Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) structure. The IM treatment area is the Hot Spot 3 area, which is approximately 0.07 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 22 and 41 to 55 feet below land surface (ft BLS). Within Hot Spot 3, a source zone (SZ; area with TCE concentrations greater than 1% solubility [11,000 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L)]) was delineated and is approximately 0.02 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 16 and 41 to 50 ft BLS.

  14. Comparison of residual stress measurement in thin films using surface micromachining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q.; Luo, Z.X.; Chen, X.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Conductive, dielectric, semiconducting, piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin films are extensively used for MEMS/NEMS applications. One of the important parameters of thin films is residual stress. The residual stress can seriously affect the properties, performance and long-term stability of the films. Excessive compressive or tensile stress results in buckling, cracking, splintering and sticking problems. Stress measurement techniques are therefore essential for both process development and process monitoring. Many suggestions for stress measurement in thin films have been made over the past several decades. This paper is concentrated on the in situ stress measurement using surface micromachining techniques to determine the residual stress. The authors review and compare several types of stress measurement methods including buckling technique, rotating technique, micro strain gauge and long-short beam strain sensor

  15. Measurement of full-field deformation induced by a dc electrical field in organic insulator films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudou L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital image correlation method (DIC using the correlation coefficient curve-fitting for full-field surface deformation measurements of organic insulator films is investigated in this work. First the validation of the technique was undertaken. The computer-generated speckle images and the measurement of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE of aluminium are used to evaluate the measurement accuracy of the technique. In a second part the technique is applied to measure the mechanical deformation induced by electrical field application to organic insulators. For that Poly(ethylene naphthalene 2,6-dicarboxylate (PEN thin films were subjected to DC voltage stress and DIC provides the full-field induced deformations of the test films. The obtained results show that the DIC is a practical and robust tool for better comprehension of mechanical behaviour of the organic insulator films under electrical stress.

  16. Sensitivity of film measured off-axis ratios to film calibration curve using radiochromic film; Sensibilidade das razoes fora do eixo central medidas para a curva de calibracao de filmes usando filme radiocromico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Diana [Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M. [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Mexico City (Mexico). Unidad de Radioneurocirugia. Lab. de Fisica Medica

    2011-07-01

    Off-axis ratios of conical beams generated with a stereotactic radiosurgery-dedicated Linac were measured with EBT2 film and stereotactic diode. The sensitivity of both full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbras (80-20% and 90-10%, respectively), with respect to the characteristics of the film calibration curve fit, was investigated. In all cases, penumbras resulted to be more sensitive than FWHM. However, these differences were, in general, smaller than the ones found between EBT2 reference values and the stereotactic diode measurements. The larger variation in OAR parameters was found to depend on whether the fit intersected or not the origin. A 1D gamma-index analysis showed this difference can be important in all measured conical beams. (author)

  17. Thermal expansion coefficient measurement from electron diffraction of amorphous films in a TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Misa; Cui, Kai; Malac, Marek; Egerton, Ray

    2018-05-01

    We measured the linear thermal expansion coefficients of amorphous 5-30 nm thick SiN and 17 nm thick Formvar/Carbon (F/C) films using electron diffraction in a transmission electron microscope. Positive thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) was observed in SiN but negative coefficients in the F/C films. In case of amorphous carbon (aC) films, we could not measure TEC because the diffraction radii required several hours to stabilize at a fixed temperature. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In-Plane Impedance Spectroscopy measurements in Vanadium Dioxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Juan; Patino, Edgar; Schmidt, Rainer; Sharoni, Amos; Gomez, Maria; Schuller, Ivan

    2012-02-01

    In plane Impedance Spectroscopy measurements have been done in Vanadium Dioxide thin films in the range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz. Our measurements allows distinguishing between the resistive and capacitive response of the Vanadium Dioxide films across the metal-insulator transition. A non ideal RC behavior was found in our thin films from room temperature up to 334 K. Around the MIT, an increase of the total capacitance is observed. A capacitor-network model is able to reproduce the capacitance changes across the MIT. Above the MIT, the system behaves like a metal as expected, and a modified equivalent circuit is necessary to describe the impedance data adequately.

  19. Measurement of the extinction of sputtered TiO/sub 2/ films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsch, E; Lieder, G; Walther, H G; Hacker, E

    1982-05-28

    In this paper a method for separate measurement of the extinction of optical thin films is presented. The method combines a laser calorimetric technique and a light-scattering goniophotometer. As an example, the spectral extinction properties of r.f. reactively sputtered TiO/sub 2/ films were measured. Under certain conditions absorption indices of 10/sup -5/ or less can be achieved. Thus light scattering, rather than absorption, is the dominant optical loss mechanism in sputtered TiO/sub 2/ films.

  20. Apparatus to measure emissivities of metallic films between 90K and room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekeris, V I [Nunez Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Faculdad de Ciencias Exactas Y Naturales; Ramos, E D [Santa Rosa Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Y Naturales; Sanchez, D H [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche

    1975-09-01

    The development of multilayer insulations is aerospace and cryogenic required to know the emissivity of the metallic films used as reflective layers. This work describes an emissometer that measures the total hemispherical emissivity of metallic films evaporated on polyester substrates. The apparatus works at liquid oxigen temperatures and permits to get emissivities from 90K to room temperatures within a 15% precision. The emissometer construction and operation are described in detail. Results of measurements done on Single Aluminized Mylar are presented.

  1. Apparatus to measure emissivities of metallic films between 90K and room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekeris, V.I.; Ramos, E.D.; Sanchez, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    The development of multilayer insulations is aerospace and cryogenic required to know the emissivity of the metallic films used as reflective layers. This work describes an emissometer that measures the total hemispherical emissivity of metallic films evaporated on polyester substrates. The apparatus works at liquid oxigen temperatures and permits to get emissivities from 90K to room temperatures within a 15% precision. The emissometer construction and operation are described in detail. Results of measurements done on Single Aluminized Mylar are presented [pt

  2. Critical Steps in Data Analysis for Precision Casimir Force Measurements with Semiconducting Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banishev, A. A.; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Mohideen, U.

    2011-06-01

    Some experimental procedures and corresponding results of the precision measurement of the Casimir force between low doped Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) film and gold sphere are described. Measurements were performed using an Atomic Force Microscope in high vacuum. It is shown that the magnitude of the Casimir force decreases after prolonged UV treatment of the ITO film. Some critical data analysis steps such as the correction for the mechanical drift of the sphere-plate system and photodiodes are discussed.

  3. Measurement and Modelling of MIC Components Using Conductive Lithographic Films

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, P. R.; Taylor, C.; Evans l, P. S. A.; Harrison, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Conductive Lithographic Films (CLFs) have previously demonstrated useful properties in printed mi-crowave circuits, combining low cost with high speed of manufacture. In this paper we examine the formation of various passive components via the CLF process, which enables further integration of printed microwave integrated circuits. The printed components include vias, resistors and overlay capacitors, and offer viable alternatives to traditional manufacturing processes for Microwave Inte-grate...

  4. Study of the Radiochromic Film for High Dose Measurement in Radiation Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yi-zhen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To establish the radiochromic film dosimeter for high dose level measurement during radiation processing, By corresponding formula and its preparation process research, batches of radiochromic film dosimeters were prepared using nylon as substrate and pararosaniline cyanide as dye. In Co-60 gamma reference radiation field, dosimetry response performance of radiochromic film was studied and results showed that the repeatability was good to 1.0%. The response curves demonstrated good linearity in the dose range of 5-210 kGy, and the signal of radiochromic film dosimeters after irradiation under the condition of low temperature storage within 2 weeks was stable. In addition, the radiochromic film dosimeters were not found to have noticeable dose rate dependence in the range of this experiment. In the linear dose range, radiochromic film dosimeter measures the absorbed dose, with extended uncertainty 4.2% (k=2 for Co-60 gamma rays. The film was suitable as dosimeters for the parameters measurement of the electron beam on the accelerator.

  5. Measurement of adherence of residually stressed thin films by indentation. I. Mechanics of interface delamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.B.; Evans, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    A fracture analysis of indentation-induced delamination of thin films is presented. The analysis is based on a model system in which the section of film above the delaminating crack is treated as a rigidly clamped disc, and the crack extension force is derived from changes in strain energy of the system as the crack extends. Residual deposition stresses influence the cracking response by inducing buckling of the film above the crack and by providing an additional crack driving force once buckling occurs. A relation for the equilibrium crack length is derived in terms of the indenter load and geometry, the film thickness and mechanical properties, the residual stress level and the fracture toughness of the interface. The analysis provides a basis for using controlled indentation cracking as a quantitative measure of interface toughness and for evaluating contact-induced damage in thin films

  6. Microscopic image processing system for measuring nonuniform film thickness profiles: Image scanning ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.H.; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research program is to determine the stability and heat transfer characteristics of evaporating thin films. The current objective is to develop and use a microscopic image-processing system (IPS) which has two parts: an image analyzing interferometer (IAI) and an image scanning ellipsometer (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present the basic concept of ISE, which is a novel technique to measure the two dimensional thickness profile of a non-uniform, thin film, from several nm up to several μm, in a steady state as well as in a transient state. It is a full-field imaging technique which can study every point on the surface simultaneously with high spatial resolution and thickness sensitivity, i.e., it can measure and map the 2-D film thickness profile. The ISE was tested by measuring the thickness profile and the refractive index of a nonuniform solid film

  7. High-throughput measurement of polymer film thickness using optical dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunlan, Jaime C.; Mehrabi, Ali R.; Ly, Tien

    2005-01-01

    Optical dyes were added to polymer solutions in an effort to create a technique for high-throughput screening of dry polymer film thickness. Arrays of polystyrene films, cast from a toluene solution, containing methyl red or solvent green were used to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. Measurements of the peak visible absorbance of each film were converted to thickness using the Beer-Lambert relationship. These absorbance-based thickness calculations agreed within 10% of thickness measured using a micrometer for polystyrene films that were 10-50 µm. At these thicknesses it is believed that the absorbance values are actually more accurate. At least for this solvent-based system, thickness was shown to be accurately measured in a high-throughput manner that could potentially be applied to other equivalent systems. Similar water-based films made with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) dyed with malachite green oxalate or congo red did not show the same level of agreement with the micrometer measurements. Extensive phase separation between polymer and dye resulted in inflated absorbance values and calculated thickness that was often more than 25% greater than that measured with the micrometer. Only at thicknesses below 15 µm could reasonable accuracy be achieved for the water-based films.

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  9. Direct measurements of liquid film roughness for the prediction of annular flow pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, Andrea C.; Schubring, DuWayne; Shedd, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    A vertical two-phase (air-water) test section has been constructed to allow for detailed visualization of flow phenomena in the annular regime. The total internal reflection (TIR) technique for film thickness estimation, originally developed by Shedd and Newell (1998), has been adapted for use in this test section. This technique uses the pattern of diffuse light reflected from the gas-liquid interface to estimate the base film thickness, i.e., the thickness between large liquid waves. Measurement of base film thickness separately from the average film thickness, which couples base film and wave behavior, allows for consideration of separate effects from each of the two zones. A modified Hurlburt-Newell (2000) correlation that separates the flow into these two zones has been generated. Data regarding the relationship between average base film thickness and wave height, along with verification of the base film thickness measured from the TIR technique, were provided by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). For the present vertical air-water up flows with liquid superficial velocities ranging from 4 to 34 cm s -1 and gas superficial velocities from 35 to 85 m s -1 , the modified Hurlburt-Newell correlation predicts pressure loss to within 10%. (author)

  10. Direct measurements of liquid film roughness for the prediction of annular flow pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, Andrea C; Schubring, DuWayne; Shedd, Timothy A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)], e-mail: cashwood@wisc.edu, e-mail: dlschubring@wisc.edu, e-mail: shedd@engr.wisc.edu

    2009-07-01

    A vertical two-phase (air-water) test section has been constructed to allow for detailed visualization of flow phenomena in the annular regime. The total internal reflection (TIR) technique for film thickness estimation, originally developed by Shedd and Newell (1998), has been adapted for use in this test section. This technique uses the pattern of diffuse light reflected from the gas-liquid interface to estimate the base film thickness, i.e., the thickness between large liquid waves. Measurement of base film thickness separately from the average film thickness, which couples base film and wave behavior, allows for consideration of separate effects from each of the two zones. A modified Hurlburt-Newell (2000) correlation that separates the flow into these two zones has been generated. Data regarding the relationship between average base film thickness and wave height, along with verification of the base film thickness measured from the TIR technique, were provided by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). For the present vertical air-water up flows with liquid superficial velocities ranging from 4 to 34 cm s{sup -1} and gas superficial velocities from 35 to 85 m s{sup -1}, the modified Hurlburt-Newell correlation predicts pressure loss to within 10%. (author)

  11. The Measurement of the moisture transfer properties of paint films using the cup method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, E.L.J.; Zanden, van der A.J.J.; Spoel, van der W.H.

    2004-01-01

    The cup method has been used to measure the diffusion coefficient (or permeability) of water in free paint films. A dependence on the layer thickness of the diffusion coefficient could not be measured. The diffusion coefficient depends strongly on the relative humidity. The measured diffusion

  12. Important considerations for radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed CCD scanners and EBT GAFCHROMIC[reg] film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Bart D.; Kozelka, Jakub; Ranade, Manisha K.; Li, Jonathan G.; Simon, William E.; Dempsey, James F.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present three significant artifacts that have the potential to negatively impact the accuracy and precision of film dosimetry measurements made using GAFCHROMIC[reg] EBT radiochromic film when read out with CCD flatbed scanners. Films were scanned using three commonly employed instruments: a Macbeth TD932 spot densitometer, an Epson Expression 1680 CCD array scanner, and a Microtek ScanMaker i900 CCD array scanner. For the two scanners we assessed the variation in optical density (OD) of GAFCHROMIC EBT film with scanning bed position, angular rotation of the film with respect to the scan line direction, and temperature inside the scanner due to repeated scanning. Scanning uniform radiochromic films demonstrated a distinct bowing effect in profiles in the direction of the CCD array with a nonuniformity of up to 17%. Profiles along a direction orthogonal to the CCD array demonstrated a 7% variation. A strong angular dependence was found in measurements made with the flatbed scanners; the effect could not be reproduced with the spot densitometer. An IMRT quality assurance film was scanned twice rotating the film 90 deg. between the scans. For films scanned on the Epson scanner, up to 12% variation was observed in unirradiated EBT films rotated between 0 deg. and 90 deg. , which decreased to approximately 8% for EBT films irradiated to 300 cGy. Variations of up to 80% were observed for films scanned with the Microtek scanner. The scanners were found to significantly increase the film temperature with repeated scanning. Film temperature between 18 and 33 deg. C caused OD changes of approximately 7%. Considering these effects, we recommend adherence to a strict scanning protocol that includes: maintaining the orientation of films scanned on flatbed scanners, limiting scanning to the central portion of the scanner bed, and limiting the number of consecutive scans to minimize changes in OD caused by film heating

  13. Precise measurement of the transverse piezoelectric coefficient for thin films on anisotropic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Doo-Man; Sato, Masashi; Kanno, Isaku

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a reliable measurement method for the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient for thin films especially on anisotropic substrate. This coefficient for piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films was calculated by measuring the electric field-induced tip displacement of unimorph cantilevers composed of PZT thin films and Si substrates. We evaluated the reliability of the proposed measurement method by comparing it with numerical analysis and confirmed that the relative error of the piezoelectric coefficient (e 31,f ) was less than 1%. We prepared 16 different unimorph cantilevers composed of identical PZT films on different Si beam geometries that had various substrate thicknesses and cantilever widths. Although the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e 31,f of PZT thin films ranged from −6.5 to −14 C/m 2 as a function of the applied voltage, the difference among the 16 samples with an applied voltage of 25 V was within 10%. These results demonstrate that the proposed measurement method has sufficient reliability and can be used to evaluate the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e 31,f of thin films.

  14. Radiochromic film measurement of spatial uniformity for a laser generated x-ray environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, J. H.; Newlander, C. D.; Horton, R.; Fournier, K. B.; Emig, J.; Patterson, R.; Davis, J. F.; Seiler, S.; Jenkins, P. P.

    2012-10-01

    n existing x-ray source application (XRSA) test cassette was modified to hold multiple x-ray filter materials followed by two radiochromic film types (FWT-60 and HD-810 Gafchromic® film) to qualitatively characterize the spectral-spatial uniformity over the XRSA sample field of view. Multiple sets of film were examined and nominal set was determined. These initial, qualitative measurements suggest a low-energy regime (E < 3 keV) spatial anisotropy and spatial isotropy at higher energies (E > 3 keV).

  15. Impedance measurements of nanoporosity in electrodeposited ZnO films for DSSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, L.; Haller, S.; Rousset, J.; Donsanti, F.; Guillemoles, J.-F.; Lincot, D. [Institute of R and D on Photovoltaic Energy (IRDEP), UMR 7174 EDF-CNRS-Chimie Paristech, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France); Decker, F. [Chemistry Department, ' ' Sapienza' ' Universita di Roma, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Porous ZnO/dye hybrid films have been deposited by cathodic electrodeposition, and their active surface area after dye desorption was evaluated by impedance measurements with the semiconducting electrode polarized in accumulation. Surface area ratios have been deduced for a large number of films from imaginary part Z' vs. frequency measurements, having a constant rate over the frequency range from 0.5 Hz to > 50 Hz. The active surface increased by a factor of roughly 150 per every micron of film with respect to the area of a flat ZnO electrode: this linear relationship held from less than 1 {mu}m up to 9 {mu}m thick films. (author)

  16. Development of thin film measurement program of wafer for spin etcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hak Suk; Kim, No Hyu; Kim, Young Chul; Cho, Jung Keun; Bae, Jung Yong

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a thickness measurement method of silicon-oxide and poly-silicon film deposited on 12 inch silicon wafer for spin etcher. Krypton lamp is used as a light source for generating a wide-band spectrum, which is guided and focused on the wafer surface through a optical fiber cable. Interference signal from the film is detected by optical sensor to determine the thickness of the film using spectrum analysis and several signal processing techniques including curve-fitting and filtering. Test wafers with two kinds of priori-known films, silicon-oxide(100nm) and poly-silicon(300nm), are measured under the condition that the wafer is spinning at 20Hz and DI water flowing on the wafer surface. From experiment results the algorithm presented in the paper is proved to be effective with accuracy of maximum 6.5% error.

  17. Development of thin film measurement program of wafer for spin etcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hak Suk; Kim, No Hyu; Kim, Young Chul [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Keun; Bae, Jung Yong [Korea DNS, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-11-15

    This paper proposes a thickness measurement method of silicon-oxide and poly-silicon film deposited on 12 inch silicon wafer for spin etcher. Krypton lamp is used as a light source for generating a wide-band spectrum, which is guided and focused on the wafer surface through a optical fiber cable. Interference signal from the film is detected by optical sensor to determine the thickness of the film using spectrum analysis and several signal processing techniques including curve-fitting and filtering. Test wafers with two kinds of priori-known films, silicon-oxide(100nm) and poly-silicon(300nm), are measured under the condition that the wafer is spinning at 20Hz and DI water flowing on the wafer surface. From experiment results the algorithm presented in the paper is proved to be effective with accuracy of maximum 6.5% error.

  18. Work function measurements of copper nanoparticle intercalated polyaniline nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, U. V.; Ramgir, Niranjan S.; Bhogale, A.; Debnath, A. K.; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.; Kothari, D. C.

    2017-05-01

    The nature of contact between the electrode and the sensing material plays a crucial role in governing the sensing mechanism. Thin films of polyaniline (PANI) and copper-polyaniline nanocomposite (NC) have been deposited at room temperatures by in-situ oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of Cu nanoparticles. For sensing applications a thin film Au (gold) ˜100 nm is deposited and used as a conducting electrode. To understand the nature of contact (i.e., ohmic or Schottky) the work function of the conducting polyaniline and nanocomposite films were measured using Kelvin Probe method. I-V characteristics of PANI and NC films investigated at room temperatures further corroborates and confirms the formation of Ohmic contact as evident from work function measurements.

  19. Shear thinning behavior of monolayer liquid lubricant films measured by fiber wobbling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Y; Itoh, S; Fukuzawa, K; Zhang, H

    2010-01-01

    It is essential to clarify mechanical properties of monolayer lubricant films coated on magnetic disks under shearing motion for designing future hard disk drives with ultra-low flying height. Many of previous researchers reported that strong shear rate dependence of viscoelasticity was one of the typical phenomena observed with molecularly thin liquid films. However, it has not been clarified whether or not perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant films, which are used for the head-disk interface (HDI) lubrication, show shear thinning behavior under actual HDI conditions. In this study, we used the fiber wobbling method that can achieve both highly-sensitive shear force measurement and precise gap control and measured shear rate dependence of viscoelastic properties of monolayer PFPE films coated on the magnetic disk. Our experimental results showed that shear thinning does occur at high shear rate ranged from 10 2 to 10 6 s -1 .

  20. Radiochromic film calibration for low-energy seed brachytherapy dose measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Hali, E-mail: hamorris@ualberta.ca; Menon, Geetha; Sloboda, Ron S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Radiochromic film dosimetry is typically performed for high energy photons and moderate doses characterizing external beam radiotherapy (XRT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of previously established film calibration procedures used in XRT when applied to low-energy, seed-based brachytherapy at higher doses, and to determine necessary modifications to achieve similar accuracy in absolute dose measurements. Methods: Gafchromic EBT3 film was used to measure radiation doses upwards of 35 Gy from 75 kVp, 200 kVp, 6 MV, and (∼28 keV) I-125 photon sources. For the latter irradiations a custom phantom was built to hold a single I-125 seed. Film pieces were scanned with an Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner and the resulting 48-bit RGB TIFF images were analyzed using both FilmQA Pro software andMATLAB. Calibration curves relating dose and optical density via a rational functional form for all three color channels at each irradiation energy were determined with and without the inclusion of uncertainties in the measured optical densities and dose values. The accuracy of calibration curve variations obtained using piecewise fitting, a reduced film measurement area for I-125 irradiation, and a reduced number of dose levels was also investigated. The energy dependence of the film lot used was also analyzed by calculating normalized optical density values. Results: Slight differences were found in the resulting calibration curves for the various fitting methods used. The accuracy of the calibration curves was found to improve at low doses and worsen at high doses when including uncertainties in optical densities and doses, which may better represent the variability that could be seen in film optical density measurements. When exposing the films to doses > 8 Gy, two-segment piecewise fitting was found to be necessary to achieve similar accuracies in absolute dose measurements as when using smaller dose ranges. When reducing the film measurement

  1. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    of whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  2. Measurement of thickness of thin water film in two-phase flow by capacitance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, R.K.; Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.; Turko, B.

    1981-09-01

    A technique has been developed for measuring water film thickness in a two-phase annular flow system by the capacitance method. An experimental model of the flow system with two types of electrodes mounted on the inner wall of a cylindrical tube has been constructed and evaluated. The apparatus and its ability to observe fluctuations and wave motions of the water film passing over the electrodes is described in some detail

  3. Characterization of the flooding in vertical tubes by means of the film thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandrone, M.; Mioliggi, L.; Panella, B.; Scorta, G.

    1992-01-01

    The air-water countercurrent flow up to the flooding transition in a vertical tube has been experimentally investigated by liquid film thickness measurement performed by means of an electrical two-wires conductance probe. The liquid film mean thickness, the probability density function, the spectral power density and the power of the signal have been derived for a wide range of air and water flow rate, and related to the flow pattern with particular attention to the flooding phenomena. (6 figures) (Author)

  4. The use of a CCD imaging system for X-ray film intensity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, M.W.; Barnea, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a simple CCD-based imaging system for digitizing and x-ray film image is demonstrated. A method of extending the region of linear response of the film based upon an analytic representation of the observed response to a series of increasing exposures is described. The validity of the procedure is illustrated through an example of the absolute intensity measurement of a reflection of cadmium sulphide. 3 refs., 7 figs

  5. Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Method To Measure Miltefosine in Leishmaniasis Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sample Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, H.; Hillebrand, M. J. X.; Blesson, S.; Mengesha, B.; Diro, E.; Hailu, A.; Schellens, J. H. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote regions in which the disease is endemic, a simple cheap sampling method is required for miltefosine quantification. The aims of this study were to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to validate its use with Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since hematocrit (Ht) levels are typically severely decreased in VL patients, returning to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values. Miltefosine was extracted from DBS samples using a simple method of pretreatment with methanol, resulting in >97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10 to 2,000 ng/ml, and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at the lower limit of quantification), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10 and 30 μl and for Ht levels of 20 to 35%, although a linear effect of Ht levels on miltefosine quantification was observed in the bioanalytical validation. DBS samples were stable for at least 162 days at 37°C. Clinical validation of the method using paired DBS and plasma samples from 16 VL patients showed a median observed DBS/plasma miltefosine concentration ratio of 0.99, with good correlation (Pearson's r = 0.946). Correcting for patient-specific Ht levels did not further improve the concordance between the sampling methods. This successfully validated method to quantify miltefosine in DBS samples was demonstrated to be a valid and practical alternative to venous blood sampling that can be applied in future miltefosine pharmacokinetic studies with leishmaniasis patients, without Ht correction. PMID:26787691

  6. Noise measurements of YBa2Cu3O7 thin film high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of thin-film YBa2Cu3O7 superconductors were studied from the superconducting region through the transition region and into the normal region. The properties studied included the resistance-temperature, current-voltage, and electrical noise with concentration of measurements in the transition region. The resistance vs. temperature measurements show a zero resistance followed by a small rise in magnitude at the onset of resistance followed by a sharp increase until the resistance tapers off in the fully normal region. The a-axis films had a larger normal resistivity, a lower critical temperature, and a broader transition than the similar c-axis films. The current(I) - voltage(V) measurements were concentrated in the transition region. A power relation between I and V was found to be V varies as I a(T) where a(T) is temperature dependent starting high the onset of vortex formation, approaches 3 at the vortex unbinding temperature, and goes to 1 when fully normal. This behavior was predicted by the Kosterlitz-Thouless theory and was found experimentally in all four films measured. The current-induced electrical noise characteristics were measured for four samples varying in thickness and axis orientation. Each film exhibited a widely varying magnitude of the noise voltage spectral density (S V ) in the transition region with a leveling off when fully normal. The normalized noise (S V /V squared) showed a sharp decrease in magnitude from the onset of measurable noise continually decreasing until flattening out when fully normal. The a-axis films exhibited S V /V squared over 3 order of magnitude larger than the c-axis films in the transition and normal regions. The normalized temperature coefficient of resistance (beta) was plotted against S V /V squared on a log-log scale to see if the noise generated was due to temperature fluctuations (slope = 2)

  7. Using penumbral imaging to measure micrometer size plasma hot spots in Gbar equation of state experiments on the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B; Kritcher, A L; Benedetti, L R; Falcone, R W; Glenn, S; Hawreliak, J; Izumi, N; Kraus, D; Landen, O L; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; Pérez, F; Swift, D; Döppner, T

    2014-11-01

    We have developed an experimental platform for absolute equation of state measurements up to Gbar pressures on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) within the Fundamental Science Program. We use a symmetry-tuned hohlraum drive to launch a spherical shock wave into a solid CH sphere. Streaked radiography is the primary diagnostic to measure the density change at the shock front as the pressure increases towards smaller radii. At shock stagnation in the center of the capsule, we observe a short and bright x-ray self emission from high density (∼50 g/cm(3)) plasma at ∼1 keV. Here, we present results obtained with penumbral imaging which has been carried out to characterize the size of the hot spot emission. This allows extending existing NIF diagnostic capabilities for spatial resolution (currently ∼10 μm) at higher sensitivity. At peak emission we find the hot spot radius to be as small as 5.8 +/- 1 μm, corresponding to a convergence ratio of 200.

  8. Using penumbral imaging to measure micrometer size plasma hot spots in Gbar equation of state experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, B., E-mail: bachmann2@llnl.gov; Kritcher, A. L.; Benedetti, L. R.; Glenn, S.; Hawreliak, J.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Pérez, F.; Swift, D.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kraus, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have developed an experimental platform for absolute equation of state measurements up to Gbar pressures on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) within the Fundamental Science Program. We use a symmetry-tuned hohlraum drive to launch a spherical shock wave into a solid CH sphere. Streaked radiography is the primary diagnostic to measure the density change at the shock front as the pressure increases towards smaller radii. At shock stagnation in the center of the capsule, we observe a short and bright x-ray self emission from high density (∼50 g/cm{sup 3}) plasma at ∼1 keV. Here, we present results obtained with penumbral imaging which has been carried out to characterize the size of the hot spot emission. This allows extending existing NIF diagnostic capabilities for spatial resolution (currently ∼10 μm) at higher sensitivity. At peak emission we find the hot spot radius to be as small as 5.8 +/− 1 μm, corresponding to a convergence ratio of 200.

  9. Using penumbral imaging to measure micrometer size plasma hot spots in Gbar equation of state experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B.; Kritcher, A. L.; Benedetti, L. R.; Glenn, S.; Hawreliak, J.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Pérez, F.; Swift, D.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Kraus, D.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an experimental platform for absolute equation of state measurements up to Gbar pressures on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) within the Fundamental Science Program. We use a symmetry-tuned hohlraum drive to launch a spherical shock wave into a solid CH sphere. Streaked radiography is the primary diagnostic to measure the density change at the shock front as the pressure increases towards smaller radii. At shock stagnation in the center of the capsule, we observe a short and bright x-ray self emission from high density (∼50 g/cm 3 ) plasma at ∼1 keV. Here, we present results obtained with penumbral imaging which has been carried out to characterize the size of the hot spot emission. This allows extending existing NIF diagnostic capabilities for spatial resolution (currently ∼10 μm) at higher sensitivity. At peak emission we find the hot spot radius to be as small as 5.8 +/− 1 μm, corresponding to a convergence ratio of 200

  10. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  11. Thermal pulse measurements of space charge distributions under an applied electric field in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feihu; An, Zhenlian; Zhang, Yewen; Liu, Chuandong; Lin, Chen; Lei, Qingquan

    2013-01-01

    The thermal pulse method is a powerful method to measure space charge and polarization distributions in thin dielectric films, but a complicated calibration procedure is necessary to obtain the real distribution. In addition, charge dynamic behaviour under an applied electric field cannot be observed by the classical thermal pulse method. In this work, an improved thermal pulse measuring system with a supplemental circuit for applying high voltage is proposed to realize the mapping of charge distribution in thin dielectric films under an applied field. The influence of the modified measuring system on the amplitude and phase of the thermal pulse response current are evaluated. Based on the new measuring system, an easy calibration approach is presented with some practical examples. The newly developed system can observe space charge evolution under an applied field, which would be very helpful in understanding space charge behaviour in thin films. (paper)

  12. Development of liquid film thickness measurement technique by high-density multipoint electrodes method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Takahiro; Furuya, Masahiro; Kanai, Taizo

    2010-01-01

    High-density multipoint electrode method was developed to measure a liquid film thickness transient on a curved surface. The devised method allows us to measure spatial distribution of liquid film with its conductance between electrodes. The sensor was designed and fabricated as a multilayer print circuit board, where electrode pairs were distributed in reticular pattern with narrow interval. In order to measure a lot of electrode pairs at a high sampling rate, signal-processing method used by the wire mesh sensor measurement system was applied. An electrochemical impedance spectrometry concludes that the sampling rate of 1000 slices/s is feasible without signal distortion by electric double layer. The method was validated with two experimental campaigns: (1) a droplet impingement on a flat film and (2) a jet impingement on a rod-shape sensor surface. In the former experiment, a water droplet having 4 mm in diameter impinged onto the 1 mm thick film layer. A visual observation study with high-speed video camera shows after the liquid impingement, the water layer thinning process was clearly demonstrated with the sensor. For the latter experiment, the flexible circuit board was bended to form a cylindrical shape to measure water film on a simulated fuel rod in bundle geometry. A water jet having 3 mm in diameter impinged onto the rod-shape sensor surface. The process of wetting area enlargement on the rod surface was demonstrated in the same manner that the video-frames showed. (author)

  13. Problems in the measurement of electron-dose distribution with film dosimeters inserted into solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Shuichi; Fukuda, Kyue; Tabata, Tatsuo; Okabe, Shigeru

    1981-01-01

    On the insertion of film dosimeters into solid materials, thin air gaps are formed. The influence of such gaps on measured profiles of depth-dose distributions was investigated for aluminum irradiated with collimated beams of 15-MeV electrons. Measurements were made by changing the gap width or the incidence angle of the electrons. The present results showed that streaming of incident electrons through the gaps resulted in the appearance of a peak and a minimum in a depth-dose curve measured. This effect was suppressed by the increase of the angle between the film and the electron-beam axis. (author)

  14. A new non-destructive and standardless method for the determination of thin films by XRF measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.; Wybenga, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    The thickness of thin uniform films can be determined by measuring the signal ratio of a fluorescent line at two different take-off angles and using the result in either of two mathematical relationships which link the ratio to the film thickness. A zinc sulphide film on silica is used as an example for application of this method

  15. Experimental study on two-dimensional film flow with local measurement methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin-Hwa, E-mail: evo03@snu.ac.kr [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin, E-mail: djeuh@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • An experimental study on the two-dimensional film flow with lateral air injection was performed. • The ultrasonic thickness gauge was used to measure the local liquid film thickness. • The depth-averaged PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method was applied to measure the local liquid film velocity. • The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV was quantified with a validation experiment. • Characteristics of two-dimensional film flow were classified following the four different flow patterns. - Abstract: In an accident condition of a nuclear reactor, multidimensional two-phase flows may occur in the reactor vessel downcomer and reactor core. Therefore, those have been regarded as important issues for an advanced thermal-hydraulic safety analysis. In particular, the multi-dimensional two-phase flow in the upper downcomer during the reflood phase of large break loss of coolant accident appears with an interaction between a downward liquid and a transverse gas flow, which determines the bypass flow rate of the emergency core coolant and subsequently, the reflood coolant flow rate. At present, some thermal-hydraulic analysis codes incorporate multidimensional modules for the nuclear reactor safety analysis. However, their prediction capability for the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer has not been validated sufficiently against experimental data based on local measurements. For this reason, an experimental study was carried out for the two-phase cross flow to clarify the hydraulic phenomenon and provide local measurement data for the validation of the computational tools. The experiment was performed in a 1/10 scale unfolded downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). Pitot tubes, a depth-averaged PIV method and ultrasonic thickness gauge were applied for local measurement of the air velocity, the liquid film velocity and the liquid film thickness, respectively. The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV method for the averaged

  16. Experimental study on two-dimensional film flow with local measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin-Hwa; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Kim, Seok; Euh, Dong-Jin; Park, Goon-Cherl

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental study on the two-dimensional film flow with lateral air injection was performed. • The ultrasonic thickness gauge was used to measure the local liquid film thickness. • The depth-averaged PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method was applied to measure the local liquid film velocity. • The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV was quantified with a validation experiment. • Characteristics of two-dimensional film flow were classified following the four different flow patterns. - Abstract: In an accident condition of a nuclear reactor, multidimensional two-phase flows may occur in the reactor vessel downcomer and reactor core. Therefore, those have been regarded as important issues for an advanced thermal-hydraulic safety analysis. In particular, the multi-dimensional two-phase flow in the upper downcomer during the reflood phase of large break loss of coolant accident appears with an interaction between a downward liquid and a transverse gas flow, which determines the bypass flow rate of the emergency core coolant and subsequently, the reflood coolant flow rate. At present, some thermal-hydraulic analysis codes incorporate multidimensional modules for the nuclear reactor safety analysis. However, their prediction capability for the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer has not been validated sufficiently against experimental data based on local measurements. For this reason, an experimental study was carried out for the two-phase cross flow to clarify the hydraulic phenomenon and provide local measurement data for the validation of the computational tools. The experiment was performed in a 1/10 scale unfolded downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). Pitot tubes, a depth-averaged PIV method and ultrasonic thickness gauge were applied for local measurement of the air velocity, the liquid film velocity and the liquid film thickness, respectively. The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV method for the averaged

  17. Adhesion and friction in polymer films on solid substrates: conformal sites analysis and corresponding surface measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Rong; Huang, Liangliang; Mineart, Kenneth P; Dong, Yihui; Spontak, Richard J; Gubbins, Keith E

    2017-05-21

    In this work, we present a statistical mechanical analysis to elucidate the molecular-level factors responsible for the static and dynamic properties of polymer films. This analysis, which we term conformal sites theory, establishes that three dimensionless parameters play important roles in determining differences from bulk behavior for thin polymer films near to surfaces: a microscopic wetting parameter, α wx , defined as the ratio of polymer-substrate interaction to polymer-polymer interaction; a dimensionless film thickness, H*; and dimensionless temperature, T*. The parameter α wx introduced here provides a more fundamental measure of wetting than previous metrics, since it is defined in terms of intermolecular forces and the atomic structure of the substrate, and so is valid at the nanoscale for gas, liquid or solid films. To test this theoretical analysis, we also report atomic force microscopy measurements of the friction coefficient (μ), adhesion force (F A ) and glass transition temperature (T g ) for thin films of two polymers, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), on two planar substrates, graphite and silica. Both the friction coefficient and the glass transition temperature are found to increase as the film thickness decreases, and this increase is more pronounced for the graphite than for the silica surface. The adhesion force is also greater for the graphite surface. The larger effects encountered for the graphite surface are attributed to the fact that the microscopic wetting parameter, α wx , is larger for graphite than for silica, indicating stronger attraction of polymer chains to the graphite surface.

  18. Heat capacity measurements of atoms and molecules adsorbed on evaporated metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, T.W.

    1989-05-01

    Investigations of the properties of absorbed monolayers have received great experimental and theoretical attention recently, both because of the importance of surface processes in practical applications such as catalysis, and the importance of such systems to the understanding of the fundamentals of thermodynamics in two dimensions. We have adapted the composite bolometer technology to the construction of microcalorimeters. For these calorimeters, the adsorption substrate is an evaporated film deposited on one surface of an optically polished sapphire wafer. This approach has allowed us to make the first measurements of the heat capacity of submonolayer films of 4 He adsorbed on metallic films. In contrast to measurements of 4 He adsorbed on all other insulating substrates, we have shown that 4 He on silver films occupies a two-dimensional gas phase over a broad range of coverages and temperatures. Our apparatus has been used to study the heat capacity of Indium flakes. CO multilayers, 4 He adsorbed on sapphire and on Ag films and H 2 adsorbed on Ag films. The results are compared with appropriate theories. 68 refs., 19 figs

  19. Dynamics of space and polarization charges of ferroelectric thin films measured by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Lee, J.H.; Jo, W.

    2006-01-01

    Retention behavior and local hysteresis characteristics in Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films on Pt electrodes have been investigated by electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). A sol-gel method is used to synthesize PZT thin films and drying conditions are carefully explored over a wide range of temperature. Decay and retention mechanisms of single-poled and reverse-poled regions of the ferroelectric thin films are explained by space charge redistribution. Trapping behavior of space charges is dependent on the nature of interface between ferroelectric thin films and bottom electrodes. Local measurement of polarization-electric field curves by EFM shows inhomogeneous space charge entrapment

  20. Friction and wear measurements of sputtered MoS/sub x/ films amorphized by ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, N.J.; Chevallier, J.; Soerensen, G.; Straede, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The present study presents an experimental evidence for amorphization of rf sputtered MoS/sub x/ films by ion bombardment. Even at low doses (3 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 ) of 400 keV argon ions a complete amorphization was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. As a result of the ion bombardment the film density increased 100% to almost the bulk value for MoS 2 . The friction coefficient for ion beam amorphized MoS/sub x/ was measured to be 0.04 in agreement with the values reported for crystalline films but disagreeing considerably with the friction coefficient of 0.4 previously reported for amorphous films

  1. Transport measurements on superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeckly, B.H.; Lathrop, D.K.; Redinbo, G.F.; Russek, S.E.; Buhrman, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Critical current densities, magnetic field response, and microwave response have been measured for laser ablated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin film lines on MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates. Films on SrTiO 3 have critical current densities > 1 x 10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K and show uniform transport properties in lines of all sizes. Films on MgO have critical current densities which range between 10 2 and 10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K and show considerable variation from device to device on the same chip. Narrow lines on MgO with low critical current densities show Josephson weak link structure which includes RSJ-like IV curves, microwave induced constant voltage steps, and a high sensitivity to magnetic field. The presence of the Josephson weak links if correlated with small amounts of misaligned grains in film on MgO

  2. Monte Carlo modeling of small photon fields: Quantifying the impact of focal spot size on source occlusion and output factors, and exploring miniphantom design for small-field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Alison J. D.; Nahum, Alan E.; Fenwick, John D.

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy with which Monte Carlo models of photon beams generated by linear accelerators (linacs) can describe small-field dose distributions depends on the modeled width of the electron beam profile incident on the linac target. It is known that the electron focal spot width affects penumbra and cross-field profiles; here, the authors explore the extent to which source occlusion reduces linac output for smaller fields and larger spot sizes. A BEAMnrc Monte Carlo linac model has been used to investigate the variation in penumbra widths and small-field output factors with electron spot size. A formalism is developed separating head scatter factors into source occlusion and flattening filter factors. Differences between head scatter factors defined in terms of in-air energy fluence, collision kerma, and terma are explored using Monte Carlo calculations. Estimates of changes in kerma-based source occlusion and flattening filter factors with field size and focal spot width are obtained by calculating doses deposited in a narrow 2 mm wide virtual ''milliphantom'' geometry. The impact of focal spot size on phantom scatter is also explored. Modeled electron spot sizes of 0.4-0.7 mm FWHM generate acceptable matches to measured penumbra widths. However the 0.5 cm field output factor is quite sensitive to electron spot width, the measured output only being matched by calculations for a 0.7 mm spot width. Because the spectra of the unscattered primary (Ψ Π ) and head-scattered (Ψ Σ ) photon energy fluences differ, miniphantom-based collision kerma measurements do not scale precisely with total in-air energy fluence Ψ=(Ψ Π +Ψ Σ ) but with (Ψ Π +1.2Ψ Σ ). For most field sizes, on-axis collision kerma is independent of the focal spot size; but for a 0.5 cm field size and 1.0 mm spot width, it is reduced by around 7% mostly due to source occlusion. The phantom scatter factor of the 0.5 cm field also shows some spot size dependence, decreasing by 6% (relative) as

  3. Simultaneous measurement of dynamic force and spatial thin film thickness between deformable and solid surfaces by integrated thin liquid film force apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xurui; Tchoukov, Plamen; Manica, Rogerio; Wang, Louxiang; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe

    2016-11-09

    Interactions involving deformable surfaces reveal a number of distinguishing physicochemical characteristics that do not exist in interactions between rigid solid surfaces. A unique fully custom-designed instrument, referred to as integrated thin liquid film force apparatus (ITLFFA), was developed to study the interactions between one deformable and one solid surface in liquid. Incorporating a bimorph force sensor with interferometry, this device allows for the simultaneous measurement of the time-dependent interaction force and the corresponding spatiotemporal film thickness of the intervening liquid film. The ITLFFA possesses the specific feature of conducting measurement under a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions, with a displacement velocity of deformable surfaces ranging from 2 μm s -1 to 50 mm s -1 . Equipped with a high speed camera, the results of a bubble interacting with hydrophilic and partially hydrophobic surfaces in aqueous solutions indicated that ITLFFA can provide information on interaction forces and thin liquid film drainage dynamics not only in a stable film but also in films of the quick rupture process. The weak interaction force was extracted from a measured film profile. Because of its well-characterized experimental conditions, ITLFFA permits the accurate and quantitative comparison/validation between measured and calculated interaction forces and temporal film profiles.

  4. The determination of the pressure-viscosity coefficient of a lubricant through an accurate film thickness formula and accurate film thickness measurements : part 2 : high L values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The pressure-viscosity coefficient of a traction fluid is determined by fitting calculation results on accurate film thickness measurements, obtained at different speeds, loads, and temperatures. Through experiments, covering a range of 5.6 film thickness values are

  5. Squid measurement of the Verwey transition on epitaxial (1 0 0) magnetite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dediu, V.; Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Riminucci, A.; Solzi, M.; Pernechele, C.; Natali, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report results on epitaxial magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) thin films grown by electron beam ablation on (1 0 0) MgAl 2 O 4 substrates. At 120 K magnetite undergoes a structural and electronic transition, the so-called Verwey transition, at which magnetic and conducting properties of the material change. We observed the Verwey transition on epitaxial films with a thickness of 50 nm by comparing zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) curves measured with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Observation of the Verwey transition by SQUID measurements in the films is sign of their high crystalline quality. Room temperature ferromagnetism has also been found by magneto-optical Kerr rotation (MOKE) and confirmed by SQUID measurements, with a hysteresis loop showing a coercive field of hundreds of Oe

  6. Band alignment measurements at heterojunction interfaces in layered thin film solar cells & thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Public awareness of the increasing energy crisis and the related serious environmental concerns has led to a significantly growing demand for alternative clean and renewable energy resources. Thin film are widely applied in multiple renewable energy devices owing to the reduced amount of raw materials and increase flexibility of choosing from low-cost candidates, which translates directly into reduced capital cost. This is a key driving force to make renewable technology competitive in the energy market. This thesis is focused on the measurement of energy level alignments at interfaces of thin film structures for renewable energy applications. There are two primary foci: II -VI semiconductor ZnSe/ZnTe thin film solar cells and Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 thin film structures for thermoelectric applications. In both cases, the electronic structure and energy band alignment at interfaces usually controls the carrier transport behavior and determines the quality of the device. High-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (lab-based XPS & synchrotron-based UPS) was used to investigate the chemical and electronic properties of epitaxial Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films, in order to validate the anticipated band alignment at interfaces in Bi 2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices as one favoring electron-transmission. A simple, thorough two-step treatment of a chemical etching in dilute hydrochloric acid solution and a subsequent annealing at ˜150°C under ultra-high vacuum environment is established to remove the surface oxides completely. It is an essential step to ensure the measurements on electronic states are acquired on stoichimetric, oxide-free clean surface of Bi 2Te3 and Sb2Te3 films. The direct measurement of valence band offsets (VBO) at a real Sb 2Te3/Bi2Te3 interface is designed based on the Kraut model; a special stacking film structure is prepared intentionally: sufficiently thin Sb2Te3 film on top of Bi2Te 3 that photoelectrons from both of them are collected simultaneously. From a

  7. Self-Report and Dry Blood Spot Measurement of Antiretroviral Medications as Markers of Adherence in Pregnant Women in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria L; Ramlagan, Shandir; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Cook, Ryan; Peltzer, Karl; Weiss, Stephen M; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-07-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) adherence is essential to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This study compared self-reported adherence versus ARV detection in dried blood spots (DBS) among N = 392 HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa (SA). Women completed two self-reported adherence measures [visual analog scale (VAS), AIDS Clinical Trials Group Adherence (ACTG)]. Adherence was 89% (VAS), 80% (ACTG), and 74% (DBS). Self-report measures marginally agreed with DBS (VAS: Kappa = 0.101, Area under the ROC curve (AUROC) = 0.543; ACTG: Kappa  = 0.081, AUROC = 0.538). Self-reported adherence was overestimated and agreement with DBS was poor. Validation of self-reported ARV adherence among pregnant HIV+ women in SA is needed.

  8. SU-F-18C-10: Clinical Implementation of Radiochromic Film Based CTDI Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, C; Seuntjens, J; Devic, S; Tomic, N; DeBlois, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate accuracy and reproducibility of a radiochromic film-based protocol to measure computer tomography dose index (CTDI) as a part of annual QA on CT scanners and kV CBCT systems attached to linear accelerators. Methods: Energy dependence of Gafchromic XR-QA2(R) film model was tested over imaging beam qualities (50 – 140 kVp). Film pieces were irradiated in air to known values of air kerma in air (up to 10 cGy). Change in film reflectance was determined with an in-house written code using images produced by a flatbed document scanner. Calibration curves for each beam quality were created, and film responses for same air-kerma values were compared.Sets of film strips were placed into holes of a CTDI phantom and irradiated for several clinical scanning protocols on CT-simulators and CBCT systems. Film reflectance change was converted into dose to water and used to calculate CTDIvol values. Measured CTDIvol values were compared to tabulated CTDIvol values. Results: Average variations of ±5.2% in the mean film reflectance change were observed in the energy range of 80 to 140 keV, and 11.1% between 50 and 140 keV. The averaged measured CTDI values presented a mean variation for the same machine and protocol of 2.6%. However, measured CTDI values were in average 10% lower than tabulated CTDI values for CT-simulators, and 44% higher for CBCT systems. Conclusion: We found that in relatively broad range of beam qualities used in diagnostic radiology variation of film response is within ±5% resulting in ±15% systematic error in dose estimates if a single calibration curve is used. Relatively large discrepancy between measured and tabulated CTDI values for different protocols and imaging systems used within radiotherapy department strongly support the trend towards replacing CTDI value with equilibrium dose measurement in the center of cylindrical phantom as suggested by TG-111. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research

  9. Measurement of interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using laser focus displacement meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Hibiki, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in micro- and mini-channels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with water box was used; the refraction index of this device is same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement using measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 μm to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with real displacement within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 μm at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film less than 1 μm in thickness in slug and annular flow regions. (author)

  10. Measurement of liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in microchannels and minichannels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with a water box was used; the refraction index of this device is the same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of the interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement by using the measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 μm to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 mm and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with the real displacement to within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 μm at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 mm and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film of less than 1 μm in thickness in the slug and annular flow regimes.

  11. Measurement of liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji [Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Marine Technology, Etchujima, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Hibiki, Takashi [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka (Japan); Ishii, Mamoru [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in microchannels and minichannels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with a water box was used; the refraction index of this device is the same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of the interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement by using the measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 {mu}m to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 mm and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with the real displacement to within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 {mu}m at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 mm and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film of less than 1 {mu}m in thickness in the slug and annular flow regimes. (orig.)

  12. Study of measurement of the alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and application of a volumetric DBS device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Kenan Modén, Naama; Seferaj, Sabina; Lenk, Gabriel; Helander, Anders

    2018-04-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a group of phospholipids formed in cell membranes following alcohol consumption. PEth measurement in whole blood samples is established as a specific alcohol biomarker with clinical and medico-legal applications. This study further evaluated the usefulness of dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected on filter paper for PEth measurement. Specimens used were surplus volumes of venous whole blood sent for routine LC-MS/MS quantification of PEth 16:0/18:1, the major PEth homolog. DBS samples were prepared by pipetting blood on Whatman 903 Protein Saver Cards and onto a volumetric DBS device (Capitainer). The imprecision (CV) of the DBS sample amount based on area and weight measurements of spot punches were 23-28%. Investigation of the relationship between blood hematocrit and PEth concentration yielded a linear, positive correlation, and at around 1.0-1.5μmol/L PEth 16:0/18:1, the PEth concentration increased by ~0.1μmol/L for every 5% increase in hematocrit. There was a close agreement between the PEth concentrations obtained with whole blood samples and the corresponding results using Whatman 903 (PEth DBS =1.026 PEth WB +0.013) and volumetric device (PEth DBS =1.045 PEth WB +0.016) DBS samples. The CV of PEth quantification in DBS samples at concentrations≥0.05μmol/L were ≤15%. The present results further confirmed the usefulness of DBS samples for PEth measurement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress effects in prism coupling measurements of thin polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agan, S.; Ay, F.; Kocabas, A.; Aydinli, A.

    Due to the increasingly important role of some polymers in optical waveguide technologies, precise measurement of their optical properties has become important. Typically, prism coupling to slab waveguides made of materials of interest is used to measure the relevant optical parameters. However,

  14. Small photon beam measurements using radiochromic film and Monte Carlo simulations in a water phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Garduno, Olivia A.; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Martinez-Davalos, Arnulfo; Celis, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the use of both GafChromic EBT film immersed in a water phantom and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for small photon beam stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry. Circularly collimated photon beams with diameters in the 4-20 mm range of a dedicated 6 MV linear accelerator (Novalis (registered) , BrainLAB, Germany) were used to perform off-axis ratios, tissue maximum ratios and total scatter factors measurements, and MC simulations. GafChromic EBT film data show an excellent agreement with MC results (<2.7%) for all measured quantities.

  15. Electrode size and boundary condition independent measurement of the effective piezoelectric coefficient of thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stewart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the piezoelectric coefficient of thin films using interferometry is hindered by bending contributions. Using finite element analysis (FEA simulations, we show that the Lefki and Dormans approximations using either single or double-beam measurements cannot be used with finite top electrode sizes. We introduce a novel method for characterising piezoelectric thin films which uses a differential measurement over the discontinuity at the electrode edge as an internal reference, thereby eliminating bending contributions. This step height is shown to be electrode size and boundary condition independent. An analytical expression is derived which gives good agreement with FEA predictions of the step height.

  16. Quantitative measurement of piezoelectric coefficient of thin film using a scanning evanescent microwave microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenli; Luo, Zhenlin; Liu, Chihui; Wu, Wenbin; Gao, Chen; Lu, Yalin

    2008-06-01

    This article describes a new approach to quantitatively measure the piezoelectric coefficients of thin films at the microscopic level using a scanning evanescent microwave microscope. This technique can resolve 10 pm deformation caused by the piezoelectric effect and has the advantages of high scanning speed, large scanning area, submicron spatial resolution, and a simultaneous accessibility to many other related properties. Results from the test measurements on the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient of PZT thin film agree well with those from other techniques listed in literatures.

  17. Use of a laser-induced fluorescence thermal imaging system for film cooling heat transfer measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyu, M.K. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a novel approach based on fluorescence imaging of thermographic phosphor that enables the simultaneous determination of both local film effectiveness and local heat transfer on a film-cooled surface. The film cooling model demonstrated consists of a single row of three discrete holes on a flat plate. The transient temperature measurement relies on the temperature-sensitive fluorescent properties of europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:EU{sup 3+}) thermographic phosphor. A series of full-field surface temperatures, mainstream temperatures, and coolant film temperatures were acquired during the heating of a test surface. These temperatures are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients and the film effectiveness simultaneously. Because of the superior spatial resolution capability for the heat transfer data reduced from these temperature frames, the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging system, the present study observes the detailed heat transfer characteristics over a film-protected surface. The trend of the results agrees with those obtained using other conventional thermal methods, as well as the liquid crystal imaging technique. One major advantage of this technique is the capability to record a large number of temperature frames over a given testing period. This offers multiple-sample consistency.

  18. Thermal conductivity of a film of single walled carbon nanotubes measured with infrared thermal imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ya; Inoue, Taiki; Xiang, Rong; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo

    Heat dissipation has restricted the modern miniaturization trend with the development of electronic devices. Theoretically proven to be with high axial thermal conductivity, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have long been expected to cool down the nanoscale world. Even though the tube-tube contact resistance limits the capability of heat transfer of the bulk film, the high intrinsic thermal conductivity of SWNT still glorify the application of films of SWNT network as a thermal interface material. In this work, we proposed a new method to straightly measure the thermal conductivity of SWNT film. We bridged two cantilevered Si thin plate with SWNT film, and kept a steady state heat flow in between. With the infrared camera to record the temperature distribution, the Si plates with known thermal conductivity can work as a reference to calculate the heat flux going through the SWNT film. Further, the thermal conductivity of the SWNT film can be obtained through Fourier's law after deducting the effect of thermal radiation. The sizes of the structure, the heating temperature, the vacuum degree and other crucial impact factors are carefully considered and analyzed. The author Y. F. was supported through the Advanced Integration Science Innovation Education and Research Consortium Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology.

  19. Blood spot-based measures of glucose homeostasis and diabetes prevalence in a nationally representative population of young US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Whitsel, Eric A; Tabor, Joyce W; Cuthbertson, Carmen C; Wener, Mark H; Potter, Alan J; Halpern, Carolyn T; Killeya-Jones, Ley A; Hussey, Jon M; Suchindran, Chirayath; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2014-12-01

    We investigated understudied biomarker-based diabetes among young US adults, traditionally characterized by low cardiovascular disease risk. We examined 15,701 participants aged 24 to 32 years at Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health, 2008). The study used innovative and relatively noninvasive methods to collect capillary whole blood via finger prick at in-home examinations in all 50 states. Assays of dried blood spots produced reliable and accurate values of HbA1c. Reliability was lower for fasting glucose and lowest for random glucose. Mean (SD) HbA1c was 5.6% (0.8%). More than a quarter (27.4%) had HbA1c-defined prediabetes. HbA1c was highest in the black, non-Hispanic race/ethnic group, inversely associated with education, and more common among the overweight/obese and physically inactive. The prevalence of diabetes defined by previous diagnosis or use of antidiabetic medication was 2.9%. Further incorporating HbA1c and glucose values, the prevalence increased to 6.8%, and among these participants, 38.9% had a previous diagnosis of diabetes (i.e., aware). Among those aware, 37.6% were treated and 64.0% were controlled (i.e., HbA1c young adults faces a historically high risk of diabetes but there is ample opportunity for early detection and intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dry Blood Spots a Reliable Method for Measurement of Hepatitis B Viral Load in Resource-Limited Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrine Stene-Johansen

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV quantification is essential in the management of chronic hepatitis B, both to determine treatment eligibility and in the monitoring of treatment effect. This test, however, is rarely available in resource-limited settings due to high costs and stringent requirements for shipment and storage of plasma. Dried Blood Spots (DBS can be a convenient alternative to plasma, but its use for HBV monitoring has not been investigated under real-life conditions in Africa.The performance of DBS in HBV quantification was investigated using a modified commercial test (Abbott RealTime HBV assay. Paired DBS and plasma samples were collected from an HBV positive cohort in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. DBS were stored at ambient temperature for 4-39 days before shipment to the laboratory.Twenty-six paired samples were selected covering the total range of quantification, from 2.14 log IU/ml to >7 log IU/ml. HBV was detected in 21 of 21 (100% DBS from patients with a corresponding plasma viral load above 2.70 log IU/ml. The mean difference between plasma and DBS was 0.59 log IU/ml, and the correlation was strong (R2 = 0.92. In stability studies there was no significant change in DBS viral load after storage at room temperature for up to 12 weeks.This study suggests that DBS can be a feasible and reliable alternative to plasma for quantification of HBV in resource-limited settings. DBS can expand access to antiviral treatment for patients in low- and middle-income countries.

  1. Novel method for the measurement of liquid film thickness during fuel spray impingement on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S; Beyrau, F; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P

    2016-02-08

    This paper describes the development and application of a novel optical technique for the measurement of liquid film thickness formed on surfaces during the impingement of automotive fuel sprays. The technique makes use of the change of the light scattering characteristics of a metal surface with known roughness, when liquid is deposited. Important advantages of the technique over previously established methods are the ability to measure the time-dependent spatial distribution of the liquid film without a need to add a fluorescent tracer to the liquid, while the measurement principle is not influenced by changes of the pressure and temperature of the liquid or the surrounding gas phase. Also, there is no need for non-fluorescing surrogate fuels. However, an in situ calibration of the dependence of signal intensity on liquid film thickness is required. The developed method can be applied to measure the time-dependent and two-dimensional distribution of the liquid fuel film thickness on the piston or the liner of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The applicability of this technique was evaluated with impinging sprays of several linear alkanes and alcohols with different thermo-physical properties. The surface temperature of the impingement plate was controlled to simulate the range of piston surface temperatures inside a GDI engine. Two sets of liquid film thickness measurements were obtained. During the first set, the surface temperature of the plate was kept constant, while the spray of different fuels interacted with the surface. In the second set, the plate temperature was adjusted to match the boiling temperature of each fuel. In this way, the influence of the surface temperature on the liquid film created by the spray of different fuels and their evaporation characteristics could be demonstrated.

  2. Influence of laser wavelength on the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement of thin CuIn1−xGaxSe2 solar cell films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kyu; In, Jung Hwan; Lee, Seok Hee; Jeong, Sungho

    2013-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurement of thin CuIn x Ga 1−x Se 2 (CIGS) films (1.2–1.9 μm) with varying Ga to In ratios was carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength Nd:YAG lasers (τ = 5 ns, spot diameter = 150 μm, top-hat profile) in air. The concentration ratios of Ga to In, x Ga ≡ Ga/(Ga + In), of the CIGS samples ranged from 0.027 to 0.74 for which the band gap varied nearly proportionally to x Ga from 0.96 to 1.42. It was found that the LIBS signal of 1064 nm (1.17 eV) wavelength laser was significantly influenced by x Ga , whereas that of the 532 nm (2.34 eV) laser was consistent for all values of x Ga . The observed dependency of the LIBS signal intensity on the laser wavelength was attributed to the large difference of photon energy of the two wavelengths that changed the absorption of incident laser energy by the film. The 532 nm wavelength was found to be advantageous for multi-shot analysis that enabled depth profile analysis of the thin CIGS films and for improving measurement precision by averaging the multi-shot LIBS spectra. - Highlights: • The ablation characteristics of CIGS solar cell films change drastically with laser wavelength. • The LIBS signal intensity of 1064 nm wavelength laser depends strongly on Ga concentration. • Multi-shot LIBS analysis using a 532 nm laser is more advantageous for accuracy and consistency

  3. Sensor for thickness measurement of a liquid metal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.

    1984-04-01

    Description, calibration and measuring method of a sensor for the measure of thin liquid metal depths in a temperature range of 0-500 0 C and for shift frequencies from 0 to 100 Hz; these sensors are based on the principle of induction-coil impedance variation, as a function of the thickness of an electrical conductor matter placed in the coil magnetic field [fr

  4. The measurement of longwave radiation properties upon plastic films used in greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, I.; Tani, H.; Sugaya, H.

    1982-01-01

    Due to the rising cost of heating oils in recent years, the subject of heat conservation on a greenhouse has become more important. In this aspect, the plastic films used for reducing heat losses must have low transmittance property for longwave radiation, also need to have low emissivity. The properties of plastic films which affect on the transfer of energy are important. The paper discusses the measurements of reflectance, transmittance, and emissivity of longwave radiation (thermal radiation) upon various plastic films used for crop protection in agriculture, particularly in a greenhouse. New measuring methods for reflectance and emissivity were presented, and the previous transmittance calculations (Hagiwara and Horiguchi, 1972) were improved by using newly obtained reflectance values. The transmittance values obtained from the present study are about 2-5 percent larger than the values obtained from the previous study. The reason for the discrepancy may be due to the negligence of the reflectance term in the previous calculation. (author)

  5. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory's Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison

  6. Simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity of micro-machined Silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagino, H; Kawahara, Y; Goto, A; Miyazaki, K

    2012-01-01

    The in-plane effective thermal conductivity of free-standing Si thin films with periodic micropores was measured at -100 to 0 °C. The Si thin films with micropores were prepared from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers by standard microfabrication processes. The dimensions of the free-standing Si thin films were 200μm×150μm×2 μm, with staggered 4 μm pores having an average pitch of 4 mm. The Si thin film serves both as a heater and thermometer. The average temperature rise of the thin film is a function of its in-plane thermal conductivity. The effective thermal conductivity was calculated using a simple one-dimensional heat conduction model. The measured thermal conductivity was much lower than that expected based on classical model evaluations. A significant phonon size effect was observed even in the microsized structures, and the mean free path for phonons is very long even at the room temperature.

  7. Measurement of thin liquid film drainage using a novel high-speed impedance analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hool, Kevin O.; Saunders, Robert C.; Ploehn, Harry J.

    1998-09-01

    This work describes the design and implementation of a new instrument, called the thin film impedance analyzer, which measures the rate of drainage of thin oil films. The instrument forms an oil film by elevating a planar oil-water interface into a water drop hanging from a stainless steel capillary tube immersed in the oil. The instrument measures the magnitude of the impedance of the matter between the capillary tube and a screen electrode immersed in the lower water phase. Under appropriate conditions, the capacitance of the oil film dominates the impedance. The instrument records the increase in the magnitude of the admittance associated with the draining and thinning of the oil film. The features of the drainage curves vary considerably with the type, amount, and location of surfactants in the oil and water phases, as well as with user-specified values of drop volume, drop equilibration time, and extent of drop compression. For this reason, the instrument has utility as a screening tool for selecting surfactants for emulsion formulations. Potential future uses include accelerated prediction of emulsion stability and extraction of oil-water interfacial rheological parameters.

  8. Online terahertz thickness measurement in films and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duling, Irl N.; White, Jeffrey S.

    2017-02-01

    Pulsed terahertz systems are currently being deployed for online process control and quality control of multi-layered products for use in the building products and aerospace industries. While many laboratory applications of terahertz can allow waveforms to be acquired at rates of 1 - 40 Hz, online applications require measurement rates of in excess of 100Hz. The existing technologies of thickness measurement (nuclear, x-ray, or laser gauges) have rates between 100 and 1000 Hz. At these rates, the single waveform bandwidth must still remain at 2THz or above to allow thinner layers to be measured. In the applications where terahertz can provide unique capability (e.g. multi-layer thickness, delamination, density) long-term stability must be guaranteed within the tolerance required by the measurement. This can mean multi-day stability of less than a micron. The software that runs on these systems must be flexible enough to allow multiple product configurations, while maintaining the simplicity required by plant operators. The final requirement is to have systems that can withstand the environmental conditions of the measurement. This might mean qualification in explosive environments, or operation in hot, wet or dusty environments. All of these requirements can put restrictions on not only the voltage of electronic circuitry used, but also the wavelength and optical power used for the transmitter and receiver. The application of terahertz systems to online process control presents unique challenges that not only effect the physical design of the system, but can also effect the choices made on the terahertz technology itself.

  9. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... of typical analytical workloads and real spot price traces. SpotADAPT's suggested deployments are comparable to the theoretically optimal ones, and in particular, it shows good cost benefits for the budget optimization -- on average SpotADAPT is at most 0.3% more expensive than the theoretically optimal...

  10. Raman measurements of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, G.; Dacol, F.H.; Gield, C.A.; Gupta, A.; Holtzberg, F.; Koren, G.; Laibowitz, R.; McGuire, T.R.; Segmuller, A.P.; Worthington, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report Raman measurements on good (high J c ) epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O -δ (Y123) films (δ ∼ 0). The results are compared to those from oriented Y123 single crystals. The comparisons are made for superconducting δ ∼ 0 and semiconducting δ ∼ 1 materials

  11. Thin-film thickness measurement using x-ray peak ratioing in the scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, N.E.; Anderson, W.E.; Archuleta, T.A.; Stupin, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The procedure used to measure laser target film thickness using a scanning electron microscope is summarized. This method is generally applicable to any coating on any substrate as long as the electron energy is sufficient to penetrate the coating and the substrate produces an x-ray signal which can pass back through the coating and be detected

  12. On-line display used with cathode ray tube film measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Robertson, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved display has been developed for use on our computer controlled measuring device (RIPPLE). The device features a television image of the film and a digital presentation on the same X, Y display. The television image is formed using a modified left and right raster scan which can cover 50% more area in the same time as the traditional raster

  13. Flexible probe for measuring local conductivity variations in Li-ion electrode films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Emilee; Clement, Derek; Vogel, John; Wheeler, Dean; Mazzeo, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Li-ion battery performance is governed by electronic and ionic properties of the battery. A key metric that characterizes Li-ion battery cell performance is the electronic conductivity of the electrodes, which are metal foils with thin coatings of electrochemically active materials. To accurately measure the spatial variation of electronic conductivity of these electrodes, a micro-four-line probe (μ4LP) was designed and used to non-destructively measure the properties of commercial-quality Li-ion battery films. This previous research established that the electronic conductivity of film electrodes is not homogeneous throughout the entirety of the deposited film area. In this work, a micro-N-line probe (μNLP) and a flexible micro-flex-line probe (μFLP) were developed to improve the non-destructive micro-scale conductivity measurements that we can take. These devices were validated by comparing test results to that of the predecessor, the micro-four-line probe (μ4LP), on various commercial-quality Li-ion battery electrodes. Results show that there is significant variation in conductivity on a millimeter and even micrometer length scale through the electrode film. Compared to the μ4LP, the μNLP and μFLP also introduce additional measurement configuration possibilities, while providing a more robust design. Researchers and manufacturers can use these probes to identify heterogeneity in their electrodes during the fabrication process, which will lead to the development of better batteries.

  14. Thin film thickness measurement error reduction by wavelength selection in spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsepulin, Vladimir G; Perchik, Alexey V; Tolstoguzov, Victor L; Karasik, Valeriy E

    2015-01-01

    Fast and accurate volumetric profilometry of thin film structures is an important problem in the electronic visual display industry. We propose to use spectrophotometry with a limited number of working wavelengths to achieve high-speed control and an approach to selecting the optimal working wavelengths to reduce the thickness measurement error. A simple expression for error estimation is presented and tested using a Monte Carlo simulation. The experimental setup is designed to confirm the stability of film thickness determination using a limited number of wavelengths

  15. Local, atomic-level elastic strain measurements of metallic glass thin films by electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebner, C. [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Sarkar, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 (United States); Rajagopalan, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 (United States); Rentenberger, C., E-mail: christian.rentenberger@univie.ac.at [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-15

    A novel technique is used to measure the atomic-level elastic strain tensor of amorphous materials by tracking geometric changes of the first diffuse ring of selected area electron diffraction patterns (SAD). An automatic procedure, which includes locating the centre and fitting an ellipse to the diffuse ring with sub-pixel precision is developed for extracting the 2-dimensional strain tensor from the SAD patterns. Using this technique, atomic-level principal strains from micrometre-sized regions of freestanding amorphous Ti{sub 0.45}Al{sub 0.55} thin films were measured during in-situ TEM tensile deformation. The thin films were deformed using MEMS based testing stages that allow simultaneous measurement of the macroscopic stress and strain. The calculated atomic-level principal strains show a linear dependence on the applied stress, and good correspondence with the measured macroscopic strains. The calculated Poisson’s ratio of 0.23 is reasonable for brittle metallic glasses. The technique yields a strain accuracy of about 1×10{sup −4} and shows the potential to obtain localized strain profiles/maps of amorphous thin film samples. - Highlights: • A TEM method to measure elastic strain in metallic glass films is proposed. • Method is based on tracking geometric changes in TEM diffraction patterns. • An automatic procedure is developed for extracting the local strain tensor. • Atomic-level strain in amorphous TiAl film was analysed during in-situ deformation. • Capability of the method to obtain micrometer scale strain profiles/maps is shown.

  16. Damage performance of TiO2/SiO2 thin film components induced by a long-pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Dai Gang; Zhang Hongchao; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the long-pulsed laser induced damage performance of optical thin films, damage experiments of TiO 2 /SiO 2 films irradiated by a laser with 1 ms pulse duration and 1064 nm wavelength are performed. In the experiments, the damage threshold of the thin films is measured. The damages are observed to occur in isolated spots, which enlighten the inducement of the defects and impurities originated in the films. The threshold goes down when the laser spot size decreases. But there exists a minimum threshold, which cannot be further reduced by decreasing the laser spot size. Optical microscopy reveals a cone-shaped cavity in the film substrate. Changes of the damaged sizes in film components with laser fluence are also investigated. The results show that the damage efficiency increases with the laser fluence before the shielding effects start to act.

  17. Advanced platform for the in-plane ZT measurement of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linseis, V.; Völklein, F.; Reith, H.; Nielsch, K.; Woias, P.

    2018-01-01

    The characterization of nanostructured samples with at least one restricted dimension like thin films or nanowires is challenging, but important to understand their structure and transport mechanism, and to improve current industrial products and production processes. We report on the 2nd generation of a measurement chip, which allows for a simplified sample preparation process, and the measurement of samples deposited from the liquid phase using techniques like spin coating and drop casting. The new design enables us to apply much higher temperature gradients for the Seebeck coefficient measurement in a shorter time, without influencing the sample holder's temperature distribution. Furthermore, a two membrane correction method for the 3ω thermal conductivity measurement will be presented, which takes the heat loss due to radiation into account and increases the accuracy of the measurement results significantly. Errors caused by different sample compositions, varying sample geometries, and different heat profiles are avoided with the presented measurement method. As a showcase study displaying the validity and accuracy of our platform, we present temperature-dependent measurements of the thermoelectric properties of an 84 nm Bi87Sb13 thin film and a 15 μm PEDOT:PSS thin film.

  18. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  19. All-optical measurement of interlayer exchange coupling in Fe/Pt/FePt thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, C.; Ganss, F.; Jaris, M.; Albrecht, M.; Schmidt, H.

    2018-01-01

    Time Resolved Magneto Optic Kerr Effect spectroscopy was used to all-optically study the dynamics in exchange coupled Fe(10 nm)/Pt(x = 0-5 nm)/FePt (10 nm) thin films. As the Pt spacer decreases, the effective magnetization of the layers is seen to evolve towards the strong coupling limit where the two films can be described by a single effective magnetization. The coupling begins at x = 1.5 nm and reaches a maximum exchange coupling constant of 2.89 erg/cm2 at x = 0 nm. The films are ferromagnetically coupled at all Pt thicknesses in the exchange coupled regime (x ≤ 1.5 nm). A procedure for extracting the interlayer exchange constant by measuring the magnetic precession frequencies at multiple applied fields and angles is outlined. The dynamics are well reproduced using micromagnetic simulations.

  20. Optically transparent boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films for spectroelectrochemical measurements on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobaszek, M.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Pluciński, J.; Siuzdak, K.; Skowroński, Ł.

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication process of optically transparent boron nanocrystalline diamond (B- NCD) electrode on silicon and quartz substrate was shown. The B-NCD films were deposited on the substrates using Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MWPACVD) at glass substrate temperature of 475 °C. A homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with high sp 3 content in B-NCD films and film thickness depending from substrate in the range of 60-300 nm was obtained. The high refraction index and transparency in visible (VIS) wavelength range was achieved. Moreover, cyclic voltammograms (CV) were recorded to determine reaction reversibility at the B-NCD electrode. CV measurements in aqueous media consisting of 1 mM K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 demonstrated relatively fast kinetics expressed by a redox peak splitting below 503 mV for B-NCD/silicon and 110 mv for B-NCD/quartz

  1. A piezo-film-based measurement system for global haemodynamic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Fabrizio; Cimmino, Pasquale; Arpaia, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    A non-invasive piezo-film-based measurement method for haemodynamic assessment is proposed. The design of a system, able to reconstruct the blood pressure waveform online by dealing with problems arising from the piezo-film capacitive nature in the targeted frequency range (from quasi-dc up to 12 Hz), is illustrated. The system is based on a commercial piezo-film placed easily on the radial artery with a special brace without any discomfort for the patient. The analogical conditioning circuit and digital signal processing are continuously tuned with the signal from the sensor to reconstruct the blood pressure signal online. Diagnostic schema, based on physio-pathological models, have been implemented in order to compute online trends of max[dP(t)/d(t)] and volemic status highly useful for the intensivist and anaesthesiologist. The system was characterized by numerical simulation and experimental in vivo comparison to the traditional reference system

  2. Spectral interferometry including the effect of transparent thin films to measure distances and displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubina, P.

    2004-01-01

    A spectral-domain interferometric technique is applied for measuring mirror distances and displacements in a dispersive Michelson interferometer when the effect of transparent thin films coated onto the interferometer beam splitter and compensator is known. We employ a low-resolution spectrometer in two experiments with different amounts of dispersion in a Michelson interferometer that includes fused-silica optical sample. Knowing the thickness of the optical sample and the nonlinear phase function of the thin films, the positions of the interferometer mirror are determined precisely by a least-squares fitting of the theoretical spectral interferograms to the recorded ones. We compare the results of the processing that include and do not include the effect of transparent thin films (Author)

  3. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  4. Results of film dosemeter control irradiations of German dose measurements services, 1969-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gummi, V.; Taubert, R.

    1976-01-01

    The dose measurement services of the FRG have been controlling themselves since 1961 by evaluating film dosimeters irradiated in the PTB under standard conditions. This control method is now embodied in a law by the second decree about the standardization of measuring instruments dt. 6th August 1975. During the time 1969-74 the PTB carried out more than 800 annual control irradiations of film dosimeters. In 30% of the cases the evaluation by the measuring services showed an errory higher than +50%/-30%. The dose measuring services partially diverge considerably concerning the distribution of evaluation errors. Particular difficulties seem to exist in the soft x-ray radiation with effective energies less than 30 keV, in the energy range about 100 keV, and in the evaluation of dosemeter irradiated with two different qualities of radiation (double irradiation). (orig.) [de

  5. Model of vortex dynamics in superconducting films in two-coil measurements of the coherence length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberger, Thomas; Loh, Yen Lee

    In two-coil measurements on superconducting films, a magnetic field from a small coil is applied to the center of the film. When the amplitude of the ac field is increased, the film undergoes a transition from the ``Meissner'' state to a state with vortices and antivortices. Ultimately, the vortex density matches the applied magnetic field and field screening is negligible. Experimentally, the field at the transition is related to the superconducting coherence length, although a full theory of the relationship is lacking. We show that the mutual inductance between drive and pickup coils, on opposite sides of the film, as a function of ac field amplitude is well-described by a phenomenological model in which vortices and antivortices appear together in the film at the radius where the induced supercurrent is strongest, and then they move through a landscape of moderately strong vortex pinning sites. Work at OSU supported by DOE-Basic Energy Sciences through Grant No. FG02-08ER46533.

  6. Laser-Induced, Local Oxidation of Copper Nanoparticle Films During Raman Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hight Walker, Angela R.; Cheng, Guangjun; Calizo, Irene

    2011-03-01

    The optical properties of gold and silver nanoparticles and their films have been thoroughly investigated as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates and chemical reaction promoters. Similar to gold and silver nanoparticles, copper nanoparticles exhibit distinct plasmon absorptions in the visible region. The work on copper nanoparticles and their films is limited due to their oxidization in air. However, their high reactivity actually provides an opportunity to exploit the laser-induced thermal effect and chemical reactions of these nanoparticles. Here, we present our investigation of the local oxidation of a copper nanoparticle film induced by a visible laser source during Raman spectroscopic measurements. The copper nanoparticle film is prepared by drop-casting chemically synthesized copper colloid onto silicon oxide/silicon substrate. The local oxidation induced by visible lasers in Raman spectroscopy is monitored with the distinct scattering peaks for copper oxides. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the laser-induced morphological changes in the film. The results of this oxidation process with different excitation wavelengths and different laser powers will be presented.

  7. The measurement of conductivity of copper indium disulphide thin films against temperature and thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussof Wahab; Roslinda Zainal; Samsudi Sakrani

    1996-01-01

    Ternary semiconductor copper indium disulphide (CuInS sub 2) thin films have been prepared by thermal evaporation. Three stacked layers of film starting with copper, indium and finally sulphur was deposited on glass substrate in the thickness ratio of 1: 1: I0. The films were then annealed in carbon block by method known as encapsulated sulphurization at 350 degree C for 4 hours. The XRD analysis for four samples of thickness of 449.5, 586, 612 and 654 nm showed that stoichiometric CuInS sub 2, were formed at this annealing condition. The electrical conductivity of CuInS sub 2 thin films were measured against temperature from 150K to 300K. The conductivity values were between 76.6 Sm sup -1 to 631.26 Sm sup -1 and the result showed that it increase exponentially with temperature for the above temperature range. The resulting activation energies were found to be in the range 0.05 to 0.08 eV. This suggested that hopping mechanism predominant to the conducting process. It also found that the conductivity decreased with increasing film thickness

  8. [Investigation of multi-wavelength effect during the measurement of UV-enhanced film's emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Ni, Zheng-ji; Zhang, Da-wei; Huang, Yuan-shen; Zhuang, Song-lin

    2009-09-01

    The UV-responsive detector is a dual-use device for civilian and military after the laser and IR-responsive sensors. Typical image sensor coated with a layer of down-convert frequency thin film on it's photosurface to enhance UV response is the key technology of enhancing UV-response. The UV-enhanced thin film was made in the experimental laboratory using the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor by spin coating method. Two peaks at 520 and 560 nm respectively in the emission spectrum of the UV-enhanced film were found by SP1702 spectrograph when the excitation wavelength was 260 and 280 nm. The peaks were found in the process of experiment of measuring and counting the quantum efficiency of UV-enhanced thin film. But the light peaks at 520 and 560 nm are not the emission light peaks by the exciting light of 260 and 280 nm. The reason why the light at 520 and 560 nm is not the emission light was analyzed based on the measurement principle of grating spectrograph. The reasons for the multi-wavelength of light overlaps during the measurement of emission spectrum were also discussed. And the equipment used to separate the overlapped different wavelengths was designed, which will be used to resolve the problem of the overlap of multi-wavelength.

  9. Measurement of the magnetic penetration depth in p-doped superconducting diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Lorenz; Brunner, Markus C.P.; Schneider, Ina; Kronfeldner, Klaus [University of Regensburg (Germany); Bousquet, Jessica; Bustarret, Etienne; Strunk, Christoph [Institut Neel, Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-01

    Boron-doped diamond becomes superconducting once a critical doping concentration of 4.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} is reached. Mutual inductance measurements with a two-coil setup have been performed to determine the magnetic penetration depth λ(T), which is a measure for the superfluid stiffnes θ ∝ 1/λ{sup 2}(T). Two superconducting p-doped diamond films with thicknesses of 145 nm and 345 nm were investigated. At low temperatures these values agree reasonably with the values expected within BCS-theory using T{sub c}, carrier density and mean free path determined from electric transport measurements. Magnetic penetration depths of 3.7 μm for the thinner and 2.6 μm for the thicker film have been found. λ decreases and accordingly θ increases with increasing film thickness. On the other hand, the superfluid stiffness drops by a factor of 2 or even more at T{sub c}/2, i.e., much faster than expected from BCS-theory, but remains finite between T{sub c}/2 < T < T{sub c}. At present it is unclear, whether this behavior results from the proliferation of phase fluctuations already far below T{sub c} or from a spatial inhomogeneity of the films.

  10. Simultaneous measurements of thickness and temperature profile in a wavy liquid film falling freely on a heating wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyu, T.; Mudawar, I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a technique for measuring the thickness of liquid films that was developed and tested. The feasibility of this technique was demonstrated in stagnant liquid films as well as in liquid jets. A procedure for in-situ calibration of the thickness probe was developed, allowing the adaptation of the probe to measurements of wavy liquid films. The thickness probe was constructed from a platinum-rhodium wire that was stretched across the film. A constant DC current was supplied through the probe wire, and film thickness was determined from variations in the probe voltage drop resulting from the large differences in the electrical resistances of the wetted and unwetted segments of the wire. Unlike electrical admittance thickness probes, the new probe did not require dissolving an electrolyte in the liquid, making the new probe well suited to studies involving sensible heating of a film of pure dielectric liquid that is in direct contact with a current- carrying wall. Also presented is a composite probe that facilitated simultaneous measurements of temperature profile across a wavy liquid film and film thickness. Experimental results demonstrate a strong influence of waviness on liquid temperature in a film of deionized water falling freely on the outside wall of a vertical, electrically heated tube for film Reynolds numbers smaller than 10,000

  11. Automatic temperature compensating apparatus for measurement of thin films during deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generosi, R.; Miriametro, A.

    1982-09-01

    This work describes the construction of a quartz resonator capable of measuring the thickness of deposited thin films with very high precision. A voltage-to-frequency converter is used as a reference oscillator. Temperature variations during the evaporation process, produced by both thermal irradiation and atomic bombardments, are monitored by an iron-constantan thermocouple which is used to generate a compensating signal at the input of the converter. The system also allows accurate measurement of the growth rate.

  12. A unified approach to deconvolution radiation spectra measured by radiochromic films

    CERN Document Server

    Stancic, V; Ljubenov, V

    2002-01-01

    A method for the evaluation of energy distribution of a radiation source on the basis of measured space distribution of deposited energy is proposed. The measured data were obtained by using radiochromic films. Mathematical modeling is defined as a Fredholm integral equation inversion problem. Negative solutions were treated as an additional condition expressed through undefined energy group boundaries, caused by virtue of the physical phenomenon of statistical uncertainty. Examples are given of the electron source and neutron radiation field.

  13. Measuring sticking and stripping in muon catalyzed dt fusion with multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.C.; Bailey, J.M.; Beer, G.A.

    1995-12-01

    The authors propose a direct measurement of muon sticking to alpha particles in muon catalyzed dt fusion at a high density. Exploiting the features of a multilayer thin film target developed at TRIUMF, the sticking is determined directly by detection of charged fusion products. Experimental separation of initial ticking and stripping may become possible for the first time. Monte Carlo simulations, as well as preliminary results of test measurements are described

  14. Dose determination with nitro blue tetrazolium containing radiochromic dye films by measuring absorbed and reflected light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnárovits, L.

    2000-01-01

    determination in a wide dose range both by absorbance and reflectance measurements. The concept of measuring reflected light from dose labels has been discussed earlier and emerged recently due to the requirement of introducing semiquantitative label dose indicators for quarantine control. The usefulness...... of the method was studied using the newly developed radiochromic dye films as well as already existing ones. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Field method for estimation of fluoride in drinking groundwater by photometric measurement of spot on aluminium quinalizarin reagent paper

    OpenAIRE

    Zaher Barghouthi; Sameer Amereih

    2017-01-01

    A simple field method for determination of fluoride in drinking water using handmade fluoride reagent paper impregnated by aluminium quinalizarin complex was developed. Fluoride reacts with the impregnated reagent paper to release the free ligand with new colour, orange different from that of the complex. The change in the colour, which is proportional to the amount of fluoride, was measured by the Arsenator. The functionality of the Arsenator which is based on a photometric measurement of sp...

  16. The analysis of track chamber photographs using flying spot digitizers

    CERN Multimedia

    Powell, Brian W

    1966-01-01

    A vast quantity of data pours from the experiments on particle accelerators throughout the world. For example, over 300 000 photographs per week came from the three bubble chambers operating on the CERN PS at the end of 1965. The conventional method of processing these bubble chamber photographs is for each one of them to be examined ('scanned') to see whether it records an interesting particle interaction. The interesting photographs are then passed to hand operated measuring machines to obtain precise measurements of the particle trajectories recorded on the film. Similar measurements are carried out on photographs taken in film spark chamber experiments. This article on the Flying Spot Digitizers at CERN describes one of the most fruitful attempts to speed and make more accurate the process of analysis of bubble and spark chamber photographs. There are two types of Flying Spot Digitizer at CERN — the HPD or Hough Powell Device (named after Professor Hough and the author who, together, initiated the devel...

  17. Microscopic and macroscopic inhomogeneity of magnetization and anistropy in amorphous rare earth/transition metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafner, D.; Hoffmann, H.

    1979-01-01

    Amorphous Gd/Co and Gd/Co/Mo-films are investigated by measuring the field dependence of the susceptibility. This allows a determination of the value and sign of the perpendicular uniaxial anisotropy as well as the value of the effective ripple stray field. The measurements are made at spots of 50 to 100 μm diameter, allowing one to scan the film surface. Measurements from a spot on the film surface and at the opposing spot on the film-glass substrate interface are performed simultaneously. In this way the anisotropy at two related points on both surfaces of the film can be compared. In general the results show the existence of a ripple stray field which can be accounted for by inhomogeneities in the amorphous films. The perpendicular anisotropy at the free film surface is always lower than the perpendicular anisotropy at the film-substrate interface. In some cases the magnetization at the film surface is in-plane, while at the substrate the magnetization is out-of-plane. The reduction of the perpendicular anisotropy is an ageing effect due to oxidation. (author)

  18. Potential errors in optical density measurements due to scanning side in EBT and EBT2 Gafchromic film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Joannie; Bouchard, Hugo; Lacroix, Frédéric

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect on the measured optical density of scanning on either side of a Gafchromic EBT and EBT2 film using an Epson (Epson Canada Ltd., Toronto, Ontario) 10000XL flat bed scanner. Calibration curves were constructed using EBT2 film scanned in landscape orientation in both reflection and transmission mode on an Epson 10000XL scanner. Calibration curves were also constructed using EBT film. Potential errors due to an optical density difference from scanning the film on either side ("face up" or "face down") were simulated. Scanning the film face up or face down on the scanner bed while keeping the film angular orientation constant affects the measured optical density when scanning in reflection mode. In contrast, no statistically significant effect was seen when scanning in transmission mode. This effect can significantly affect relative and absolute dose measurements. As an application example, the authors demonstrate potential errors of 17.8% by inverting the film scanning side on the gamma index for 3%-3 mm criteria on a head and neck intensity modulated radiotherapy plan, and errors in absolute dose measurements ranging from 10% to 35% between 2 and 5 Gy. Process consistency is the key to obtaining accurate and precise results in Gafchromic film dosimetry. When scanning in reflection mode, care must be taken to place the film consistently on the same side on the scanner bed.

  19. Technical Note: Potential errors in optical density measurements due to scanning side in EBT and EBT2 Gafchromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Joannie; Bouchard, Hugo; Lacroix, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect on the measured optical density of scanning on either side of a Gafchromic EBT and EBT2 film using an Epson (Epson Canada Ltd., Toronto, Ontario) 10000XL flat bed scanner. Methods: Calibration curves were constructed using EBT2 film scanned in landscape orientation in both reflection and transmission mode on an Epson 10000XL scanner. Calibration curves were also constructed using EBT film. Potential errors due to an optical density difference from scanning the film on either side (''face up'' or ''face down'') were simulated. Results: Scanning the film face up or face down on the scanner bed while keeping the film angular orientation constant affects the measured optical density when scanning in reflection mode. In contrast, no statistically significant effect was seen when scanning in transmission mode. This effect can significantly affect relative and absolute dose measurements. As an application example, the authors demonstrate potential errors of 17.8% by inverting the film scanning side on the gamma index for 3%--3 mm criteria on a head and neck intensity modulated radiotherapy plan, and errors in absolute dose measurements ranging from 10% to 35% between 2 and 5 Gy. Conclusions: Process consistency is the key to obtaining accurate and precise results in Gafchromic film dosimetry. When scanning in reflection mode, care must be taken to place the film consistently on the same side on the scanner bed.

  20. Local photoconductivity of microcrystalline silicon thin films measured by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledinsky, Martin; Fejfar, Antonin; Vetushka, Aliaksei; Stuchlik, Jiri; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kocka, Jan [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Local currents measured under standard conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) conditions on microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) thin films were studied. It was shown that the AFM detection diode illuminating the AFM cantilever (see the figure on the right side) 100 x enhanced the current flows through the photosensitive {mu}c-Si:H layer. The local current map and current-voltage characteristics were measured under dark conditions. This study enables mapping of both the dark current and photocurrent. C-AFM cantilever illuminated by the detection diode during measurement on {mu}c-Si:H thin film. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuan Fang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index is also necessary since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemo...

  2. Quantitative measurement of local elasticity of SiOx film by atomic force acoustic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cun-Fu, He; Gai-Mei, Zhang; Bin, Wu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the elastic properties of SiO x film are investigated quantitatively for local fixed point and qualitatively for overall area by atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) in which the sample is vibrated at the ultrasonic frequency while the sample surface is touched and scanned with the tip contacting the sample respectively for fixed point and continuous measurements. The SiO x films on the silicon wafers are prepared by the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The local contact stiffness of the tip-SiO x film is calculated from the contact resonance spectrum measured with the atomic force acoustic microscopy. Using the reference approach, indentation modulus of SiO x film for fixed point is obtained. The images of cantilever amplitude are also visualized and analysed when the SiO x surface is excited at a fixed frequency. The results show that the acoustic amplitude images can reflect the elastic properties of the sample. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  3. Magnetostriction measurement of a giant magnetoresistance film on a practical substrate covered by a shield layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kazuhiko; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Miura, Hideo

    2012-04-01

    Magnetostriction constant of a magnetic thin film is conventionally measured by detecting the deformation of a coupon sample that consists of the magnetic film deposited on a thin glass substrate (e.g., cover glass of size 10 mm × 25 mm) under an applied field using a laser beam [A. C. Tam and H. Schroeder, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 5422 (1988)]. This method, however, cannot be applied to films deposited on actual large-size substrates (wafers) with diameter from 3 to 6 in. or more. In a previous paper [Okita et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 200, 112008 (2010)], the authors presented a method for measuring magnetostriction of a magnetic thin film deposited on an actual substrate by detecting the change of magnetic anisotropy field, Hk, under mechanical bending of the substrate. It was validated that the method is very effective for measuring the magnetostriction constant of a free layer on the actual substrate. However, since a Ni-Fe shield layer usually covers a magnetic head used for a hard disk drive, this shield layer disturbs the effective measurement of R-H curve under minor loop. Therefore, a high magnetic field that can saturate the magnetic material in the shield layer should be applied to the head in order to measure the magnetostriction constant of a pinned layer under the shield layer. In this paper, this method was applied to the measurement of the magnetostriction constant of a pinned layer under the shield layer by using a high magnetic field up to 320 kA/m (4 kOe).

  4. SU-G-BRB-14: Uncertainty of Radiochromic Film Based Relative Dose Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devic, S; Tomic, N; DeBlois, F; Seuntjens, J [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Lewis, D [RCF Consulting, LLC, Monroe, CT (United States); Aldelaijan, S [King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Due to inherently non-linear dose response, measurement of relative dose distribution with radiochromic film requires measurement of absolute dose using a calibration curve following previously established reference dosimetry protocol. On the other hand, a functional form that converts the inherently non-linear dose response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system into linear one has been proposed recently [Devic et al, Med. Phys. 39 4850–4857 (2012)]. However, there is a question what would be the uncertainty of such measured relative dose. Methods: If the relative dose distribution is determined going through the reference dosimetry system (conversion of the response by using calibration curve into absolute dose) the total uncertainty of such determined relative dose will be calculated by summing in quadrature total uncertainties of doses measured at a given and at the reference point. On the other hand, if the relative dose is determined using linearization method, the new response variable is calculated as ζ=a(netOD)n/ln(netOD). In this case, the total uncertainty in relative dose will be calculated by summing in quadrature uncertainties for a new response function (σζ) for a given and the reference point. Results: Except at very low doses, where the measurement uncertainty dominates, the total relative dose uncertainty is less than 1% for the linear response method as compared to almost 2% uncertainty level for the reference dosimetry method. The result is not surprising having in mind that the total uncertainty of the reference dose method is dominated by the fitting uncertainty, which is mitigated in the case of linearization method. Conclusion: Linearization of the radiochromic film dose response provides a convenient and a more precise method for relative dose measurements as it does not require reference dosimetry and creation of calibration curve. However, the linearity of the newly introduced function must be verified. Dave Lewis

  5. Simple measurement of light-interception by individual leaves in fruit vegetables by using an integrated solarimeter film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Nakano, Y.; Okano, K.

    2001-01-01

    Applicability of the integrated solarimeter film (Taisei Chemical Co. Ltd., Optleaf R-2D) for the measurement of amount of light-interception by individual leaves in fruit vegetables was investigated The fading rate of the film was highly correlated with the values measured by an integrated solarimeter at an open field, though the rate was depended on the air temperature during the measurement. Integrated solar radiation in a glasshouse could be estimated by the film as well as at an open field. Amount of light-interception by individual leaves of vertically trained watermelon plants could be measured by the film and light-interception characteristics of the plants could be expressed numerically. The integrated solarimeter film would be useful for analyzing light-interception characteristics in fruit vegetables

  6. Measurement of tritium in the free water of milk : spotting and quantifying some biases and proposing ways of improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, Pierre; Duda, Jean-Marie; Guétat, Philippe; Rambaud, Pauline; Mavon, Christophe; Vichot, Laurent; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Fromm, Michel

    2014-01-01

    As one of the three natural isotopes of hydrogen, tritium is ubiquitous and may potentially be present in any water or organic molecule that constitutes a biological matrix. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of chronic release of radionuclides, as it is a very common food product and also because it integrates deposition on large areas of grass or crops at a local scale. Different parameters have been studied to assess their impact on the reliability of tritium measurements in the free water of milk. The volume of the sample, the technique used to extract the water and the level of dehydration modulate the results but in different ways: dispersion of results and under- or over-estimation of the tritium activity. The influence of sample storage and preparation has also been investigated. Methodological improvements of tritium measurements in the free water of milk are proposed. An original fractionation effect during distillation of milk is also described. -- Highlights: • Biases in tritium assay are caused by the conditions in which the water is extracted. • Isotopic fractionation does not fit with the Rayleigh formula when milk is distilled. • Recommendations are made to improve tritium activity measurement

  7. WE-E-BRE-04: Dual Focal Spot Dose Painting for Precision Preclinical Radiobiological Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J; Lindsay, P [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Jaffray, D [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); The Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent progress in small animal radiotherapy systems has provided the foundation for delivering the heterogeneous, millimeter scale dose distributions demanded by preclinical radiobiology investigations. Despite advances in preclinical dose planning, delivery of highly heterogeneous dose distributions is constrained by the fixed collimation systems and large x-ray focal spot common in small animal radiotherapy systems. This work proposes a dual focal spot dose optimization and delivery method with a large x-ray focal spot used to deliver homogeneous dose regions and a small focal spot to paint spatially heterogeneous dose regions. Methods: Two-dimensional dose kernels were measured for a 1 mm circular collimator with radiochromic film at 10 mm depth in a solid water phantom for the small and large x-ray focal spots on a recently developed small animal microirradiator. These kernels were used in an optimization framework which segmented a desired dose distribution into low- and high-spatial frequency regions for delivery by the large and small focal spot, respectively. For each region, the method determined an optimal set of stage positions and beam-on times. The method was demonstrated by optimizing a bullseye pattern consisting of 0.75 mm radius circular target and 0.5 and 1.0 mm wide rings alternating between 0 and 2 Gy. Results: Compared to a large focal spot technique, the dual focal spot technique improved the optimized dose distribution: 69.2% of the optimized dose was within 0.5 Gy of the intended dose for the large focal spot, compared to 80.6% for the dual focal spot method. The dual focal spot design required 14.0 minutes of optimization, and will require 178.3 minutes for automated delivery. Conclusion: The dual focal spot optimization and delivery framework is a novel option for delivering conformal and heterogeneous dose distributions at the preclinical level and provides a new experimental option for unique radiobiological investigations

  8. WE-E-BRE-04: Dual Focal Spot Dose Painting for Precision Preclinical Radiobiological Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J; Lindsay, P; Jaffray, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent progress in small animal radiotherapy systems has provided the foundation for delivering the heterogeneous, millimeter scale dose distributions demanded by preclinical radiobiology investigations. Despite advances in preclinical dose planning, delivery of highly heterogeneous dose distributions is constrained by the fixed collimation systems and large x-ray focal spot common in small animal radiotherapy systems. This work proposes a dual focal spot dose optimization and delivery method with a large x-ray focal spot used to deliver homogeneous dose regions and a small focal spot to paint spatially heterogeneous dose regions. Methods: Two-dimensional dose kernels were measured for a 1 mm circular collimator with radiochromic film at 10 mm depth in a solid water phantom for the small and large x-ray focal spots on a recently developed small animal microirradiator. These kernels were used in an optimization framework which segmented a desired dose distribution into low- and high-spatial frequency regions for delivery by the large and small focal spot, respectively. For each region, the method determined an optimal set of stage positions and beam-on times. The method was demonstrated by optimizing a bullseye pattern consisting of 0.75 mm radius circular target and 0.5 and 1.0 mm wide rings alternating between 0 and 2 Gy. Results: Compared to a large focal spot technique, the dual focal spot technique improved the optimized dose distribution: 69.2% of the optimized dose was within 0.5 Gy of the intended dose for the large focal spot, compared to 80.6% for the dual focal spot method. The dual focal spot design required 14.0 minutes of optimization, and will require 178.3 minutes for automated delivery. Conclusion: The dual focal spot optimization and delivery framework is a novel option for delivering conformal and heterogeneous dose distributions at the preclinical level and provides a new experimental option for unique radiobiological investigations

  9. A direct method to measure the fracture toughness of indium tin oxide thin films on flexible polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Rwei-Ching; Tsai, Fa-Ta; Tu, Chin-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a straightforward method to measure the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates. A 200 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film is deposited on a 188 μm thick terephthalate (PET) substrate by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering machine. Using nanoindentation to induce brittle fracture on the ITO thin films, the energy release is calculated from integrating the resulting load–depth curve. An approach that directly measures the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates is proposed. A comparison shows that the results of the proposed method agree well with those of other reports. Furthermore, in order to improve the toughness of the ITO thin films, a copper interlayer is added between the ITO thin film and PET substrate. It shows that the fracture toughness of the ITO thin film deposited on the copper interlayer is higher than that of the one without the interlayer, which agrees well with the critical load tested by micro scratch. Further observations on optical and electric performances are also discussed in this work. - Highlights: • A straightforward method to measure the film's toughness • Directly using the load-depth curve of nanoindentation • The toughness is consistent with the critical load tested by micro scratch. • Interlayers can improve the film's toughness. • Optical and electric performances are also discussed

  10. Forme Fruste Keratoconus Imaging and Validation via Novel Multi-Spot Reflection Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios John Kanellopoulos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This case report aims to evaluate safety, efficacy and applicability of anterior surface imaging in a patient with forme fruste keratoconus (FFKC based on a novel multi-spot, multicolor light-emitting-diode (LED tear film-reflection imaging technology Case Description: A 45-year-old male patient, clinically diagnosed with FFKC, with highly asymmetric manifestation between his eyes, was subjected to the multicolor-spot reflection topography. We investigated elevation and sagittal curvature maps comparatively with the multicolor-spot reflection topographer, a Placido topographer and a Scheimpflug imaging system. For the right eye, steep and flat keratometry values were 41.92 and 41.05 D with the multicolor spot-reflection topographer, 42.30 and 42.08 D with the Placido, and 41.95 and 41.19 D with the Scheimpflug system. For the left eye, steep and flat keratometry values were 41.86 and 41.19 D with the multicolor spot-reflection topographer, 42.06 and 41.66 D with the Placido topographer, and 41.96 and 41.66 D with the Scheimpflug camera. Average repeatability of the keratometry measurements was ±0.35 D for the multicolor spot-reflection topographer, ±0.30 D for the Placido, and ±0.25 D for the Scheimpflug camera. Very good agreement between the instruments was demonstrated on the elevation and curvature maps. Conclusion: The ease of use and the comparable results offered by the multicolor spot-reflection topographer, in comparison to established Placido and Scheimpflug imaging, as well as the increased predictability that may be offered by the multicolor spot-reflection topographer, may hold promise for wider clinical application, such as screening of young adults for early keratoconus and, in a much wider perspective, potential candidates for laser corneal refractive surgery.

  11. Estimating central tendency from a single spot measure: A closed-form solution for lognormally distributed biomarker data for risk assessment at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Sobus, Jon R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure-based risk assessment employs large cross-sectional data sets of environmental and biomarker measurements to predict population statistics for adverse health outcomes. The underlying assumption is that long-term (many years) latency health problems including cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma are triggered by lifetime exposures to environmental stressors that interact with the genome. The aim of this study was to develop a specific predictive method that provides the statistical parameters for chronic exposure at the individual level based upon a single spot measurement and knowledge of global summary statistics as derived from large data sets. This is a profound shift in exposure and health statistics in that it begins to answer the question "How large is my personal risk?" rather than just providing an overall population-based estimate. This approach also holds value for interpreting exposure-based risks for small groups of individuals within a community in comparison to random individuals from the general population.

  12. A reliable control system for measurement on film thickness in copper chemical mechanical planarization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongkai; Qu, Zilian; Zhao, Qian; Tian, Fangxin; Zhao, Dewen; Meng, Yonggang; Lu, Xinchun [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, a variety of film thickness measurement techniques for copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) are subsequently proposed. In this paper, the eddy-current technique is used. In the control system of the CMP tool developed in the State Key Laboratory of Tribology, there are in situ module and off-line module for measurement subsystem. The in situ module can get the thickness of copper film on wafer surface in real time, and accurately judge when the CMP process should stop. This is called end-point detection. The off-line module is used for multi-points measurement after CMP process, in order to know the thickness of remained copper film. The whole control system is structured with two levels, and the physical connection between the upper and the lower is achieved by the industrial Ethernet. The process flow includes calibration and measurement, and there are different algorithms for two modules. In the process of software development, C++ is chosen as the programming language, in combination with Qt OpenSource to design two modules’ GUI and OPC technology to implement the communication between the two levels. In addition, the drawing function is developed relying on Matlab, enriching the software functions of the off-line module. The result shows that the control system is running stably after repeated tests and practical operations for a long time.

  13. Measurement for the MLC leaf velocity profile by considering the leaf leakage using a radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C L; Grigorov, Grigor N

    2006-01-01

    A method to measure the velocity profile of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf along its travel range using a radiographic film is reported by considering the intra-leaf leakage. A specific dynamic MLC field with leaves travelling from the field edge to the isocentre line was designed. The field was used to expose a radiographic film, which was then scanned, and the dose profile along the horizontal leaf axis was measured. The velocity at a sampling point on the film can be calculated by considering the horizontal distance between the sampling point and the isocentre line, dose at the sampling point, dose rate of the linear accelerator, the total leaf travel time from the field edge to isocentre line and the pre-measured dose rate of leaf leakage. With the leaf velocities and velocity profiles for all MLC leaves measured routinely, a comprehensive and simple QA for the MLC can be set up to test the consistency of the leaf velocity performance which is essential to the IMRT delivery using a sliding window technique. (note)

  14. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J M; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-03-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  15. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  16. Prediction of residual stress distribution in multi-stacked thin film by curvature measurement and iterative FEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeon Chang; Park, Jun Hyub

    2005-01-01

    In this study, residual stress distribution in multi-stacked film by MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical System) process is predicted using Finite Element Method (FEM). We develop a finite element program for REsidual Stress Analysis (RESA) in multi-stacked film. The RESA predicts the distribution of residual stress field in multi-stacked film. Curvatures of multi-stacked film and single layers which consist of the multi-stacked film are used as the input to the RESA. To measure those curvatures is easier than to measure a distribution of residual stress. To verify the RESA, mean stresses and stress gradients of single and multilayers are measured. The mean stresses are calculated from curvatures of deposited wafer by using Stoney's equation. The stress gradients are calculated from the vertical deflection at the end of cantilever beam. To measure the mean stress of each layer in multi-stacked film, we measure the curvature of wafer with the film after etching layer by layer in multi-stacked film

  17. Measurement of tritium in the free water of milk : spotting and quantifying some biases and proposing ways of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Pierre; Duda, Jean-Marie; Guétat, Philippe; Rambaud, Pauline; Mavon, Christophe; Vichot, Laurent; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Fromm, Michel

    2014-01-01

    As one of the three natural isotopes of hydrogen, tritium is ubiquitous and may potentially be present in any water or organic molecule that constitutes a biological matrix. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of chronic release of radionuclides, as it is a very common food product and also because it integrates deposition on large areas of grass or crops at a local scale. Different parameters have been studied to assess their impact on the reliability of tritium measurements in the free water of milk. The volume of the sample, the technique used to extract the water and the level of dehydration modulate the results but in different ways: dispersion of results and under- or over-estimation of the tritium activity. The influence of sample storage and preparation has also been investigated. Methodological improvements of tritium measurements in the free water of milk are proposed. An original fractionation effect during distillation of milk is also described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Film cooling adiabatic effectiveness measurements of pressure side trailing edge cooling configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Becchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays total inlet temperature of gas turbine is far above the permissible metal temperature; as a consequence, advanced cooling techniques must be applied to protect from thermal stresses, oxidation and corrosion the components located in the high pressure stages, such as the blade trailing edge. A suitable design of the cooling system for the trailing edge has to cope with geometric constraints and aerodynamic demands; state-of-the-art of cooling concepts often use film cooling on blade pressure side: the air taken from last compressor stages is ejected through discrete holes or slots to provide a cold layer between hot mainstream and the blade surface. With the goal of ensuring a satisfactory lifetime of blades, the design of efficient trailing edge film cooling schemes and, moreover, the possibility to check carefully their behavior, are hence necessary to guarantee an appropriate metal temperature distribution. For this purpose an experimental survey was carried out to investigate the film covering performance of different pressure side trailing edge cooling systems for turbine blades. The experimental test section consists of a scaled-up trailing edge model installed in an open loop suction type test rig. Measurements of adiabatic effectiveness distributions were carried out on three trailing edge cooling system configurations. The baseline geometry is composed by inclined slots separated by elongated pedestals; the second geometry shares the same cutback configuration, with an additional row of circular film cooling holes located upstream; the third model is equipped with three rows of in-line film cooling holes. Experiments have been performed at nearly ambient conditions imposing several blowing ratio values and using carbon dioxide as coolant in order to reproduce a density ratio close to the engine conditions (DR=1.52. To extend the validity of the survey a comparison between adiabatic effectiveness measurements and a prediction by

  19. Measurements of skin friction in water using surface stress sensitive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crafton, J W; Fonov, S D; Jones, E G; Goss, L P; Forlines, R A; Fontaine, A

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of skin friction on hydrodynamic surfaces is of significant value for the design of advanced naval technology, particularly at high Reynolds numbers. Here we report on the development of a new sensor for measurement of skin friction and pressure that operates in both air and water. This sensor is based on an elastic polymer film that deforms under the action of applied normal and tangential loads. Skin friction and pressure gradients are determined by monitoring these deformations and then solving an inverse problem using a finite element model of the elastic film. This technique is known as surface stress sensitive films. In this paper, we describe the development of a sensor package specifically designed for two-dimensional skin friction measurements at a single point. The package has been developed with the goal of making two-dimensional measurements of skin friction in water. Quantitative measurements of skin friction are performed on a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer in the 12 inch water tunnel at Penn State University. These skin friction measurements are verified by comparing them to measurements obtained with a drag plate as well as by performing two-dimensional velocity measurements above the sensor using a laser Doppler velocimetry system. The results indicate that the sensor skin friction measurements are accurate to better than 5% and repeatable to better than 2%. The directional sensitivity of the sensor is demonstrated by positioning the sensor at several orientations to the flow. A final interesting feature of this sensor is that it is sensitive to pressure gradients, not to static pressure changes. This feature should prove useful for monitoring the skin friction on a seafaring vessel as the operating depth is changed

  20. Specific heat measurement set-up for quench condensed thin superconducting films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, Shachaf; Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Gérardin, Anne; Frydman, Aviad; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    We present a set-up designed for the measurement of specific heat of very thin or ultra-thin quench condensed superconducting films. In an ultra-high vacuum chamber, materials of interest can be thermally evaporated directly on a silicon membrane regulated in temperature from 1.4 K to 10 K. On this membrane, a heater and a thermometer are lithographically fabricated, allowing the measurement of heat capacity of the quench condensed layers. This apparatus permits the simultaneous thermal and electrical characterization of successively deposited layers in situ without exposing the deposited materials to room temperature or atmospheric conditions, both being irreversibly harmful to the samples. This system can be used to study specific heat signatures of phase transitions through the superconductor to insulator transition of quench condensed films.

  1. Measurements of recombination coefficient of hydrogen atoms on plasma deposited thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drenik, A.; Vesel, A.; Mozetic, M.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed experiments in plasma afterglow in order to determine the recombination coefficients of plasma deposited thin films of tungsten and graphite. Plasma deposited films rather than bulk material were used in order to more closely emulate surface structure of plasma-facing material deposits in fusion reactors. We have also determined the recombination coefficient of 85250 borosilicate glass and Teflon. Plasma was created by means of a radio frequency generator in a mixture of argon and hydrogen at the pressures between 60 Pa and 280 Pa. The degree of dissociation of hydrogen molecules was found to be between 0.1 and 1. The H-atom density was measured by Fiber Optic Catalytic Probe. The recombination coefficient was determined by measuring the axial profile of the H-atom density and using Smith's side arm diffusion model. (author)

  2. Determining surface coverage of ultra-thin gold films from X-ray reflectivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossoy, A.; Simakov, D.; Olafsson, S.; Leosson, K.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes usage of X-ray reflectivity for characterization of surface coverage (i.e. film continuity) of ultra-thin gold films which are widely studied for optical, plasmonic and electronic applications. The demonstrated method is very sensitive and can be applied for layers below 1 nm. It has several advantages over other techniques which are often employed in characterization of ultra-thin metal films, such as optical absorption, Atomic Force Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy or Scanning Electron Microscopy. In contrast to those techniques our method does not require specialized sample preparation and measurement process is insensitive to electrostatic charge and/or presence of surface absorbed water. We validate our results with image processing of Scanning Electron Microscopy images. To ensure precise quantitative analysis of the images we developed a generic local thresholding algorithm which allowed us to treat series of images with various values of surface coverage with similar image processing parameters. - Highlights: • Surface coverage/continuity of ultra-thin Au films (up to 7 nm) was determined. • Results from X-ray reflectivity were verified by scanning electron microscopy. • We developed local thresholding algorithm to treat non-homogeneous image contrast

  3. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Triticale Starch Films Using Photothermal Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Solorzano-Ojeda, S. C.; Tramón-Pregnan, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, several commercially biodegradable materials have been developed with mechanical properties similar to those of conventional petrochemical-based polymers. These materials are made from renewable sources such as starch, cellulose, corn, and molasses, being very attractive for numerous applications in the plastics, food, and paper industries, among others. Starches from maize, rice, wheat, and potato are used in the food industry. However, other types of starches are not used due to their low protein content, such as triticale. In this study, starch films, processed using a single screw extruder with different compositions, were thermally and structurally characterized. The thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, and thermal conductivity of the biodegradable films were determined using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the open photoacoustic cell technique, and the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in an inverse configuration. The results showed differences in thermal properties for the films. Also, the films microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the crystalline structure determined by X-ray diffraction.

  4. Comparison of absolute speed of screen-film systems measured in seven institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Murakami, Yasunori; Asahara, Masaki; Nakamura, Satoru; Honda, Mitsugi; Morishita, Junji; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Otsuka, Akiyoshi; Yoshida, Akira.

    1998-01-01

    We compared the differences in absolute speed of four screen-film systems in seven institutions. Four different screens (HR-4, Fuji; Lanex Medium, Kodak; Lanex 250, Kodak; and HR-12, Fuji) combined with super HRS-30 (Fuji) film and a beam quality of 80 kV tube voltage with a 20 mm aluminum filter were employed. Absolute speeds of the HR-4, Lanex Medium, Lanex 250, and HR-12 in combination with super HRS-30 were 1.83 mR -1 , 2.72 mR -1 , 2.79 mR -1 , and 5.35 mR -1 (average of seven institutions), respectively. The variation in speed was about ±10% for the seven institutions. Two factors (film processor and densitometer) affecting absolute speed were analyzed. The absolute speed measured in seven institutions varied ±14% depending on the film processor (development conditions) and ±3% depending on the densitometer employed in each institution. (author)

  5. Study of third order nonlinearity of chalcogenide thin films using third harmonic generation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Sunita; Mohan, Devendra; Kumar, Manish; Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    Third order nonlinear susceptibility of (GeSe3.5)100-xBix (x = 0, 10, 14) and ZnxSySe100-x-y (x = 2, y = 28; x = 4, y = 20; x = 6, y = 12; x = 8, y = 4) amorphous chalcogenide thin films prepared using thermal evaporation technique is estimated. The dielectric constant at incident and third harmonic wavelength is calculated using "PARAV" computer program. 1064 nm wavelength of Nd: YAG laser is incident on thin film and third harmonic signal at 355 nm wavelength alongwith fundamental light is obtained in reflection that is separated from 1064 nm using suitable optical filter. Reflected third harmonic signal is measured to trace the influence of Bi and Zn on third order nonlinear susceptibility and is found to increase with increase in Bi and Zn content in (GeSe3.5)100-xBix, and ZnxSySe100-x-y chalcogenide thin films respectively. The excellent optical nonlinear property shows the use of chalcogenide thin films in photonics for wavelength conversion and optical data processing.

  6. A comparative study of the work involved in measuring profiles using ion chambers, a linear diode array and film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykers, K.L.; RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC; Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW; Geso, M.; Brown, G.M.; Olilver, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The usefulness of film to perform dosimetric measurement is a topic often discussed and not clearly agreed upon. While single point measurement detectors give consistent and reliable results for physically wedged fields they cannot be easily used to measure intensity modulated fields. In this work a method of using film to measure profiles for dynamically wedged (DW) fields is presented. The method of positioning film for the subsequent generation of a conversion function to allow for the variation in films' response with energy is outlined. Furthermore, the profiles determined by film measurement are compared with those measured with single point measurement detector and an array of silicon diodes. Both Leavitt et. al. 8 and Weber et. al. 7 have reported on the successful use of the linear diode array (LDA) in measuring dynamic wedge data. This claim will be investigated. The film used in this work was Kodak X-Omat V. The solid water was RW3 with high water equivalency in the range from 137 CS to 50 MV for photons and electrons. All films were processed in an automatic processor. Both the Wellhoefer and the Scanditronix RFA 300 densitometers were used to take film readings. Wedged field and open field profiles measurements were taken in water using both the Wellhoefer IC-10 chamber, the Scanditronix RFA 300 RK chamber and the Scanditronix LDA . The energy investigated was 6 MV at 1.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 cm for a Varian 2100C machine. More consistent density readings were obtained when films were processed with the edge of the film that was parallel to the beam axis was fed into the processor first; rather than when the beam incident edge was fed into the processor first. Comparing the position of the central axis (CAX) of open films from the geometric method developed in this work to the software determined CAX (as available with the Wellhoefer software), it was found that the difference in CAX positions varied between -0.03 to +0.04 cm at 2.5 cm

  7. How to Describe and Measure Obstacles of Narrative Immersion in a Film? The Wheel of Immersion as a Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Magnusson, Andreas; Nielsen, Robin Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and measure obstacles of narrative immersion in a film. Inspired by a literature review within both game research and film studies, we propose a circular model to describe the dynamic process of different levels of involvement viewers can be in while watching ...

  8. Measurement of contact-line dissipation in a nanometer-thin soap film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuo; Lee, Chun Huen; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2015-01-01

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient ξ(c) of two fluctuating contact lines formed on a fiber surface when a long glass fiber intersects the two water-air interfaces of a thin soap film. The glass fiber of diameter d in the range of 0.4-4 μm and length 100-300 μm is glued onto the front end of a rectangular cantilever used for atomic force microscopy. As a sensitive mechanical resonator, the hanging fiber probe can accurately measure a minute change of its viscous damping caused by the soap film. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the hanging fiber probe with varying viscosity η of the soap film and different surface treatments of the glass fiber, we confirm that the contact line dissipation obeys a universal scaling law, ξ(c)=απdη, where the coefficient α=1.1±0.3 is insensitive to the change of liquid-solid contact angle. The experimental result is in good agreement with the numerical result based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  9. Evaluation of thermocouple fin effect in cladding surface temperature measurement during film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Takaharu; Fujishiro, Toshio

    1984-01-01

    Thermocouple fin effect on surface temperature measurement of a fuel rod has been studied at elevated wall temperatures under film boiling condition in a reactivity initiated accident (RIA) situation. This paper presents an analytical equation to evaluate temperature drops caused by the thermocouple wires attached to cladding surface. The equation yielded the local temperature drop at measuring point depending on thermocouple diameter, cladding temperature, coolant flow condition and vapor film thickness. The temperature drops by the evaluating equation were shown in cases of free and forced convection conditions. The analytical results were compared with the measured data for various thermocouple sizes, and also with the estimated maximum cladding temperature based on the oxidation layer thickness in the cladding outer surface. It was concluded that the temperature drops at above 1,000 0 C in cladding temperature were around 120 and 150 0 C for 0.2 and 0.3 mm diameter Pt-Pt.Rh thermocouples, respectively, under a stagnant coolant condition. The fin effect increases with the decrease of vapor film thickness such as under forced flow cooling or at near the quenching point. (author)

  10. Nonlinear surface impedance of YBCO thin films: Measurements, modeling, and effects in devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, D.E.; Koren, G.; Polturak, E.

    1995-01-01

    High-T c thin films continue to be of interest for passive device applications at microwave frequencies, but nonlinear effects may limit the performance. To understand these effects we have measured the nonlinear effects may limit the performance. To understand these effects we have measured the nonlinear surface impedance Z s in a number of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin films as a function of frequency from 1 to 18 GHz, rf surface magnetic field H rf to 1500 Oe, and temperature from 4 K to T c . The results at low H rf are shown to agree quantitatively with a modified coupled-grain model and at high H rf with hysteresis-loss calculations using the Bean critical-state model applied to a thin strip. The loss mechanisms are extrinsic properties resulting from defects in the films. We also report preliminary measurements of the nonlinear impedance of Josephson junctions, and the results are related to the models of nonlinear Z s . The implications of nonlinear Z s for devices are discussed using the example of a five-pole bandpass filter

  11. Characterization of a team intraoperative Radiation therapy and measurement of dose in skin with film radiochromic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onses Segarra, A.; Sancho Kolster, I.; Eraso Urien, A.; Pla Farnos, M. J.; Picon Olmos, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the initial reference state of intraoperative radiotherapy equipment lntraBeam, for performing breast treatments are analyzed. To the initial reference team was established for the following dosimetric and geometric beam parameters: percentage depth dose, beam quality, isotropy, linearity and mechanical and geometric integrity for both the source RX as for different spherical applicators of the team. Based on these checks, a program of periodic quality control was established. One of the exclusion criteria for this treatment is that the tumor is less than l cm of the skin, yaque give doses received in this organ can be high. For this reason it is important to know exactly the absorbed dose in skin during these treatments. In this regard we have implemented a system for measuring the skin dose during treatment with Radiochromic film, placing 4 film segments in fixed positions of the skin around the surgical incision. It .ha obtained calibration curve of sterilized films and compared the results with a calibration beam megavoltage. The results of the skin dose measurements are compared with theoretical estimates given by the planning system equipment. The results indicate the need to measure individually the skin dose for these treatments. (Author)

  12. Quantification in positron emission mammography (PEM) with planar detectors: contrast resolution measurements using a custom breast phantom and novel spherical hot-spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, K.; Jolly, D.; Aznar, M.; Thompson, C. J.; Sciascia, P.; Loutfi, A.; Lisbona, R.; Gagnon, J. H.

    1999-12-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated that their Positron Emission Mammography-1 (PEM-1) system can successfully detect small (water. The heated solution is poured into spherical molds which are separated upon congealing to yield robust wall-less radioactive hot-spots. The hot-spots were uniform to within 1-5 parts in 100. Less than 0.1% of the total hot-spot activity leaked into the background in 30 minutes. Contrast resolution experiments have been performed with 12 mm and 16 mm diameter hot-spots in the breast phantom containing water with various amounts of background activity. In both cases, the observed contrast values agree well with the ideal values. In the case of the 12 mm hot-spot with a 350-650 keV energy window, image contrast differed from the ideal by an average of 11%. The image contrast for 12 mm hot-spot improved by 40% and the number of detected events decreased by 35% when the low energy threshold was increased from 300 keV to 450 keV.

  13. A Generic Algorithm to Estimate LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER Variables from SPOT4_HRVIR and Landsat Sensors: Evaluation of the Consistency and Comparison with Ground Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR are essential climatic variables in surface process models. FCOVER is also important to separate vegetation and soil for energy balance processes. Currently, several LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER satellite products are derived moderate to coarse spatial resolution. The launch of Sentinel-2 in 2015 will provide data at decametric resolution with a high revisit frequency to allow quantifying the canopy functioning at the local to regional scales. The aim of this study is thus to evaluate the performances of a neural network based algorithm to derive LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products at decametric spatial resolution and high temporal sampling. The algorithm is generic, i.e., it is applied without any knowledge of the landcover. A time series of high spatial resolution SPOT4_HRVIR (16 scenes and Landsat 8 (18 scenes images acquired in 2013 over the France southwestern site were used to generate the LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products. For each sensor and each biophysical variable, a neural network was first trained over PROSPECT+SAIL radiative transfer model simulations of top of canopy reflectance data for green, red, near-infra red and short wave infra-red bands. Our results show a good spatial and temporal consistency between the variables derived from both sensors: almost half the pixels show an absolute difference between SPOT and LANDSAT estimates of lower that 0.5 unit for LAI, and 0.05 unit for FAPAR and FCOVER. Finally, downward-looking digital hemispherical cameras were completed over the main land cover types to validate the accuracy of the products. Results show that the derived products are strongly correlated with the field measurements (R2 > 0.79, corresponding to a RMSE = 0.49 for LAI, RMSE = 0.10 (RMSE = 0.12 for black-sky (white sky FAPAR and RMSE = 0.15 for FCOVER. It is concluded that the proposed generic algorithm provides a good

  14. Self-contained in-vacuum in situ thin film stress measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinink, J.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2018-05-01

    A fully self-contained in-vacuum device for measuring thin film stress in situ is presented. The stress was measured by measuring the curvature of a cantilever on which the thin film was deposited. For this, a dual beam laser deflectometer was used. All optics and electronics needed to perform the measurement are placed inside a vacuum-compatible vessel with the form factor of the substrate holders of the deposition system used. The stand-alone nature of the setup allows the vessel to be moved inside a deposition system independently of optical or electronic feedthroughs while measuring continuously. A Mo/Si multilayer structure was analyzed to evaluate the performance of the setup. A radius of curvature resolution of 270 km was achieved. This allows small details of the stress development to be resolved, such as the interlayer formation between the layers and the amorphous-to-crystalline transition of the molybdenum which occurs at around 2 nm. The setup communicates with an external computer via a Wi-Fi connection. This wireless connection allows remote control over the acquisition and the live feedback of the measured stress. In principle, the vessel can act as a general metrology platform and add measurement capabilities to deposition setups with no modification to the deposition system.

  15. Using the analysis of stress waves to build research for experimentation on ultrasonic film measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shi-Shing; Wu, John H.

    1993-09-01

    After the 2th world war, although the application of ultrasonic wave in industries is becoming more and more popular. But due to the restriction of the precise equivelent , experimental method and the support of the basic theoremsetc. Ultrasonic wave is not applied in precise measurement. Nowadays due to many conditions - the improvement in the production technic, the precise of the equivelent, causes to increase the application of ultrasonic wave. But it's still limited due to the lack of measurement and analysis theorem. In this paper, first we caculate translation of the stress wave (elastic wave) in material for the free surface of material by a normal impulse load. as the theorem analysis base in real application. It is applied to an experiment of film measurement. We can find the partical motion in material and the arriving time of wave front. Then we can estimate the thickness of layers and can prove the actual condition with the result of experiment. This resarch is not only in the theoretical investigation but also in setting overall the measurement system, and excutes the following three experiments: the thickness measurement of two layers, the thickness measurement of film material. the thickness measurement of air propagation. About the data processing, we relied on the frequency analysis to evalute the time difference of two overlapped ultrasonic wave signal. in the meanwhile. we also designed several computer programs to assist the sonic wave identification and signal analysis.

  16. High efficacy of first-line ART in a West African cohort, assessed by dried blood spot virological and pharmacological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Truchis, Pierre; Lê, Minh Patrick; Daou, Mamane; Madougou, Boubacar; Nouhou, Yacouba; Moussa Saley, Sahada; Sani, Achirou; Adehossi, Eric; Rouveix, Elisabeth; Saidou, Mamadou; Peytavin, Gilles; Delaugerre, Constance

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of viral success in HIV-infected patients on first-line ART by the assessment of dried blood spot (DBS) viral load (VL) and to assess the performance of DBS sampling for VL measurement, genotypic resistance and antiretroviral concentration determinations. HIV-infected patients treated for >1 year with first-line ART in Niamey, Niger were included. VL based on nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay (limit of quantification 100 copies/mL); antiretroviral concentrations were interpreted using standard plasma cut-offs after extrapolation of blood to plasma results. Median (IQR) results are presented. Two hundred and eighteen patients (61% women), aged 41 (34-46) years, with 138 (56-235) CD4 cells/mm 3 at baseline were included. After 4 (2-6) years of follow-up under therapy, CD4 gain was +197 (98-372) cells/mm 3 ; 81% had VL ART in Niger. Adherence was high, according to antiretroviral concentrations, and the majority of failures were explained by selection of drug resistance mutations detected in the DBS genotype. Using DBS might improve the assessment of ART failure in HIV-infected patients in low-income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Measurement on liquid film in microchannels using laser focus displacements meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukamachi, Norihiro; Tamura, Naohisa; Hazuku, Tatsuya; Takamasa, Tomoji

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate details of the fascinating nonlinear phenomena of gas-liquid interface in micro- and mini-channels, high spatial temporal knowledge of the interface in gas-liquid two-phase flows is essential. This paper presents a new method for measuring interface of liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter(LFD). The purpose of the study was to clarify the effectiveness the new method for obtaining detailed information of interface displacement, especially in the case of thin liquid film, in micro- and mini-channels. In the test, water and nitrogen gas were used as working fluids. To eliminate the signal of tube wall disturbing that of gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with water box was used; whose refraction index was the same as one of water. With this method, accurate measurements of the interface of liquid film, in real time, with sensitivity of 0.1 μm and 1 kHz, were achieved. The error caused by the refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated theoretically and experimentally. The formulated theoretical equation can derive the real interface displacement using measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 μm -2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 and 2 mm in I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with real displacement within a 1% margin of error. Simultaneous measurement on the interface in a fluorocarbon tube of 0.5 and 1 mm in I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed camera movie with a microscope was carried out. It showed that the LFD could measure the interface of liquid film in high spatially and temporally in annular, slug and piston flow regions and clarified the existence of thin liquid film thinner than 1 μm in thickness in slug and annular regions. (author)

  18. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  19. Hot-Spot Ignition Mechanisms for Explosives and Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J. E.; Bourne, N. K.; Palmer, S. J. P.; Walley, S. M.

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes the response of explosives to stress and impact and in particular the mechanisms of `hot-spot' production. Samples in the form of single crystals, powder layers, pressed pellets, gels, polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) and propellants have been studied. Techniques used include a drop-weight facility with transparent anvils which allows photography at microsecond framing intervals, an instrumented drop-weight machine, a miniaturized Hopkinson bar system for high strain rate property measurement, laser speckle for studying the deformation and fracture of PBXs, an automated system for analysing speckle patterns and heat sensitive film for recording the positions and temperatures of hot spots. Polishing and staining methods have been developed to observe the microstructure of PBXs and failure during quasi-static loading. Ignition, when it occurred, took place at local hot-spot sites. Evidence is discussed for a variety of ignition mechanisms including adiabatic shear of the explosive, adiabatic heating of trapped gases during cavity collapse, viscous flow, friction, fracture and shear of added particles and triboluminescent discharge.

  20. Schottky barriers measurements through Arrhenius plots in gas sensors based on semiconductor films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schipani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen adsorption effects on the Schottky barriers height measurements for thick films gas sensors prepared with undoped nanometric SnO2 particles were studied. From electrical measurements, the characteristics of the intergranular potential barriers developed at intergrains were deduced. It is shown that the determination of effective activation energies from conduction vs. 1/temperature curves is not generally a correct manner to estimate barrier heights. This is due to gas adsorption/desorption during the heating and cooling processes, the assumption of emission over the barrier as the dominant conduction mechanism, and the possible oxygen diffusion into or out of the grains.

  1. Measurement of transient atomic displacements in thin films with picosecond and femtometer resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kozina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of the transient structural response of weakly photo-excited thin films of BiFeO3, Pb(Zr,TiO3, and Bi and time-scales for interfacial thermal transport. Utilizing picosecond x-ray diffraction at a 1.28 MHz repetition rate with time resolution extending down to 15 ps, transient changes in the diffraction angle are recorded. These changes are associated with photo-induced lattice strains within nanolayer thin films, resolved at the part-per-million level, corresponding to a shift in the scattering angle three orders of magnitude smaller than the rocking curve width and changes in the interlayer lattice spacing of fractions of a femtometer. The combination of high brightness, repetition rate, and stability of the synchrotron, in conjunction with high time resolution, represents a novel means to probe atomic-scale, near-equilibrium dynamics.

  2. Conductance measurement by two-line probe method of polypyrrole nano-films formed on mica by admicellar polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, C.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Textile Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Yuan, W.-L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wyuan@fcu.edu.tw; Tsai, I-S. [Graduate Institute of Textile Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); O' Rear, Edgar A. [School of Chemical, Biological and Material Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Barraza, Harry [Unilever R and D HPC, Quarry Road East, Bebington, Wirral, CH63 3JW (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-01

    Measuring the electrical conductance is of importance in fabricating electronic devices based on semiconducting thin films. In this report, electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) nano-films were deposited on insulating mica plates by admicellar polymerization. It becomes difficult to measure such film conductance in the lateral direction due the nanometric thickness which only allows for very low electrical current. In order to understand the effects of surfactant on the film conductivity, morphological studies using atomic force microscopy and conductance measurements with a sub-fA multimeter were performed. Higher conductances were found for PPy thin films made using surfactant templates, than that of a bare mica surface. Using the two-line probe method by drawing two lines of silver glue 8 mm apart on the sample surface, the current-voltage curves of bare mica surface yielded a lateral conductance of 6.0 x 10{sup -13} S. In comparison, PPy thin films made using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant templates showed conductances of 1.2 x 10{sup -11} S and 7.7 x 10{sup -12} S, respectively. The higher conductances indicate tunneling, hopping, and percolation of charge carriers throughout the films. The lower-bound conductivities were calculated as 4.0 x 10{sup -3} S/cm and 2.6 x 10{sup -3} S/cm, measured based on the average thickness 2.3 nm for the SDS-PPy films and 2.4 nm for the CTAB-PPy films. Conductivities for both SDS and CTAB template PPy films are found to be of the same order.

  3. Conductance measurement by two-line probe method of polypyrrole nano-films formed on mica by admicellar polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, C.-Y.; Yuan, W.-L.; Tsai, I-S.; O'Rear, Edgar A.; Barraza, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Measuring the electrical conductance is of importance in fabricating electronic devices based on semiconducting thin films. In this report, electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) nano-films were deposited on insulating mica plates by admicellar polymerization. It becomes difficult to measure such film conductance in the lateral direction due the nanometric thickness which only allows for very low electrical current. In order to understand the effects of surfactant on the film conductivity, morphological studies using atomic force microscopy and conductance measurements with a sub-fA multimeter were performed. Higher conductances were found for PPy thin films made using surfactant templates, than that of a bare mica surface. Using the two-line probe method by drawing two lines of silver glue 8 mm apart on the sample surface, the current-voltage curves of bare mica surface yielded a lateral conductance of 6.0 x 10 -13 S. In comparison, PPy thin films made using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant templates showed conductances of 1.2 x 10 -11 S and 7.7 x 10 -12 S, respectively. The higher conductances indicate tunneling, hopping, and percolation of charge carriers throughout the films. The lower-bound conductivities were calculated as 4.0 x 10 -3 S/cm and 2.6 x 10 -3 S/cm, measured based on the average thickness 2.3 nm for the SDS-PPy films and 2.4 nm for the CTAB-PPy films. Conductivities for both SDS and CTAB template PPy films are found to be of the same order

  4. Application of X-ray CCD camera in X-ray spot diagnosis of rod-pinch diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yan; Zhou Ming; Song Guzhou; Ma Jiming; Duan Baojun; Han Changcai; Yao Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The pinhole imaging technique is widely used in the measurement of X-ray spot of rod-pinch diode. The X-ray CCD camera, which was composed of film, fiber optic taper and CCD camera, was employed to replace the imaging system based on scintillator, lens and CCD camera in the diagnosis of X-ray spot. The resolution of the X-ray CCD camera was studied. The resolution is restricted by the film and is 5 lp/mm in the test with Pb resolution chart. The frequency is 1.5 lp/mm when the MTF is 0.5 in the test with edge image. The resolution tests indicate that the X-ray CCD camera can meet the requirement of the diagnosis of X-ray spot whose scale is about 1.5 mm when the pinhole imaging magnification is 0.5. At last, the image of X-ray spot was gained and the restoration was implemented in the diagnosis of X-ray spot of rod-pinch diode. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of actual vs expected photodynamic therapy spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchod, Tushar M; Brucker, Alexander J; Liu, Chengcheng; Cukras, Catherine A; Hopkins, Tim B; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2009-05-01

    To determine the accuracy of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) laser spot size on the retina as generated by 2 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lasers. Prospective observational case series. Fundus photographs were taken of 1 eye of each of 10 subjects with the WinStation 4000 fundus photography system (OIS; Ophthalmic Imaging Systems, Sacramento, California, USA); disc size was calculated using OIS software. Slit-lamp photographs were taken of the PDT laser spot focused on the retina adjacent to the optic disc, using various spot sizes in combination with 3 different contact lenses and 2 different lasers. Spot size at the retina was determined by measuring the ratio of disc diameter to spot diameter in Adobe Photoshop (San Jose, California, USA) and applying this ratio to the OIS disc measurements. Spot size at the retina averaged 87% of expected spot size for the Coherent Opal laser (Coherent Inc, Santa Clara, California, USA) and 104% of expected spot size for the Zeiss Visulas laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, California, USA)(P = .002). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that percentage of expected spot size decreased with larger spot diameter (P = .01 for Coherent laser; P = .02 for Zeiss laser). PDT spot size at the retina appears to be consistently smaller than expected for the Coherent laser while the spot size was consistently within 10% of expected size for the Zeiss laser. The deviation from expected size increased with larger spot size using the Coherent laser.

  6. Design of instantaneous liquid film thickness measurement system for conductive or non-conductive fluid with high viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a new capacitive sensor with a dielectric film coating was designed to measure the thickness of the liquid film on a flat surface. The measured medium can be conductive or non-conductive fluid with high viscosity such as silicone oil, syrup, CMC solution and melt. With the dielectric film coating, the defects caused by the humidity in a capacitor can be avoided completely. With a excitation frequency 0-20kHz, the static permittivity of capacitive sensor is obtained and stable when small thicknesses are monitored within the frequency of 0-3kHz. Based on the measurement principle, an experimental system was designed and verified including calibration and actual measurement for different liquid film thickness. Experimental results showed that the sensitivity, the resolution, repeatability and linear range of the capacitive sensor are satisfied to the liquid film thickness measurement. Finally, the capacitive measuring system was successfully applied to the water, silicone oil and syrup film thickness measurement.

  7. Accurate measurement of the piezoelectric coefficient of thin films by eliminating the substrate bending effect using spatial scanning laser vibrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leighton, Glenn J T; Huang, Zhaorong

    2010-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in measuring the piezoelectric coefficient d 33,f for thin films is the elimination of the contribution from substrate bending. We show by theoretical analysis and experimental measurements that by bonding thin film piezoelectric samples to a substantial holder, the substrate bending can be minimized to a negligible level. Once the substrate bending can be effectively eliminated, single-beam laser scanning vibrometry can be used to measure the precise strain distribution of a piezoelectric thin film under converse actuation. A significant strain increase toward the inside edge of the top electrode (assuming a fully covered bottom electrode) and a corresponding strain peak in the opposite direction just outside the electrode edge were observed. These peaks were found to increase with the increasing Poisson's ratio and transverse piezoelectric coefficient of the piezoelectric thin film. This is due to the non-continuity of the electric field at the edge of the top electrode, which leads to the concentration of shear stress and electric field in the vicinity of the electrode edge. The measured d 33,f was found to depend not only on the material properties such as the electromechanical coefficients of the piezoelectric thin films and elastic coefficients of the thin film and the substrate, but also on the geometry factors such as the thickness of the piezoelectric films, the dimensions of the electrode, and also the thickness of the substrate

  8. Measuring the surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement factors of hot spots formed between an individual Ag nanowire and a single Ag nanocube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Pedro H C; Cobley, Claire M; Rycenga, Matthew; Xia Younan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic study of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of hot spots formed between a Ag nanowire and a Ag nanocube with sharp corners. We investigated two distinct dimer structures: (i) a nanocube having one side face nearly touching the side face of a nanowire, and (ii) a nanocube having one edge nearly touching the side face of a nanowire. The field enhancements for the dimers displayed a strong dependence on laser polarization, and the strongest SERS intensities were observed for polarization along the hot-spot axis. Moreover, the detected SERS intensities were dependent on the hot-spot structure, i.e., the relative orientation of the Ag nanocube with respect to the nanowire's side face. When the dimer had a face-to-face configuration, the enhancement factor EF dimer was 1.4 x 10 7 . This corresponds to 22-fold and 24-fold increases compared to those for individual Ag nanowires and nanocubes, respectively. Conversely, when the dimer had an edge-to-face configuration, EF dimer was 4.3 x 10 6 . These results demonstrated that the number of probe molecules adsorbed at the hot spot played an important role in determining the detected SERS intensities. EF dimer was maximized when the dimer configuration allowed for a larger number of probe molecules to be trapped within the hot-spot region.

  9. Dynamic measurement of liquid film thickness in stratified flow by using ultrasonic echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, A.; Nagane, K.; Kamei, T.; Kawara, Z.; Ebisu, T.; Torikoshi, K.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a technique to measure time-dependent local film thickness in stratified air-water flow over a horizontal plate by using a time of flight of ultrasonic transmission. The ultrasonic echoes reflected at the liquid/air interfaces are detected by a conventional ultrasonic instrumentation, and the signals are analyzed by a personal computer after being digitalized by an A/D converter to give the time of flight for the ultrasonic waves to run over a distance of twice of the film thickness. A 3.8 mm diameter probe type ultrasonic transducer was used in the present work which transmits and receives 10 MHz frequency ultrasonic waves. The estimated spatial resolution with this arrangement is 0.075 mm in film thickness for water. The time resolution, which depends on both the A/D converter and the memory capacity was up to several tens Hz. We also discussed the sensitivity of the method to the inclination angle of the interfaces. (author)

  10. Film dosimetry using a smart device camera: a feasibility study for point dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aland, Trent; Jhala, Ekta; Kairn, Tanya; Trapp, Jamie

    2017-10-03

    In this work, a methodology for using a smartphone camera, in conjunction with a light-tight box operating in reflective transmission mode, is investigated as a proof of concept for use as a film dosimetry system. An imaging system was designed to allow the camera of a smartphone to be used as a pseudo densitometer. Ten pieces of Gafchromic EBT3 film were irradiated to doses up to 16.89 Gy and used to evaluate the effects of reproducibility and orientation, as well as the ability to create an accurate dose response curve for the smartphone based dosimetry system, using all three colour channels. Results were compared to a flatbed scanner system. Overall uncertainty was found to be best for the red channel with an uncertainty of 2.4% identified for film irradiated to 2.5 Gy and digitised using the smartphone system. This proof of concept exercise showed that although uncertainties still exceed a flatbed scanner system, the smartphone system may be useful for providing point dose measurements in situations where conventional flatbed scanners (or other dosimetry systems) are unavailable or unaffordable.

  11. Film dosimetry using a smart device camera: a feasibility study for point dose measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aland, Trent; Jhala, Ekta; Kairn, Tanya; Trapp, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    In this work, a methodology for using a smartphone camera, in conjunction with a light-tight box operating in reflective transmission mode, is investigated as a proof of concept for use as a film dosimetry system. An imaging system was designed to allow the camera of a smartphone to be used as a pseudo densitometer. Ten pieces of Gafchromic EBT3 film were irradiated to doses up to 16.89 Gy and used to evaluate the effects of reproducibility and orientation, as well as the ability to create an accurate dose response curve for the smartphone based dosimetry system, using all three colour channels. Results were compared to a flatbed scanner system. Overall uncertainty was found to be best for the red channel with an uncertainty of 2.4% identified for film irradiated to 2.5 Gy and digitised using the smartphone system. This proof of concept exercise showed that although uncertainties still exceed a flatbed scanner system, the smartphone system may be useful for providing point dose measurements in situations where conventional flatbed scanners (or other dosimetry systems) are unavailable or unaffordable.

  12. Transport Measurements on NEODYMIUM(1.85) CERIUM(.15) Copper OXYGEN(4-DELTA) Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmaul, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis and the study of the transport properties of thin films of Nd _{1.85}Ce_{.15 }CuO_{4-delta} carried out respectively at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center in collaboration with Dr. A. Gupta, and at the Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory under the direction of Dr. P. M. Tedrow. The thin films were prepared by laser ablation of a stoichiometric target on heated substrates in a reactive ambient. The influence of the deposition parameters was studied, and the use of a nitreous oxide ambient was found to yield a clear improvement of the sample quality. The transport properties of the films were measured at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields. Non superconducting samples showed a strong, highly anisotropic, negative magnetoresistance that is consistent with two dimensional weak-localization. Superconducting samples show two dimensional fluctuation effects above T_{c}. The theory of fluctuations in a magnetic field was used to extract the position of H_{c2} (in the perpendicular direction) in the broad and almost featureless resistive transition, and the extracted values were fit to the theory of dirty superconductors. The angular dependence of the resistive transition was studied close to T _{c} and found to be somewhat better described by a two-dimensional model. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  13. Simultaneous reflectometry and interferometry for measuring thin-film thickness and curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, A. A.; Germain, T. M.; Owens, J. F.; Putnam, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    A coupled reflectometer-interferometer apparatus is described for thin-film thickness and curvature characterization in the three-phase contact line region of evaporating fluids. Validation reflectometry studies are provided for Au, Ge, and Si substrates and thin-film coatings of SiO2 and hydrogel/Ti/SiO2. For interferometry, liquid/air and solid/air interferences are studied, where the solid/air samples consisted of glass/air/glass wedges, cylindrical lenses, and molded polydimethylsiloxane lenses. The liquid/air studies are based on steady-state evaporation experiments of water and isooctane on Si and SiO2/Ti/SiO2 wafers. The liquid thin-films facilitate characterization of both (i) the nano-scale thickness of the absorbed fluid layer and (ii) the macro-scale liquid meniscus thickness, curvature, and curvature gradient profiles. For our validation studies with commercial lenses, the apparatus is shown to measure thickness profiles within 4.1%-10.8% error.

  14. Investigation of the Interaction between Perovskite Films with Moisture via in Situ Electrical Resistance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Long; Shao, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Dengbing; Lv, Xinlin; Wang, Hongya; Liu, Xinsheng; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan

    2015-11-18

    Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as outstanding semiconductors for solid-state optoelectronic devices. Their sensitivity to moisture is one of the biggest barriers to commercialization. In order to identify the effect of moisture in the degradation process, here we combined the in situ electrical resistance measurement with time-resolved X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the interaction of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) perovskite films with moisture. Upon short-time exposure, the resistance of the perovskite films decreased and it could be fully recovered, which were ascribed to a mere chemisorption of water molecules, followed by the reversible hydration into CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)·H2O. Upon long-time exposure, however, the resistance became irreversible due to the decomposition into PbI2. The results demonstrated the formation of monohydrated intermediate phase when the perovskites interacted with moisture. The role of moisture in accelerating the thermal degradation at 85 °C was also demonstrated. Furthermore, our study suggested that the perovskite films with fewer defects may be more inherently resistant to moisture.

  15. Immobilization of cholesterol oxidase in LbL films and detection of cholesterol using ac measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Marli L.; Souza, Nara C. de; Hayasaka, Caio O.; Ferreira, Marystela; Rodrigues Filho, Ubirajara P.; Riul, Antonio; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2009-01-01

    The preserved activity of immobilized biomolecules in layer-by-layer (LbL) films can be exploited in various applications, including biosensing. In this study, cholesterol oxidase (COX) layers were alternated with layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) in LbL films whose morphology was investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adsorption kinetics of COX layers comprised two regimes, a fast, first-order kinetics process followed by a slow process fitted with a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) function, with exponent ∼ 2 characteristic of aggregates growing as disks. The concept based on the use of sensor arrays to increase sensitivity, widely employed in electronic tongues, was extended to biosensing with impedance spectroscopy measurements. Using three sensing units, made of LbL films of PAH/COX and PAH/PVS (polyvinyl sulfonic acid) and a bare gold interdigitated electrode, we were able to detect cholesterol in aqueous solutions down to the 10 -6 M level. This high sensitivity is attributed to the molecular-recognition interaction between COX and cholesterol, and opens the way for clinical tests to be made with low cost, fast experimental procedures

  16. Thickness measurement of SiO2 films thinner than 1 nm by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joong Kim, Kyung; Park, Ki Tae; Lee, Jong Wan

    2006-01-01

    The thickness measurement of ultra-thin SiO 2 films thinner than 1 nm was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Amorphous SiO 2 thin films were grown on amorphous Si films to avoid the thickness difference due to the crystalline structure of a substrate. SiO 2 thin films were grown by ion beam sputter deposition under oxygen gas flow and the thickness was measured by in situ XPS. The attenuation length was determined experimentally by a SiO 2 film with a known thickness. The straight line fit between the measured thickness using XPS and the nominal thickness showed a good linear relation with a gradient of 0.969 and a small offset of 0.126 nm. The gradient measured at the range of 3.4-0.28 nm was very close to that measured at sub-nanometer range of 1.13-0.28 nm. This result means that the reliable measurement of SiO 2 film thickness below 1 nm is possible by XPS

  17. Uncertainty Analysis for Oil-Film Interferometry Skin-Friction Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Jonathan W.; Brown, James L.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the use of oil-film interferometry to measure the skin friction coefficient (C(sub f) = tau/q where tau is the surface shear stress and q is the dynamic pressure) has increased. Different forms of this oil-film technique with various levels of accuracy and ease of use have been successfully applied in a wide range of flows. The method's popularity is growing due to its relative ease of implementation and minimal intrusiveness as well as an increased demand for C(sub f) measurements. Nonetheless, the accuracy of these methods has not been rigorously addressed to date. Most researchers have simply shown that the skin-friction measurements made using these techniques compare favorably with other measurements and theory, most of which are only accurate to within 5-20%. The use of skin-friction data in the design of commercial aircraft, whose drag at cruise is 50% skin-friction drag, and in the validation of computational fluid dynamics programs warrants better uncertainty estimates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Measurements of 3D velocity and scalar field for a film-cooled airfoil trailing edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Michael J.; Elkins, Christopher J.; Eaton, John K. [Stanford University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The 3D velocity and concentration fields have been measured for flow in a pressure side cutback trailing edge film cooling geometry consisting of rectangular film cooling slots separated by tapered lands. The velocity field was measured using conventional magnetic resonance velocimetry, and the concentration distribution was measured with a refined magnetic resonance concentration technique that yields experimental uncertainties for the concentration between 5 and 6%. All experiments were performed in water. A separation bubble behind the slot lip entrains coolant and promotes rapid turbulent mixing at the upper edge of the coolant jet. Vortices from inside the slot feed channel and on the upper sides of the lands rapidly distort the initially rectangular shape of the coolant stream and sweep mainstream flow toward the airfoil surface. The vortices also prevent any coolant from reaching the upper surfaces of the land. At the trailing edge, a second separation region exists in the blunt trailing edge wake. The flow forms suction side streaks behind the land tips, as well as streaks behind the slot centers on the pressure side. The peak coolant concentrations in the streaks remain above 25% through the end of the measurement domain, over 30 slot heights downstream. (orig.)

  19. Control of polysilicon on-film particulates with on-product measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Judith B.; Chain, Elizabeth E.; Plachecki, Vincent E.

    1997-08-01

    Historically, a number of in-line particle measurements have been performed on separate test wafers included with product wafers during polysilicon processes. By performing film thickness and particulate measurements directly on product wafers, instead, a number of benefits accrue: (1) reduced test wafer usage, (2) reduced test wafer storage requirements, (3) reduced need for equipment to reclaim test wafers, (4) reduced need for direct labor to reclaim test wafers, and (5) reduced engineering 'false alarms' due to incorrectly processed test wafers. Implementation of on-product measurements for the polysilicon diffusion process required a number of changes in both philosophy and methodology. We show the necessary steps to implementation of on-product particle measurements with concern for overall manufacturing efficiency and the need to maintain appropriate control. Particle results from the Tencor 7600 Surfscan are presented.

  20. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  1. The Potential of Self-assembling Peptides for Enhancement of In Vitro Remineralisation of White Spot Lesions as Measured by Quantitative Laser Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golland, Luca; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Schätzle, Marc

    To test the remineralisation potential of a single application of self-assembling peptides or acidic fluoride solution using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) in vitro. Bovine enamel disks were prepared, and white spot lesions were created on one half of the disk with an acidic buffer solution. After demineralisation, disks were allocated into three groups of 11 specimens each. Group A served as a control group and received no treatment. Group B had a single application of fluoride, and group C was treated once with self-assembling peptides. All disks were embedded in a plastic mold (diameter 15 mm, height 9 mm) with an a-silicone, and remineralisation was initiated using a pH-cycling protocol for five days. Four experimental regions on each disk were measured prior to the start of the study (T0), after demineralisation (T1) and after the remineralisation process (T2) using QLF. After demineralisation, all areas showed a distinct loss of fluorescence, with no statistically significant difference between the groups (ΔF from -69.3 to -10.2). After remineralisation, samples of group B (treated with fluoride) showed a statistically significant fluorescence increase (ΔF from T1 to T2 15.2 ± 7.3) indicating remineralisation, whereas the samples of control group A and group C (treated with self-assembling peptides) showed no significant changes in ΔF of 1.1 ± 1.9 and 2.5 ± 1.9, respectively. Application of self-assembling peptides on demineralised bovine enamel did not lead to increased fluorescence using QLF, indicating either lack of remineralisation or irregular crystals. Increased fluorescence using QLF indicated mineral gain following a single application of a highly concentrated fluoride.

  2. Evaluation of effective energy for QA and QC: measurement of half-value layer using radiochromic film density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotanda, R.; Takeda, Y.; Gotanda, T.; Oishi Hospital, Hiroshima; Tabuchi, A.; Kawasaki Hospital, Okayama; Yamamoto, K.; Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Centre, Osaka; Kuwano, T.; Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardovascular Diseases, Osaka; Yatake, H.; Kaizuka City Hospital, Osaka; Katsuda, T.

    2009-01-01

    The effective energy of diagnostic x-rays is important for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC). However, the half-value layer (HVL), which is necessary to evaluate the effective energy, is not ubiquitously monitored because ionization-chamber dosimetry is time-consuming and complicated. To verify the applicability of GAFCHROMIC XR type R (GAF-R) film for HVL measurement as an alternative to monitoring with an ionization chamber, a single-strip method for measuring the HVL has been evaluated. Calibration curves of absorbed dose versus film density were generated using this single-strip method with GAF-R film, and the coefficient of determination (r2) of the straight-line approximation was evaluated. The HVLs (effective energies) estimated using the GAF-R film and an ionization chamber were compared. The coefficient of determination (r2) of the straight-line approximation obtained with the GAF-R film was more than 0.99. The effective energies (HVLs) evaluated using the GAF-R film and the ionization chamber were 43.25 keV (5.10 m m) and 39.86 keV (4.45 mm), respectively. The difference in the effective energies determined by the two methods was thus 8.5%. These results suggest that GAF-R might be used to evaluate the effective energy from the film-density growth without the need for ionization-chamber measurements.

  3. Development of Ultrafast Laser Flash Methods for Measuring Thermophysical Properties of Thin Films and Boundary Thermal Resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Taketoshi, Naoyuki; Yagi, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Reliable thermophysical property values of thin films are important to develop advanced industrial technologies such as highly integrated electronic devices, phase-change memories, magneto-optical disks, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), semiconductor lasers (LDs), flat-panel displays, and power electronic devices. In order to meet these requirements, the National Metrology Institute of Japan of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has developed ultrafast laser flash methods heated by picosecond pulse or nanosecond pulse with the same geometrical configuration as the laser flash method, which is the standard method to measure the thermal diffusivity of bulk materials. Since these pulsed light heating methods induce one-dimensional heat diffusion across a well-defined length of the specimen thickness, the absolute value of thermal diffusivity across thin films can be measured reliably. Using these ultrafast laser flash methods, the thermal diffusivity of each layer of multilayered thin films and the boundary thermal resistance between the layers can be determined from the observed transient temperature curves based on the response function method. The thermophysical properties of various thin films important for modern industries such as the transparent conductive films used for flat-panel displays, hard coating films, and multilayered films of next-generation phase-change optical disks have been measured by these methods.

  4. Measurement of surface charges on the dielectric film based on field mills under the HVDC corona wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donglai, WANG; Tiebing, LU; Yuan, WANG; Bo, CHEN; Xuebao, LI

    2018-05-01

    The ion flow field on the ground is one of the significant parameters used to evaluate the electromagnetic environment of high voltage direct current (HVDC) power lines. HVDC lines may cross the greenhouses due to the restricted transmission corridors. Under the condition of ion flow field, the dielectric films on the greenhouses will be charged, and the electric fields in the greenhouses may exceed the limit value. Field mills are widely used to measure the ground-level direct current electric fields under the HVDC power lines. In this paper, the charge inversion method is applied to calculate the surface charges on the dielectric film according to the measured ground-level electric fields. The advantages of hiding the field mill probes in the ground are studied. The charge inversion algorithm is optimized in order to decrease the impact of measurement errors. Based on the experimental results, the surface charge distribution on a piece of quadrate dielectric film under a HVDC corona wire is studied. The enhanced effect of dielectric film on ground-level electric field is obviously weakened with the increase of film height. Compared with the total electric field strengths, the normal components of film-free electric fields at the corresponding film-placed positions have a higher effect on surface charge accumulation.

  5. Spotting psychopaths using technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Sarah; Adeli, Hojjat

    2015-01-01

    For the past three and a half decades, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the self-report Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) have been the standard measures for the diagnosis of psychopathy. Technological approaches can enhance these diagnostic methodologies. The purpose of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art review of various technological approaches for spotting psychopathy, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and other measures. Results of EEG event-related potential (ERP) experiments support the theory that impaired amygdala function may be responsible for abnormal fear processing in psychopathy, which can ultimately manifest as psychopathic traits, as outlined by the PCL-R or PPI-R. Imaging studies, in general, point to reduced fear processing capabilities in psychopathic individuals. While the human element, introduced through researcher/participant interactions, can be argued as unequivocally necessary for diagnosis, these purely objective technological approaches have proven to be useful in conjunction with the subjective interviewing and questionnaire methods for differentiating psychopaths from non-psychopaths. Furthermore, these technologies are more robust than behavioral measures, which have been shown to fail.

  6. Critical current density measurement of thin films by AC susceptibility based on the penetration parameter h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao-Fen; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, Asger B.

    2012-01-01

    We have numerically proved that the dependence of AC susceptibility χ of a E(J) power law superconducting thin disc on many parameters can be reduced to one penetration parameter h, with E the electric field and J the current density. Based on this result, we propose a way of measuring the critical...... current density Jc of superconducting thin films by AC susceptibility. Compared with the normally used method based on the peak of the imaginary part, our method uses a much larger range of the AC susceptibility curve, thus allowing determination of the temperature (T) dependence of Jc from a normally...

  7. Work function of few layer graphene covered nickel thin films measured with Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, B. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Material Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Gysin, U.; Marot, L., E-mail: Laurent.marot@unibas.ch; Glatzel, Th.; Steiner, R.; Meyer, E. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-01-25

    Few layer graphene and graphite are simultaneously grown on a ∼100 nm thick polycrystalline nickel film. The work function of few layer graphene/Ni is found to be 4.15 eV with a variation of 50 meV by local measurements with Kelvin probe force microscopy. This value is lower than the work function of free standing graphene due to peculiar electronic structure resulting from metal 3d-carbon 2p(π) hybridization.

  8. EPMA-EDS surface measurements of interdiffusion coefficients between miscible metals in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christien, F.; Pierson, J.F.; Hassini, A.; Capon, F.; Le Gall, R.; Brousse, T.

    2010-01-01

    A new technique is developed to study interdiffusion between two miscible metals. The technique is applied to the Ni-Pd system. It consists in measuring the change of apparent surface composition of a Pd substrate coated with an 800 nm Ni thin film during annealing at a given temperature. The measurement is carried out in-situ inside the chamber of a SEM (scanning electron microscope) by EPMA-EDS (electron probe microanalysis-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). The experimental data are processed using a model that mixes the Fick's diffusion equations and the electron probe microanalysis equation. This process allows the determination of the mean interdiffusion coefficient at a given annealing temperature. The main advantages of the technique are the possible determination of interdiffusion coefficients in thin films and at very low temperature (down to 430 deg. C, i.e. ∼0.4 T m ), which is not achievable with other techniques conventionally used for the study of interdiffusion. The Ni-Pd mean interdiffusion coefficient is shown to follow an Arrhenius law (D-tilde c =6.32x10 -3 exp((178.8kJmol -1 )/(RT) )cm 2 s -1 ) between 430 deg. C and 900 deg. C, in relatively good agreement with previous interdiffusion measurements made on the Ni-Pd system at higher temperature.

  9. Dual-peak dose measurement for radiochromic films by a newly developed spectral microdensitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.Y.; Fung, K.K.L.; Kwok, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Radiochromic film (RCF) dosimetry is usually based on densitometric methods which use an analyzing light source of a fixed or a broad spectrum of wavelengths. These methods have not exploited the sensitivity of the dose response of the RCF otherwise attainable by using a light source with wavelengths peaked at the two absorption peaks in the absorption spectrum of the RCF. A new algorithm of dual-peak dose measurement for the RCF has been proposed in this paper to make use of these dual absorption peaks to achieve the maximum attainable sensitivity. This technique relies on the measurement of the transmittance of the RCF at the wavelength of the major and minor absorption peaks, respectively. The dual-peak dose measurement is accomplished with the aid of a novel spectral microdensitometer developed in our Institute. The microdensitometer utilizes a monochromator to provide a light source of which the wavelength can be matched precisely to the wavelength of the absorption peaks of the RCF. The doses obtained at these wavelengths are fed into a weighted objective function and an optimum dose is searched by minimizing the objective function to give the best estimate of the dose deposited on the film. An initial test shows that there is a good agreement between the estimated and actual dose deposited; and the maximum discrepancy was found to be less than 1%

  10. Determination of the optical constants of polymer light-emitting diode films from single reflection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Dexi; Shen Weidong; Ye Hui; Liu Xu; Zhen Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple and fast method to determine the optical constant and physical thickness of polymer films from a single reflectivity measurement. A self-consistent dispersion formula of the Forouhi-Bloomer model was introduced to fit the measured spectral curves by a modified 'Downhill' simplex algorithm. Four widely used polymer light-emitting diodes materials: poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene], poly(9,9-dioctylfluoreny-2,7-diyl) (PFO), poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) : poly(styrenesulfonate) were investigated by this technique. The refractive indices over the whole visible region as well as the optical band gap extracted by this method agree well with those reported in the literature. The determined physical thicknesses present a deviation less than 4% compared with the experimental values measured by the stylus profiler. The influence of scattering loss on the fitted results is discussed to demonstrate the applicability of this technology for polymer films.

  11. Respiration and Heartbeat Measurement for Sleep Monitoring Using a Flexible AlN Piezoelectric Film Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan BU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory and heartbeat monitoring during sleep provides basic physiological information for diagnosis of sleep disorders. This paper proposes a new method for non-invasive and unconstrained measurement of respiration and heartbeat during sleep. A flexible piezoelectric film sensor made of aluminum nitride (AlN material is used for signal acquisition. The total thickness of this sensor is less than 40 μm; the thin thickness makes it imperceptible when integrated into a bed. In addition, the AlN film sensor has good sensitivity, so that pressure fluctuation due to respiration and heartbeat can be measured when a subject is lying on this sensor. The pressure fluctuation measured can be further separated into signals corresponding to respiration and heartbeat, respectively. In the proposed method, the signal separation is achieved using an algorithm based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD. From the experimental results, it was found that respiration and heartbeat signals can be successfully obtained with the proposed method.

  12. A Manganin Thin Film Ultra-High Pressure Sensor for Microscale Detonation Pressure Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of energetic materials (EMs and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS initiating explosive devices, the measurement of detonation pressure generated by EMs in the microscale has become a pressing need. This paper develops a manganin thin film ultra-high pressure sensor based on MEMS technology for measuring the output pressure from micro-detonator. A reliable coefficient is proposed for designing the sensor’s sensitive element better. The sensor employs sandwich structure: the substrate uses a 0.5 mm thick alumina ceramic, the manganin sensitive element with a size of 0.2 mm × 0.1 mm × 2 μm and copper electrodes of 2 μm thick are sputtered sequentially on the substrate, and a 25 μm thick insulating layer of polyimide is wrapped on the sensitive element. The static test shows that the piezoresistive coefficient of manganin thin film is 0.0125 GPa−1. The dynamic experiment indicates that the detonation pressure of micro-detonator is 12.66 GPa, and the response time of the sensor is 37 ns. In a word, the sensor developed in this study is suitable for measuring ultra-high pressure in microscale and has a shorter response time than that of foil-like manganin gauges. Simultaneously, this study could be beneficial to research on ultra-high-pressure sensors with smaller size.

  13. Measurement of conformability and adhesion energy of polymeric ultrathin film to skin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Junki; Fujie, Toshinori; Iwata, Hiroyasu; Iwase, Eiji

    2018-06-01

    We measured the conformability and adhesion energy of a polymeric ultrathin film “nanosheet” with hundreds of nanometer thickness to a skin model with epidermal depressions. To compare the confirmability of the nanosheets with different thicknesses and/or under different attaching conditions, we proposed a measurement method using skin models with the same surface profile and defined the surface strain εS as the quantified value of the conformability. Then, we measured the adhesion energy of the nanosheet at each conformability through a vertical tensile test. Experimental results indicate that the adhesion energy does not depend on the liquid used in wetting the nanosheet before attaching to the skin model and increases monotonously as the surface strain εS increases.

  14. An Automated, High-Throughput System for GISAXS and GIWAXS Measurements of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Eric; Jimenez, Jessica; Church, Matthew; Lim, Eunhee; Stewart, Polite; Hexemer, Alexander

    Grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) are important techniques for characterizing thin films. In order to meet rapidly increasing demand, the SAXSWAXS beamline at the Advanced Light Source (beamline 7.3.3) has implemented a fully automated, high-throughput system to conduct SAXS, GISAXS and GIWAXS measurements. An automated robot arm transfers samples from a holding tray to a measurement stage. Intelligent software aligns each sample in turn, and measures each according to user-defined specifications. Users mail in trays of samples on individually barcoded pucks, and can download and view their data remotely. Data will be pipelined to the NERSC supercomputing facility, and will be available to users via a web portal that facilitates highly parallelized analysis.

  15. Diagnosis of glutaric aciduria type 1 by measuring 3-hydroxyglutaric acid in dried urine spots by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Kölker, Stefan; Ng, Dione

    2011-01-01

    completing a parallel comparative study with the standard screening method (i.e., molecular testing). In addition, follow-up DUS GA and 3HGA testing of babies with elevated dried blood spot C5DC acylcarnitines will be useful as a first-tier diagnostic test, thus reducing the number of cases requiring...

  16. Measurement of protection afforded by ultraviolet-absorbing window film using an in vitro model of photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F; Schwartz, Mark; Viehmeyer, Robert; Arocena, Marvin S; Sambuco, Christopher P; Ksenzenko, Sergey M

    2006-04-01

    The effects of chronic sun damage including telangiectasias, solar lentigos, rhytides, enlarged pores, sagging skin, and pre-cancerous and cancerous growths are among the most common presenting complaints in a dermatologist's office. These changes are often worse on the driver's side of the face, emphasizing the role of UVA exposure received while driving in producing these changes. This study was undertaken to measure the ability of car window glass alone and in combination with ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing film to reduce UV-damage as measured using an established in vitro model of photoprotection. STUDY DESIGN MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the 3T3 neutral red uptake photoprotection assay with solar simulating radiation (SSR) administered by a xenon arc solar simulator, we measured the photoprotection ability of auto glass, window film that filters UV radiation, and the combination of window film and auto glass. As measured by the 3T3 neutral red uptake photoprotection assay, auto glass reduced cell death from SSR by 29%, while window film reduced it 90%, and the combination of auto glass and film reduced cell death by 93%, when compared to unfiltered SSR. Window film that filters UV radiation results in dramatic reductions in cytotoxicity when measured by the neutral red uptake photoprotection assay. Widespread use of window film provides an ever-present barrier to ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure and could potentially reduce the detrimental effects of UVA, including photoaging, skin cancer, and ocular damage, such as cataracts. In addition, such film is essential for patients suffering from conditions sensitive to UV radiation, such as lupus erythematosis. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Direct measurement of free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Frank G.

    1994-01-01

    A method is introduced to measure the free-energy barrier W(sup *), the activation energy, and activation entropy to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous solids, independent of the energy barrier to growth. The method allows one to determine the temperature dependence of W(sup *), and the effect of the preparation conditions of the initial amorphous phase, the dopants, and the crystallization methds on W(sup *). The method is applied to determine the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films. For thermally induced nucleation in a-Si thin films with annealing temperatures in the range of from 824 to 983 K, the free-energy barrier W(sup *) to nucleation of silicon crystals is about 2.0 - 2.1 eV regardless of the preparation conditions of the films. The observation supports the idea that a-Si transforms into an intermediate amorphous state through the structural relaxation prior to the onset of nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. The observation also indicates that the activation entropy may be an insignificant part of the free-energy barrier for the nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. Compared with the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in undoped a-Si films, a significant reduction is observed in the free-energy barrier to nucleation in Cu-doped a-Si films. For a-Si under irradiation of Xe(2+) at 10(exp 5) eV, the free-energy barrier to ion-induced nucleation of crystallites is shown to be about half of the value associated with thermal-induced nucleation of crystallites in a-Si under the otherwise same conditions, which is much more significant than previously expected. The present method has a general kinetic basis; it thus should be equally applicable to nucleation of crystallites in any amorphous elemental semiconductors and semiconductor alloys, metallic and polymeric glasses, and to nucleation of crystallites in melts and solutions.

  18. Measurement of effective piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films for energy harvesting application with interdigitated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Muralt, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) systems with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films play an increasingly important role for two reasons: first, such a configuration generates higher voltages than parallel plate capacitor-type electrode (PPE) structures, and second, the application of an electric field leads to a compressive stress component in addition to the overall stress state, unlike a PPE structure, which results in tensile stress component. Because ceramics tend to crack at relatively moderate tensile stresses, this means that IDEs have a lower risk of cracking than PPEs. For these reasons, IDE systems are ideal for energy harvesting of vibration energy, and for actuators. Systematic investigations of PZT films with IDE systems have not yet been undertaken. In this work, we present results on the evaluation of the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients with IDE systems. Additionally, we also propose a simple and measurable figure of merit (FOM) to analyze and evaluate the relevant piezoelectric parameter for harvesting efficiency without the need to fabricate the energy harvesting device. Idealized effective coefficients e(IDE) and h(IDE) are derived, showing its composite nature with about one-third contribution of the transverse effect, and about two-thirds contribution of the longitudinal effect in the case of a PZT film deposited on a (100)-oriented silicon wafer with the in-plane electric field along one of the Si directions. Randomly oriented 1-μm-thick PZT 53/47 film deposited by a sol-gel technique, was evaluated and yielded an effective coefficient e(IDE) of 15 C·m(-2). Our FOM is the product between effective e and h coefficient representing twice the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric film per unit strain deformation (both for IDE and PPE systems). Assuming homogeneous fields between the fingers, and neglecting the contribution from below the electrode fingers, the FOM for IDE structures with larger electrode gap is derived to be

  19. Transverse piezoelectric coefficient measurement of flexible lead zirconate titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufay, T.; Guiffard, B.; Seveno, R. [LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes, IETR (Institut d' Électronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes), UMR CNRS 6164, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Thomas, J.-C. [LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes-École Centrale Nantes, GeM (Institut de Recherche en Génie Civil et Ingénierie Mécanique), UMR CNRS 6183, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-05-28

    Highly flexible lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT), thin films have been realized by modified sol-gel process. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} was determined from the tip displacement of bending-mode actuators made of PZT cantilever deposited onto bare or RuO{sub 2} coated aluminium substrate (16 μm thick). The influence of the thickness of ruthenium dioxide RuO{sub 2} and PZT layers was investigated for Pb(Zr{sub 0.57}Ti{sub 0.43})O{sub 3}. The modification of Zr/Ti ratio from 40/60 to 60/40 was done for 3 μm thick PZT thin films onto aluminium (Al) and Al/RuO{sub 2} substrates. A laser vibrometer was used to measure the beam displacement under controlled electric field. The experimental results were fitted in order to find the piezoelectric coefficient. Very large tip deflections of about 1 mm under low voltage (∼8 V) were measured for every cantilevers at the resonance frequency (∼180 Hz). For a given Zr/Ti ratio of 58/42, it was found that the addition of a 40 nm thick RuO{sub 2} interfacial layer between the aluminium substrate and the PZT layer induces a remarkable increase of the d{sub 31} coefficient by a factor of 2.7, thus corresponding to a maximal d{sub 31} value of 33 pC/N. These results make the recently developed PZT/Al thin films very attractive for both low frequency bending mode actuating applications and vibrating energy harvesting.

  20. Quantum-dot size and thin-film dielectric constant: precision measurement and disparity with simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinolds, Darcy D W; Brown, Patrick R; Harris, Daniel K; Bulovic, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-01-14

    We study the dielectric constant of lead sulfide quantum dot (QD) films as a function of the volume fraction of QDs by varying the QD size and keeping the ligand constant. We create a reliable QD sizing curve using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), thin-film SAXS to extract a pair-distribution function for QD spacing, and a stacked-capacitor geometry to measure the capacitance of the thin film. Our data support a reduced dielectric constant in nanoparticles.

  1. Measurement of high energy x-ray beam penumbra with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2006-01-01

    High energy x-ray beam penumbra are measured using Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT, due to its limited energy dependence and high spatial resolution provide a high level of accuracy for dose assessment in penumbral regions. The spatial resolution of film detector systems is normally limited by the scanning resolution of the densitometer. Penumbral widths (80%/20%) measured at D max were found to be 2.8, 3.0, 3.2, and 3.4 mm (±0.2 mm) using 5, 10, 20, and 30 cm square field sizes, respectively, for a 6 MV linear accelerator produced x-ray beam. This is compared to 3.2 mm±0.2 mm (Kodak EDR2) and 3.6 mm±0.2 mm (Kodak X-Omat V) at 10 cmx10 cm measured using radiographic film. Using a zero volume extrapolation technique for ionization chamber measurements, the 10 cmx10 cm field penumbra at D max was measured to be 3.1 mm, a close match to Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT results. Penumbral measurements can also be made at other depths, including the surface, as the film does not suffer significantly from dosimetric variations caused by changing x-ray energy spectra. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film provides an adequate measure of penumbral dose for high energy x-ray beams

  2. Technique charts for EC film: direct optical measurements to account for the effects of X-ray scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter; Jordan, Kevin; Lewis, Craig; Heerema, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method of measuring technique charts for enhanced contrast (EC) film, to demonstrate how X-ray scatter changes the response of EC film, and to generate technique charts for general use. Methods and Materials: We have developed a 'digital cassette' - consisting of a metal plate/phosphor screen, a light guide, a photodiode sensor, and an electrometer - that can be used to measure the light generated in the phosphor screen of the film cassette. In turn, these measurements can be used to generate technique charts for EC film. The digital cassette has been used to measure technique charts for 4-MV and 6-MV X-ray beams for a variety of different phantom thicknesses, field sizes, and phantom-to-cassette air gaps. Results and Discussion: We have observed that the signals generated in an ionization chamber located 9.4 cm behind a 30-cm-thick water-equivalent phantom increase by a factor of 1.9 when the field size is increased from 4x4 cm 2 to 40x40 cm 2 when irradiated by a 6-MV X-ray beam. However, the change in EC film response is a factor of 3.5 under the same conditions. Irradiations to optimally expose the EC film predicted by the digital cassette differ by up to 82% compared to those predicted by ion chamber measurements. Nevertheless, the technique charts measured using the digital cassette predict the response of the EC film to ±0.2 optical density. The overresponse of the EC film is most likely due to low-energy scattered photons, which interact with the high atomic number (Z=64) phosphor screen of the enhanced contrast localization cassette. Therefore, simple solutions, such as placing a high atomic number material above the enhanced contrast localization cassette, can reduce this contribution by scattered photons to the signal generated in the cassettes. Conclusions: We have developed a digital cassette that can make more accurate measurements of the technique charts for EC films. Our measurements show that under some conditions, X

  3. An easy way to measure accurately the direct magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullain, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.poullain@ensicaen.fr; More-Chevalier, Joris; Cibert, Christophe; Bouregba, Rachid

    2017-01-15

    Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}/Pt/Pb(Zr{sub x}, Ti{sub 1−x})O{sub 3} thin films were grown on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by multi-target sputtering. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient α{sup Η}{sub ΜΕ} was determined at room temperature using a lock-in amplifier. By adding, in series in the circuit, a capacitor of the same value as that of the device under test, we were able to demonstrate that the magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. Furthermore, a simple way to subtract the stray voltage arising from the flow of eddy currents in the measurement set-up, is proposed. This allows the easy and accurate determination of the true magnetoelectric voltage coefficient. A large α{sup Η}{sub ΜΕ} of 8.3 V/cm. Oe was thus obtained for a Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT thin film device, without DC magnetic field nor mechanical resonance. - Highlights: • Magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. • A simple way to subtract eddy currents during the measurement, is proposed.

  4. Droplet deposition measurement with high-speed camera and novel high-speed liquid film sensor with high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damsohn, M.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Development of a sensor for time- and space-resolved droplet deposition in annular flow. → Experimental measurement of droplet deposition in horizontal annular flow to compare readings of the sensor with images of a high-speed camera when droplets are depositing unto the liquid film. → Self-adaptive signal filter based on autoregression to separate droplet impacts in the sensor signal from waves of liquid films. - Abstract: A sensor based on the electrical conductance method is presented for the measurement of dynamic liquid films in two-phase flow. The so called liquid film sensor consists of a matrix with 64 x 16 measuring points, a spatial resolution of 3.12 mm and a time resolution of 10 kHz. Experiments in a horizontal co-current air-water film flow were conducted to test the capability of the sensor to detect droplet deposition from the gas core onto the liquid film. The experimental setup is equipped with the liquid film sensor and a high speed camera (HSC) recording the droplet deposition with a sampling rate of 10 kHz simultaneously. In some experiments the recognition of droplet deposition on the sensor is enhanced by marking the droplets with higher electrical conductivity. The comparison between the HSC and the sensor shows, that the sensor captures the droplet deposition above a certain droplet diameter. The impacts of droplet deposition can be filtered from the wavy structures respectively conductivity changes of the liquid film using a filter algorithm based on autoregression. The results will be used to locally measure droplet deposition e.g. in the proximity of spacers in a subchannel geometry.

  5. A new transmission methodology for quality assurance in radiotherapy based on radiochromic film measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Leonardo L.; Pavoni, Juliana F.; Sampaio, Francisco; Netto, Thomaz Ghilardi

    2015-01-01

    Despite individual quality assurance (QA) being recommended for complex techniques in radiotherapy (RT) treatment, the possibility of errors in dose delivery during therapeutic application has been verified. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to conduct in vivo QA during treatment. This work presents an in vivo transmission quality control methodology, using radiochromic film (RCF) coupled to the linear accelerator (linac) accessory holder. This QA methodology compares the dose distribution measured by the film in the linac accessory holder with the dose distribution expected by the treatment planning software. The calculated dose distribution is obtained in the coronal and central plane of a phantom with the same dimensions of the acrylic support used for positioning the film but in a source‐to‐detector distance (SDD) of 100 cm, as a result of transferring the IMRT plan in question with all the fields positioned with the gantry vertically, that is, perpendicular to the phantom. To validate this procedure, first of all a Monte Carlo simulation using PENELOPE code was done to evaluate the differences between the dose distributions measured by the film in a SDD of 56.8 cm and 100 cm. After that, several simple dose distribution tests were evaluated using the proposed methodology, and finally a study using IMRT treatments was done. In the Monte Carlo simulation, the mean percentage of points approved in the gamma function comparing the dose distribution acquired in the two SDDs were 99.92%±0.14%. In the simple dose distribution tests, the mean percentage of points approved in the gamma function were 99.85%±0.26% and the mean percentage differences in the normalization point doses were −1.41%. The transmission methodology was approved in 24 of 25 IMRT test irradiations. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the proposed methodology using RCFs can be applied for in vivo QA in RT treatments. PACS number: 87.55.Qr, 87.55.km, 87.55.N‐ PMID

  6. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Bero, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC R film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A 633 ) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11 % for spectral absorbance measurements and 15 % for OD measurements. (authors)

  7. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukassem, I; Bero, M A

    2015-04-01

    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC(®) film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A633) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11% for spectral absorbance measurements and 15% for OD measurements. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Effects of wall temperature on skin-friction measurements by oil-film interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottini, H; Kurita, M; Iijima, H; Fukagata, K

    2015-01-01

    Wind-tunnel skin-friction measurements with thin-oil-film interferometry have been taken on an aluminum sample to investigate the effects of wall temperature on the accuracy of the technique. The sample has been flush-mounted onto a flat plate with an electric heater at its bottom and mirror-smooth temperature-sensitive paint sprayed on its top. The heater has varied the sample temperature from ambient to 328 K, and the paint has permitted wall temperature measurements on the same area of the skin-friction measurements and during the same test. The measured wall temperatures have been used to calculate the correct oil viscosities, and these viscosities and the constant nominal viscosity at 298 K have been used to calculate two different sets of skin-friction coefficients. These sets have been compared to each other and with theoretical values. This comparison shows that the effects of wall temperature on the accuracy of skin-friction measurements are sensible, and more so as wall temperature differs from 298 K. Nonetheless, they are effectively neutralized by the use of wall temperature measurements in combination with the correct oil viscosity–temperature law. In this regard, the special temperature-sensitive paint developed for this study shows advantages with respect to more traditional wall temperature measurement techniques. (paper)

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 53: Novel Technique for the Measurement of Ultra-Superficial Doses Using Gafchromic Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, M.; Devic, S. [Jewish General Hospital — McGill University Teaching Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Dose build-up and electron contamination are two closely related quantities with important implications in radiotherapy, yet they are quite difficult to measure with great certainty. We present a novel technique for measuring ultra-superficial doses. Method and Materials: We used Gafchromic EBT-3 film which have an effective point of measurement of roughly 153 micros (effective depth in water). By peeling off one of the polyester layers, the active layer becomes the top layer and we obtain a film with a effective point of measurement of 15 microns (effective depth in water). A film calibration was performed using a 180 kVp orthovoltage beam. Since the active layer of the film may have been compressed or perturbed during the peeling of clear polyester we use a triple-channel film calibration technique to minimize the effects of non-uniformity in the active layer. We measured surface doses of orthovoltage beams with lead cutouts in place to introduce contaminant photoelectrons. Results: Our measurements show that the dose enhancement near the edges of the lead were about 125% relative to central axis for 6 cm diameter cutouts up to 170% for 2 cm diameter cutouts, which were within 5% of our EGSnrc based Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  11. Measurement of antiproton annihilation on Cu, Ag and Au with emulsion films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghion, S.; Consolati, G.; Evans, C.; Ferragut, R.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Ereditato, A.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Demetrio, A.; Brusa, R.S.; Cabaret, L.; Comparat, D.; Caccia, M.; Castelli, F.; Caravita, R.; Noto, L. Di; Cerchiari, G.; Doser, M.

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of low energy antiproton annihilations on nuclei (e.g. hadronization and product multiplicities) are not well known, and Monte Carlo simulation packages that use different models provide different descriptions of the annihilation events. In this study, we measured the particle multiplicities resulting from antiproton annihilations on nuclei. The results were compared with predictions obtained using different models in the simulation tools GEANT4 and FLUKA. For this study, we exposed thin targets (Cu, Ag and Au) to a very low energy antiproton beam from CERN's Antiproton Decelerator, exploiting the secondary beamline available in the AEgIS experimental zone. The antiproton annihilation products were detected using emulsion films developed at the Laboratory of High Energy Physics in Bern, where they were analysed at the automatic microscope facility. The fragment multiplicity measured in this study is in good agreement with results obtained with FLUKA simulations for both minimally and heavily ionizing particles.

  12. Measurement of antiproton annihilation on Cu, Ag and Au with emulsion films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Caccia, M.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Demetrio, A.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Ereditato, A.; Evans, C.; Ferragut, R.; Fesel, J.; Fontana, A.; Gerber, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Guatieri, F.; Haider, S.; Hinterberger, A.; Holmestad, H.; Huse, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lansonneur, P.; Lebrun, P.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V.; Mazzotta, Z.; Müller, S. R.; Nebbia, G.; Nedelec, P.; Oberthaler, M.; Pacifico, N.; Pagano, D.; Penasa, L.; Petracek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Ravelli, L.; Rienaecker, B.; RØhne, O. M.; Rotondi, A.; Sacerdoti, M.; Sandaker, H.; Santoro, R.; Scampoli, P.; Simon, M.; Smestad, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Testera, G.; Tietje, I. C.; Vamosi, S.; Vladymyrov, M.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zimmer, C.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.

    2017-04-01

    The characteristics of low energy antiproton annihilations on nuclei (e.g. hadronization and product multiplicities) are not well known, and Monte Carlo simulation packages that use different models provide different descriptions of the annihilation events. In this study, we measured the particle multiplicities resulting from antiproton annihilations on nuclei. The results were compared with predictions obtained using different models in the simulation tools GEANT4 and FLUKA. For this study, we exposed thin targets (Cu, Ag and Au) to a very low energy antiproton beam from CERN's Antiproton Decelerator, exploiting the secondary beamline available in the AEgIS experimental zone. The antiproton annihilation products were detected using emulsion films developed at the Laboratory of High Energy Physics in Bern, where they were analysed at the automatic microscope facility. The fragment multiplicity measured in this study is in good agreement with results obtained with FLUKA simulations for both minimally and heavily ionizing particles.

  13. Arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrade, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    Arc spots are usually highly unstable and jump statistically over the cathode surface. In a magnetic field parallel to the surface, preferably they move in the retrograde direction; i.e., opposite to the Lorentzian rule. If the field is inclined with respect to the surface, the spots drift away at a certain angle with respect to the proper retrograde direction (Robson drift motion). These well-known phenomena are explained by one stability theory

  14. Radiation dose measurements of the insertion devices using radiachromic film dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, J.; Semones, E.; Job, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) uses Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets in the insertion devices to produce x-rays for scientific research [1,2]. Earlier investigations have exhibited varying degrees of demagnetization of these magnets [3] due to irradiation from electron beams [4,5,6], 60 Co γ-rays [5], and high-energy neutrons [7,8]. Radiation-induced demagnetization has been observed in the APS insertion devices [9] and was first measured in December of 2001. Partial demagnetization has also been observed in insertion devices at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) [4,6], where Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are also used. Growing concern for the lifetime of APS insertion devices, as well as the permanent magnets that will be used in next-generation, high-power light sources, like the FEL [10,11], resulted from the partial demagnetization observations made at both facilities. This concern in relation to radiation-induced demagnetization spurred a long-term project to measure and analyze the absorbed doses received by the APS insertion devices. The project required a reliable photon high-dose dosimetry technique capable of measuring absorbed doses greater than 10 6 rad, which was not readily available at the APS. Through a collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), one such technique using radiachromic films was considered, tested, and calibrated at the APS. This consequently led to the implementation of radiachromic film dosimetry for measuring the absorbed doses received by the insertion devices for each of the APS runs

  15. A Study of the Deformation, Network, and Aging of Polyethylene Oxide Films by Infrared Spectroscopy and Calorimetric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Bergeron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The calorimetric and infrared (IR spectroscopy measurements of polyethylene oxide (PEO are used to evaluate the deformation and relaxation that films experience during a temperature cycle (30°C–90°C–30°C. After melting, the intensity of some bands decreases by 10 to 70%. During the temperature cycle, the C–O band in the 1100 cm−1 region and the C–C–O deformation bands at 650 and 500 cm−1 show some new features. A network of cooperative oxygen-hydrogen interactions between the PEO chains form in films with special history, namely, in thermally treated films, in thin films prepared from gel forming solutions, and in thick films after aging. The interchain interaction network is suggested from the IR absorption bands in the 1200 and 900 cm−1 region and also from small bands at 1144 and 956 cm−1. The network seems absent or reduced in thin films. IR spectroscopy appears a sensitive technique to study chain conformations in PEO films and in other materials where order, disorder, and the formation of intermolecular interactions coexist.

  16. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  17. Newborn screening blood spot analysis in the UK: influence of spot size, punch location and haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, A J; Bernstone, L; Hall, S K

    2016-03-01

    In dried blood spot analysis, punch location and variations in applied sample volume and haematocrit can produce different measured concentrations of analytes. We investigated the magnitude of these effects in newborn screening in the UK. Heparinized blood spiked with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, octanoyl carnitine (C8), and immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was spotted onto filter paper: (i) at a constant haematocrit of 50% at various volumes, and (ii) at a range of haematocrits using a constant volume. Subpunches (3.2 mm) of the dried blood spots were then analysed. Compared with a central punch from a 50 µL blood spot with 50% haematocrit, 10 µL spots can have significantly lower measured concentrations of all analytes, with decreases of 15% or more observed for leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Punching at the edge of a spot can increase measured concentrations up to 35%. Higher haematocrit decreased measured TSH and C8 yet increased amino acids and IRT by 15% compared with 50% haematocrit. Lower haematocrits had the opposite effect, but only with higher concentrations of some analytes. Differences in blood spot size, haematocrit and punch location substantially affect measured concentrations for analytes used in the UK newborn screening programme, and this could affect false positive and negative rates. To minimize analytical bias, these variables should be controlled or adjusted for where possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Fracture toughness of silicon nitride thin films of different thicknesses as measured by bulge tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle, B.; Goeken, M.

    2011-01-01

    A bulge test setup was used to determine the fracture toughness of amorphous low-pressure chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD) silicon nitride films with various thicknesses in the range 40-108 nm. A crack-like slit was milled in the center of each free-standing film with a focused ion beam, and the membrane was deformed in the bulge test until failure occurred. The fracture toughness K IC was calculated from the pre-crack length and the stress at failure. It is shown that the membrane is in a transition state between pure plane-stress and plane-strain which, however, had a negligible influence on the measurement of the fracture toughness, because of the high brittleness of silicon nitride and its low Young's modulus over yield strength ratio. The fracture toughness K IC was found to be constant at 6.3 ± 0.4 MPa m 1/2 over the whole thickness range studied, which compares well with bulk values. This means that the fracture toughness, like the Young's modulus, is a size-independent quantity for LPCVD silicon nitride. This presumably holds true for all amorphous brittle ceramic materials.

  19. Hot-film anemometer measurements in adiabatic two-phase flow through a vertical duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabold, T.A.; Moore, W.E.; Morris, W.O.

    1997-06-01

    A hot-film anemometer (HFA) probe was used to obtain local measurements of void fraction and bubble frequency in a vertically oriented, high aspect ratio duct containing R-134a under selected adiabatic two-phase flow conditions. Data were obtained along a narrow dimension scan over the range 0.03 ≤ bar Z ≤ 0.80, where bar Z is the distance from the wall normalized with the duct spacing dimension. The void fraction profiles displayed large gradients in the near-wall regions and broad maxima near the duct centerline. The trends in the bubble frequency data generally follow those for the local void fraction data. However, the relatively large number of bubbles at higher pressure implies a larger magnitude of the interfacial area concentration, for the same cross-sectional average void fraction. For the two annular flow conditions tested, analysis of the HFA output voltage signal enabled identification of three distinct regions of the flow field; liquid film with dispersed bubbles, interfacial waves, and continuous vapor with dispersed droplets

  20. Optical constants of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-07-14

    The lack of optical constants information for hybrid perovskite of CH3NH3PbBr3 in thin films form can delay the progress of efficient LED or laser demonstration. Here, we report on the optical constants (complex refractive index and dielectric function) of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Due to the existence of voids, the refractive index of the thin films is around 8% less than the single crystals counterpart. The energy bandgap is around 2.309 eV as obtained from photoluminescence and spectrophotometry spectra, and calculated from the SE analysis. The precise measurement of optical constants will be useful in designing optical devices using CH3NH3PbBr3 thin films.

  1. Global Skin-Friction Measurements Using Particle Image Surface FLow Visualization and a Luminescent Oil-Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Nicholas; Roozeboom, Nettie; Liu, Tianshu; Sullivan, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative global skin-friction measurement technique is proposed. An oil-film is doped with a luminescent molecule and thereby made to fluoresce in order to resolve oil-film thickness, and Particle Image Surface Flow Visualization is used to resolve the velocity field of the surface of the oil-film. Skin-friction is then calculated at location x as (x )xh, where x is the displacement of the surface of the oil-film and is the dynamic viscosity of the oil. The data collection procedure and data analysis procedures are explained, and preliminary experimental skin-friction results for flow over the wing of the CRM are presented.

  2. Direct submillimeter absorptivity measurements on epitaxial Ba1-xKxBiO3films at 2K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.; Richards, P.L.; Nicol, E.J.; Hellman, E.S.; Hartford, E.H. Jr.; Platt, C.E.; Schweinfurth, R.A.; VanHarlingen, D.J.; Amano, J.

    1993-04-01

    We have used a bolometric technique to obtain accurate low temperature loss data for epitaxial thin films of Ba 0.6 K 0.4 BiO 3 from 30 to 700 cm -1 . These films were grown on MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates by MBE, off-axis sputtering and laser deposition techniques. All films show a strong absorption onset near the BCS tunneling gap of 3.5k B T c . We have analyzed these data using a Kramers-Kronig transformation and have corrected for finite film thickness effects. Results indicate that the absorption onset is consistent with a superconducting energy gap. Comparison is made with predictions based on strong coupling Eliashberg theory using α 2 F(ω) spectra obtained from the literature. While we are able to fit the overall measured absorptivity, we are unable to fit the structure observed in our data

  3. Development of a Handmade Conductivity Measurement Device for a Thin-Film Semiconductor and Its Application to Polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Set; Shinpei, Tomita; Yoshihiko, Inada; Masakazu, Kita

    2014-01-01

    The precise measurement of conductivity of a semiconductor film such as polypyrrole (Ppy) should be carried out by the four-point probe method; however, this is difficult for classroom application. This article describes the development of a new, convenient, handmade conductivity device from inexpensive materials that can measure the conductivity…

  4. Measurement of radiation induced transients in hybrid microcircuits by magnetic thin film sensor/recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.J.; Vindelov, K.E.; Brown, T.G.; Miller, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Magnetic thin film transient current sensor/recorders were modified to make two types of nuclear test measurements, transient currents in hybrid microcircuits and internal electromagnetic pulse (IEMP) fields. The measurements were made possible by the invention of split-domain sensor/recorders which can measure bilateral currents and can be reset and readout on location. The sensor/recorders were used in two underground nuclear tests and numerous calibration tests in radiation-simulation machines. The data showed that the nuclear environment had negligible effect on the sensor/recorder's operation and the recorded informations on the sensor/recorders were the signals intended to be monitored. Also, the experimental data agreed with the theoretical analysis in controlled experiments. The data were examined first by on location readout with a magnetic tape viewer and later by Kerr magneto-optic readout in the laboratory. To translate the data into current readings, we reconstructed facsimile data (on each of the sensor/recorders) in the laboratory by current pulses with the same pulse width as the radiation event. An additional check on the accuracy of the data was made by using both the sensor/recorder and the conventional pickup-oscilloscope-camera technique to monitor the same current lead in a simulated radiation environment. Over five runs were made, and the agreement among the two measurement methods was within 25%. The data collectively implied that the measurements were reliable and dependable

  5. New strain measurement method at axial tensile test of thin films through direct imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong-Eun [Department of Automotive Engineering, Seoul National Uinversity of Technolgy, 172 Gongneung-2 Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun-Hyub [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Tongmyong University, 535, Yongdang-Dong, Nam-Gu, Busan 608-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong-Joong [School of Mechanical Eng., Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhyubpark@korea.com

    2008-09-07

    This paper proposes a new method for measuring strain during a tensile test of the specimen with micrometre size through direct imaging. A specimen was newly designed for adoption of direct imaging which was the main contribution of the proposed system. The structure of the specimen has eight indicators that make it possible to adopt direct imaging and it is fabricated using the same process of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices to guarantee the feasibility of the tensile test. We implemented a system for non-contact in situ measurement of strain with the specimen, the image-based displacement measurement system. Extension of the gauge length in the specimen could be found robustly by computing the positions of the eight rectangular-shape indicators on the image. Also, for an easy setup procedure, the region of interest was found automatically through the analysis of the edge projection profile along the horizontal direction. To gain confidence in the reliability of the system, the tensile test for the Al-3%Ti thin film was performed, which is widely used as a material in MEMS devices. Tensile tests were performed and displacements were measured using the proposed method and also the capacitance type displacement sensor for comparison. It is demonstrated that the new strain measurement system can be effectively used in the tensile test of the specimen at microscale with easy setup and better accuracy.

  6. Characterization of positional errors and their influence on micro four-point probe measurements on a 100 nm Ru film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film sheet resistance measurements at high spatial resolution and on small pads are important and can be realized with micrometer-scale four-point probes. As a result of the small scale the measurements are affected by electrode position errors. We have characterized the electrode position...... errors in measurements on Ru thin film using an Au-coated 12-point probe. We show that the standard deviation of the static electrode position error is on the order of 5 nm, which significantly affects the results of single configuration measurements. Position-error-corrected dual......-configuration measurements, however, are shown to eliminate the effect of position errors to a level limited either by electrical measurement noise or dynamic position errors. We show that the probe contact points remain almost static on the surface during the measurements (measured on an atomic scale) with a standard...

  7. Critical electrode size in measurement of d33 coefficient of films via spatial distribution of piezoelectric displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhihong; Miao Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    Spatial distributions of piezoelectric displacement response across the top electrode have been used in this paper to measure the piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of films based on the converse piezoelectric effect. The technical details and features of a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer have been summarized and discussed for accurately obtaining the spatial displacement distributions. Three definitions, including the apparent, the effective and the constrained piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of films, have been clarified and used to better understand the fundamental phenomenon behind the measured displacement distributions. Finite element analysis reveals that both the apparent and the effective piezoelectric coefficients depend on the electrode radius of test capacitor as well as film thickness. However, there exists a critical electrode size for apparent piezoelectric coefficients and a critical test capacitor aspect ratio for effective piezoelectric coefficient. Beyond their respective critical values, both coefficients converge to the constrained piezoelectric coefficient irrespective of film thickness. The finding of the critical electric size makes it possible to consistently measure the constrained piezoelectric coefficient of films by using the spatial distributions of the piezoelectric displacement response and becomes the fundamental criterion of this measurement method

  8. Advocacy Coalition for Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry: The Case of Los Angeles County's Measure B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam Carl; Tavrow, Paula; McGrath, Mark Roy

    2018-05-01

    Performers in the adult film industry are routinely exposed to bloodborne pathogens. In 2012, public health advocates in Los Angeles County convinced voters to pass a ballot initiative-Measure B-to mandate condom use on adult film sets. This article presents a case study of the advocacy coalition's strategies used to achieve greater workplace safety using the advocacy coalition framework. The authors were given access to all memoranda, market research, and campaign tools used to promote Measure B. To reconstruct adult film industry counterefforts, the authors reviewed trade publications, social media, and blog posts. When legislative efforts failed, advocates engaged in a step-by-step strategy built around voters to achieve passage of a ballot initiative mandating condom use for all adult films produced in Los Angeles County. Although the industry immediately filed a lawsuit after passage of Measure B, its constitutionality has been upheld. Measure B passed because public health advocates were able to assemble scientific evidence, build public support, counter false claims, and maintain consistent messages throughout the campaign. The adult film industry lacked social capital, cohesion, and nimbleness. To bolster regulatory efforts, appealing to voters to favor safe workplaces may be an effective advocacy strategy for other industries.

  9. First Beam Test of Nanometer Spot Size Monitor Using Laser Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Walz, D

    2003-01-01

    The nanometer spot size monitor based on the laser interferometry (Laser-Compton Spot Size Monitor) has been tested in FFTB beam line at SLAC. A low emittance beam of 46 GeV electrons, provided by the two-mile linear accelerator, was focused into nanometer spot in the FFTB line, and its transverse dimensions were precisely measured by the spot size monitor.

  10. First Beam Test of Nanometer Spot Size Monitor Using Laser Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, Dieter R

    2003-01-01

    The nanometer spot size monitor based on the laser interferometry (Laser-Compton Spot Size Monitor) has been tested in FFTB beam line at SLAC. A low emittance beam of 46 GeV electrons, provided by the two-mile linear accelerator, was focused into nanometer spot in the FFTB line, and its transverse dimensions were precisely measured by the spot size monitor

  11. Measurement of off-axis and peripheral skin dose using radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Martin J.; Yu, P.K.N.; Metcalfe, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    A radiotherapy skin dose profile can be obtained with radiochromic film. The central axis skin dose relative to D max for a 10x10cm 2 field size was found to be 22%, 17% and 15.5% for 6 MV, 10 MV and 18 MV photon beams. Peripheral dose increased with increasing field size. At 10 MV the skin dose 2 cm outside the geometric field edge was measured as 6%, 10% and 17% for 10x10cm 2 , 20x20cm 2 and 30x30cm 2 field sizes respectively. Off-axis skin dose decreased as distance increased from central axis for fields with Perspex block trays. For a 20x20cm 2 field, an approximately 5-8% drop in percentage skin dose was observed from central axis to the beam edge. (author)

  12. Real-Time Unsteady Loads Measurements Using Hot-Film Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Arun S.; Moes, Timothy R.

    2004-01-01

    Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in realtime, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteady aerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteady aerodynamic loads in real time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.

  13. Large carbon cluster thin film gauges for measuring aerodynamic heat transfer rates in hypersonic shock tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinath, S; Reddy, K P J

    2015-01-01

    Different types of Large Carbon Cluster (LCC) layers are synthesized by a single-step pyrolysis technique at various ratios of precursor mixture. The aim is to develop a fast responsive and stable thermal gauge based on a LCC layer which has relatively good electrical conduction in order to use it in the hypersonic flow field. The thermoelectric property of the LCC layer has been studied. It is found that these carbon clusters are sensitive to temperature changes. Therefore suitable thermal gauges were developed for blunt cone bodies and were tested in hypersonic shock tunnels at a flow Mach number of 6.8 to measure aerodynamic heating. The LCC layer of this thermal gauge encounters high shear forces and a hostile environment for test duration in the range of a millisecond. The results are favorable to use large carbon clusters as a better sensor than a conventional platinum thin film gauge in view of fast responsiveness and stability. (paper)

  14. Measurement of thickness of thin films by the X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, C.; Balasingh, C.; Singh, A.K.

    1979-07-01

    X-ray diffraction method can be used to measure the thickness of thin films (coatings). The principle and the experimental details of the x-ray diffraction methods are described. The intensities of the diffracted beams are derived assuming a random orientation of the crystallites in the diffracting medium. Consequently, the expressions are not valid when the sample has preferred orientation. To check the performance of the method, thicknesses of nickel deposits on mild steel plates were determined by the x-ray diffraction method and the results compared with those obtained by the weighing method and metallographic examination. The weighing method which gives an accuracy of +- 0.1 micron is taken as the standard. The x-ray diffraction methods and the metallographic examinations give values within +- 1 micron of the value obtained by the weighing method. (author)

  15. Microscopic measurement of penetration depth in YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films by scanning Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral, A.; Bending, S.J.; Humphreys, R.G.; Henini, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have used a low noise scanning Hall probe microscope to measure the penetration depth microscopically in a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin film as a function of temperature. The instrument has high magnetic field (approx. 2.9x10 -8 T Hz -1/2 at 77 K) and spatial resolution (approx. 0.85 μm). Magnetic field profiles of single vortices in the superconducting film have been successfully measured and the microscopic penetration depth of the superconductor has been extracted. We find surprisingly large variations in values of λ for different vortices within the scanning field. (author)

  16. Measurements of Hk and Ms in thin magnetic films by the angular dependence of the planar Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatskicheva, M.; Vatskichev, L.

    1987-11-01

    It is shown that the angular dependences of the planar Hall effect measured with infinite magnetic field and with magnetic field H⩾ Hk have an intersection point and this fact is enough for measuring the anisotropy field Hk applying the method presented by Pastor, Ferreiro and Torres in J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 53 (1986) 349, 62 (1986) 101. The scaling of the Hall tension U proportional to M2s in mV/Am -1 gives a possibility for calculating the Ms-values of the films. These assumptions are verified for NiFe- and NiFeGe films with a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy.

  17. Measurements of simulated periodontal bone defects in inverted digital image and film-based radiograph: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molon, Rafael Scaf; Morais Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Ferreira, Mauricio Goncalves; Loffredo, Leonor Castro Monteiro; Scaf, Gulnara; Sakakura, Celso Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the inverted digital images and film-based images of dry pig mandibles to measure the periodontal bone defect depth. Forty 2-wall bone defects were made in the proximal region of the premolar in the dry pig mandibles. The digital and conventional radiographs were taken using a Schick sensor and Kodak F-speed intraoral film. Image manipulation (inversion) was performed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. Four trained examiners made all of the radiographic measurements in millimeters a total of three times from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss with both types of images: inverted digital and film. The measurements were also made in dry mandibles using a periodontal probe and digital caliper. The Student's t-test was used to compare the depth measurements obtained from the two types of images and direct visual measurement in the dry mandibles. A significance level of 0.05 for a 95% confidence interval was used for each comparison. There was a significant difference between depth measurements in the inverted digital images and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.0039), with means of 6.29 mm (IC 95% :6.04-6.54) and 6.79 mm (IC 95% :6.45-7.11), respectively. There was a non-significant difference between the film-based radiographs and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.4950), with means of 6.64 mm(IC 95% :6.40-6.89) and 6.79 mm(IC 95% :6.45-7.11), respectively. The periodontal bone defect measurements in the inverted digital images were inferior to film-based radiographs, underestimating the amount of bone loss.

  18. Measurements of simulated periodontal bone defects in inverted digital image and film-based radiograph: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molon, Rafael Scaf; Morais Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Ferreira, Mauricio Goncalves; Loffredo, Leonor Castro Monteiro; Scaf, Gulnara [Araraquara Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sakakura, Celso Eduardo [Barretos Dental School, Barretos Educational Fundation, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to compare the inverted digital images and film-based images of dry pig mandibles to measure the periodontal bone defect depth. Forty 2-wall bone defects were made in the proximal region of the premolar in the dry pig mandibles. The digital and conventional radiographs were taken using a Schick sensor and Kodak F-speed intraoral film. Image manipulation (inversion) was performed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. Four trained examiners made all of the radiographic measurements in millimeters a total of three times from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss with both types of images: inverted digital and film. The measurements were also made in dry mandibles using a periodontal probe and digital caliper. The Student's t-test was used to compare the depth measurements obtained from the two types of images and direct visual measurement in the dry mandibles. A significance level of 0.05 for a 95% confidence interval was used for each comparison. There was a significant difference between depth measurements in the inverted digital images and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.0039), with means of 6.29 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.04-6.54) and 6.79 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. There was a non-significant difference between the film-based radiographs and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.4950), with means of 6.64 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.40-6.89) and 6.79 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. The periodontal bone defect measurements in the inverted digital images were inferior to film-based radiographs, underestimating the amount of bone loss.

  19. A Method to Extract the Intrinsic Mechanical Properties of Soft Metallic Thin Films Based on Nanoindentation Continuous Stiffness Measurement Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X Y; Jiang, Z D; Wang, H R; Zhu, Q

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine accurately the intrinsic hardness of the soft metallic thin film on a hard substrate using nanoindentation, a proper methodology irrespective of several important effects the Oliver-Pharr method concerns is described. First, the original analysis data such as the load, P, and contact stiffness, S, as a function of the indentation depth, h, are acquired by means of the continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) technique. By CSM, the complicating effects including indentation creep behaviour of metal materials as well as thermal drift on the measured results are avoided effectively. Then, the hardness of film-only is calculated via a material characteristic parameter, P/S 2 , which is independent of the contact area, A, based on the constant modulus assumption method. In this way, the influences of the substrate contribution and material pile-up behaviour needn't be accounted for. Guided by above ideas, moreover, a 504 nm Au film on the glass substrate system was chosen to study. The results show that the hardness of Au thin film is 1.6±1 GPa, which agree well with the literature. While the composite hardness measured by Oliver-Pharr method is between 2∼3GPa, obviously, which is overestimated. This implies the present methodology is a more accurate and simple way for extracting the true hardness of the soft metallic thin films

  20. Measurement of liquid film thickness by optical fluorescence and its application to an oscillating piston positive displacement flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, Charlotte E; Baker, Roger C; Hutchings, Ian M

    2011-01-01

    The movement of the circular piston in an oscillating piston positive displacement flowmeter is important in understanding the operation of the flowmeter, and the leakage of liquid past the piston plays a key role in the performance of the meter. The clearances between the piston and the chamber are small, typically less than 60 µm. In order to measure this film thickness a fluorescent dye was added to the water passing through the meter, which was illuminated with UV light. Visible light images were captured with a digital camera and analysed to give a measure of the film thickness with an uncertainty of less than 7%. It is known that this method lacks precision unless careful calibration is undertaken. Methods to achieve this are discussed in the paper. The grey level values for a range of film thicknesses were calibrated in situ with six dye concentrations to select the most appropriate one for the range of liquid film thickness. Data obtained for the oscillating piston flowmeter demonstrate the value of the fluorescence technique. The method is useful, inexpensive and straightforward and can be extended to other applications where measurement of liquid film thickness is required

  1. Film thickness measurement based on nonlinear phase analysis using a Linnik microscopic white-light spectral interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tong; Chen, Zhuo; Li, Minghui; Wu, Juhong; Fu, Xing; Hu, Xiaotang

    2018-04-20

    Based on white-light spectral interferometry and the Linnik microscopic interference configuration, the nonlinear phase components of the spectral interferometric signal were analyzed for film thickness measurement. The spectral interferometric signal was obtained using a Linnik microscopic white-light spectral interferometer, which includes the nonlinear phase components associated with the effective thickness, the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens, and the nonlinear phase of the thin film itself. To determine the influence of the effective thickness, a wavelength-correction method was proposed that converts the effective thickness into a constant value; the nonlinear phase caused by the effective thickness can then be determined and subtracted from the total nonlinear phase. A method for the extraction of the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens was also proposed. Accurate thickness measurement of a thin film can be achieved by fitting the nonlinear phase of the thin film after removal of the nonlinear phase caused by the effective thickness and by the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens. The experimental results demonstrated that both the wavelength-correction method and the extraction method for the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens improve the accuracy of film thickness measurements.

  2. Development of a sensitive experimental set-up for LIF fuel wall film measurements in a pressure vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Florian; Schmidt, Jürgen; Beyrau, Frank

    2015-05-01

    This paper focusses on fundamental investigations of fuel wall films, which are formed when the spray impinges on the piston or cylinder walls. To reproduce the wide range of operating conditions within homogeneously charged gasoline direct-injection engines, it is necessary to use a film thickness measurement method, which can be applied inside a high-pressure, high-temperature vessel. Hence, we developed a method based on laser-induced fluorescence that reaches: a precision better than 1 µm, a geometric resolution of 31 µm and a practical applicability for wall film thicknesses smaller 80 µm. To obtain accurate film thickness results, we provide a detailed description of the selection of the surrogate fuel isooctane with 3-pentanone as fluorescence tracer and the resulting assembly of the excitation source, beam expander, filters, camera and the essential image processing. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of other possible solutions are discussed. Earlier publications provide only little information about the accuracy of their calibration and measurement procedures. Therefore, we tested and compared three basic calibration methods to each other and provide an analysis of possible errors, such as the influence of the preferential evaporation of 3-pentanone. Finally, images of resulting wall films are presented, and practical considerations for the execution of the measurements like recording timings are discussed.

  3. Potential benefits of dosimetric VMAT tracking verified with 3D film measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crijns, Wouter, E-mail: wouter.crijns@uzleuven.be; Depuydt, Tom; Haustermans, Karin [Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, KU Leuven Department of Oncology, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Defraene, Gilles [Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, KU Leuven Department of Oncology, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and KU Leuven Medical Imaging Research Center, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Van Herck, Hans [KU Leuven Medical Imaging Research Center, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and KU Leuven Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT)–PSI, Center for Processing Speech and Images, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Maes, Frederik [KU Leuven Medical Imaging Research Center, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT)–PSI, Center for Processing Speech and Images, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Medical IT Department, KU Leuven iMinds, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Department of Oncology, MRC-CR-UK Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate three different plan adaptation strategies using 3D film-stack dose measurements of both focal boost and hypofractionated prostate VMAT treatments. The adaptation strategies (a couch shift, geometric tracking, and dosimetric tracking) were applied for three realistic intrafraction prostate motions. Methods: A focal boost (35 × 2.2 and 35 × 2.7 Gy) and a hypofractionated (5 × 7.25 Gy) prostate VMAT plan were created for a heterogeneous phantom that allows for internal prostate motion. For these plans geometric tracking and dosimetric tracking were evaluated by ionization chamber (IC) point dose measurements (zero-D) and measurements using a stack of EBT3 films (3D). The geometric tracking applied translations, rotations, and scaling of the MLC aperture in response to realistic prostate motions. The dosimetric tracking additionally corrected the monitor units to resolve variations due to difference in depth, tissue heterogeneity, and MLC-aperture. The tracking was based on the positions of four fiducial points only. The film measurements were compared to the gold standard (i.e., IC measurements) and the planned dose distribution. Additionally, the 3D measurements were converted to dose volume histograms, tumor control probability, and normal tissue complication probability parameters (DVH/TCP/NTCP) as a direct estimate of clinical relevance of the proposed tracking. Results: Compared to the planned dose distribution, measurements without prostate motion and tracking showed already a reduced homogeneity of the dose distribution. Adding prostate motion further blurs the DVHs for all treatment approaches. The clinical practice (no tracking) delivered the dose distribution inside the PTV but off target (CTV), resulting in boost dose errors up to 10%. The geometric and dosimetric tracking corrected the dose distribution’s position. Moreover, the dosimetric tracking could achieve the planned boost DVH, but not the DVH of the more homogeneously

  4. Determination of radial profile of ICF hot spot's state by multi-objective parameters optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jianjun; Deng Bo; Cao Zhurong; Ding Yongkun; Jiang Shaoen

    2014-01-01

    A method using multi-objective parameters optimization is presented to determine the radial profile of hot spot temperature and density. And a parameter space which contain five variables: the temperatures at center and the interface of fuel and remain ablator, the maximum model density of remain ablator, the mass ratio of remain ablator to initial ablator and the position of interface between fuel and the remain ablator, is used to described the hot spot radial temperature and density. Two objective functions are set as the variances of normalized intensity profile from experiment X-ray images and the theory calculation. Another objective function is set as the variance of experiment average temperature of hot spot and the average temperature calculated by theoretical model. The optimized parameters are obtained by multi-objective genetic algorithm searching for the five dimension parameter space, thereby the optimized radial temperature and density profiles can be determined. The radial temperature and density profiles of hot spot by experiment data measured by KB microscope cooperating with X-ray film are presented. It is observed that the temperature profile is strongly correlated to the objective functions. (authors)

  5. Thickness measurement of a thin hetero-oxide film with an interfacial oxide layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Joong; Lee, Seung Mi; Jang, Jong Shik; Moret, Mona

    2012-02-01

    The general equation Tove = L cos θ ln(Rexp/R0 + 1) for the thickness measurement of thin oxide films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to a HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) as a thin hetero-oxide film system with an interfacial oxide layer. The contribution of the thick interfacial SiO2 layer to the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer was counterbalanced by multiplying the ratio between the intensity of Si4+ from a thick SiO2 film and that of Si0 from a Si(1 0 0) substrate to the intensity of Si4+ from the HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) film. With this approximation, the thickness levels of the HfO2 overlayers showed a small standard deviation of 0.03 nm in a series of HfO2 (2 nm)/SiO2 (2-6 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. Mutual calibration with XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to verify the thickness of HfO2 overlayers in a series of HfO2 (1-4 nm)/SiO2 (3 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. From the linear relation between the thickness values derived from XPS and TEM, the effective attenuation length of the photoelectrons and the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer could be determined.

  6. Time Resolved X-Ray Spot Size Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Roger; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Weir, John

    2005-01-01

    A diagnostic was developed for the determination of temporal history of an X-ray spot. A pair of thin (0.5 mm) slits image the x-ray spot to a fast scintillator which is coupled to a fast detector, thus sampling a slice of the X-Ray spot. Two other scintillator/detectors are used to determine the position of the spot and total forward dose. The slit signal is normalized to the dose and the resulting signal is analyzed to get the spot size. The position information is used to compensate for small changes due to spot motion and misalignment. The time resolution of the diagnostic is about 1 ns and measures spots from 0.5 mm to over 3 mm. The theory and equations used to calculate spot size and position are presented, as well as data. The calculations assume a symmetric, Gaussian spot. The spot data is generated by the ETA II accelerator, a 2kA, 5.5 MeV, 60ns electron beam focused on a Tantalum target. The spot generated is typically about 1 mm FWHM. Comparisons are made to an X-ray pinhole camera which images th...

  7. In situ growth rate measurements during plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, M; Nerushev, O A; Campbell, E E B

    2007-01-01

    In situ laser reflectivity measurements are used to monitor the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films grown by DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) from an iron catalyst film deposited on a silicon wafer. In contrast to thermal CVD growth, there is no initial increase in the growth rate; instead, the initial growth rate is high (as much as 10 μm min -1 ) and then drops off rapidly to reach a steady level (2 μm min -1 ) for times beyond 1 min. We show that a limiting factor for growing thick films of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs) using PECVD can be the formation of an amorphous carbon layer at the top of the growing nanotubes. In situ reflectivity measurements provide a convenient technique for detecting the onset of the growth of this layer

  8. Kinetically controlled glass transition measurement of organic aerosol thin films using broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass transitions from liquid to semi-solid and solid phase states have important implications for reactivity, growth, and cloud-forming (cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleation capabilities of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs. The small size and relatively low mass concentration of SOAs in the atmosphere make it difficult to measure atmospheric SOA glass transitions using conventional methods. To circumvent these difficulties, we have adapted a new technique for measuring glass-forming properties of atmospherically relevant organic aerosols. Aerosol particles to be studied are deposited in the form of a thin film onto an interdigitated electrode (IDE using electrostatic precipitation. Dielectric spectroscopy provides dipole relaxation rates for organic aerosols as a function of temperature (373 to 233 K that are used to calculate the glass transition temperatures for several cooling or heating rates. IDE-enabled broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS was successfully used to measure the kinetically controlled glass transition temperatures of aerosols consisting of glycerol and four other compounds with selected cooling and heating rates. The glass transition results agree well with available literature data for these five compounds. The results indicate that the IDE-BDS method can provide accurate glass transition data for organic aerosols under atmospheric conditions. The BDS data obtained with the IDE-BDS technique can be used to characterize glass transitions for both simulated and ambient organic aerosols and to model their climate effects.

  9. The impact of inverse photoemission spectroscopy measurements on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhi; Schlaf, Rudy; Sun, Siqi; Li, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) enables the characterization of the density of states of unoccupied energy states above the Fermi level. However, due to the relatively high electron currents required to achieve useful signal to noise ratios, sample damage is a concern. Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT) was used to systematically study the influence of electron radiation during IPES measurements on a prototypical conductive polymer. A series of IPES measurements exposing the samples to a range of electron fluxes was performed. An analysis of the electronic structure and the morphology showed that significant changes occurred in the investigated samples depending on the electron flux. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the root cause of the spectral changes is most likely related to crystallization of the film in an edge-on orientation. This was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy where both the C-C and C=C stretch modes shifted to lower frequencies after 5 IPES scans indicating a more ordered molecular structure. The observation of these stretch modes even after exposure to higher electron flux indicates that the main chemical structure of the P3HT molecules remains mostly intact during the IPES measurements. The absence of significant changes in C 1s and S 2p photoemission core level lines also confirmed this conclusion

  10. Pulsed laser deposition of HfO{sub 2} thin films on indium zinc oxide: Band offsets measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciun, D.; Craciun, V., E-mail: valentin.craciun@inflpr.ro

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • High quality amorphous IZO and HfO{sub 2} films were obtained by PLD technique. • XPS measurements were used to obtain the valence band alignment in HfO{sub 2}/IZO heterostructure. • A valence band offset (ΔE{sub V}) of 1.75 eV was obtained for the HfO{sub 2}/IZO heterostructure. • A conduction band offset (ΔE{sub C}) of 0.65 eV was estimated for the HfO{sub 2}/IZO heterostructure. - Abstract: One of the most used dielectric films for amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) based thin films transistor is HfO{sub 2}. The estimation of the valence band discontinuity (ΔE{sub V}) of HfO{sub 2}/IZO heterostructure grown using the pulsed laser deposition technique, with In/(In + Zn) = 0.79, was obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The binding energies of Hf 4d5, Zn 2p3 and In 3d5 core levels and valence band maxima were measured for thick pure films and for a very thin HfO{sub 2} film deposited on a thick IZO film. A value of ΔE{sub V} = 1.75 ± 0.05 eV was estimated for the heterostructure. Taking into account the measured HfO{sub 2} and IZO optical bandgap values of 5.50 eV and 3.10 eV, respectively, a conduction band offset ΔE{sub C} = 0.65 ± 0.05 eV in HfO{sub 2}/IZO heterostructure was then obtained.

  11. Radiochromic film for dosimetric measurements in radiation shielding composites synthesized for applied in radiology procedures of high dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontainha, C. C. P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Baptista N, A. T.; Faria, L. O., E-mail: crissia@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Medical radiology offers great benefit to patients. However, although specifics procedures of high dose, as fluoroscopy, Interventional Radiology, Computed Tomography (CT) make up a small percent of the imaging procedures, they contribute to significantly increase dose to population. The patients may suffer tissue damage. The probability of deterministic effects incidence depends on the type of procedure performed, exposure time, and the amount of applied dose at the irradiated area. Calibrated radiochromic films can identify size and distribution of the radiated fields and measure intensities of doses. Radiochromic films are sensitive for doses ranging from 0.1 to 20 c Gy and they have the same response for X-rays effective energies ranging from 20 to 100 keV. New radiation attenuators materials have been widely investigated resulting in dose reduction entrance skin dose. In this work, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}:8 % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were obtained by mixing them with P(VDF-Tr Fe) copolymers matrix from casting method and then characterized by Ftir. Dosimetric measurements were obtained with Xr-Q A2 Gafchromic radiochromic films. In this setup, one radiochromic film is directly exposed to the X-rays beam and another one measures the attenuated beam were exposed to an absorbed dose of 10 mGy of RQR5 beam quality (70 kV X-ray beam). Under the same conditions, irradiated Xr-Q A2 films were stored and scanned measurement in order to obtain a more reliable result. The attenuation factors, evaluated by Xr-Q A2 radiochromic films, indicate that both composites are good candidates for use as patient radiation shielding in high dose medical procedures. (Author)

  12. Time-resolved electrical measurements of a pulsed-dc methane discharge used in diamond-like carbon films production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, C.; Polo, M.C.; Oncins, G.; Pascual, E.; Andujar, J.L.; Bertran, E.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) thin films were obtained at room temperature via asymmetric bipolar pulsed-dc methane glow discharge. The power frequency values were varied from 100 to 200 kHz and the maximum amplitude voltage from -600 to -1400 V. Such films present diamond-like carbon (DLC) properties [J.L. Andujar, M. Vives, C. Corbella, E. Bertran, Diamond Relat. Mater. 12 (2003) 98]. The plasma, powered by a pulse frequency of 100 kHz, was electrically studied by a Langmuir probe. The next parameters were calculated within the pulse cycle from I-V measurements with 1 μs resolution: plasma and floating potentials, electron temperature, and electron and ion densities. The presence of a population of hot electrons (10 eV) was detected at high bias voltage region. The density of cold electrons grows one order of magnitude after each negative pulse, whereas the ion density suffers a prompt increase during each positive pulse. The surface topography of DLC films was scanned by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A smoothly varying friction coefficient (between 0.2 and 0.3) was measured by AFM in contact mode. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) analysis provided a wide characterization of the films, involving density, thickness and roughness. The C/H ratio, as directly obtained by elemental analysis (EA), shows an increase at higher bias voltages. All these features are discussed in terms of process parameters varied in film growth

  13. Nonlinear optical parameters of nanocrystalline AZO thin film measured at different substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilani, Asim, E-mail: asim.jilane@gmail.com [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M.Sh [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences, Beni -Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Al-ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Dahlan, Ammar sadik [Department of architecture, faculty of environmental design, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-01-15

    The 2.2 wt% of aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent and preferential c-axis oriented thin films were prepared by using radio frequency (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 200 °C. For structural analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Electron Microscope (AFM) was used for morphological studies. The optical parameters such as, optical energy gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric loss, tangent loss, first and third order nonlinear optical properties of transparent films were investigated. High transmittance above 90% and highly homogeneous surface were observed in all samples. The substrate temperature plays an important role to get the best transparent conductive oxide thin films. The substrate temperature at 150 °C showed the growth of highly transparent AZO thin film. Energy gap increased with the increased in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films. Dielectric constant and loss were found to be photon energy dependent with substrate temperature. The change in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films also affect the non-liner optical properties of thin films. The value of χ{sup (3)} was found to be changed with the grain size of the thin films that directly affected by the substrate temperature of the pure and Al doped ZnO thin films.

  14. Measurement of quasiparticle transport in aluminum films using tungsten transition-edge sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, J. J.; Shank, B.; Cabrera, B.; Moffatt, R.; Redl, P.; Young, B. A.; Tortorici, E. C.; Brink, P. L.; Cherry, M.; Tomada, A.; Kreikebaum, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on experimental studies of phonon sensors which utilize quasiparticle diffusion in thin aluminum films connected to tungsten transition-edge-sensors (TESs) operated at 35 mK. We show that basic TES physics and a simple physical model of the overlap region between the W and Al films in our devices enables us to accurately reproduce the experimentally observed pulse shapes from x-rays absorbed in the Al films. We further estimate quasiparticle loss in Al films using a simple diffusion equation approach. These studies allow the design of phonon sensors with improved performance.

  15. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuanfang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2007-06-01

    The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index would be also interesting since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry which uses two large beams. In this case, the images of the particle formed by the reflected and refracted light, known as glare spots, are separated in space. When a particle passes in the probe volume, the two parts in a signal obtained by a detector in forward direction are then separated in time. If two detectors are used the phase differences between two signals, the distance and the intensity ratio of reflected and refracted parts can be obtained and they provide rich information about the particle diameter and its refractive index, as well as its velocity. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of such a configuration with two theoretical models: geometrical optics and rigorous electromagnetism solution.

  16. Relating soil solution Zn concentration to diffusive gradients in thin films measurements in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, Fien; Smolders, Erik; Oliver, Ian; Zhang, Hao

    2003-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has been suggested to sample an available fraction of metals in soil. The objectives of this study were to compare DGT measurements with commonly measured fractions of Zn in soil, viz, the soil solution concentration and the total Zn concentration. The DGT technique was used to measure fluxes and interfacial concentrations of Zn in three series of field-contaminated soils collected in transects toward galvanized electricity pylons and in 15 soils amended with ZnCl2 at six rates. The ratio of DGT-measured concentration to pore water concentration of Zn, R, varied between 0.02 and 1.52 (mean 0.29). This ratio decreased with decreasing distribution coefficient, Kd, of Zn in the soil, which is in agreement with the predictions of the DGT-induced fluxes in soils (DIFS) model. The R values predicted with the DIFS model were generally larger than the observed values in the ZnCl2-amended soils at the higher Zn rates. A modification of the DIFS model indicated that saturation of the resin gel was approached in these soils, despite the short deployment times used (2 h). The saturation of the resin with Zn did not occur in the control soils (no Zn salt added) or the field-contaminated soils. Pore water concentration of Zn in these soils was predicted from the DGT-measured concentration and the total Zn content. Predicted values and observations were generally in good agreement. The pore water concentration was more than 5 times underpredicted for the most acid soil (pH = 3) and for six other soils, for which the underprediction was attributed to the presence of colloidal Zn in the soil solution.

  17. Atomic force microscopy measurements of topography and friction on dotriacontane films adsorbed on a SiO2 surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trogisch, S.; Simpson, M.J.; Taub, H.

    2005-01-01

    We report comprehensive atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements at room temperature of the nanoscale topography and lateral friction on the surface of thin solid films of an intermediate-length normal alkane, dotriacontane (n-C32H66), adsorbed onto a SiO2 surface. Our topographic and frictional...

  18. Current-Induced Joule Heating and Electrical Field Effects in Low Temperature Measurements on TIPS Pentacene Thin Film Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikiforov, G.O.; Venkateshvaran, D.; Mooser, S.; Meneau, A.; Strobel, T.; Kronemeijer, A.; Jiang, L.; Lee, M.J.; Sirringhaus, H.

    2016-01-01

    The channel temperature (Tch) of solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS pentacene) thin film transistors (TFTs) is closely monitored in real time during current–voltage (I–V) measurements carried out in a He exchange gas cryostat at various base temperatures (Tb)

  19. Simulation and Verification of Tip-Induced Polarization During Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Measurements on Film Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Popok, Vladimir; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    have developed a physics-based finite element model of KPFM measurements on dielectrics in order to investigate the impact of tip-induced polarization. The model is compared with experiments on film capacitors, where it is found that tip-induced polarization is a significant contributor...

  20. Calibration of GafChromic XR-RV3 radiochromic film for skin dose measurement using standardized x-ray spectra and a commercial flatbed scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Bradley P.; Speidel, Michael A.; Pike, Tina L.; Van Lysel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, newly formulated XR-RV3 GafChromic film was calibrated with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceability for measurement of patient skin dose during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Methods: The film was calibrated free-in-air to air kerma levels between 15 and 1100 cGy using four moderately filtered x-ray beam qualities (60, 80, 100, and 120 kVp). The calibration films were scanned with a commercial flatbed document scanner. Film reflective density-to-air kerma calibration curves were constructed for each beam quality, with both the orange and white sides facing the x-ray source. A method to correct for nonuniformity in scanner response (up to 25% depending on position) was developed to enable dose measurement with large films. The response of XR-RV3 film under patient backscattering conditions was examined using on-phantom film exposures and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: The response of XR-RV3 film to a given air kerma depended on kVp and film orientation. For a 200 cGy air kerma exposure with the orange side of the film facing the source, the film response increased by 20% from 60 to 120 kVp. At 500 cGy, the increase was 12%. When 500 cGy exposures were performed with the white side facing the x-ray source, the film response increased by 4.0% (60 kVp) to 9.9% (120 kVp) compared to the orange-facing orientation. On-phantom film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations show that using a NIST-traceable free-in-air calibration curve to determine air kerma in the presence of backscatter results in an error from 2% up to 8% depending on beam quality. The combined uncertainty in the air kerma measurement from the calibration curves and scanner nonuniformity correction was ±7.1% (95% C.I.). The film showed notable stability. Calibrations of film and scanner separated by 1 yr differed by 1.0%. Conclusions: XR-RV3 radiochromic film response to a given air kerma shows dependence on beam quality and film

  1. Direct Reconstruction of Two-Dimensional Currents in Thin Films from Magnetic-Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Alexander Y.; Levin, Eitan; Zeldov, Eli

    2017-12-01

    An accurate determination of microscopic transport and magnetization currents is of central importance for the study of the electric properties of low-dimensional materials and interfaces, of superconducting thin films, and of electronic devices. Current distribution is usually derived from the measurement of the perpendicular component of the magnetic field above the surface of the sample, followed by numerical inversion of the Biot-Savart law. The inversion is commonly obtained by deriving the current stream function g , which is then differentiated in order to obtain the current distribution. However, this two-step procedure requires filtering at each step and, as a result, oversmooths the solution. To avoid this oversmoothing, we develop a direct procedure for inversion of the magnetic field that avoids use of the stream function. This approach provides enhanced accuracy of current reconstruction over a wide range of noise levels. We further introduce a reflection procedure that allows for the reconstruction of currents that cross the boundaries of the measurement window. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by several numerical examples.

  2. Single-pulse and burst-mode ablation of gold films measured by quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusyak, Oleksiy G.; Bubelnik, Matthew; Mares, Jeremy; McGovern, Theresa; Siders, Craig W.

    2005-02-01

    Femtosecond ablation has several distinct advantages: the threshold energy fluence for the onset of damage and ablation is orders of magnitude less than for traditional nanosecond laser machining, and by virtue of the rapid material removal of approximately an optical penetration depth per pulse, femtosecond machined cuts can be cleaner and more precise than those made with traditional nanosecond or longer pulse lasers. However, in many materials of interest, especially metals, this limits ablation rates to 10-100 nm/pulse. We present the results of using multiple pulse bursts to significantly increase the per-burst ablation rate compared to a single pulse with the same integrated energy, while keeping the peak intensity of each individual pulse below the air ionization limit. Femtosecond ablation with pulses centered at 800-nm having integrated energy of up to 30 mJ per pulse incident upon thin gold films was measured via resonance frequency shifts in a gold-electrode-coated quartz-crystal oscillator. Measurements were performed using Michelson-interferometer-based burst generators, with up to 2 ns pulse separations, as well as pulse shaping by programmable acousto-optic dispersive filter (Dazzler from FastLite) with up to 2 ps pulse separations.

  3. Subthreshold slope as a measure of interfacial trap density in pentacene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yongwoo; Park, Byoungnam

    2016-01-01

    Electrical properties in organic field effect transistors (FETs) are dominated by charge transport in the accumulation layer, few molecular layers close to the gate dielectric. Through comparison of the subthreshold slope between monolayer (ML) and thick pentacene FETs, formation of the second layer islands on top of the complete first layer is found to be crucial in determining the charge transport in ML pentacene FETs. It is demonstrated that a pentacene ML field effect transistor (FET) is an excellent probe that can detect electronic states of organic semiconductors interfacing with the gate dielectric at nanometer scale. Far higher sub-threshold slope in ML FETs, as a measure of interfacial charge trap density, than that in thick pentacene FETs is translated that the path of the induced carriers in ML FETs is limited into the molecular layer interfacing with the gate dielectric with a high density of charge traps, while carriers in thicker films have alternative pathways through more electrically conductive layer above the first layer with much less trap density. - Highlights: • Sub-threshold slope is demonstrated to be a measure of interface traps. • For application to sensors, effective charge transport layer should be chosen. • Monolayer transistors can be used as a platform for probing localized states.

  4. Subthreshold slope as a measure of interfacial trap density in pentacene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yongwoo; Park, Byoungnam, E-mail: metalpbn@hongik.ac.kr

    2016-01-29

    Electrical properties in organic field effect transistors (FETs) are dominated by charge transport in the accumulation layer, few molecular layers close to the gate dielectric. Through comparison of the subthreshold slope between monolayer (ML) and thick pentacene FETs, formation of the second layer islands on top of the complete first layer is found to be crucial in determining the charge transport in ML pentacene FETs. It is demonstrated that a pentacene ML field effect transistor (FET) is an excellent probe that can detect electronic states of organic semiconductors interfacing with the gate dielectric at nanometer scale. Far higher sub-threshold slope in ML FETs, as a measure of interfacial charge trap density, than that in thick pentacene FETs is translated that the path of the induced carriers in ML FETs is limited into the molecular layer interfacing with the gate dielectric with a high density of charge traps, while carriers in thicker films have alternative pathways through more electrically conductive layer above the first layer with much less trap density. - Highlights: • Sub-threshold slope is demonstrated to be a measure of interface traps. • For application to sensors, effective charge transport layer should be chosen. • Monolayer transistors can be used as a platform for probing localized states.

  5. TV spots' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  6. Impedance measurements on oxide films on aluminium obtained by pulsed tensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmokre, K. [Lab. of Applied Chemical, Dept. of Chemie, Skikda University, BP 26 - 21000 Skikda (Algeria); Azzouz, N. [Dept. of Industrial Chemie, Jijel University Center, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Hannani, A. [Lab. Electrochem. Corros. Institute of Chemical USTHB Alger (Algeria); Pagetti, J. [Lab. LCMI, Franche-Comte - University UFR Sciences and Technical 16, Gray street - 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2003-01-01

    We have performed this study on oxide films sealed or not in boiling water. The films are first obtained on type 1050 A aluminium substrate by pulsed tensions anodizing technique, in a sulfuric acid solution. Afterwards the, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is employed to appreciate the films behaviour in a neutral solution of 3.5% K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, in which the interface processes interest only the ageing phenomenon of the oxide films and not their corrosion. We have also attempted a correlation between pulse parameters of anodization and the electrical parameters characterizing these films. The sealing influence on ageing has been studied as well. For all films, ageing is appreciated using impedance diagrams evolution versus time. The results show: - the existence of two capacitive loops confirming the presence of two oxide layers characteristic of oxide films obtained in a sulfuric acid medium. The first loop, at high frequencies, is related to the external porous layer and the second one, at lower frequencies, is related to the internal barrier layer. - the thickness of the barrier layer varies between 25 and 40 nm in relation with the electrical pulse parameters. - the sealing acts favorably against anodic oxide films ageing. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail: taj355@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  8. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  9. Formation of hot spots in a superconductor observed by low-temperature scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichele, R.; Seifert, H.; Huebener, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Low-temperature scanning electron microscopy can be used for the direct observation of hot spots in a superconductor. Experiments performed at 2.10 K with tim films demonstrating the method are reported

  10. Examining the validity of Stoney-equation for in-situ stress measurements in thin film electrodes using a large-deformation finite-element procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jici; Wei, Yujie; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2018-05-01

    During the lithiation and delithiation of a thin film electrode, stress in the electrode is deduced from the curvature change of the film using the Stoney equation. The accuracy of such a measurement is conditioned on the assumptions that (a) the mechanical properties of the electrode remain unchanged during lithiation and (b) small deformation holds. Here, we demonstrate that the change in elastic properties can influence the measurement of the stress in thin film electrodes. We consider the coupling between diffusion and deformation during lithiation and delithiation of thin film electrodes and implement the constitutive behavior in a finite-deformation finite element procedure. We demonstrate that both the variation in elastic properties in thin film electrodes and finite-deformation during lithiation and delithiation would challenge the applicability of the Stoney-equation for in-situ stress measurements of thin film electrodes.

  11. 10 GHz surface impedance measurements of (Y9Er)BaCuO films produced by MOCVD, laser ablation, and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luine, J.; Daly, K.; Hu, R.; Kain, A.; Lee, A.; Manasevit, H.; Pettiette-Hall, C.; Simon, R.; St John, D.; Wagner, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a parallel-plate resonator technique previously used to measure microwave surface resistance R s (T) extended to also measure absolute penetration depth λ(T). Measurements of both quantities near 10 GHz from 4.2 K to Tc are reported for ErBaCuO thin films produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and YBaCuO think films produced by laser ablation and single-target off-axis sputtering. All the films were made at TRW. Each production method gives rise to films whose surface resistance is below 1 milliohm at temperatures below 40K. The low temperature penetration depths range from 250 nm for the laser ablation and sputtered films to 800 nm for the MOCVD films. The penetration depths in all cases increase with temperature according to the Gorter-Casimir temperature dependence

  12. A Highly Thermostable In2O3/ITO Thin Film Thermocouple Prepared via Screen Printing for High Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An In2O3/ITO thin film thermocouple was prepared via screen printing. Glass additives were added to improve the sintering process and to increase the density of the In2O3/ITO films. The surface and cross-sectional images indicate that both the grain size and densification of the ITO and In2O3 films increased with the increase in annealing time. The thermoelectric voltage of the In2O3/ITO thermocouple was 53.5 mV at 1270 °C at the hot junction. The average Seebeck coefficient of the thermocouple was calculated as 44.5 μV/°C. The drift rate of the In2O3/ITO thermocouple was 5.44 °C/h at a measuring time of 10 h at 1270 °C.

  13. Numerical analysis for conductance probes, for the measurement of liquid film thickness in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Hee Cheon; Mayinger, F.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical tool is developed to calculate the potential distribution, electric field, and conductance for any types of conductance probes immersed in the wavy liquid film with various shapes of its free surface. The tool is validated against various analytical solutions. It is applied to find out the characteristics of the wire-wire probe, the flush-wire probe and the flush-flush probe in terms of resolution, linearity, and sensitivity. The wire-wire probe shows high resolution and excellent linearity for various film thickness, but comparably low sensitivity for low film thickness fixed. The flush-wire probe shows good linearity and high sensitivity for varying film thickness, but resolution degrading with an increase in film thickness. In order to check the applicability of the three types of probes in the real situation, the Korteweg-de Vries(KdV) two-dimensional solitary wave is simulated. The wire-wire probe is strongly affected by the installation direction of the two wires; when the wires are installed perpendicularly to the flow direction, the wire-wire probe shows large distortion of the solitary wave. In order to measure the transverse profile of waves, the wire-wire probes and the flush-wire probes are required to be separately installed 2mm and 2mm, respectively

  14. Measurement of thickness of film deposited on the plasma-facing wall in the QUEST tokamak by colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Hanada, K; Yoshida, N; Shimoji, T; Miyamoto, M; Oya, Y; Zushi, H; Idei, H; Nakamura, K; Fujisawa, A; Nagashima, Y; Hasegawa, M; Kawasaki, S; Higashijima, A; Nakashima, H; Nagata, T; Kawaguchi, A; Fujiwara, T; Araki, K; Mitarai, O; Fukuyama, A; Takase, Y; Matsumoto, K

    2017-09-01

    After several experimental campaigns in the Kyushu University Experiment with Steady-state Spherical Tokamak (QUEST), the originally stainless steel plasma-facing wall (PFW) becomes completely covered with a deposited film composed of mixture materials, such as iron, chromium, carbon, and tungsten. In this work, an innovative colorimetry-based method was developed to measure the thickness of the deposited film on the actual QUEST wall. Because the optical constants of the deposited film on the PFW were position-dependent and the extinction coefficient k 1 was about 1.0-2.0, which made the probing light not penetrate through some thick deposited films, the colorimetry method developed can only provide a rough value range of thickness of the metal-containing film deposited on the actual PFW in QUEST. However, the use of colorimetry is of great benefit to large-area inspections and to radioactive materials in future fusion devices that will be strictly prohibited from being taken out of the limited area.

  15. The measuring technique developed to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of the multi-layered thin film specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tse-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the thermal diffusivities of the Al, Si and ITO films deposited on the SUS304 steel substrate are evaluated via the present technique. Before applying this technique, the temperature for the thin film of the multi-layered specimen is developed theoretically for the one- dimensional steady heat conduction in response to amplitude and frequency of the periodically oscillating temperature imposed by a peltier placed beneath the specimen's substrate. By the thermal-electrical data processing system excluding the lock-in amplifier, the temperature frequency a3 has been proved first to be independent of the electrical voltage applied to the peltier and the contact position of the thermocouples. The experimental data of phase difference for three kinds of specimen are regressed well by a straight line with a slope. Then, the thermal diffusivity of the thin film is thus determined if the slope value and the film- thickness are available. In the present arrangements for the thermocouples, two thermal diffusivity values are quite close each other and valid for every kind of specimen. This technique can provide an efficient, low-cost method for the thermal diffusivity measurements of thin films.

  16. Calibration of cellulose nitrate film for measurement of time-integrated concentration of radon-222 in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, G.; Raghavayya, M.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of time-integrated concentration of 222 Rn in air by using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) is finding increasing application in such diverse fields as radiation protection, exploration of radioactive minerals, prediction of earthquakes etc. While there are several types of SSNTDs sensitive to specific types of particulate radiation, films made from cellulose nitrate (CN) are found to be the best suited for quick and quantitative measurement of alpha radiation. This is because CN films are available in small thicknesses, of the order of 10-12 μm, which can be suitably evaluated by spark counting technique. This report describes the use of a sensitive thin film of CN (Kodak LR 115, Type II) for quantitative estimation of 222 Rn. The film (along with the base is exposed in a cylindrical plastic cup closed at one end with a special rubber membrane which permits discrimination of 222 Rn against 220 Rn, which is also present in air to varying extents. The calibration procedure, including etching and evaluation of track registration efficiency, are described in detail. The mean track registration efficiency works out to 41.9 per cent and the sensitivity of the system is found to be 58.92 tracks cm -2 per (Bq.litre -1 ) day. The report lists the advantages and limitations of the system for measurement of time-integrated concentration of 222 Rn in air. (author)

  17. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  18. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-01-01

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The author...

  19. The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f 2 , where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 42: Radiochromic film calibration for low-energy seed brachytherapy dose measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H; Menon, G; Sloboda, R [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of radiochromic film calibration procedures used in external beam radiotherapy when applied to I-125 brachytherapy sources delivering higher doses, and to determine any necessary modifications to achieve similar accuracy in absolute dose measurements. GafChromic EBT3 film was used to measure radiation doses upwards of 35 Gy from 6 MV, 75 kVp and (∼28 keV) I-125 photon sources. A custom phantom was used for the I-125 irradiations to obtain a larger film area with nearly constant dose to reduce the effects of film heterogeneities on the optical density (OD) measurements. RGB transmission images were obtained with an Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner, and calibration curves relating OD and dose using a rational function were determined for each colour channel and at each energy using a non-linear least square minimization method. Differences found between the 6 MV calibration curve and those for the lower energy sources are large enough that 6 MV beams should not be used to calibrate film for low-energy sources. However, differences between the 75 kVp and I-125 calibration curves were quite small; indicating that 75 kVp is a good choice. Compared with I-125 irradiation, this gives the advantages of lower type B uncertainties and markedly reduced irradiation time. To obtain high accuracy calibration for the dose range up to 35 Gy, two-segment piece-wise fitting was required. This yielded absolute dose measurement accuracy above 1 Gy of ∼2% for 75 kVp and ∼5% for I-125 seed exposures.

  1. [Study on Hexagonal Super-Lattice Pattern with Light Spot and Dim Spot in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Dong, Li-fang; Niu, Xue-jiao; Zhang, Chao

    2016-02-01

    The hexagonal super-lattice pattern composed of the light spot and the dim spot is firstly observed and investigated in the discharge of gas mixture of air and argon by using the dielectric barrier discharge device with double water electrodes. It is found that the dim spot is located at the center of its surrounding three light spots by observing the discharge image. Obviously, the brightness of the light spot and the dim spot are different, which indicates that the plasma states of the light spot and the dim spot may be different. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the light spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the light spot and the dim spot are calculated. Based on the relative intensity ratio of the line at 391.4 nm and the N₂ line at 394.1 nm, the average electron energies of the light spot and the dim spot are investigated. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the light spot and the dim spot. The experiment shows that the molecule vibration temperature, average electron energy and the electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the light spot in the same argon content. The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the light spot and dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 70% to 95%, while average electron energies of the light spot and dim spot decrease gradually. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the decisive effect on the formation of the dim spot. The experiment above plays an important role in studying the formation mechanism of the hexagonal super-lattice pattern with light spot and

  2. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  3. Laser Spot Center Detection and Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Xu, Zhengjie; Fu, Deli; Hu, Cong

    2018-04-01

    High efficiency and precision of the pot center detection are the foundations of avionics instrument navigation and optics measurement basis for many applications. It has noticeable impact on overall system performance. Among them, laser spot detection is very important in the optical measurement technology. In order to improve the low accuracy of the spot center position, the algorithm is improved on the basis of the circle fitting. The pretreatment is used by circle fitting, and the improved adaptive denoising filter for TV repair technology can effectively improves the accuracy of the spot center position. At the same time, the pretreatment and de-noising can effectively reduce the influence of Gaussian white noise, which enhances the anti-jamming capability.

  4. Measurement of positron reemission from thin single-crystal W(100) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.M.; Lynn, K.G.; Pareja, R.; Nielsen, B.

    1985-01-01

    Epitaxial thin single-crystal (100) tungsten films 1000, 2500, and 5000 A thick have been fabricated by high-vacuum electron-beam evaporation. These films were subsequently used as thin-film moderators for the study of the positron-transmission-reemission process with a variable-energy (0--80 keV) monoenergetic positron beam in an ultrahigh-vacuum system. The films were shown to be routinely cleanable by heating first in oxygen (10 -6 Torr) and then in vacuum (10 -9 Torr). Transmission and back reemission of slow positrons from these surfaces was observed. The positron work function, phi/sub +/ has been determined to be approx. =3.0 eV ( +- 0.3 eV). The transmission slow positrons were emitted in a narrow cone with a full width at half maximum of approx. =30 0 consistent with the angular distribution of back-reemission positrons. The reemitted yields as a function of incident positron energy were found to be very different between forward reemission and back reemission. The maximum forward-reemission yields were 18% for 1000-A-thick W film and 12% for 2500-A-thick W film at 5 and 10 keV optimum incident positron energies, respectively. These results show that one can use thin single-crystal tungsten films as positron moderators or remoderators

  5. Soft x-ray transmission measurements on thin films used for XMM CCD-filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, K.-H.; Reppin, C.; Maier, H. J.; Frischke, D.; Fuchs, D.; Müller, P.

    1997-02-01

    We have been developing optical filters for ESA's X-ray astronomy project XMM (X-ray Multi Mirror Mission). Specific CCDs will be used as detectors in the focal plane on board the observatory (1). Since these detectors are sensitive from the X-ray to the near infrared spectral range, X-ray observations require optical filters, which combine a high transparency for photon energies in the soft X-ray region and a high opacity for ultraviolet and visible radiation as well. With respect to the mission goal in orbit three types of flight model filters are designed having different spectral transmittance functions. We report on one of these types, a so-called "thick" filter, which has been realized within the EQM (Electrical Qualification Model)-phase of the project. The filter features a cut-off in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range and suppresses radiation below ˜10 eV photon energy by more than 8 orders of magnitude. It has an effective aperture of 73 mm without any support structure. A 0.35 μm thick polypropylene carrier foil is coated with metallic films of Al and Sn. We describe transmission measurements in the soft X-ray photon energy range to determine the thickness of the individual layers and present the optical performance data of the filter.

  6. 3D Measurements of coupled freestream turbulence and secondary flow effects on film cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, David S.; Xu, Haosen H. A.; Elkins, Christopher J.; Eaton, John K.

    2018-06-01

    The effect of freestream turbulence on a single round film cooling hole is examined at two turbulence levels of 5 and 8% and compared to a baseline low freestream turbulence case. The hole is inclined at 30° and has length to diameter ratio L/D=4 and unity blowing ratio. Turbulence is generated with grid upstream of the hole in the main channel. The three-dimensional, three-component mean velocity field is acquired with magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) and the three-dimensional temperature field is acquired with magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT). The 8% turbulence grid produces weak mean secondary flows in the mainstream (peak crossflow velocities are 7% of U_bulk) which push the jet close to the wall and significantly change the adiabatic effectiveness distribution. By contrast, the 5% grid has a simpler structure and does not produce a measurable secondary flow structure. The grid turbulence causes little change to the temperature field, indicating that the turbulence generated in the shear layers around the jet dominates the freestream turbulence. The results suggest that secondary flows induced by complex turbulence generators may have caused some of the contradictory results in previous works.

  7. Measurement of the secondary electron emission from CVD diamond films using phosphor screen detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, R.; May, P. W.; Fox, N. A.; Harwood, C. J.; Chatterjee, V.; Smith, J. A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Lapington, J. S.; Osbourne, S.

    2015-03-01

    Diamond-based photomultipliers have the potential to provide a significant improvement over existing devices due to diamond's high secondary electron yield and narrow energy distribution of secondary electrons which improves energy resolution creating extremely fast response times. In this paper we describe an experimental apparatus designed to study secondary electron emission from diamond membranes only 400 nm thick, observed in reflection and transmission configurations. The setup consists of a system of calibrated P22 green phosphor screens acting as radiation converters which are used in combination with photomultiplier tubes to acquire secondary emission yield data from the diamond samples. The superior signal voltage sampling of the phosphor screen setup compared with traditional Faraday Cup detection allows the variation in the secondary electron yield across the sample to be visualised, allowing spatial distributions to be obtained. Preliminary reflection and transmission yield data are presented as a function of primary electron energy for selected CVD diamond films and membranes. Reflection data were also obtained from the same sample set using a Faraday Cup detector setup. In general, the curves for secondary electron yield versus primary energy for both measurement setups were comparable. On average a 15-20% lower signal was recorded on our setup compared to the Faraday Cup, which was attributed to the lower photoluminescent efficiency of the P22 phosphor screens when operated at sub-kilovolt bias voltages.

  8. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    whether Geminga’s tails are formed by electrons or by their twin particles with an opposite electrical charge, called positrons. Nevertheless, they expected that, if for instance electrons are kicked into space, then the positrons should be funnelled down towards the neutron star itself, like in an ‘own goal’. Where these particles strike the surface of the star, they ought to create a hot spot, a region considerably hotter than the surroundings. An international team of astronomers, lead by Patrizia Caraveo, IASF-CNR, Italy, has now reported the detection of such a hot spot on Geminga using ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory. With a temperature of about two million degrees, this hot spot is considerably hotter than the one half million degrees of the surrounding surface. According to this new work, Geminga’s hot spot is just 60 metres in radius. "This hot spot is the size of a football field," said Caraveo, "and is the smallest object ever detected outside of our Solar System." Details of this size can presently be measured only on the Moon and Mars and, even then, only from a spacecraft in orbit around them. The presence of a hot spot was suspected in the late 1990s but only now can we see it ‘live’, emitting X-rays as Geminga rotates, thanks to the superior sensitivity of ESA’s X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton. The team used the European Photon Imaging Cameras (EPIC) to conduct a study of Geminga, lasting about 28 consecutive hours and recording the arrival time and energy of every X-ray photon that Geminga emitted within XMM-Newton’s grasp. "In total, this amounted to 76 850 X-ray counts - twice as many as have been collected by all previous observations of Geminga, since the time of the Roman Empire," said Caraveo. Knowing the rotation rate of Geminga and the time of each photon’s arrival meant that astronomers could identify which photons were coming from each region of the neutron star as it rotates. When they compared photons coming from different

  9. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  10. Thin-film-based CdTe photovoltaic module characterization: measurements and energy prediction improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A; Arnesano, A; Vergallo, P

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic characterization is a topic of major interest in the field of renewable energy. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules are mostly used and, hence characterized since many laboratories have data of them. Conversely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), as thin-film module are, in some circumstances, difficult to be used for energy prediction. This work covers outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules, in particular that regarding CdTe ones. The scope is to obtain temperature coefficients that best predict the energy production. A First Solar (K-275) module has been used for the purposes of this research. Outdoor characterizations were performed at Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The location of Lecce city represents a typical site in the South Italy. The module was exposed outdoor and tested under clear sky conditions as well as under cloudy sky ones. During testing, the global-inclined irradiance varied between 0 and 1500 W/m(2). About 37,000 I-V characteristics were acquired, allowing to process temperature coefficients as a function of irradiance and ambient temperature. The module was characterized by measuring the full temperature-irradiance matrix in the range from 50 to 1300 W/m(2) and from -1 to 40 W/m(2) from October 2011 to February 2012. Afterwards, the module energy output, under real conditions, was calculated with the "matrix method" of SUPSI-ISAAC and the results were compared with the five months energy output data of the same module measured with the outdoor energy yield facility in Lecce.

  11. A polymeric dosimeter film based on optically-stimulated luminescence for dose measurements below 1 kGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnarovits, L.; Slezsak, I.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, S.D.; Miller, A.; Fuochi, P.G.; Lavalle, M.

    1999-01-01

    A new potential dosimetry system 'Sunna' containing a microcrystalline dispersion of an optically-stimulated fluor in a plastic matrix has been recently developed to measure and image high doses. Our previous investigations have revealed that the new dosimeter system is capable of measuring absorbed doses in the dose range of 1-100 kGy. The optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) analysis is based on the blue light stimulation of the colour center states produced upon irradiation, and the intensity of the resulting red-light emission is used to measure absorbed dose. This analysis is carried out with a simple table-top fluorimeter developed for this purpose having also the ability to calculate the mathematical formula of the calibration function. The Sunna dosimeter was recently investigated for potential use in lower dose range below 1 kGy. These investigations have shown that the film is suitable for measuring doses in the range of 1-1000 Gy for both electron and gamma radiation. To test the applicability of the film, its reproducibility, stability, sensitivity to ambient and UV light and irradiation temperature were measured. The stability of the dosimeter was investigated by monitoring the change of the OSL signal with storage time after irradiation. Further experiments proved the homogeneity of the film with respect to thickness variation, and limited differences in its response were found between batches. (author)

  12. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  13. Thickness Measurement of V2O5 Nanometric Thin Films Using a Portable XRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanometric thin films have always been chiefly used for decoration; however they are now being widely used as the basis of high technology. Among the various physical qualities that characterize them, the thickness strongly influences their properties. Thus, a new procedure is hereby proposed and developed for determining the thickness of V2O5 nanometric thin films deposited on the glass surface using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (PXRF equipment and the attenuation of the radiation intensity Kα of calcium present in the glass. It is shown through the present paper that the radiation intensity of calcium Kα rays is proportional to film thickness in nanometric films of vanadium deposited on the glass surface.

  14. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-04-19

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B(12) injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management.

  15. Relationship between thin-film bond strength as measured by a scratch test, and indentation hardness for bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Shusuke; Rawls, H Ralph; Hotta, Masato

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate thin-film bond strength between a bonding agent and human dentin, using a scratch test, and the characteristics and accuracy of measurement. One-step bonding agents (BeautiBond; Bond Force; Adper Easy Bond; Clearfil tri-S Bond) and two-step bonding agents (Cleafil SE Bond; FL-Bond II) were investigated in this study. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared for extracted human molars. The dentin surfaces were ground and bonding agents were applied and light cured. The thin-film bond strength test of the specimens was evaluated by the critical load at which the coated bonding agent failed and dentin appeared. The scratch mark sections were then observed under a scanning electron microscope. Indentation hardness was evaluated by the variation in depth under an applied load of 10gf. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA with the Scheffé's post hoc multiple comparison test (pstrength and indentation hardness were analyzed using analysis of correlation and covariance. The thin-film bond strength of two-step bonding agents were found to be significantly higher than that of one-step bonding agents with small standard deviations. Scratch marks consistently showed adhesive failure in the vicinity of the bonding agent/dentin interface. The indentation hardness showed a trend that two-step bonding agents have greater hardness than one-step bonding agents. A moderately significant correlation (r(2)=0.31) was found between thin-film bond strength and indentation hardness. Thin-film bond strength test is a valid and reliable means of evaluating bond strength in the vicinity of the adhesive interface and is more accurate than other methods currently in use. Further, the thin-film bond strength is influenced by the hardness of the cued bonding agent. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SpotCaliper: fast wavelet-based spot detection with accurate size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püspöki, Zsuzsanna; Sage, Daniel; Ward, John Paul; Unser, Michael

    2016-04-15

    SpotCaliper is a novel wavelet-based image-analysis software providing a fast automatic detection scheme for circular patterns (spots), combined with the precise estimation of their size. It is implemented as an ImageJ plugin with a friendly user interface. The user is allowed to edit the results by modifying the measurements (in a semi-automated way), extract data for further analysis. The fine tuning of the detections includes the possibility of adjusting or removing the original detections, as well as adding further spots. The main advantage of the software is its ability to capture the size of spots in a fast and accurate way. http://bigwww.epfl.ch/algorithms/spotcaliper/ zsuzsanna.puspoki@epfl.ch Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. NICKEL HYDROXIDE FILMS IN CONTACT WITH AN ELECTROACTIVE SOLUTION. A STUDY EMPLOYING ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    RICARDO TUCCERI

    2018-01-01

    The deactivation of nickel hydroxide films after prolonged storage times without use was studied. This study was carried out in the context of the Rotating Disc Electrode Voltammetry (RDEV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) when the nickel hydroxide film contacts an electroactive solution and a redox reaction occurs at the Au-Ni(OH)2|electrolyte interface. Deferasirox (4-(3,5-bis(2- hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acid) was employed as redox species in solution. Limi...

  18. Development of a Dynamic Spot Size Diagnostic for Flash Radiographic X-Ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droemer, D. W.; Lutz, S.; Devore, D.; Rovang, D.; Portillo, S.; Maenchen, J.

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable work in recent years in the development of high-brightness, high-dose flash x-ray radiographic sources. Spot size is one of several parameters that helps characterize source performance and provides a figure of merit to assess the suitability of various sources to specific experimental requirements. Time-integrated spot-size measurements using radiographic film and a high-Z rolled-edge object have been used for several years with great success. The Advanced Radiographic Technologies program thrust to improve diode performance requires extending both modeling and experimental measurements into the transient time domain. A new Time Resolved Spot Detector (TRSD) is under development to provide this information. In this paper we report the initial results of the performance of a 148-element scintillating fiber array that is fiber-optically coupled to a gated streak camera. Spatial and temporal resolution results are discussed and the data obtained FR-om the Sand ia National Laboratories (SNL) RITS-3 (Radiographic Integrated Test Stand) accelerator are presented

  19. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  20. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Chang, Chang; Moyers, Michael F; Gao, Mingcheng; Mah, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0-226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter.

  1. Plutonium spot of mixed oxide fuel, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yukio; Maruishi, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Masaichi; Aoki, Toshimasa; Muto, Tadashi

    1974-01-01

    In a fast reactor, the specification for the homogeneity of plutonium in plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel is mainly dependent on the nuclear characteristics, whereas in a thermal reactor, on thermal characteristics. This homogeneity is measured by autoradiography as the plutonium spot size of the specimens which are arbitrarily chosen fuel pellets from a lot. Although this is a kind of random sampling, it is difficult to apply this method to conventional digital standards including JIS standards. So a special sampling inspection method was studied. First, it is assumed that the shape of plutonium spots is spherical, the size distribution is logarithmic normal, and the standard deviation is constant. Then, if standard deviation and mean spot size are given, the logarithmic normal distribution is decided unitarily, and further if the total weight of plutonium spots for a lot of pellets is known, the number of the spots (No) which does not conform to the specification can be obtained. Then, the fraction defective is defined as No devided by the number of pellets per lot. As to the lot with such fraction defective, the acceptance coefficient of the lot was obtained through calculation, in which the number of sampling, acceptable diameter limit observed and acceptable conditions were used as parameters. (Tai, I.)

  2. The four spot time-of-flight laser anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1985-01-01

    The newly constructed, four-spot anemometer was shown to perform as predicted. The new anemometer's measurement region has the required characteristics: wide acceptance angle and high spatial selectivity to permit measurements in turbulent, hostile environments.

  3. Parameter estimation of electricity spot models from futures prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha; Imreizeeq, E.S.N.; Walter, E.

    We consider a slight perturbation of the Schwartz-Smith model for the electricity futures prices and the resulting modified spot model. Using the martingale property of the modified price under the risk neutral measure, we derive the arbitrage free model for the spot and futures prices. We estimate

  4. Spots on AG Virginis - paradigm or panacea?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, S.A.; Rainger, P.P.; Hilditch, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the eclipsing binary AG Vir are presented. Medium-resolution spectroscopy has allowed the measurement of velocities for the secondary component for the first time. The V light curve shows many of the features seen in previous studies of this system. A full analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data has been made which suggests that the system is either in a marginal state of contact or a deep-contact configuration depending on the type of spot model invoked. AG Vir constitutes an excellent example of the expected manifestations of spot activity on a light curve. It also demonstrates the ease with which the spot phenomenon can be invoked to explain the appearance of a light curve and to provide conflicting results. (author)

  5. Ellipsometry measurements of glass transition breadth in bulk films of random, block, and gradient copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, M M; Kim, J; Marrou, S R; Torkelson, J M

    2010-03-01

    Bulk films of random, block and gradient copolymer systems were studied using ellipsometry to demonstrate the applicability of the numerical differentiation technique pioneered by Kawana and Jones for studying the glass transition temperature (T (g)) behavior and thermal expansivities of copolymers possessing different architectures and different levels of nanoheterogeneity. In a series of styrene/n -butyl methacrylate (S/nBMA) random copolymers, T (g) breadths were observed to increase from approximately 17( degrees ) C in styrene-rich cases to almost 30( degrees ) C in nBMA-rich cases, reflecting previous observations of significant nanoheterogeneity in PnBMA homopolymers. The derivative technique also revealed for the first time a substantial increase in glassy-state expansivity with increasing nBMA content in S/nBMA random copolymers, from 1.4x10(-4) K-1 in PS to 3.5x10(-4) K-1 in PnBMA. The first characterization of block copolymer T (g) 's and T (g) breadths by ellipsometry is given, examining the impact of nanophase-segregated copolymer structure on ellipsometric measurements of glass transition. The results show that, while the technique is effective in detecting the two T (g) 's expected in certain block copolymer systems, the details of the glass transition can become suppressed in ellipsometry measurements of a rubbery minor phase under conditions where the matrix is glassy; meanwhile, both transitions are easily discernible by differential scanning calorimetry. Finally, broad glass transition regions were measured in gradient copolymers, yielding in some cases extraordinary T (g) breadths of 69- 71( degrees ) C , factors of 4-5 larger than the T (g) breadths of related homopolymers and random copolymers. Surprisingly, one gradient copolymer demonstrated a slightly narrower T (g) breadth than the S/nBMA random copolymers with the highest nBMA content. This highlights the fact that nanoheterogeneity relevant to the glass transition response in selected

  6. Remote query measurement of pressure, fluid-flow velocity, and humidity using magnetoelastic thick-film sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, C. A.; Kouzoudis, D.

    2000-01-01

    Free-standing magnetoelastic thick-film sensors have a characteristic resonant frequency that can be determined by monitoring the magnetic flux emitted from the sensor in response to a time varying magnetic field. This property allows the sensors to be monitored remotely without the use of direct physical connections, such as wires, enabling measurement of environmental parameters from within sealed, opaque containers. In this work, we report on application of magnetoelastic sensors to measurement of atmospheric pressure, fluid-flow velocity, temperature, and mass load. Mass loading effects are demonstrated by fabrication of a remote query humidity sensor, made by coating the magnetoelastic thick film with a thin layer of solgel deposited Al2O3 that reversibly changes mass in response to humidity. c2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of Young’s modulus and volumetric mass density/thickness of ultrathin films utilizing resonant based mass sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stachiv, Ivo; Vokoun, David; Jeng, Y.-R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2014), "083102-1"-"083102-4" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/12/0800 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : functional films * mass sensor * resonant frequency Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/apl/104/8/10.1063/1.4866417

  8. Evaluation of dose calculation algorithms for the electron beams used in radiotherapy. Comparison with radiochromic film measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Barouky, Jad

    2011-01-01

    In radiotherapy, the dose calculation accuracy is crucial for the quality and the outcome of the treatments. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of dose calculation algorithms for electron beams in situations close to clinical conditions. A new practical approach of radiochromic film dosimetry was developed and validated especially for difficult situations. An accuracy of 3.1% and 2.6% was achieved for absolute and relative dosimetry respectively. Using this technique a measured database of dose distributions was developed to form the basis of several fast and efficient Quality Assurance tests. Such tests are intended to be used also when the dose calculation algorithm is changed or the Treatment Planning System replaced. Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo dose calculations were compared to the measured data for simple geometrical phantom setups. They both gave similar results for obliquity, surface irregularity and extended SSD tests but the Monte Carlo calculation was more accurate in presence of heterogeneities. The same radiochromic film dosimetry method was applied to film cuts inserted into anthropomorphic phantoms providing a 2D dose distribution for any transverse plan. This allowed us to develop clinical test that can be also used for internal Quality Assurance purposes. As for simpler geometries, the Monte Carlo calculations showed better agreement with the measured data than the Pencil Beam calculation, especially in presence of heterogeneities such as lungs, cavities and bones. (author) [fr

  9. Measurements of the surface impedance and the ac critical field of superconducting thin tin films at 10 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The surface impedances and ac critical fields of superconducting thin tin films were studied. These experiments were performed using a superconducting frequency stabilized microwave cavity of high Q. Measurements of the power losses in the cavity and the center frequency of the cavity were used to determine the surface impedance and the critical field of a thin film sample placed in the cavity. In this case a theoretical treatment based on a model proposed by I.O. Kulik was used to fit the data. The general agreement between the modified Kulik treatment and the data, obtained in this experiment, was substantial. The second method was to modify the thin film data to correspond to a bulk situation. This modification was accomplished by taking into account the measuring techniques used and the geometric consideration inherent in the experiment. The comparison between the modified experimental data and calculations obtained from the Mattis-Bardeen bulk model was generally very good. One aspect of the results which was not explained was the presence of a slight increase in the surface resistance in the vicinity of the transition temperature. The critical field measurements were compared to the (1 - (T/T/sub c/)/sup 1/2) dependence predicted by Bardeen. If it is assumed that substantial microwave heating took place in the sample near T/sub c/, then remarkable agreement with the Bardeen model can be reached

  10. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  11. ToF-MEIS stopping measurements in thin SiC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnarsson, M.K.; Khartsev, S.; Primetzhofer, D.; Possnert, G.; Hallén, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic stopping in thin, amorphous, SiC films has been studied by time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering and conventional Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Amorphous SiC films (8, 21 and 36 nm) were prepared by laser ablation using a single crystalline silicon carbide target. Two kinds of substrate films, one with a lower atomic mass (carbon) and one with higher atomic mass (iridium) compared to silicon has been used. Monte Carlo simulations have been used to evaluate electronic stopping from the shift in energy for the signal scattered from Ir with and without SiC. The two kinds of samples are used to illustrate the strength and challenges for ToF-MEIS compared to conventional RBS

  12. Measurement of residual stresses in deposited films of SOFC component materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Momma, A.; Nagata, S.; Kasuga, Y. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The stress induced in Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)s has important influence on the lifetime of SOFC. But the data on stress in SOFC and mechanical properties of SOW component materials have not been accumulated enough to manufacture SOFC. Especially, the data of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} cathode and La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} interconnection have been extremely limited. We have estimated numerically the dependences of residual stress in SOFC on the material properties, the cell structure and the fabrication temperatures of the components, but these unknown factors have caused obstruction to simulate the accurate behavior of residual stress. Therefore, the residual stresses in deposited La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} and La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} films are researched by the observation of the bending behavior of the substrate strips. The films of SOFC component materials were prepared by the RF sputtering method, because: (1) It can fabricate dense films of poor sinterable material such as La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} compared with sintering or plasma spray method. (2) For the complicated material such as perovskite materials, the difference between the composition of a film and that of a target material is generally small. (3) It can fabricate a thick ceramics film by improving of the deposition rate. For example, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thick films of 50{mu}m can be fabricated with the deposition rate of approximately 5{mu}m/h industrially. In this paper, the dependence of residual stress on the deposition conditions is defined and mechanical properties of these materials are estimated from the results of the experiments.

  13. Measurement of the external doses at low and high exposures by Agfa personal monitoring film, FD-III-B badge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, F.; Stochioiu, A.; Bercea, S.; Udup, E.; Tudor, I.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A growing number of papers report occupational exposure monitoring by different dosemeter devices. Researches into improvement of the personal dosemeter systems are encouraged. Dose measurement and especially skin dose measurement, are therefore increasingly important. Methods and acceptable dosemeter are not clearly defined and differ from a dosimetry laboratory to other depending on their specifically work procedure and type of dosemeter utilized. Taking into account the characteristic of the work place (industry, research, medical application) dosemeter have to cover a large dose range. The dose assessment problems are manly in low doses range (under 0.2 mSv) and higher doses range. For example, typical for radiation oncology and nuclear accident dosimetry the dose ranges are on the order of 2-70 Gy and 0.1-5 Gy. This work presents the performance of the Agfa personal monitoring film, badge FD-III-B type used in the most of the occupational exposure monitoring from Romania. The FD-III-B dosimeter, manufactured in Romania, is used for monitoring personnel working in radioactive environment - the photodosimetric method is the one of the most reliable method presenting the advantage that the film may be considered as master probe over 30 year and may be utilized during litigation. The dosimeter contains metallic filters of Al, Cu, Pb with different thicknesses, a plastic filter and a open window. The badge FD-III-B is a class B dosimeter according to the dose range and an indices 3 dosimeter from energy range of the radiations in conformity with Romanian Standard in force. Film Agfa 'personal monitoring', tacked in this experiment, consists of a low speed film (D2) and a very sensitive film (D10) designed for recording X-ray, gamma and beta radiation over the doses range 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv. The experiments have been effectuated at different background optical density (base fog) of the films and at different sources of radiation: 13 :7Cs, 60 Co and 24 : 1 Am

  14. Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics Measured by the Transient Change in the Reflectance of InP and GaAs Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopf, John [Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers, Dresden (Germany)

    2005-10-31

    Advancements in microfabrication techniques and thin film growth have led to complex integrated photonic devices, also known as optoelectronics. The performance of these devices relies upon precise control of the band gap and optical characteristics of the thin film structures, as well as a fundamental understanding of the photoexcited carrier thermalization, relaxation, and recombination processes. An optical pump-probe technique has been developed to measure the transient behavior of these processes on a sub-picosecond timescale. This method relies upon the generation of hot carriers by theabsorption of an intense ultrashort laser pulse (~ 135 fs). The transient changes in reflectance due to the pump pulse excitation are monitored using a weaker probe pulse. Control of the relative time delay between the pump and probe pulses allows for temporal measurements with resolution limited only by the pulse width. The transient change in reflectance is the result of a transient change in the carrier distribution. Observation of the reflectance response of indium phosphide (InP) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) films on a sub-picosecond timescale allows for detailed examination of thermalization and relaxation processes of the excited carriers. Longer timescales (> 100 ps) are useful for correlating the transient reflectance response to slower processes such as the diffusion and recombination of the photoexcited carriers. This research investigates the transient hot carrier processes in several InP and GaAs based films similar to those commonly used in optoelectronics. This technique is especially important as it provides a non-destructive means of evaluating these materials; whereas much of the research performed in this field has relied upon the measurement of transient changes in the transmission of transparent films. The process of preparing films that are transparent renders them unusable in functioning devices. This research should not only extend the understanding of

  15. The influence of film-screen color sensitivity and type of measurement device on kVp measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R W; Price, S C

    1989-01-01

    Three methods for evaluating radiographic kVp were studied: the Wisconsin Test Cassette, the Noninvasive Evaluator of Radiation Outputs (NERO), and the Dynalyzer. The Dynalyzer kVp readings were the highest and were followed by NERO and cassette readings in descending order. By film type, the cassette readings ranged from Kodak OG (green sensitive), TMG (green sensitive), XK (blue sensitive), and XRP (blue sensitive) in descending order. The results show that there is significant variation between the methods.

  16. Comparison of modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and sensitometric measurements of x-ray screen-film systems made in two different laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrik, J.M.; Jennings, R.J.; Wagner, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    A project to develop standardization in the measurement of fundamental characteristics of screen-film systems is described. This project is a comparison of measurements on the same film samples performed by both the Kurt Rossmann Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research at the University of Chicago and by the Radiologic Imaging Section in the Medical Physics Branch, Division of Electronic Products. For this comparison we are making three fundamental measurements that characterize the operation of the screen-film systems. One is sensitometry of the characteristic or H and D curve. The film darkening is studied as a function of x-ray exposure to the screen-film system. This provides information on the speed and contrast of the system and it is also used in the determination of the MTF. The second measurement is the spatial frequency response or the MTF. For this measurement the screen-film system is exposed through a slit about 10 microns wide. This provides information on the fidelity with which contrast in the object is transferred to the image and information on the resolution of the image receptor. The third measure is the noise power or Wiener spectrum. In this case the film is exposed to a uniform x-ray field and the image provides information on the noise content of the receptor as a function of spatial frequency so that the effect of noise on the signal can be assessed

  17. Eddy current measurement of the thickness of top Cu film of the multilayer interconnects in the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zilian; Meng, Yonggang; Zhao, Qian

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a new eddy current method, named equivalent unit method (EUM), for the thickness measurement of the top copper film of multilayer interconnects in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, which is an important step in the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing. The influence of the underneath circuit layers on the eddy current is modeled and treated as an equivalent film thickness. By subtracting this equivalent film component, the accuracy of the thickness measurement of the top copper layer with an eddy current sensor is improved and the absolute error is 3 nm for sampler measurement.

  18. Measurement of incident molecular temperature in the formation of organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takahiro; Matsubara, Ryosuke; Hayakawa, Munetaka; Shimoyama, Akifumi; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tsuji, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Kubono, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of incident molecular temperature on organic-thin-film growth by vacuum evaporation, quantitative analysis of molecular temperature is required. In this study, we propose a method of determining molecular temperature based on the heat exchange between a platinum filament and molecular vapor. Molecular temperature is estimated from filament temperature, which remains unchanged even under molecular vapor supply. The results indicate that our method has sufficient sensitivity to evaluate the molecular temperature under the typical growth rate used for fabrication of functional organic thin films.

  19. Finite Element and Experimental Study of Shunting in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedian Choobi, M.; Nielsen, C. V.; Bay, N.

    2015-01-01

    This research is focused on one of the problems frequently encountered in spot welding in industry. In many applications several spot welds are made close to each other. The spots made after the first spot may become smaller in size due to shunt effect. A numerical and experimental study has been...... conducted to investigate the effect of shunting on nugget size in spot welding of HSLA steel sheets. Different cases with different spacing between weld spots have been examined. The nugget sizes have been measured by metallographic examination and have been compared with 3D finite element simulations...

  20. [Epidemiologic study of tear film lipid layer thickness measurement in the populatio