WorldWideScience

Sample records for spot electrical energy

  1. Optimal operation strategies of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on electricity spot markets with fluctuating prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Salgi, Georges; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    on electricity spot markets by storing energy when electricity prices are low and producing electricity when prices are high. In order to make a profit on such markets, CAES plant operators have to identify proper strategies to decide when to sell and when to buy electricity. This paper describes three...... plants will not be able to achieve such optimal operation, since the fluctuations of spot market prices in the coming hours and days are not known. Consequently, two simple practical strategies have been identified and compared to the results of the optimal strategy. This comparison shows that...... independent computer-based methodologies which may be used for identifying the optimal operation strategy for a given CAES plant, on a given spot market and in a given year. The optimal strategy is identified as the one which provides the best business-economic net earnings for the plant. In practice, CAES...

  2. Value assessment of hydrogen-based electrical energy storage in view of electricity spot market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Zong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    electricity spot market that has high price volatility due to its high share of wind power. An economic dispatch model is developed as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem to support the estimation of variable cost of such a system taking into account a good granularity of the technical details. Based...

  3. Interactions between the German Electricity Spot Market and the Reserve Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Bernhardt

    2005-01-01

    Eight years after market opening, Germany has well established spot and future markets for electricity. Besides OTC and Internet broker platforms the main market place is the European Energy Exchange in Leipzig (EEX) with its spot and future market. Less known is the reserve energy market in Germany. The four German transmission system operators (TSOs) EnBW, EON, RWE and Vattenfall purchase network services on the reserve energy market. Products with specific technical requirements are primary, secondary and tertiary reserve. (Details about the technical requirements and typical means for providing the required services will be presented.) Each TSO organises a separate auction for these products - for primary and secondary reserve half-yearly, for tertiary reserve daily. Due to the technical requirements the liquidity on these markets is limited, but especially on the tertiary reserve market it is recently growing significantly due to new participants marketing several smaller municipal and industrial reserve power plants as combined bids which meet the 30 MW min. capacity requirement. Every power plant or interruptible load could not only be offered as capacity on the reserve market but could also be dispatched for the spot market. Therefore the developments of prices on these markets are not independent and opportunity costs against the spot market can be estimated for different type of plants bidding in the reserve market. Another interaction between reserve and spot market is caused by the balancing price system in Germany. Prices for balancing energy meeting deviations between load, trading balance and production of a market participant are based on quarter-hourly reserve energy costs encountered by the TSO. As unbiased load and production forecasts are not strictly enforced by the TSOs so far, part of the planned demand could be met with balancing energy if EEX spot market prices rise above expected balancing energy prices. This interrelationship has a

  4. Artificial neural networks applied to the prediction of spot prices in the market of electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Alcantaro Lemes; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso

    2010-01-01

    The commercialization of electricity in Brazil as well as in the world has undergone several changes over the past 20 years. In order to achieve an economic balance between supply and demand of the good called electricity, stakeholders in this market follow both rules set by society (government, companies and consumers) and set by the laws of nature (hydrology). To deal with such complex issues, various studies have been conducted in the area of computational heuristics. This work aims to develop a software to forecast spot market prices in using artificial neural networks (ANN). ANNs are widely used in various applications especially in computational heuristics, where non-linear systems have computational challenges difficult to overcome because of the effect named 'curse of dimensionality'. This effect is due to the fact that the current computational power is not enough to handle problems with such a high combination of variables. The challenge of forecasting prices depends on factors such as: (a) foresee the demand evolution (electric load); (b) the forecast of supply (reservoirs, hydrology and climate), capacity factor; and (c) the balance of the economy (pricing, auctions, foreign markets influence, economic policy, government budget and government policy). These factors are considered be used in the forecasting model for spot market prices and the results of its effectiveness are tested and huge presented. (author)

  5. Reversible solid oxide cells for bidirectional energy conversion in spot electricity and fuel markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal Singer, Diego

    Observations indicate that the dynamics of plasmas in our cosmos, the heliosphere, and terrestrial experiments can involve conversions between magnetic and kinetic energies over a wide range of plasma scales, such as in reconnection and dynamos. Canonical flux tubes present the distinct advantage of reconciling all plasma regimes, e.g. single particle, kinetic, two-fluid, and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), with the topological concept of helicity: twists, writhes, and linkages. This thesis presents the first application of the theory of canonical helicity transport to design a laboratory canonical flux tube experiment, develop methods to measure a large volumetric dataset of magnetic field and ion flow, reconstruct the 3D dynamics of canonical flux tubes, and determine the canonical helicity evolution. Newcomb's variational ideal MHD stability analysis is used to identify the possibility of a lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tube undergoing a sausage-kink instability cascade. The instability cascade may couple to smaller scales at which conversions between species helicities are expected to occur. Experiment control and high-throughput field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based digitizers provide the means to measure the large datasets. Ion and electron canonical flux tubes are visualized from a dataset of Mach, triple, and B˙ probe measurements at over 10,000 spatial locations of a gyrating kinked plasma column. The flux tubes co-gyrate with the peak density and electron temperature in and out of a measurement subvolume. The electron and ion flux tubes twist with opposite handedness and the ion canonical flux tube writhes around the electron canonical flux tube. Videos of the canonical flux tube reconstructions are available as supplemental material in ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. The cross helicity between the magnetic and ion flow vorticity flux tubes dominates the ion canonical helicity and is anticorrelated with the magnetic helicity. The

  6. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V.; Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J.; Antila, E.

    1998-01-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  7. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J. [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E. [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  8. A new index for electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falbo, Paolo; Fattore, Marco; Stefani, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Different indexes are used in electricity markets worldwide to represent the daily behavior of spot prices. However, the peculiarities of these markets require a careful choice of the index, based on mathematical formulation and its statistical properties. Choosing a bad index may influence the financial policies of market players, since derivative pricing and hedging performance can be deeply affected. In this paper with an initial theoretical analysis, we intend to show that the most widely used indexes (simple arithmetic average and weighted average with current volumes) are poor representatives of the spot market. We will then perform an analysis of the hedging strategy on a derivative instrument (an Asian option) written on a reference index. The resulting simulations, applied to OMEL (Spain) and EEX (Germany), are sufficiently clear cut to suggest that the decision to adopt an index to represent properly a market must be taken very carefully. Finally we will propose a new index (FAST index) and, after comparing it with the previous indexes, will show that both theoretically and practically this index can be taken as a good electricity market synthetic indicator. (author)

  9. Artificial neural networks applied to the prediction of spot prices in the market of electric energy; Redes neurais artificiais aplicadas na previsao de precos spot no mercado de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Alcantaro Lemes; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso [Univesidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], emails: alcantaro@iee.usp.br, aquiles@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The commercialization of electricity in Brazil as well as in the world has undergone several changes over the past 20 years. In order to achieve an economic balance between supply and demand of the good called electricity, stakeholders in this market follow both rules set by society (government, companies and consumers) and set by the laws of nature (hydrology). To deal with such complex issues, various studies have been conducted in the area of computational heuristics. This work aims to develop a software to forecast spot market prices in using artificial neural networks (ANN). ANNs are widely used in various applications especially in computational heuristics, where non-linear systems have computational challenges difficult to overcome because of the effect named 'curse of dimensionality'. This effect is due to the fact that the current computational power is not enough to handle problems with such a high combination of variables. The challenge of forecasting prices depends on factors such as: (a) foresee the demand evolution (electric load); (b) the forecast of supply (reservoirs, hydrology and climate), capacity factor; and (c) the balance of the economy (pricing, auctions, foreign markets influence, economic policy, government budget and government policy). These factors are considered be used in the forecasting model for spot market prices and the results of its effectiveness are tested and huge presented. (author)

  10. A rough multi-factor model of electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new continuous-time mathematical model of electricity spot prices which accounts for the most important stylized facts of these time series: seasonality, spikes, stochastic volatility, and mean reversion. Empirical studies have found a possible fifth stylized fact, roughness, and our approach explicitly incorporates this into the model of the prices. Our setup generalizes the popular Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based multi-factor framework of and allows us to perform statistical tests to distinguish between an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based model and a rough model. Further, through the multi-factor approach we account for seasonality and spikes before estimating – and making inference on – the degree of roughness. This is novel in the literature and we present simulation evidence showing that these precautions are crucial for accurate estimation. Lastly, we estimate our model on recent data from six European energy exchanges and find statistical evidence of roughness in five out of six markets. As an application of our model, we show how, in these five markets, a rough component improves short term forecasting of the prices. - Highlights: • Statistical modeling of electricity spot prices • Multi-factor decomposition • Roughness • Electricity price forecasting

  11. Identification of electricity spot models by using convolution particle filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha; Imreizeeq, E.S.N.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a slight perturbation of the Schwartz-Smith model for the electricity futures prices and the resulting modied spot model. Using the martingale property of the modied price under the risk neutral measure, we derive the arbitrage free model for the spot and futures prices. As the futures

  12. Parameter estimation of electricity spot models from futures prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha; Imreizeeq, E.S.N.; Walter, E.

    We consider a slight perturbation of the Schwartz-Smith model for the electricity futures prices and the resulting modified spot model. Using the martingale property of the modified price under the risk neutral measure, we derive the arbitrage free model for the spot and futures prices. We estimate

  13. Modeling spot markets for electricity and pricing electricity derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yumei

    Spot prices for electricity have been very volatile with dramatic price spikes occurring in restructured market. The task of forecasting electricity prices and managing price risk presents a new challenge for market players. The objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to develop a stochastic model of price behavior and predict price spikes; (2) to examine the effect of weather forecasts on forecasted prices; (3) to price electricity options and value generation capacity. The volatile behavior of prices can be represented by a stochastic regime-switching model. In the model, the means of the high-price and low-price regimes and the probabilities of switching from one regime to the other are specified as functions of daily peak load. The probability of switching to the high-price regime is positively related to load, but is still not high enough at the highest loads to predict price spikes accurately. An application of this model shows how the structure of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland market changed when market-based offers were allowed, resulting in higher price spikes. An ARIMA model including temperature, seasonal, and weekly effects is estimated to forecast daily peak load. Forecasts of load under different assumptions about weather patterns are used to predict changes of price behavior given the regime-switching model of prices. Results show that the range of temperature forecasts from a normal summer to an extremely warm summer cause relatively small increases in temperature (+1.5%) and load (+3.0%). In contrast, the increases in prices are large (+20%). The conclusion is that the seasonal outlook forecasts provided by NOAA are potentially valuable for predicting prices in electricity markets. The traditional option models, based on Geometric Brownian Motion are not appropriate for electricity prices. An option model using the regime-switching framework is developed to value a European call option. The model includes volatility risk and allows changes

  14. Electricity storages - optimised operation based on spot market prices; Stromspeicher. Optimierte Fahrweise auf Basis der Spotmarktpreise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Dominik; Roon, Serafin von [FfE Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    With its integrated energy and climate package the last federal government set itself ambitious goals for the improvement of energy efficiency and growth of renewable energy production. These goals were confirmed by the new government in its coalition agreement. However, they can only be realised if the supply of electricity from fluctuating renewable sources can be made to coincide with electricity demand. Electricity storages are therefore an indispensable component of the future energy supply system. This article studies the optimised operation of an electricity storage based on spot market prices and the influence of wind power production up to the year 2020.

  15. Reliability of copper based alloys for electric resistance spot welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovicj, M.; Mihajlovicj, A.; Sherbedzhija, B.

    1977-01-01

    Durability of copper based alloys (B-5 and B-6) for electric resistance spot-welding was examined. The total amount of Be, Ni and Zr was up to 2 and 1 wt.% respectively. Good durability and satisfactory quality of welded spots were obtained in previous laboratory experiments carried out on the fixed spot-welding machine of an industrial type (only B-5 alloy was examined). Electrodes made of both B-5 and B-6 alloy were tested on spot-welding grips and fixed spot-welding machines in Tvornica automobila Sarajevo (TAS). The obtained results suggest that the durability of electrodes made of B-5 and B-6 alloys is more than twice better than of that used in TAS

  16. FORECASTING ELECTRICITY PRICES IN DEREGULATED WHOLESALE SPOT ELECTRICITY MARKET - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Godekere Panchakshara Murthy,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new framework of competitive electricity markets, all power market participants need accurate price forecasting tools. Electricity price forecasts characterize significant information that can help captive power producer, independent power producer, power generation companies, power distribution companies or open access consumers in careful planning of their bidding strategies for maximizing their profits, benefits and utilities from long term, medium term and short term perspective. Short term spot electricity price forecasting techniques are either inspired from electrical engineering literature (i.e. load forecasting or from economics literature (i.e. game theory models and the time-series econometric models. In this study we investigate the emergence of spot electricity markets with particular emphasis on Indian electricity market which has never been done before and review selected finance and econometrics inspired literature and models for forecasting electricity spot prices in deregulated wholesale spot electricity markets.

  17. The impact of heat waves on electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechan, Anna; Eisenack, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric power plants depend on cooling water drawn from water bodies. Low river run-off and/or high water temperatures limit a plant's production capacity. This problem may intensify with climate change. Our study quantifies the impact of forced capacity reductions on market prices, production costs, consumer and producer surplus, as well as emissions by means of a bottom-up power generation system model. First, we simulate the German electricity spot market during the heat wave of 2006. Then we conduct a sensitivity study that accounts for future climatic and technological conditions. We find an average price increase of 11% during the heat wave 2006, which is even more pronounced during times of peak demand. Production costs accumulate to an additional but moderate 16 m. Due to the price increase, producers gain from the heat wave, whereas consumers disproportionately bear the costs. Carbon emissions in the German electricity sector increase during the heat wave. The price and cost effects are more pronounced and increase significantly if assumptions on heat-sensitive demand, hydropower capacity, net exports, and capacity reductions are tightened. These are potential additional effects of climate change. Hence, if mitigation fails or is postponed globally, the impacts on the current energy system are very likely to rise. Increases in feed-in from renewable resources and demand-side management can counter the effects to a considerable degree. Countries with a shift toward a renewable energy supply can be expected to be much less susceptible to cooling water scarcity than those with a high share of nuclear and coal-fired power plants. - Highlights: • We quantify the impact of thermal capacity reductions on the electricity market. • German heat wave 2006 caused moderate rise in production costs. • Capacity reductions have substantial impact on prices and raise producer surplus. • Impacts on prices, production cost and surplus amplify under climate

  18. Space-time modeling of electricity spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Girum Dagnachew; Haldrup, Niels

    In this paper we derive a space-time model for electricity spot prices. A general spatial Durbin model that incorporates the temporal as well as spatial lags of spot prices is presented. Joint modeling of space-time effects is necessarily important when prices and loads are determined in a network...... of power exchange areas. We use data from the Nord Pool electricity power exchange area bidding markets. Different spatial weight matrices are considered to capture the structure of the spatial dependence process across different bidding markets and statistical tests show significant spatial dependence...

  19. Automatic demand response referred to electricity spot price. Demo description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Ove S.; Livik, Klaus; Hals, Arne

    2006-05-01

    This report presents background, technical solution and results from a test project (Demo I) developed in the DRR Norway) project. Software and technology from two different vendors, APAS and Powel ASA, are used to demonstrate a scheme for Automatic Demand Response (ADR) referred to spot price level and a system for documentation of demand response and cost savings. Periods with shortage of energy supply and hardly any investments in new production capacity have turned focus towards the need for increased price elasticity on the demand side in the Nordic power market. The new technology for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) and Remote Load Control (RLC) provides an opportunity to improve the direct market participation from the demand side by introducing automatic schemes that reduce the need for customer attention to hourly market prices. The low prioritized appliances, and not the total load, are in this report defined as the Demand Response Objects, based on the assumption that there is a limit for what the customers are willing to pay for different uses of electricity. Only disconnection of residential water heaters is included in the demo, due to practical limitations. The test was performed for a group of single family houses over a period of 2 months. All the houses were equipped with a radio controlled 'Ebox' unit attached to the water heater socket. The settlement and invoicing were based on hourly metered values (kWh/h), which means that the customer benefit is equivalent to the accumulated changes in the electricity cost per hour. The actual load reduction is documented by comparison between the real meter values for the period and a reference curve. The curves show significant response to the activated control in the morning hours. In the afternoon it is more difficult to register the response, probably due to 'disturbing' activities like cooking etc. Demo I shows that load reduction referred to spot price level can be done in a smooth way. The experiences

  20. Modeling electricity spot and futures price dependence: A multifrequency approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Pekka

    2009-11-01

    Electricity prices are known to exhibit multifractal properties. We accommodate this finding by investigating multifractal models for electricity prices. In this paper we propose a flexible Copula-MSM (Markov Switching Multifractal) approach for modeling spot and weekly futures price dynamics. By using a conditional copula function, the framework allows us to separately model the dependence structure, while enabling use of multifractal stochastic volatility models to characterize fluctuations in marginal returns. An empirical experiment is carried out using data from Nord Pool. A study of volatility forecasting performance for electricity spot prices reveals that multifractal techniques are a competitive alternative to GARCH models. We also demonstrate how the Copula-MSM model can be employed for finding optimal portfolios, which minimizes the Conditional Value-at-Risk.

  1. Price dynamics among U.S. electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Haesun; Mjelde, James W.; Bessler, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Combining recent advances in causal flows with time series analysis, relationships among 11 U.S. spot market electricity prices are examined. Results suggest that the relationships among the markets vary by time frame. In contemporaneous time, the western markets are separated from the eastern markets and the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas. At longer time frames these separations disappear, even though electricity transmission between the regions is limited. It appears the relationships among markets are not only a function of physical assets (such as transmissions lines among markets), but by similar and dissimilar institutional arrangements among the markets. (Author)

  2. Econometric study of the spanish electricity spot market and primary energy markets using VAR/VECM methodology: (cointegration and nonstationary time series)

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Ricardo Francisco Firmino Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Mestrado em Finanças/ C32, G12, Q43 The aim of this work is to study the dynamic relationship between prices of wholesale electricity market in Spain and prices of the main fuel references to generate electricity (coal, crude oil, gasoil and natural gas). The dynamic relationship between the various interconnected electrical systems (Spain and Portugal, Spain and France), using as reference prices for wholesale electricity markets formed in each electrical system, is al...

  3. Measuring competitiveness of the EPEX spot market for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Christoph; Wozabal, David

    2013-01-01

    The issue of market concentration in electricity markets and resulting possible anti-competitive behavior of producers is a much discussed topic in many countries. We investigate the day-ahead market for electricity at the EPEX, the largest central European market for electricity. To analyze whether generating companies use their market power to influence prices, we use a conjectural variations approach as well as a direct approach to construct marginal costs of electricity production. Given the available data, we cannot reject the hypothesis that there was no systematic abuse of market power by the suppliers of electricity on the EPEX day-ahead spot market for the years 2007–2010. These results are essentially robust when restricting the sample to high load hours, which are generally considered to be the most prone to market manipulation. -- Highlights: •We investigate the efficiency of the German spot market for electricity. •We employ a conjectural variations approach and a fundamental market model. •Peak load hours and base load hours are analyzed separately. •We find that the market was competitive from 2007 to 2010 for both base and peak hours. •Policies to promote market transparency in Germany can be regarded as successful

  4. Modeling hourly Electricity Spot Market Prices as non stationary functional times series

    OpenAIRE

    Liebl, Dominik

    2010-01-01

    The instantaneous nature of electricity distinguishes its spot prices from spot prices for equities and other commodities. Up to now electricity cannot be stored economically and therefore demand for electricity has an untempered effect on electricity prices. In particular, hourly electricity spot prices show a vast range of dynamics which can change rapidly. In this paper we introduce a robust version of functional principal component analysis for sparse data. The functional perspective inte...

  5. Price signals and investment incentives in wholesale electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilopoulos, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    We look at how prices from energy-only power markets can send the right signals and give the correct incentives for investments in production capacity. Through numerical simulations of spot prices over 2003-2005 we compare the investment signal sent by observed electricity prices in France and what would be competitive prices with an optimal mix and with the installed capacity. Observed prices tend to overestimate profitability for the base-load, making the signal too strong and underestimate profitability for the peak load, making the signal too weak. However, as a large share of consumers is still paying regulated tariffs, scarcity rents are capped. We simulate future prices for France for 2010 to 2020 to understand the incentives to invest. When the entry is free, the incentives to invest given by the future prices are consistent with the optimal mix including the interconnections and nuclear build is strong. With political or regulatory barriers to the construction of new power plants for new entrants (i.e. finding new sites), there are no incentives for the incumbent (that owns all existing base-load and peak load capacity) to add more nuclear capacity. In this situation, new entry would have to be coal or gas except if units are bid strategically to maintain profitability and market share. Moreover, it can also be profitable to limit prices and restrain entry in order to receive higher future revenues. When the base-load is less concentrated and instead of a dominant firm the nuclear capacity is divided into five (equal share) firms, the incentives to invest reappear and the threat of entry becomes more credible. (author) [fr

  6. Competition in electricity spot markets. Economic theory and international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Nils-Henrik von der; Harbord, David

    1998-09-01

    This publication gives a survey of economic theory and international experience connected to electricity spot markets. The main purpose is to consider the attempts that have been made to apply economic theory and empirical methods to the analysis of electricity markets, and to evaluate them in light of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence. The publication describes in simple terms the basic pool pricing mechanism, and experience with pools in a number of countries. It is worth emphasizing that it is not the purpose to treat in extensive detail the structure of electricity pools around the world. Key factors of the markets in England and Wales, Norway and Australia are described in order to allow for a comparison of design issues and evaluation of competitive performance. 80 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Forecasting Electricity Spot Prices Accounting for Wind Power Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Tryggvi; Pinson, Pierre; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    A two-step methodology for forecasting of electricity spot prices is introduced, with focus on the impact of predicted system load and wind power generation. The nonlinear and nonstationary influence of these explanatory variables is accommodated in a first step based on a nonparametric and time......-varying regression model. In a second step, time-series models, i.e., ARMA and Holt–Winters, are applied to account for residual autocorrelation and seasonal dynamics. Empirical results are presented for out-of-sample forecasts of day-ahead prices in the Western Danish price area of Nord Pool's Elspot, during a two...

  8. Influence of TCSC on congestion and spot price in electricity market with bilateral contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Naresh; Mithulananthan, Nadarajah

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the effect of TCSC on congestion and spot price in deregulated electricity markets. The paper could also be considered as a comprehensive tutorial on the influence of TCSC in electricity market. A voluntary pool market, where the market participants can trade electricity either via a pool or through bilateral contracts is considered. The electricity market is modeled in an optimal power flow framework with the objective of maximizing the social welfare. In such formulation, the Lagrange operators associated with the equality constraints associated with real power balance give the spot prices of energy at each bus of the system. Studies are carried out with and without TCSC at peak and low loading conditions to capture the influence and to see the effectiveness of TCSC at different loading conditions. The paper further explores the effect of TCSC compensation level on the spot prices and the congestion under varying pool and bilateral loading conditions. A 5-bus test system is used for numerical studies and to showcase the influence of TCSC in an electricity market environment. (author)

  9. Modelling energy spot prices by Lévy semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces a new modelling framework for energy spot prices based on Lévy semistationary processes. Lévy semistationary processes are special cases of the general class of ambit processes. We provide a detailed analysis of the probabilistic properties of such models and we show how the...... they are able to capture many of the stylised facts observed in energy markets. Furthermore, we derive forward prices based on our spot price model. As it turns out, many of the classical spot models can be embedded into our novel modelling framework....

  10. High penetration wind generation impacts on spot prices in the Australian national electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, Nicholas J.; Boerema, Nicholas D.; MacGill, Iain F.; Outhred, Hugh R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores wind power integration issues for the South Australian (SA) region of the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) by assessing the interaction of regional wind generation, electricity demand and spot prices over 2 recent years of market operation. SA's wind energy penetration has recently surpassed 20% and it has only a limited interconnection with other regions of the NEM. As such, it represents an interesting example of high wind penetration in a gross wholesale pool market electricity industry. Our findings suggest that while electricity demand continues to have the greatest influence on spot prices in SA, wind generation levels have become a significant secondary influence, and there is an inverse relationship between wind generation and price. No clear relationship between wind generation and demand has been identified although some periods of extremely high demand may coincide with lower wind generation. Periods of high wind output are associated with generally lower market prices, and also appear to contribute to extreme negative price events. The results highlight the importance of electricity market and renewable policy design in facilitating economically efficient high wind penetrations. - Highlights: → In South Australia (SA) wind generation is having an influence on market prices. → Little or no correlation is found between wind generation and demand. → Wind farms in SA are receiving a lower average price than in other States. → The results highlight the importance of appropriate electricity market design.

  11. Elspot: Nord Pool Spot Integration in MASCEM Electricity Market Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Santos, Gabriel; Praca, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The energy sector in industrialized countries has been restructured in the last years, with the purpose of decreasing electricity prices through the increase in competition, and facilitating the integration of distributed energy resources. However, the restructuring process increased the complexity...... (Multi-Agent Simulator of Competitive Electricity Markets), a multi-agent based simulator that models real electricity markets. To reinforce MASCEM with the capability of recreating the elect ricity markets reality in the fullest possible extent, it is crucial to make it able to simulate as many market...... models and player types as possible. This paper presents a new negotiation model implemented in MASCEM based on the negotiation model used in day-ahead market (Elspot) of Nord Pool. This is a key module to study competitive electricity markets, as it presents well defined and distinct characteristics...

  12. Spikes and memory in (Nord Pool) electricity price spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tomasso; Haldrup, Niels; Knapik, Oskar

    from the normal price, where the latter is defined as the expectation arising from a model accounting for long memory at the zero and at the weekly seasonal frequencies, given the knowledge of the past realizations. Hence, a spike is associated to a time series innovation with size larger than......Electricity spot prices are subject to transitory sharp movements commonly referred to as spikes. The paper aims at assessing their effects on model based inferences and predictions, with reference to the Nord Pool power exchange. We identify a spike as a price value which deviates substantially...... a specified threshold. The latter regulates the robustness of the estimates of the underlying price level and it is chosen by a data driven procedure that focuses on the ability to predict future prices. The normal price is computed by a modified Kalman filter, which robustifies the inferences by cleaning...

  13. Electricity spot price forecasting in free power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilleberg, J.; Laitinen, E.K.

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation has brought many changes to the electricity market. Freedom of choice has been granted to both the consumers and the utilities. Consumers may choose the seller of their energy. Utilities have a wider array of sources to acquire their electricity from. Also the types of sales contracts used are changing to fill the needs of this new situation. The consumers' right to choose has introduced a new risk uncertainty of volume, which was not true during the times of monopoly. As sold volume is unsure and the energy is not sold on same terms as it is bought, a price risk has to be dealt with also. The electric utility has to realize this, select a risk level that suits its business strategy and optimize its actions according to the selected risk level. The number of participants will grow as the electricity market integrates into a common market for Scandinavia and even Europe. Big customers are also taking a more active role in the market, further increasing the number of participants. This makes old bilateral arrangements outdated. New tools are needed to control the new business environment. The goal of this project has been to develop a theoretical model to predict the price in the Finnish electricity exchange, El-Ex Oy. An extensive literature review was conducted in order to (1) examine the solutions in deregulation of electricity markets in other countries, esp. in Norway and UK, (2) find similarities and differences in electricity exchange and exchanges generally and (3) find major sources of problems and inefficiency in the market

  14. Electricity spot price forecasting in free power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleberg, J.; Laitinen, E.K. [Vaasa Univ. (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Deregulation has brought many changes to the electricity market. Freedom of choice has been granted to both the consumers and the utilities. Consumers may choose the seller of their energy. Utilities have a wider array of sources to acquire their electricity from. Also the types of sales contracts used are changing to fill the needs of this new situation. The consumers` right to choose has introduced a new risk uncertainty of volume, which was not true during the times of monopoly. As sold volume is unsure and the energy is not sold on same terms as it is bought, a price risk has to be dealt with also. The electric utility has to realize this, select a risk level that suits its business strategy and optimize its actions according to the selected risk level. The number of participants will grow as the electricity market integrates into a common market for Scandinavia and even Europe. Big customers are also taking a more active role in the market, further increasing the number of participants. This makes old bilateral arrangements outdated. New tools are needed to control the new business environment. The goal of this project has been to develop a theoretical model to predict the price in the Finnish electricity exchange, El-Ex Oy. An extensive literature review was conducted in order to (1) examine the solutions in deregulation of electricity markets in other countries, esp. in Norway and UK, (2) find similarities and differences in electricity exchange and exchanges generally and (3) find major sources of problems and inefficiency in the market

  15. Generation Companies’ Operative Strategies in the Spot Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar-Hernández J.H.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In traditional regulation the obligation to meet the consumer demand was assumed, this guaranteed to generation companies the full recovery of their costs. However, in order to achieve greater efficiency, reduce the price of electricity, meet the continuously growing electricity consumption, and equalize prices in different regions, a new structure of the electricity industry has been created, where electric energy is traded through a market. Generation company’s future cash flows depend on day to day market participation, in order to satisfy all of their financial and economic requirements. In this paper, future cash flows required to fulfill with economic and financial commitments by a generation company immerse in this new market structure are studied. For this purpose, future cash flows are considered to be dependent on a single asset: electricity. Several scenarios with different fuel prices are generated in order to estimate the generation company’s future cash flows. The response of the competing generation companies is taken into account at each scenario. The fuel price changes are modelled using a concurrent binary tree.

  16. Solar energy: from shadow to bright spot?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    It seems that the solar energy is developing, especially more in the thermal sector that in the photovoltaic. The result is a bad place for the France. In 200 the national production part was only 10% of the world production and 2% in 2002. The France passed from fifth to tenth place in five years. This document takes stock on the technology and the economical sector. Examples are presented. (A.L.B.)

  17. Energy, electricity and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.; Naudet, G.

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction recalling what energy is, the first part of this book presents the present day energy production and consumption and details more particularly the electricity 'vector' which is an almost perfect form of energy despite the fact that it is not a primary energy source: it must be generated from another energy source and no large scale storage of this energy is possible. The second part of the book is devoted to nuclear energy principles and to the related technologies. Content: 1 - What does energy mean?: the occurrence of the energy concept, the classical notion of energy, energy notion in modern physics, energy transformations, energy conservation, irreversibility of energy transformations, data and units used in the energy domain; 2 - energy production and consumption: energy systems, energy counting, reserves and potentialities of energy resources, production of primary energies, transport and storage of primary energies, energy consumption, energy saving, energy markets and prices, energy indicators; 3 - electric power: specificity of electricity and the electric system, power networks, power generation, electricity storage, power consumption and demand, power generation economics, electricity prices and market; 4 - physical principles of nuclear energy: nuclei structure and binding energy, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear reactions used in energy generation, basics of fission reactors physics; 5 - nuclear techniques: historical overview, main reactor types used today, perspectives; 6 - fuel cycle: general considerations, uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, back-end of the cycle, plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors; 7 - health and environmental aspects of nuclear energy: effects on ionizing radiations, basics of radiation protection, environmental impacts of nuclear energy, the nuclear wastes problem, specific risks; 8 - conclusion; 9 - appendixes (units, physics constants etc..)

  18. Anti-correlation and multifractal features of Spain electricity spot market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norouzzadeh, Payam; Dullaert, W.; Rahmani, Bahareh

    2007-01-01

    We use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) to numerically investigate correlation, persistence, multifractal properties and scaling behavior of the hourly spot prices for the Spain electricity exchange-Compania O Peradora del Mercado de Electricidad (OMEL). Through multifractal

  19. Forecasting day ahead electricity spot prices: The impact of the EXAA to other European electricity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ziel, Florian; Steinert, Rick; Husmann, Sven

    2015-01-01

    In our paper we analyze the relationship between the day-ahead electricity price of the Energy Exchange Austria (EXAA) and other day-ahead electricity prices in Europe. We focus on markets, which settle their prices after the EXAA, which enables traders to include the EXAA price into their calculations. For each market we employ econometric models to incorporate the EXAA price and compare them with their counterparts without the price of the Austrian exchange. By employing a forecasting study...

  20. The impact of Australian ETS news on wholesale spot electricity prices: An exploratory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Julien

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of news concerning the development of emissions trading in Australia (such as the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)) on wholesale electricity spot prices, by using a database of 117 news announcements from December 1, 1998 to July 1, 2009. As power producers constitute the bulk of the participants of the proposed Australian emissions trading scheme, regulatory changes (about allocation, banking, coverage, targets) are indeed likely to affect the five interconnected electricity markets in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania. We assess these effects with an ARMA(1,1)-GARCH(1,1) model, where daily electricity spot prices are regressed against exogenous variables in the mean and variance equations. This article constitutes the first empirical analysis of Australian ETS news effects on electricity wholesale spot prices. Our results show two asymmetric types of news effects, depending on their information content.

  1. Rough electricity: a new fractal multi-factor model of electricity spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel

    We introduce a new mathematical model of electricity spot prices which accounts for the most important stylized facts of these time series: seasonality, spikes, stochastic volatility and mean reversion. Empirical studies have found a possible fifth stylized fact, fractality, and our approach...... explicitly incorporates this into the model of the prices. Our setup generalizes the popular Ornstein Uhlenbeck-based multi-factor framework of Benth et al. (2007) and allows us to perform statistical tests to distinguish between an Ornstein Uhlenbeck-based model and a fractal model. Further, through...... the multi-factor approach we account for seasonality and spikes before estimating - and making inference on - the degree of fractality. This is novel in the literature and we present simulation evidence showing that these precautions are crucial to accurate estimation. Lastly, we estimate our model...

  2. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  3. Water: The Only Factor Influencing the Price of Energy in the Spot Market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mothé Maia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian electric energy generation system is based on its hydroelectric power plants, making the country dependent on proper rainfall and, thus, raising the possibility of energy stress situations, such as the energy-rationing scenario observed in the beginning of the century and the latest water crisis (2014. Moments of water scarcity are followed by an increase in energy prices, which affects the economy as whole. Therefore, it is relevant to understand which factors in the Brazilian Electric System affect the energy price and the individual importance of each. This paper aimed to analyze which the key variables influencing the energy price in the spot market are by using official data from the National Electric System Operator. The used data was from the period July/2001 to July/2014, which was employed in a multiple regression methodology along with time series. The results suggest an inverse relationship between the natural flow of rivers (directly related to rainfall and the energy price. Moreover, they also point to an inverse relationship between the potential energy stored in reservoirs as water and the energy price.

  4. Aggregators’ Optimal Bidding Strategy in Sequential Day-Ahead and Intraday Electricity Spot Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Ayón

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a probabilistic optimization method that produces optimal bidding curves to be submitted by an aggregator to the day-ahead electricity market and the intraday market, considering the flexible demand of his customers (based in time dependent resources such as batteries and shiftable demand and taking into account the possible imbalance costs as well as the uncertainty of forecasts (market prices, demand, and renewable energy sources (RES generation. The optimization strategy aims to minimize the total cost of the traded energy over a whole day, taking into account the intertemporal constraints. The proposed formulation leads to the solution of different linear optimization problems, following the natural temporal sequence of electricity spot markets. Intertemporal constraints regarding time dependent resources are fulfilled through a scheduling process performed after the day-ahead market clearing. Each of the different problems is of moderate dimension and requires short computation times. The benefits of the proposed strategy are assessed comparing the payments done by an aggregator over a sample period of one year following different deterministic and probabilistic strategies. Results show that probabilistic strategy reports better benefits for aggregators participating in power markets.

  5. Time-varying convergence in European electricity spot markets and their association with carbon and fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Lilian M. de; Houllier, Melanie A.; Tamvakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Long-run dynamics of electricity prices are expected to reflect fuel price developments, since fuels generally account for a large share in the cost of generation. As an integrated European market for electricity develops, wholesale electricity prices should be converging as a result of market coupling and increased interconnectivity. Electricity mixes are also changing, spurred by a drive to significantly increase the share of renewables. Consequently, the electricity wholesale price dynamics are evolving, and the fuel–electricity price nexus that has been described in the literature is likely to reflect this evolution. This study investigates associations between spot prices from the British, French and Nordpool markets with those in connected electricity markets and fuel input prices, from December 2005 to October 2013. In order to assess the time-varying dynamics of electricity spot price series, localized autocorrelation functions are used. Electricity spot prices in the three markets are found to have stationary and non-stationary periods. When a trend in spot prices is observed, it is likely to reflect the trend in fuel prices. Cointegration analysis is then used to assess co-movement between electricity spot prices and fuel inputs to generation. The results show that British electricity spot prices are associated with fuel prices and not with price developments in connected markets, while the opposite is observed in the French and Nordpool day-ahead markets. - Highlights: • Electricity market integration policies may have altered EU spot electricity prices. • LACF is used to assess the changing nature of electricity spot prices. • EU electricity spot prices show both stationary and non-stationary periods. • Carbon and fuel prices have greater impact on British spot prices. • In continental Europe, electricity prices have decoupled from fuel prices.

  6. Forecasting electricity spot-prices using linear univariate time-series models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaresma, Jesus Crespo; Hlouskova, Jaroslava; Kossmeier, Stephan; Obersteiner, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the forecasting abilities of a battery of univariate models on hourly electricity spot prices, using data from the Leipzig Power Exchange. The specifications studied include autoregressive models, autoregressive-moving average models and unobserved component models. The results show that specifications, where each hour of the day is modelled separately present uniformly better forecasting properties than specifications for the whole time-series, and that the inclusion of simple probabilistic processes for the arrival of extreme price events can lead to improvements in the forecasting abilities of univariate models for electricity spot prices. (Author)

  7. The charging security study of electric vehicle charging spot based on automatic testing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulan; Yang, Zhangli; Zhu, Bin; Ran, Shengyi

    2018-03-01

    With the increasing of charging spots, the testing of charging security and interoperability becomes more and more urgent and important. In this paper, an interface simulator for ac charging test is designed, the automatic testing platform for electric vehicle charging spots is set up and used to test and analyze the abnormal state during the charging process. On the platform, the charging security and interoperability of ac charging spots and IC-CPD can be checked efficiently, the test report can be generated automatically with No artificial reading error. From the test results, the main reason why the charging spot is not qualified is that the power supply cannot be cut off in the prescribed time when the charging anomaly occurs.

  8. The relationship between spot and futures prices in the Nord Pool electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun; Kristiansen, Tarjei; Ilic, Marija D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze 11 years of historical spot- and futures prices from the hydro-dominated Nord Pool electricity market. We find that futures prices tend to be higher than spot prices. The average convenience yield is therefore negative, but varies by season and depends on the storage levels in hydro reservoirs. The average realized return on holding a long position in the futures market is also negative. The negative convenience yield and risk premium contrast empirical findings in most other commodity markets. We argue that differences between the supply and demand sides in terms of risk preferences and the ability to take advantage of short-term price variations can contribute to explain the observed relationship between spot- and futures prices. In addition, our analysis shows that the relationship between spot and futures prices is clearly linked to the physical state of the system, such as hydro inflow, reservoir levels, and demand. (author)

  9. Electricity energy outlook in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C S; Leong, Y P; Maragatham, K

    2013-01-01

    Population and income growth are the key drivers behind the growing demand for energy. Demand for electricity in Malaysia is always growing in tandem with its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. The growth for electricity in Malaysia forecasted by Economic Planning Unit (EPU) has shown an increase of 3.52% in 2012 compared to 3.48% in 2011. This growth has been driven by strong demand growth from commercial and domestic sectors. The share of electricity consumption to total energy consumption has increased from 17.4% in 2007 to 21.7% in 2012. The total electricity production was reported at 122.12TWh in 2012, where gas is still the major fuel source contributing to 52.7% of the total generation fuel mix of electricity followed by Coal, 38.9%, hydro, 7.3%, oil, 1% and others, 0.2%. This paper aims to discuss the energy outlook particularly the electricity production and ways toward greener environment in electricity production in Malaysia

  10. Electricity energy outlook in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. S.; Maragatham, K.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Population and income growth are the key drivers behind the growing demand for energy. Demand for electricity in Malaysia is always growing in tandem with its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. The growth for electricity in Malaysia forecasted by Economic Planning Unit (EPU) has shown an increase of 3.52% in 2012 compared to 3.48% in 2011. This growth has been driven by strong demand growth from commercial and domestic sectors. The share of electricity consumption to total energy consumption has increased from 17.4% in 2007 to 21.7% in 2012. The total electricity production was reported at 122.12TWh in 2012, where gas is still the major fuel source contributing to 52.7% of the total generation fuel mix of electricity followed by Coal, 38.9%, hydro, 7.3%, oil, 1% and others, 0.2%. This paper aims to discuss the energy outlook particularly the electricity production and ways toward greener environment in electricity production in Malaysia

  11. Robust estimation and forecasting of the long-term seasonal component of electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowotarski, Jakub; Tomczyk, Jakub; Weron, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive study on estimation and forecasting of the long-term seasonal component (LTSC) of electricity spot prices. We consider a battery of over 300 models, including monthly dummies and models based on Fourier or wavelet decomposition combined with linear or exponential decay. We find that the considered wavelet-based models are significantly better in terms of forecasting spot prices up to a year ahead than the commonly used monthly dummies and sine-based models. This result questions the validity and usefulness of stochastic models of spot electricity prices built on the latter two types of LTSC models. - Highlights: • First comprehensive study on the forecasting of the long-term seasonal components • Over 300 models examined, including commonly used and new approaches • Wavelet-based models outperform sine-based and monthly dummy models. • Validity of stochastic models built on sines or monthly dummies is questionable

  12. Hedging Performance and Multiscale Relationships in the German Electricity Spot and Futures Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Madaleno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore optimal hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness for the German electricity market. Given the increasing attention that wavelets received in the financial market, we concentrate on the investigation of the relationship, covariance/coherence evolution and hedge ratio analysis, on a time-frequency-scale approach (discrete and continuous, between electricity spot and futures. Simpler approaches are also used for comparison purposes like the naïve, OLS and the dynamic multivariate GARCH model in order to account for risk reduction through hedging. Results allow us to conclude that: dynamic hedging strategies provide higher variance reductions in terms of hedging effectiveness; there is poor correlation among spot and futures, not being homogeneous across scales, which condition the effectiveness of the hedging strategy; the long-horizon hedge ratio does not converge to its long run equilibrium of one. Wavelets poor fit in variance reduction is attributed to low coherence and to statistical relationships between spot and futures electricity series. The instability found in various aspects of market comovements may imply serious limitations to the investor’s ability to exploit potential benefits from hedging with futures contracts in electricity markets. Moreover, much variation in the contemporaneous relationship among spot and futures may highlight inadequacy in assuming (short-term relationships in both markets, which might account for the difficulty in achieving profitable active trading.

  13. Periodic Seasonal Reg-ARFIMA-GARCH Models for Daily Electricity Spot Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, M.; Koopman, S.J.; Carnero, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Novel periodic extensions of dynamic long-memory regression models with autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic errors are considered for the analysis of daily electricity spot prices. The parameters of the model with mean and variance specifications are estimated simultaneously by the method of

  14. Comparison of extended mean-reversion and time series models for electricity spot price simulation considering negative prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keles, Dogan; Genoese, Massimo; Möst, Dominik; Fichtner, Wolf

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates different financial price and time series models, such as mean reversion, autoregressive moving average (ARMA), integrated ARMA (ARIMA) and general autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) process, usually applied for electricity price simulations. However, as these models are developed to describe the stochastic behaviour of electricity prices, they are extended by a separate data treatment for the deterministic components (trend, daily, weekly and annual cycles) of electricity spot prices. Furthermore price jumps are considered and implemented within a regime-switching model. Since 2008 market design allows for negative prices at the European Energy Exchange, which also occurred for several hours in the last years. Up to now, only a few financial and time series approaches exist, which are able to capture negative prices. This paper presents a new approach incorporating negative prices. The evaluation of the different approaches presented points out that the mean reversion and the ARMA models deliver the lowest mean root square error between simulated and historical electricity spot prices gained from the European Energy Exchange. These models posses also lower mean average errors than GARCH models. Hence, they are more suitable to simulate well-fitting price paths. Furthermore it is shown that the daily structure of historical price curves is better captured applying ARMA or ARIMA processes instead of mean-reversion or GARCH models. Another important outcome of the paper is that the regime-switching approach and the consideration of negative prices via the new proposed approach lead to a significant improvement of the electricity price simulation. - Highlights: ► Considering negative prices improves the results of time-series and financial models for electricity prices. ► Regime-switching approach captures the jumps and base prices quite well. ► Removing and separate modelling of deterministic annual, weekly and daily

  15. Forward and Spot Prices in Multi-Settlement Wholesale Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Jeremy

    In organized wholesale electricity markets, power is sold competitively in a multi-unit multi-settlement single-price auction comprised of a forward and a spot market. This dissertation attempts to understand the structure of the forward premium in these markets, and to identify the factors that may lead forward and spot prices to converge or diverge. These markets are unique in that the forward demand is price-sensitive, while spot residual demand is perfectly inelastic and must be met in full, a crucial design feature the literature often glosses over. An important contribution of this dissertation is the explicit modeling of each market separately in order to understand how generation and load choose to act in each one, and the consequences of these actions on equilibrium prices and quantities given that firms maximize joint profits over both markets. In the first essay, I construct a two-settlement model of electricity prices in which firms that own asymmetric capacity-constrained units facing convex costs compete to meet demand from consumers, first in quantities, then in prices. I show that the forward premium depends on the costliness of spot production relative to firms' ability to exercise market power by setting quantities in the forward market. In the second essay, I test the model from the first essay with unit-level capacity and marginal cost data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). I show that the model closely replicates observed price formation in the CAISO. In the third essay, I estimate a time series model of the CAISO forward premium in order to measure the impact that virtual bidding has had on forward and spot price convergence in California between April 2009 and March 2014. I find virtual bidding to have caused forward and spot prices to diverge due to the large number of market participants looking to hedge against - or speculate on - the occurrence of infrequent but large spot price spikes by placing virtual demand bids.

  16. Photovoltaic Energy: Electricity from Sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    Photovoltaic Energy: Electricity from Sunlight (PHV) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all aspects of photovoltaic amorphous technology, polycrystalline thin films, gallium arsenide, crystalline silicon, concentrator technology, and systems research. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  17. Energy conservation in electric distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chong-Jin.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential for energy and power savings that exist in electric power delivery systems. These savings translate into significant financial and environmental benefits for electricity producers and consumers as well as for society in general. AlliedSignal's knowledge and perspectives on this topic are the result of discussions with hundreds of utility executives, government officials and other industry experts over the past decade in conjunction with marketing our Amorphous Metal technology for electric distribution transformers. Amorphous metal is a technology developed by AlliedSignal that significantly reduces the energy lost in electric distribution transformers at an incremental cost of just a few cents per kilo-Watt-hour. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: Amorphous Metal Alloy Technology; Energy Savings Opportunity; The Industrial Barriers and Remedies; Worldwide Demand; and A Low Risk Strategy. I wish this presentation will help KEPCO achieve their stated aims of ensuring sound development of the national economy and enhancement of public life through the economic and stable supply of electric power. AlliedSignal Korea Ltd. in conjunction with AlliedSignal Amorphous Metals in the U.S. are here to work with KEPCO, transformer manufacturers, industry, and government agencies to achieve greater efficiency in power distribution

  18. Electrical Energy Overview March 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2012

  19. Electrical Energy Overview February 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2012

  20. Electrical Energy Overview January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for January 2012

  1. Evaluating the market splitting determinants: evidence from the Iberian spot electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Nuno Carvalho; Silva, Patrícia Pereira da; Cerqueira, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the main determinants on the market splitting behaviour of the Iberian electricity spot markets. Iberia stands as an ideal case-study, where the high level deployment of wind power is observed, together with the implementation of the market splitting arrangement between the Portuguese and the Spanish spot electricity markets. Logit and non-parametric models are used to express the probability response for market splitting of day-ahead spot electricity prices as a function of the explanatory variables representing the main technologies in the generation mix: wind, hydro, thermal and nuclear power, together with the available transfer capacity and electricity demand. Logit models give preliminary indications about market splitting behaviour, and then, notwithstanding the demanding computational challenge, a non-parametric model is applied in order to overcome the limitations of the former models. Results show an increase of market splitting probability with higher wind power generation or, more generally, with higher availability of low marginal cost electricity such as nuclear power generation. The European interconnection capacity target of 10% of the peak demand of the smallest interconnected market might be insufficient to maintain electricity market integration. Therefore, pro-active coordination policies, governing both interconnections and renewables deployment, should be further developed. -- Highlights: •Assess determinants on market splitting behaviour of Iberian electricity markets. •Logit and non-parametric models to express market splitting probability response. •Explanatory variables: wind, hydro, thermal and nuclear power; ATC and demand. •Results: increase of market splitting probability with higher availability of low marginal cost electricity. •Coordination policies governing both interconnections and renewables deployment

  2. A study on electricity export capability of the μCHP system with spot price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    When a number of muCHP systems are aggregated as a virtual power plant (VPP), they will be able to participate in the electricity wholesale market with no discrimination compared to conventional large power plants. Hence, this paper investigates the electricity export capability of the muCHP system...... when the electricity buyback price is given at a value equalizing the dynamic spot price. A muCHP system is modeled with optimized generation, and the marginal price of electricity export for such system is explained. A sensitivity analysis of several key factors, e.g. fuel price, heat to power ratio...... of the muCHP unit, which influence the export capability of muCHP system, is firstly carried out in the intraday case study, followed by the annual case study which explores the annual system performance. The results show that the electricity export capability of a muCHP system is closely related to its...

  3. HMM filtering and parameter estimation of an electricity spot price model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlwein, Christina; Benth, Fred Espen; Mamon, Rogemar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop a model for electricity spot price dynamics. The spot price is assumed to follow an exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process with an added compound Poisson process. In this way, the model allows for mean-reversion and possible jumps. All parameters are modulated by a hidden Markov chain in discrete time. They are able to switch between different economic regimes representing the interaction of various factors. Through the application of reference probability technique, adaptive filters are derived, which in turn, provide optimal estimates for the state of the Markov chain and related quantities of the observation process. The EM algorithm is applied to find optimal estimates of the model parameters in terms of the recursive filters. We implement this self-calibrating model on a deseasonalised series of daily spot electricity prices from the Nordic exchange Nord Pool. On the basis of one-step ahead forecasts, we found that the model is able to capture the empirical characteristics of Nord Pool spot prices. (author)

  4. Strategic Sustainable Electric Power Energy for Ethiopia:- Electric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mengesha

    In this paper the significance of electric energy efficiency improvement and major areas of loss in. Ethiopia's electric power system are highlighted for further rigorous study. Major electric energy loss areas in the utility transmission and distribution systems and consumer premises are indicated. In the consumer area the loss ...

  5. Energy reduction for the spot welding process in the automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, J D; Athi, N; Al-Jader, M A; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2007-01-01

    When performing spot welding on galvanised metals, higher welding force and current are required than on uncoated steels. This has implications for the energy usage when creating each spot weld, of which there are approximately 4300 in each passenger car. The paper presented is an overview of electrode current selection and its variance over the lifetime of the electrode tip. This also describes the proposed analysis system for the selection of welding parameters for the spot welding process, as the electrode tip wears

  6. Electrical energy statistics for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In 2008, national electrical consumption reached 494.5 TWh, an increase of 2.9 % compared with 2007 (480.4 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies and leap year, its evolution rate compared with 2007 is +1.3 % Consumption by business and private customers came to 198.0 TWh, an increase of 5.9 % compared with 2007 (187.0 TWh); consumption by Large-scale industry and SME/SMIs came to 263.0 TWh, an increase of 0.7 % compared with 2007 (261.3 TWh). Generation in France came to 549.1 TWh, as in 2006, an increase of 4.3 TWh or +0.8 % compared with 2007 (544.8 TWh). Hydro-electric generation reached 68.0 TWh, an increase of 7.5 % compared with 2007 (63.3 TWh). Renewable energy sources generation but hydro reached 9.7 TWh, an increase of 23.8 % compared with 2007 (7.8 TWh), mainly due to an increase of 37.5 % of wind energy (5.6 TWh in 2008 compared with 4.0 TWh in 2007). This progression is coherent with the increase of 48% of the installed capacity for wind generation. Nuclear generation came to 418.3 TWh in 2008, a decrease of 0.1 % compared with 2007 (418.6 TWh). Fossil thermal generation came to 53.1 TWh, a decrease of 3.5 % compared with 2007 (55.1 TWh). The heaviest load in terms of capacity reaches 92.4 GW during winter 2008/2009. Its evolution rate compared with 2007 is +3.8 % with a temperature lower by 2.2 deg. C. Since 2001, the heaviest load in winter has increased by 16% whereas the national electrical consumption has increased by 10%. The year 2008 is marked by the commissioning of the 400 kV line VIGY-MARLENHEIM. Besides, the underground circuits lengths grow by 118 km over the entire network. In terms of physical exchanges of electrical energy between France and the neighbouring countries France exported a net total of 48.0 TWh, a decrease of 15.4 % compared with 2007 (56.7 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries came to a cumulative value for exports and imports of 116.2 TWh, an increase of 5.1 % compared with 2007 (110.5 TWh

  7. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  8. Impacts of subsidized renewable electricity generation on spot market prices in Germany: evidence from a Garch model with panel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Thao; Lemoine, Killian

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generated by renewable energy sources creates a downward pressure on wholesale prices through - the so-called 'merit order effect'. This effect tends to lower average power prices and average market revenue that renewables producers should have received, making integration costs of renewables very high at large penetration rate. It is therefore crucial to determine the amplitude of this merit order effect particularly in the context of increasing burden of renewable support policies borne by final consumers. Using hourly data for the period 2009-2012 in German electricity wholesale market for GARCH model under panel data framework, we find that wind and solar power generation injected into German electricity network during this period induces a decrease of electricity spot prices and a slight increase of their volatility. The model-based results suggest that the merit-order effect created by renewable production ranges from 3.86 to 8.34 euro/MWh which implies to the annual volume of consumers' surplus from 1.89 to 3.92 billion euros. However this surplus has not been re-distributed equally among different types of electricity consumers. (authors)

  9. Short Communication: Electrical energy saving through lamps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern Buildings of all types relies heavily on the use of electrical energy. This energy has to be properly utilized in order to avoid many problems both to the electric utilities supply companies and also to the consumer. This paper presents energy saving through replacement process of conventional electric lamps known ...

  10. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  11. Effects of Variable Spot Size on Human Exposure to 95 GHz Millimeter Wave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-11

    AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2017-0017 Effects of Variable Spot Size on Human Exposure to 95-GHz Millimeter Wave Energy James E. Parker Eric J. Nelson...Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings. TR 0017 "Effects of Variable Spot Size on Human Exposure to 95-GHz Millimeter Wave Energy ...Effects of Variable Spot Size on Human Exposure to 95-GHz Millimeter Wave Energy 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S

  12. Forecasting electricity spot market prices with a k-factor GIGARCH process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diongue, Abdou Ka [Universite Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis, UFR SAT, BP 234, Saint-Louis Senegal and Research Fellow at Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane QLD 4001 (Australia); Guegan, Dominique [Paris School of economics, CES-MSE, Universite Paris1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, 106 boulevard de l' Hopital, 75647 Paris, Cedex 13 (France); Vignal, Bertrand [Ingenieur EDF R and D, 1 avenue du general de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    In this article, we investigate conditional mean and conditional variance forecasts using a dynamic model following a k-factor GIGARCH process. Particularly, we provide the analytical expression of the conditional variance of the prediction error. We apply this method to the German electricity price market for the period August 15, 2000-December 31, 2002 and we test spot prices forecasts until one-month ahead forecast. The forecasting performance of the model is compared with a SARIMA-GARCH benchmark model using the year 2003 as the out-of-sample. The proposed model outperforms clearly the benchmark model. We conclude that the k-factor GIGARCH process is a suitable tool to forecast spot prices, using the classical RMSE criteria. (author)

  13. Electric energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevali, D.; Suarez, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis was made of the emission of air pollutants by the Argentine public utilities, taking into account the historical evolution from 1970 to 1989. This has shown the impact which the substitution policies implemented in the electrical sector have had on the emission of pollutants and on the 'greenhouse effect'. On the one hand, these policies consisted of the substitution of conventional thermal energy by hydroelectric and nuclear energy and, on the other hand, substitution of fuel oil, diesel oil and coal by natural gas. Since the conventional thermal power stations require additional investments in order to avoid air pollution, the investment savings originated in this respect by the abovementioned substitution policies have also been calculated. Although the environmental impacts caused by hydroelectric, nuclear and natural gas production installations are also important and are located geographically in other areas, there is no doubt that the substitution policies carried out in the Argentine electrical sector signify both an ecological and an economic benefit. (Author)

  14. Electrodynamic energy harvester for electrical transformer's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electromagnetic field. With an energy harvester one or more of these available energies can be converted into electrical energy for power requirements of WTSNs in electrical transformers. The integration of WTSN with an energy harvester can change the wireless node into a long lasting, self-powered wireless sensor unit.

  15. The impact of renewable energies on EEX day-ahead electricity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Schürle, Michael; Paraschiv, Florentina

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the impact of renewable energies, wind and photovoltaic, on the formation of day-ahead electricity prices at EEX. We give an overview of the policy decisions concerning the promotion of renewable energy sources in Germany, and discuss their consequences on day-ahead prices. An analysis of electricity spot prices reveals that the introduction of renewable energies enhances extreme price changes. In the frame of a dynamic fundamental model, we show that there has been a continuous el...

  16. Spot markets vs. long-term contracts - modelling tools for regional electricity generating utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    A properly organised market for electricity requires that some information will be available for all market participants. Also a range of generally available modelling tools are necessary. This paper describes a set of simple models based on published data for analyses of the long-term revenues of regional utilities with combined heat and power generation (CHP), who will operate a competitive international electricity market and a local heat market. The future revenues from trade on the spot market is analysed using a load curve model, in which marginal costs are calculated on the basis of short-term costs of the available units and chronological hourly variations in the demands for electricity and heat. Assumptions on prices, marginal costs and electricity generation by the different types of generating units are studied for selected types of local electricity generators. The long-term revenue requirements to be met by long-term contracts are analysed using a traditional techno-economic optimisation model focusing on technology choice and competition among technologies over 20.30 years. A possible conclusion from this discussion is that it is important for the economic and environmental efficiency of the electricity market that local or regional generators of CHP, who are able to react on price signals, do not conclude long-term contracts that include fixed time-of-day tariff for sale of electricity. Optimisation results for a CHP region (represented by the structure of the Danish electricity and CHP market in 1995) also indicates that a market for CO 2 tradable permits is unlikely to attract major non-fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation, e.g. wind power. (au)

  17. Predictability of Wave Energy and Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The articlw addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...

  18. Effect of electrical spot welding on load deflection rate of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Abrishami, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods used for joining metals together is welding, which can be carried out using different techniques such as electric spot welding. This study evaluated the effect of electric spot welding on the load deflection rate of stainless steel and chromium-cobalt orthodontic wires. In this experimental-laboratory study, load deflection rate of 0.016 × 0.022 inch stainless steel and chromium cobalt wires were evaluated in five groups (n =18): group one: Stainless steel wires, group two: chromium-cobalt wires, group three: stainless steel wires welded to stainless steel wires, group four: Stainless steel wires welded to chromium-cobalt wires, group five: chromium-cobalt wire welded to chromium-cobalt wires. Afterward, the forces induced by the samples in 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm deflection were measured using a universal testing machine. Then mean force measured for each group was compared with other groups. The data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, and paired t-test by the SPSS software. The significance level was set as 0.05. The Tukey test showed that there were significant differences between the load deflection rates of welded groups compared to control ones (P wires increased their load deflection rates.

  19. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Taha, F.M.; Rahim, N.A.; Saidur, R.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  20. NV energy electricity storage valuation :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority ("BA") as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 ("Pay-for-performance"). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  1. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  2. An empirical comparison of alternative schemes for combining electricity spot price forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowotarski, Jakub; Raviv, Eran; Trück, Stefan; Weron, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    In this comprehensive empirical study we critically evaluate the use of forecast averaging in the context of electricity prices. We apply seven averaging and one selection scheme and perform a backtesting analysis on day-ahead electricity prices in three major European and US markets. Our findings support the additional benefit of combining forecasts of individual methods for deriving more accurate predictions, however, the performance is not uniform across the considered markets and periods. In particular, equally weighted pooling of forecasts emerges as a simple, yet powerful technique compared with other schemes that rely on estimated combination weights, but only when there is no individual predictor that consistently outperforms its competitors. Constrained least squares regression (CLS) offers a balance between robustness against such well performing individual methods and relatively accurate forecasts, on average better than those of the individual predictors. Finally, some popular forecast averaging schemes – like ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) – turn out to be unsuitable for predicting day-ahead electricity prices. - Highlights: • So far the most extensive study on combining forecasts for electricity spot prices • 12 stochastic models, 8 forecast combination schemes and 3 markets considered • Our findings support the additional benefit of combining forecasts for deriving more accurate predictions • Methods that allow for unconstrained weights, such as OLS averaging, should be avoided • We recommend a backtesting exercise to identify the preferred forecast averaging method for the data at hand

  3. Modeling of electric and heat processes in spot resistance welding of cross-wire steel bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatcheva, Ilona; Darzhanova, Denitsa; Manilova, Marina

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is the modeling of coupled electric and heat processes in a system for spot resistance welding of cross-wire reinforced steel bars. The real system geometry, dependences of material properties on the temperature, and changes of contact resistance and released power during the welding process have been taken into account in the study. The 3D analysis of the coupled AC electric and transient thermal field distributions is carried out using the finite element method. The novel feature is that the processes are modeled for several successive time stages, corresponding to the change of contact area, related contact resistance, and reduction of the released power, occurring simultaneously with the creation of contact between the workpieces. The values of contact resistance and power changes have been determined on the basis of preliminary experimental and theoretical investigations. The obtained results present the electric and temperature field distributions in the system. Special attention has been paid to the temperature evolution at specified observation points and lines in the contact area. The obtained information could be useful for clarification of the complicated nature of interrelated electric, thermal, mechanical, and physicochemical welding processes. Adequate modeling is also an opportunity for proper control and improvement of the system.

  4. The impact of renewable energies on EEX day-ahead electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschiv, Florentina; Erni, David; Pietsch, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of renewable energies, wind and photovoltaic, on the formation of day-ahead electricity prices at EEX. We give an overview of the policy decisions concerning the promotion of renewable energy sources in Germany and discuss their consequences on day-ahead prices. An analysis of electricity spot prices reveals that the introduction of renewable energies enhances extreme price changes. In the frame of a dynamic fundamental model, we show that there has been a continuous electricity price adaption process to market fundamentals. Furthermore, the fundamental drivers of prices differ among hours with different load profiles. Our results imply that renewable energies decrease market spot prices and have implications on the traditional fuel mix for electricity production. However, the prices for the final consumers increased overall because they must pay in addition the feed-in tariffs for the promotion of renewable energy. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of renewable energies on the day-ahead electricity prices at EEX. • We discuss the impact of renewables on day-ahead prices. • We show a continuous electricity price adaption process to market fundamentals. • Renewable energies decrease market spot prices and shift the merit order curve. • The prices for the final consumers however increased because of feed-in tariffs

  5. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  6. Electrical energy: what is in game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Robredo, R.

    2004-01-01

    In the occasion of the inauguration of the Academic Course in the Spanish Club of the Energy, the Endesa president made these reflections on the main factors that actually affect the development of the electrical energy

  7. Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC is a multi-institutional research center, one of 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers established by the...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  9. Bilateral electric energy contracts: return and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, Laura K.; Silva, Elisa B.; Correia, Paulo B. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). College of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil electricity is traded through three segments: the spot market that balances offer and demand, with prices calculated by a cost-based computational model; the regulated market , where prices are settled in public auctions, and the free market for bilateral contracts. As spot and regulated market prices are public information, a seller is able to calculate his opportunity price to trade a bilateral contract in the free market by using the non-arbitrage principle. Thus, the seller searches the price of a bilateral contract in the free market that balances his/her revenues with the value expected in case it were negotiated in the regulated and the spot market. Besides the expected revenue, the seller may also consider the CVaR to measure the risk of her/his bilateral contract in the free market. So this paper develops a binomial lattice approach to price bilateral contracts in the free market, considering the seller's opportunity of negotiations in both regulated and spot markets, and measuring the contract risk directly. (author)

  10. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  11. Use of derivative instruments to integrate renewable energies into the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Kilian; Nelles, Michael; Candra, Dodiek Ika

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies to the electricity market is inefficient and expensive with current measures. Further these measures are prejudicial for the existing energy-only-market. The combination of fluctuating and controllable renewable powers in virtual power plants enables the marketing of this power as a derivate on the future market. Thus would relieve the spot market and stabilize pricing on both markets. Subsequently the renewable energy obligation will reduce and renewable energies could be marketed as secured power.

  12. Analysis of M-stationary points to an EPEC modeling oligopolistic competition in an electricity spot market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henrion, R.; Outrata, Jiří; Surowiec, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2012), s. 295-317 ISSN 1292-8119 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints * EPEC * M-stationary solutions * electricity spot market * calmness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/outrata-analysis of m-stationary points to an epec modeling oligopolistic competition in an electricity spot market.pdf

  13. Modelling price and volatility inter-relationships in the Australian wholesale spot electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the inter-relationships of wholesale spot electricity prices among the four regional electricity markets in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM): namely, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Victoria using the constant conditional correlation and Tse and Tsui's (Tse, Y.K., Tsui, A.K.C., 2002. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model with time-varying correlations. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 351-362.) and Engle's (Engle, R., 2002. Dynamic conditional correlation: a sample class of multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 339-350.) dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH models. Tse and Tsui's (Tse, Y.K., Tsui, A.K.C., 2002. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model with time-varying correlations. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 351-362.) dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model which takes account of the Student t specification produces the best results. At the univariate GARCH(1,1) level, the mean equations indicate the presence of positive own mean spillovers in all four markets and little evidence of mean spillovers from the other lagged markets. In the dynamic conditional correlation equation, the highest conditional correlations are evident between the well-connected markets indicating the presence of strong interdependence between these markets with weaker interdependence between the not so well-interconnected markets. (author)

  14. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  15. Electricity. The answer to sustainable energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulcke, J.

    1996-01-01

    When debating the rational use of energy, it very often happens that all attention is drawn to the reduction of the use of electricity. Limiting, even eliminating the application of electric heating is seen as a rational choice. On the other hand, industrial consumers are urged to invest in combined heat and power, even without considering a thorough analysis of energy usage. Mastering such an environment is today's challenge for the electricity producers and distributors. Considering the fact that, for a majority of customers, the cost of electricity is more important than the cost of other energy sources, products and services has been developed which, lead to lower bills and lower energy use. From a marketing point of view, this approach introduces electro-thermy to the consumer thereby securing the electricity company of durable sales and even increases in sales. The high efficiency of electrothermal applications secures a reduction in primary energy use. (author)

  16. Electric Vehicles Mileage Extender Kinetic Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivkov, Venelin; Draganov, Vutko; Stoyanova, Yana

    2015-03-01

    The proposed paper considers small urban vehicles with electric hybrid propulsion systems. Energy demands are examined on the basis of European drive cycle (NEUDC) and on an energy recuperation coefficient and are formulated for description of cycle energy transfers. Numerical simulation results show real possibilities for increasing in achievable vehicle mileage at the same energy levels of a main energy source - the electric battery. Kinetic energy storage (KES), as proposed to be used as an energy buffer and different structural schemes of the hybrid propulsion system are commented. Minimum energy levels for primary (the electric battery) and secondary (KES) sources are evaluated. A strategy for reduced power flows control is examined, and its impact on achievable vehicle mileage is investigated. Results show an additional increase in simulated mileage at the same initial energy levels.

  17. 2004 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    The Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles 2004 is the thirteenth issue in an internationally series of comparable energy data for selected developing countries. The data are arranged to show energy production, trade, conversion and consumption for each fuel used in the country. This publication is a source of overall consumption statistics of energy commodities in all sectors. Special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries are published to cover, exclusively, detailed information on production, trade and consumption of electricity, net installed capacity and thermal power plant input for selected developing countries

  18. Economic Dispatch of Hydrogen Systems in Energy Spot Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen system, as a new energy carrier, could deliver clean and efficient energy services in a wide range of applications. This paper presents an economic dispatch-based mathematical model that facilitates investigations on the techno-economic feasibility of hydrogen systems in the context...

  19. Electrical energy in France in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The figures presented on this document account for the electricity flows recorded in Metropolitan France, including Corsica. Contents: national consumption; physical exchanges with foreign countries; electrical energy balance in France in 2009; net generation; noteworthy data for the year 2009 (daily maximum values of national consumption, thermal generation, hydro-electric generation, wind generation and balance of physical exchanges); electricity market: cross-borders contractual exchanges, balance responsible entities (Energy amount exchanged between balance responsible entities through the block exchange notifications), balancing mechanism (global amount of energy activated upwards and downwards), daily market coupling; power facilities: generating facilities in France (Nuclear, Fossil fuel thermal, Hydro-electric, Wind and Other renewable energy sources), transmission lines owned by RTE (circuit length in operation), transmission - transformers owned by RTE (installed capacity in operation); main transmission facilities commissioned during the year 2009 (substations connected to the RTE network and new or refurbished circuits)

  20. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  1. MODELADO DEL PRECIO SPOT DE LA ELECTRICIDAD EN BRASIL USANDO UNA RED NEURONAL AUTORREGRESIVA ELECTRICITY SPOT PRICE MODELLING IN BRASIL USING AN AUTOREGRESSIVE NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D Velásquez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Una red neuronal autorregresiva es estimada para el precio mensual brasileño de corto plazo de la electricidad, la cual describe mejor la dinámica de los precios que un modelo lineal autorregresivo y que un perceptrón multicapa clásico que usan las mismas entradas y neuronas en la capa oculta. El modelo propuesto es especificado usando un procedimiento estadístico basado en el contraste del radio de verosimilitud. El modelo pasa una batería de pruebas de diagnóstico. El procedimiento de especificación propuesto permite seleccionar el número de unidades en la capa oculta y las entradas a la red neuronal, usando pruebas estadísticas que tienen en cuenta la cantidad de los datos y el ajuste del modelo a la serie de precios. La especificación del modelo final demuestra que el precio para el próximo mes es una función no lineal del precio actual, de la energía afluente actual y de la energía almacenada en el embalse equivalente en el mes actual y dos meses atrás.An autoregressive neural network model is estimated for the monthly Brazilian electricity spot price, which describes the prices dynamics better than a linear autoregressive model and a classical multilayer perceptron using the same input and neurons in the hidden layer. The proposed model is specified using a statistical procedure based on a likelihood ratio test. The model passes a battery of diagnostic tests. The proposed specification procedure allows us to select the number of units in hidden layer and the inputs to the neural network based on statistical tests, taking into account the number of data and the model fitting to the price time series. The final model specification demonstrates that the price for the next month is a nonlinear function of the current price, the current energy inflow, and the energy saved in the equivalent reservoir in the current month and two months ago.

  2. Energy policy on the spot - a site study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, B.

    1982-01-01

    This site study aims to inform on energy-political programmes of the government and opposition, to contribute to unemotional balancing of the pro against the con and to convey possibilities of reducing, or compensating, the disadvantages contingent on large-scale technological schemes. It moreover indicates what possibilities of information and participation are or should be open to citizens before and during the licensing procedure. The reason for dealing in this brochure at particular length with nuclear energy and its facilities for spent-fuel disposal is not its current importance to our energy supply but the complexity of its problems and the intensity that characterizes its discussion in the public. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  4. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2006-12-12

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  5. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  6. Electric energy sustainability in the Eastern Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos, Christopher J.; Nanaki, Evanthia A.

    2007-01-01

    After years of military conflict and economic turmoil, the countries of South East Europe now face major challenges in achieving the market reforms necessary to rebuild their economies. A major driver of economy is the energy sector, although high-energy intensities are a burden for the companies and households. An efficient energy sector not only is vital for an economic recovery but also plays an important role to energy transit. The main goal of this work is a comprehensive assessment of electrical sustainability in some countries of South East Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece) mainly by means of exergy analysis as well as descriptive statistics. Exergy analysis can be used as an energy sustainability indicator and help decision-makers. The concept of exergy, applied to electricity generation efficiency could be a useful tool in the field of energy efficiency. Further implementation of thorough exergy analysis to the countries of Eastern Balkans, would be helpful in improving their electricity generation efficiency

  7. Electrical energy in France in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The figures presented on this document account for the electricity flows recorded in Metropolitan France, including Corsica. Contents: national consumption; physical exchanges with foreign countries; electrical energy balance in France in 2008; net generation; noteworthy data for the year 2008 (daily maximum values of National consumption, Hydroelectric generation and non-Hydroelectric generation, Balance of physical exchanges); electricity market: cross-border contractual exchanges, balance responsible entities (Energy amount exchanged between balance responsible entities through the block exchange notifications), balancing mechanism (Global amount of energy activated upwards and downwards); power facilities: generating facilities in France (Nuclear, Fossil fuel thermal, Hydro-electric, Wind and Other renewable energy sources), transmission lines (circuit length in operation), transmission - transformers (installed capacity in operation); main transmission facilities commissioned during the year 2008 (substations connected to the RTE network and new or refurbished circuits)

  8. A Generalized Schwartz Model for Energy Spot Prices - Estimation using a Particle MCMC Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Brix, Anne Floor; Wei, Wei

    We propose an energy spot price model featuring a two-factor price process and a two-component stochastic volatility process. The first factor in the price process captures the normal variations; the second accounts for spikes. The two-component volatility allows for a flexible autocorrelation st...

  9. Stochastic price modeling of high volatility, mean-reverting, spike-prone commodities: The Australian wholesale spot electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, Helen; Worthington, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly known that wholesale spot electricity markets exhibit high price volatility, strong mean-reversion and frequent extreme price spikes. This paper employs a basic stochastic model, a mean-reverting model and a regime-switching model to capture these features in the Australian national electricity market (NEM), comprising the interconnected markets of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Victoria. Daily spot prices from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2004 are employed. The results show that the regime-switching model outperforms the basic stochastic and mean-reverting models. Electricity prices are also found to exhibit stronger mean-reversion after a price spike than in the normal period, and price volatility is more than fourteen times higher in spike periods than in normal periods. The probability of a spike on any given day ranges between 5.16% in NSW and 9.44% in Victoria

  10. Energy Intensity of the Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Dziubiński

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous energy intensity is a dependency between continuous energy intensity and energy intensity of movement. In the paper it is proposed analyze energy intensity of the movement, as the size specifying the power demand to the wheel drive and presented the balance of power of an electric car moving in the urban cycle. The object of the test was the hybrid vehicle with an internal combustion engine and electric motor. The measurements were carried out for 4 speeds and 2 driving profiles.

  11. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  12. 2000 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the eleventh issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy

  13. 1998 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the tenth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy Statistics

  14. 2002 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the twelfth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy

  15. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory's Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison

  16. Energy Efficient Solid-State Cooling for Hot SPOT Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Kazuaki; Fedorov, Andrei; Joshi, Yogendra; Shakouri, Ali

    In this chapter, modeling and analysis of a hybrid scheme of a thermoelectric microcooler and a microchannel single-phase heat sink is discussed for a hotspot cooling. Following the introduction, the hybrid scheme concept is described. The Section 3 describes thermoelectric materials and fabrication of the solid-state microcoolers to give the necessary information for the thermal modeling, analysis, and the optimization of thermoelectric element in Section 4. Microchannel geometry and the pump power are discussed in Section 5 with an analytic model, and then the heat sink design itself is designed to optimum for lowest power used for the required cooling performance. Integrated cooling power for an integrated circuit (IC) with a hotspot as a function of heat flux is demonstrated. Section 6 summarizes the energy efficient cooling performance by the discussed hybrid scheme. To make technological challenges clear, concept of a new packaging approach for this integration is illustrated in Section 7 followed by the conclusions.

  17. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  18. The Harnessed Atom: Nuclear Energy & Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This document is part of a nuclear energy curriculum designed for grades six through eight. The complete kit includes a written text, review exercises, activities for the students, and a teachers guide. The 19 lessons in the curriculum are divided into four units including: (1) "Energy and Electricity"; (2) "Understanding Atoms and Radiation"; (3)…

  19. Renewable energies for decentralized electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with the influence of laws and tariffs on the production and on the transport of electricity by auto producers. Most of all, it analyzes their consequence on the development of renewable energy. This study shows that some important modifications of the laws and of the tariffs may be necessary to develop renewable energy. (TEC). 18 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Balancing energy strategies in electricity portfolio management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Christoph; Rachev, Svetlozar T.; Fabozzi, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional management of electricity portfolios is focused on the day-ahead market and futures of longer maturity. Within limits, market participants can however also resort to the balancing energy market to close their positions. In this paper, we determine strategic positions in the balancing energy market and identify corresponding economic incentives in an analysis of the German balancing energy demand. We find that those strategies allow an economically optimal starting point for real-time balancing and create a marketplace for flexible capacity that is more open than alternative marketplaces. The strategies we proffer in this paper we believe will contribute to an effective functioning of the electricity market. (author)

  1. Electricity storage - A challenge for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, Jean-Baptiste; Nekrasov, Andre; Pastor, Emmanuel; Benefice, Emmanuel; Brincourt, Thierry; Cagnac, Albannie; Brisse, Annabelle; Jeandel, Elodie; Lefebvre, Thierry; Penneau, Jean-Francois; Radvanyi, Etienne; Delille, Gautier; Hinchliffe, Timothee; Lancel, Gilles; Loevenbruck, Philippe; Soler, Robert; Stevens, Philippe; Torcheux, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    After a presentation of the energetic context and of its issues, this collective publication proposes presentations of various electricity storage technologies with a distinction between direct storage, thermal storage and hydrogen storage. As far as direct storage is concerned, the following options are described: pumped energy transfer stations or PETS, compressed air energy storage or CAES, flywheels, various types of electrochemical batteries (lead, alkaline, sodium, lithium), metal air batteries, redox flow batteries, and super-capacitors. Thermal storage comprises power-to-heat and heat-to-power technologies. Hydrogen can be stored under different forms (compressed gas, liquid), in saline underground cavities, or by using water electrolysis and fuel cells. The authors propose an overview of the different services provided by energy storage to the electricity system, and discuss the main perspectives and challenges for tomorrow's storage (electric mobility, integration of renewable energies, electrification of isolated areas, scenarios of development)

  2. Renewable energy promotion in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    The opening of electricity markets to competition involves fundamental structural changes in the electricity supply industry. There is, however, doubt that the new industrial organisation will provide the right price signals that will ensure that renewable energy options will be adopted. Therefore, one of the numerous challenges in the energy industry restructuring process is to ensure that renewable energy has a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents mechanisms to promote the use of renewable energy in competitive electricity markets. These mechanisms include the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) and the Systems Benefit Charge (SBC). The paper discusses merits and disadvantages of these mechanisms, given the experience made in the United States and the United Kingdom. (author)

  3. 1994 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the eighth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries and areas in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for each fuel utilized in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analyzing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis

  4. 1992 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the seventh issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistical Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected developing countries and areas in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for each fuel utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analyzing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis

  5. Electric energy storage - Overview of technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage is a challenging and costly process, as electricity can only be stored by conversion into other forms of energy (e.g. potential, thermal, chemical or magnetic energy). The grids must be precisely balanced in real time and it must be made sure that the cost of electricity is the lowest possible. Storage of electricity has many advantages, in centralized mass storages used for the management of the transmission network, or in decentralized storages of smaller dimensions. This article presents an overview of the storage technologies: mechanical storage in hydroelectric and pumped storage power stations, compressed air energy storage (CAES), flywheels accumulating kinetic energy, electrochemical batteries with various technologies, traditional lead acid batteries, lithium ion, sodium sulfur (NaS) and others, including vehicle to grid, sensible heat thermal storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), super-capacitors, conversion into hydrogen... The different technologies are compared in terms of cost and level of maturity. The development of intermittent renewable energies will result in a growing need for mechanisms to regulate energy flow and innovative energy storage solutions seem well positioned to develop. (author)

  6. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  7. Overview of electrical energy in May 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and trend over last 12 months; - the balance of physical electrical energy flows in France on the RTE network: net injections into the RTE network; net deliveries at the terminals of the RTE network; - consumption and physical exchanges (noteworthy data); - the electricity market: contractual electricity exchanges with foreign countries (exports, imports, trend); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for May 2009. (J.S.)

  8. Overview of electrical energy in January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and trend over last 12 months; - the balance of physical electrical energy flows in France on the RTE network: net injections into the RTE network; net deliveries at the terminals of the RTE network; - consumption and physical exchanges (noteworthy data); - the electricity market: contractual electricity exchanges with foreign countries (exports, imports, trend); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for January 2009. (J.S.)

  9. Overview of electrical energy in March 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and trend over last 12 months; - the balance of physical electrical energy flows in France on the RTE network: net injections into the RTE network; net deliveries at the terminals of the RTE network; - consumption and physical exchanges (noteworthy data); - the electricity market: contractual electricity exchanges with foreign countries (exports, imports, trend); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for March 2009. (J.S.)

  10. Overview of electrical energy in April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and trend over last 12 months; - the balance of physical electrical energy flows in France on the RTE network: net injections into the RTE network; net deliveries at the terminals of the RTE network; - consumption and physical exchanges (noteworthy data); - the electricity market: contractual electricity exchanges with foreign countries (exports, imports, trend); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for April 2009. (J.S.)

  11. The Merit-order effect. A detailed analysis of the price effect of renewable electricity generation on spot market prices in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensfuss, F.; Ragwitz, M.; Genoese, M.

    2007-07-01

    The German feed-in support of electricity generation from renewable energy sources has led to high growth rates of the supported technologies. Critics state that the costs for consumers are too high. An important aspect to be considered in the discussion is the price effect created by renewable electricity generation. This paper seeks to analyse the impact of privileged renewable electricity generation on the electricity market in Germany. The central aspect to be analysed is the impact of renewable electricity generation on spot market prices. The results generated by an agent-based simulation platform indicate that the financial volume of the price reduction is considerable. In the short run, this gives rise to a distributional effect which creates savings for the demand side by reducing generator profits. In the case of the year 2006, the volume of the merit-order effect exceeds the volume of the net support payments for renewable electricity generation which have to be paid by consumers. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear energy products except the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Technically the fission reactors, on service or under construction, can produce other products than the electric power. Meanwhile, these applications are known since the beginning of the reactors exploitation, they never have been developed industrially. This report examines the necessary technical characteristics for using the nuclear systems on non electric power applications with an economical efficiency. What are the markets for these products? What are the strategical challenges to favor the development of non electric power applications of the nuclear energy? (A.L.B.)

  13. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 3... Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... motors and small electric motors, clarify the scope of energy conservation standards for electric motors...

  14. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  15. Day-Ahead Energy Planning with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration in the Nordic Region by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxi Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the day-ahead energy planning of passenger cars with 100% electric vehicle (EV penetration in the Nordic region by 2050. EVs will play an important role in the future energy systems which can both reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the transport sector and provide the demand side flexibility required by smart grids. On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. In order to quantify the electricity consumption increase due to the 100% EV penetration in the Nordic region to facilitate the power system planning studies, the day-ahead energy planning of EVs has been investigated with different EV charging scenarios. Five EV charging scenarios have been considered in the energy planning analysis which are: uncontrolled charging all day, uncontrolled charging at home, timed charging, spot price based charging all day and spot price based charging at home. The demand profiles of the five charging analysis show that timed charging is the least favorable charging option and the spot priced based EV charging might induce high peak demands. The EV charging demand will have a considerable share of the energy consumption in the future Nordic power system.

  16. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO 2 -emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market. The

  17. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Hawaiian Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-23

    NREL and the Hawaiian Electric Companies are collaborating with the solar and inverter industries to implement advanced inverters, allowing greater solar photovoltaic (PV) penetrations that will support the State of Hawaii's goal to achieve 100% renewable energy by 2045. Advanced inverters will help maintain stable grid operations by riding through grid disturbances when the PV output is needed, operating autonomously to smooth voltage fluctuations, and coordinating the start-up and reconnection of PV systems and other distributed energy resources.

  18. The electricity industry and 'Energy 2000'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederberger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The action programme 'Energy 2000', presented by Federal Councillor Ogi as a result of the agreements of last September, aims, on the one hand, for a stabilization of power consumption until the turn of the century, and, on the other hand, for an extension of domestic production, to which a contribution should also be made by renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic power. The Swiss electricity producers are prepared to make their contribution to the realization of these ambitious objectives. (orig.) [de

  19. Costs comparison of electric energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, D.; Menegassi, J.

    1981-01-01

    A cost comparison study of various sources of electric energy generation was performed using uniform analysis criteria. The results indicate higher costs for coal, followed by nuclear and hidro. It was verified that presently, large hidro-power plants can only be located far from the load centers, with increasing costs of hidro-power energy in Brazil. These costs become higher than the nuclear plant if the hidro plant is located at distances exceeding 1000 Km. (Author) [pt

  20. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for October 2015

  1. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2013

  2. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for October 2014

  3. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview March 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2015

  4. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview April 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for April 2013

  5. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview April 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for April 2016

  6. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview March 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2016

  7. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for May 2013

  8. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview December 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for December 2013

  9. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview November 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for November 2013

  10. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview March 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2014

  11. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview June 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for June 2013

  12. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for December 2015

  13. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview September 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for September 2014

  14. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview November 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for November 2015

  15. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for May 2014

  16. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2015

  17. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2014

  18. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview April 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for April 2014

  19. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview May 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-05-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for May 2015

  20. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview December 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for December 2014

  1. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for January 2014

  2. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview May 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for May 2016

  3. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2016

  4. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for January 2016

  5. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview June 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for June 2016

  6. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview March 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2013

  7. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview June 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for June 2014

  8. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview November 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for November 2014

  9. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview August 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for July-August 2014

  10. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview September 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for September 2013

  11. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview July August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for July-August 2015

  12. Energy efficiency and sustainability: evaluation of electricity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and analysis of electricity consumer's attitudes, behaviours and practices towards energy use and sustainability. Using the random sampling method, the perception questionnaires were administered to respondents across the various streets chosen. The results indicate that although there is some level of awareness with ...

  13. Electrical Energy Overview July and August 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for July and August 2012

  14. Political electricity: What future for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.

    1993-01-01

    Political Electricity first reviews the history of nuclear power development in nine countries (USA, France, Japan, UK, West Germany, Sweden, Italy, Switzerland, Australia). Second the book analyses major issues shaping the future of the industry: nuclear power economincs, nuclear hazards, alternative energy economics, and greenhouse gas constraints

  15. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  16. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for October 2012

  17. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for January 2013

  18. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview November 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for November 2012

  19. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview September 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for September 2012

  20. Electrodynamic energy harvester for electrical transformer's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The development of an electrodynamic energy harvester (EDEH) for operating a wireless temperature monitoring system for electrical transformer is reported in this work. Analytical modeling, fabrication and characterization of EDEH prototype are performed. The developed EDEH consists of a mild steel core, ...

  1. Electrodynamic energy harvester for electrical transformer's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The development of an electrodynamic energy harvester (EDEH) for operating a wireless temperature monitoring system for electrical transformer is reported in this work. Analytical modeling, fabrication and characterization of EDEH prototype are performed. The developed EDEH consists of a mild steel core, a wound ...

  2. Electricity storage. The problematic of alternative energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    After having evoked the increasing share of renewable energies in electricity production in Europe and the associated investments, the author outlines the main problems associated with renewable energy: their intermittency, and the fact that they are submitted to quick and important variations which must be managed by the grid. He also evokes economic and financial problems (high taxes in Germany and in France, mandatory purchase mechanisms leading to absurd situations and having consequences on the electricity market). The author discusses the issue of energy storage: storage is expensive and its cost will increase that of the produced energy. However, storage can be interesting if its cost is covered by the income generated by the provided services. Some solutions already exist: pumped-storage power station (PSPS), remotely controlled electric-storage water heaters. The author presents and comments the services which storage can provide: smoothing, spare energy supply, and supply quality. He outlines the importance of a technical-economic analysis for the choice of the best storage solution, but also the need to change the business model

  3. Electrical energy needs for space cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, C. U.; Nipkow, J.; Steinemann, U.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses measures that are to be taken to reduce increasing energy consumption resulting from global warming. A figure is quoted for the energy requirements for the ventilation and cooling of commercial, industrial and domestic buildings in Switzerland. A clear trend to higher technology densities and the associated demands for ventilation and air-conditioning are noted. The modeling of specific energy requirements for these services is discussed and the large economic gains and the refurbishment possibilities available are discussed. Possibilities for increasing the efficiency of such systems are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized and decentralized systems are examined and their effect on the electricity supply system are briefly noted.

  4. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  5. Extension planning for electrical energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieselt, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the future as well as in the past, and in particular in the next decade a considerable increase in electrical energy demand can be expected. To satisfy this demand in a reliable and sufficient manner will force the utilities to invest large sums of money for the operation and the extension of power generation and distribution plants. The size of these investments justifies the search for more and more comprehensive and at the same time more detailed planning methods. With the help of system analysis a planning model for the electricity supply industry of a major supply area will be designed. (orig./RW) [de

  6. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  7. Research on spot power market equilibrium model considering the electric power network characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chengmin; Jiang, Chuanwen; Chen, Qiming

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium is the optimum operational condition for the power market by economics rule. A realistic spot power market cannot achieve the equilibrium condition due to network losses and congestions. The impact of the network losses and congestion on spot power market is analyzed in this paper in order to establish a new equilibrium model considering the network loss and transmission constraints. The OPF problem formulated according to the new equilibrium model is solved by means of the equal price principle. A case study on the IEEE-30-bus system is provided in order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (author)

  8. Regulatory restrictions and energy: The impact of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gius, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the effects of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices. Although the Jones Act pertains to the domestic shipment of all types of goods, the present study will only focus on gasoline. The present study will use data obtained from the Energy Information Administration in order to determine if the price of gasoline declined during Jones Act waiver periods. Looking at daily prices, the results regarding the effects of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices are mixed. When using a t-test, the results indicated either that there was no significant difference or that prices were actually higher during the waiver periods. When using a first-order autoregressive model, it was found that prices were lower during the 2005 waiver period but higher during the 2012 waiver. Given these inconclusive results, it is not possible to conclude that the Jones Act restrictions contribute to higher gasoline prices. - Highlights: • I examine the effect of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices. • I use daily price data over a seven year period. • I find that the results are mixed. • For the Hurricane Katrina waiver, prices fell, but for the Hurricane Sandy waiver, prices rose

  9. A Nondestructive Evaluation Method: Measuring the Fixed Strength of Spot-Welded Joint Points by Surface Electrical Resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Akira; Yamashita, Keitaro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Yang, Sung-Mo; Iwata, Masahiro; Ike, Natsuko

    2013-04-01

    Destructive tests are generally applied to evaluate the fixed strength of spot-welding nuggets of zinc-plated steel (which is a widely used primary structural material for automobiles). These destructive tests, however, are expensive and time-consuming. This paper proposes a nondestructive method for evaluating the fixed strength of the welded joints using surface electrical resistance. A direct current nugget-tester and probes have been developed by the authors for this purpose. The proposed nondestructive method uses the relative decrease in surface electrical resistance, α . The proposed method also considers the effect of the corona bond. The nugget diameter is estimated by two factors: R Quota , which is calculated from variation of resistance, and a constant that represents the area of the corona bond. Since the maximum tensile strength is correlated with the nugget diameter, it can be inferred from the estimated nugget diameter. When appropriate measuring conditions for the surface electrical resistance are chosen, the proposed method can effectively evaluate the fixed strength of the spot-welded joints even if the steel sheet is zinc-plated.

  10. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  11. Mechanical vibration to electrical energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Rick Allen [Tijeras, NM; Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-03-03

    Electromechanical devices that generate an electrical signal in response to an external source of mechanical vibrations can operate as a sensor of vibrations and as an energy harvester for converting mechanical vibration to electrical energy. The devices incorporate a magnet that is movable through a gap in a ferromagnetic circuit, wherein a coil is wound around a portion of the ferromagnetic circuit. A flexible coupling is used to attach the magnet to a frame for providing alignment of the magnet as it moves or oscillates through the gap in the ferromagnetic circuit. The motion of the magnet can be constrained to occur within a substantially linear range of magnetostatic force that develops due to the motion of the magnet. The devices can have ferromagnetic circuits with multiple arms, an array of magnets having alternating polarity and, encompass micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices.

  12. Modeling methods for GenCo bidding strategy optimization in the liberalized electricity spot market-A state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gong; Shi, Jing; Qu, Xiuli

    2011-01-01

    The electricity market has since 1980s been gradually evolving from a monopoly market into a liberalized one for encouraging competition and improving efficiency. This brings the opportunity for generation companies (GenCos) to make more profits while embracing more risks of not being dispatched. Therefore, it has become a core interest for the GenCos to develop optimal bidding strategies to maximize the profits and minimize the risks while participating in such a competitive market. The literature pertaining to this issue has grown rapidly in recent years, and many different modeling approaches, such as mathematical programming, game theory, and agent-based models, have been investigated under the liberalized market environment. Meanwhile, along with the increasing penetration of renewable energy, the electricity market is facing more complexity and stochasticity from both uncertain generation and dynamic demands. The intermittent and unsteady nature of these renewable power sources motivates the GenCos to further optimize their bidding strategy by considering the new constraints. This paper presents a comprehensive literature analysis on the state-of-the-art research of bidding strategy modeling methods. -- Highlights: → Publications on bidding in electricity spot markets are comprehensively reviewed. → Insights on the evolution of solution methodologies of recent 10 years are provided. → The pros and cons of these solution approaches are also discussed. → Future research directions, with renewable energy participations, are pointed out.

  13. Overview of electrical energy September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and Cumulative trend over last 12 months; - the balance of electrical energy in France: Results at end of past month (net generation by source, gross national consumption - End customers connected to the RTE network and Other customers and losses on all networks); Development of wind generation in France, Development of extractions by large-scale industry; - the extreme values for consumption, exchanges (perimeter France, past month and Last 12 months); - the electricity market mechanisms: contractual cross-border electricity exchanges (exports, imports, cumulative total, export balance); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; Exchanges between Balance Responsible entities via block exchange notifications; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for September 2009. (J.S.)

  14. Overview of electrical energy October 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and Cumulative trend over last 12 months; - the balance of electrical energy in France: Results at end of past month (net generation by source, gross national consumption - End customers connected to the RTE network and Other customers and losses on all networks); Development of wind generation in France, Development of extractions by large-scale industry; - the extreme values for consumption, exchanges (perimeter France, past month and Last 12 months); - the electricity market mechanisms: contractual cross-border electricity exchanges (exports, imports, cumulative total, export balance); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; Exchanges between Balance Responsible entities via block exchange notifications; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for October 2009. (J.S.)

  15. Overview of electrical energy November 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and Cumulative trend over last 12 months; - the balance of electrical energy in France: Results at end of past month (net generation by source, gross national consumption - End customers connected to the RTE network and Other customers and losses on all networks); Development of wind generation in France, Development of extractions by large-scale industry; - the extreme values for consumption, exchanges (perimeter France, past month and Last 12 months); - the electricity market mechanisms: contractual cross-border electricity exchanges (exports, imports, cumulative total, export balance); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; Exchanges between Balance Responsible entities via block exchange notifications; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for November 2009. (J.S.)

  16. Overview of electrical energy January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and Cumulative trend over last 12 months; - the balance of electrical energy in France: Results at end of past month (net generation by source, gross national consumption - End customers connected to the RTE network and Other customers and losses on all networks); Development in the balance of physical exchanges, Development of extractions by heavy industry; - the extreme values for consumption, exchanges (perimeter France, past month and Last 12 months); - the electricity market mechanisms: contractual cross-border electricity exchanges (exports, imports, cumulative total, export balance); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; Exchanges between Balance Responsible entities via block exchange notifications; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for January 2010. (J.S.)

  17. Fast GPU-based spot extraction for energy-dispersive X-ray Laue diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghabi, F.; Schipper, U.; Kolb, A.; Send, S.; Abboud, A.; Pashniak, N.; Pietsch, U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for fast online analysis of X-ray Laue spots taken by means of an energy-dispersive X-ray 2D detector. Current pnCCD detectors typically operate at some 100 Hz (up to a maximum of 400 Hz) and have a resolution of 384 × 384 pixels, future devices head for even higher pixel counts and frame rates. The proposed online data analysis is based on a computer utilizing multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which allow for fast and parallel data processing. Our multi-GPU based algorithm is compliant with the rules of stream-based data processing, for which GPUs are optimized. The paper's main contribution is therefore an alternative algorithm for the determination of spot positions and energies over the full sequence of pnCCD data frames. Furthermore, an improved background suppression algorithm is presented.The resulting system is able to process data at the maximum acquisition rate of 400 Hz. We present a detailed analysis of the spot positions and energies deduced from a prior (single-core) CPU-based and the novel GPU-based data processing, showing that the parallel computed results using the GPU implementation are at least of the same quality as prior CPU-based results. Furthermore, the GPU-based algorithm is able to speed up the data processing by a factor of 7 (in comparison to single-core CPU-based algorithm) which effectively makes the detector system more suitable for online data processing

  18. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  19. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  20. Energy commercialization in the new environment of the Brazilian electric power sector. A methodology for production allocation strategies analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares; Lima, Wagner da Silva

    1999-01-01

    The restructuring of the Brazilian Electric Sector has modified the rules for purchase and sale of energy, resulting in the creation of the Wholesale Energy Market. In this new context, the decision of the exposure level to the spot market price and the purchase of energy through bilateral contracts becomes so much a strategic variable for consumers or dealers, as for hydro and thermal generators. This work presents a methodology for planning of energy commercialization envisaging purchase and sale energy opportunities provided by the new Regulatory Framework of the Brazilian Electric Sector. (author)

  1. State of the art in the estimation of energy prices in the spot market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero B, Sergio; Cano C, Jovan A

    2007-01-01

    Since the start energy markets deregulation in the world, several spot market (short term) price prediction methods have been developed? this article identifies and compares the main methods of prediction used in Colombia and other international markets. With this review it is possible to determine the state of the knowledge in the specific subject and then to look for the development of new forecasting techniques that can contribute to the solution of this problem. The prediction horizon is something that must be taken into account in the review of the several techniques, given that both the magnitude of the final model of estimation, and the time series treatment type, depend on this horizon.

  2. Bilateral contracts and the spot market for electricity: some observations on the British and the NordPool experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herguera, Inigo

    2000-01-01

    The performance of the futures and the spot market for electricity in England and Wales (EW) and in the Nordic countries have significant differences in terms of volumes traded and evolution of prices. Even though the institutional arrangements show significant differences and the data collected has important limitations we observe in EW for 1990-199 that as the coverage via bilateral contracts diminished, spot prices tended to increase, there was higher price volatility and an increasing number of plants were declared unavailable. In the NordPool, by contrast, market structure is more distributed, the bilateral contract price has tended to smooth the volatility in the spot price and a very diverse pattern behavior of prices has been observed. We interpret these observations as additional support in favor of the theoretical result by and Vila (Journal of Economic Theory 59 (1993) 1), but hint at the possibility of strategies by the firms that can diminish the welfare enhancing properties of this new bilateral market. (Author)

  3. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Ultrasonic Spot Welded Aluminum Alloy: The Effect of Welding Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, He; Chen, Daolun; Jiang, Xianquan

    2017-04-25

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique-ultrasonic spot welding (USW)-at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along the weld line due to the occurrence of dynamic crystallization, with smaller grain sizes at lower levels of welding energy. The tensile lap shear strength, failure energy, and critical stress intensity of the welded joints first increase, reach their maximum values, and then decrease with increasing welding energy. The tensile lap shear failure mode changes from interfacial fracture at lower energy levels, to nugget pull-out at intermediate optimal energy levels, and to transverse through-thickness (TTT) crack growth at higher energy levels. The fatigue life is longer for the joints welded at an energy of 1400 J than 2000 J at higher cyclic loading levels. The fatigue failure mode changes from nugget pull-out to TTT crack growth with decreasing cyclic loading for the joints welded at 1400 J, while TTT crack growth mode remains at all cyclic loading levels for the joints welded at 2000 J. Fatigue crack basically initiates from the nugget edge, and propagates with "river-flow" patterns and characteristic fatigue striations.

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Ultrasonic Spot Welded Aluminum Alloy: The Effect of Welding Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Peng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique–ultrasonic spot welding (USW–at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along the weld line due to the occurrence of dynamic crystallization, with smaller grain sizes at lower levels of welding energy. The tensile lap shear strength, failure energy, and critical stress intensity of the welded joints first increase, reach their maximum values, and then decrease with increasing welding energy. The tensile lap shear failure mode changes from interfacial fracture at lower energy levels, to nugget pull-out at intermediate optimal energy levels, and to transverse through-thickness (TTT crack growth at higher energy levels. The fatigue life is longer for the joints welded at an energy of 1400 J than 2000 J at higher cyclic loading levels. The fatigue failure mode changes from nugget pull-out to TTT crack growth with decreasing cyclic loading for the joints welded at 1400 J, while TTT crack growth mode remains at all cyclic loading levels for the joints welded at 2000 J. Fatigue crack basically initiates from the nugget edge, and propagates with “river-flow” patterns and characteristic fatigue striations.

  5. Conservation of electrical energy in a petrochemical industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petrochemical industry can achieve system reliability, higher productivity, reduce energy cost, and reduce down time and maintenance costs through proper conservation of electrical power. Key words: Petrochemical industry, Control technologies, Power technologies, Electric motors, Energy efficiency, Power Factor.

  6. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for January 2017. The cold spell of January 2017 caused a strong increase in gross electricity demand (+14.3%) compared to January 2016. The French exchange balance was in favour of imports for the second consecutive month. Demand recorded a peak on 20/01/2017 at 94.2 GW. It is the highest peak since February 2012. Corrected electricity demand trend stabilised in January 2017. Fossil fuel thermal generation was 8.3 TWh up by 71% compared to January 2016. Solar production grew significantly compared to last year with a 37.7% increase. The balance of exchanges was in favour of imports for the second consecutive month with a total of 0.95 TWh of electricity imported. 4 new installations went into service in January 2017

  7. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  8. Gas and electricity 2000: energy deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulot, J.C.; Charbit, N.; Tuot, Th.

    2000-11-01

    This document brings together 17 testimonies of experts about the deregulation of the gas and electricity markets. Content: 1 - the new rules controlling the market: schedule and regulatory evolutions, the new legal framework, the new regulation, the missions and competences of the Commission of Electricity Regulation; 2 - the new commercial practices: the question of electricity transport and of the network independence, the development of trading, the stock exchanges and the forecasting of Paris market, the correlations with the environment (eco-taxes and climate change); 3 - the proposals of new actors: the contribution of a deregulated market like Spain, the comparison with a fully open market like Germany, an internal out-sourcing example to create an energy entity as a whole, the role of a bank in the risk management and the derived markets, the contribution of new technologies from service suppliers; 4 - the consumers attitude with respect to new offers: the historical gas and electricity utilities at the service of French and European clients, the new opportunities offered by the deregulation, the contribution of an independent supplier to consumers, the expectations of big companies and eligible consumers. (J.S.)

  9. Potential impacts assessment of plug-in electric vehicles on the Portuguese energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, C.; Farias, T.; Esteves, J.

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which obtain their fuel from the grid by charging a battery, are set to be introduced into the mass market and expected to contribute to oil consumption reduction. In this research, scenarios for 2020 EVs penetration and charging profiles are studied integrated with different hypotheses for electricity production mix. The impacts in load profiles, spot electricity prices and emissions are obtained for the Portuguese case study. Simulations for year 2020, in a scenario of low hydro production and high prices, resulted in energy costs for EVs recharge of 20 cents/kWh, with 2 million EVs charging mainly at evening peak hours. On the other hand, in an off-peak recharge, a high hydro production and low wholesale prices' scenario, recharge costs could be reduced to 5.6 cents/kWh. In these extreme cases, EV's energy prices were between 0.9 Euro to 3.2 Euro per 100 km. Reductions in primary energy consumption, fossil fuels use and CO 2 emissions of up to 3%, 14% and 10%, respectively, were verified (for a 2 million EVs' penetration and a dry year's off-peak recharge scenario) from the transportation and electricity sectors together when compared with a BAU scenario without EVs. - Highlights: → EVs and PHEVs impacts in energy, power profiles and spot electricity prices. → Reductions in primary energy consumption, fossil fuels use and CO 2 emissions. → Electricity production with more % of fossil fuels technologies and renewable ones. → Comparison between extreme charging profiles, peak and off-peak, in charging cost.

  10. Electricity market readiness plan : Ontario Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This document informs electric power market participants of the Ontario Energy Board's newly developed market readiness plan and target timelines that local distribution companies (LDCs) must meet for retail marketing. The Ontario Energy Board's plan incorporates relevant independent market operator (IMO)-administered market milestones with retail market readiness targeted for September 2001. The market readiness framework involves a self-certification process for LDCs by August 10, 2001, through which the Board will be able to monitor progress and assess the feasibility of meeting the target timelines. For retail market readiness, all LDCs will have to calculate settlement costs, produce unbundled bills, provide standard supply service, change suppliers and accommodate retail transactions. LDCs must be either authorized participants in the IMO-administered market or become retail customers of their host LDC. Unbundled bills will include itemized charges for energy price, transmission, distribution and debt retirement charge. 1 tab., 1 fig

  11. 77 FR 50486 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TexMex Energy, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-294-B] Application To Export Electric Energy; TexMex Energy, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TexMex Energy, LLC (TexMex) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from...

  12. 78 FR 64207 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TEC Energy Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-388] Application To Export Electric Energy; TEC Energy Inc.... SUMMARY: TEC Energy Inc. (TEC) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United... received an application from TEC for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada...

  13. Electrical Energy Harvesting from Thermal Energy with Converged Infrared Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, S. Y.; Kok, S. L.

    2017-06-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) cell is a common energy harvester that had been used to harvest solar energy and convert it into electrical energy. However, the vast energy from the spectrum of sunlight is not fully harvested. Therefore, thermoelectric (TE) module that harvest electrical energy from heat is being proposed in this paper. Generally, the part of the sunlight spectrum that induce heat is in the spectrum band of infrared (IR). For the experimental set-up in this paper, infrared (IR) light bulb was being used to simulate the IR spectrum band of the sunlight. In order to maximize the heat energy collection, a convex lens was being used to converge the IR light and therefore focused the heat on an aluminium sheet and heat sink which was placed on top of the hot side of the TE module. The distance between convex lens and IR light bulb is varying in between 10cm and 55cm and the reading was taken at an interval of 5cm. Firstly, the temperature of the IR light and converged IR light were recorded and plotted in graph. The graph showed that the temperature of the converged IR light bulb is higher than the IR light bulb. Lastly, the voltage and power output of the TE module with different heat source was compared. The output voltage and power of the TE module increased inverse proportional to the distance between IR light bulb and TE module.

  14. 78 FR 50409 - Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC, Southwest... complaint against Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC, and Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (collectively, Respondents) alleging that Sunflower Electric Power Corporation and Mid...

  15. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for October 2016. French gross electricity demand fell by 1.9%. The monthly balance of cross-border exchanges remain in favour of exports but dropped to its historically lowest point since February 2012. Corrected for climate factors, overall demand remained stable compared with October 2015. The fall in nuclear and hydraulic generation was offset by thermal fossil fuel generation that reached, with 5 TWh, its highest level since February 2015. Renewable generation excluding hydraulic increased in October, after the sharp fall of the previous month. Over the whole of the month, French exchanges remained in favour of exports although they fell by 89% compared to October 2015. 20 new installations went into service in October

  16. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview November 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for November 2016. The cool weather in November caused an increase in demand (+8% compared with November 2015). The monthly French exports balance dropped to its historically lowest point since February 2012. The trend in adjusted electricity demand was slightly down. The nuclear generation deficit was offset by the rise in thermal fossil fuel generation that, at 6.7 TWh, reached its highest level since February 2012. The average wind load factor reached almost 30%, the highest level since March 2016. Over the whole of the month, French exchanges remained slightly in favour of exports as they fell by 92% compared to November 2015. 33 new installations went into service in November 2016

  17. A Digital Compressed Sensing-Based Energy-Efficient Single-Spot Bluetooth ECG Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is still the obstacle for long-term real-time wireless ECG monitoring. In this paper, a digital compressed sensing- (CS- based single-spot Bluetooth ECG node is proposed to deal with the challenge in wireless ECG application. A periodic sleep/wake-up scheme and a CS-based compression algorithm are implemented in a node, which consists of ultra-low-power analog front-end, microcontroller, Bluetooth 4.0 communication module, and so forth. The efficiency improvement and the node’s specifics are evidenced by the experiments using the ECG signals sampled by the proposed node under daily activities of lay, sit, stand, walk, and run. Under using sparse binary matrix (SBM, block sparse Bayesian learning (BSBL method, and discrete cosine transform (DCT basis, all ECG signals were essentially undistorted recovered with root-mean-square differences (PRDs which are less than 6%. The proposed sleep/wake-up scheme and data compression can reduce the airtime over energy-hungry wireless links, the energy consumption of proposed node is 6.53 mJ, and the energy consumption of radio decreases 77.37%. Moreover, the energy consumption increase caused by CS code execution is negligible, which is 1.3% of the total energy consumption.

  18. A Digital Compressed Sensing-Based Energy-Efficient Single-Spot Bluetooth ECG Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kan; Cai, Zhipeng; Du, Keqin; Zou, Fumin; Zhang, Xiangyu; Li, Jianqing

    2018-01-01

    Energy efficiency is still the obstacle for long-term real-time wireless ECG monitoring. In this paper, a digital compressed sensing- (CS-) based single-spot Bluetooth ECG node is proposed to deal with the challenge in wireless ECG application. A periodic sleep/wake-up scheme and a CS-based compression algorithm are implemented in a node, which consists of ultra-low-power analog front-end, microcontroller, Bluetooth 4.0 communication module, and so forth. The efficiency improvement and the node's specifics are evidenced by the experiments using the ECG signals sampled by the proposed node under daily activities of lay, sit, stand, walk, and run. Under using sparse binary matrix (SBM), block sparse Bayesian learning (BSBL) method, and discrete cosine transform (DCT) basis, all ECG signals were essentially undistorted recovered with root-mean-square differences (PRDs) which are less than 6%. The proposed sleep/wake-up scheme and data compression can reduce the airtime over energy-hungry wireless links, the energy consumption of proposed node is 6.53 mJ, and the energy consumption of radio decreases 77.37%. Moreover, the energy consumption increase caused by CS code execution is negligible, which is 1.3% of the total energy consumption.

  19. Overview of electrical energy in may 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document aims to give information on the exploitation of the transmission public network and the french electric power industry during may 2003: the internal electric power consumption in France (national consumption is the total of all the electrical energy supplied for consumption in France (including Corsica, but not the French Overseas Departments), thermal and hydro generation + imports - exports - pumping, and which have been consumed in the transmission and distribution networks, by the end-users, as well as by losses) - May 2003 gross consumption is 1.4% lower compared to May 2002. This is due to a 1.3 deg. C rise this year in May average temperature. However, the monthly consumption is 0.9% higher than May 2002 consumption if climatic effects are put aside. The growth rate of the corrected consumption over the last 12 months shows a rise of 0.2% from last month, whereas the growth rate of gross consumption over the last 12 months shows a decrease of 0.2% compared to April 2002; the energy accounting from the transmission point of view (The balance recorded by RTE takes into account only the energy physical flows conveyed on the RTE network) - on May 2003, consumption has fallen compared to May 2002, as did exports (-0.9 TWh). Consequently the global volume of injections shows a loss of 1.2 TWh. Compared to May 2002, thermal generation and hydroelectric generation have respectively lost 1.1 TWh and 0.3 TWh. Imports are roughly 0.2 TWh up; the consumption and the physical exchanges (these values reflect all the flows on the RTE network, as well as the generation auto-consumed by the industrial consumers connected to this network); the electric power market: the market players, contractual exchanges recorded by RTE contracts for access to international connections, contractual exchanges by border; and the evolution of the transmission network: on May 2003 the 4.3 km-long 225 kV Bouscat-Bruges underground link has come into service on the RTE system

  20. The crucial relationship among energy commodity prices: Evidence from the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Victor; Vieira, Joel; Carrizo Moreira, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is twofold to analyze: (a) the long-term relation among the commodities prices and between spot electricity market price and commodity prices, and (b) the short-term dynamics among commodity prices and between electricity prices and commodity prices. Data between 2002 and 2005 from the Spanish electricity market was used. Econometric methods were used in the analysis of the commodity spot price, namely the vector autoregression model, the vector error correction model and the granger causality test. The co-integration approach was used to analyze the long-term relationship between the common stochastic trends of four fossil fuel prices. One of the findings in the long-term relation is that the prices of fuel and the prices of Brent are intertwined, though the prices of Brent ten to 'move' to reestablish the price equilibrium. Another finding is that the price of electricity is explained by the evolution of the natural gas series. - Highlights: → We model energy commodity prices in the Spanish electricity market. → We examine the short and long-term relationships among commodities prices. → We examine short and long-term relationships using co-integration techniques. → We found that in the long run the prices of fuel and Brent are intertwined. → The evolution of price of electricity is explained by the evolution of price of gas.

  1. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  2. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview December 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for December 2016. Demand in December 2016 was higher by more than 13% compared to December 2015, due to the significantly lower temperatures. The balance of exchanges was in favour of imports for the first time since February 2012. The December overview is published in the same time as the 2016 annual electricity report (http://bilan-electrique-2016.rte-france.com/). You will find there the analysis of the whole year. Adjusted electricity demand remained unchanged. Fossil fuel thermal generation reached 7.4 TWh, its highest level since February 2012. Wind power production was low, with an average wind load factor of around 17%. The monthly balance of French exchanges was in favour of imports, which had not happened since February 2012. 25 new installations went into service in December 2016

  3. Overview of electrical energy in april 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document aims to give information on the exploitation of the transmission public network and the french electric power industry during april 2003: the internal electric power consumption in France (national consumption is the total of all the electrical energy supplied for consumption in France (including Corsica, but not the French Overseas Departments), thermal and hydro generation + imports - exports - pumping, and which have been consumed in the transmission and distribution networks, by the end-users, as well as by losses) - national consumption in April 2003 shows a rise of 3.5% compared with the figure of April 2002, despite a higher-than-average temperature of 0.6 deg. C in April 2003 compared with the same month of the prior year. Adjusted for climatic effects, monthly consumption is up 4.0% compared with that of April 2002. The consumption growth rate adjusted over 12 months has risen 0.2% since last month. As for the national consumption growth rate, it increased from +1.5% at the end of March 2003 to +2.0% at the end of April 2003; the energy accounting from the transmission point of view (the balance recorded by RTE takes into account only the energy physical flows conveyed on the RTE network) - in April 2003, consumption was up compared with April 2002, but exports dropped by 1.2 TWh. The overall volume of injections consequently rose by 0.1 TWh, for a total figure of 42.3 TWh. Thermal generation dropped by 0.8 TWh compared with April 2002, while hydro output was up by 0.6 TWh. Imports increased by about 0.3 TWh; the consumption and the physical exchanges (these values reflect all of the flows on the RTE network, as well as the generation auto-consumed by the industrial consumers connected to this network); the electric power market: the market players, contractual exchanges recorded by RTE contracts for access to international connections, contractual exchanges by border; and the evolution of the transmission network: April witnessed the final

  4. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation (Rainbow) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico...

  5. Preliminary survey on electric energy efficiency in Ethiopia:- Areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation demonstrates that there is a possibility of electric energy saving which is at least equal to 10% of the present yearly generated electric energy. Present trend in electrical engineering education; that is the inclination of students towards electronics and computer engineering areas abandoning power ...

  6. Energy consumption performance analysis of electrical mitad at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Injera baking electrical mitad is the most energy-consuming device in every household in Ethiopia. This research presents a detail engineering study on the energy-consumption performance of existing electrical mitad in Mekelle city. The research work considered thirty-one electrical mitad from different workshops in ...

  7. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  8. Chapter 3: Assessing the Electric System Benefits of Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 3 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy presents detailed information about the energy system, specifically electricity benefits of clean energy, to help policy makers understand how to identify and assess these benefits based upon t

  9. Energy and Environment. Electric power stock exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazioli, R.; Antonioli, B.; Beccarello, M.; Da Rin, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are reported the structural characteristics of electric power stock exchange in the processes liberalization of european electric markets. International experience are also considered [it

  10. Volatility spillover from world oil spot markets to aggregate and electricity stock index returns in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soytas, Ugur; Oran, Adil

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the inter-temporal links between world oil prices, ISE 100 and ISE electricity index returns unadjusted and adjusted for market effects. The traditional approaches could not detect a causal relationship running from oil returns to any of the stock returns. However, when we examine the causality using Cheung-Ng approach we discover that world oil prices Granger cause electricity index and adjusted electricity index returns in variance, but not the aggregate market index returns. Hence, our results show that the Cheung-Ng procedure with the use of disaggregated stock index returns can uncover new information that went unnoticed with the traditional causality tests using aggregated market indices. (author)

  11. Deregulation of Electricity Market and Drivers of Demand for Electrical Energy in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojnec Štefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates deregulation of electricity market focusing on electricity prices and drivers of demand for electrical energy in industry in Slovenia. The patterns in evolution of real electricity price developments and the three main components of the electricity price are calculated: liberalized market share for purchased electricity price, regulated infrastructure share for use of electricity network grids and mandatory state charges in the sale of electricity (duty, excise duty and value-added tax. To calculate the real value of electricity prices, producer price index of industrial commodities for electricity prices in industry is used as deflator and implicit deflator of gross domestic product for the size of the economy. In the empirical econometric part is used regression analysis for the amount electricity consumption in the industry depending on the real gross domestic product, direct and cross-price elasticity for natural gas prices in the industry. The results confirmed volatility in real electricity price developments with their increasing tendency and the increasing share of different taxes and state charges in the electricity prices for industry. Demand for electrical energy in industry is positively associated with gross domestic product and price of natural gas as substitute for electrical energy in industry use, and negatively associated with prices of electrical energy for industry.

  12. Differential electricity pricing and energy efficiency in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    By international standards the economy of South Africa is extremely energy intensive with only a few countries having higher intensities. SA's primary energy use per unit of GDP is amongst the highest in the world. The high energy and electricity intensity of the economy partly reflects SA's resource endowments (in particular the abundance of coal) but is also a function of the historical under-pricing of coal and electricity by the authorities. South African mining and industrial electricity efficiency is particularly concerning and considerably lower than the global average. This paper sets out to fill a significant gap in the South African energy literature by highlighting the importance of incorporating electricity demand factors as part of the country's energy policy and electricity planning horizon. The paper focuses its attention on modelling the electricity consumption of SA's industrial and mining sectors given these account for the lion's share of electricity demand. A differential electricity pricing policy which targets electricity intensive industrial and mining activities (as practised in China since 2004) is viewed by the author to be a superior policy to blanket electricity price increases administered by authorities in an effort to encourage electricity savings and improve energy efficiency in South Africa. - Highlights: • SA's primary energy use per unit of GDP is amongst the highest in the world. • SA industrial electricity efficiency is considerably lower than the global average. • A differential electricity pricing policy which targets electricity intensive activities. • Differential tariffs raise the cost of energy inefficiency and induces energy saving. • Highlights importance of energy demand modelling in electricity supply planning

  13. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview September 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for September 2017. Gross domestic demand increased slightly compared to September 2016, despite a monthly average temperature of less than 3.4 deg. C. The monthly balance of trade was positive (i.e. France was a net exporter) and increased by 73% compared to September 2016. Total demand corrected for climate contingencies remained stable. Demand by large industry continued its upward trend. Nuclear generation was up 11% compared to September 2016 and reached 29.3 TWh. Wind power production increased 66% compared to September 2016. The Greoux-les-Bains photovoltaic plant was connected to the public electricity transmission network. The plant has a generating power of 70 MW. The Grand-Est and Hauts-de-France regions really benefited from the strong winds observed across France. They thus contributed the most to the record levels of solar and wind generation recorded in September. Market prices were up in most European countries despite a notable decline in week 37. The monthly balance of trade remained exporter. 15 new installations went into service in September

  14. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview August 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for July and August 2016. Demand increased by +1.8% compared to August 2015 due in particular to the heat wave that occurred at the end of the month. Corrected for weather effects, total demand increased, led by the demand from households, professionals and small businesses. To respond to the increased demand resulting from the heat wave, thermal generation using fossil fuel was used (up 145% compared to August 2015). For the first time, solar production broke the 1 TWh threshold in July and August. During the week of the start of the academic year, on Monday, 29 August, the balance of French electricity exchanges was in favour of imports for over 8 hrs. The July/August period was used to put 33 new installations into service

  15. Transmission of Electric Energy Along Long Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.P.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of electric energy along long lines is examined and characteristics of the change of capacities at the beginning and at the end of a line are submitted: factor of capacity, efficiency of a transmission line, currents depending on length, parameters of a line and parameters of loading. Influence of losses upon the dynamics of instant values of voltages and currents in the opened and short-circuited long lines is investigated and effects of nonlinearity in such chains are revealed at a power supply from a sinusoidal source of voltage. It is shown, that the method of complex amplitudes is not always applicable for the calculation of modes in long lines.

  16. Optimal operation strategy of battery energy storage system to real-time electricity price in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may have some motivations to install an energy storage system in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal operation strategy for a battery energy storage...... markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studies in the paper. Simulation results show, that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve...... system (BESS) in relation to the real-time electricity price in order to achieve the maximum profits of the BESS. The western Danish power system, which is currently the grid area in the world that has the largest share of wind power in its generation profiles and may represent the future of electricity...

  17. Forecasting spot electricity prices : Deep learning approaches and empirical comparison of traditional algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lago Garcia, J.; De Ridder, Fjo; De Schutter, B.H.K.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a novel modeling framework for forecasting electricity prices is proposed. While many predictive models have been already proposed to perform this task, the area of deep learning algorithms remains yet unexplored. To fill this scientific gap, we propose four different deep learning

  18. 76 FR 30325 - Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ...] Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... electric energy that E-T Global proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased from... order for E-T Global to begin exports in compliance with the terms of its Master Sale and Purchase...

  19. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP (BEM LP) has applied for authority to transmit electric... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities...

  20. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB70 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric... rule regarding the energy conservation standards for small electric motors, which was published on... energy conservation standards for small electric motors. Due to a drafting error, an incorrect compliance...

  1. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  2. Bases for the Creation of Electric Energy Price Estimate Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toljan, I.; Klepo, M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the basic principles for the creation and introduction of a new model for the electric energy price estimate and its significant influence on the tariff system functioning. There is also a review of the model used presently for the electric energy price estimate which is based on the model of objectivized values of electric energy plants and production, transmission and distribution facilities, followed by proposed changes which would result in functional and organizational improvements within the electric energy system as the most complex subsystem of the whole power system. The model is based on substantial and functional connection of the optimization and analysis system with the electric energy economic dispatching, including marginal cost estimate and their influence on the tariff system as the main means in achieving better electric energy system's functioning quality. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs

  3. The effect of electric spot-welding on the mechanical properties of different orthodontic wire alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Euler Andrade Gomes Nascimento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is a direct relationship between surface structure and tensile strength of orthodontic alloys submitted to different levels of welding current. Three types of alloys were assessed. One hundred and eight cross-sectional test specimens ("X" were made, 18 for each wire combination, and divided into 6 groups: SS (steel-steel; SN (steel-NiTi; SB (steel-Beta-Ti; NN (NiTi-NiTi; NB (NiTi-Beta-Ti and BB (Beta-Ti-Beta-Ti, submitted to 6 spot-welding procedures at different levels of current (Super Micro Ponto 3000. Student-Newman-Keuls, Wilcoxon signed-rank, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (p < .05. Statistical difference was found between SN group and all the other alloy combinations (p < .05. Initial roughness of alloys ranged from .04 to .55 Ra, with statistical difference between groups (p < .001. The hypothesis was rejected and the tensile strength of Ti-alloys combinations Steel × Beta-Ti was significantly affected by the current level at P50, which changed the properties and structure of the wires.

  4. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview May 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for May 2017. Demand increased slightly versus May 2016 with higher average temperatures (+1.6 deg.) over this period. Demand rose by 0.9% compared with May 2016. Hydraulic generation was again impacted by the lack of rain with a fall of 12,6% compared with May 2016. Solar generation increased by 20%, driven by the growth of the park and the high amounts of sunshine observed over the month. It is in Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, Grand-Est, Hauts-de-France, Ile-de-France and Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur (PACA) that annual final demand from heavy industry was at its highest for 2016. In these regions, except for Ile-de-France, the chemicals, para-chemicals, metallurgy and steel sectors consumed the most energy. Market prices were relatively stable in most European countries. France had an export balance with all countries outside its borders. With 1.85 TWh, the export balance for monthly trades with Spain reached a new record. 7 new installations went into service in May

  5. Forecast and analysis of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption for global energy internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Jin, Lu; Shen, Si

    2018-02-01

    In the background of building global energy internet, it has both theoretical and realistic significance for forecasting and analysing the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption. This paper firstly analysed the influencing factors of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy and then used combination method to forecast and analyse the global proportion of electric energy. And then, construct the cointegration model for the proportion of electric energy by using influence factor such as electricity price index, GDP, economic structure, energy use efficiency and total population level. At last, this paper got prediction map of the proportion of electric energy by using the combination-forecasting model based on multiple linear regression method, trend analysis method, and variance-covariance method. This map describes the development trend of the proportion of electric energy in 2017-2050 and the proportion of electric energy in 2050 was analysed in detail using scenario analysis.

  6. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed

  7. Electric Charge as a Form of Imaginary Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxi Zhang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric charge is considered as a form of imaginary energy. With this consideration, the energy of an electrically charged particle is a complex number. The real part is proportional to the mass, while the imaginary part is proportional to the electric charge. The energy of an antiparticle is given by conjugating the energy of its corresponding particle. Newton's law of gravity and Coulomb's law of electric force are classically unified into a single expression of the interaction between the complex energies of two electrically charged particles. Interaction between real energies (or masses is the gravitational force. Interaction between imaginary energies (or electric charges is the electromagnetic force. Since radiation is also a form of real energy, there are another two types of interactions between real energies: the mass-radiation interaction and the radiation-radiation interaction. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon, we can derive the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done by the radiation-radiation interaction on a photon, we can obtain a radiation redshift. This study suggests the electric charge as a form of imaginary energy, so that classically unifies the gravitational and electric forces and derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift.

  8. Is green energy expensive? Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Espinosa, Maria Paz; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy promotion and its cost are at the heart of the energy policy debate in many countries. The question from an economic perspective is how expensive the promotion of renewable sources through price-based incentive schemes is. This paper addresses this issue empirically. We analyze the Spanish electricity market during the period 2008–2012, where renewable energy production rose by 57%. To determine how expensive it was, we first measure the savings due to the spot price reduction driven by the merit order effect and, second, we compute the amount paid as incentives to green energy by the electricity system; the difference between the two is the net cost of green energy to the electricity markets. We present aggregate results for renewable sources as a whole, as well as individual results for each technology. We show that at the initial stages, when renewable capacity was low, green energy promotion paid for itself (2008–2009); however, from 2010 on, when renewable production reached a relatively high level, it started to impose a positive net cost on the system. Finally, we found substantial differences among technologies: wind energy implied the lowest net cost, while solar photovoltaic was the most expensive. - Highlights: • The combination of feed-in tariffs and premiums has been an effective instrument in the promotion of renewable electricity in Spain. • Significant reduction of the daily market price due to RES-E. • Considering the subsidies to RES-E this energy might seem rather expensive for the Spanish electricity system since 2010. • Substantial differences among technologies: wind energy implied the lowest net cost, while solar photovoltaic was the most expensive

  9. Modelling and designing electric energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retiere, N.

    2003-11-01

    The author gives an overview of his research works in the field of electric network modelling. After a brief overview of technological evolutions from the telegraph to the all-electric fly-by-wire aircraft, he reports and describes various works dealing with a simplified modelling of electric systems and with fractal simulation. Then, he outlines the challenges for the design of electric networks, proposes a design process, gives an overview of various design models, methods and tools, and reports an application in the design of electric networks for future jumbo jets

  10. 75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... standards for certain electric motors as prescribed in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by... efficiency levels that DOE promulgated for NEMA Design B general purpose electric motors that, due to a...

  11. Teach with Energy! FUNdamental Energy, Electricity, and Science Lessons for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This book is an energy, electricity, and science resource guide for teachers of grades K-3. The types of energy covered are: coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy sources, electricity and food. Thirty-one interdisciplinary energy lessons are the heart of the book. Each lesson is teacher tested and can be incorporated into the…

  12. Teach with Energy! FUNdamental Energy, Electricity, and Science Lessons for Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This book is an energy, electricity, and science resource guide for teachers of grades K-3. The types of energy covered are: coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy sources, electricity and food. Thirty-one interdisciplinary energy lessons are the heart of the book. Each lesson is teacher tested and can be incorporated into the…

  13. 75 FR 76962 - Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy Solutions, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy Solutions, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: MAG Energy Solutions, Inc. (MAG E.S... Gauthier, Director, MAG Energy Solutions, Inc., 1010 Sherbrooke Quest, Suite 800, Montreal, Quebec, Canada...

  14. 77 FR 31341 - Application To Export Electric Energy; DC Energy, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Energy to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year... entities selling the power to DC Energy. The application also indicates that DC Energy is a power marketer...

  15. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  16. Electrical design for ocean wave and tidal energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Alcorn, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Provides an electrical engineering perspective on offshore power stations and their integration to the grid. With contributions from a panel of leading international experts, this book is essential reading for those working in ocean energy development and renewable energy.

  17. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview April 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for April 2017. Despite lower than normal temperatures (-0.8 deg. C), April remained milder than that of the previous year, resulting in a slight fall in demand. For the third month in a row, demand fell compared to the same month in the previous year (-6.2%). Hydraulic generation suffered from the dry weather in April with a fall of 35% compared to April 2016. The good amount of sunlight this month as well as the increase in the installed photovoltaic base allowed solar generation to jump by more than 36%. The rainfall deficit over the country affected hydraulic generation with falls of as much as -80% in the Centre-Val de Loire region. Variations in market prices were mixed depending on the countries. The balance of exports was in France's favour on all its borders, with a national export balance greater than 5 TWh. 9 new installations went into service in April

  18. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview June 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for June 2017. Average temperatures in June increased by +2.7 deg. compared to June 2016. Demand in June increased by +1.76% compared to June 2016. Demand in June increased by 1.76% compared to June 2016, due in particular to the heat wave that occurred between 19 and 22. Hydraulic generation was again penalized by the lack of rainfall with a fall of 28.6% compared to June 2016. Solar generation was up by 26.7%, driven by the high amount of sunlight in the month. The heat wave had a strong impact on demand in the regions most affected by the high temperatures: Champagne-Ardenne, Pays de la Loire, Midi-Pyrenees. Market prices increased in the south of Europe. France imported more than it exported via Switzerland. Overall, French exchanges remained in favour of exports in the month. 14 new installations went into service in June

  19. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2017. The monthly balance of French exchanges once again passed back in favour of exports in February 2017, despite a fall in nuclear and hydraulic generation. Gross demand was down compared to February 2016, due to milder temperatures. Fossil fuel thermal generation totalled 6.1 TWh, up by 65% compared to February 2016. Due to fluctuating winds, February 2017 recorded both an instantaneous generation peak for the wind and solar sectors (11.3 GW), and a fall in monthly wind generation compared to February 2016. The fall in wind power generation was not uniform over the country: the Southwest experienced stormy episodes boosting generation whereas that in the North-East fell sharply. Market prices were sharply lower Europe-wide. The balance in favour of exports totalled 3.4 TWh in February 2017. 11 installations went into service in this month

  20. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for Monthly gross domestic demand fell by 5.2% compared to October 2016, due to above-normal temperatures. The monthly trade balance was in favour of exports. Total demand corrected for climate contingencies remained stable. Demand by heavy industry continued its upward trend. Monthly nuclear generation fell by 3.3% compared to October 2016. The rainfall deficit resulted in a reduction of almost 11% in hydropower production compared to October 2016. Wind power production rose 46.7% compared to October 2016. Photovoltaic production fell by 2.2% compared to October 2016. The solar load factor fell in almost all French regions compared to October 2016. Market prices continued to increase, in particular in Belgium and in France where nuclear availability was strongly reduced. The monthly balance of trade for France was once again positive in October 2017. 15 new installations went into service in October

  1. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview Mars 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-04-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2017. With 2 deg. C over the normal average temperature, March 2017 was the hottest March recorded over the period 1900-2017. Therefore, gross French power demand fell by 9.4% compared to March 2016. A new record instantaneous balance in favour of exports was reached at over 17 GW. Gross demand was down compared to March 2016, due to milder temperatures. RE generation excluding hydraulic rose after 4 months of falls, driven by favourable weather conditions. The maximum coverage rate of demand by wind power generation reached a new record (18.2%) benefiting from the presence of windy conditions over the country in March. The monthly regional coverage rate of demand by generation of renewable origin exceeded 23% in the Occitanie, Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, Grand-Est, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur and Nouvelle-Aquitaine regions. The fall in prices continued throughout Europe. On 30 March at 19.30 a new record instantaneous balance in favour of exports was recorded at over 17 GW. 1 new installation went into service in March 2017

  2. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... an associated electric source connected to a set of input terminals. This is obtained by the two or more electric swiches being connected and controlled to short-circuit the input terminals during a part of a switching period. Further, a low pass filter with a capacitor and an inductor are provided to low pass...... distance transmission of electric energy. In many applications the total size of filter components (capacitors and inductors) can be reduced compared to voltage driven topologies. One application is an audio amplifier arranged to drive a loudspeaker....

  3. Use of derivative instruments to integrate renewable energies into the electricity market; Einsatz derivativer Instrumente zur Integration erneuerbarer Energien in den Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Kilian [Hochschule Aschaffenburg (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Ingenieurwissenschaften; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultaet; Candra, Dodiek Ika

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of renewable energies to the electricity market is inefficient and expensive with current measures. Further these measures are prejudicial for the existing energy-only-market. The combination of fluctuating and controllable renewable powers in virtual power plants enables the marketing of this power as a derivate on the future market. Thus would relieve the spot market and stabilize pricing on both markets. Subsequently the renewable energy obligation will reduce and renewable energies could be marketed as secured power.

  4. Towards low energy mobility using light and ultralight electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bossche, Alex; Sergeant, Peter; Hofman, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Electrical vehicles are seriously considered today. However their energy needs depend seriously on the way how they are designed, ranging from electric bicycles to the electrical utility vehicle, it can differ from 1kWh to more than 20kWh/100km. One can look at the problem if it is better to use compressed natural gas in a vehicle directly or is it better to make electricity first and use that electricity in an electric vehicle. A special attention is given to the development of ultra-ligh...

  5. Monitoring of electrical energy quality on the traction substation input

    OpenAIRE

    Gryb, O. G.; Gapon, D. A.; Ierusalimova, T. S.; Borodin, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    For the implementation of measures to maintain the quality of the energy industrial enterprises have to spend a significant material and monetary assets. In this regard, significant is the feasibility study of the allocation of such funds and, primarily, the determination of the economic damage arising from low quality of electricity. The reliability of the electricity metering system, relay protection and automation of modern digital substations depends on the quality of electrical energy. A...

  6. Geothermal energy: the earth, source of heat and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, D.

    2005-01-01

    This document provides information on the geothermal energy. It presents the different types of geothermal deposits (very low, low and medium energy geothermal energy), the french deposits and the heat production. The electric power production from the geothermal energy is also discussed with the example of Soultz-sous-Forets. The last part deals with the heat pumps. (A.L.B.)

  7. Decreased Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Acetylcholine at Myofascial Trigger Spots after Dry Needling Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Guang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study are to investigate the changes in spontaneous electrical activities (SEAs and in acetylcholine (ACh, acetylcholine receptor (AChR, and acetylcholine esterase (AChE levels after dry needling at myofascial trigger spots in model rats. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Thirty-six rats were assigned to three model groups, which underwent MTrSs modeling intervention. Twelve rats were assigned to the blank control (BC group. After model construction, the 36 model rats were randomly subdivided into three groups according to treatment: MTrSs model control (MC and two dry needling groups. One dry needling group received puncturing at MTrSs (DN-M, whereas the other underwent puncturing at non-MTrSs (DN-nM. Dry needling treatment will last for two weeks, once a week. SEAs and ACh, AChR, and AChE levels were measured after one-week rest of dry needling treatment. Results. The amplitudes and frequencies of endplate noise (EPN and endplate spike (EPS significantly decreased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Moreover, ACh and AChR levels significantly decreased, whereas AChE significantly increased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Conclusion. Dry needling at the exact MTrSs is more effective than dry needling at non-MTrSs.

  8. The role of electricity in the world energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multon, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    As energy has become the engine of development and electricity some kind of ideal energy, the author first comments the trends and levels of energy demand and world electricity production, and then the geographical distribution of electricity production per primary sources (geothermal, wind, biomass, solar, hydraulic, marine, non renewable wastes, nuclear, and fossil). He also comments the evolutions of energy production by these different sources and the production of some important countries during the last decade. Figures illustrate the cases of Europe, China, USA and France (shares of different sources in the production)

  9. Prediction of hot spot residues at protein-protein interfaces by combining machine learning and energy-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontil Massimiliano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alanine scanning mutagenesis is a powerful experimental methodology for investigating the structural and energetic characteristics of protein complexes. Individual amino-acids are systematically mutated to alanine and changes in free energy of binding (ΔΔG measured. Several experiments have shown that protein-protein interactions are critically dependent on just a few residues ("hot spots" at the interface. Hot spots make a dominant contribution to the free energy of binding and if mutated they can disrupt the interaction. As mutagenesis studies require significant experimental efforts, there is a need for accurate and reliable computational methods. Such methods would also add to our understanding of the determinants of affinity and specificity in protein-protein recognition. Results We present a novel computational strategy to identify hot spot residues, given the structure of a complex. We consider the basic energetic terms that contribute to hot spot interactions, i.e. van der Waals potentials, solvation energy, hydrogen bonds and Coulomb electrostatics. We treat them as input features and use machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machines and Gaussian Processes to optimally combine and integrate them, based on a set of training examples of alanine mutations. We show that our approach is effective in predicting hot spots and it compares favourably to other available methods. In particular we find the best performances using Transductive Support Vector Machines, a semi-supervised learning scheme. When hot spots are defined as those residues for which ΔΔG ≥ 2 kcal/mol, our method achieves a precision and a recall respectively of 56% and 65%. Conclusion We have developed an hybrid scheme in which energy terms are used as input features of machine learning models. This strategy combines the strengths of machine learning and energy-based methods. Although so far these two types of approaches have mainly been

  10. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA... Canada for five years as a power marketer using existing international transmission facilities. GSEMNA...

  11. Hybrid energy sources for electric and fuel cell vehicle propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, N; Yap, H T; Bingham, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Given the energy (and hence range) and performance limitations of electro-chemical batteries, hybrid systems combining energy and power dense storage technologies have been proposed for electric vehicle propulsion. The paper will discuss the application of electro-chemical batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells in single and hybrid source configurations for electric vehicle drive-train applications. Simulation models of energy sources are presented and used to investigate the design optimi...

  12. Exploring utility organization electricity generation, residential electricity consumption, and energy efficiency: A climatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study examined impact of electricity fuel sources and consumption on emissions. • 97.2% of variability in emissions explained by coal and residential electricity use. • Increasing cooling degree days significantly related to increased electricity use. • Effectiveness of state-level energy efficiency programs showed mixed results. - Abstract: This study examined the impact of electricity generation by fuel source type and electricity consumption on carbon emissions to assess the role of climatic variability and energy efficiency (EE) in the United States. Despite high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, residential electricity consumption continues to increase in the United States and fossil fuels are the primary fuel source of electricity generation. 97.2% of the variability in carbon emissions in the electricity industry was explained by electricity generation from coal and residential electricity consumption. The relationships between residential electricity consumption, short-term climatic variability, long-term climatic trends, short-term reduction in electricity from EE programs, and long-term trends in EE programs was examined. This is the first study of its nature to examine these relationships across the 48 contiguous United States. Inter-year and long-term trends in cooling degree days, or days above a baseline temperature, were the primary climatic drivers of residential electricity consumption. Cooling degree days increased across the majority of the United States during the study period, and shared a positive relationship with residential electricity consumption when findings were significant. The majority of electricity reduction from EE programs was negatively related to residential electricity consumption where findings were significant. However, the trend across the majority of states was a decrease in electricity reduction from EE while residential electricity consumption increased. States that successfully reduced consumption

  13. Essays in energy economics: The electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo

    Electricity demand analysis using cointegration and error-correction models with time varying parameters: The Mexican case. In this essay we show how some flexibility can be allowed in modeling the parameters of the electricity demand function by employing the time varying coefficient (TVC) cointegrating model developed by Park and Hahn (1999). With the income elasticity of electricity demand modeled as a TVC, we perform tests to examine the adequacy of the proposed model against the cointegrating regression with fixed coefficients, as well as against the spuriousness of the regression with TVC. The results reject the specification of the model with fixed coefficients and favor the proposed model. We also show how some flexibility is gained in the specification of the error correction model based on the proposed TVC cointegrating model, by including more lags of the error correction term as predetermined variables. Finally, we present the results of some out-of-sample forecast comparison among competing models. Electricity demand and supply in Mexico. In this essay we present a simplified model of the Mexican electricity transmission network. We use the model to approximate the marginal cost of supplying electricity to consumers in different locations and at different times of the year. We examine how costs and system operations will be affected by proposed investments in generation and transmission capacity given a forecast of growth in regional electricity demands. Decomposing electricity prices with jumps. In this essay we propose a model that decomposes electricity prices into two independent stochastic processes: one that represents the "normal" pattern of electricity prices and the other that captures temporary shocks, or "jumps", with non-lasting effects in the market. Each contains specific mean reverting parameters to estimate. In order to identify such components we specify a state-space model with regime switching. Using Kim's (1994) filtering algorithm

  14. Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a set of indicators that are used to analyse the energy efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels on a global level and for a number of key countries and regions. The analysis is based on IEA statistics and includes public electricity plants and public CHP plants. Electricity production by autoproducers is not included and represents less than 6% of global electricity production. However, the share of autoproducers is significant in certain countries, particularly in Europe. Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Spain all have a share of electricity production from autoproducers that is more than twice the global average.

  15. Saving energy and reducing CO2 with electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, T.S.; Zaininger, H.W.

    1991-10-01

    Surprising potential exists for new and enhanced electric technologies to reduce energy use and CO 2 emission. Widespread deployment of these technologies could reduce energy use by up to 7 quads in 2010 and a corresponding reduction in carbon dioxide emission of up to 440 million tons. Electricity's unique high form value allows for efficiency at the point of end-use that is multiples of the efficiency possible in gas- or oil-fueled systems. The efficiency advantage at the point of end use more than offset the disadvantage of the high losses in the production of electricity. Hence, widespread deployment of many electric end uses will reduce the nation's total energy requirements. Major technologies which hold the greatest potential include electric process heating, industrial electrotechnologies, electric vehicles, information technologies that substitute electronic communication for transportation of people, and electric heat pumps for space heating, cooling and water heating. Wider use of these beneficial technologies in combination with the efficient use of electricity can reduce the nation's primary energy use and Co 2 emissions from electric generation by more than a quarter. 35 refs., 50 figs., 69 tabs

  16. Simulation and energy analysis of distributed electric heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Han, Shenchao; Yang, Yanchun; Liu, Mingyuan

    2018-02-01

    Distributed electric heating system assistssolar heating systemby using air-source heat pump. Air-source heat pump as auxiliary heat sourcecan make up the defects of the conventional solar thermal system can provide a 24 - hour high - efficiency work. It has certain practical value and practical significance to reduce emissions and promote building energy efficiency. Using Polysun software the system is simulated and compared with ordinary electric boiler heating system. The simulation results show that upon energy request, 5844.5kW energy is saved and 3135kg carbon - dioxide emissions are reduced and5844.5 kWhfuel and energy consumption is decreased with distributed electric heating system. Theeffect of conserving energy and reducing emissions using distributed electric heating systemis very obvious.

  17. Electricity transmission in the energy community of South East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vailati, Riccardo [CESI RICERCA, Power System Development Department, via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    The paper presents the status of electricity transmission grids in the Energy Community of South East Europe (ECSEE): Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, UNM in Kosovo. It overviews political and legal aspects of transmission, explaining the impact of the Energy Community Treaty and of the acquis communautaire on energy on the transmission sector. It summarizes the status and the capacity of the interconnections among countries and the current level of cross-border electricity trades. It discusses the need and criteria for electricity transmission investments in the ECSEE. (author)

  18. EXTENDING NUCLEAR ENERGY TO NON-ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Boardman; M. McKellar; D. Ingersoll; Z. Houghton; , R. Bromm; C. Desportes

    2014-09-01

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these non-traditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers.

  19. Extending nuclear energy to non-electrical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.; Houghton, Z.; Bromm, R.; Desportes, C.; McKellar, M.; Boardman, R.

    2014-01-01

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these nontraditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers. (author)

  20. Managing intermittent energy for generating electricity on islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahiou, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    France's 'electric islands' are the overseas departments and Corsica that have small, isolated grids in 'zones not interconnected' (ZNI) with the continental grid. What characterizes them is the strong growth of consumption and the quite high cost of electricity, the latter heavily subsidized through arrangements under the legal obligation to 'contribute to the public service of electricity'. Renewable, intermittent forms of energy (especially photovoltaic) have grown exponentially on these islands since 2008 thanks to the backing of public policies for setting objectives, tax exemptions, and the rates for purchasing the electricity thus generated. Owing to several experiments under way, the ZNIs have become laboratories for anticipating the future difficulties that interconnected electricity grids will have to handle once the share of renewable, intermittent electricity will have risen significantly in the energy mix

  1. Direct Conversion of Radioisotope Energy to Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks Prelas; Alexey Spitsyn; Alejandro Suarez; Eric Stienfelds; Dickerson Moreno; Bia-Ling Hsu; Tushar Ghosh; Robert Tompson; Sudarshan Loyalka; Dabir Viswanath

    2003-09-09

    A new chemical reactor has been tested for Field Enhanced Diffusion by Optical Activation doping and purification of SiC, GaN and AlN films. Different conditions have been used on SiC, GaN and AlN samples including temperature variation, electrical field variation, variations in electrical current and optical activation. A 5mW (630-680) nm laser was used for optical activation. It was observed that optical activation has a major effect on ion drift rates. It was also observed that the magnitude of the electrical current also enhanced ion drift rates by a postulated current drag mechanism. I-V characteristic curves were measured to verify changes in the electrical properties of the samples SIMS was used to analyze the concentrations of impurities in the film samples before and after treatment. It has been demonstrated that the field-enhanced diffusion by optical activation method can dope and purify the films. As a result, the electrical properties of the wafers have been significantly improved during treatment especially in cases where a laser is used.

  2. Electricity from wave and tide an introduction to marine energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    This is a concise yet technically authoritative overview of modern marine energy devices with the goal of sustainable electricity generation. With 165 full-colour illustrations and photographs of devices at an advanced stage, the book provides inspiring case studies of today's most promising marine energy devices and developments, including full-scale grid-connected prototypes tested in sea conditions. It also covers the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) in Orkney, Scotland, where many of the devices are assessed. Topics discussed: global resources - drawing energy from the World's waves and tides history of wave and tidal stream systems theoretical background to modern developments conversion of marine energy into grid electricity modern wave energy converters and tidal stream energy converters. This book is aimed at a wide readership including professionals, policy makers and employees in the energy sector needing an introduction to marine energy. Its descriptive style and technical level will also appea...

  3. Apparatus for obtaining electric energy in speed highways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatyan, P.R.; Khalatyan, R.P.; Khalatyan, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    The problems of obtaining electricity by means of moving motor-transport are examined. An apparatus installed in the distributive zone of intensive traffic speed highways is proposed. Part of air mass movement of kinetic energy is transformed from the movement of automobiles into electricity

  4. Energy consumption of auxiliary systems of electric cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtimov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the power demand of the auxiliary systems of electric cars. On the basis of existing electric cars an analysis of energy consumption of different auxiliary systems is done. As a result possibilities for rational use of these systems have been proposed, which can increase the mileage per one charge of the battery.

  5. Nuclear energy and opportunity to strengthen the sustainable electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles N, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    The beginning of electricity in Mexico was through the use and exploitation of natural resources; as the demand grew, more generation power plants were required with great capacity and at the same time the fuels used varied, although, oil continued to be the main fuel. At present, due to the effects of climate change, the Conference of the Parties has proposed to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels to give way to clean energy (wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, etc.), which entails gradually modifying the energy matrix of the electricity sector. The National Development Plan and the National Electricity Sector Development Program, this coordinated by the Energy Secretariat in Mexico, establish policies to promote sustainable development, increasing electricity generation through clean energy sources, including nuclear energy. However, such plans are not accurate in the strategy to be followed to ensure compliance with the increased participation of nuclear energy. This article proposes a nuclear program for the Mexican electricity sector, under the terms of a State policy, aimed at crystallizing a sustainable electricity development 2015-2036; considering that the application to the electricity sector constitutes a representative and justified example of the incorporation of environmental aspects in decision processes for the preservation of the environment. In order to determine the quantity and type of reactors, as well as the number of nuclear power plants and increase of the installed capacity, the general planning scheme of the electric sector was used, taking as reference the modeling criteria of the WASP planning system. Finally, is concluded that the electricity generated by fission of radioactive elements is an opportunity to fulfill the commitments made by Mexico at COP 21 and to meet in an environmentally friendly way the energy requirement that our country needs. (Author)

  6. Electric power from renewable energy: resources and stakes for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the essential of the last thematic letter published by the IFEN (French institute of the environment), devoted to the resources and stakes of the electric power produced by the renewable energies in France. (A.L.B.)

  7. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    2000-01-01

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches [it

  8. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Finn, P.; Mathiesen, B.V.; Leahy, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate that almost all (∼97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual investment repayments required. However, over the 5-year period investigated (2005-2009) the annual profit from the PHES facility varied by more than 50% on five out of six electricity markets considered. Considering the 40-year lifetime of PHES, even with low investment costs, a low interest rate, and a suitable electricity market, PHES is a risky investment without a more predictable profit. - Highlights: → Electricity generators typically operate on a market, including energy storage. → This paper assesses how energy storage can maximise its profits on a market. → Four operating strategies are assessed on 13 markets using a case study.→ One operating strategy achieves 97% of the profits feasible.→ However, the profit varies a lot depending on the market and capital costs.

  9. Hydrolysis Batteries: Generating Electrical Energy during Hydrogen Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Chen, Jun; Fu, Kai; Zheng, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2018-02-19

    The hydrolysis reaction of aluminum can be decoupled into a battery by pairing an Al foil with a Pd-capped yttrium dihydride (YH 2 -Pd) electrode. This hydrolysis battery generates a voltage around 0.45 V and leads to hydrogen absorption into the YH 2 layer. This represents a new hydrogen absorption mechanism featuring electrical energy generation during hydrogen absorption. The hydrolysis battery converts 8-15 % of the thermal energy of the hydrolysis reaction into usable electrical energy, leading to much higher energy efficiency compared to that of direct hydrolysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. MONITORING OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ON THE TRACTION SUBSTATION INPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Gryb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the implementation of measures to maintain the quality of the energy industrial enterprises have to spend a significant material and monetary assets. In this regard, significant is the feasibility study of the allocation of such funds and, primarily, the determination of the economic damage arising from low quality of electricity. The reliability of the electricity metering system, relay protection and automation of modern digital substations depends on the quality of electrical energy. At the present time to improve the reliability of the substation operation it is necessary to monitor indicators of quality of electric energy, allowing you to take organizational and technical solutions for their improvement. Monitoring the power quality at the input traction substation has shown that indicators such as the coefficient of the n-th harmonic component of the voltage does not meet the standards GOST 13109-97. The source of higher harmonics is a voltage Converter used on the locomotive. To eliminate higher harmonics in the supply network for traction substations will need to install power filters. Today, the USB-analyzer of power quality «Digital measurement system of power quality» type of CSICE of accuracy class 0.2. Work energy requires reliable and quality electricity supply to consumers. The new model of balancing energy market are bilateral contracts. The main task of this market, it ensure the stable and reliable operation of the unified energy system of Ukraine, that is, transmission and supply of electricity of appropriate quality.

  11. Analysis Insights: Energy Storage - Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we explore energy storage and the role it is playing and could potentially play in increasing grid flexibility and renewable energy integration. We explore energy storage as one building block for a more flexible power system, policy and R and D as drivers of energy storage deployment, methods for valuing energy storage in grid applications, ways that energy storage supports renewable integration, and emerging opportunities for energy storage in the electric grid.

  12. Energy management strategies for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Sheldon S

    2013-01-01

    Covers power electronics and motor drives for energy management of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Addresses specific issues and design solutions related to photovoltaic/grid based EV battery charging infrastructures and on-board battery management systems Emphasis on power electronic converter topologies for on-board battery management

  13. Thermal energy storage for electricity-driven space heating in a day-ahead electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a space heating (SH) application was investigated. The study aimed to determine the economic benefits of introducing TES into an electricity-driven SH system under a day-ahead electricity market. The performance of the TES was assessed by comparing the cost...

  14. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  15. Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage is becoming increasingly important as renewable generation sources such as Wind Turbine and Photo Voltaic Solar are added to the mix in electrical power generation and distribution systems. The paper discusses the basic drivers for energy storage and provides brief descriptions of the various energy storage technologies available. The information summarizes current technical tradeoffs with different storage approaches and identifies issues surrounding deployment of large scale energy storage systems.

  16. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  17. Energy optimization analysis of the more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yitao; Deng, Junxiang; Liu, Chao; Li, Sen

    2018-02-01

    The More Electric Aircraft (MEA) underlines the utilization of the electrical power to drive the non-propulsive aircraft systems. The critical features of the MEA including no-bleed engine architecture and advanced electrical system are introduced. Energy and exergy analysis is conducted for the MEA, and comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of the energy usage between conventional aircraft and the MEA is conducted. The results indicate that one of the advantages of the MEA architecture is the greater efficiency gained in terms of reduced fuel consumption.

  18. Mine... electricity... reprocessing... Nuclear energy, how and why? Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisez, F.

    2003-01-01

    This book makes a short and consistent synthesis of nuclear power: how electricity can be generated by braking up atoms and what is the advantage of this mean with respect to the use of fossil fuels or renewable energy sources. Beside the text, this book contains transparency-like illustrations which give a general overview of the civil nuclear domain. Content: 1 - introduction; 2 - radioactivity and nuclear safety: natural and artificial atoms, radioactivity, exposure, nuclear safety; 3 - nuclear fuel cycle: uranium mines and yellow cake, uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, nuclear power plants, reprocessing, recycling and conditioning, wastes, statuses, needs, companies and industrial capacities, R and D; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - what energy sources for even more electricity: available energies, environmental impact and accidents, costs of electricity, energy reserves, summary, opinions and conclusions. (J.S.)

  19. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  20. Renewable, ethical? Assessing the energy justice potential of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Banerjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy justice is increasingly being used as a framework to conceptualize the impacts of energy decision making in more holistic ways and to consider the social implications in terms of existing ethical values. Similarly, renewable energy technologies are increasingly being promoted for their environmental and social benefits. However, little work has been done to systematically examine the extent to which, in what ways and in what contexts, renewable energy technologies can contribute to achieving energy justice. This paper assesses the potential of renewable electricity technologies to address energy justice in various global contexts via a systematic review of existing studies analyzed in terms of the principles and dimensions of energy justice. Based on publications including peer reviewed academic literature, books, and in some cases reports by government or international organizations, we assess renewable electricity technologies in both grid integrated and off-grid use contexts. We conduct our investigation through the rubric of the affirmative and prohibitive principles of energy justice and in terms of its temporal, geographic, socio-political, economic, and technological dimensions. Renewable electricity technology development has and continue to have different impacts in different social contexts, and by considering the different impacts explicitly across global contexts, including differences between rural and urban contexts, this paper contributes to identifying and understanding how, in what ways, and in what particular conditions and circumstances renewable electricity technologies may correspond with or work to promote energy justice.

  1. Managing total corporate electricity/energy market risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henney, A.; Keers, G.

    1998-01-01

    The banking industry has developed a tool kit of very useful value at risk techniques for hedging risk, but these techniques must be adapted to the special complexities of the electricity market. This paper starts with a short history of the use of value-at-risk (VAR) techniques in banking risk management and then examines the specific and, in many instances, complex risk management challenges faced by electric companies from the behavior of prices in electricity markets and from the character of generation and electric retailing risks. The third section describes the main methods for making VAR calculations along with an analysis of their suitability for analyzing the risks of electricity portfolios and the case for using profit at risk and downside risk as measures of risk. The final section draws the threads together and explains how to look at managing total corporate electricity market risk, which is a big step toward managing total corporate energy market risk

  2. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  3. Electrical Energy Statistics for France 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Detailed statistics on electricity flows in France and on facilities. Regional data / Consumption per sector of activity / Records over last 10 years (definitive results). In 2002, national electrical consumption reached 449.9 TWh, an increase of 0.3% compared with 2001 (448.6 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies, its growth rate was 0.9% compared with 2001. Consumption by customers connected at high or medium voltage levels came to 254.2 TWh, an increase of 0.8% compared with 2001 (252.3 TWh); consumption by customers connected at low voltage levels came to 165 TWh, a decrease of 0.8% compared with 2001 (166.4 TWh). Generation in France reached 534.3 TWh, an increase of 11.5 TWh or 2.2% compared with 2001 (522.8 TWh). This increase broke down between nuclear generation and conventional thermal generation. Net nuclear generation injected, as measured by RTE, came to 415.5 TWh in 2002, an increase of 4.0% compared with 2001 (399.6 TWh). Conventional thermal generation came to 51.1 TWh, an increase of 15.4 % compared with 2001 (44.3 TWh). Hydro-electric generation amounted to 65.5 TWh, a fall of 15.3% compared with 2001 (77.3 TWh). In terms of physical exchanges with foreign countries, France exported a net total of 77 TWh, an increase of 12.6% compared with 2001 (68.4 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries, recorded by RTE, fell by 9.9 % to reach a cumulative value for exports and imports of 107.8 TWh (compared with 120 TWh in 2001)

  4. Structure determination of disordered organic molecules on surfaces from the Bragg spots of low-energy electron diffraction and total energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, H.C.; Weinert, M.; Saldin, D.K.; Stacchiola, D.; Zheng, T.; Tysoe, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    We show that an analysis of the intensity versus energy variation of Bragg spots due to low-energy electron diffraction from a disordered overlayer of molecules on a crystal surface allows a much more convenient method of determining the local adsorption geometries of such molecules than previously analyzed weak diffuse diffraction patterns. For the case of methanol on Pd(111), we show that the geometry determined by this means from experimental diffraction data is in excellent agreement with the predictions of density functional total energy calculations

  5. Assessment of Energy Conservation in Egypt's Electric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar El Saeed Awad Abou Ghoniem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of energy saving policy as a key factor in Egypt's electric system in terms of benefits, invested cost, power quality and environmental impact, solutions have been made by system planners and decision makers aiming to face the challenges that being encountered by the electric system such as scarce and precious of prime energies are compared in terms of invested cost, implementation time and advantages for both of power providers and end users w.r.to energy savings. A case study that implemented in a pilot program for energy savings was given. It is a group of facilities include industrial, commercial, administrative companies and worship houses, they are connected to Alexandria electrical distribution network, they are classified as big customers, i.e. contracted power for each is higher than 0.5 mega watt, the goals of the program were evaluating potentials of energy saving opportunities in the system and estimating the outcomes. Options were evaluated with regard to savings in electricity, fuels and water. Cost of investments and pay back periods were calculated. Environmental impact as a result of saving in emitted green house gas co2 is determined. Potentials of energy savings are analyzed and benefits to both electric utilities and end users were assessed.

  6. The Harnessed Atom. Nuclear Energy & Electricity. Teacher Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This document is part of a nuclear energy curriculum designed for grades six through eight. The complete kit includes a written text, filmstrip, review exercises, activities for the students, and this teachers guide. The 19 lessons in the curriculum are divided into four units including: (1) "Energy and Electricity"; (2) "Understanding Atoms and…

  7. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  8. Assessment of wind energy potential for electricity generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fossil fuel for energy production has been estimated to contribute about 80. % of the total gses responsible for the green house effect of the atmosphere. Renewable energy sources such as wind, if thoroughly investigated, could be used to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels for electricity generation. Although wind ...

  9. Contributions to the financial mathematics of energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Permana, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis provides several contributions to quantitative finance for energy markets: electricity price modelling, implying oil price volatilities, pricing and hedging of exotic commodity options. Electricity spot prices are characterized by spikes (jumps) because electricity is non-storable. A

  10. Does wind energy mitigate market power in deregulated electricity markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Moshe, Ori; Rubin, Ofir D.

    2015-01-01

    A rich body of literature suggests that there is an inverse relationship between wind power penetration rate into the electricity market and electricity prices, but it is unclear whether these observations can be generalized. Therefore, in this paper we seek to analytically characterize market conditions that give rise to this inverse relationship. For this purpose, we expand a recently developed theoretical framework to facilitate flexibility in modeling the structure of the electric industry with respect to the degree of market concentration and diversification in the ownership of wind power capacity. The analytical results and their attendant numerical illustrations indicate that the introduction of wind energy into the market does not always depress electricity prices. Such a drop in electricity prices is likely to occur when the number of firms is large enough or the ownership of wind energy is sufficiently diversified, or most often a combination of the two. Importantly, our study defines the circumstances in which the question of which type of firm invests in wind power capacity is crucial for market prices. - Highlights: • Studies show that electricity prices decrease with increased wind power capacity. • We investigate market conditions that give rise to this inverse relationship. • Average prices for wind energy are systematically lower than average market prices. • Conventional generation firms may increase market power by investing in wind farms. • Energy policy should seek to diversify the ownership of wind power capacity

  11. Renewable energy policy and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A.; Kentish, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the potential effectiveness of the renewable energy policy in China and its regulatory Law framework. It frames the option of renewable energy technology within the background of the long-lasting electricity problems that China has faced including serious supply shortages, reliance on coal, and severe environmental contamination. Its dual administrative and ownership system based on state and privately owned industry is discussed together with the market reform measures adopted in the sector. Current renewable energy policy is analysed, and the scope of the 2005 Renewable Energy Promotion Law is investigated. This is conducted within the context of the electricity sector reform that China adopted, and its effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy. This study draws upon primary information collected from interviews with stakeholders on the policy adequacy, and identifies three main types of shortcomings that have interfered with a more successful expansion of renewable energy in China

  12. Net energy analysis of different electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document is a report on the net energy analysis of nuclear power and other electricity generation systems. The main objectives of this document are: To provide a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge on net energy analysis of nuclear and other energy systems for electricity generation; to address traditional questions such as whether nuclear power is a net energy producer or not. In addition, the work in progress on a renewed application of the net energy analysis method to environmental issues is also discussed. It is expected that this work could contribute to the overall comparative assessment of different energy systems which is an ongoing activity at the IAEA. 167 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  13. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  14. Use of Geothermal Energy for Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashaw, John M.; Prichett, III, Wilson (eds.)

    1980-10-23

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and its 1,000 member systems are involved in the research, development and utilization of many different types of supplemental and alternative energy resources. We share a strong commitment to the wise and efficient use of this country's energy resources as the ultimate answer to our national prosperity and economic growth. WRECA is indebted to the United States Department of Energy for funding the NRECA/DOE Geothermal Workshop which was held in San Diego, California in October, 1980. We would also like to express our gratitude to each of the workshop speakers who gave of their time, talent and experience so that rural electric systems in the Western U. S. might gain a clearer understanding of the geothermal potential in their individual service areas. The participants were also presented with practical, expert opinion regarding the financial and technical considerations of using geothermal energy for electric power production. The organizers of this conference and all of those involved in planning this forum are hopeful that it will serve as an impetus toward the full utilization of geothermal energy as an important ingredient in a more energy self-sufficient nation. The ultimate consumer of the rural electric system, the member-owner, expects the kind of leadership that solves the energy problems of tomorrow by fully utilizing the resources at our disposal today.

  15. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  16. Research on Energy Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Tao; Huang Xiguang

    2015-01-01

    To improve the fuel economy and reduce emissions of hybrid electric vehicles, energy management strategy has received high attention. In this paper, by analyzing the deficiency of existing energy management strategy for hybrid cars, it not only puts forward the minimal equivalent fuel consumption adaptive strategy, but also is the first time to consider the driving dynamics target simultaneously, and to explain the future development direction of China’s hybrid energy management strategy.

  17. Research on Energy Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the fuel economy and reduce emissions of hybrid electric vehicles, energy management strategy has received high attention. In this paper, by analyzing the deficiency of existing energy management strategy for hybrid cars, it not only puts forward the minimal equivalent fuel consumption adaptive strategy, but also is the first time to consider the driving dynamics target simultaneously, and to explain the future development direction of China’s hybrid energy management strategy.

  18. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  19. Analysis of electrical audit and energy efficiency in building Hotel BC, North Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi Biantoro, Agung

    2018-03-01

    The Hotel BC is using power source from PLN with capacity of 4300 kVA which is divided into 3 units of 2000 kVA transformer. Transformers are used to supply the load of Mall tenants, and Utility loads, such as Chiller, pumps and others. Problems found in the field are complaints from the hotel regarding the safety of electrical installations and wasteful, inefficient electrical costs. The purpose of this study is to check the electrical installation in the building and determine the Energy Use Intensity (EUI) and the cost of payment according to usage based on historical data of the building then compare it with the EUI standard of Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of Indonesia. The method used is survey measurement method and quantitative descriptive analysis by comparing in general condition of energy consumption of this building with standard issued by Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of Indonesia. The EUI is average 645.58 kWh/m2/year, or 53.79 kWh/m2/month, this is inefficient category, because its EUI value is > 24 kWh / m2 / month. For Electrical audit on imaging thermal test at Panel Out Going of chiller pump, 200 ampere, the highest temperature is 97.3° C, at 200 ampere phase S termination, and this is included in the major category. The numbers of hot spots on the Capacitor bank panels are 10 major points and Chiller panel has 10 major. There are many major points and they are quite dangerous because they can cause fire hazard on the panel. The AC average temperature and humidity distribution did not meet the standard of SNI (Indonesia National Standard).

  20. Gas and electric power 2003. Evolution of the energy panorama in Europe: evaluation, forecasting and precautions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boigegrain, R.; Tran Thiet, J.P.; Givry, L.; Lapierre, A.; Vivies, P. de; Brelle, B.; Vedrenne, Ph.; Didier, E.; Munch, P.; Rodrigues, St.; Lermusieau, Ph.; Macchiati, A.; Lamboley, Ph.; Bouchard, G.; Canetti, J.; Bresson, Th. de; Chevalier, J.M.; Saint Andre, B.; Werquin, A.; Mouton, F.R.; Boulanger, Ph.; Vivies, P. de; Terzian, P.

    2003-11-01

    This 12. international congress on gas and electricity covers the following topics: 1 - change in the energy panorama in Europe: statement, forecasting and precautions: fusions, acquisitions, partnerships and their consequences; evolution of the regulation: actors, decisions and time delays (regulation of electricity and gas in Europe - convergencies and divergences; specificities of the French gas and electricity markets and their perspectives of evolution; focus on the 2003 highlights: the January 3, 2003 law, about 20 new decrees and the 2. gas directive); market regulation: new missions, powers and limitations of the different actors (mission, power and place of regulation authorities today and their possible evolution, status competences extension towards gas; consequences of the introduction of the adjustment mechanism, new stakes of power transportation networks; stakes for gas transport and storage in France and in Europe); spot markets and suitable solutions for industrialists (short-term management of risks; juridical and legal precautions to take before starting a power trade activity; short- and medium-term risk management possibilities; 2 - markets opening and new strategies of energy purchase and selling: strategies of foreign actors in France and opportunities for French actors abroad (market opening and its stakes, specificities and opportunities of the energy market in Italy; challenges and opportunities of gas markets opening in Europe: the Ruhrgas approach; stakes of the French market opening: experience feedback of Endesa Europe); repositioning of activities (the new position of Gaz de France (GdF); the deregulated market: risks and opportunities); changing of supplier or partnerships power (towards commercial repositioning); round table: regulators, suppliers, purchasers: are you ready? The congress ends with a practical training course emceed by Endesa: the French electricity and gas markets in the European context; the management of the

  1. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    The major concern in electric grid operation is operating under the most economical and reliable fashion to ensure affordability and continuity of electricity supply. This dissertation investigates the effects of such challenges, which affect electric grid reliability and economic operations. These challenges are: 1. Congestion of transmission lines, 2. Transmission lines expansion, 3. Large-scale wind energy integration, and 4. Phaser Measurement Units (PMUs) optimal placement for highest electric grid observability. Performing congestion analysis aids in evaluating the required increase of transmission line capacity in electric grids. However, it is necessary to evaluate expansion of transmission line capacity on methods to ensure optimal electric grid operation. Therefore, the expansion of transmission line capacity must enable grid operators to provide low-cost electricity while maintaining reliable operation of the electric grid. Because congestion affects the reliability of delivering power and increases its cost, the congestion analysis in electric grid networks is an important subject. Consequently, next-generation electric grids require novel methodologies for studying and managing congestion in electric grids. We suggest a novel method of long-term congestion management in large-scale electric grids. Owing to the complication and size of transmission line systems and the competitive nature of current grid operation, it is important for electric grid operators to determine how many transmission lines capacity to add. Traditional questions requiring answers are "Where" to add, "How much of transmission line capacity" to add, and "Which voltage level". Because of electric grid deregulation, transmission lines expansion is more complicated as it is now open to investors, whose main interest is to generate revenue, to build new transmission lines. Adding a new transmission capacity will help the system to relieve the transmission system congestion, create

  2. A new assessment of combined geothermal electric generation and desalination in western Saudi Arabia: targeted hot spot development

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-17

    High heat flow associated with the tectonic spreading of the Red Sea make western Saudi Arabia a region with high potential for geothermal energy development. The hydraulic properties of the Precambrian-age rocks occurring in this region are not conducive to direct production of hot water for heat exchange, which will necessitate use of the hot dry rock (HDR) heat harvesting method. This would require the construction of coupled deep wells; one for water injection and the other for steam recovery. There are some technological challenges in the design, construction, and operation of HDR geothermal energy systems. Careful geotechnical evaluation of the heat reservoir must be conducted to ascertain the geothermal gradient at the chosen site to allow pre-design modeling of the system for assessment of operational heat flow maintenance. Also, naturally occurring fractures or faults must be carefully evaluated to make an assessment of the potential for induced seismicity. It is anticipated that the flow heat exchange capacity of the system will require enhancement by the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the injection well with the production well drilled into the fracture zone to maximum water recovery efficiency and reduce operating pressure. The heated water must be maintained under pressure and flashed to steam at surface to produce to the most effective energy recovery. Most past evaluations of geothermal energy development in this region have been focused on the potential for solely electricity generation, but direct use of produced steam could be coupled with thermally driven desalination technologies such as multi-effect distillation, adsorption desalination, and/or membrane distillation to provide a continuous source of heat to allow very efficient operation of the plants. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of the energy portfolio for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.; Esquivel E, J.

    2016-09-01

    The planning of electricity generation systems considers several factors that must be taken into account in order to design systems that are economical, reliable and sustainable. For this purpose, the Financial Portfolio Theory is applicable to the energy portfolio or the diversification of electricity generation technologies, such as is the combined cycle, wind, thermoelectric and nuclear. This paper presents an application of the Portfolio Theory to the national energy system, based on the total generation costs for each technology, which allows determining the average variance portfolio and the respective share of each of the electricity generation technologies considered, obtaining a portfolio of electricity generation with the maximum possible return for the risk taken in the investments. This paper describes the basic aspects of the Portfolio Theory and its methodology, in which matrices are implemented for the solution of the resulting Lagrange system. (Author)

  4. High to ultra-high power electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-12-14

    High power electrical energy storage systems are becoming critical devices for advanced energy storage technology. This is true in part due to their high rate capabilities and moderate energy densities which allow them to capture power efficiently from evanescent, renewable energy sources. High power systems include both electrochemical capacitors and electrostatic capacitors. These devices have fast charging and discharging rates, supplying energy within seconds or less. Recent research has focused on increasing power and energy density of the devices using advanced materials and novel architectural design. An increase in understanding of structure-property relationships in nanomaterials and interfaces and the ability to control nanostructures precisely has led to an immense improvement in the performance characteristics of these devices. In this review, we discuss the recent advances for both electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors as high power electrical energy storage systems, and propose directions and challenges for the future. We asses the opportunities in nanostructure-based high power electrical energy storage devices and include electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors for their potential to open the door to a new regime of power energy.

  5. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective energy storage system to deploy in Terceira Island, along with geothermal, wind, thermal and bio waste energy, while considering demand and supply constraints. It is concluded that a pumped hydro system sited in Serra do Morião-Nasce Água is the best option for storage of the excess generated energy when compared with batteries. However, further studies should analyze environmental constraints. It is demonstrated that by increasing the storage power capacity, a pumped hydro system improves its cost efficiency when compared with batteries. It is also demonstrated that, to ensure quality, economic feasibility, reliability and a reduction of external costs, it is preferable to replace fuel-oil by wind to generate electricity up to a conceivable technical limit, while building a pumped hydro system, or dumping the excess peak energy generated.

  6. Estimating cell capacity for multi-cell electrical energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Iman Ahari

    A Multi-Cell Electrical Energy System is a set of batteries that are connected in series. The series batteries provide the required voltage necessary for the contraption. After using the energy that is provided by the batteries, some cells within the system tend to have a lower voltage than the other cells. Also, other factors, such as the number of times a battery has been charged or discharged, how long it has been within the system and many other factors, result in some cells having a lesser capacity compared to the other cells within the system. The outcome is that it lowers the required capacity that the electrical energy system is required to provide. By having an unknown cell capacity within the system, it is unknown how much of a charge can be provided to the system so that the cells are not overcharged or undercharged. Therefore, it is necessary to know the cells capacity within the system. Hence, if we were dealing with a single cell, the capacity could be obtained by a full charge and discharge of the cell. In a series system that contains multiple cells a full charging or discharging cannot happen as it might result in deteriorating the structure of some cells within the system. Hence, to find the capacity of a single cell within an electrical energy system it is required to obtain a method that can estimate the value of each cell within the electrical energy system. To approach this method an electrical energy system is required. The electrical energy system consists of rechargeable non-equal capacity batteries to provide the required energy to the system, a battery management system (BMS) board to monitor the cells voltages, an Arduino board that provides the required communication to BMS board, and the PC, and a software that is able to deliver the required data obtained from the Arduino board to the PC. The outcome, estimating the capacity of a cell within a multi-cell system, can be used in many battery related technologies to obtain unknown

  7. Production of thermal and electrical energy in the small and middle cogeneration gas electrical plants, v. 16(61)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevski, Gotse; Krstevski, Gjorgje

    2008-01-01

    Production of thermal and electrical energy leads to numerous problems which need to be solved in the large energy systems. Some problems as consumption of predefined energy (electrical energy or thermal energy as hot water or steam) in time and space domain can be solved through the usage of cogeneration units with high efficiency parameters. (Author)

  8. Electric Energy Security in the Domestic Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    center communications COM IEC 61850 Substation automation and protection COM IEC 61968/61970 Application level energy management system interfaces...ASHRAE 135 - 2008/ISO 16484 -5 Building automation COM DNP3 Substation and feeder device automation COM IEC 60870 -6 / TASE.2 Inter-control... IEC 62351 Parts 1 -8 Information security for power system control operations COM IEEE C37.118 Phasor measurement unit (PMU)communications

  9. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. (BEMI) has applied to renew its authority... President of Legal Services and General Counsel, Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc., 480 de la Cite Blvd...

  10. Activities of electric utilities in alternative energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.B. da; Reis Neto, J.L. dos

    1990-01-01

    Since oil crisis, in 1973 and 1979, some electrical utilities in Brazil begun investments in alternative projects for example production of electrolytic hydrogen, peats with energetics goals, steam from electric boiler, and methanol from wood gasification. With oil substitution goals, these projects have not success actually, after attenuated the crisis. However, the results acquired is experience for the development of the brazilian energy patterns. (author)

  11. Canadian electricity exports and imports : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report focuses on recent trends in exports and imports of Canadian electricity and the associated revenue and pricing. It also outlines major developments in electricity markets in Canada and the United States in the past decade with reference to the implications of electricity trade for both consumers and the power industry. This guide comes at a time of market openings in Alberta and Ontario, and with recent increases in applications to the National Energy Board for electricity exports and international power lines. The first chapter presents an overview of current Canadian federal regulatory regime for electricity exports and restructuring of the electric power industry in Canada and the United States. The second chapter reviews electricity exports and imports from a national perspective. Provincial analyses were presented in the third chapter which also covered international interconnections, export and import trends, export and import pricing, implications for consumer prices, and factors affecting future trade. The final chapter presents some observations on each of these issues. It is noted that exports have fluctuated significantly from year to year due to specific events including the shutdown of nuclear power plants, high gas prices, and the California electricity crisis in 2000-2001. Canadian international electricity trade has continued to yield net revenues of $1 to $2 billion per year due to strong electricity export prices. The relationship between export and import prices varies from province to province. Canadian utilities have emphasized the need for more transmission to the U.S. to foster future trade and improve transmission reliability. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  13. Circuit drawings in electrical energy technology. 6. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinert, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains a survey of the most important standards for graphical symbols and circuit documents for the area of electrical energy technology; it explains the circuit symbols in their construction and in their material and mental contents of terms; it contains a comparison of the circuit symbols from the DIN standards and the new DINTEC symbols taken from harmonisation, produced by arrangement in the picture column with the addition of the letters IEC; it contains a selection of circuit symbols of the IEC, USA, Canada and Great Britain; it supplements the necessary standards for producing circuit documents by extracts and references; it shows examples for the symbols of electrical equipment by using circuit symbols; it develops and explains the various kinds of representation of electrical circuits by circuit diagrams; it leads to reading and understanding the functioning of circuits by descriptions of functions; it gives examples of applications for designing and producing circuit documents, as used in practice; it contributes to arranging electrical plant according to the 'recognised rules of electrical engineering' and increasing safety by reference to the DIN-VDE regulations connected with representation, and it is a great help in designing electrical energy plant by its technical and electrical data. (orig.) [de

  14. Guest Editorial Electric Machines in Renewable Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliprantis, Dionysios; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed; Muljadi, Eduard; Brown, Ian; Chiba, Akira; Dorrell, David; Erlich, Istvan; Kerszenbaum, Isidor Izzy; Levi, Emil; Mayor, Kevin; Mohammed, Osama; Papathanassiou, Stavros; Popescu, Mircea; Qiao, Wei; Wu, Dezheng

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this special issue is to collect and disseminate publications that highlight recent advances and breakthroughs in the area of renewable energy resources. The use of these resources for production of electricity is increasing rapidly worldwide. As of 2015, a majority of countries have set renewable electricity targets in the 10%-40% range to be achieved by 2020-2030, with a few notable exceptions aiming for 100% generation by renewables. We are experiencing a truly unprecedented transition away from fossil fuels, driven by environmental, energy security, and socio-economic factors.Electric machines can be found in a wide range of renewable energy applications, such as wind turbines, hydropower and hydrokinetic systems, flywheel energy storage devices, and low-power energy harvesting systems. Hence, the design of reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and controllable electric machines is crucial in enabling even higher penetrations of renewable energy systems in the smart grid of the future. In addition, power electronic converter design and control is critical, as they provide essential controllability, flexibility, grid interface, and integration functions.

  15. Description of the electric power and energy trade in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komulainen, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Finnish State has traditionally controlled the import of electricity, larger related investments and pricing. Lately, a market orientated economic policy has influenced energy policy and the amount of state control has gradually decreased. Decisions have yet to be made with regard to the fifth nuclear power reactor. The paper deals briefly with the subjects of the electric power, natural gas and oil markets. Finland's transmission network has connections to the former Russia and the Baltic countries. According to agreements within the European Community, Finland must now make changes in its electric power supply structure. Competition will be encouraged and monopolies discouraged. Pricing shall be transparent, and power plants must present written documentation for their management system, price regulations etc. A law must be passed to legitimate trade across the country's borders. Emphasis will be laid on energy conservation and energy research and consultant services. It is claimed that Finland's level of technology in this area lives up to international standards. (AB)

  16. Novel scheme for making cheap electricity with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettibone, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear fuels should produce cheaper electricity than coal, considering their high specific energy and low cost. To exploit these properties, the scheme proposed here replaces the expensive reactor/steam-turbine system with an engine in which the expansion of a gas heated by a nuclear explosion raises a mass of liquid, thereby producing stored hydraulic energy. This energy could be converted to electricity by hydroelectric generation with water as the working fluid or by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation with molten metal. A rough cost analysis suggests the hydroelectric system could reduce the present cost of electricity by two-thirds, and the MHD system by even more. Such cheap power would make feasible large-scale electrolysis to produce hydrogen and other fuels and chemical raw materials

  17. Remote Electric Power Transfer Between Spacecrafts by Infrared Beamed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Boris E.; Evdokimov, Roman A.; Legostaev, Victor P.; Lopota, Vitaliy A.; Sokolov, Boris A.; Tugaenko, Vjacheslav Yu.

    2011-11-01

    High efficient wireless electric energy transmission (WET) technology between spacecrafts by laser channel is proposed. WET systems could be used for remote power supplying of different consumers in space. First of all, there are autonomous technology modules for microgravity experiments, micro and nano satellites, different equipment for explorations of planetary surfaces, space transport vehicles with electric rocket propulsion systems. The main components of the WET technology consist of radiation sources on the base of semiconductor IR laser diodes; systems for narrow laser beam creation; special photovoltaic receivers for conversion of monochromatic IR radiation with high energy density to electric power. The multistage space experiment for WET technology testing is described. During this experiment energy will be transmitted from International Space Station to another spacecrafts like cargo transport vehicles (Progress or/and ATV) and micro satellites.

  18. Lafayette, Colorado: Using Energy Data for Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Planning (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Lafayette, Colorado: Using Energy Data for Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Planning" explains how the City of Lafayette used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  19. The energy and electric development in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Khac, Nhan

    2015-11-01

    After a description of the Vietnamese geography and economy, this report presents the Vietnamese energy system, comments the status and origin of electricity production in this country (shares of hydraulic, gas turbine, coal production, and imports). Then, the author presents the various aspects defined within the electric energy development plan for 2011-2020 with a projection until 2030: development principles, objectives, instructions for production plants and for grids, and investments. He proposes a focus on hydroelectricity (meteorological data regarding precipitations, status and power of existing dams, situation and negotiation about the Mekong, problems associated with the development of hydroelectricity in Vietnam), and a focus on the relationship between nuclear energy and climate change (safety issues due to climate change, nuclear plant projects are postponed, the only strategic choice is a massive exploitation of renewable energies). In the last part, the author discusses predictions regarding energy demand, and the associated planning and programming to face this increasing demand

  20. Electric weak interaction at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satsunkevich, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of an experimental evidence for the existence of W +- , Z 0 and H-bosons obtained at c.m.s. energies (10-60) GeV is carried out in order to establish the gauge group of magnetic electro and weak interactions. Indirect testing techniques of the Weinberg-Salam model via the study of interference near-resonance phenomena between near-resonances and resonance amplitudes are evaluated. The usefullness of near-resonance interference for better evaluation of properties of a Z 0 meson is pointed out [ru

  1. 77 FR 61592 - Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission; Public Service Commission of Yazoo City; South Mississippi Electric... (FPA), 16 USC 824(e) and Sec. 825(h), Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation, Mississippi Delta...

  2. Energy efficient motion control of the electric bus on route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotiev, G. O.; Butarovich, D. O.; Kositsyn, B. B.

    2018-02-01

    At present, the urgent problem is the reduction of energy costs of urban motor transport. The article proposes a method of solving this problem by developing an energy-efficient law governing the movement of an electric bus along a city route. To solve this problem, an algorithm is developed based on the dynamic programming method. The proposed method allows you to take into account the constraints imposed on the phase coordinates, control action, as well as on the time of the route. In the course of solving the problem, the model of rectilinear motion of an electric bus on a horizontal reference surface is considered, taking into account the assumptions that allow it to be adapted for the implementation of the method. For the formation of a control action in the equations of motion dynamics, an algorithm for changing the traction / braking torque on the wheels of an electric bus is considered, depending on the magnitude of the control parameter and the speed of motion. An optimal phase trajectory was obtained on a selected section of the road for the prototype of an electric bus. The article presents the comparison of simulation results obtained with the optimal energy efficient control law with the results obtained by a test driver. The comparison proved feasibility of the energy efficient control law for the automobile city electric transport.

  3. Distributed Electrical Energy Systems: Needs, Concepts, Approaches and Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Jun [University of Denver; Gao, Wenzhong [University of Denver; Zheng, Xinhu [University of Minnesota; Yang, Liuqing [Colorado State University; Hao, Jun [University of Denver; Dai, Xiaoxiao [University of Denver

    2017-09-01

    Intelligent distributed electrical energy systems (IDEES) are featured by vast system components, diversifled component types, and difficulties in operation and management, which results in that the traditional centralized power system management approach no longer flts the operation. Thus, it is believed that the blockchain technology is one of the important feasible technical paths for building future large-scale distributed electrical energy systems. An IDEES is inherently with both social and technical characteristics, as a result, a distributed electrical energy system needs to be divided into multiple layers, and at each layer, a blockchain is utilized to model and manage its logic and physical functionalities. The blockchains at difierent layers coordinate with each other and achieve successful operation of the IDEES. Speciflcally, the multi-layer blockchains, named 'blockchain group', consist of distributed data access and service blockchain, intelligent property management blockchain, power system analysis blockchain, intelligent contract operation blockchain, and intelligent electricity trading blockchain. It is expected that the blockchain group can be self-organized into a complex, autonomous and distributed IDEES. In this complex system, frequent and in-depth interactions and computing will derive intelligence, and it is expected that such intelligence can bring stable, reliable and efficient electrical energy production, transmission and consumption.

  4. Some Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Urban Electric Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru A. Nicola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates some aspects of energy conversion processes during underground electric train operation. Energy conversion processes are explained using exergy, in order to support transport system sustainability. Loss of exergy reflects a loss of potential of energy to do work. Following the notion that life in Nature demonstrates sustainable energy conversion, we approach the sustainability of urban transportation systems according to the model of an ecosystem. The presentation steps based on an industrial ecosystem metabolism include describing the urban electric railway system as an industrial ecosystem with its limits and components, defining system operation regimes, and assessing the equilibrium points of the system for two reference frames. For an electric train, exergy losses can be related to the energy flows during dynamic processes, and exergy conversion in these processes provides a meaningful measure of the industrial (i.e., transportation ecosystem efficiency. As a validation of the theoretical results, a case study is analyzed for three underground urban electric train types REU-U, REU-M, REU-G operating in the Bucharest Underground Railway System (METROREX. The main experimental results are presented and processed, and relevant diagrams are constructed. It is determined that there is great potential for improving the performance of rail systems and increasing their sustainability. For instance, power converters and efficient anti-skid systems can ensure optimum traction and minimum electricity use, and the recovered energy in electric braking can be used by other underground trains, increasing exergy efficiency, although caution must be exercised when doing so to avoid reducing the efficiency of the overall system.

  5. Nuclear energy resources for electrical power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, K.F.

    1974-01-01

    'Nuclear Energy Resources' is interpreted as the nuclear power systems currently available commercially and those at an advanced stage of development, together with full and associated resources required to implement large-scale nuclear programs. Technical advantages and disadvantages of the established power reactor systems are reviewed, and the uranium fuel situation is outlined in terms of supply and demand, the relationship of resources to the requiremnts of current reactor types, and the likely future implications of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). Because of its importance for the future, the problems, status, and likely time scale of the FBR are discussed in some detail. It is concluded that the most important areas for nearterm attention in Australia are the criteria and conditions that would apply to nuclear installations, and the possible development of uranium fuel cycle industries. The pattern of development of reactor and fuel cycle strategies overseas is important for uranium industry planning, and in the long term plutonium availability may be a key factor in power and energy planning. Finally, acceptance of nuclear power includes acceptance that its radioactive wastes will have to be stored on earth, and recent developments to demonstrate that this can be done safely and economically are very important in terms of longterm public attitudes. (author)

  6. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  7. Three fuzzy reasoning models as a decision suport aid, to find an electrical energy tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela GHINITA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is a laboratory-work developed as an example of approximate (fuzzy reasoning for students, possible to be used as a decision – support to estimate an electrical energy (EE price for consumers. The three fuzzy tariff estimation models that are developed, integrate not only the S.C Electrica S.A.-single-supplier rate position, but and some (social constraints/ compulsions of National Authority of Settlements from Energy (NASE beginning with 1999, in this transition period from Romania. Although is possible, the paper not refer to a partial-price concrete case (internal tariff used in certain year, production price, transport price, distribution price, spot price, or an external price to be sold electrical energy, etc. This “laboratory-work-paper” shows how, by changing the parameters of S.C Electrica S.A. and NASE, it is possible to can perform sensitivity tests on the tariff function model, until can obtain an acceptable and true price. In this aim, the three fuzzy models use different rules for pricing: conservative, aggressive, and different order of words concerning the rules respectively, finally doing a comparation among prices and models. The paper not finished all fuzzy possibilities (rules which can influences the expected value of a some EE tariff but, with certitude, can create a discussion base, about the way of approximate/ fuzzy reasoning, as a modality to find and to refine an EE price.

  8. FUZZY MODELS AS DECISION-SUPPORT APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY TARIFFING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela GHINITA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a decision – support application which design and use two fuzzy models to estimation an electrical energy tariff, as it to be sell at consumers. The fuzzy tariff estimation model integrate not only the S.C Electrica S.A. rate position, but and some constraints/ compulsions of National Authority of Settlements from Energy (NASE, beginning with 1999, in this transition period from Romania. The paper not refer to a price concrete case (internal tariff used in certain year, production price, transport price, distribution price, spot price, or an external price to be sold electrical energy – EE, etc. The paper shows how, by changing the parameters of S.C Electrica S.A and NASE, it is possible to can perform sensitivity tests on the tariff function model until we obtain an acceptable price. Much more: the two fuzzy models use different rules (conservative and aggressive, with hedge operators, respectively for pricing. Finally, the paper not finished all fuzzy possibilities (rules which can influences the expected value of a some EE tariff but, can create a discussion base about the way of approximate/ fuzzy reasoning, as a decision-support application to find a new EE price.

  9. Current Status of Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Lee, Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon

    2009-05-01

    IAEA Technical Meeting(I3-TM-37394) on 'Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy' has been successfully held from March 3 to 6 in 2009 at KAERI/INTEC. The 24 experts from 12 countries participated in this meeting and provided 17 presentations and their opinions and comments in desalination, hydrogen production, and heat application sessions. All of the participants from 12 countries agreed that nuclear power should be the potential carbon-free energy source to replace crude oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the fields of non-electric applications such as desalination, hydrogen production, district heating, and industrial processes applications

  10. Renewable sources of electric energy: state and prospects (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan

    1995-01-01

    Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements, have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of electric energy. This is even more relevant fore Macedonia, with the only fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted, the environment notably polluted and energy strategy absent. Concerning indigenous renewable sources of electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, as well as to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab., 3 ills

  11. CLASSICAL AND MODERN METHODS USED IN ELECTRICAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruta MIHAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The forecast can be defined like approximately of the unknown events from the future; this thing is necessary because of the existence of some unknown events, but this events play an important role in taking some decisions. It is obvious that the uncertainty's elimination is not possible, so the forecast is a tool who tries to minimalize this uncertainties. The forecast's importance in the electrical energy management is very important. The forecast of the energy's request presumes the estimation of this request's characteristics: size, time evolution, the request's structure, and so on. The forecast of the electrical charge is a tool of a modern EMS.

  12. Energy efficiency of electrical infrared heating elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.J.; Farrelly, R.; O’Shaughnessy, S.M.; Robinson, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of the radiant energy efficiency of infrared heating elements. • Performed for a commercially available ceramic heater element for two cases. • Total radiant power and net radiant efficiency is computed. • Radiant efficiencies are strongly dependant on the input power to the element. • In-plane efficiencies depend on the distance from the heater. - Abstract: A measurement system has been designed to characterize the radiant energy efficiency of infrared heating elements. The system also allows for measurement of the radiant heat flux distribution emitted from radiant heater assemblies. To facilitate these, a 6-axis robotic arm is fitted with a Schmidt–Boelter radiant heat flux gauge. A LabVIEW interface operates the robot and positions the sensor in the desired location and subsequently acquires the desired radiant heat flux measurement. To illustrate the functionality of the measurement system and methodology, radiant heat flux distributions and efficiency calculations are performed for a commercially available ceramic heater element for two cases. In the first, a spherical surface is traced around the entire heater assembly and the total radiant power and net radiant efficiency is computed. In the second, 50 cm × 50 cm vertical planes are traced parallel to the front face of the heater assembly at distances between 10 cm and 50 cm and the in-plane power and efficiencies are computed. The results indicate that the radiant efficiencies are strongly dependant on the input power to the element and, for the in-plane efficiencies, depend on the distance from the heater.

  13. Energy consumption of electricity end uses in Malaysian historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul N.; Edwards, Rodger E.; Zawawi, Emma M.A.

    2007-07-15

    Malaysia has inherited hundreds of heritage buildings from the past including those from the Indian, Chinese and Colonial eras apart from the indigenous traditional buildings. These buildings have the most unique ecstatic value from the viewpoint of architecture, culture, art, etc. Malaysian economy boom in 1980s spurred the need for more buildings especially in large cities. As a result, most of the historic buildings have been converted and transformed into commercial use. As reported by METP, Malaysian buildings energy uses are reflected by the energy consumption in the industrial and commercial sectors. Most of the buildings' energy consumption is electricity, used for running and operating the plants, lighting, lifts and escalators and other equipment in the buildings. These are amongst the factors that have resulted in the high demand for electricity in Malaysia. As outlined in the eighth Malaysia Plan, Malaysia is taking steps in conserving energy and reducing energy consumption on electricity consumption in building. This paper aims to present the breakdown of the major electricity end uses characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. The analysis was performed on annual data, allowing comparison with published benchmarks to give an indication of efficiency. Based on data collected a 'normalisation' calculated electricity consumption was established with the intention of improving the comparison between buildings in different climatic regions or with different occupancy patterns. This is useful for identifying where the design needed further attention and helped pinpoint problem areas within a building. It is anticipated that this study would give a good indication on the electricity consumption characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. (Author)

  14. The development of electric power/energy trading in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engebretsen, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    One of the main aims of the Norwegian government is to make the electric power market more effective. A new energy law has been passed and other initiatives have been taken which have altered the framework of the conditions for electricity production and sales in Norway. The proposition for trading electric power and the development of new policies for calculating transmission tariffs has been dealt with in addition to plans for the extent of the development of hydroelectric power. Norway is the world's sixth largest producer of hydroelectricity. The domestic supply of electricity is described as well as the nature of the reorganization of the transmission of electricity and Norwegian foreign trade proposals within this area. The government is interested in taxing with regard to production instead of on the power itself in order to stimulate better energy economy. It is important that this will have a neutral effect between export and domestic consumption when contract sales to abroad are initiated. A more efficient electric power market will profit Norwegian society. Statistical data are included. (AB)

  15. Low-energy control of electrical turbulence in the heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Stefan; Fenton, Flavio H.; Kornreich, Bruce G.; Squires, Amgad; Bittihn, Philip; Hornung, Daniel; Zabel, Markus; Flanders, James; Gladuli, Andrea; Campoy, Luis; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Luther, Gisa; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Krinsky, Valentin I.; Pumir, Alain; Gilmour, Robert F.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2011-07-01

    Controlling the complex spatio-temporal dynamics underlying life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias such as fibrillation is extremely difficult, because of the nonlinear interaction of excitation waves in a heterogeneous anatomical substrate. In the absence of a better strategy, strong, globally resetting electrical shocks remain the only reliable treatment for cardiac fibrillation. Here we establish the relationship between the response of the tissue to an electric field and the spatial distribution of heterogeneities in the scale-free coronary vascular structure. We show that in response to a pulsed electric field, E, these heterogeneities serve as nucleation sites for the generation of intramural electrical waves with a source density ρ(E) and a characteristic time, τ, for tissue depolarization that obeys the power law τ~Eα. These intramural wave sources permit targeting of electrical turbulence near the cores of the vortices of electrical activity that drive complex fibrillatory dynamics. We show in vitro that simultaneous and direct access to multiple vortex cores results in rapid synchronization of cardiac tissue and therefore, efficient termination of fibrillation. Using this control strategy, we demonstrate low-energy termination of fibrillation in vivo. Our results give new insights into the mechanisms and dynamics underlying the control of spatio-temporal chaos in heterogeneous excitable media and provide new research perspectives towards alternative, life-saving low-energy defibrillation techniques.

  16. Ultrasonic Spot Welding of a Rare-Earth Containing ZEK100 Magnesium Alloy: Effect of Welding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macwan, A.; Chen, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic spot welding was used to join a low rare-earth containing ZEK100 Mg alloy at different levels of welding energy, and tensile lap shear tests were conducted to evaluate the failure strength in relation to the microstructural changes. It was observed that dynamic recrystallization occurred in the nugget zone; the grain size increased and microhardness decreased with increasing welding energy arising from the increasing interface temperature and strain rate. The weld interface experienced severe plastic deformation at a high strain rate from ~500 to ~2100 s-1 with increasing welding energy from 500 to 2000 J. A relationship between grain size and Zener-Hollomon parameter, and a Hall-Petch-type relationship between microhardness and grain size were established. The tensile lap shear strength and failure energy were observed to first increase with increasing welding energy, reach the maximum values at 1500 J, and then decrease with a further increase in the welding energy. The samples welded at a welding energy ≤1500 J exhibited an interfacial failure mode, while nugget pull-out occurred in the samples welded at a welding energy above 1500 J. The fracture surfaces showed typical shear failure. Low-temperature tests at 233 K (-40 °C) showed no significant effect on the strength and failure mode of joints welded at the optimal welding energy of 1500 J. Elevated temperature tests at 453 K (180 °C) revealed a lower failure load but a higher failure energy due to the increased deformability, and showed a mixed mode of partial interfacial failure and partial nugget pull-out.

  17. Time-varying value of electric energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie A.; Eckman, Tom; Goldman, Charles

    2017-06-30

    Electric energy efficiency resources save energy and may reduce peak demand. Historically, quantification of energy efficiency benefits has largely focused on the economic value of energy savings during the first year and lifetime of the installed measures. Due in part to the lack of publicly available research on end-use load shapes (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings) and energy savings shapes, consideration of the impact of energy efficiency on peak demand reduction (i.e., capacity savings) has been more limited. End-use load research and the hourly valuation of efficiency savings are used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity and demand response planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service. This study reviews existing literature on the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings, provides examples in four geographically diverse locations of how consideration of the time-varying value of efficiency savings impacts the calculation of power system benefits, and identifies future research needs to enhance the consideration of the time-varying value of energy efficiency in cost-effectiveness screening analysis. Findings from this study include: -The time-varying value of individual energy efficiency measures varies across the locations studied because of the physical and operational characteristics of the individual utility system (e.g., summer or winter peaking, load factor, reserve margin) as well as the time periods during which savings from measures occur. -Across the four locations studied, some of the largest capacity benefits from energy efficiency are derived from the deferral of transmission and distribution system infrastructure upgrades. However, the deferred cost of such upgrades also exhibited the greatest range

  18. Participation of an Energy Storage Aggregator in Electricity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Ocana, Jesus E.; Ortega-Vazquez, Miguel A.; Zhang, Baosen

    2017-01-01

    An important function of aggregators is to enable the participation of small energy storage units in electricity markets. This paper studies two generally overlooked aspects related to aggregators of energy storage: i) the relationship between the aggregator and its constituent storage units and ii) the aggregator's effect on system welfare. Regarding i), we show that short-term outcomes can be Pareto-inefficient: all players could be better-off. In practice, however, aggregators and storage ...

  19. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2002-08-27

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  20. Energy efficiency improvement of medical electric tools and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkov Aleksandr S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing volume of applications of various kinds of electric drives in all spheres of human activity, the issues in improving the efficiency of the electromechanical converters of electric energy, one of the most important components of the electric drive (ED, are becoming increasingly important. Such issues include reducing their weight and size, improving the functional characteristics of these devices to increase their operational life and reducing the cost of manufacture. Taking full advantage of these opportunities relates to the AC and DC single-phase commutator motor (SCM, which is widely used in regulated and high-speed motor drives in medical electric hand tools. The SCM is used in machinery where the load torque has a hyperbolic dependence on the rotational speed and the need to work with a large motor overload due to the “soft” mechanical characteristics of such motors.

  1. The role of nuclear energy meeting electricity needs in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising, R.

    2017-01-01

    Demand for electricity has risen dramatically regardless of economic shocks while accelerating rise in world electricity consumption. Decarbonizing electricity generation - need for low life cycle emissions: Nuclear energy is among the best and makes quick, lasting decarbonization possible. Harmonized regulatory processes: Enhance standardization, harmonize and update global codes and standards. Nuclear is regulated, financed and managed outside of normal protocols without an expansion of nuclear, many economies will fall short of their net mid-century carbon dioxide emission goal and society will fall short of the 2-degree scenario. Timely licensing of new technologies. In effective safety paradigm it good to embrace a holistic approach to society risks from electricity generation so that health and environmental benefits of all sources are maximized

  2. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ...; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Under two separate applications, Noble Energy Marketing... Marketing and Trade Corp., 333 Ludlow Street, Suite 1230, Stamford, CT 06902. A final decision will be made...

  3. 75 FR 45111 - Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    .... ER00-167-000; Docket No. ER03- 752-000] Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation; Notice of Revocation of Market- Based Rate Tariff July 23, 2010. On... FERC ] 61,334 (2003). In the June 25 Order, the Commission directed Strategic Energy Management Corp...

  4. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles : Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power

  5. Atomic energy PR activities in Mitsubishi Electric Corp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Mitsubishi Electric Corp. began the research on the peaceful utilization of atomic energy at the beginning of 1955, and while obtaining the technical introduction and aid from Westinghouse of USA, it energetically promoted the domestic production of instrumentation and control systems which are important for the operation and control of nuclear power plants, thus established the independent technology. As the results, the electric facilities such as turbogenerators, transformers and GIS and instrumentation and control systems of 17 PWR power plants in operation and 6 plants under construction were mostly delivered by Mitsubishi Electric Corp. Atomic Energy PR Committee was organized in this company in July, 1988, and the basic policy of the PR activities is those for promoting the correct under-standing and recognition of the necessity and safety of nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel cycle for the employees and their families of the associated companies and the cooperation with the PR activities of the government and electric power companies. The Publication of PR bulletins, the making of large posters for atomic energy PR, the inspection tours to atomic energy facilities, the training of persons concerned and so on have been carried out as the concrete activities. The PR policy for the future is shown. (K.I.)

  6. Contribution of wind energy to future electricity requirements of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.; Uqaili, M. A.; Memon, M.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficit country. About half of the country's population has no access to electricity and per capita supply is only 520 kWh. About 67% of the conventional electricity is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. It has been projected that electricity demand in Pakistan would increase at an average annual growth rate of 5% to 12% under different scenarios. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payment situation. Pakistan is becoming increasingly more dependent on a few sources of supply and its energy security often hangs on the fragile threat of imported oil that is subject to supply disruptions and price volatility. The production and consumption of fossil fuels also adversely affects the quality of the environment due to indiscriminate release of toxic substances. Pakistan spends huge amount on the degradation of the environment. This shows that Pakistan must develop alternate, indigenous and environment friendly energy resources such as wind energy to meet its future electricity requirements. This paper presents an overview of wind power generation potential and assessment of its contribution to future electricity requirements of Pakistan under different policy scenarios. The country has about 1050 km long coastline. The technical potential of centralized grid connected wind power and wind home systems in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as about 484 TWh and 0.135 TWh per year respectively. The study concludes that wind power could meet about 20% to 50% of the electricity demand in Pakistan by the year 2030. The development and utilization of wind power would reduce the pressure on oil imports, protect the environment from pollution and improve the socio-economic conditions of the people

  7. Efficient integration of renewable energies in the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabe, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity sector aims to carry out coordination tasks within the system by markets and market prices. This study examines how markets need to be designed to carry out coordination tasks caused by integration of renewable energies in an efficient way. This question is applied to the German electricity system and recommendations are derived from identified deficits. The examination uses the structure-conduct-performance approach of industrial organisation economics. Integration of renewable energies does not result in entirely new coordination tasks but complicates those that exist in any electricity supply system. Within the short-term coordination tasks provision and operation of reserve capacity is affected by renewable energies. Long-term coordination means that the relation between fixed and variable costs of generators as well as generator flexibility has to be adjusted to the characteristics of renewable energies. The relevant short-term coordination task with the network is congestion management. In the long run costs of grid expansion and permanent congestion management have to be balanced. For the execution of short-run coordination tasks integrated and centralised market architectures are superior to decentralised architectures. The increase of short-term coordination tasks due to renewable energies caused by inflexibilities of consumers and conventional generators results in more information that has to be considered. By centralising that information in one market, an increase in productive efficiency can be obtained. In Germany the increased coordination tasks are determined by the integration of wind generators into the electricity system. The present German market architecture results in inefficiencies in short-term coordination. This is demonstrated by an analysis of procedural rules and prices of the ancillary service markets. They demonstrate that market performance is low and significant deviations from competitive prices

  8. Wind energy for the electricity supply; Energie eolienne pour la fourniture d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, J.M

    2009-01-15

    This document deals with the today implementing of the wind energy for the supply of electricity in the electric power distribution network. It is based on the technologies developed to prepare the wind turbines installation, build the turbines of these power plants and plan the non continuous and weakly forecasting supply of the wind electricity with the current operating of the networks. (A.L.B.)

  9. INFORMATION-ENERGY METHODOLOGY OF THE AIRCRAFT WITH ELECTRIC PROPULSION ENERGY COMPLEX DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Vladimirovich Zhmurov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of aircraft development shows that from the point of view of sustainability and energy effi- ciency the most acceptable approach is the transition to all-electric aircraft (AEC. Electrification is aimed primarily on the aircraft most energy-intensive elements efficiency enhancing. Primarily these are power plant and air conditioning system. The actual problem discussed in this article is the development of methodology for the design of aircraft power complex with electric propulsion. The electric power plant literally extends the concept of aircraft power complex. The article con- siders two-level energy-informational design technology of the aircraft power complex. On the energetic level, the energy flows are optimized, and on the information level, the control laws that ensure restrictions compliance and loss minimiza- tion for a given level of entire system reliability are synthesized. From the point of view of sustainability and energy effi- ciency, the most acceptable is the transition to AEC. The proposed information-energy technique provides an opportunity to develop electric and hybrid aircraft with optimal weight and size and energy characteristics due to: electricity consump- tion timeline optimization through the redistribution of electric end users switch on moments, which provides a more uni- form power mode, allowing the same set of electric users to reduce generator rated power, and as a result reduce the flight weight; manage a distributed system of electricity generation that provides the ability to use diverse energy sources; faul tsafety management based on rapid changes in the power network topology; energy recovery control; the sources, convert- ers and users (input circuit and power network real-time diagnostic operations.

  10. Are the electric plans following the Brazilian energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metri, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    The first article of Brazilian law 9.478, enacted in 1997, provides the main objectives for the country's energy policy. After this law came into force, all public and private investments bringing about increase in energy offers should comply with these objectives. The 1990's saw privatizations of major distribution companies as well as of some generation companies, stretching even into the 2000's. At the same time, the basic rules for the electric sector were also modified. The Government maintained its planning role in this sector. Law 10.847, enacted in 2004, sets forth the guidelines for the electric sector's activities. Since then, many rounds of bids have been conducted in order to meet increasing needs of generation and transmission. Now, almost ten years after the introduction of the new rules, some electric-generating plants and transmission lines have been built or are under construction. There is doubt whether these rounds will suffice in satisfying the original goals. Today, nuclear energy is produced exclusively by the State, and it seems that it will remain so for years to come. It is usual to hear that the nuclear energy does not participate in the natural competition existing in the planning stage, because this source is a State imposition. Nuclear plants are built in a pace that guarantees the maintenance of nuclear technology in the country. But nuclear energy has not been banned from electric planning. This planning must encompass all possible judgment criteria, so that the positive aspects of nuclear energy may also stand out. In this way, the objectives established by Law 9,478 may not comprise best judgment criteria. If the planning shows nuclear energy as an attractive alternative, it should not then be adopted as an obligation. (author)

  11. Electric power generation from renewable energy sources in Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackstein, G.; Riedel, J.; Rindelhardt, U.; Schwanitz, M.

    1997-08-01

    The report sums up the potentials for electric energy generation from different renewable energy sources in Saxony. Natural potentials, technical potentials and economic potentials are considered separately. The established technical potential (without biomass) corresponds roughly to an electic power generation of 7400 GW hours annually. About 2/3 of this is wind energy, the rest is divided equally among hydro power and photo-voltaics. The harnessing of these potentials since 1990 is described in detail. Apart from hydro power, which has a long history as an energy source, wind energy, especially, is experiencing a very dynamic development. In 1997 still, wind power will outstrip hydro power as the most important renewable energy source in Saxony. But the further extension of these two energy sources meets increasingly with ecological objections or opposition. In 1996, about 1.3 per cent of the electric power consumed in Saxony came from renewable energy sources. It seems possible to increase this share to 5 per cent by the year 2000. (orig.) [de

  12. Technical analysis on energy conservation and emission reduction of new energy electric vehicle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    With the global environmental problems and energy crisis continuously emerging, all countries are taking active measures to achieve the benign development of domestic economy and society. Vehicle, as a large oil consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, nend to be a revolutionary change. Therefore, the development of new energy electric vehicle has become the consensus of the world. On this background, this paper has sorted out the current state and the related development planning of new energy electric vehicles in different countries to predict the car ownership of the new energy electric vehicles using elastic coefficient method and setting different path of development, conclude that under the consideration of energy conservation and emissions reduction factors, our country should mainly promote the BEV to realize the maximum energy conservation and emissions reduction.

  13. Electric vehicle charging to support renewable energy integration in a capacity constrained electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Examination of EV charging in a wind rich area with transmission constraints. • Multiple survey instruments to determine transportation needs, when charging occurs. • Simple charging, time-of-day scheduled, and ideal smart charging investigated. • Export power peaks reduced by 2% with TOD, 10% with smart charging 10% of fleet. • Smart charging EVs enables enough added wind capacity to power the fleet. - Abstract: Digby, Nova Scotia, is a largely rural area with a wealth of renewable energy resources, principally wind and tidal. Digby’s electrical load is serviced by an aging 69 kV transmission line that often operates at the export capacity limit because of a local wind energy converter (WEC) field. This study examines the potential of smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) to achieve two objectives: (1) add load so as to increase export capacity; (2) charge EVs using renewable energy. Multiple survey instruments were used to determine transportation energy needs and travel timing. These were used to create EV charging load timeseries based on “convenience”, “time-of-day”, and idealized “smart” charging. These charging scenarios were evaluated in combination with high resolution data of generation at the wind field, electrical flow through the transmission system, and electricity load. With a 10% adoption rate of EVs, time-of-day charging increased local renewable energy usage by 20% and enables marginal WEC upgrading. Smart charging increases charging by local renewable energy by 73%. More significantly, it adds 3 MW of load when power exports face constraints, allowing enough additional renewable electricity generation capacity to fully power those vehicles.

  14. Electric or pneumatic? Comparing electric and pneumatic linear drives with regard to energy efficiency and costs

    OpenAIRE

    Hirzel, Simon; Hettesheimer, Tim; Schröter, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Linear drives are broadly used in industrial automation, e.g. for material handling systems, assembly lines or machine tools. In many applications, both compressed-air powered pneumatic drives as well as linear electric drives can be used. The use of compressed air is generally associated with comparatively low energy efficiency. This has triggered a debate about the energy-related performance of alternative drive systems. In this paper, we contribute to this debate by providing insights into...

  15. Research on potential user identification model for electric energy substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Huaijian; Chen, Meiling; Lin, Haiying; Yang, Shuo; Miao, Bo; Zhu, Xinzhi

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of energy substitution plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in china. Energy service management platform of alternative energy users based on the data in the enterprise production value, product output, coal and other energy consumption as a potential evaluation index, using principal component analysis model to simplify the formation of characteristic index, comprehensive index contains the original variables, and using fuzzy clustering model for the same industry user’s flexible classification. The comprehensive index number and user clustering classification based on constructed particle optimization neural network classification model based on the user, user can replace electric potential prediction. The results of an example show that the model can effectively predict the potential of users’ energy potential.

  16. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Rune [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Agder, Jon Lilletuns vei 9, 4879 Grimstad (Norway)

    2015-12-07

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  17. Case of nuclear and other sources of electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, A. de

    1999-01-01

    This work is destined primarily to the FRAMATOME personnel and aim at endowing them with knowledge necessary to answer the usual questions raised by inquiring people. The booklet presents basic data, figures and arguments necessary in sustaining a discussion upon the nuclear energy controversial issues. These data are grouped around the following 13 issues: 1. Electric power in the world; 2. Production costs; 3. Resources and reserves; 4.Safety and nuclear accidents; 5. Accidents related to the energy production; 6. Health and radiation protection; 7. Environment and refuses; 8. Reprocessing; 9. Radioactive waste transportation; 10. Wastes; 11. Dismantling; 12; PWR and non-proliferation; 13. Public opinion and nuclear energy

  18. Photovoltaic. Solar electricity, a sustainable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryi-Hipp, Gerhard; Loyen, Richard; Knaack, Jan; Chrometzka, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    This German publication outlines that solar energy is now essential to any sustainable energy mix, and describes the operation principle of solar photovoltaic energy production. It describes how it can be applied for the production of electricity in isolated areas, and for individual housing as well as commercial buildings, and presents the concept of ground-based solar plants. The next part discusses the development of the photovoltaic market (its huge potential, its world size) and indicates the different associated arrangements of financial support or subsidy. It also discusses how photovoltaic markets can be developed, and proposes an overview of the German model

  19. Entirely renewable energy-based electricity supply system (small scale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Div. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a system comprising of a renewable source of energy and an energy storage device to smooth the power fluctuations. In order to investigate the performance of the system, an exact mathematical model for the system has been developed. Because of non-linearity of the mathematical model a computational method is used for performance investigation of the system. The objective of the paper is to present an entirely renewable energy based electricity supply system (small scale), to suggest the mathematical model of the system and computational method to analyze the performance of the system.

  20. Saving energy and protecting environment of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-05-01

    With the concept of low carbon economy, saving energy, and protecting environment spread, the development of the electric promotes the research pace of wireless charging electronic vehicles, which will become the best choice of energy supply in the future. To generalize and exploit the corresponding alternative fuels and the research and development, and promotion of electric vehicles, becomes the effective means to directly reduce the consumption of fuel, effectively relieves the problem of nervous energy and environmental pollution, and really conforms to the requirements of the national strategy of sustainable development in China. This paper introduces the status of electronic cars and wireless charging, expounds the principle of wireless charging, and concludes the full text.

  1. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    in the day-ahead market and to correct for potential energy imbalances in the intraday market and ultimately in the balancing market. However, the design and rules of electricity markets do not support the transition from conventional generation to renewable energy sources as recently sought by many...... (generators and consumers) promoting equity, fairness, impartiality and equality. The hybrid methodology combines different costs (fixed, network usage/congestion and losses) covering all the gaps of each conventional cost allocation method.......All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...

  2. Intelligent energy systems - Regulating the electricity grid using car batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the electricity supply industry will, in the future, be able to substantially rely on decentrally organised sources of renewable energy. As such forms of power generation are, in part, difficult to plan, the increasing importance of regulating energy is being stressed. The use of the batteries of plug-in hybrid vehicles to provide such regulating power is discussed. So-called smart grids within the framework of a deregulated energy market are discussed and examples of possible configurations are noted. The intelligent control of apparatus and generation and storage facilities is discussed. Individual mobility with lower emissions is examined. New business areas now opening up for the electricity economy and vehicle manufacturers are discussed.

  3. Matching of renewable source of energy generation graphs and electrical load in local energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro; Komar, Vyacheslav; Sobchuk, Dmytro; Kravchuk, Sergiy; Kacejko, Piotr; Zavidsky, Vladislav

    2017-08-01

    The paper contains the method of matching generation graph of photovoltaic electric stations and consumers. Characteristic feature of this method is the application of morphometric analysis for assessment of non-uniformity of the integrated graph of energy supply, optimal coefficients of current distribution, that enables by mean of refining the powers, transferring in accordance with the graph , to provide the decrease of electric energy losses in the grid and transport task, as the optimization tool.

  4. Environmental evaluation of different forms of electric energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Electric energy has an important function in the modem world; it is fundamental for progress and development. The electricity discovery allowed improvements in several areas: health, water and food supply, quality of life and sanitary conditions, and contributed also to the establishment of the capitalist and consumption society. The use of oil as an energy generation source was the impulse for the industrial revolution and machines, motors and generators were developed contributing to the progress This also brought the pollutant gases emission (CO 2 , CO, SO x and NO x ) and other substances that had contributed to the greenhouse effect, the ozone hole and the acid rain, modifying the balance of the planet. The development and implementation of other forms of energy generation caused local changes, where they were installed, giving rise to environmental impacts. This work presents an evaluation about different forms of electrical energy generation and the environmental impacts relative to each one of them. Five forms of electric energy generation were considered: thermoelectric, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind and solar energy. The implementation and the development of the petroleum industry in the world and in Brazil are presented. The geology of the oil, its extraction and quality improvement, besides details of the functioning of three types of thermoelectric power plants - coal, gas and oil - are also discussed. The specific as well as the environmental impacts they have in common are highlighted. The impacts originated from the deactivation of each one of them are also pointed out. The discovery and the development of nuclear energy in Brazil and in the world as well as the functioning of a nuclear power plant, the impacts generated by its operation and decommissioning are presented. The history, functioning and development of hydroelectric energy generation in Brazil, characterized by the great plants, are related to environmental aspects The environmental

  5. Energy and electricity demand forecasting for nuclear power planning in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This Guidebook is designed to be a reference document to forecast energy and electricity demand. It presents concepts and methodologies that have been developed to make an analytical approach to energy/electricity demand forecasting as part of the planning process. The Guidebook is divided into 6 main chapters: (Energy demand and development, energy demand analysis, electric load curve analysis, energy and electricity demand forecasting, energy and electricity demand forecasting tools used in various organizations, IAEA methodologies for energy and electricity demand forecasting) and 3 appendices (experience with case studies carried out by the IAEA, reference technical data, reference economic data). A bibliography and a glossary complete the Guidebook. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  7. Smart electric grids in the United Kingdom energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, Olivier; Dreyfus, Charles-Antoine

    2011-09-01

    This study first gives an overview of the current status and limitations of the British power grid. It indicates the British energy mix, describes the network structure and its economic operation (gross and retail market with the bid and offer system, role of the System Operator, ways to increase the electricity production). It presents the energy policy and its regulation framework, outlines the current limitations and challenges (ageing grid, power crunch, de-carbonation challenges). It presents the development of a smart grid as a solution to economy de-carbonation challenges: definition of the 'smart grid concept', smart grid development planning (from 2010 to 2050), technological transition associated with smart electric grid development (a cleaner but more intermittent and random electricity production, better use of fossil fuels, electric energy storage, consequences for the grid, introduction and effects of smart meters). It describes the new associated economic model: evolution of the value chain, financial challenges (required investments, expected benefits, subsidies), new regulation system. It addresses the strategic challenges and the various uncertainties (notably in terms of consumption, privacy issue in relation with the use of smart meters, and project implementation).

  8. Electric motorcycle charging station powered by solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwattanapong, Akarawat; Chantharasenawong, Chawin

    2018-01-01

    This research proposes a design and verification of an off-grid photovoltaic system (PVS) for electric motorcycle charging station to be located in King’s Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand. The system is designed to work independently (off-grid) and it must be able to fully charge the batteries of a typical passenger electric motorcycle every evening. A 1,000W Toyotron electric motorcycle is chosen for this study. It carries five units of 12.8V 20Ah batteries in series; hence its maximum energy requirement per day is 1,200Wh. An assessment of solar irradiation data and the Generation Factor in Bangkok, Thailand suggests that the charging system consists of one 500W PV panel, an MPPT charge controller, 48V 150Ah battery, a 1,000W DC to AC inverter and other safety devices such as fuses and breakers. An experiment is conducted to verify the viability of the off-grid PVS charging station by collecting the total daily energy generation data in the raining season and winter. The data suggests that the designed off-grid solar power charging station for electric motorcycle is able to supply sufficient energy for daily charging requirements.

  9. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  10. Market potential for non-electric applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the market potential for the non-electric applications of nuclear energy in the near (before 2020) and long (2020-2050) terms. The main non-electric applications are defined here as district heating, desalination (of sea, brackish and waste water), industrial heat supply, ship propulsion and the energy supply for spacecraft. This report is principally devoted to these applications, although a less detailed assessment of some innovative applications (e.g. hydrogen production and coal gasification) is also provided. While the technical details of these applications are covered briefly, emphasis is placed on the economic and other factors that may promote or hinder the penetration of the nuclear option into the market for non-electric energy services. The report is intentionally targeted towards expected demands. It is for this reason that its sections are structured by demand categories and not according to possible reactor types. At the same time, the orientation on the demand side can result in overlaps at the supply side, because the same nuclear reactor can often serve more than one type of demand. Such cases are noted as appropriate. Each section characterizes a specific non-electric application in terms of its market size, its prospects for nuclear technologies and the economic competitiveness of the technologies

  11. Fort Lewis electric energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Currie, J.W.; DeSteese, J.G.; Dirks, J.A.; Marseille, T.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1991-10-01

    In support of the US DOE Federal Energy Management Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations. Fort Lewis, a US Army installation near Tacoma, Washington, was selected as the pilot site for developing this approach. This site was chosen in conjunction with the interests of the Bonneville Power Administration to develop programs for its federal sector customers and the Army Forces Command to develop an in-house program to upgrade the energy efficiency of its installations. This report documents the electricity assessment portion of the approach, providing an estimate of the electricity use baseline and efficiency improvement potential for major sectors and end uses at the Fort. Although the assessment did not identify all possible efficiency improvement opportunities, it is estimated that electricity use can be reduced by at least 20% cost-effectively at the $0.045/kWh marginal cost of electricity in the Pacific Northwest. 12 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Own power: Motives of having electricity without the energy company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenheer, Jorna; Nooij, Michiel de; Sheikh, Omer

    2011-01-01

    New technologies will enable households to generate an increasing amount of their own electricity. Intentions to generate own power are a preliminary step towards actual behavior. Because own generation is still very limited and the behavior of early adopters may not be representative for the complete population, our study focuses on intentions rather than actual behavior. A consumer survey among 2047 Dutch households reveals that environmental concerns are the most important driver of a household's intention to generate its own power. Affinity with technology and energy and the reputation of electricity companies are also significant drivers, but financial factors and power outages are not. About 40% of Dutch households have an intention to generate their own power, with an overrepresentation of young households. This group falls apart in two sub segments; for the 'generating savers' (21%) a high intention to generate own power coincides with a high intention to save energy, whereas generating users (18%) combine a high intention to generate own power with a low intention to save energy. - Highlights: → A consumer survey studies household intentions to generate own power. → Environmental concerns are the most important motive for generating own power. → Other drivers are affinity with technology and reputation of electricity companies. → About 40% of Dutch households feel a need to generate their own electricity.

  13. Spatial analysis of the electrical energy demand in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Mamassis, Nikos; Photis, Yorgos N.

    2017-01-01

    The Electrical Energy Demand (EED) of the agricultural, commercial and industrial sector in Greece, as well as its use for domestic activities, public and municipal authorities and street lighting are analysed spatially using Geographical Information System and spatial statistical methods. The analysis is performed on data which span from 2008 to 2012 and have annual temporal resolution and spatial resolution down to the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level 3. The aim is to identify spatial patterns of the EED and its transformations such as the ratios of the EED to socioeconomic variables, i.e. the population, the total area, the population density and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Based on the analysis, Greece is divided in five regions, each one with a different development model, i.e. Attica and Thessaloniki which are two heavily populated major poles, Thessaly and Central Greece which form a connected geographical region with important agricultural and industrial sector, the islands and some coastal areas which are characterized by an important commercial sector and the rest Greek areas. The spatial patterns can provide additional information for policy decision about the electrical energy management and better representation of the regional socioeconomic conditions. - Highlights: • We visualize spatially the Electrical Energy Demand (EED) in Greece. • We apply spatial analysis methods to the EED data. • Spatial patterns of the EED are identified. • Greece is classified in five distinct groups, based on the analysis. • The results can be used for optimal planning of the electric system.

  14. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  15. Forecasting of Hourly Photovoltaic Energy in Canarian Electrical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, D.; Castaño, C.; Nebot, R.; Piernavieja, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    2010-09-01

    The Canarian Archipelago face similar problems as most insular region lacking of endogenous conventional energy resources and not connected to continental electrical grids. A consequence of the "insular fact" is the existence of isolated electrical systems that are very difficult to interconnect due to the considerable sea depths between the islands. Currently, the Canary Islands have six isolated electrical systems, only one utility generating most of the electricity (burning fuel), a recently arrived TSO (REE) and still a low implementation of Renewable Energy Resources (RES). The low level of RES deployment is a consequence of two main facts: the weakness of the stand-alone grids (from 12 MW in El Hierro up to only 1 GW in Gran Canaria) and the lack of space to install RES systems (more than 50% of the land protected due to environmental reasons). To increase the penetration of renewable energy generation, like solar or wind energy, is necessary to develop tools to manage them. The penetration of non manageable sources into weak grids like the Canarian ones causes a big problem to the grid operator. There are currently 104 MW of PV connected to the islands grids (Dec. 2009) and additional 150 MW under licensing. This power presents a serious challenge for the operation and stability of the electrical system. ITC, together with the local TSO (Red Eléctrica de España, REE) started in 2008 and R&D project to develop a PV energy prediction tool for the six Canarian Insular electrical systems. The objective is to supply reliable information for hourly forecast of the generation dispatch programme and to predict daily solar radiation patterns, in order to help program spinning reserves. ITC has approached the task of weather forecasting using different numerical model (MM5 and WRF) in combination with MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) images. From the online data recorded at several monitored PV plants and meteorological stations, PV nominal power and energy produced

  16. Wind energy for electricity generation in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Different aspects of the island Sri Lanka are discussed in relation to the use of wind energy to generate electric power. The electricity demand and supply are dealt with as well as geo-climatic features. Wind resources in different parts of Sri Lanka are determined. Further study is needed to achieve more data on wind potential and wind speeds. Finally a case study is discussed, carried out to assess the feasibility of integration of wind and hydro resources in combination to meet a predetermined load to be used in an optimal configuration. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Investments in electricity generation in Croatian liberalized market: energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androcec, I.; Viskovic, A.; Slipac, G.

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia should have enough capacities built on its own territory to cover system's peak load at any time for ensuring a long-term reliability of its operation. According to annual increasing of electricity consumption and progressive shutdown of the oldest generating plants, the security of future electricity supply depends on new investments. The market, i.e. a competitive generation, is the driving force in the construction of new power plants. The main stimulus for the construction is the possibility of definite return of invested capital and enabling potential investors to realize the expected revenues (profit). The construction of generating capacities is subject of authorisation procedure or tendering procedure, by approval of the Energy Regulatory Council. The electricity market opening in Croatia is parallel process with establishment of regional energy market in South East Europe where the decision of investment in new power plant will be defined by regional investment priorities, all in the aspect of European Union enlargement. In those liberalisation conditions it is necessary to realize all possible energy options according to the Strategy of Energy Development of Republic of Croatia and to the regional energy market requirements or European Union Directives. New power plant will be realized, because of objective circumstances, through construction of gas power plant or coal power plant and possible nuclear power plant, and in much smaller size through construction of hydro power plants or power plants on renewable energy sources. The possibility of any energy option will be considered in view of: investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel price, external costs, public influence, and through investor's risk. This paper is aiming to analyse the possibility of nuclear power plant construction in Croatia as well as in other small and medium electricity grids. Nuclear option will be comprehensively considered in technical

  18. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D.; Morse, T.; Patel, P.; Patel, S.; Bondar, J.; Taylor, L.

    1980-12-01

    Nickel-zinc, lead-acid, nickel-iron, zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte), sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte), lithium-metal sulfide, and aluminum-air batteries were studied in order to evaluate the energy used to produce the raw materials and to manufacture the battery, the energy consumed by the battery during its operational life, and the energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. Battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling are described. The operational energy for an electric vehicle and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  19. Energy efficiency and CO2: is electricity the key factor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Europe must face soon to the depletion of fossil energy resources. Efficiency in end energy uses is a key to prepare this challenge. First, the report shows that significant energy efficiency capacities remain in the main economy sectors in France and Europe: buildings, industry, transportation. The key technologies, mainly electricity-driven, are briefly presented, together with the related main tracks for R and D: heat pumps, thermal insulation, induction and mechanical vapour compression for industry, plugged hybrid vehicle, LED sources for lighting. Their ability to decrease CO2 emissions is shown. Control equipment and users behaviour are pointed out, mainly with the key role of price energy with recent French experience : load shifting, peak shaving. Finally, the report shows that a firm policy, based on high performance equipments, could lead to a significant decrease of energy needs in France around 2030.

  20. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    partners in two connected projects in order to develop solar/electric heating systems for laboratory tests. The project was financed by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation under the Danish Council for Strategic Research in the program Sustainable Energy and Environment. The DSF number......The project “Solar/electric heating systems in the future energy system” was carried out in the period 2008‐2013. The project partners were DTU Byg, DTU Informatics (now DTU Compute), DMI, ENFOR A/S and COWI A/S. The companies Ajva ApS, Ohmatex ApS and Innogie ApS worked together with the project...... of the project is 2104‐07‐0021/09‐063201/DSF. This report is the final report of the project. The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating...

  1. Optimal energy management strategy for battery powered electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Jiaqi; Li, Mian; Xu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The power usage for battery-powered electrical vehicles with in-wheel motors is maximized. • The battery and motor dynamics are examined emphasized on the power conversion and utilization. • The optimal control strategy is derived and verified by simulations. • An analytic expression of the optimal operating point is obtained. - Abstract: Due to limited energy density of batteries, energy management has always played a critical role in improving the overall energy efficiency of electric vehicles. In this paper, a key issue within the energy management problem will be carefully tackled, i.e., maximizing the power usage of batteries for battery-powered electrical vehicles with in-wheel motors. To this end, the battery and motor dynamics will be thoroughly examined with particular emphasis on the power conversion and power utilization. The optimal control strategy will then be derived based on the analysis. One significant contribution of this work is that an analytic expression for the optimal operating point in terms of the component and environment parameters can be obtained. Owing to this finding, the derived control strategy is also rendered a simple structure for real-time implementation. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy works both adaptively and robustly under different driving scenarios

  2. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  3. Tradable certificates for renewable electricity and energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Huld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Tradable green certificates (TGCs) schemes have been developed and tested in several European countries to foster market-driven penetration of renewables. These certificates guarantee that a specific volume of electricity is generated from renewable-energy source (RES). More recently certificates (tradable white certificates (TWCs)) for the electricity saved by demand-side energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) have been introduced in some European countries. Recent advances in information and communication technology have opened up new possibilities for improving energy efficiency and increasing utilization of RESs. Use of technological resources such as the Internet and smart metering can permit real-time issuing and trading of TGCs. These technologies could also permit issuing of TWC. This paper reviews current renewable TGC and TWCs schemes in Europe and describes the possibilities for combining them in an Internet-based system. In the proposed combined tradable certificate scheme, both RESs and demand-side EEMs could bid in real time through the Internet to meet a specific obligation. The energy savings from the demand-side measures would be equivalent to the same amount of green electricity production. The paper describes the needed common targets and obligations, the certificate trading rules and the possible monitoring protocol. In particular, the paper focuses on the TWCs verification issues, including the assessment of the baseline, as these poses additional problems for TWCs compared to TGCs

  4. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  5. Prediction of energy balance and utilization for solar electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    Solar irradiation and ambient temperature are characterized by region, season and time-domain, which directly affects the performance of solar energy based car system. In this paper, the model of solar electric cars used was based in Xi’an. Firstly, the meteorological data are modelled to simulate the change of solar irradiation and ambient temperature, and then the temperature change of solar cell is calculated using the thermal equilibrium relation. The above work is based on the driving resistance and solar cell power generation model, which is simulated under the varying radiation conditions in a day. The daily power generation and solar electric car cruise mileage can be predicted by calculating solar cell efficiency and power. The above theoretical approach and research results can be used in the future for solar electric car program design and optimization for the future developments.

  6. Wind energy and electricity prices. Exploring the 'merit order effect'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthost, P.E.; Ray, S.; Munksgaard, J.; Sinner, A.F.

    2010-04-01

    This report focuses on the effect of wind energy on the electricity price in the power market. As the report will discuss, adding wind into the power mix has a significant influence on the resulting price of electricity, the so called merit order effect (MOE). The merit order effect has been quantified and discussed in many scientific publications. This report ends the first phase of a study on the MOE, evaluating the impact of EWEA's 2020 scenarios on future European electricity prices. The basic principles of the merit order effect are provided in the first part of the document. The literature review itself contains methods and tools not only to quantify the merit order effect but also in order to forecast its future range and volume.

  7. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  8. How to develop a world class electrical utility for the free markets of electrical energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, J.E.; Takala, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The electricity distribution in Finland is going to the new stage where the electrical energy market will be gradually free from competition. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of the world class utility. A feasibility study was made to research the condition in logistics and suitable methods for the implementation. Some ideas have been piloted to verify and find acceptable approaches of the implementation to practice. Utilities improved the cost efficiency and strategical business logistics in a customer oriented and flexible way. The methods and findings can be used on other public and industrial areas, too

  9. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  10. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  11. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  12. Energy-efficiency instruments in the electricity area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, S.; Oettli, B.; Schneider, Ch.; Iten, R.; Peherstorfer, N.

    2007-06-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a mix of instruments that could increase the efficiency of electricity usage in Switzerland. The basis for the development of these instruments - the experience gained in Europe in this area - is discussed. Explicitly not discussed are energy and electricity steering taxes, which could also be part of a future instrument-mix. The measures suggested include the setting of compulsory long-term reduction targets that are to form the basis for strategies and measures to be taken in particular areas and the development of an appropriate instrument-mix for this purpose. These could include regulations and labels, a national fund and certificate trading. Suppliers of electricity could be committed to increasing the efficiency of electricity use and national programmes could also attempt to influence consumer habits. The instruments should, according to the authors, be based on the existing legal framework and use know-how and structures that are already available

  13. Ultra high benefits system for electric energy saving and management of lighting energy in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a novel multi channel smart system to manage lighting energy in buildings. • Saving considerable electric energy which is converted to lighting in buildings. • Providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location in buildings. • Capability of working with all AC electric power sources. • To automatically control and manage lighting energy in buildings. - Abstract: This paper presents a smart system, including a multi channel dimmer and a central process unit (CPU) together with an exact multi channel feedback mechanism, which automatically regulates and manages lighting in buildings. Based on a multi channel luminance feedback, a high benefits technique is utilized to convert the electric energy to lighting energy. Saving a lot of the electric energy which should be converted to lighting energy in buildings, managing the lighting energy in buildings, providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each room (location), and the capability of working with all AC electric power sources regardless of frequency and voltage amplitude are some advantages of using the proposed system and technique, thus it will be widely used in buildings. An experimental prototype of the proposed smart system has been constructed to validate the theoretical results and to carry out the experimental tests. Experimental results earned by utilizing the proposed smart system in a sample building are presented to prove the benefits of using the system. The experimental results explicitly show a considerable electric energy saving (about 27%) in the sample building while the proposed system has provided desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location of the building

  14. A novel vibrational energy harvester with electric double layer electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, S.; Miwa, K.; Iori, J.; Mitsuya, H.; Ishibashi, K.; Sano, C.; Toshiyoshi, H.; Fujita, H.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new type of vibrational energy harvester with an electric double layer (EDL) electrets. Instead of using any external bias-voltage source or dielectric layer on top of the metal electrode to sustain EDL, we succeed to anchor the ions to polymer network to form the EDL electrets. By changing contact area between the EDL electrets and the electrode, large electric current is generated in the circuit. Owing to extremely large capacitance of the EDL electret, vibrational energy harvesters have the unique capability to leverage the high- density charge accumulation to the electrode and obtained current density becomes as high as 200 μA/cm2 with output voltage of 1V even with low frequency vibrations as low as 1 Hz.

  15. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. (DEMI) has applied to renew its authority to transmit..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international...

  16. Efficiency of a gyroscopic device for conversion of mechanical wave energy to electrical energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Martin; Darula, Radoslav; Gravesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    We consider a recently proposed gyroscopic device for conversion of mechanical ocean wave energy to electrical energy. Two models of the device derived from standard engineering mechanics from the literature are analysed, and a model is derived from analytical mechanics considerations. From...

  17. Renewable energy supply for electric vehicle operations in California

    OpenAIRE

    Papavasiliou, Anthony; Oren, Shmuel S.; Sidhy, Ikhlaq; Kaminsky, Phil; 32nd IAEE International Conference

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological progress, policy thrust and economic circumstances, the large scale integration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is becoming a reality in California, however the variable and unpredictable supply of these renewable resources poses a significant obstacle to their integration. At the same time we are witnessing a strong thrust towards the large scale deployment of electric vehicles which can ideally complement renewable power supply by acting as stor...

  18. Electrical energy and cost for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    An operational scenario has been developed for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) based on the System Requirements, our experience with existing systems, and discussions with the project engineers and designers who are responsible for the systems. This scenario was used to predict the amount of electrical energy needed for running the facility. A generic type listing is included for the equipment considered in each system

  19. Necessity of electricity and the unavoidable use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The development of fast breeder type reactors is presented as the best and practically the unique energetic solution for Brazilian future. The program of development proposed by IEAv (Intitute of Advanced Studies) researchers aim to supply enough and constant electricity, transforming the Brazilian energy power, practically infinite by using nuclear reactors inherently more safe than other existing in developed countries. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Electrical energy and cost for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, G.A.

    1983-02-01

    An operational scenario for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility has been developed based on System Requirements, experience with existing systems, and discussions with project engineers and designers who are responsible for the systems. This scenario was used to project the electrical energy required for the facility. Each system is listed showing the equipment that has been considered, the amount of power requested, and in most cases, the power that it is now connected

  1. Integrated design by optimization of electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roboam, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This book proposes systemic design methodologies applied to electrical energy systems, in particular integrated optimal design with modeling and optimization methods and tools. It is made up of six chapters dedicated to integrated optimal design. First, the signal processing of mission profiles and system environment variables are discussed. Then, optimization-oriented analytical models, methods and tools (design frameworks) are proposed. A "multi-level optimization" smartly coupling several optimization processes is the subject of one chapter. Finally, a technico-economic optimizatio

  2. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  3. Electricity supply: Supporting analysis for the National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Energy Information Administration at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. The results are based on assumptions provided by the Department of Energy's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. This report serves as an auxiliary document to the publication, Improving Technology: Modeling Energy Futures for the National Energy Strategy, prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to be used as input to the development of a National Energy Strategy. The excursions discussed in this report are not necessarily the policy options which will be selected for inclusion in the National Energy Strategy (NES). This report examines the effects of various supply side options for electric utilities. The three excursions presented are: (1) Effects of the Clean Air Act Amendments on Reducing SO 2 /NO x Emissions which evaluates the impacts of proposed legislation to amend the Clean Air Act (Title V of H.R. 3030 as amended on May 23, 1990); (2) Nuclear Life Extension/New Nuclear Orders which illustrates the impact of new nuclear power plant orders and the life extension of existing nuclear plants; and (3) Nuclear and Accelerated Fossil-Fueled Generating Technologies which portrays accelerated research and development of advanced fossil-fueled generating technologies, making them commercially available earlier, with the inclusion of the nuclear option. The baseline case of this report is an update and an extension of the base case projections in the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication, the Annual Energy Outlook 1990 (AEO), extending that forecast an additional 20 years to 2030. It represents the baseline case as it was on July 1990. 29 refs., 9 figs., 19 tabs. (JF)

  4. Present and prospective role of wind energy in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesto, E.; Ancona, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    Information is provided on world-wide wind energy applications for the production of electricity and the various factors driving the wind turbine market: technology improvements and cost reduction, national research, incentives, utility and public acceptance. Possible restraints to (noise, aesthetics) and benefits (especially in isolated systems) from wind plant integration in utility systems are considered, as well as the use of stand-alone wind systems. Some possible forecasts on the role of wind energy in the next two decades are also given. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G.; Jenkins, N. [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  6. Shock waves in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchuk, M E; Kolikov, V A; Rutberg, Ph G; Leks, A G; Dolinovskaya, R V; Snetov, V N; Stogov, A Yu

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results of shock wave formation and propagation in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges are presented. To study the hydrodynamic structure of the shock waves, the direct shadow optical diagnostic device with time resolution of 5 ns and spatial resolution of 0.1 mm was designed and developed. Synchronization of the diagnostic and electrodischarge units by the fast optocouplers was carried out. The dependences of shock wave velocities after breakdown of interelectrode gap for various energy inputs (at range of ≤1 J) into discharge were obtained. Based on the experimental results the recommendations for the adjustment parameters of the power supply and load were suggested.

  7. The EU electricity production structure requires a differentiated energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    For the electricity production of the EU there are differentiated structures which are based on different natural conditions, political decisions and investments of past decades. It has long been struggled committed to the ''one and correct'' energy policy. But precisely because of the differences in the individual countries, a unified energy and climate policy for the EU is not the right way. Diversity is a strength, which quite the EU Commission considered. Increased understanding of the specifics in other countries should just apply the German politics and the public that all too often judges from their own perspective. [de

  8. A local energy market for electricity and hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Yunpeng; Wang, Xifan; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of distributed energy resources entails efficient market mechanisms in distribution-level networks. This paper establishes a local energy market (LEM) framework in which electricity and hydrogen are traded. Players in the LEM consist of renewable distributed generators (DGs......), loads, hydrogen vehicles (HVs), and a hydrogen storage system (HSS) operated by a HSS agent (HSSA). An iterative LEM clearing method is proposed based on the merit order principle. Players submit offers/bids with consideration of their own preferences and profiles according to the utility functions...

  9. Nuclear energy in the operation of the spanish electric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienza, L.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays a basic role in electricity production in Spain. Its high availability rate, the predictability of its fuel recharges, its high operational reliability, its geographical location, the stability of its costs, with its fuel having low weight in the cost structure, the security of supply that the possibility of storing its fuel on-site in the power plant gives and the absence of CO 2 emissions are some of the advantages nuclear energy presents. Its stiffness for demand variations, its sudden disconnections, which are infrequent but with high impact on System Operation, the social perception and nuclear waste management must also be weighted up. (Author)

  10. The electricity prices in the European Union. The role of renewable energies and regulatory electric market reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Blanca; López, Ana J.; García-Álvarez, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The European Union electricity market has been gradually liberalized since 1990s. Theoretically, competitive markets should lead to efficiency gains in the economy thus reducing electricity prices. However, there is a controversial debate about the real effects of the electricity liberalization on electricity prices. Moreover, the increased generation of electricity from renewable energies RES-E (Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources) is also integrated in wholesale market reducing wholesale prices, but the final effect over household prices is not clear. In order to contribute to this debate, this paper provides an empirical investigation into the electricity prices determinants. In fact we develop econometric panel models to explore the relationship between the household electricity prices and variables related to the renewable energy sources and the competition in generation electricity market. More specifically we use a panel data set provided by Eurostat and covering 27 European Union countries during the period 1998–2009. Our results suggest that electricity prices increase with the deployment of RES-E and with the expansion of greenhouse gas emissions produced by energy industries- as a European Union CO 2 emission trading scheme exists. Results also reveal that country's characteristics can affect household electricity prices. -- Highlights: ► Electricity liberalized markets should lead to reduce electricity prices. ► The use of renewable energies (RES) reduce wholesale electricity prices. ► However, household electricity prices are increasing in European Union. ► Panel data models are developed to investigate the effect of RES and electricity competition on household electricity prices. ► We find that the deployment of RES increases prices paid by consumers in a liberalized market.

  11. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  12. Biological conversion of hydrogen to electricity for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanev, Dimitre; Pupkevich, Victor; Penev, Kalin; Glibin, Vassili; Gohil, Jay; Vajihinejad, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage is currently one of the most significant problems associated with mass-scale usage of renewable (i.e. wind and solar) power sources. The use of hydrogen as an energy storage medium is very promising, but is hampered by the lack of commercially available hydrogen-to-electricity (H2e) converters. Here we are presenting the first commercially viable, biologically based technology for H2e conversion named the BioGenerator. It is a microbial fuel cell based on electron consumption resulting from the respiration of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms. The results obtained during the scale-up study of the BioGenerator showed a maximum specific current of 1.35 A/cm 2 , maximum power density of 1800 W/m 2 and stable electricity generation over a period spanning longer than four years. The largest unit studied so far has a volume of 600 L and a power output of 0.3 kW. - Highlights: • A commercially viable biological convertor of H 2 to electricity (BioGenerator) is proposed. • It has a short-term commercial potential and its economic analysis is quite promising. • The BioGenerator is the first commercially viable bio-technology for energy storage. • It is a power generation technology of which has a negative CO 2 emission.

  13. Electric field and energy of a point electric charge between confocal hyperbolaidal electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley-Koo, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    The electric potential and intensity field, as well as the energy of a point electric charge between confocal hyperboloidal electrodes is evaluated as a superposition of prolate spheroidal harmonics using the Green-function technique. This study is motivated by the need to model the electric field between the tip and the sample in a scanning tunnelling microscope, and it can also be applied to a conductor-insulator-conductor junction. [Spanish] Los campos de potencial y de intensidad electrica, asi como la energia de una carga electrica puntual entre electrodos hiperboloidales confocales se evaluan como superposiciones de armonicos esferoidales prolatos usando la tecnica de la funcion de Green. Este estudio ha sido motivado por la necesidad de modelar el campo electrico entre la punta y la muestra de un microscopio de tunelamiento y barrido, y se puede aplicar tambien a una union de conductor-aislante-conductor.

  14. Clean generation of electric energy; Generacion limpia de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Torres, Emmanuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article deals on the existing alternatives of renewable energy for generation of electricity free from polluting sequels within the Mexican territory and presents a global overview on the electricity generation in Mexico. Wind power, hydraulic energy, biomass, photovoltaic and fuel cells are sources of renewable energy that could contribute to Mexico's sustainable development, for this reason it is discussed on the main sources of renewable energy in Mexico - solar and wind energy, mini-hydraulic, biomass and geothermal -, on their development and evolution, cost, insertion projects and obstacles for their correct development in this country. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre las alternativas de energia renovable existentes para una generacion de electricidad libre de secuelas contaminantes dentro del territorio mexicano y presenta un panorama global sobre la generacion de electricidad en Mexico. La energia eolica, hidraulica, biomasa, fotovoltaica y las celdas de combustible son fuentes de energia renovable que podrian contribuir al desarrollo sustentable de Mexico, por esto se arguye sobre las principales fuentes de energia renovable en Mexico -energia solar, eolica, minihidraulica, biomasa y geotermia-, sobre su desarrollo y evolucion, costo, proyectos de insercion y obstaculos para su correcto desarrollo en ese pais.

  15. Energy-efficient microcontrollers for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowitz, Rainer; Gryska, Holger; Thanner, Manfred; Steinert, Frank [Freescale Halbleiter GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Electric vehicles with their limited supply of energy are accelerating the trend towards more energy-efficient electronics that has started with the discussion on reducing the production of greenhouse gas of vehicles. While electricifaction of functions in a car is a technique that will help reduce overall energy consumption, microcontrollers are playing an important role in energetically optimizing the resulting electronics. In this presentation we give an overview of operating strategies for embedded automotive systems that lead to a set of power modes for the microcontrollers. Examples will be shown how Freescale's microcontrollers are designet to optimize energy consumption in each of these modes. We will also outline what needs to be done in the overall vehicle communication network design and in software to effectively use these new features of microcontrollers. The major elements that would benefit from standardization (e.g. in Autosar) will be indicated. (orig.)

  16. Renewable energies - China, first producer of 'green' electricity by 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    While being the biggest polluter and coal consumer in the world, China possess seven Chinese companies among the ten first solar array manufacturers, and some leaders in the wind energy and offshore wind energy sector. This article outlines the development of 'green' electricity production in China. This sector will exhibit a much greater growth rate than that foreseen in other countries during the next years: five times that in the USA, seven times that in India, eight times that in Germany, and eighteen times that in France. This progression relies on hydroelectricity and wind energy for 90 per cent. The article also comments the development of wind energy capacity in China at a higher rate than in Western countries

  17. Volatility Spillovers for Spot, Futures, and ETF Prices in Energy and Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-P. Liu (Chia-Ping); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe agricultural and energy industries are closely related, both biologically and financially. The paper discusses the relationship and the interactions on price and volatility, with special focus on the covolatility spillover effects for these two industries. The interaction and

  18. Myelinated Afferents Are Involved in Pathology of the Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Mechanical Hyperalgesia of Myofascial Trigger Spots in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs are common causes for chronic pain. Myelinated afferents were considered to be related with muscular pain, and our clinical researches indicated they might participate in the pathology of MTrPs. Here, we applied myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equal to MTrPs in human of rats to further investigate role of myelinated afferents. Modified pyridine-silver staining revealed more nerve endings at MTrSs than non-MTrSs (P0.05. 30 min after the injection, MPTs at MTrSs were significantly lower than those of non-MTrSs (P<0.01. Therefore, we concluded that proliferated myelinated afferents existed at MTrSs, which were closely related to pathology of SEA and mechanical hyperalgesia of MTrSs.

  19. Spotting the earth connection and short circuits between the electric conductors, using D.C. bridges for resistance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, I.; Popa, G. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Iagăr, A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper establishes the necessary connections meant to spot the earth connections and short circuits between the conductors of a power line, using the DC bridges meant for measuring resistances between conductors at the ends of the power line. Since it is a relative method, it imposes an exact knowledge of the faulty power line setting. For values of the resistances measured between the conductors of the power line having over 1Ω at one end, the measurement will be carried out with a Wheatstone bridge, and for values below 1Ω with a Thomson bridge. In order to accurately determine the place of the fault, it measured the distances from the end of the line up to the fault and then we performed a correction calculation for this distance.

  20. Hybrid Electric Energy Storages: Their Specific Features and Application (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel', O. S.; Tarasenko, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents a review of various aspects related to development and practical use of hybrid electric energy storages (i.e., those uniting different energy storage technologies and devices in an integrated system) in transport and conventional and renewable power engineering applications. Such devices, which were initially developed for transport power installations, are increasingly being used by other consumers characterized by pronounced nonuniformities of their load schedule. A range of tasks solved using such energy storages is considered. It is shown that, owing to the advent of new types of energy storages and the extended spectrum of their performance characteristics, new possibilities for combining different types of energy storages and for developing hybrid systems have become available. This, in turn, opens up the possibility of making energy storages with better mass and dimension characteristics and achieving essentially lower operational costs. The possibility to secure more comfortable (base) operating modes of primary sources of energy (heat engines and renewable energy source based power installations) and to achieve a higher capacity utilization factor are unquestionable merits of hybrid energy storages. Development of optimal process circuit solutions, as well as energy conversion and control devices facilitating the fullest utilization of the properties of each individual energy storage included in the hybrid system, is among the important lines of research carried out in this field in Russia and abroad. Our review of existing developments has shown that there are no universal technical solutions in this field (the specific features of a consumer have an essential effect on the process circuit solutions and on the composition of a hybrid energy storage), a circumstance that dictates the need to extend the scope of investigations in this promising field.

  1. The electric energy potential of landfill biogas in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambeli Barros, Regina; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lúcio; Silva, Tiago Rodrigo da

    2014-01-01

    The increases in a country's energy capacity are related to its gross domestic product (GDP). In Brazil, increases in income and the consumption of goods and services have led to an increase in the generation of solid waste (SW), which is sent to landfills as a method of treatment and final disposal. The purpose of this study was to facilitate an increase in energy generation from renewable resources, specifically from landfills via thermal biogas plants, and the research was divided into two phases. The first phase involved the assessment of the potential population size contributing to the landfill, which could result in the installation of a financially viable enterprise to generate electricity in Brazil. Next, an estimate of the costs associated with the generation and collection of solid waste in Brazil was predicted by GDP prognoses, the latter being in accordance with the National Energy Balance (Balanço Energético Nacional – BEN) plan created by the Mines and Energy Ministry of Brazil (Ministério de Minas e Energia do Brasil – MME). The net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) of each enterprise scenario was used in the first stage to assess the plan's financial viability. In the second stage, estimation curves such as logistics, decreasing rate of growth, and logarithmic curves were used to establish relationships between the generation scenarios and the projected collection of SW and projected GDP. Thus, a range of possible landfill biogas/methane generation values and installed energy capacities were created, considering the extreme maximum and minimum values. These values were related to the energy sources from residual fuels reported by BEN. The results demonstrated that such values still represented a small percentage (0.00020% in 2010 and 0.44496–0.81042% in 2030) of the projected energy generation from residual fuels. Thus, an urgent need was identified to formulate policies that would encourage landfills as a

  2. The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Half the world's population lives without access to electricity in the rural areas and villages of developing countries. In 1987, world population reached 5 billion and, according to World Bank projections, will increase to over 6 billion in the year 2000 and to over 8 billion in 2025. Such population growth is not uniformly distributed: developed countries have small or negative growth and account for a declining proportion of the world's population. Inasmuch as 95 per cent of the extra inhabitants added each year are in developing countries, rapid population growth in those countries raises serious questions about energy availability for basic human needs and, of course, more broadly about the environment's capacity to support that growth. The present report makes reference to one of the most comprehensively documented conservative scenarios for world energy demand in the year 2020, namely, Energy for a Sustainable World, which assumed that long-term world sustainability must entail constraints on (a) use of natural resources and (b) combustion of fossil fuels resulting in the greenhouse effect. Solar energy is abundant and could become a major source of electricity. Photovoltaics has three particular advantages. It accomplishes sunlight-to-electricity conversion entirely with solid-state electronic components, and with no moving parts required, thereby promising high equipment availability and very low operating and maintenance costs. PV also appears to have very limited environmental impact, with no emissions of the gaseous pollutants associated with fossil-fuel burning and few of the possible local problems associated with some other renewable energy technologies. Finally, the products of photovoltaic technology are modular in construction and can be built up on site in a flexible way, thus minimizing front-end financial risk and investment costs. Figs and tabs

  3. The value of electricity storage in energy-only electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, D.; Forcey, T.; Sandiford, M.

    2015-12-01

    Price volatility and the prospect of increasing renewable energy generation have raised interest in the potential opportunities for storage technologies in energy-only electricity markets. In this paper we explore the value of a price-taking storage device in such a market, the National Electricity Market (NEM) in Australia. Our analysis suggests that under optimal operation, there is little value in having more than six hours of storage in this market. However, the inability to perfectly forecast wholesale prices, particularly extreme price spikes, may warrant some additional storage. We found that storage devices effectively provide a similar service as peak generators (such as Open Cycle Gas Turbines) and are similarly dependent on and exposed to extreme price events, with revenue for a merchant generator highly skewed to a few days of the year. In contrast to previous studies, this results in the round trip efficiency of the storage being relatively insignificant. Financing using hedging strategies similar to a peak generator effectively reduces the variability of revenue and exposure of storage to extreme prices. Our case study demonstrates that storage may have a competitive advantage over other peaking generators on the NEM, due to its ability to earn revenue outside of extreme peak events. As a consequence the outlook for storage options on the NEM is dependent on volatility, in turn dependent on capacity requirements. Further to this, increased integration of renewable energy may both depend on storage and improve the outlook for storage in technologies in electricity markets.

  4. NERGY GENERATING TILE, AS ALTERNATIVE LOW-POWER SOURCE OF ELECTRIC ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gnatov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of existing developments such as the alternative power sources transforming different types of energy into electric energy is carried out. The technical solution for the installation of energy-generating plates, which converts the kinetic energy from pressure into electric and accumulates it for further use is suggested. The principle of action of energy-generating tiles as an alternative and decentralized source of electric energy is discussed in detail and described.

  5. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  6. Electrical energy in the future. A vision of 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Królikowski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains scenarios for the power sector’s development until 2050, as proposed by students of Electrical High School No. 4 in Wloclawek. Many current trends in the development of technology have led the authors to attribute the verisimilitude to their selected visions of the future. The growing demand for energy, while fossil fuel resources and traditional methods of processing them are shrinking, will cause dissemination of the use of so-called environment-friendly sources of energy, such as wind or biomass. Energy will be commonly converted in domestic power stations equipped with energy storage capabilities and integrated with the grid by smart controllers for two-way energy transfer. The power grid role will change, and the existing energy consumers will become its prosumers. In the opinion of the authors the only alternative for this power sector development vision may be thermonuclear generation, which requires, however, incredibly high capital expenditures and level of technological development. However, launching thermonuclear power plants would free humanity from the fear of a future predominated by energy crisis.

  7. Energy droughts in a 100% renewable electricity mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Damien; Hingray, Benoît; François, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2017-04-01

    During the 21st conference of parties, 175 countries agreed on limiting the temperature increase due to global warming to 2°C above preindustrial levels. Such an ambitious goal necessitates a deep transformation of our society in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Europe has started its energy transition years ago by, for instance, increasing the share of renewables in the European electricity generation and should continue in this direction. Variable renewable energies (VRE) and especially those driven by weather conditions (namely wind, solar and hydro power from river flow), are expected to play a key role in achieving the GHG reduction target. However, these renewables are often criticized for their intermittency and for the resulting difficult integration in the power supply system, especially for large shares of VRE in the energy mix. Assessing the feasibility of electricity generation using large contributions of VRE requires a deep understanding and characterization of the VRE spatiotemporal variations. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the short-term intermittency of VRE generation, but the persistency and the characteristics of periods of low/high electricity generation have been rarely studied. Yet, these particular situations require some demanding adaptations of the power supply system in term of back-up sources or production curtailment respectively. This study focuses on what we call "energy droughts" which, by analogy with hydrological or meteorological droughts, are defined as periods of very low energy production. We consider in turn "energy droughts" associated to wind, solar and hydro power (run-of-the-river). Their characteristics are estimated for 12 European regions being subjected to different climatic regimes. For each region and energy source, "droughts" are evaluated from a 30-yr time series of power generation (1983-2012). These series are simulated by using a suite of weather-to-energy conversion models with

  8. 76 FR 3881 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TransAlta Energy Marketing (U... a power marketer for a two-year term using existing international transmission facilities. DOE...

  9. 78 FR 64207 - Application To Export Electric Energy; New Brunswick Energy Marketing Corporation (f/k/a New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Generation Corp.) AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of... and Energy Reliability, Mail Code: OE-20, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue SW... to Canada would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities and other suppliers within the...

  10. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Mexico would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and...; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc...

  11. Mathematical modelling of electricity market with renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses the electricity market with conventional energy sources on fossil fuel and non-conventional renewable energy sources (RESs) with stochastic operating conditions. A mathematical model of long-run (accounting for development of generation capacities) equilibrium in the market is constructed. The problem of determining optimal parameters providing the maximum social criterion of efficiency is also formulated. The calculations performed have shown that the adequate choice of price cap, environmental tax, subsidies to RESs and consumption tax make it possible to take into account external effects (environmental damage) and to create incentives for investors to construct conventional and renewable energy sources in an optimal (from the society view point) mix. (author)

  12. Hierarchical energy management mechanisms for an electricity market with microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Tzer Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a micro-grid electricity market (MGEM with day-ahead (DA and real-time market mechanisms integrated. The bidding mechanisms for the market are described in this study, considering the generation cost of different distributed energy resources (DERs, like distributed generator, energy storage system and demand response. Including load and renewable generation forecasting systems and a fuzzy decision supporting system, a hierarchical micro-grid energy management system (MG-EMS is then proposed to ensure the benefits of involved micro-grid central controller, DER owners and customers. To verify the feasibility of the proposed system, the whole-year historical pricing and load data for New England independent system operator are employed. The numerical results show that the proposed MG-EMS is promising and effective for the operations of MGEM.

  13. 77 FR 11515 - Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has... would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities and Federal power marketing agencies within...

  14. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Energia Renovable S.C., LLC (Energia... application from Energia Renovable for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico...

  15. I.T., Optimized energy systems and new customer services. The deregulated electricity market and the Ronneby case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, U.

    1999-03-01

    This thesis concerns the utilization of information technology to obtain optimized energy systems and the increasing dependence on IT applications within the power industry in general, and especially within electricity. Based on energy system optimizations, industrial simulations, interviews and literature surveys, the thesis concludes that information technology is a condition for optimized energy systems. Through large-scale load control, enabled by IT, the energy system cost for supplying a local energy system can be reduced considerably. Diurnal energy system optimizations further illustrate the increased utilization of load control, accentuated, when customers are exposed to the variations of the spot market price. Thereby, the increased need for load management on a deregulated market, where real time pricing is applied, is mirrored. However, given the boundary conditions of the deregulated electricity market, optimization of energy systems is no condition for competitiveness within electricity sales. This study also points out that, apart from industrial customers, other market actors, like electricity sales companies and local distributors, have few incentives to introduce load control. Distributors mainly lose money on power reducing measures, except for when there are distribution limitations. Neither do electricity sales companies make short-term earnings from large-scale load control. The combination with small economic savings for residential customers make the financing of large-scale load control problematic. Regarding electricity sales companies, increased IT utilization is observed to enable marketing and service offerings on the Internet, and IT-based value-added services (VAS). For pure communication services, the sales companies utilize IT to offer telephone services (analogue technique) and Internet access, the latter is sometimes performed on the electricity grid. Extended IT-systems for customer administration, customer service, and market

  16. Understanding usage patterns of electric kettle and energy saving potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.M.; Liao, J.; Stankovic, L.; Stankovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Time-of-use analysis to motivate kettle usage and consumption prediction. • Identification of households whose kettle usage and consumption is outside the norm. • Mathematical model to estimate water volume from consumed power measurements only. • Quantification of energy savings if a household uses its kettle more efficiently. • Kettle usage and demand prediction using an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. - Abstract: The availability of smart metering and smart appliances enables detecting and characterising appliance use in a household, quantifying energy savings through efficient appliance use and predicting appliance-specific demand from load measurements is possible. With growing electric kettle ownership and usage, lack of any efficiency labelling guidelines for the kettle, slow technological progress in improving kettle efficiency relative to other domestic appliances, and current consumer attitudes, urgent investigation into consumer kettle usage patterns is warranted. From an efficiency point of view, little can be done about the kettle, which is more efficient than other methods of heating water such as the stove top kettle. However, since a majority households use the kettle inefficiently by overfilling, in order to meet energy targets, it is imperative to quantify inefficient usage and predict demand. For the purposes of scalability, we propose tools that depend only on load measurement data for quantifying and visualising kettle usage and energy consumption, assessing energy wastage through overfilling via our proposed electric kettle model, and predicting kettle-specific demand, from which we can estimate potential energy savings in a household and across a housing stock. This is demonstrated using data from a longitudinal study across a sample of 14 UK households for a two-year period.

  17. High temperature electrical energy storage: advances, challenges, and frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinrong; Salari, Maryam; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-24

    With the ongoing global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emission and dependence on oil, electrical energy storage (EES) devices such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become ubiquitous. Today, EES devices are entering the broader energy use arena and playing key roles in energy storage, transfer, and delivery within, for example, electric vehicles, large-scale grid storage, and sensors located in harsh environmental conditions, where performance at temperatures greater than 25 °C are required. The safety and high temperature durability are as critical or more so than other essential characteristics (e.g., capacity, energy and power density) for safe power output and long lifespan. Consequently, significant efforts are underway to design, fabricate, and evaluate EES devices along with characterization of device performance limitations such as thermal runaway and aging. Energy storage under extreme conditions is limited by the material properties of electrolytes, electrodes, and their synergetic interactions, and thus significant opportunities exist for chemical advancements and technological improvements. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of different applications associated with high temperature use (40-200 °C), recent advances in the development of reformulated or novel materials (including ionic liquids, solid polymer electrolytes, ceramics, and Si, LiFePO 4 , and LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes) with high thermal stability, and their demonstrative use in EES devices. Finally, we present a critical overview of the limitations of current high temperature systems and evaluate the future outlook of high temperature batteries with well-controlled safety, high energy/power density, and operation over a wide temperature range.

  18. Research on data collection key technology of smart electric energy meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Mouhailiu; Renheng, Xu

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, smart electric energy meters are demand at 70 million to 90 million with the strong smart grid construction every year in China. However, there are some issues in smart electric energy meters data collection such as the interference of environment, low collection efficiency and inability to work when the power is off. In order to solve these issues above, it uses the RFID communication technology to collect the numbers and electric energy information of smart electric energy meters on the basis of the existing smart electric energy meters, and the related data collection communication experiments were made. The experimental result shows that the electric information and other data batch collection of RFID smart electric energy meters are realized in power and power off. It improves the efficiency and the overall success rate is 99.2% within 2 meters. It provides a new method for smart electric energy meters data collection.

  19. Myelinated Afferents Are Involved in Pathology of the Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Mechanical Hyperalgesia of Myofascial Trigger Spots in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Yong-Hui; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are common causes for chronic pain. Myelinated afferents were considered to be related with muscular pain, and our clinical researches indicated they might participate in the pathology of MTrPs. Here, we applied myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equal to MTrPs in human) of rats to further investigate role of myelinated afferents. Modified pyridine-silver staining revealed more nerve endings at MTrSs than non-MTrSs (P MPTs) of MTrSs were lower than those of non-MTrSs (P MPTs of MTrSs significantly (P MPTs of non-MTrSs first decreased (P 0.05). 30 min after the injection, MPTs at MTrSs were significantly lower than those of non-MTrSs (P < 0.01). Therefore, we concluded that proliferated myelinated afferents existed at MTrSs, which were closely related to pathology of SEA and mechanical hyperalgesia of MTrSs.

  20. Uranium for electricity and the outlook for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarises the main finding of a report by the Uranium Institute on the global uranium market up to 2010. Unlike most renewable energy sources, nuclear power is a demonstrated competitive technology with significant potential for expansion in the medium term. Rising demand for electricity is likely to be met by an increase in the use of fossil fuels. Despite its substantial environmental advantages, however, nuclear power is expanding more slowly than the demand for electricity. Expansion could be faster if public opinion and interest rates were more favourable as supplies of uranium are readily available. It appears though, that the prospects for nuclear power growth and the uranium market remain modest for the period up to 2010. (UK)

  1. Combined generation of electric and heating energy in future development of Yugoslav energy sector until 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djajic, Nenad; Zivanovic, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    Development of the district heating system in the FR Yugoslavia, beside the combined generation of electric and heating energy presents a necessity for energy, economic and ecological reasons. Although the structure of energy reserves is rather unfavourable considering that the lignite is being predominantly used, available reserves of energy raw material are able to ensure the long-term development of Yugoslav energy sector, and to offer real possibilities for considerable substitution of foreign good quality fuels, especially in district heating systems. Their further development will depend, among other things: on the implementation of new technological solutions for the exploitation of local energy resources; need of reconstruction, revitalisation and transformation of old condensing thermal power plants into the cogeneration plants; installation of remote controlled transmission of heating energy as well as on development of heating plants and smaller co-generation plants based on local energy resources. (Authors)

  2. Actions to promote energy efficient electric motors. Motors study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (PT). Inst. of Systems and Robotics (ISR)

    1996-10-01

    Motor electricity consumption is influenced by many factors including: motor efficiency, motor speed controls, power supply quality, harmonics, systems oversizing, distribution network, mechanical transmission system, maintenance practices, load management and cycling, and the efficiency of the end-use device (e.g. fan, pump, etc.). Due to their importance, an overview of these factors is presented in this report. This study also describes the electricity use in the industrial and tertiary sectors and the electricity consumption associated with the different types of electric motors systems in the Member States of the European Union, as well as estimated future evolution until 2010. The studies for individual countries were carried out by the different partners of the motors study group at a previous stage. The study has found that there is a lack of accurate information about the motor electricity consumption, installed motor capacity and the motor market in almost all the European Union countries and only some general statistical sources are available. There is little field data, which is mainly available in Denmark, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Due to this lack of primary information, some common assumptions were made, based on the experience of the members of the study group. This lack of end-use characterisation data shows the need for improvement from the point of view of current knowledge. It is therefore recommended that further research is undertaken to arrive at more accurate figures. These could be the basis for a better understanding for motor use in practice and - as a consequence - for a more precise appraisal of potentials and barriers to energy efficiency. (orig.)

  3. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoglund, Annika; Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael; Rehn, Alf; Lindahl, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO 2 neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy

  4. The Effect of Monochromatic Infrared Photo Energy on the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spot of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Shen Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether the vasodilatation effect of monochromatic infrared photo energy (MIRE had the potential for the treatment of myofascial trigger spot (MTrS in rabbits. Design. A randomized-controlled animal study. Subjects. Twelve adult New Zealand rabbits. Methods. For each rabbit, a MTrS (equivalent to a myofascial trigger point in humans in one side of the biceps femoris muscle was randomly selected for MIRE treatment (experimental side, while another MTrS in the other side (control side received a sham treatment. The intervention consisted of a daily 40 minutes treatment, three times per week for 2 weeks. The prevalence of endplate noise (EPN loci in the MTrS was assessed before, immediately after, and one week after the completion of the 2-week treatment. Results. MIRE could suppress the prevalence of EPN in the MTrS. The degree of reduction in EPN prevalence in the MTrS between the experimental side and the control side was significantly different immediately after MIRE treatment, but not significantly different one week after MIRE treatment. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MIRE may be a useful therapeutic option for the management of the myofascial trigger point in humans.

  5. Electricity purchase agreements and distributed energy policies for anaerobic digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkley, David; Harsh, Stephen; Wolf, Christopher A.; Safferman, Steven; Kirk, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly recognized for its ability to produce renewable energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from livestock operations. In 2010, there were 2645 U.S. dairy farms with herd sizes large enough to support anaerobic digesters, yet only 156 systems were in operation (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), 2010a. Market Opportunities for Biogas Recovery Systems at U.S. Livestock Facilities. AgSTAR Program; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), 2011. Operational Anaerobic Digesters, Sorted by State (Dairy). AgSTAR Program.). This study analyzes the net present value of digester systems under alternative electricity purchase agreements and how returns are affected by standby charges, net metering policies and the use of feed-in-tariffs. In order for digester potential to be fully realized on a state or national level, changes to distributed energy policy are required. Results indicated that standby charges can reduce revenues from offsetting electricity by an average of nearly 20%. Net metering rules limit participation among larger farms and negatively affect profitability by restricting engine–generator size. Lastly, the effectiveness of a fixed price feed-in-tariff policy for digesters is significantly affected by project size differentiation. Digester energy policies are similar nationwide, making this study useful for government regulatory agencies and digester owners throughout the U.S. - Highlights: ► Anaerobic digester net present value was examined over a range of herd sizes. ► Standby charges reduce electricity sales revenues by an average of nearly 20%. ► Net metering rules reduce profitability by restricting engine–generator size. ► Feed-in-tariffs for digesters are significantly affected by project size.

  6. Developing sustainable energy policies for electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ajlan, S.A.; Al-Ibrahim, A.M.; Abdulkhaleq, M.; Alghamdi, F.

    2006-01-01

    Towards the end of 1998, the Saudi Arabian electricity sector embarked upon a major restructuring program. One of the aims of the program is to achieve sustainable performance. Although progress has been made, a number of challenges remain, including high demand growth, low generation capacity reserve margins, inefficient energy use, absence of time-of-use tariffs, and the need for large capital investments to meet current and future expansion. Electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia increased sharply during the last two decades due to rapid economic development and the absence of energy conservation measures. Peak loads reached nearly 24GW in 2001-25 times their 1975 level-and are expected to approach 60GW by 2023. The total investment needed to meet this demand may exceed $90 billion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop energy conservation policies for sustainable development. Current sustainable policies, particularly those pertaining to energy conservation, led to peak load savings of more than 871MW in 2001, mainly as a result of collaborations between the Ministry of Water and Electricity and the Saudi Electricity Company. In the long term, however, unless sustainable energy policies are developed at a national level, such efforts will be largely ineffective. To address this, policies and programs are being developed for public awareness, energy regulation and legislation, and energy information and programming. If energy conservation is taken into account, the forecast demand can be reduced by 5-10%. This is equivalent to 3-6GW of additional capacity, which represents a possible $1.5-3.0 billion saving over the next 20 years. Typically, investment in energy efficiency is 1% of utility sales revenues, which for a country like Saudi Arabia could be $15-60 million p.a. If only savings on air conditioning are considered, the return on investment is equivalent to 400-500MW p.a. of generating capacity-a saving of up to $0.25 billion p.a. In this

  7. Energy forecast. Final report; Energiudsigten. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-04-15

    A number of instruments, i.e. Internet, media campaigns, boxes displaying electricity prices (SEE1) and spot contract has been tested for households to shift their electricity consumption to times when prices are low. Of the implemented media campaigns, only the daily viewing of Energy forecast on TV had an impact. Consumers gained greater knowledge of electricity prices and electricity consumption loads, but only showed little interest in shifting electricity consumption. However, a measurable effect appeared at night with the group that had both concluded a spot contract and received an SEE1. These factors increase the awareness of the price of electricity and the possibility of shifting electricity consumption. (Energy 10)

  8. Effect of Beam Energy on Weld Geometric Characteristics in Nd:YAG Laser Overlapping Spot Welding of Thin AISI 304 Stainless Steel Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsanska, Hana; Chmelickova, Hana; Hrabovsky, Miroslav

    2010-10-01

    Weld geometric characteristics in laser overlapping spot welding of 0.6-mm AISI 304 stainless steel sheets were investigated. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser with maximal average power of 150 W was used for welding experiments with different laser beam energies in the range of 3.5 J to 6.2 J, keeping all other processing parameters constant. The main objective of these experiments was to study the effect of energy changes and to identify the welding mode in dependency on the beam effective peak power density. Each weld surface and its cross section were analyzed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. The spot diameter on the specimen, weld width, and penetration depth were measured. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction was realized to describe the effect of energy changes on weld surface properties.

  9. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  10. Meeting China's electricity needs through clean energy sources: A 2030 low-carbon energy roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng

    China is undergoing rapid economic development that generates significant increase in energy demand, primarily for electricity. Energy supply in China is heavily relying on coal, which leads to high carbon emissions. This dissertation explores opportunities for meeting China's growing power demand through clean energy sources. The utilization of China's clean energy sources as well as demand-side management is still at the initial phase. Therefore, development of clean energy sources would require substantial government support in order to be competitive in the market. One of the widely used means to consider clean energy in power sector supplying is Integrated Resource Strategic Planning, which aims to minimize the long term electricity costs while screening various power supply options for the power supply and demand analysis. The IRSP tool tackles the energy problem from the perspective of power sector regulators, and provides different policy scenarios to quantify the impacts of combined incentives. Through three scenario studies, Business as Usual, High Renewable, and Renewable and Demand Side Management, this dissertation identifies the optimized scenario for China to achieve the clean energy target of 2030. The scenarios are assessed through energy, economics, environment, and equity dimensions.

  11. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  12. Use of superconductors for storage and discharge of electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, J.

    1968-01-01

    After recalling the elementary properties which led to superconductors being used for generating very strong magnetic fields, as well as the methods used to attain the required very low temperatures in practice, the author presents in its elementary form the principle of storage and liberation of energy. A more detailed analysis of the successive charging, trapping, storage and discharge operations shows up the different aspects of the problem and is followed by a review of the very small amount of research published up to now and also by a presentation of the original work which has been carried out in this field. It is already possible to use superconducting materials as they are (i.e. although their characteristics have been adjusted with a view only to obtain very strong magnetic fields). Much more will be obtained from superconductors when they have been correctly adapted to this new very promising application to the storage and discharge of electrical energy. (authors) [fr

  13. Contribution to electrical energy sector reform: Maghreb's case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmouni, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an electrical energy sector reform 'initiative' adapted to developing countries, in particular those of Maghreb, in order to promote competitive electricity business outside of market structures. It is a matter 1) of authorizing access to networks and international interconnections for all high or low voltage consumers, in particular those very sensitive to electricity prices and to competition, in order to get electricity supply on foreign markets and/or from private producers and/or develop their own productions directly or via consortium; 2) of authorizing access to networks and international interconnections for every independent production destined for internal and/or foreign markets, resulting especially in the development of competitive supplies which are renewable or reduce network constraints; 3) of initiating (or promoting) the integrated management of supply, demand and network systems, around the fundamental principles of technical and economical optimizations, bearing in mind the sector's unique character in order to develop the trans-border electricity business. Much appreciated by internal and external economic operators, the outcome of this initiative applied to the development of self generation and launched for the first time in Morocco, is impressive, since less than one year following its launch, several national and foreign company associations committed, by way of signed agreements, to equip around a dozen wind energy sites spread across the whole of the land and totaling a power of more than 1000 MW so 20% to 25% of the country's current peak demand. Some of the region's countries have shown their keen interest in this solution. In addition, analysis and simulation studies carried out on the integrated systems of Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula show that access to international networks and interconnections in order to choose one's own suppliers, means among other things that significant gains on production costs of

  14. Renewable and nuclear energy contribution to the electric systems of developed and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    1994-01-01

    Economically, the nuclear energy is favourable. The investments to realize in the energy field are substantial. The environmental quality implements the renewable energies which must be more efficient. Energy control frames the largest managing margin for the future energy and for the relations between energy and environment. Few countries can control their nuclear surety. Nowadays, in the developing countries, electrical energy needs are very weak, so the interconnection to the network is not necessary and the access price to electricity is very high

  15. Externalities of energy use, analyzed for shipping and electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Heather

    Energy use is central to the modern lifestyle, but producing this energy often comes at an environmental cost. The three studies in this paper look at the tradeoffs involved in energy production. The first looks at transitioning marine vessels to natural gas from current distillate fuels. While natural gas will reduce local air pollutants, such as sulfur oxides and particulate matter, the implications for greenhouse gases depend on how the natural gas is extracted, processed, distributed, and used. Applying a "technology warming potential" (TWP) approach, natural gas as a marine fuel achieves climate parity within 30 years for diesel ignited engines, though it could take up to 190 years to reach climate parity with conventional fuels in a spark ignited engine. Movement towards natural gas as a marine fuel continues to progress, and conditions exist in some regions to make a near-term transition to natural gas feasible. The second study looks at externalities associated with electricity generation. The impact on the surrounding community is one concern when siting new electricity generating facilities. A survey was conducted of residents living near an industrial scale wind turbine and a coal-fired power plant to determine their visual and auditory effects on the residents. Results concluded that respondents living near the wind turbine were in favor of the facility. They were willing to pay an average of 2.56 a month to keep the turbine in its current location. Respondents living near the coal plant were opposed to the facility. They were willing to spend 1.82 a month to have the facility removed. The third study presents a cost effectiveness analysis of three of the main fuels used for electricity generation, namely coal, natural gas, and wind. This analysis adds social costs to the private costs traditionally utilized by investors making decisions. It utilizes previous research on visual and auditory amenity and disamenity values as well as recent published

  16. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview July and August 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for July and August 2017. Demand was stable compared to July and August 2016. The average temperatures were close to those of 2016: +0.3 deg. C in July and -0.6 deg. C in August. Demand remained stable with a slight increase (+0.5%) in July and a slight decrease (0.3%) in August. Hydraulic generation was impacted by the lack of rain with a fall of 26.5% in July compared with 2016. Wind power generation was up by 67.6% and reached 1,699 TWh in July compared to 2016 buoyed by good wind conditions. Generation of electricity from wind now exceeds the total energy produced over the same period in 2016. The Grand-Est, Hauts-de-France, Occitanie and Centre- Val de Loire regions contribute 70% of the increase in wind power generation in July. The French price decreased in August. Overall, French exchanges remained in favour of exports in July and August 22 new installations went into service in July and August

  17. Improving the Energy Management of a Solar Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUNESER, M. T.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A solar electric vehicle (SEV is an electric vehicle (EV with onboard photovoltaic cells charging a set of batteries for extended driving range. This study aimed to improve the energy management system of a SEV, called YILDIZ, using a fuzzy logic control system (FLC. A MATLAB based simulation model of three basic components of a solar car: solar cell modules, batteries and motor drive system was performed. An original FLC was developed. For proving its applicability, the performances of the SEV were tested by simulation, in accordance with the standard test drive cycle ECE-15. The characteristics obtained with the original Proportional Integral Fuzzy Logic Control (PI-FLC were compared with those obtained with a classical Proportional Integral (PI controller. Using the designed model, we calculated the range of YILDIZ with and without PV feeding which gave us an opportunity to study and compare both SEV and EV models on real race-track situation. Then the optimum speed, at any time, which enabled the vehicle to reach a chosen destination as quickly as possible, while fully using the available energy, was calculated. Proposed solutions tested on YILDIZ. Results of simulations were compared with YILDIZ run on the Formula-G race track in Izmit, Turkey.

  18. Storing unsteady energy, like photovoltaically generated electric energy, as potential energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kutz, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    A proposal to store unsteady energy in potential energy via lifting masses with a rough quantitative overview. Some applications and methods to harvest the potential energy are also given. A focus is put on photovoltaically generated energy.

  19. A Personalized Rolling Optimal Charging Schedule for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Statistical Energy Demand Analysis and Heuristic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Fanrong; Jiang, Jianhui; Ding, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    To alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and the dependence on fossil fuel, Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (PHEVs) have gained an increasing popularity in current decades. Due to the fluctuating electricity prices in the power market, a charging schedule is very influential to driving cost....... Although the next-day electricity prices can be obtained in a day-ahead power market, a driving plan is not easily made in advance. Although PHEV owners can input a next-day plan into a charging system, e.g., aggregators, day-ahead, it is a very trivial task to do everyday. Moreover, the driving plan may...... not be very accurate. To address this problem, in this paper, we analyze energy demands according to a PHEV owner's historical driving records and build a personalized statistic driving model. Based on the model and the electricity spot prices, a rolling optimization strategy is proposed to help make...

  20. Hybrid Geo-Energy Systems for Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, Thomas; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Ogland-Hand, Jonathan; Hao, Yue; Sun, Yunwei; Randolph, Jimmy; Saar, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Three primary challenges for energy systems are to (1) reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being emitted to the atmosphere, (2) increase the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and (3) reduce the water intensity of energy production. Integrating variable renewable energy sources (wind, sunlight) into electric grids requires advances in energy storage approaches, which are currently expensive, and tend to have limited capacity and/or geographic deployment potential. Our approach uses CO2, that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, to generate electricity from geothermal resources, to store excess energy from variable (wind, solar photovoltaic) and thermal (nuclear, fossil, concentrated solar power) sources, and to thus enable increased penetration of renewable energy technologies. We take advantage of the enormous fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy. Our approach uses permeable geologic formations that are vertically bounded by impermeable layers to constrain pressure and the migration of buoyant CO2 and heated brine. Supercritical CO2 captured from fossil power plants is injected into these formations as a cushion gas to store pressure (bulk energy), provide an heat efficient extraction fluid for efficient power conversion in Brayton Cycle turbines, and generate artesian flow of brine -- which can be used to cool power plants and/or pre-heated (thermal storage) prior to re-injection. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Time-shifting the parasitic loads from pressurizing and injecting brine and CO2 provides bulk energy storage over days to months, whereas time-shifting thermal-energy supply provides dispatchable power and addresses seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. These

  1. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... application. SUMMARY: Centre Lane Trading Limited (CLT) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy...)). On April 20, 2010, DOE received an application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy... facilities for five years. CLT does not own any electric transmission facilities nor does it hold a...

  2. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric... to Canada would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies...

  3. 75 FR 41166 - Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability; Notice of Reestablishment of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability; Notice of Reestablishment of the Electricity Advisory Committee Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2)(A) of the Federal Advisory... Administration, notice is hereby given that the Electricity Advisory Committee has been reestablished for a two...

  4. Energy Management Strategies for Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondin Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on hybrid energy management for a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV with a parallel architecture. The proposed strategy focuses on the reduction of Nitric Oxides (NOx emissions that represents a key issue to meet diesel emissions standards. The strategy is split in two separated functions aiming at limiting the NOx in steady-state and transient operating conditions. The first functions, control the torque split between the engine and the electric motor. This energy management is based on the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS where an additional degree of freedom is introduced to tune the optimization tradeoffs from the pure fuel economy case to the pure NOx limitation case. The second function adapts the torque split ratio between the motor and the engine, initially computed from the optimal control strategy during transient operations where NOx are produced. The engine torque correction relies on mean value models for the EGR system dynamics and for the NOx formation. This paper applies a methodology based on Software in the Loop (SiL and Hardware in the Loop (HiL simulations in order to understand the system performance according to the powertrain configurations and also to tune the proposed energy management strategy. The simulation results are confirmed by experiments performed on Hybrid-Hardware in the Loop (Hy-HiL test bench. This work shows the potential of using the hybrid architecture to limit NOx emissions by choosing the best operating point and by limiting the engine dynamics. The NOx reduction has limited impact on fuel consumption.

  5. Redistribution effects of energy and climate policy: The electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion; Ueckerdt, Falko

    2013-01-01

    Energy and climate policies are usually seen as measures to internalize externalities. However, as a side effect, the introduction of these policies redistributes wealth between consumers and producers, and within these groups. While redistribution is seldom the focus of the academic literature in energy economics, it plays a central role in public debates and policy decisions. This paper compares the distributional effects of two major electricity policies: support schemes for renewable energy sources, and CO 2 pricing. We find that the redistribution effects of both policies are large, and they work in opposed directions. While renewables support transfers wealth from producers to consumers, carbon pricing does the opposite. More specifically, we show that moderate amounts of wind subsidies can increase consumer surplus, even if consumers bear the subsidy costs. CO 2 pricing, in contrast, increases aggregated producer surplus, even without free allocation of emission allowances; however, not all types of producers benefit. These findings are derived from an analytical model of electricity markets, and a calibrated numerical model of Northwestern Europe. Our findings imply that if policy makers want to avoid large redistribution they might prefer a mix of policies, even if CO 2 pricing alone is the first-best climate policy in terms of allocative efficiency. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •CO 2 pricing and renewables support have strikingly different impacts on rents. •Carbon pricing increases producer surplus and decreases consumer surplus. •Renewable support schemes (portfolio standards, feed-in tariffs) do the opposite. •We model these impacts theoretically and quantify them for Europe. •Redistribution of wealth is found to be significant in size

  6. Energy situation August 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents a monthly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO 2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity in the form of tables and graphs

  7. Energy situation July 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    This publication presents a monthly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO 2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity in the form of tables and graphs

  8. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the direct multi-element analysis of dried blood spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguí, E.; Queralt, I.; García-Ruiz, E.; García-González, E.; Rello, L.; Resano, M.

    2018-01-01

    Home-based collection protocols for clinical specimens are actively pursued as a means of improving life quality of patients. In this sense, dried blood spots (DBS) are proposed as a non-invasive and even self-administered alternative to sampling whole venous blood. This contribution explores the potential of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the simultaneous and direct determination of some major (S, Cl, K, Na), minor (P, Fe) and trace (Ca, Cu, Zn) elements in blood, after its deposition onto clinical filter papers, thus giving rise to DBS. For quantification purposes the best strategy was to use matrix-matched blood samples of known analyte concentrations. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated by analysis of a blood reference material (Seronorm™ trace elements whole blood L3). Quantitative results were obtained for the determination of P, S, Cl, K and Fe, and limits of detection for these elements were adequate, taking into account their typical concentrations in real blood samples. Determination of Na, Ca, Cu and Zn was hampered by the occurrence of high sample support (Na, Ca) and instrumental blanks (Cu, Zn). Therefore, the quantitative determination of these elements at the levels expected in blood samples was not feasible. The methodology developed was applied to the analysis of several blood samples and the results obtained were compared with those reported by standard techniques. Overall, the performance of the method developed is promising and it could be used to determine the aforementioned elements in blood samples in a simple, fast and economic way. Furthermore, its non-destructive nature enables further analyses by means of complementary techniques to be carried out.

  9. Minimising the expectation value of the procurement cost in electricity markets based on the prediction error of energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Naoya; Hori, Maiya; Ideguchi, Yoshinari

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate a method for minimising the expectation value of the procurement cost of electricity in two popular spot markets: {\\it day-ahead} and {\\it intra-day}, under the assumption that expectation value of unit prices and the distributions of prediction errors for the electricity demand traded in two markets are known. The expectation value of the total electricity cost is minimised over two parameters that change the amounts of electricity. Two parameters depend only on t...

  10. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport......The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...

  11. Citotoxicidade de soldas elétricas a ponto: estudo in vitro Cytotoxicity of electric spot welding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o processo de solda envolve íons metálicos capazes de provocar lise celular. Diante disso, o objetivo deste estudo foi testar a hipótese de que existe citotoxicidade entre diferentes tipos de ligas (CrNi, TMA, NiTi utilizadas em Ortodontia, submetidas à solda elétrica a ponto. MÉTODOS: três tipos de ligas foram avaliados neste estudo. Foram confeccionados 36 corpos de prova, 6 para cada combinação entre os fios, divididos em 6 grupos - grupo AA (aço com aço, grupo AT (aço com TMA, grupo AN (aço com NiTi, grupo TT (TMA com TMA, grupo TN (TMA com NiTi e grupo NN (NiTi com NiTi - que foram submetidos à solda a ponto para avaliação quanto ao possível efeito citotóxico nos tecidos bucais. Previamente, os corpos de prova foram limpos com álcool isopropílico e esterilizados em luz ultravioleta. O ensaio de citotoxicidade foi realizado utilizando-se cultura de células (linhagem L929, fibroblastos de camundongos, submetida ao teste para células viáveis em vermelho neutro ("dye-uptake" no tempo de 24h. A análise de variância e comparação múltipla (ANOVA e teste de Tukey foram utilizados (p 0,05. Foi observada maior viabilidade celular no grupo TT, seguido dos grupos AT, TN, AA, NA e NN. CONCLUSÃO: pôde-se evidenciar que solda em fios de liga de NiTi causaram maior quantidade de lise celular. Soldas elétricas a ponto demonstraram pequena capacidade de causar lise celular.OBJECTIVE: The welding process involves metal ions capable of causing cell lysis. In view of this fact, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cytotoxicity is present in different types of alloys (CrNi, TMA, NiTi commonly used in orthodontic practice when these alloys are subjected to electric spot welding. METHODS: Three types of alloys were evaluated in this study. Thirty-six test specimens were fabricated, 6 for each wire combination, and divided into 6 groups: Group SS (stainless steel, Group ST (steel with TMA, Group SN (steel

  12. Finite element modeling of electrically rectified piezoelectric energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, P H; Shu, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Finite element models are developed for designing electrically rectified piezoelectric energy harvesters. They account for the consideration of common interface circuits such as the standard and parallel-/series-SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor) circuits, as well as complicated structural configurations such as arrays of piezoelectric oscillators. The idea is to replace the energy harvesting circuit by the proposed equivalent load impedance together with the capacitance of negative value. As a result, the proposed framework is capable of being implemented into conventional finite element solvers for direct system-level design without resorting to circuit simulators. The validation based on COMSOL simulations carried out for various interface circuits by the comparison with the standard modal analysis model. The framework is then applied to the investigation on how harvested power is reduced due to fabrication deviations in geometric and material properties of oscillators in an array system. Remarkably, it is found that for a standard array system with strong electromechanical coupling, the drop in peak power turns out to be insignificant if the optimal load is carefully chosen. The second application is to design broadband energy harvesting by developing array systems with suitable interface circuits. The result shows that significant broadband is observed for the parallel (series) connection of oscillators endowed with the parallel-SSHI (series-SSHI) circuit technique. (paper)

  13. Finite element modeling of electrically rectified piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P. H.; Shu, Y. C.

    2015-09-01

    Finite element models are developed for designing electrically rectified piezoelectric energy harvesters. They account for the consideration of common interface circuits such as the standard and parallel-/series-SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor) circuits, as well as complicated structural configurations such as arrays of piezoelectric oscillators. The idea is to replace the energy harvesting circuit by the proposed equivalent load impedance together with the capacitance of negative value. As a result, the proposed framework is capable of being implemented into conventional finite element solvers for direct system-level design without resorting to circuit simulators. The validation based on COMSOL simulations carried out for various interface circuits by the comparison with the standard modal analysis model. The framework is then applied to the investigation on how harvested power is reduced due to fabrication deviations in geometric and material properties of oscillators in an array system. Remarkably, it is found that for a standard array system with strong electromechanical coupling, the drop in peak power turns out to be insignificant if the optimal load is carefully chosen. The second application is to design broadband energy harvesting by developing array systems with suitable interface circuits. The result shows that significant broadband is observed for the parallel (series) connection of oscillators endowed with the parallel-SSHI (series-SSHI) circuit technique.

  14. Use of low-cost aluminum in electric energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Andrey Z.; Sheindlin, Alexander E.; Kleymenov, Boris V.; Shkolnikov, Eugene I.; Lopatin, Marat Yu.

    Suppression of the parasitic corrosion while maintaining the electrochemical activity of the anode metal is one of the serious problems that affects the energy efficiency of aluminum-air batteries. The need to use high-purity aluminum or special aluminum-based alloys results in a significant increase in the cost of the anode, and thus an increase in the total cost of energy generated by the aluminum-air battery, which narrows the range of possible applications for this type of power source. This study considers the process of parasitic corrosion as a method for hydrogen production. Hydrogen produced in an aluminum-air battery by this way may be further employed in a hydrogen-air fuel cell (Hy-air FC) or in a heat engine, or it may be burnt to generate heat. Therefore, anode materials may be provided by commercially pure aluminum, commercially produced aluminum alloys, and secondary aluminum. These materials are much cheaper and more readily available than special anode alloys of aluminum and high-purity aluminum. The aim of present study is to obtain experimental data for comparison of energy and cost parameters of some commercially produced aluminum alloys, of high-purity aluminum, and of a special Al-ln anode alloy in the context of using these materials as anodes for an Al-air battery and for combined production of electrical power and hydrogen.

  15. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawsey, R.A. (comp.)

    1993-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1992 Peer Review of Projects, conducted by DOE's Office of Program Analysis, Office of Energy Research. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making tremendous progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  16. 76 FR 11436 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Generation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric... Affairs and Corporate Strategy, Ontario Power Generation Inc., [[Page 11437

  17. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  18. Clean Energy Generation and Dispatch in Reformed Wholesale Electricity Markets: Experience in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Ma [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Fan, Zhang [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Menghua, Fan [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Jing, Li [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Haoyuan, Qu [State Grid Energy Research Institute

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the US electricity market has undergone several stages of reform, and gradually formed the market where the wholesale electricity price is determined by the supply and demand. The US electricity market also changes along with the rapid development of clean energy, forming a number of the market mechanisms that is specifically developed for clean energy power generation characteristics. On the basis of discussing the pricing mechanism of US electricity market, this paper analyzes the experience and practice of encouraging renewable energy development policy and clean energy dispatch from the angle of market mechanism and dispatching decision, and puts forward the reference for clean energy dispatching in China.

  19. Optimal selling price and energy procurement strategies for a retailer in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, A.R.; Seifi, H.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    In an electricity market, the retailer sets up contracts with the wholesale side for purchasing electricity and with the customers for its selling. This paper proposes a mathematical method based on mixed-integer stochastic programming to determine the optimal sale price of electricity to customers and the electricity procurement policy of a retailer for a specified period. The retailer has multiple choices for electricity procurement, such as spot market, forward contracts, call options and self-production. Risk is considered and modeled by conditional value-at-risk methodology. Also, the competition between retailers is modeled using a market share function. A case study is illustrated to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. (author)

  20. Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Assessment of Electrical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performances of various lithium-ion chemistries for use in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have been investigated and compared to several other rechargeable energy storage systems technologies such as lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and electrical-double layer capacitors. The analysis has shown the beneficial properties of lithium-ion in the terms of energy density, power density and rate capabilities. Particularly, the nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode stands out with the high energy density up to 160 Wh/kg, compared to 70–110, 90 and 71 Wh/kg for lithium iron phosphate cathode, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum cathode and, lithium titanate oxide anode battery cells, respectively. These values are considerably higher than the lead-acid (23–28 Wh/kg and nickel-metal hydride (44–53 Wh/kg battery technologies. The dynamic discharge performance test shows that the energy efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries is significantly higher than the lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride technologies. The efficiency varies between 86% and 98%, with the best values obtained by pouch battery cells, ahead of cylindrical and prismatic battery design concepts. Also the power capacity of lithium-ion technology is superior compared to other technologies. The power density is in the range of 300–2400 W/kg against 200–400 and 90–120 W/kg for lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride, respectively. However, considering the influence of energy efficiency, the power density is in the range of 100–1150 W/kg. Lithium-ion batteries optimized for high energy are at the lower end of this range and are challenged to meet the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, SuperLIB and Massachusetts Institute of Technology goals. Their association with electric-double layer capacitors, which have low energy density (4–6 Wh/kg but outstanding power capabilities, could be very interesting. The study of the rate capability of the lithium-ion batteries has