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Sample records for spot effectively improving

  1. An improved Michelson interferometer: smoothing out the rough spots for a more effective teaching tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Clarke K.

    2017-08-01

    The Michelson interferometer is a classic tool for demonstrating the wave nature of light, and it is a cornerstone of the optics curriculum. But many students' experiences with this device are higher in frustration than they are in learning. That situation motivated an effort to make aligning the tool less a test of a visual acuity and patience, and more of an introduction to optics phenomena and optical engineering. Key improvements included an added beam-splitter to accommodate multiple observers, a modified telescope to quickly and reliably obtain parallel mirrors, and a series of increasing spectral-width light sources to obtain equal path lengths. This greatly improved students' chances of success, as defined by achieving "white light fringes". When presenting these new features to the students, high importance is placed on understanding why alignment was so difficult with the original design, and why the changes made alignment easier. By exposing the rationale behind the improvements, students can observe the process of problem-solving in an optical engineering scenario. Equally important is the demonstration that solutions can be devised or adapted based on the parts at hand, and that implementations only achieve a highly "polished' state after several design iterations.

  2. Combining geometric matching with SVM to improve symbol spotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayef, Nibal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Symbol spotting is important for automatic interpretation of technical line drawings. Current spotting methods are not reliable enough for such tasks due to low precision rates. In this paper, we combine a geometric matching-based spotting method with an SVM classifier to improve the precision of the spotting. In symbol spotting, a query symbol is to be located within a line drawing. Candidate matches can be found, however, the found matches may be true or false. To distinguish a false match, an SVM classifier is used. The classifier is trained on true and false matches of a query symbol. The matches are represented as vectors that indicate the qualities of how well the query features are matched, those qualities are obtained via geometric matching. Using the classification, the precision of the spotting improved from an average of 76.6% to an average of 97.2% on a database of technical line drawings.

  3. AN IMPROVED FUZZY CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR MICROARRAY IMAGE SPOTS SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Biju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An automatic cDNA microarray image processing using an improved fuzzy clustering algorithm is presented in this paper. The spot segmentation algorithm proposed uses the gridding technique developed by the authors earlier, for finding the co-ordinates of each spot in an image. Automatic cropping of spots from microarray image is done using these co-ordinates. The present paper proposes an improved fuzzy clustering algorithm Possibility fuzzy local information c means (PFLICM to segment the spot foreground (FG from background (BG. The PFLICM improves fuzzy local information c means (FLICM algorithm by incorporating typicality of a pixel along with gray level information and local spatial information. The performance of the algorithm is validated using a set of simulated cDNA microarray images added with different levels of AWGN noise. The strength of the algorithm is tested by computing the parameters such as the Segmentation matching factor (SMF, Probability of error (pe, Discrepancy distance (D and Normal mean square error (NMSE. SMF value obtained for PFLICM algorithm shows an improvement of 0.9 % and 0.7 % for high noise and low noise microarray images respectively compared to FLICM algorithm. The PFLICM algorithm is also applied on real microarray images and gene expression values are computed.

  4. Fluoride varnish may improve white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Gary L

    2011-12-01

    A randomised, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial. The test group had fluoride varnish applied onto the tooth surfaces with WSLs using a miniature cotton swab or brush and advised not to brush for four hours. The control group had saline solution applied. Status of the WSLs were assessed using a DIAGNOdent pen (KaVo, Biberach, Germany). Of the 110 participants recruited, 14 dropped out between the debonding and the six-month recall visit. There were statistically significant differences between the mean DIAGNOdent readings of the two groups at the three-month (P<0.05) and at the six-month follow-up visits (P<0.01). No adverse response or safety concerns in the use of fluoride varnish were reported by any of the subjects. A greater decrease in DIAGNOdent pen readings was found in the test group during the first six months after debonding. This may be taken to imply an improvement in the WSLs. Thus, topical fluoride varnish application appears to be a good method to treat WSLs and should be advocated as a routine measure after orthodontic treatment.

  5. Effects of series compensation on spot price power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.B.; Wang Feng

    2005-01-01

    The operation of a deregulated power market becomes more complex as the generation scheduling is dependent on suppliers' and consumers' bids. With large number of transactions in the power market changing in time, it is more likely for some transmission lines to face congestion. Series compensation, such as TCSC, with its ability to directly control the power flow can be very helpful to improve the operation of transmission networks. The effects of TCSC on the operation of a spot price power market are studied in this paper using the modified IEEE 14-bus system. Optimal Power Flow incorporating TCSC is used to implement the spot price market. Linear bids are used to model suppliers' and consumers' bids. Issues of location and cost of TCSC are discussed. The effects of levels of TCSC compensation on wide range of system quantities are studied. The effects on the total social benefit, the spot prices, transmission congestion, total generation and consumption, benefit to individual supplier and consumer etc. are discussed. It is demonstrated that though use of TCSC makes the system more efficient and augments competition in the market, it is not easy to establish general relationships between the levels of compensation and various market quantities. Simulation studies like these can be used to assess the effects of TCSC in specific systems. (Author)

  6. An improved algorithm of laser spot center detection in strong noise background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Qianqian; Cui, Xutai; Zhao, Yu; Peng, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Laser spot center detection is demanded in many applications. The common algorithms for laser spot center detection such as centroid and Hough transform method have poor anti-interference ability and low detection accuracy in the condition of strong background noise. In this paper, firstly, the median filtering was used to remove the noise while preserving the edge details of the image. Secondly, the binarization of the laser facula image was carried out to extract target image from background. Then the morphological filtering was performed to eliminate the noise points inside and outside the spot. At last, the edge of pretreated facula image was extracted and the laser spot center was obtained by using the circle fitting method. In the foundation of the circle fitting algorithm, the improved algorithm added median filtering, morphological filtering and other processing methods. This method could effectively filter background noise through theoretical analysis and experimental verification, which enhanced the anti-interference ability of laser spot center detection and also improved the detection accuracy.

  7. Effects of Variety and Fungicidal Rate on Cercospora Leaf Spots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was carried out at the University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons to evaluate the effects of variety and fungicidal rate on Cercospora leaf spot disease of groundnut. The experimental design used was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) ...

  8. narrow sense heritability and gene effects for late leaf spot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Late leaf spot (LLS), Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. and Curtis) Deighton, is one of the most important foliar diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) worldwide. Effective chemical control is heavily reliant upon multiple fungicide applications which are costly for resource poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Improved simulation method of automotive spot weld failure with an account of the mechanical properties of spot welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Meng, X. M.; Fang, R.; Huang, Y. F.; Zhan, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the microstructure and mechanical properties of spot weld were studied, the hardness of nugget and heat affected zone (HAZ) were also tested by metallographic microscope and microhardness tester. The strength of the spot weld with the different parts' area has been characterized. According to the experiments result, CAE model of spot weld with HAZ structure was established, and simulation results of different lap-shear CAE models were analyzed. The results show that the spot weld model which contained the HAZ has good performance and more suitable for engineering application in spot weld simulation.

  10. Tomato spotted wilt virus infection improves host suitability for its vector Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, P.C.; Joosten, N.N.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection on plant attractiveness for the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) was studied. Significantly more thrips were recovered on infected than were recovered on noninfected pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants in different preference

  11. Application of Pre-heating to Improve the Consistency and Quality in AA5052 Resistance Spot Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen; Ao, Sansan; Chao, Yuh Jin; Cui, Xuetuan; Li, Yang; Lin, Ye

    2015-10-01

    Making consistent resistance spot welds of aluminum alloy with good quality and at high volume has several obstacles in automotive industry. One of the difficult issues arises from the presence of a tough non-conducting oxide film on the aluminum sheet surface. The oxide film develops over time and often is non-uniform across the surface of the aluminum alloy sheet, which makes the contact resistance characteristics irregular at the faying interface during welding. The consistency in quality of the final spot welds is therefore problematic to control. To suppress the effect of the irregular oxide film on the spot weld quality, application of a pre-heating treatment in the welding schedule for aluminum alloy 5052 is investigated in this present work. The current level of the pre-heating required to reduce the scatter of the contact resistance at the W/W (workpiece-to-workpiece) faying interface is quantified experimentally. The results indicate that the contact resistance at the W/W faying interface with a pre-heating treatment becomes much consistent and can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. Having the uncertain variation of the contact resistance at the W/W faying surface virtually reduced or removed, the quality of the spot welds in terms of the peak load and nugget diameter is examined and shows a great improvement. The proposed method may provide a robust method for high-volume spot welding of aluminum alloy sheets in auto industry.

  12. Possible recombinogenic effect of caprolactam in the mammalian spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrig, R

    1989-11-01

    Tests of caprolactam in the mouse spot test showed that treatment with this compound increased the frequency of color spots among animals treated in utero. The nature of these spots suggests that caprolactam may induce spots through the induction of mitotic recombination.

  13. Effect of post weld impact treatment (PWIT) on mechanical properties of spot-welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, F. A.; Salleh, Z.; Hyie, K. M.; Rozlin, N. M. Nik; Hamidi, S. H. Ahmad; Padzi, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the study of improvement for spot welding on the tensile shear and hardness by applying post weld impact treatment (PWIT) on the welded joint. The main objective of the research is to characterize and improve the mechanical properties of the joint. The method of PWIT used on the welded joint was Pneumatic Impact Treatment (PIT). The concept of PIT on spot welding is that it improves the mechanical properties of the welded zone. The working sample was undergoing a resistance spot welding of joining two similar in dimension and material of a steel plate before treated. The dimension of both plate are 110 mm × 45 mm × 1.2 mm and the material used were low carbon steel (LCS). All the welded samples were tested for its mechanical properties by performing the tensile-shear and hardness test. Tensile-shear test was conducted on the spot welded, both treated and as-welded samples using crosshead speed of 2 mm/min, while hardness test was performed using 1kgf load via Vickers hardness indenter. The effects of PIT on tensile-shear properties and hardness were evaluated and found that the implementation of PIT has increased tensile shear and hardness significantly.

  14. Effect of cattle exclosures on Columbia Spotted Frog abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher; Chambert, Thierry; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Livestock grazing is an important land use in the western USA and can have positive or negative effects on amphibians. Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris) often use ponds that provide water for cattle. We conducted a long-term manipulative study on US Forest Service land in northeastern Oregon to determine the effects of full and partial exclosures that limited cattle access to ponds used by frogs. We found weak evidence of a short-term increase in abundance that did not differ between full and partial exclosures and that diminished with continuing exclusion of cattle. The benefit of exclosures was small relative to the overall decline in breeding numbers that we documented. This suggests that some protection can provide a short-term boost to populations.

  15. Research on the compensation of laser launch optics to improve the performance of the LGS spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Yuning; Tian, Donghe; Zheng, Quan; Lin, Xudong; Wang, Liang; Yang, Qingyun

    2018-02-01

    To improve the beam quality of the uplink laser, a 37 channel piezo-ceramic deformable mirror was inserted into the laser launch optics to compensate the static aberrations. An interferometer was used as the calibration light source as well as the wavefront sensor to perform closed-loop correction for the moment. About 0.38λ root mean square (rms) aberrations, including the deformable mirror's initial figure error, were compensated, and the residual error was less than 0.07λ rms. Field observations with a 2 m optical telescope demonstrated that the peak intensity value of the laser guide star (LGS) spot increased from 5650 to 7658, and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) size reduced from 4.07 arcseconds to 3.52 arcseconds. With the compensation, an improved guide star spot can be obtained, which is crucial for the adaptive optics systems of ground-based large telescopes.

  16. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Amy E.; Grue, Christian E.; Hayes, Marc P.; Troiano, Alexandra T.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  17. Improving FoRe: A New Inlet Design for Filtering Samples through Individual Microarray Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Victoria; Habegger, Marco; Schmidt, Marco; Vörös, János

    2017-03-24

    In this publication we present an improvement to our previously introduced vertical flow microarray, the FoRe array, which capitalizes on the fusion of immunofiltration and densely packed micron test sites. Filtering samples through individual microarray spots allows us to rapidly analyze dilute samples with high-throughput and high signal-to-noise. Unlike other flowthrough microarrays, in the FoRe design samples are injected into micron channels and sequentially exposed to different targets. This arrangement makes it possible to increase the sensitivity of the microarray by simply increasing the sample volume or to rapidly reconcentrate samples after preprocessing steps dilute the analyte. Here we present a new inlet system which allows us to increase the analyzed sample volume without compromising the micron spot size and dense layout. We combined this with a model assay to demonstrate that the device is sensitive to the amount of antigen, and as a result, sample volume directly correlates to sensitivity. We introduced a simple technique for analysis of blood, which previously clogged the nanometer-sized pores, requiring only microliter volumes expected from an infant heel prick. A drop of blood is mixed with buffer to separate the plasma before reconcentrating the sample on the microarray spot. We demonstrated the success of this procedure by spiking TNF-α into blood and achieved a limit of detection of 18 pM. Compared to traditional protein microarrays, the FoRe array is still inexpensive, customizable, and simple to use, and thanks to these improvements has a broad range of applications from small animal studies to environmental monitoring.

  18. Effects of slag-based silicon fertilizer on rice growth and brown-spot resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization.

  19. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced

  20. Effects of Variety and Fungicidal Rate on Cercospora Leaf Spots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Singh, V.R., Pandes, A.K., Reddy, P.M. and. Pao P.V. (1995). Resistance to Rust and Late leaf Spot of Groundnut. ICRISAT. Information Bulletin. No.47, Patancheru,. 502, 324, Andra Pradesh, India. P.24. Thapar, S., Bhusham, R. and Mathur, R.P.. (1995). Degradation of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in soils- ...

  1. Fine focal spot size improves image quality in computed tomography abdomen and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yin P.; Low, Keat; Kuganesan, Ahilan [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging Department, 246, Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Lau, Kenneth K. [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging Department, 246, Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Monash University, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Victoria (Australia); Buchan, Kevin [Philips Healthcare, Clinical Science, PO Box 312, Mont Albert, Victoria (Australia); Oh, Lawrence Chia Wei [Flinders Medical Centre, Division of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park South (Australia); Huynh, Minh [Swinburne University, Department of Statistics, Data Science and Epidemiology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Hawthorn (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    To compare the image quality between fine focal spot size (FFSS) and standard focal spot size (SFSS) in computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) This retrospective review included all consecutive adult patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CTAP between June and September 2014. Two blinded radiologists assessed the margin clarity of the abdominal viscera and the detected lesions using a five-point grading scale. Cohen's kappa test was used to examine the inter-observer reliability between the two reviewers for organ margin clarity. Mann-Whitney U testing was utilised to assess the statistical difference of the organ and lesion margin clarity. 100 consecutive CTAPs were recruited. 52 CTAPs were examined with SFSS of 1.1 x 1.2 mm and 48 CTAPs were examined with FFSS of 0.6 x 0.7 mm. Results showed that there was substantial agreement for organ margin clarity (mean κ = 0.759, p < 0.001) among the reviewers. FFSS produces images with clearer organ margins (U = 76194.0, p < 0.001, r = 0.523) and clearer lesion margins (U = 239, p = 0.052, r = 0.269). FFSS CTAP improves image quality in terms of better organ and lesion margin clarity. Fine focus CT scanning is a novel technique that may be applied in routine CTAP imaging. (orig.)

  2. Effects of Variable Spot Size on Human Exposure to 95 GHz Millimeter Wave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-11

    AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2017-0017 Effects of Variable Spot Size on Human Exposure to 95-GHz Millimeter Wave Energy James E. Parker Eric J. Nelson...Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings. TR 0017 "Effects of Variable Spot Size on Human Exposure to 95-GHz Millimeter Wave Energy ...Effects of Variable Spot Size on Human Exposure to 95-GHz Millimeter Wave Energy 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S

  3. Effects of Hot-Spot Geometry on Backscattering and Down-Scattering Neutron Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Z. L.; Mannion, O. M.; Forrest, C. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, K. S.; Radha, P. B.

    2017-10-01

    The measured neutron spectrum produced by a fusion experiment plays a key role in inferring observable quantities. One important observable is the areal density of an implosion, which is inferred by measuring the scattering of neutrons. This project seeks to use particle-transport simulations to model the effects of hot-spot geometry on backscattering and down-scattering neutron spectra along different lines of sight. Implosions similar to those conducted at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics are modeled by neutron transport through a DT plasma and a DT ice shell using the particle transport codes MCNP and IRIS. Effects of hot-spot geometry are obtained by ``detecting'' scattered neutrons along different lines of sight. This process is repeated for various hot-spot geometries representing known shape distortions between the hot spot and the shell. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  4. Effects of fire on spotted owl site occupancy in a late-successional forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan L.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Kelt, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is a late-successional forest dependent species that is sensitive to forest management practices throughout its range. An increase in the frequency and spatial extent of standreplacing fires in western North America has prompted concern for the persistence of spotted owls and other sensitive late-successional forest associated species. However, there is sparse information on the effects of fire on spotted owls to guide conservation policies. In 2004-2005, we surveyed for California spotted owls during the breeding season at 32 random sites (16 burned, 16 unburned) throughout late-successional montane forest in Yosemite National Park, California. Our burned areas burned at all severities, but predominately involved low to moderate fire severity. Based on an information theoretic approach, spotted owl detection and occupancy rates were similar between burned and unburned sites. Nest and roost site occupancy was best explained by a model that combined total tree basal area (positive effect) with cover by coarse woody debris (negative effect). The density estimates of California spotted owl pairs were similar in burned and unburned forests, and the overall mean density estimate for Yosemite was higher than previously reported for montane forests. Our results indicate that low to moderate severity fires, historically common within montane forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, maintain habitat characteristics essential for spotted owl site occupancy. These results suggest that managed fires that emulate the historic fire regime of these forests may maintain spotted owl habitat and protect this species from the effects of future catastrophic fires.

  5. Antioxidant Effect of Orange Peel Extract on Chemical Quality, Sensory Properties, and Black Spots of Farmed White Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Vakili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black spots are a major problem in commercial shrimp species and can have negative effects on shrimps' appearance, quality, shelf life, economic value, and product acceptance by consumers. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of orange peel extract on chemical and sensory qualities as well as black spots on Litopenaeus vannamei species of white farmed shrimp. Methods: Samples included treated shrimps at concentration of 150 g, orange peel extract for 30 minutes, and control shrimps. After storage for 10 days at 1 ± 4 °C, the samples’ chemical and sensory evaluations were performed with an interval of 5 days. Results: pH factors, peroxide value, and total volatile network (TVN of treated samples were significantly lower compared to those of the control samples (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in the moisture content. Black spots did not appear in the treated sample until the end of refrigerated storage, but melanosis appeared in control shrimp 5 days after storage. Conclusion: The results showed that because of having antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, orange peel extract improved shrimps' chemical and sensory qualities and reduced their black spots in the refrigerator temperature.

  6. The Effect of Thermal Lamination Processes on Colorimetric Change in Spot Colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Galić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effect of laminating processes on spot colours is of great importance in the offset printing process, especially given the application versatility of spot colours. Laminating process, as a very common process and one of the first in a sequence of finishing processes in graphics production, can affect print’s visual impression to varying degrees. Spot colours, as mixtures of different ratios of inks, are subject to a change due to matt or gloss lamination process. The research examined the impact of thermal lamination processes on printed spot colours on different printing substrates. The degree of change on prints caused by laminating films in the thermal process was determined using spectrophotometric and densitometric methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the spot colour because of its specific characteristics. Research results are shown in charts and they are showing clearly the modality and the extent laminating processes effect the colorimetric difference in laminated and non-laminated prints. This scientific research provides objective conclusions that help in predicting the possible variations within the usage of laminating processes.

  7. Late-successional forests and northern spotted owls: how effective is the Northwest Forest Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles Hemstrom; Martin G. Raphael

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the late-successional and old-growth forest and the northern spotted owl effectiveness monitoring plans for the Northwest Forest Plan. The effectiveness monitoring plan for late-successional and old-growth forests will track changes in forest spatial distribution, and within-stand structure and composition, and it will predict future trends.

  8. Effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot welding of polypropylene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Bilici

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tool geometry and properties on friction stir spot welding properties of polypropylene sheets were studied. Four different tool pin geometries, with varying pin angles, pin lengths, shoulder diameters and shoulder angles were used for friction stir spot welding. All the welding operations were done at the room temperature. Lap-shear tensile tests were carried out to find the weld static strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. From the experiments the effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot weld formation and weld strength were determined. The optimum tool geometry for 4 mm thick polypropylene sheets were determined. The tapered cylindrical pin gave the biggest and the straight cylindrical pin gave the lowest lap-shear fracture load.

  9. The effects of sheet spacing on the fatigue life of spot­welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available While investigating the fatigue strength of spot-welded joints, the effects of sheet spacing or gap amounts between sheet joints may be considered as one of the most important parameters on the fatigue life duration of the joints. The main goal of the present work is to study the influence of sheet spacing on the fatigue life of 5083-O aluminium alloy spot welded tensile-shear joints. The amounts of sheet spacing are the average values over three measurements of photograph observation of the cut-off surfaces from the nugget centre of the spot-welded joints. The amounts of gap distances between spot weld sheet joints for three different electrode clamping force levels were 0.09mm, 0.11mm and 0.13mm, respectively. The values of notch strength reduction factors have been obtained at all levels of applied loads based on volumetric approach. The fatigue lives of spot welded joints have been obtained according to the volumetric method using the notch strength reduction factors and the available smooth S-N curve of 5083-O aluminium alloy sheets. The results based on the volumetric approach have been compared with the experimental fatigue test data and there is good agreement between numerical predictions and experimental results.

  10. Metallurgical Effects of Shunting Current on Resistance Spot-Welded Joints of AA2219 Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Vardanjani, M.; Araee, A.; Senkara, J.; Jakubowski, J.; Godek, J.

    2016-08-01

    Shunting effect is the loss of electrical current via the secondary circuit provided due to the existence of previous nugget in a series of welding spots. This phenomenon influences on metallurgical aspects of resistance spot-welded (RSW) joints in terms of quality and performance. In this paper RSW joints of AA2219 sheets with 1 mm thickness are investigated metallurgically for shunted and single spots. An electro-thermal finite element analysis is performed on the RSW process of shunted spot and temperature distribution and variation are obtained. These predictions are then compared with experimental micrographs. Three values of 5 mm, 20 mm, and infinite (i.e., single spot) are assumed for welding distance. Numerical and experimental results are matching each other in terms of nugget and HAZ geometry as increasing distance raised nugget size and symmetry of HAZ. In addition, important effect of shunting current on nugget thickness, microstructure, and Copper segregation on HAZ grain boundaries were discovered. A quantitative analysis is also performed about the influence of welding distance on important properties including ratio of nugget thickness and diameter ( r t), ratio of HAZ area on shunted and free side of nugget ( r HA), and ratio of equivalent segregated and total amount of Copper, measured in sample ( r Cu) on HAZ. Increasing distance from 5 mm to infinite, indicated a gain of 111.04, -45.55, and -75.15% in r t, r HA, and r Cu, respectively, while obtained ratios for 20 mm welding distance was suitable compared to single spot.

  11. NOVEL ASPECTS OF SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA BIOLOGY AND IMPROVED METHODS OF REARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii (Mats.) or the spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), is a global pest of soft fruits that can now be reared on a standard Drosophila diet containing the fly's own natural food: soft-skinned berries. The techniques tested here can thwart bacterial and fungal disease that can destroy more ...

  12. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  13. Effect of non-nutritive sugars to decrease the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially toxic to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly ...

  14. X-ray Radiation Mechanisms and the Beaming Effect of Hot Spots ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    -ray Radiation Mechanisms and the Beaming Effect of Hot Spots and Knots in AGN Jets. Jin Zhang Jin-Ming Bai Liang Chen Enwei Liang. Part 4. Emission Models and Theory Volume 32 Issue 1-2 March-June 2011 pp 193- ...

  15. X-ray Radiation Mechanisms and the Beaming Effect of Hot Spots ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Astr. (2011) 32, 193–196 c Indian Academy of Sciences. X-ray Radiation Mechanisms and the Beaming Effect of Hot Spots and Knots in AGN Jets. Jin Zhang1,∗. , Jin-Ming Bai2, Liang Chen2 & Enwei Liang3. 1College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangxi Teachers Education University,. Nanning 530001, China.

  16. The effect of desogestrel, gestodene, and other factors on spotting and bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M J; Waugh, M S; Higgins, J E

    1996-02-01

    Spotting and bleeding are among the most common side effects associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use and their occurrence is a prime determinant of whether a new user will continue to use OCs. Desogestrel and gestodene are two new progestins that were developed in part to minimize the occurrence of these side effects. Assessing the effect of these progestins is difficult, however, in part because their effects may be subtle, requiring a large sample size and possibly being overshadowed by other factors. To address these issues, we analyzed data from two comparative multicenter clinical trials that included 15,421 cycles among 2767 women. One study compared 75 micrograms gestodene + 30 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE) with 150 micrograms desogestrel + 30 micrograms EE, the other compared the same gestodene preparation with 150 micrograms desogestrel + 20 micrograms EE. Both studies found a higher risk of spotting or bleeding in all cycles among users of the desogestrel-containing preparation, with the differences ranging between 20% and 70% higher for the first study and 40% and 140% in the second. These differences were statistically significant in four of six cycles in each study and persisted after controlling for consistency and recency of OC use as well as smoking. After pooling the data and controlling for estrogen dose, the desogestrel-containing preparation was significantly associated with more frequent spotting or bleeding in five of six cycles. Smoking and consistency and recency of OC use were also independent predictors of spotting or bleeding.

  17. Quantification of Feeding Effects of Spot Feeding Ductile Iron Castings made in Vertically Parted Moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Sällström, J.

    In vertically parted molds it is traditionally difficult to feed heavy sections that cannot be reached by traditional side/top feeders or other conventional methods. This project aims at quantifying the effects of using molded-in ram-up spot feeders as a means of feeding isolated sections in cast...

  18. Effect of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on white spot lesion development in orthodontic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gizani, Sotiria; Petsi, Georgia; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of daily intake of lozenges containing probiotic bacteria on white spot lesion (WSL) formation as well as on salivary lactobacilli (LB) and mutans streptococci (MS) counts, in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment...

  19. Turbulence and fire-spotting effects into wild-land fire simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Inderpreet; Mentrelli, Andrea; Bosseur, Frédéric; Filippi, Jean-Baptiste; Pagnini, Gianni

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a mathematical approach to model the effects and the role of phenomena with random nature such as turbulence and fire-spotting into the existing wildfire simulators. The formulation proposes that the propagation of the fire-front is the sum of a drifting component (obtained from an existing wildfire simulator without turbulence and fire-spotting) and a random fluctuating component. The modelling of the random effects is embodied in a probability density function accounting for the fluctuations around the fire perimeter which is given by the drifting component. In past, this formulation has been applied to include these random effects into a wildfire simulator based on an Eulerian moving interface method, namely the Level Set Method (LSM), but in this paper the same formulation is adapted for a wildfire simulator based on a Lagrangian front tracking technique, namely the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS). The main highlight of the present study is the comparison of the performance of a Lagrangian and an Eulerian moving interface method when applied to wild-land fire propagation. Simple idealised numerical experiments are used to investigate the potential applicability of the proposed formulation to DEVS and to compare its behaviour with respect to the LSM. The results show that DEVS based wildfire propagation model qualitatively improves its performance (e.g., reproducing flank and back fire, increase in fire spread due to pre-heating of the fuel by hot air and firebrands, fire propagation across no fuel zones, secondary fire generation, ...) when random effects are included according to the present formulation. The performance of DEVS and LSM based wildfire models is comparable and the only differences which arise among the two are due to the differences in the geometrical construction of the direction of propagation. Though the results presented here are devoid of any validation exercise and provide only a proof of concept, they show a

  20. Effects of welding parameters on friction stir spot welding of high density polyethylene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Mustafa Kemal; Yukler, Ahmet Irfan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schematic illustration of the cross section of a friction stir spot weld and (b) Geometry of the weld bonded area, x: nugget thickness and y: the thickness of the upper sheet. Highlights: → Welding parameters affect the FSSW nugget formation and the strength of the joint. → Melting of polyethylene occurred in the vicinity of the tool pin. → The joint that fractures with a pull nugget failure mode has a higher strength. -- Abstract: Friction stir spot welding parameters affect the weld strength of thermoplastics, such as high density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets. The effects of the welding parameters on static strength of friction stir spot welds of high density polyethylene sheets were investigated. For maximizing the weld strength, the selection of welding parameters is very important. In lap-shear tests two fracture modes were observed; cross nugget failure and pull nugget failure. The tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth and dwell time were determined to be important in the joint formation and its strength. The joint which had a better strength fails with a pull nugget failure morphology. Weld cross section image analysis of the joints were done with a video spectral comparator. The plunge rate of the tool was determined to have a negligible effect on friction stir spot welding.

  1. Narrow sense heritability and gene effects for late leaf spot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SM 03590, Valencia C × ICGV-SM 02501 and NuMex-M3 × ICGV-SM 02501 crosses, respectively. Both additive and dominance gene effects contributed significantly to the inheritance of LLS resistance in all the crosses, except in Redbeauty ...

  2. An improved microculture-hemolytic spot assay for the study of carrier-specific antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotkes, P; Weisman, Z; Mozes, E; Bentwich, Z

    1984-11-30

    A microculture system based on limiting dilution and a hemolytic spot assay was adapted for study of the carrier-specific anti-hapten response in vitro. Spleen or lymph node cells from normal mice or mice immunized with NIP-ovalbumin (NIP-OVA) or NIP-human thyroglobulin (NIP-Tg) were cultured for 5 days by the microculture technique. The anti-hapten (anti-NIP) response was measured by assaying the supernatants of the microcultures in a hemolytic spot test with NIP coupled to sheep red blood cells. A micro-ELISA reader was adapted to read the degree of lysis in the spot assay which gives an objective quantitation of the degree of lysis and thus reduces the number of culture replicates. In vivo induced specific helper cells in mice immunized with the carrier protein, human thyroglobulin, as well as carrier-specific T cell factors, gave rise to carrier-specific anti-NIP responses. The microculture system may enhance the expression of T-cell helper function when suppressor cells or their precursors are present in the initial cell preparation.

  3. Transgenic resistance confers effective field level control of bacterial spot disease in tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Horvath

    Full Text Available We investigated whether lines of transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum expressing the Bs2 resistance gene from pepper, a close relative of tomato, demonstrate improved resistance to bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas species in replicated multi-year field trials under commercial type growing conditions. We report that the presence of the Bs2 gene in the highly susceptible VF 36 background reduced disease to extremely low levels, and VF 36-Bs2 plants displayed the lowest disease severity amongst all tomato varieties tested, including commercial and breeding lines with host resistance. Yields of marketable fruit from transgenic lines were typically 2.5 times that of the non-transformed parent line, but varied between 1.5 and 11.5 fold depending on weather conditions and disease pressure. Trials were conducted without application of any copper-based bactericides, presently in wide use despite negative impacts on the environment. This is the first demonstration of effective field resistance in a transgenic genotype based on a plant R gene and provides an opportunity for control of a devastating pathogen while eliminating ineffective copper pesticides.

  4. Is the Memory Effect of the Blind Spot Involved in Negative Dysphotopsia after Cataract Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wenzel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel clinical observations on negative dysphotopsia (ND in eyes that have undergone cataract surgery. In the past, shadow effects were alleged to be located in the far peripheral temporal visual field 50° to 100° away from the optical axis. In a small series of eight patients we found evidence of photic effects, described by the patients as shadows in the periphery that were objectively located much more centrally. In all cases, we could find an association of these phenomena with the blind spot. We hypothesize that the memory effect of the blind spot which is dislocated and changed in magnification due to replacement of the crystalline lens could be one determinant for pseudophakic ND. The scotoma of the optic nerve head and the main arteries and veins of the phakic eye are displaced in the pseudophakic eye depending on the specific characteristics and position of the intraocular lens within the eye.

  5. The effect of ethanol listing on corn prices: Evidence from spot and futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirer, Rıza; Kutan, Ali M.; Shen, Fanglin

    2012-01-01

    The use of corn for ethanol has been the topic of heated discussions in the media and among policy makers. As part of this debate, some observers have argued that the use of corn in the production of ethanol has had adverse effects on corn prices. This paper contributes to this reviving debate by examining the impact of the listing of ethanol futures in the Chicago Board of Trade on the spot and futures prices for corn. We find a significant listing effect, indicating that the listing of ethanol has had a positive contribution to both price and volatility in the corn market, especially in the spot and the shorter maturity futures contracts, and mostly through its interaction with trading volume in the corn market. We discuss the policy implications of the findings for investors and its relevance for the ongoing debate on US energy policy. We conclude with some suggestions for future research.

  6. Strategic Placement of Treatments (SPOTS): Maximizing the Effectiveness of Fuel and Vegetation Treatments on Problem Fire Behavior and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Gercke; Susan A. Stewart

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, eight U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management interdisciplinary teams participated in a test of strategic placement of treatments (SPOTS) techniques to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing problem fire behavior, adverse fire effects, and suppression costs. This interagency approach to standardizing the assessment of risks and...

  7. Effect of tool rotational speed and penetration depth on dissimilar aluminum alloys friction stir spot welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín M. Piccini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the automotive industry is looking for the use of aluminum parts in replace of steel parts in order to reduce the vehicles weight. These parts have to be joined, for instance, by welding processes. The more common welding process in the automotive industry is the Resistance Spot Welding (RSW technique. However, RSW of aluminum alloys has many disadvantages. Regarding this situation, a variant of the Friction Stir Welding process called Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW has been developed, showing a strong impact in welding of aluminum alloys and dissimilar materials in thin sheets. Process parameters affect the characteristics of the welded joints. However, the information available on this topic is scarce, particularly for dissimilar joints and thin sheets. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the rotational speed and the tool penetration depth on the characteristics of dissimilar FSS welded joints. Defects free joints have been achieved with higher mechanical properties than the ones reported. The maximum fracture load was 5800 N. It was observed that the effective joint length of the welded spots increased with the tool penetration depth, meanwhile the fracture load increased and then decreased. Finally, welding at 1200 RPM produced welded joints with lower mechanical properties than the ones achieved at 680 and 903 RPM.

  8. Influence of transverse mode on retinal spot size and retinal injury effect: A theoretical analysis on 532-nm laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Rui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental transverse mode (TEM00 is preferable for experimental and theoretical study on the laser-induced retinal injury effect, for it can produce the minimal retinal image and establish the most strict laser safety standards. But actually lasers with higher order mode were frequently used in both earlier and recent studies. Generally higher order mode leads to larger retinal spot size and so higher damage threshold, but there are few quantitative analyses on this problem. In this paper, a four-surface schematic eye model is established for human and macaque. The propagation of 532-nm laser in schematic eye is analyzed by the ABCD law of Gaussian optics. It is shown that retinal spot size increases with laser transverse mode order. For relative lower mode order, the retinal spot diameter will not exceed the minimum laser-induced retinal lesion (25 ~ 30 μm in diameter, and so has little effect on retinal damage threshold. While for higher order mode, the larger retinal spot requires more energy to induce injury and so the damage threshold increases. When beam divergence is lowered, the retinal spot size decreases correspondingly, so the effect of mode order can be compensated. The retinal spot size of macaque is slightly smaller than that of human and the ratio between them is independent of mode order. We conclude that the laser mode order has significant influence on retinal spot size but limited influence on the retinal injury effect.

  9. Preventive effect of ozone on the development of white spot lesions during multibracket appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Otmar; Lussi, Adrian; Ruf, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    To test the null hypotheses: (1) there is no difference in the caries protective effect of ozone and Cervitec/Fluor Protector during multibracket (MB) appliance therapy, and (2) DIAGNOdent and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) are not superior to a visual evaluation of initial caries lesions. Twenty right-handed patients with a very poor oral hygiene who required full MB appliance therapy were analyzed during 26 months. In a split-mouth-design, the four quadrants of each patient were either treated with ozone, a combination of Cervitec and Fluor Protector, or served as untreated controls. The visible plaque index (VPI) and white spot formation were analyzed clinically. DIAGNOdent and QLF were used for a quantitative assessment of white spot formation. The average VPI in all four dental arch quadrants amounted to 55.6% and was independent of the preventive measure undertaken. In the quadrants treated with Cervitec/Fluor Protector, only 0.7% of the areas developed new, clinically visible white spots. This was significantly (P Fluor Protector during MB therapy was superior to ozone, and a visual evaluation of initial caries lesions was superior to both DIAGNOdent and QLF.

  10. Ramularia leaf spot severity and effects on cotton leaf area and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Ascari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton monoculture favors the development of diseases such as ramularia leaf spot, which causes early defoliation and boll rotting, thus decreasing yield. This study aimed at evaluating the severity of ramularia leaf spot and its effects on cotton leaf area and yield. The experiment was conducted in a triple (4 x 3 x 2 factorial design, consisting of four cultivars (FM940GLT, FM944GL, TMG42WS and TMG43WS, three thirds of the plant (lower, middle and upper and two management conditions (with and without fungicide application. To the variable area under the disease progress curve, the lowest values were observed in the upper third of the TMG42WS and TMG43WS cultivars, with the lower and middle thirds presenting the highest severity. The condition managed with fungicide and the upper third showed the lowest values for area under the disease progress curve. The leaf area was negatively affected by the ramularia leaf spot. Concerning the seed and fiber yields, the highest averages were observed for the middle third and the condition managed with fungicide. There was no statistical difference for cotton yield loss.

  11. Improvement of cross-tension strength using concave electrode in resistance spot welding of high-strength steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Goro; Amago, Tatsuyuki; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Takao, Hisaaki; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    In the spot welding of ultrahigh-strength steel sheets, the generation of expulsion could be suppressed and large-diameter nuggets could be formed by using a concave electrode. The expulsion was suppressed because the clearance for expansion was formed when using the concave electrode. Thus, nuggets with a diameter of ≥4√t (lowest for securing joint strength, t = 1 mm) were obtained without expulsion in a greater welding current range than the range when using a conventional electrode. Furthermore, nuggets with a diameter of approximately 6.5 mm were formed with a large current of 8 kA, which could not be set when using the conventional electrode. In addition, a transition from partial interfacial fracture to pullout fracture occurred as the nugget diameter increased, and the cross-tension strength (CTS) tended to increase. A value of about 8 kN was obtained for a nugget with a diameter of 6.5 mm, which is approximately 1.5 times larger than the value (approximately 5.5 kN) obtained with the conventional electrode. The electrode life test indicated little deterioration in the CTS after 1400 welds. Thus, we propose using a concave electrode to improve the joint strength in the spot welding of high-strength steel sheets.

  12. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, Tara A. van de; Lomax, Antony J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Hug, Eugen B.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose–volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves

  13. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Tara A. van de, E-mail: t.a.van.de.water@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Lomax, Antony J. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hug, Eugen B. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality

  14. Effect of surface coating on ripening and early peel spotting in 'Sucrier' banana (Musa acuminata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrier¿ bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group) show peel spotting when the peel is just about as yellow as green, which coincides with optimum eating quality. As consumers might relate the spotting to overripe fruit, early spotting is considered undesirable, especially for export markets. Fruit were

  15. Improving the artificial diet for adult of seven spotted ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with orthogonal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y; Zhi, J R; Li, F L; Li, W H; Zhou, Y H

    2017-09-19

    In this study, an orthogonal array design with 16 factors at two levels (216) was performed to develop an artificial diet rearing the adults of seven spotted ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata. The parameters of weight gain and survival rate of adults, preoviposition period, fecundity and hatching rate of diet-fed adults were monitored. The 16 factors were included: pork liver, infant formula, sucrose, olive oil, yolk, corn oil, yeast powder, cholesterol, casein, casein hydrolysate, vitamin powder, 65% juvenile hormone III, protein powder, vitamin E, honey and pumpkin. Results indicated that pork liver, sucrose, yolk, yeast powder, juvenile hormone, pumpkin and honey were the main ingredients of the artificial diet contributing to weight gain and survival rate of adults, preoviposition period, fecundity and hatching rate. A follow-up fed with a selection of improved formulas confirmed the validity of the optimization as predicted by the orthogonal array analysis, indicating the usefulness of this method for selecting artificial diets for C. septempunctata. The weight gain and fecundity of adults reared on the improved artificial diet were 87.46 and 62.70% of those reared on Aphis craccivora; the survival rate and hatch rate were similar between the diet-fed and aphid-fed, while the preoviposition period was significantly shorter for C. septempunctata fed on the diet than on A. craccivora. The latter formula was superior to any formerly developed formulas and may thus have potential for the improved artificial diet mass rearing of C. septempunctata.

  16. Effect of electrical spot welding on load deflection rate of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Abrishami, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods used for joining metals together is welding, which can be carried out using different techniques such as electric spot welding. This study evaluated the effect of electric spot welding on the load deflection rate of stainless steel and chromium-cobalt orthodontic wires. In this experimental-laboratory study, load deflection rate of 0.016 × 0.022 inch stainless steel and chromium cobalt wires were evaluated in five groups (n =18): group one: Stainless steel wires, group two: chromium-cobalt wires, group three: stainless steel wires welded to stainless steel wires, group four: Stainless steel wires welded to chromium-cobalt wires, group five: chromium-cobalt wire welded to chromium-cobalt wires. Afterward, the forces induced by the samples in 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm deflection were measured using a universal testing machine. Then mean force measured for each group was compared with other groups. The data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, and paired t-test by the SPSS software. The significance level was set as 0.05. The Tukey test showed that there were significant differences between the load deflection rates of welded groups compared to control ones (P wires increased their load deflection rates.

  17. Improved localization of a 'hot spot' in the lungs for an array of four HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelled, O.; Tzroya, S.; German, U.; Abraham, A.; Alfassi, Z.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The basic assumption made when calibrating a lung counter is that the deposition of the radioactive aerosols in lungs is homogenous, and therefore the calibration is made with realistic phantoms containing lung sets with homogeneous contamination. Unfortunately, the deposition of the radioactive aerosols is rarely homogenous, and in some cases the contamination can even be present in the form of single 'hot' particles. The deviations from homogeneity in this case can cause an error in activity determination over one order of magnitude. A lung counter system based on four HPGe detectors is operated at Nuclear Research Center Negev - NRCN. The ratios of the counts of the four detectors may be used to obtain information on the point source position, for a more accurate evaluation of the source activity. Some criteria for location determination of a point source in the lungs were investigated in the past, and it was shown that the average error in the activity determination, when using the most promising criteria, for a natural uranium point source, was about 10 %, when the analysis was based on either the 186 keV or the 92 keV energy peaks. A parameter was used to define the successful identification of the point source location in the lungs: the 'hit percentage', which is the percentage of the right locations of the source point from all trials. The highest 'hits percentage' obtained, when analysis of the 186 keV and the 92 keV peaks was performed separately, was about 83 %. In the present work, an improvement of the localization accuracy is presented by simultaneous analysis of several gamma energy peaks. It is shown that the localization process is more accurate and the 'hits percentage' is higher in this case. For the combined analysis of the 186 keV and the 92 keV peaks, a 'hits percentage' of about 94 % was obtained. The average error in the activity determination when using this procedure, is improved to about 2.5 %, much lower than 10 % obtained

  18. Improving Stiffness-to-weight Ratio of Spot-welded Structures based upon Nonlinear Finite Element Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengyong

    2017-07-01

    Spot welding has been widely used for vehicle body construction due to its advantages of high speed and adaptability for automation. An effort to increase the stiffness-to-weight ratio of spot-welded structures is investigated based upon nonlinear finite element analysis. Topology optimization is conducted for reducing weight in the overlapping regions by choosing an appropriate topology. Three spot-welded models (lap, doubt-hat and T-shape) that approximate “typical” vehicle body components are studied for validating and illustrating the proposed method. It is concluded that removing underutilized material from overlapping regions can result in a significant increase in structural stiffness-to-weight ratio.

  19. Quantification of 2-methylcitric acid in dried blood spots improves newborn screening for propionic and methylmalonic acidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; McIntosh, Nathan; Chakraborty, Pranesh

    2017-06-01

    Background Newborn screening for propionic acidemia and methylmalonic acidurias using the marker propionylcarnitine (C3) is neither sensitive nor specific. Using C3 to acetylcarnitine (C3/C2) ratio, together with conservative C3 cut-offs, can improve screening sensitivity, but the false positive rate remains high. Incorporating the marker 2-methylcitric acid has been suggested, to improve the positive predictive value for these disorders without compromising the sensitivity. Methods Between July 2011 and December 2012 at the Newborn Screening Ontario laboratory, all neonatal dried blood spot samples that were reported as screen positive for propionic acidemia or methylmalonic acidurias based on elevated C3 and C3/C2 ratio were analyzed for 2-methylcitric acid, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results Of 222,420 samples screened, 103 were positive for methylmalonic acidurias or propionic acidemia using C3 and C3/C2 ratio as markers. There were nine true positives: propionic acidemia (n = 3), Cobalamin (Cbl) A (n=1), and Cbl C (n = 5). Among false positives there were 72 neonates not affected, 20 with maternal B 12 deficiency, and two incidental finding (transcobalamin II and unclassified Cbl defect). 2-Methylcitric acid was analyzed in all 103 samples and ranged between 0.1 and 89.4 µmol/l (reference range 0.04-0.36). Only 14 samples exceeded the set 2-methylcitric acid cut-off of 1.0 µmol/l, including the samples from all nine true positives. Conclusion By including 2-methylcitric acid in the screening algorithm, the positive predictive value of our primary and secondary screening targets improved from 8.7 to 64.3%. This would have eliminated 89 unnecessary referrals while maintaining 100% sensitivity.

  20. Improved recovery of repeat intoxicated drivers using fingernails and blood spots to monitor alcohol and other substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Pamela; Brown, Guida; Hallinan, Patricia; Becerra, Sergio; Lewis, Doug

    2017-01-02

    This study reports the results of a pilot program in Kenosha County that used a combination of direct biomarkers extracted from blood spots and nails to monitor repeat intoxicated drivers for their use of alcohol and drugs with a detection window spanning from 3 weeks to several months. The objectives were to test whether the direct biomarkers phosphatidylethanol (PEth), ethylglucuronide (EtG), and 5 drug metabolites would (1) help assessors obtain a more objective evaluation of repeat offenders during the assessment interview, (2) allow for timely identification of relapses and improve classification of drivers into risk categories, and (3) predict recidivism by identifying offenders most likely to obtain a subsequent operating while intoxicated (OWI) offense within 4 years of enrollment in the program. All (N = 261) repeat offenders were tested using PEth obtained from blood spots and EtG obtained from fingernails; 159 participants were also tested for a 5 drugs of abuse nail panel. Drivers were tested immediately after the assessment interview (baseline) and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after baseline. Based on biomarker results and self-reports of abstinence, offenders were classified into different risk categories and required to follow specific testing timelines based on the program's decision tree. The baseline analysis shows that 60% of drivers tested positive for alcohol biomarkers (EtG, PEth, or both) at the assessment interview, with lower detection rates (0-11%) for the 5 drug metabolites. The comparison of biomarkers results to self-reports of abstinence identified 28% of all offenders as high risk and assigned them to more frequent testing and more intense monitoring. The longitudinal analysis shows that 56% (completers) of participants completed the program successfully and the remaining 44% (noncompliant) terminated prematurely. Two thirds (68%) of the completers were able to reduce or control their drinking and one third relapsed at least one time

  1. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  2. Genetic and environmental effects on a meat spotting defect in seasoned dry-cured ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Pagnacco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of a visible spotting defect on the slice of dry-cured ham and assess environmental and genetic causes of this frequent problem. A group of 233 pigs from commercial cross-breeding lines, progeny of ten boars and forty seven sows, was raised in a single herd to obtain the “Italian Heavy Pig”, typically slaughtered at 160 ± 10 kg live weight and older than 9 months of age. A quality evaluation of their right dry-cured hams, seasoned according to the Parma P.D.O. protocol, was undertaken. Each ham was cross-sectioned to obtain a slice of Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus and Biceps Femoris muscles. The focused phenotype was the presence/absence of brownish spots in these muscles, which represent a remarkable meat defect with strong impact on the final sale price. Environmental and management factors were considered in order to evaluate variability related to the phenotype. Animals were raised on two different flooring types (concrete and slatted floor and a Vitamin C diet was also supplemented in the last 45 days before slaughtering to half of the animals. While the pre-planned environmental effects did not show any significant contribution to the total variability of the phenotype, the genetic analysis showed a near to zero value for heritability with a consistent 0.32 repeatability. The proportion of the total phenotypic variance was explained by an important dominance genetic component (0.26 indicating that the technological seasoning process may play a secondary role on the expression of this phenotype.

  3. Biological effects of emissions from resistance spot welding of zinc-coated material after controlled exposure of healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gube, Monika; Kraus, Thomas; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Brand, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Do emissions from a resistance spot welding process of zinc-coated materials induce systemic inflammation in healthy subjects after exposure for 6 hours? Twelve healthy male subjects were exposed once for 6 hours either to filtered ambient air or to welding fume from resistance spot welding of zinc-coated material (mass concentration approximately 100 μg m). Biological effects were measured before, after, and 24 hours after exposure. At the concentrations used in this study, however, the suspected properties of ultrafine particles did not lead to systemic inflammation as reflected by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or other endpoint parameters under consideration. Ultrafine particles from a resistance spot welding process of zinc-covered materials with a number concentration of about 10 cm and a mass concentration of about 100 μg m did not induce systemic inflammation.

  4. The Effect of Contact Angle on Dynamics of Dry Spots Spreading in a Horizontal Layer of Liquid at Local Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of equilibrium contact angle on dynamics of dry spot spreading at disruption of a horizontal water layer heated locally from the substrate was studied using the high-speed Schlieren technique. Different methods of working surface processing were applied; this allowed variations of the equilibrium contact angle from 27±6° to 74±9° without a change in thermal properties of the system. It is found out that substrate wettability significantly affects the propagation velocity of dry spot and its final size. It is also found out that the velocity of contact line propagation is higher in the areas of substrate with a higher temperature.

  5. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  6. The Effect of Storage and Extraction Methods on Amplification of Plasmodium falciparum DNA from Dried Blood Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, A.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Rosenthal, P.J.; Dorsey, G.; Bousema, T.; Greenhouse, B.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction and amplification of DNA from dried blood spots (DBS) collected in field studies is commonly used for detection of Plasmodium falciparum. However, there have been few systematic efforts to determine the effects of storage and extraction methods on the sensitivity of DNA amplification. We

  7. Effect of Repeated Acid Challenges on the Color Stability of Resin-Infiltrated Enamel White Spot Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    seen in patients with xerostomia, poor oral hygiene, cariogenic diet, eating disorders , and orthodontic patients where bonded brackets provide... Effect of Repeated Acid Challenges on the Color Stability of Resin- Infiltrated Enamel White Spot Lesions by Robert A. Lummis...Jr. Lieutenant Commander, Dental Corps United States Public Health Service A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Comprehensive

  8. The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Catherine; Forsman, Eric D.; Franklin, Alan B.; Davis, Raymond J.; White, Gary C.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Doherty, Paul F.; Bailey, Larissa; Clark, Darren A.; Ackers, Steven H.; Andrews, Lawrence S.; Augustine, Benjamin; Biswell, Brian L.; Blakesley, Jennifer; Carlson, Peter C.; Clement, Matthew J.; Diller, Lowell V.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Green, Adam; Gremel, Scott A.; Herter, Dale R.; Higley, J. Mark; Hobson, Jeremy; Horn, Rob B.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; McCafferty, Christopher; McDonald, Trent; McDonnell, Kevin; Olson, Gail S.; Reid, Janice A.; Rockweit, Jeremy; Ruiz, Viviana; Saenz, Jessica; Sovern, Stan G.

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of species' vital rates and an understanding of the factors affecting those parameters over time and space can provide crucial information for management and conservation. We used mark–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected during 1985–2013 to evaluate population processes of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in 11 study areas in Washington, Oregon, and northern California, USA. We estimated apparent survival, fecundity, recruitment, rate of population change, and local extinction and colonization rates, and investigated relationships between these parameters and the amount of suitable habitat, local and regional variation in meteorological conditions, and competition with Barred Owls (Strix varia). Data were analyzed for each area separately and in a meta-analysis of all areas combined, following a strict protocol for data collection, preparation, and analysis. We used mixed effects linear models for analyses of fecundity, Cormack-Jolly-Seber open population models for analyses of apparent annual survival (ϕ), and a reparameterization of the Jolly-Seber capture–recapture model (i.e. reverse Jolly-Seber; RJS) to estimate annual rates of population change (λRJS) and recruitment. We also modeled territory occupancy dynamics of Northern Spotted Owls and Barred Owls in each study area using 2-species occupancy models. Estimated mean annual rates of population change (λ) suggested that Spotted Owl populations declined from 1.2% to 8.4% per year depending on the study area. The weighted mean estimate of λ for all study areas was 0.962 (± 0.019 SE; 95% CI: 0.925–0.999), indicating an estimated range-wide decline of 3.8% per year from 1985 to 2013. Variation in recruitment rates across the range of the Spotted Owl was best explained by an interaction between total winter precipitation and mean minimum winter temperature. Thus, recruitment rates were highest when both total precipitation (29 cm) and

  9. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  10. Effects of Welding Parameters on Strength and Corrosion Behavior of Dissimilar Galvanized Q&P and TRIP Spot Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of the main welding parameters on mechanical strength and corrosion behavior of galvanized quenching and partitioning and transformation induced plasticity spot welds, which are proposed to assemble advanced structural car elements for the automotive industry. Steel sheets have been welded with different current, clamping force, and welding time settings. The quality of the spot welds has been assessed through lap-shear and salt spray corrosion tests, also evaluating the effects of metal expulsion on strength and corrosion resistance of the joints. An energy dispersive spectrometry elemental mapping has been used to assess the damage of the galvanized zinc coating and the nature of the corrosive products. Welding current and time have the strongest influence on the shear strength of the spot welds, whereas clamping force is of minor importance. However, clamping force has the primary effect on avoiding expulsion of molten metal from the nugget during the joining process. Furthermore, clamping force has a beneficial influence on the corrosion resistance because it mainly hinders the permeation of the corrosive environment towards the spot welds. Although the welded samples can exhibit high shear strength also when a metal expulsion occurs, this phenomenon should be avoided because it enhances the damage and vaporization of the protective zinc coating.

  11. Different approaches how to deal with the South Atlantic Anomaly effect on the SPOT-5 DORIS measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanek, P.; Filler, V.; Dousa, J.; Rodriguez Solano, C.; Hugentobler, U.

    2012-04-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) refers to the area where the Earth's inner Van Allen radiation belt comes closest to the Earth's surface, leading to increased levels of cosmic radiation at lower altitudes than elsewhere over the surface. A strong effect of the SAA on the quality of Jason-1 DORIS observations is well known and documented. However, the significant effect of SAA on the SPOT-5 DORIS observations has been observed as well by recent DORIS data analyses. The SAA affects the frequency of onboard oscillator and consequently estimated values of the parameters as the beacon frequency offset, the station height and the troposphere zenithal delay. The SAA effects mainly the SPOT-5 observations of the three stations in South America, i.e., Cachoeira Paulista (Brasil), Arequipa (Peru) and Santiago (Chile). The offset of the estimated station height achieves 27 cm for the SPOT-5 individual solution and the most biased station Cachoeira Paulista. Since the general quality of the SPOT-5 measurements is very good, the complete exclusion of the satellite from the combination is not kind of a rational approach. One possibility how to handle the problem is to exclude the regional stations from the solutions. There are two different ways, total elimination or using these data for orbit determination but not for the multi-satellite coordinate estimation. Another possibility is based on the application of the data corrective model. A simple empirical data corrective model has been developed, based on statistical analyses of the post-fit residuals.

  12. Estimation of the effective focal spot sizes in medical diagnostic X-ray tube assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabska, Iwona; Fabiszewska, Ewa; Pasicz, Katarzyna; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-06-01

    For evaluation of the effective focal spot sizes (EFSS), a method suggested by the EN 60336:2005 standard (standard) could be used. In this study we checked whether it is possible to make some deviations from the requirements of the standard without a significant effect on the result. An image receptor with one intensifying screen or two intensifying screens may be used, but the optical value of the slit image shall be in the range of 1.0÷1.4 and the X-ray tube power shall be ranged of about 30%÷50% of the nominal anode input power. A precision scaled magnifier (magnification of 5÷10x and scale of 0.1 mm) may be used for the slit radiogram width measurement instead of a time-consuming scanning of the slit radiogram. These deviations from the requirements of the EN 60336:2005 standard allows to shorten measurement time and to decrease tube current value during X-ray exposures, which reduces the risk of the Xray tube damage.

  13. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  14. Effects of high shock pressures and pore morphology on hot spot mechanisms in HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, H. K.; Tarver, C. M.; Bastea, S.

    2017-01-01

    The shock initiation and detonation behavior of heterogeneous solid explosives is governed by its microstructure and reactive properties. New additive manufacturing techniques offer unprecedented control of explosive microstructures previously impossible, enabling us to develop novel explosives with tailored shock sensitivity and detonation properties. Since microstructure-performance relationships are not well established for explosives, there is little material design guidance for these manufacturing techniques. In this study, we explore the effects of high shock pressures (15-38 GPa) with long shock durations and different pore morphologies on hot spot mechanisms in HMX. HMX is chosen as the model material because we have experimental data on many of the chemical-thermal-mechanical properties required for pore collapse simulations. Our simulations are performed using the multi-physics arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian finite element hydrocode, ALE3D, with Cheetah-based models for the unreacted and the product equation-of-states. We use a temperature-dependent specific heat with the unreacted equation-of-state and a temperature-dependent viscosity model to ensure accurate shock temperatures for subsequent chemistry. The Lindemann Law model is used for shock melting in HMX. In contrast to previous pore collapse studies at lower shock pressures (≤10 GPa) in HMX and shorter post-collapse burning times, our calculations show that shock melting occurs above 15 GPa due to higher bulk heating and a prominent elongated ("jet-like") hot spot region forms at later times. The combination of the elongated, post-collapse hot spot region and the higher bulk heating with increasing pressure dramatically increases the growth rate of reaction. Our calculations show that the reaction rate, dF/dt, increases with increasing shock pressure. We decompose the reaction rate into ignition ((dF/dt)ig) and growth ((dF/dt)gr) phases to better analyze our results. We define the ignition phase

  15. EFFECTS OF ELECTRODE DEFORMATION OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING ON 304 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WELD GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachimani Charde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance spot welding process is accomplished by forcing huge amounts of current flow from the upper electrode tip through the base metals to the lower electrode tip, or vice versa or in both directions. A weld joint is established between the metal sheets through fusion, resulting in a strong bond between the sheets without occupying additional space. The growth of the weld nugget (bond between sheets is therefore determined from the welding current density; sufficient time for current delivery; reasonable electrode pressing force; and the area provided for current delivery (electrode tip. The welding current and weld time control the root penetration, while the electrode pressing force and electrode tips successfully accomplish the connection during the welding process. Although the welding current and weld time cause the heat generation at the areas concerned (electrode tip area, the electrode tips’ diameter and electrode pressing forces also directly influence the welding process. In this research truncated-electrode deformation and mushrooming effects are observed, which result in the welded areas being inconsistent due to the expulsion. The copper to chromium ratio is varied from the tip to the end of the electrode whilst the welding process is repeated. The welding heat affects the electrode and the electrode itself influences the shape of the weld geometry.

  16. Hot spot model of MagLIF implosions: Nernst term effect on magnetic flux losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Rubio, Fernando; Sanz Recio, Javier; Betti, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    An analytical model of a collisional plasma being compressed by a cylindrical liner is proposed and solved in a magnetized liner inertial fusion-like context. The implosion is assumed to be isobaric, and the magnetic diffusion is confined to a thin layer near the liner. Both unmagnetized and magnetized plasma cases are considered. The model reduces to a system of two partial differential equations for temperature and magnetic field. Special attention is given to the effect of the Nernst term on the evolution of the magnetic field. Scaling laws for temperature, magnetic field, hot spot mass increase and magnetic field losses are obtained. The temperature and magnetic field spatial profiles tend to a self-similar state. It is found that when the Nernst term is taken into account, the magnetic field is advected towards the liner, and the magnetic flux losses are independent of the magnetic Lewis number. Research supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Project No. ENE2014-54960R. Acknowledgements to the Laboratory of Laser Energetics (Rochester) for its hospitality.

  17. Dark Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  18. Effect of focusing flow on stationary spot machining properties in elastic emission machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshinori; Mimura, Hidekazu

    2013-05-16

    Ultraprecise optical elements are applied in advanced optical apparatus. Elastic emission machining (EEM) is one of the ultraprecision machining methods used to fabricate shapes with 0.1-nm accuracy. In this study, we proposed and experimentally tested the control of the shape of a stationary spot profile by introducing a focusing-flow state between the nozzle outlet and the workpiece surface in EEM. The simulation results indicate that the focusing-flow nozzle sharpens the distribution of the velocity on the workpiece surface. The results of machining experiments verified those of the simulation. The obtained stationary spot conditions will be useful for surface processing with a high spatial resolution.

  19. The Effect of Particle Properties on Hot Particle Spot Fire Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Casey David

    The ignition of natural combustible material by hot metal particles is an important fire ignition pathway by which wildland and wildland-urban-interface spot fires are started. There are numerous cases reported of wild fires started by clashing power-lines or from sparks generated by machines or engines. Similarly there are many cases reported of fires caused by grinding, welding and cutting sparks. Up to this point, research on hot particle spot fire ignition has largely focused on particle generation and transport. A small number of studies have examined what occurs after a hot particle contacts a natural fuel bed, but until recently the process remained poorly understood. This work describes an investigation of the effect of particle size, temperature and thermal properties on the ability of hot particles to cause flaming ignition of cellulosic fuel beds. Both experimental and theoretical approaches are used, with a focus on understanding the physics underlying the ignition process. For the experimental study, spheres of stainless steel, aluminum, brass and copper are heated in a tube furnace and dropped onto a powdered cellulose fuel bed; the occurrence of flaming ignition or lack thereof is visually observed and recorded. This procedure is repeated a large number of times for each metal type, varying particle diameter from 2 to 11 mm and particle temperature between 575 and 1100°C. The results of these experiments are statistically analyzed to find approximate ignition boundaries and identify boundary trends with respect to the particle parameters of interest. Schlieren images recorded during the ignition experiments are also used to more accurately describe the ignition process. Based on these images, a simple theoretical model of hot particle spot fire ignition is developed and used to explore the experimental trends further. The model under-predicts the minimum ignition temperatures required for small spheres, but agrees qualitatively with the experimental

  20. Effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation on joining of AA 5052 aluminium alloy to polypropylene using friction stir spot welding

    OpenAIRE

    Aliasghari, S.; Ghorbani, M.; Skeldon, P.; Karami, H.; Movahedi, M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) pre-treatment on joining of AA 5052 aluminium alloy and polypropylene by friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is investigated using lap tensile shear tests. Two surface conditions of the AA 5052 alloy are compared, one with a PEO pre-treatment in a silicate-based electrolyte, another without any pre-treatment. The resultant specimens are examined by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and attenuated total re...

  1. Reduction of effective terahertz focal spot size by means of nested concentric parabolic reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, V.A.; Laurita, N.J.; Pan, LiDong; Armitage, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    An ongoing limitation of terahertz spectroscopy is that the technique is generally limited to the study of relatively large samples of order 4 mm across due to the generally large size of the focal beam spot. We present a nested concentric parabolic reflector design which can reduce the terahertz

  2. Spotted knapweed: Effects of climate change on the invasiveness and biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2013-01-01

    Exotic weeds have invaded vast stretches of forest and rangeland, yet as highlighted by the previous review by Runyon and others in this issue, little is known about the factors driving the success of these invaders or how factors such as climate change may alter outcomes. Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) is one of the worst weeds in the Western U.S., infesting over...

  3. X Marks the Spot: Creating and Managing a Single Service Point to Improve Customer Service and Maximize Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Mary Ann; Keshmiripour, Seti

    2016-01-01

    This article will describe how merging service points in an academic library is an opportunity to improve customer service and utilize staffing resources more efficiently. Combining service points provides libraries with the ability to create a more positive library experience for patrons by minimizing the ping-pong effect for assistance. The…

  4. Camouflage effects following resin infiltration of postorthodontic white-spot lesions in vivo: One-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Amely; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Knösel, Michael

    2015-05-01

    To assess camouflage effects by concealment of postorthodontic white-spot lesions (WSLs) to sound adjacent enamel (SAE) achieved over 12 months with resin infiltration (Icon, DMG, Hamburg, Germany). Twenty subjects (trial teeth nteeth = 111) who had received resin infiltration treatment of noncavitated postorthodontic WSLs were contacted for a 1-year follow-up assessment of CIE-L*a*b* colors (T12). Color and lightness (CIE-L*a*b*) data for WSLs and SAE were compared to baseline data assessed before infiltration (T0) and those assessed after 6 months (T6), using a spectrophotometer. The target parameter was the difference between the summarized color and lightness values (ΔEWSL/SAE). Intergroup (WSL, SAE) and intertime comparisons (T0 vs T6, T12) were performed using paired t-tests at a significance level of α = 5%. Nine subjects (trial teeth nteeth = 49; male/female ratio 5/4; age range 13-19 years) were available at T12. After the highly significant reduction of ΔEWSL/SAE discrepancies between T0 and T6, analysis of 12-month records revealed color and lightness discrepancy of WSL vs SAE that was significantly decreased compared with baseline, indicating an assimilation of WSL color to SAE appearance after infiltration, while an additional reduction of discrepancies between T6 and T12 was not significant. As color and lightness characteristics of the Icon infiltrant as well as the esthetic camouflage effects achieved by WSL infiltration were not altered significantly or clinically relevant after 12 months, the method of resin infiltration can be recommended for an enduring esthetic improvement of postorthodontic WSL.

  5. Utilizing Estimated Creatinine Excretion to Improve the Performance of Spot Urine Samples for the Determination of Proteinuria in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ke Wang

    Full Text Available Agreement between spot and 24-hour urine protein measurements is poor in kidney transplant recipients. We investigated whether using formulae to estimate creatinine excretion rate (eCER, rather than assuming a standard creatinine excretion rate, would improve the estimation of proteinuria from spot urine samples in kidney transplant recipients.We measured 24 hour urine protein and albumin and spot albumin:creatinine (ACR and spot protein:creatinine (PCR in 181 Kidney transplant recipients." We utilized 6 different published formulae (Fotheringham, CKD-EPI, Cockcroft-Gault, Walser, Goldwasser and Rule to estimate eCER and from it calculated estimated albumin and protein excretion rate (eAER and ePER. Bias, precision and accuracy (within 15%, 30% and 50% of ACR, PCR, eAER, ePER were compared to 24-hour urine protein and albumin.ACR and PCR significantly underestimated 24-hour albumin and protein excretion (ACR Bias (IQR, -5.9 mg/day; p< 0.01; PCR Bias, (IQR, -35.2 mg/day; p<0.01. None of the formulae used to calculate eAER or ePER had a bias that was significantly different from the 24-hour collection (eAER and ePER bias: Fotheringham -0.3 and 7.2, CKD-EPI 0.3 and 13.5, Cockcroft-Gault -3.2 and -13.9, Walser -1.7 and 3.1, Goldwasser -1.3 and -0.5, Rule -0.6 and 4.2 mg/day respectively. The accuracy for ACR and PCR were lower (within 30% being 38% and 43% respectively than the corresponding values estimated by utilizing eCER (for eAER 46% to 49% and ePER 46-54%.Utilizing estimated creatinine excretion to calculate eAER and ePER improves the estimation of 24-hour albuminuria/proteinuria with spot urine samples in kidney transplant recipients.

  6. Effect of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on white spot lesion development in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizani, Sotiria; Petsi, Georgia; Twetman, Svante; Caroni, Crys; Makou, Margarita; Papagianoulis, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of daily intake of lozenges containing probiotic bacteria on white spot lesion (WSL) formation as well as on salivary lactobacilli (LB) and mutans streptococci (MS) counts, in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study design with two parallel arms was employed. Patients (n = 85, mean age 15.9 years) with maxillary braces on at least eight anterior teeth and a remaining treatment period of 7-24 months were finally enrolled and randomly allocated to a test or placebo group. Subjects in the test group were instructed to take one probiotic lozenge containing two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri once daily. An identical lozenge without active bacteria was used in the placebo group. Dental plaque, WSL, and salivary MS and LB levels were recorded at baseline and immediately after debonding. The groups were balanced at baseline. The mean duration of the intervention was 17 months and the total dropout rate was 10 per cent. There were no differences in the incidence of WSL between the groups at debonding. The patients had generally a neglected oral hygiene, both at baseline and at the follow-up. The levels of salivary LB were significantly reduced in both groups (P < 0.05) at the time of debonding compared with baseline, while no alterations of the MS counts were unveiled. WSL were scored from photos that may not fully mirror the clinical situation. Chair-side tests estimate the counts of selected bacteria in saliva and do not reflect the entire microbiota. The invention was implemented approximately 6 months after the onset of the fixed appliances and some lesions may have been present at bonding. Daily intake of probiotic lozenges did not seem to affect the development of WSL during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved

  7. Evaluation of Alternatives to an Organophosphate Insecticide with Selected Cultural Practices: Effects on Thrips, Frankliniella fusca, and Incidence of Spotted Wilt in Peanut Farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasigan, K; Toews, M; Kemerait, R; Abney, M R; Culbreath, A; Srinivasan, R

    2018-04-07

    Peanut growers use a combination of tactics to manage spotted wilt disease caused by thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). They include planting TSWV-resistant cultivars, application of insecticides, and various cultural practices. Two commonly used insecticides against thrips are aldicarb and phorate. Both insecticides exhibit broad-spectrum toxicity. Recent research has led to the identification of potential alternatives to aldicarb and phorate. In this study, along with reduced-risk, alternative insecticides, we evaluated the effect of conventional versus strip tillage; single versus twin row seeding pattern; and 13 seed/m versus 20 seed/m on thips density, feeding injury, and spotted wilt incidence. Three field trials were conducted in Georgia in 2012 and 2013. Thrips counts, thrips feeding injuriy, and incidence of spotted wilt were less under strip tillage than under conventional tillage. Reduced feeding injury from thrips was observed on twin-row plots compared with single-row plots. Thrips counts, thrips feeding injury, and incidence of spotted wilt did not vary by seeding rate. Yield from twin-row plots was greater than yield from single-row plots only in 2012. Yield was not affected by other cultural practices. Alternative insecticides, including imidacloprid and spinetoram, were as effective as phorate in suppressing thrips and reducing incidence of spotted wilt in conjunction with cultural practices. Results suggest that cultural practices and reduced-risk insecticides (alternatives to aldicarb and phorate) can effectively suppress thrips and incidence of spotted wilt in peanut.

  8. Effect of Weld Schedule on the Residual Stress Distribution of Boron Steel Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raath, N. D.; Norman, D.; McGregor, I.; Dashwood, R.; Hughes, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    Press-hardened boron steel has been utilized in anti-intrusion systems in automobiles, providing high strength and weight-saving potential through gage reduction. Boron steel spot welds exhibit a soft heat-affected zone which is surrounded by a hard nugget and outlying base material. This soft zone reduces the strength of the weld and makes it susceptible to failure. Additionally, different welding regimes lead to significantly different hardness distributions, making failure prediction difficult. Boron steel sheets, welded with fixed and adaptive schedules, were characterized. These are the first experimentally determined residual stress distributions for boron steel resistance spot welds which have been reported. Residual strains were measured using neutron diffraction, and the hardness distributions were measured on the same welds. Additionally, similar measurements were performed on spot welded DP600 steel as a reference material. A correspondence between residual stress and hardness profiles was observed for all welds. A significant difference in material properties was observed between the fixed schedule and adaptively welded boron steel samples, which could potentially lead to a difference in failure loads between the two boron steel welds.

  9. Effect of caries infiltration technique and fluoride therapy on the colour masking of white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Borges, Alessandra Buhler; Torres, Luciana Marcondes Sarmento; Gomes, Isabela Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Simões

    2011-03-01

    A carious lesion is initiated through the subsurface demineralization of enamel, and presents clinically as a white spot, interfering with the aesthetics. This lesion should not receive restorative treatment because it is capable of remineralization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of different treatments on masking white spot lesions by assessing the colour change. Artificial white spot lesions were produced in bovine enamel of 60 cylindrical-shaped samples. The samples were randomly divided into four groups: CON (control) - immersion in artificial saliva; DF - daily application of 0.05% fluoride solution; WF - weekly application of 2% fluoride gel; and IC - resin infiltration (Icon(®) - DMG). The assessment of colour was performed by a spectrophotometer in four distinct stages: baseline, after the production of artificial caries; after 4 weeks; after 8 weeks; and after a new acid challenge. The ΔL values were calculated at each stage in relation to the baseline colour. The application of RM ANOVA revealed significant differences between the factors' treatment and time (p=0.001). For the interaction between factors there were no significant differences (p=0.27). The Tukey's test (pcolour change. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Lead-lag effects between Brent Crude Futures and its respective spot prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Garcia Angelico

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims the analyses of the causality and temporal precedence relationships between the spot and futures prices of Brent oil, those last ones inherent to financial markets. In order to achieve this objective, the main tools used were: Johansen cointegration test; Granger causality/Block Exogeneity Wald test (GCBEW; generalized impulse response function and variance decomposition of forecast errors, those three last ones were estimated based in a Vector Error Correction Model (VEC, adjusted to the analyzed variables. The results indicated that, for the stipulated period, there was a pricing lightweight leadership from the futures contracts to the prices of spot market. However, as a conclusion of the article, the understanding is that this small difference, calculated in several econometric tools, cannot be considered enough to indicate that the Brent oil future market would be distorting its respective spot prices, despite the economic fundamentals of the physical market, such as production, consumption and stockpiling processes. Therefore, management decisions in industries exposed to crude oil prices should be aware of both physical and future markets’ prospections.

  11. Effect of Sleeve Plunge Depth on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding of 2198 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yumei; Shi, Yao; Ji, Shude; Wang, Yue; Li, Zhengwei

    2017-10-01

    Refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW) is a new spot welding technology, by which spot joint without keyhole can be obtained. In this work, RFSSW was used to join 2-mm-thick 2198-T8 aluminum alloy sheets and effects of the sleeve plunge depth on microstructure and lap shear properties of the joints were mainly discussed. Results showed that when using small plunge depths of 2.4 and 2.6 mm, joints showed good formation and no defects were observed. Incomplete refilling defect was observed with increasing plunge depth due to material loss during welding. Size of the grains at sleeve-affected zone (SAZ) is smaller than that at the pin-affected zone, and the size becomes bigger with increasing the plunge depth. More secondary phase particles can be observed at SAZ with increasing the sleeve plunge depth. The lap shear failure load firstly increased and then decreased with increasing the sleeve plunge depth. The maximum failure load of 9819 N was attained with plug fracture mode when using 2.6 mm. Fracture morphologies show ductile fracture mode.

  12. Improve Your BIM Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Boeykens, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Do you want to improve your firm’s use of BIM during the early design phases? Here are ten tips, applicable in most BIM applications, based on experience gathered from teaching, researching, and using BIM software. Share these with your project teams!

  13. Mongolian spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mongolian spots (MS are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  14. Effects of forest management on California Spotted Owls: implications for reducing wildfire risk in fire‐prone forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Douglas J; Gutiérrez, R J; Whitmore, Sheila A; Reetz, Matthew J; Stoelting, Ricka E; Berigan, William J; Seamans, Mark E; Zachariah Peery, M

    Management of many North American forests is challenged by the need to balance the potentially competing objectives of reducing risks posed by high-severity wildfires and protecting threatened species. In the Sierra Nevada, California, concern about high-severity fires has increased in recent decades but uncertainty exists over the effects of fuel-reduction treatments on species associated with older forests, such as the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). Here, we assessed the effects of forest conditions, fuel reductions, and wildfire on a declining population of Spotted Owls in the central Sierra Nevada using 20 years of demographic data collected at 74 Spotted Owl territories. Adult survival and territory colonization probabilities were relatively high, while territory extinction probability was relatively low, especially in territories that had relatively large amounts of high canopy cover (≥70%) forest. Reproduction was negatively associated with the area of medium-intensity timber harvests characteristic of proposed fuel treatments. Our results also suggested that the amount of edge between older forests and shrub/sapling vegetation and increased habitat heterogeneity may positively influence demographic rates of Spotted Owls. Finally, high-severity fire negatively influenced the probability of territory colonization. Despite correlations between owl demographic rates and several habitat variables, life stage simulation (sensitivity) analyses indicated that the amount of forest with high canopy cover was the primary driver of population growth and equilibrium occupancy at the scale of individual territories. Greater than 90% of medium-intensity harvests converted high-canopy-cover forests into lower-canopy-cover vegetation classes, suggesting that landscape-scale fuel treatments in such stands could have short-term negative impacts on populations of California Spotted Owls. Moreover, high-canopy-cover forests declined by an average of

  15. Effects of topical application of fipronil spot-on on dogs against the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans

    OpenAIRE

    Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Stariolo, Raúl; Kitron, Uriel; Reithinger, Richard

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the insecticidal effects of fipronil spot-on applied to experimental dogs on the blood-feeding success and other vital parameters of the Trypanosoma cruzi vector Triatoma infestans. In the first trial, the cumulative mortality of 30 third or fourth instar nymphs exposed to eight fipronil-treated dogs differed significantly from those exposed to untreated dogs at 1 week post-treatment, but not at baseline or at 2–6 weeks post-treatment. In the second trial, the effects of multiple ...

  16. Spot Scanning and Passive Scattering Proton Therapy: Relative Biological Effectiveness and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio in Cultured Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Hiromitsu, E-mail: h-iwa-ncu@nifty.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, Nagoya (Japan); Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Ogino, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, Nagoya (Japan); Hashimoto, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, Nagoya (Japan); Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Yamada, Maho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nagoya City West Medical Center, Nagoya (Japan); Shibata, Hiroki; Yasui, Keisuke [Department of Proton Therapy Technology, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki; Omachi, Chihiro [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya (Japan); Tatekawa, Kotoha [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Manabe, Yoshihiko [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Mizoe, Jun-etsu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, Nagoya (Japan); Shibamoto, Yuta [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), and contribution of the indirect effect of spot scanning proton beams, passive scattering proton beams, or both in cultured cells in comparison with clinically used photons. Methods and Materials: The RBE of passive scattering proton beams at the center of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) was determined from dose-survival curves in 4 cell lines using 6-MV X rays as controls. Survival of 2 cell lines after spot scanning and passive scattering proton irradiation was then compared. Biological effects at the distal end region of the SOBP were also investigated. The OER of passive scattering proton beams and 6 MX X rays were investigated in 2 cell lines. The RBE and OER values were estimated at a 10% cell survival level. The maximum degree of protection of radiation effects by dimethyl sulfoxide was determined to estimate the contribution of the indirect effect against DNA damage. All experiments comparing protons and X rays were made under the same biological conditions. Results: The RBE values of passive scattering proton beams in the 4 cell lines examined were 1.01 to 1.22 (average, 1.14) and were almost identical to those of spot scanning beams. Biological effects increased at the distal end of the SOBP. In the 2 cell lines examined, the OER was 2.74 (95% confidence interval, 2.56-2.80) and 3.08 (2.84-3.11), respectively, for X rays, and 2.39 (2.38-2.43) and 2.72 (2.69-2.75), respectively, for protons (P<.05 for both cells between X rays and protons). The maximum degree of protection was significantly higher for X rays than for proton beams (P<.05). Conclusions: The RBE values of spot scanning and passive scattering proton beams were almost identical. The OER was lower for protons than for X rays. The lower contribution of the indirect effect may partly account for the lower OER of protons.

  17. Logistic quantile regression provides improved estimates for bounded avian counts: A case study of California Spotted Owl fledgling production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S.; Noon, Barry R.; Scherer, Rick D.; Keane, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Counts of avian fledglings, nestlings, or clutch size that are bounded below by zero and above by some small integer form a discrete random variable distribution that is not approximated well by conventional parametric count distributions such as the Poisson or negative binomial. We developed a logistic quantile regression model to provide estimates of the empirical conditional distribution of a bounded discrete random variable. The logistic quantile regression model requires that counts are randomly jittered to a continuous random variable, logit transformed to bound them between specified lower and upper values, then estimated in conventional linear quantile regression, repeating the 3 steps and averaging estimates. Back-transformation to the original discrete scale relies on the fact that quantiles are equivariant to monotonic transformations. We demonstrate this statistical procedure by modeling 20 years of California Spotted Owl fledgling production (0−3 per territory) on the Lassen National Forest, California, USA, as related to climate, demographic, and landscape habitat characteristics at territories. Spotted Owl fledgling counts increased nonlinearly with decreasing precipitation in the early nesting period, in the winter prior to nesting, and in the prior growing season; with increasing minimum temperatures in the early nesting period; with adult compared to subadult parents; when there was no fledgling production in the prior year; and when percentage of the landscape surrounding nesting sites (202 ha) with trees ≥25 m height increased. Changes in production were primarily driven by changes in the proportion of territories with 2 or 3 fledglings. Average variances of the discrete cumulative distributions of the estimated fledgling counts indicated that temporal changes in climate and parent age class explained 18% of the annual variance in owl fledgling production, which was 34% of the total variance. Prior fledgling production explained as much of

  18. Effect of process parameters on mechanical properties of friction stir spot welded magnesium to aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, H.M.; Yuan, W.; Badarinarayan, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Lap-shear failure load of ∼2.5 kN was achieved in dissimilar Mg to Al spot welds. • Failure load depends on both welding geometrical features and IMCs formation. • Thin and discontinuous IMCs formed in stir zone are beneficial for weld strength. • Low heat input and good material mixing/interlocking is essential for high strength. - Abstract: Friction stir spot welding was applied to dissimilar cast magnesium (Mg) alloy AM60B and wrought aluminum (Al) alloy 6022-T4 under various welding conditions. The influence of tool rotation rate and shoulder plunge depth on lap-shear failure load was examined. Welds were made at four different tool rotation rates of 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 revolution per minute (rpm) and various tool shoulder plunge depths from 0 mm to 0.9 mm. The cross section of each weld exhibited the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in the stir zone. An increase in tool rotation rate decreased the width of the stir zone and resulted in lower lap-shear failure loads. The stir zone width increased and interlocking of IMCs was observed with an increase in tool shoulder plunge depth at 1000 rpm. High lap-shear failure loads were achieved in welds having a large stir zone width with formation of discontinuous IMCs at the tip of the interfacial hook. An average lap-shear failure load of 2.5 kN was achieved for welds made at 1000 rpm and 0.9 mm shoulder plunge. The present study suggests that the mechanical properties of friction stir spot welded dissimilar alloys are greatly influenced by the stir zone width, interfacial hooks and IMCs which are all weld process dependent

  19. Comparison of outcomes between overlapping-spot and single-spot photodynamic therapy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-An Su

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy (PDT with overlapping multiple spots and single spot for treating circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.METHODS:Twenty-two patients (22 eyes with symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma received PDT treatment. Fourteen patients received overlapping spots (two to three spots PDT, whereas eight patients received single-spot PDT. Laser was used at 50J/cm2 for 83s in the overlapping-spot group and 50J/cm2 for 166s in the single-spot group. Clinical examination, funduscopy, fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography were performed at baseline and after treatment.RESULTS:The mean follow-up time was 28.5±8.0 months in the overlapping-spot group and 27.0±5.0 months in the single-spot group. Nine patients (64.2% had their vision improved over two lines on the Snellen chart, and five patients showed stable visual acuity in the overlapping-spot group. The mean thickness of tumor decreased from 2.7±0.8mm to 1.2±0.9mm, and the mean greatest tumor linear dimension decreased from 7.4±1.5mm to 4.5±3.5mm after treatment. In the single-spot group, two patients (25% had their vision improved over two lines on the Snellen chart, and six patients had unchanged stable vision. The mean tumor thickness in this group decreased from 2.5±0.7mm to 1.4±1.0mm, and the mean greatest tumor linear dimension decreased from 7.2±1.3mm to 4.7±3.6mm. No significant differences in visual improvement and tumor regression were found between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Overlapping-spot PDT under appropriate treatment parameters and strategies is as effective and safe as single-spot PDT for treating symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. Improved or stabilized visual acuity was achieved as a result of tumor regression.

  20. Jakarta Interbank Spot Dollar Rate (JISDOR as The Reference Rate: Is It Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwadi Marwadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyze the influence of non-deliverable forward (NDF and the spot rate of USD/IDR against Bank Indonesia reference rate, Jakarta Interbank Spot Dollar Rate (JISDOR. NDF which came earlier than JISDOR is used by the market participant as the reference rate. The simple method of NDF determination had a great impact on the volatility of the rupiah currency, pushing the Bank Indonesia to issue its own reference currency. JISDOR is an indication of the rates issued by Bank Indonesia as the reference rate for the foreign exchange market in domestic and overseas. The method of creating the reference rate is by weighting the average rate of real transactions through a monitoring system which is managed by the central bank. However, the question arises: what should be done by the monetary authority when there is a party outside the jurisdiction issued the NDF rate as a benchmark that may affect the domestic exchange rate of rupiah in accordance with the desired agenda of the party. We use OLS and ARCH/GARCH to see if independent variables have an influence on dependent variable. Granger Causality test is also used to observe whether there are any relations among the variables.

  1. High-frequency data and the effectiveness of the spot exchange rate EUR/USD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zeman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The boom of information technology in recent years significantly influenced the development of the financial markets. Financial markets have become accessible to the public, and increased demand for financial instruments is inevitably reflected in the advanced menu of securities dealers who currently offer a wide variety of investment in the underlying assets and through financial leverage allows investors to profit from tiny price changes of the underlying asset. Shortening of trading period and increasing the frequency of the trades clearly contributes to the growth of profits of securities dealers. The question remains whether this trading method offers the advantage to the investor himself, and whether the investor is able to take advantage of potential market inefficiencies to achieve above-average profits in the short term period. Therefore, this paper analyzes the behaviour of the spot exchange rate EUR/USD within a day, and through statistical tests examining the validity of the random walk hypothesis for the 5-minute, hourly, 4-hourly and daily changes in the spot exchange rate of the currency pair EUR/USD.

  2. Effects of the Angle of Approaching a Spot for a Manufacturing Action on Whole-body Orientation and Position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.W.; Wang, M.J.; Delleman, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    In general manufacturing consists of a sequence of actions on different spots. Depending on the sequence, workers may have to approach a spot from varying angles. The purpose of the study conducted was to describe the whole-body orientation and position when approaching a spot for a manufacturing

  3. Effect of Surface States on Joining Mechanisms and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy (A5052) and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) by Dissimilar Friction Spot Welding

    OpenAIRE

    Farazila Yusof; Mohd Ridha bin Muhamad; Raza Moshwan; Mohd Fadzil bin Jamaludin; Yukio Miyashita

    2016-01-01

    In this research, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), as a high-density thermoplastic sheet, and Aluminum A5052, as a metal with seven distinct surface roughnesses, were joined by friction spot welding (FSW). The effect of A5052’s various surface states on the welding joining mechanism and mechanical properties were investigated. Friction spot welding was successfully applied for the dissimilar joining of PET thermoplastics and aluminum alloy A5052. During FSW, the PET near the joining interfac...

  4. Great spotted cuckoo nestlings have no antipredatory effect on magpie or carrion crow host nests in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Manuel; de Neve, Liesbeth; Roldán, María; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Host defences against cuckoo parasitism and cuckoo trickeries to overcome them are a classic example of antagonistic coevolution. Recently it has been reported that this relationship may turn to be mutualistic in the case of the carrion crow (Corvus corone) and its brood parasite, the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius), given that experimentally and naturally parasitized nests were depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests. This result was interpreted as a consequence of the antipredatory properties of a fetid cloacal secretion produced by cuckoo nestlings, which presumably deters predators from parasitized host nests. This potential defensive mechanism would therefore explain the detected higher fledgling success of parasitized nests during breeding seasons with high predation risk. Here, in a different study population, we explored the expected benefits in terms of reduced nest predation in naturally and experimentally parasitized nests of two different host species, carrion crows and magpies (Pica pica). During the incubation phase non-parasitized nests were depredated more frequently than parasitized nests. However, during the nestling phase, parasitized nests were not depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests, neither in magpie nor in carrion crow nests, and experimental translocation of great spotted cuckoo hatchlings did not reveal causal effects between parasitism state and predation rate of host nests. Therefore, our results do not fit expectations and, thus, do not support the fascinating possibility that great spotted cuckoo nestlings could have an antipredatory effect for host nestlings, at least in our study area. We also discuss different possibilities that may conciliate these with previous results, but also several alternative explanations, including the lack of generalizability of the previously documented mutualistic association.

  5. A Simple Phosphate-Buffered-Saline-Based Extraction Method Improves Specificity of HIV Viral Load Monitoring Using Dried Blood Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makadzange, A Tariro; Boyd, F Kathryn; Chimukangara, Benjamin; Masimirembwa, Collen; Katzenstein, David; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo E

    2017-07-01

    Although Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) systems are widely used in sub-Saharan Africa for early infant diagnosis of HIV from dried blood spots (DBS), viral load monitoring with this system is not practical due to nonspecific extraction of both cell-free and cell-associated viral nucleic acids. A simplified DBS extraction technique for cell-free virus elution using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) may provide an alternative analyte for lower-cost quantitative HIV virus load (VL) testing to monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated the CAP/CTM v2.0 assay in 272 paired plasma and DBS specimens using the cell-free virus elution method and determined the level of agreement, sensitivity, and specificity at thresholds of target not detected (TND), target below the limit of quantification (BLQ) (1,000 copies/ml, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV) were 92.7%, 100%, 100%, and 94.3%, respectively. PBS elution of DBS offers a sensitive and specific method for monitoring plasma viremia among adults and children on ART at the WHO-recommended threshold of >1,000 copies/ml on the Roche CAP/CTM system. Copyright © 2017 Makadzange et al.

  6. Creating a GIS-based model of marine debris "hot spots" to improve efficiency of a lobster trap debris removal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Justin; Huntington, Brittany E

    2012-05-01

    Debris removal programs are combatting the accumulation of derelict fishing gear and other debris in marine habitats. We analyzed 5 years of lobster trap debris removal data in Biscayne National Park, Florida to assess removal efficiency and develop spatially-explicit mapping tools to guide future removals. We generated and validated debris "hot spots" maps that combined remotely-sensed data (i.e. benthic habitat type and bathymetry) with 862 locations of previous debris collection. Our hot spot models spatially depict regions of likely debris accumulation, reducing the search area by 95% (from 332 km(2) to 18 km(2)) and encompassing 100% of the validation sites. Our analyses indicate removal contractors using sub-surface towed divers enhanced debris recovery. Additionally, the quantity of debris removed did not decrease with increased efforts, suggesting that debris supply in situ exceeds removal efforts. We conclude with the importance of coupling analysis of ongoing debris removal programs with GIS technology to improve removal efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Spot and Stud Welding on ESR 4340 Steel Armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    solid flux were used. For spot welds , AISI 1015 steel sheet 0.058 inch thick and 304 stainless steel sheet 0.075 inch thick were used. Composition of•the...3/8 inch and 1/2 inch. Studs were of AISI 1022 and 304 stainless steels. For each composition, 1/4-inch-diameter and 3/8-inch-diameter studs with...0.007 0.005 0.22 1.90 0.79 0.25 AISI 1015 0.15-0.18 0.30-0.60 0.040 0.050 max max AISI 1022 0.18-0.23 0.7 -1 .0 0.040 0.050 max max 304 S.S. 0.08 max

  8. Characteristics and health effects of BTEX in a hot spot for urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mansooreh; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Sorooshian, Armin; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza; Miri, Mohammad; Baghani, Abbas Norouzian; Delikhoon, Mahdieh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Rashidi, Majid

    2018-07-15

    This study reports a spatiotemporal characterization of toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes concentrations (BTEX) in an urban hot spot in Iran, specifically at an bus terminal region in Shiraz. Sampling was carried out according to NIOSH Compendium Method 1501. The inverse distance weighting (IDW) method was applied for spatial mapping. The Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied to evaluate carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk owing to BTEX exposure. The highest average BTEX concentrations were observed for benzene in the morning (at 7:00-9:00 A.M. local time) (26.15 ± 17.65 µg/m 3 ) and evening (at 6:00-8:00 P.M. local time) (34.44 ± 15.63 µg/m 3 ). The benzene to toluene ratios in the morning and evening were 2.02 and 3.07, respectively. The main sources of BTEX were gas stations and a municipal solid waste transfer station. The inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) for benzene in the morning and evening were 1.96 × 10 -4 and 2.49 × 10 -4 , respectively, which exceeds the recommended value by US EPA and WHO. The hazard quotient (HQ) of all these pollutants was less than 1. The results of this work have implications for public health near 'hot spots' such as IKBT where large populations are exposed to carcinogenic emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Finite volume analysis of temperature effects induced by active MRI implants: 2. Defects on active MRI implants causing hot spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grönemeyer Dietrich HW

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active magnetic resonance imaging implants, for example stents, stent grafts or vena cava filters, are constructed as wireless inductively coupled transmit and receive coils. They are built as a resonator tuned to the Larmor frequency of a magnetic resonance system. The resonator can be added to or incorporated within the implant. This technology can counteract the shielding caused by eddy currents inside the metallic implant structure. This may allow getting diagnostic information of the implant lumen (in stent stenosis or thrombosis for example. The electro magnetic rf-pulses during magnetic resonance imaging induce a current in the circuit path of the resonator. A by material fatigue provoked partial rupture of the circuit path or a broken wire with touching surfaces can set up a relatively high resistance on a very short distance, which may behave as a point-like power source, a hot spot, inside the body part the resonator is implanted to. This local power loss inside a small volume can reach ¼ of the total power loss of the intact resonating circuit, which itself is proportional to the product of the resonator volume and the quality factor and depends as well from the orientation of the resonator with respect to the main magnetic field and the imaging sequence the resonator is exposed to. Methods First an analytical solution of a hot spot for thermal equilibrium is described. This analytical solution with a definite hot spot power loss represents the worst case scenario for thermal equilibrium inside a homogeneous medium without cooling effects. Starting with this worst case assumptions additional conditions are considered in a numerical simulation, which are more realistic and may make the results less critical. The analytical solution as well as the numerical simulations use the experimental experience of the maximum hot spot power loss of implanted resonators with a definite volume during magnetic resonance imaging

  10. Measurement of tritium in the free water of milk : spotting and quantifying some biases and proposing ways of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Pierre; Duda, Jean-Marie; Guétat, Philippe; Rambaud, Pauline; Mavon, Christophe; Vichot, Laurent; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Fromm, Michel

    2014-01-01

    As one of the three natural isotopes of hydrogen, tritium is ubiquitous and may potentially be present in any water or organic molecule that constitutes a biological matrix. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of chronic release of radionuclides, as it is a very common food product and also because it integrates deposition on large areas of grass or crops at a local scale. Different parameters have been studied to assess their impact on the reliability of tritium measurements in the free water of milk. The volume of the sample, the technique used to extract the water and the level of dehydration modulate the results but in different ways: dispersion of results and under- or over-estimation of the tritium activity. The influence of sample storage and preparation has also been investigated. Methodological improvements of tritium measurements in the free water of milk are proposed. An original fractionation effect during distillation of milk is also described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of processing parameters on the friction stir spot joining of Al5083-O aluminum alloy to DP590 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Back-Sub; Bang, Hee-Seon; Jeong, Su-Ok; Choi, Woo-Seong; Kwon, Yong-Hyuk; Bang, Han-Sur

    2017-05-01

    Two dissimilar materials, aluminum alloy Al5083-O and advanced high strength steel DP590, were successfully joined by using friction stir spot joining (FSSJ). Satisfactory joint strengths were obtained at a rotational speed of 300 rpm and a plunge depth of 0.7 mm. Resulting joints were welded without a non-welded zone. This may be attributed to the enhanced smooth material flow owing to sufficient stirring effect and tool down force between the upper Al5083-O side and the lower DP590 side. The maximum tensile shear strength was 6.5 kN, which was higher than the joint strength required by the conventional method of resistance spot welding. The main fracture mode was plug fracture in the tensile shear test of joints. An intermetallic compound (IMC) layer with joint interface, which meets the allowance value of joints. Thus, the use of FSSJ to weld the dissimilar materials Al5083-O and DP590 resulted in mechanically and metallurgically sound joints.

  12. Identification of the Thickness of Nugget on Worksheet Spot Welding Using Non Destructive Test (NDT) – Effect of Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifa, A.; Baskoro, A. S.; Sugeng, S.; Badruzzaman, B.; Endramawan, T.

    2018-02-01

    Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is a process of connecting between two worksheet with thermomechanical loading process, RSW is widely used in automotive industry, the quality of splicing spot welding is influenced by several factors. One of the factors at the time of the welding process is pressure. The quality of welding on the nuggets can be determined by undertaking non-destructive testing by using Non Destructive Test (NDT) - Ultrasonic Test. In the NDT test is done by detecting the thickness of the nugget area, the purpose of research conducted to determine the effect of pressure to welding quality with Nugget thickness gauge measurement with Non Destructive Test method and manual measurement with micrometer, Experimental welding process by entering the welding parameters that have been specified and pressure variables 1 -5 bars on the worksheet thickness of 1 mm. The results of testing with NDT show there is addition of thickness in nugget superiority after compare with measurement result of thickness of nugget with micrometer which slightly experience thickness in nugget area, this indicates that the welding results have a connection between worksheet 1 and worksheet 2.

  13. Effect of foliar fertilizer and fungicidal protection against leaf spot diseases on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mączyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 in Plant Protection Institute, Sooenicowice Branch to assess the influence of foliar fertilizers such as Ekolist PK 1, Ekolist Mg, Mikrosol Z and Urea on healthiness of winter wheat. Foliar fertilizers were mixed with fungicides. The fungicides were applied at full or half recommended doses. The effect of the disease on wheat leaves was evaluated three times in each vegetation season. Remaining green leaf area (GLA of leaves was also determined. GLA of the leaves F-1 was not significantly different for each combination with different fertilization and different levels of chemical treatment. The application of foliar fertilizer only had no effect on green leaf area (GLA. The results indicate that foliar fertilization of all experimental plots improved leaf condition and therefore halted the development of wheat leaf diseases. The increases of 1000 grain mass and yield was high for each plot where a fertilizer and a full or half dose of a fungicide was applied. Foliar fertilizing with no chemical control had no proven effect on studied parameters.

  14. X-ray phase imaging using a X-ray tube with a small focal spot. Improvement of image quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Chika; Ohara, Hiromu; Ishisaka, Akira; Shimada, Fumio

    2002-01-01

    Phase contrast X-ray imaging has been studied intensively using X-rays from synchrotron radiation and micro-focus X-ray tubes. However, these studies have revealed the difficulty of this technique's application to practical medical imaging. We have created a phase contrast imaging technique using a molybdenum X-ray tube with a small focal spot size for mammography. We identified the radiographic conditions in phase contrast magnification mammography with a screen-film system, where edge effect due to phase contrast overcomes geometrical unsharpness caused by the 0.1 mm-focal spot of a molybdenum X-ray tube. The edge enhancement due to phase imaging was observed in an image of a plastic tube, and then geometrical configuration of the X-ray tube, the object and the screen-film system was determined for phase imaging of mammography. In order to investigate a potential for medical application of this method, we conducted evaluation of the images of the American Collage of Radiology (ACR) 156 mammography phantom. We obtained higher scores for phase imaging using high speed screen-film systems without any increase of X-ray dose than the score for contract imaging using a standard speed screen-film system. (author)

  15. Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. fruit peel oil on mutagenicity of two alkylating agents and two metals in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Kocaoğlu, Serap; Cetin, Huseyin; Kaya, Bülent

    2009-07-01

    Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. (Rutaceae) fruit peel oil (CPO) in combination with mutagenic metals and alkylating agents were studied using the wing spot test of D. melanogaster. The four reference mutagens, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), cobalt chloride (CoCl2), ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) were clearly genotoxic. CPO alone at doses from 0.1 to 0.5% in Tween 80 was not mutagenic and did not enhance the mutagenic effect of the reference mutagens. However, antigenotoxic effects of CPO were clearly demonstrated in chronic cotreatments with mutagens and oil, by a significant decrease in wing spots induced by all four mutagens. The D. melanogaster wing spot test was found to be a suitable assay for detecting antigenotoxic effects in vivo. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Ultrasonic Spot Welded Aluminum Alloy: The Effect of Welding Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, He; Chen, Daolun; Jiang, Xianquan

    2017-04-25

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique-ultrasonic spot welding (USW)-at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along the weld line due to the occurrence of dynamic crystallization, with smaller grain sizes at lower levels of welding energy. The tensile lap shear strength, failure energy, and critical stress intensity of the welded joints first increase, reach their maximum values, and then decrease with increasing welding energy. The tensile lap shear failure mode changes from interfacial fracture at lower energy levels, to nugget pull-out at intermediate optimal energy levels, and to transverse through-thickness (TTT) crack growth at higher energy levels. The fatigue life is longer for the joints welded at an energy of 1400 J than 2000 J at higher cyclic loading levels. The fatigue failure mode changes from nugget pull-out to TTT crack growth with decreasing cyclic loading for the joints welded at 1400 J, while TTT crack growth mode remains at all cyclic loading levels for the joints welded at 2000 J. Fatigue crack basically initiates from the nugget edge, and propagates with "river-flow" patterns and characteristic fatigue striations.

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Ultrasonic Spot Welded Aluminum Alloy: The Effect of Welding Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Peng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique–ultrasonic spot welding (USW–at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along the weld line due to the occurrence of dynamic crystallization, with smaller grain sizes at lower levels of welding energy. The tensile lap shear strength, failure energy, and critical stress intensity of the welded joints first increase, reach their maximum values, and then decrease with increasing welding energy. The tensile lap shear failure mode changes from interfacial fracture at lower energy levels, to nugget pull-out at intermediate optimal energy levels, and to transverse through-thickness (TTT crack growth at higher energy levels. The fatigue life is longer for the joints welded at an energy of 1400 J than 2000 J at higher cyclic loading levels. The fatigue failure mode changes from nugget pull-out to TTT crack growth with decreasing cyclic loading for the joints welded at 1400 J, while TTT crack growth mode remains at all cyclic loading levels for the joints welded at 2000 J. Fatigue crack basically initiates from the nugget edge, and propagates with “river-flow” patterns and characteristic fatigue striations.

  18. Effect of Interfacial Reaction on the Mechanical Performance of Steel to Aluminum Dissimilar Ultrasonic Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Li; Chen, Ying-Chun; Robson, Joe D.; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2016-01-01

    The early stages of formation of intermetallic compounds (IMC) have been investigated in dissimilar aluminum to steel welds, manufactured by high power (2.5 kW) ultrasonic spot welding (USW). To better understand the influence of alloy composition, welds were produced between a low-carbon steel (DC04) and two different aluminum alloys (6111 and 7055). The joint strengths were measured in lap shear tests and the formation and growth behavior of IMCs at the weld interface were characterized by electron microscopy, for welding times from 0.2 to 2.4 seconds. With the material combinations studied, the η (Fe2Al5) intermetallic phase was found to form first, very rapidly in the initial stage of welding, with a discontinuous island morphology. Continuous layers of η and then θ (FeAl3) phase were subsequently seen to develop on extending the welding time to greater than 0.7 second. The IMC layer formed in the DC04-AA7055 combination grew thicker than for the DC04-AA6111 welds, despite both weld sets having near identical thermal histories. Zinc was also found to be dissolved in the IMC phases when welding with the AA7055 alloy. After post-weld aging of the aluminum alloy, fracture in the lap shear tests always occurred along the joint interface; however, the DC04-AA6111 welds had higher fracture energy than the DC04-AA7055 combination.

  19. Effectiveness of combining resistance to Thielaviopsis basicola and Tomato spotted wilt virus in haploid tobacco genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojak-Goluch, Anna; Laskowska, Dorota; Agacka, Monika; Czarnecka, Diana; Kawka, Magdalena; Czubacka, Anna

    2011-12-01

    Black root rot (BRR) caused by Thielaviopsis basicola as well as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are the most serious problems in tobacco growing regions. We crossed the breeding line WGL 3 carrying BRR resistance derived from N.glauca with the line PW-834 the resistance of which to TSWV was transferred from cultivar Polalta. Anthers obtained from F(1) hybrid plants were cultured to induce haploids combining resistance to Th. basicola and TSWV. Flow cytometry analysis revealed 242 haploids and 2 spontaneous doubled haploids among regenerants. All haploids were cloned and then evaluated for BRR as well as TSWV resistance. The presence of pathogens was detected by microscopic evaluation of roots or using DAS-ELISA test. Microscopic assessment showed that, 132 haploids had no symptoms of Th. basicola which, together with the absence of symptoms in the F(1) hybrids, indicated a dominant monogenic mode of inheritance. At the same time only 30 haploids demonstrated resistance to TSWV. SCAR markers associated with TSWV resistance gene detection was applied. The results indicate that small proportion of TSWV-resistant haploids is probably due to the influence of deleterious genes flanking the resistance factor that reduced vitality of gametophytes. Altogether, 24 haploids showed multiple resistance to Th. basicola and TSWV.

  20. The effect of electric spot-welding on the mechanical properties of different orthodontic wire alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Euler Andrade Gomes Nascimento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is a direct relationship between surface structure and tensile strength of orthodontic alloys submitted to different levels of welding current. Three types of alloys were assessed. One hundred and eight cross-sectional test specimens ("X" were made, 18 for each wire combination, and divided into 6 groups: SS (steel-steel; SN (steel-NiTi; SB (steel-Beta-Ti; NN (NiTi-NiTi; NB (NiTi-Beta-Ti and BB (Beta-Ti-Beta-Ti, submitted to 6 spot-welding procedures at different levels of current (Super Micro Ponto 3000. Student-Newman-Keuls, Wilcoxon signed-rank, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (p < .05. Statistical difference was found between SN group and all the other alloy combinations (p < .05. Initial roughness of alloys ranged from .04 to .55 Ra, with statistical difference between groups (p < .001. The hypothesis was rejected and the tensile strength of Ti-alloys combinations Steel × Beta-Ti was significantly affected by the current level at P50, which changed the properties and structure of the wires.

  1. Alcohol-related hot-spot analysis and prediction : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This project developed methods to more accurately identify alcohol-related crash hot spots, ultimately allowing for more effective and efficient enforcement and safety campaigns. Advancements in accuracy came from improving the calculation of spatial...

  2. Effects of experimental removal of barred owls on population demography of northern spotted owls in Washington and Oregon—2016 progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Dugger, Katie M.; Lewicki, Krista E.; Simon, David C.

    2017-04-13

    Evidence indicates that competition with invasive barred owls (Strix varia) is causing rapid declines in populations of northern spotted owls (S. occidentalis caurina), and that the long-term persistence of spotted owls may be in question without additional management intervention. A pilot study in California showed that removal of barred owls in combination with habitat conservation may be able to slow or even reverse population declines of spotted owls at local scales, but it remains unknown whether similar results can be obtained in areas with different forest conditions and a greater density of barred owls. In 2015, we implemented a before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design on three study areas in Oregon and Washington with at least 20 years of pre-treatment demographic data on spotted owls to determine if removal of barred owls can improve localized population trends of spotted owls. Here, we report on research accomplishments and preliminary results from the first 21 months (March 2015–December 2016) of the planned 5-year experiment.

  3. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  4. Effects of Vibration Amplitude on Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Strength of Ultrasonic Spot Welded Cu/Al Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vibration amplitude on the interface reaction and mechanical strength of the Cu/Al joints were systematically investigated in ultrasonic spot welding (USW experiments. The appropriate vibration amplitude (22.5 μm was beneficial for obtaining a sound joint. The formation of the continuous intermetallic compounds (IMC layer accelerated with a higher vibration amplitude. The lap shear tensile strength of the Cu/Al joints decreased when the thickness of the intermetallic layer was greater than 1 μm at various amplitudes. With the increase in welding time, a crack occurred in the copper side owing to the occurrence of the eutectic reaction, α-A l + θ → L , at the periphery of the nugget. The remarkable decline of ultrasonic power curves occurred at various amplitude levels upon the formation of a crack in the copper side.

  5. Kinetic Effect on the Freezing of Ammonium-Sodium-Carbonate-Chloride Brines and Implications for Origin of Ceres' Bright Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyss, R. P.; Thomas, E. C.; Vu, T. H.; Johnson, P. V.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface brines on Ceres containing natrite (Na2CO3) and smaller amounts of NH4Cl or NH4HCO3 have been proposed to reach the dwarf planet's surface from an internal reservoir, where the brines freeze and result in bright spots across Ceres. Kinetically frozen solutions containing the likely constituents of Ceres' subsurface brines (ammonium, sodium, carbonate, and chloride ions) were studied via infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, where the flash-frozen mixtures were found to preferentially form ammonium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate, even in sodium-dominated solutions. Additionally, sodium chloride only formed when sodium or chloride (or both) were present in excess in the brine solutions. Raman spectroscopy was further employed to analyze the effect of vacuum exposure on these frozen brines over longer periods of time to simulate the surface conditions of Ceres.

  6. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... execution within boundaries). Moreover, during the execution of the workload, SpotADAPT suggests a redeployment if the current spot instance gets terminated by Amazon or a better deployment becomes possible due to fluctuations of the spot prices. The approach is evaluated using the actual execution times...

  7. Effect of cultural methods on leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae) and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) damage in strawberries

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Andi; Daniel, Claudia; Weibel, Franco

    2005-01-01

    Damage of leaf spot, caused by Mycosphaerella fragariae and gray mold also called Botrytis fruit rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, average fruit weight and yield were evaluated with regard to cultural methods over two years. Leaf spot damage decreased significantly by around 90 % due to leaf sanitation (removal of dead and leaf spot infected leaves in early spring) and by 50 % due to plantation in a one-row-system instead of a two-row-system. When all leaves including the healthy green ones we...

  8. Thinning effects on spotted owl prey and other forest-dwelling small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd M. Willson; Eric D. Forsman

    2013-01-01

    Th inning has been promoted as a method for accelerating the development of late-seral habitat and improving the overall health and function of young forests in the Pacifi c Northwest. Population studies have shown early and positive responses to thinning by some small forest-floor mammals (primarily mice, terrestrial voles, and shrews). However, thinning reduces the...

  9. Estimate of effect of initial field distribution using streamlines of the average Poynting vector on the change of the effective spot size of the laser beam propagating in the turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marakasov, D. A.; Rytchkov, D. S.

    2015-11-01

    The results of studies of the effect of the initial distribution of the laser beam to change its effective spot size in a turbulent atmosphere are presented. Investigations were carried out for axially symmetric light beams using the method of streamlines of the averaged Poynting vector. The dependence on a shape of the initial intensity distribution of effective spot size of the beam at the receiving plane is investigated as in presence as in absence of phase dislocations in the initial field distribution. It has been shown that it is possible to choose the values of the parameters of ring and vortex beams and that the magnitude of the effective spot size in the plane of the reception will be lower than for a Gaussian beam with the same value of initial effective spot size in the propagation of laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere.

  10. Developing markers for Sigatoka leaf spot disease (Mycosphaerella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Sigatoka leaf spot (Mycosphaerella musicola Leach) disease is a limiting factor in banana production in. India and other places. Breeding for resistance is the most effective method to control Musa diseases. However, Musa improvement using conventional methods has been hampered due to lack of ...

  11. The effects of spots (or grains) and the mean work function of a polycrystalline emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devin, B.; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    1964-01-01

    The direct conversion of thermal energy at high temperature to electrical energy using plasma diodes is studied in the Electronic Physics Service of the French Atomic Energy Commission. Research concerns the adaptation of these diodes to nuclear reactors with a view especially to providing power for operating the instruments of space vehicles. In parallel with the semi-industrial realizations and tests, an important part of the activity of the service is directed towards fundamental research into physical phenomena convected with thermionic emission with a view to improving present performances. (authors) [fr

  12. The cold spot as a large void: lensing effect on CMB two and three point correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, Isabella [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Ferrara and INFN sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Notari, Alessio, E-mail: masina@fe.infn.it, E-mail: alessio.notari@cern.ch [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    The ''Cold Spot'' in the CMB sky could be due to the presence of an anomalous huge spherical underdense region — a ''Void'' — of a few hundreds Mpc/h radius. Such a structure would have an impact on the CMB two-point (power spectrum) and three-point (bispectrum) correlation functions not only at low l, but also at high l through Lensing, which is a unique signature of a Void. Modeling such an underdensity with an LTB metric, we show that for the power spectrum the effect should be visible already in the WMAP data only if the Void radius is at least L ∼> 1 Gpc/h, while it will be visible by the Planck satellite if L ∼> 800 Mpc/h. We also speculate that this could be linked to the high-l detection of an hemispherical power asymmetry in the sky. Moreover, there should be non-zero correlations in the non-diagonal two-point function. For the bispectrum, the effect becomes important for squeezed triangles with two very high l's: this signal can be detected by Planck if the Void radius is at least L ∼> 400 Mpc/h, while higher resolution experiments should be able to probe the entire parameter space. We have also estimated the contamination of the primordial non-Gaussianity f{sub NL} due to this signal, which turns out to be negligible.

  13. The Cold Spot as a Large Void: Lensing Effect on CMB Two and Three Point Correlation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Masina, Isabella

    2009-01-01

    The "Cold Spot" in the CMB sky could be due to the presence of an anomalous huge spherical underdense region - a "Void" - of a few hundreds Mpc/h radius. Such a structure would have an impact on the CMB two-point (power spectrum) and three-point (bispectrum) correlation functions not only at low-l, but also at high-l through Lensing, which is a unique signature of a Void. Modeling such an underdensity with an LTB metric, we show that for the power spectrum the effect should be visible already in the WMAP data if the Void radius is at least 400 Mpc/h, while it will be visible by the Planck satellite for any Void radius. We also speculate that this could be linked to the high-l detection of an hemispherical power asymmetry in the sky. Moreover, there should be non-zero correlations in the non-diagonal two-point function. For the bispectrum, the effect becomes important for squeezed triangles with two very high-l's: this signal can be detected by Planck if the Void radius is at least 600 Mpc/h. We have also esti...

  14. Comparison of two methods for minimizing the effect of delayed charge on the dose delivered with a synchrotron based discrete spot scanning proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, Thomas J.; Beltran, Chris; Tryggestad, Erik; Kruse, Jon J.; Remmes, Nicholas B.; Tasson, Alexandria; Herman, Michael G.; Bues, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed charge is a small amount of charge that is delivered to the patient after the planned irradiation is halted, which may degrade the quality of the treatment by delivering unwarranted dose to the patient. This study compares two methods for minimizing the effect of delayed charge on the dose delivered with a synchrotron based discrete spot scanning proton beam. Methods: The delivery of several treatment plans was simulated by applying a normally distributed value of delayed charge, with a mean of 0.001(SD 0.00025) MU, to each spot. Two correction methods were used to account for the delayed charge. Method one (CM1), which is in active clinical use, accounts for the delayed charge by adjusting the MU of the current spot based on the cumulative MU. Method two (CM2) in addition reduces the planned MU by a predicted value. Every fraction of a treatment was simulated using each method and then recomputed in the treatment planning system. The dose difference between the original plan and the sum of the simulated fractions was evaluated. Both methods were tested in a water phantom with a single beam and simple target geometry. Two separate phantom tests were performed. In one test the dose per fraction was varied from 0.5 to 2 Gy using 25 fractions per plan. In the other test the number fractions were varied from 1 to 25, using 2 Gy per fraction. Three patient plans were used to determine the effect of delayed charge on the delivered dose under realistic clinical conditions. The order of spot delivery using CM1 was investigated by randomly selecting the starting spot for each layer, and by alternating per layer the starting spot from first to last. Only discrete spot scanning was considered in this study. Results: Using the phantom setup and varying the dose per fraction, the maximum dose difference for each plan of 25 fractions was 0.37–0.39 Gy and 0.03–0.05 Gy for CM1 and CM2, respectively. While varying the total number of fractions, the maximum dose

  15. Effect of Weld Current on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Resistance Spot-Welded TWIP Steel Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumin Tutar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of the weld current on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a resistance spot-welded twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP steel sheet was investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy–electron back-scattered diffraction (SEM–EBSD, microhardness measurements, a tensile shear test and fractography. Higher weld currents promoted the formation of a macro expulsion cavity in the fusion zone. Additionally, higher weld currents led to a higher indentation depth, a wider heat-affected zone (HAZ, coarser grain structure and thicker annealing twins in the HAZ, and a relatively equiaxed dendritic structure in the centre of the fusion zone. The hardness values in the weld zone were lower than that of the base metal. The lowest hardness values were observed in the HAZ. No strong relationship was observed between the hardness values in the weld zone and the weld current. A higher joint strength, tensile deformation and failure energy absorption capacity were obtained with a weld current of 12 kA, a welding time of 300 ms and an electrode force of 3 kN. A complex fracture surface with both brittle and limited ductile manner was observed in the joints, while the base metal exhibited a ductile fracture. Joints with a higher tensile shear load (TSL commonly exhibited more brittle fracture characteristics.

  16. The cold spot as a large void: Rees-Sciama effect on CMB power spectrum and bispectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, Isabella; Notari, Alessio, E-mail: isabella.masina@cern.ch, E-mail: alessio.notari@cern.ch [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    The detection of a ''Cold Spot'' in the CMB sky could be explained by the presence of an anomalously large spherical underdense region (with radius of a few hundreds Mpc/h) located between us and the Last Scattering Surface. Modeling such an underdensity with an LTB metric, we investigate whether it could produce significant signals on the CMB power spectrum and bispectrum, via the Rees-Sciama effect. We find that this leads to a bump on the power spectrum, that corresponds to an O(5%-25%); correction at multipoles 5 {<=} l {<=} 50; in the cosmological fits, this would modify the {chi}{sup 2} by an amount of order unity. We also find that the signal should be visible in the bispectrum coefficients with a signal-to-noise S/N {approx_equal} O(1-10), localized at 10 {<=} l {<=} 40. Such a signal would lead to an overestimation of the primordial f{sub NL} by an amount {Delta}f{sub NL} {approx_equal} 1 for WMAP and by {Delta}f{sub NL} {approx_equal} 0.1 for Planck.

  17. The Effect of Monochromatic Infrared Photo Energy on the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spot of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Shen Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether the vasodilatation effect of monochromatic infrared photo energy (MIRE had the potential for the treatment of myofascial trigger spot (MTrS in rabbits. Design. A randomized-controlled animal study. Subjects. Twelve adult New Zealand rabbits. Methods. For each rabbit, a MTrS (equivalent to a myofascial trigger point in humans in one side of the biceps femoris muscle was randomly selected for MIRE treatment (experimental side, while another MTrS in the other side (control side received a sham treatment. The intervention consisted of a daily 40 minutes treatment, three times per week for 2 weeks. The prevalence of endplate noise (EPN loci in the MTrS was assessed before, immediately after, and one week after the completion of the 2-week treatment. Results. MIRE could suppress the prevalence of EPN in the MTrS. The degree of reduction in EPN prevalence in the MTrS between the experimental side and the control side was significantly different immediately after MIRE treatment, but not significantly different one week after MIRE treatment. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MIRE may be a useful therapeutic option for the management of the myofascial trigger point in humans.

  18. The Cold Spot as a Large Void Rees-Sciama effect on CMB Power Spectrum and Bispectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Masina, Isabella

    2009-01-01

    The detection of a "Cold Spot" in the CMB sky could be explained by the presence of an anomalously large spherical underdense region (with radius of a few hundreds Mpc/h) located between us and the Last Scattering Surface. Modeling such an underdensity with an LTB metric, we investigate whether it could produce significant signals on the CMB power spectrum and bispectrum, via the Rees-Sciama effect. We find that this leads to a bump on the power spectrum, that corresponds to an O(5%-25%) correction at multipoles 5 < l < 50; in the cosmological fits, this would modify the \\chi^2 by an amount of order unity. We also find that the signal should be visible in the bispectrum coefficients with a signal-to-noise S/N ~ O (1-10), localized at 10 < l < 40. Such a signal would lead to an overestimation of the primordial f_{NL} by an amount \\Delta f_{NL} ~ 1 for WMAP and by \\Delta f_{NL} ~ 0.1 for Planck.

  19. Effects of trophy hunting leftovers on the ranging behaviour of large carnivores: a case study on spotted hyenas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Cozzi

    Full Text Available Human-related food resources such as garbage dumps and feeding sites have been shown to significantly influence space use, breeding success and population dynamics in a variety of animal species. In contrast, relatively little is known on the effects of unpredictable sources of food, such as carcasses discarded by hunters, on carnivore species. We evaluated the effect of elephant carcasses, mainly deriving from trophy hunting, on the ranging and feeding behavior of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using data from hyenas monitored before and during carcass availability via GPS radio-collars and camera traps, we investigated changes in ranging and feeding behavior over time. Carcass availability influenced hyenas' ranging behavior for an average of 10-12 days, after which their movements returned to patterns observed before carcass availability. In particular, we observed an increased spatial clustering of locations and reduced speeds (up to 15% less between successive locations with carcass availability. Consistent feeding at carcasses during the first two weeks was typical, and some individuals fed from elephant carcasses for as long as 50 days. The impact and conservation value of hunting are often assessed based solely on the effects on the hunted species. Our results show that hunting remains can influence other species and suggest that such extra food could have important effects on critical life history processes and ultimately population dynamics. We recommend conservationists and wildlife managers evaluate management strategies and hunting practices regarding carcass disposal in order to incorporate the potential collateral impacts of hunting on non-hunted species in the same community.

  20. Effects of trophy hunting leftovers on the ranging behaviour of large carnivores: a case study on spotted hyenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Gabriele; Börger, Luca; Hutter, Pascale; Abegg, Daniela; Beran, Céline; McNutt, J Weldon; Ozgul, Arpat

    2015-01-01

    Human-related food resources such as garbage dumps and feeding sites have been shown to significantly influence space use, breeding success and population dynamics in a variety of animal species. In contrast, relatively little is known on the effects of unpredictable sources of food, such as carcasses discarded by hunters, on carnivore species. We evaluated the effect of elephant carcasses, mainly deriving from trophy hunting, on the ranging and feeding behavior of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using data from hyenas monitored before and during carcass availability via GPS radio-collars and camera traps, we investigated changes in ranging and feeding behavior over time. Carcass availability influenced hyenas' ranging behavior for an average of 10-12 days, after which their movements returned to patterns observed before carcass availability. In particular, we observed an increased spatial clustering of locations and reduced speeds (up to 15% less) between successive locations with carcass availability. Consistent feeding at carcasses during the first two weeks was typical, and some individuals fed from elephant carcasses for as long as 50 days. The impact and conservation value of hunting are often assessed based solely on the effects on the hunted species. Our results show that hunting remains can influence other species and suggest that such extra food could have important effects on critical life history processes and ultimately population dynamics. We recommend conservationists and wildlife managers evaluate management strategies and hunting practices regarding carcass disposal in order to incorporate the potential collateral impacts of hunting on non-hunted species in the same community.

  1. White spot syndrome virus induces metabolic changes resembling the warburg effect in shrimp hemocytes in the early stage of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Tung; Aoki, Takashi; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Hirono, Ikuo; Chen, Tsan-Chi; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lo, Chu-Fang; Wang, Han-Ching

    2011-12-01

    The Warburg effect is an abnormal glycolysis response that is associated with cancer cells. Here we present evidence that metabolic changes resembling the Warburg effect are induced by a nonmammalian virus. When shrimp were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), changes were induced in several metabolic pathways related to the mitochondria. At the viral genome replication stage (12 h postinfection [hpi]), glucose consumption and plasma lactate concentration were both increased in WSSV-infected shrimp, and the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), showed increased activity. We also found that at 12 hpi there was no alteration in the ADP/ATP ratio and that oxidative stress was lower than that in uninfected controls. All of these results are characteristic of the Warburg effect as it is present in mammals. There was also a significant decrease in triglyceride concentration starting at 12 hpi. At the late stage of the infection cycle (24 hpi), hemocytes of WSSV-infected shrimp showed several changes associated with cell death. These included the induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), increased oxidative stress, decreased glucose consumption, and disrupted energy production. A previous study showed that WSSV infection led to upregulation of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is known to be involved in both the Warburg effect and MMP. Here we show that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing of the VDAC reduces WSSV-induced mortality and virion copy number. For these results, we hypothesize a model depicting the metabolic changes in host cells at the early and late stages of WSSV infection.

  2. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid, segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (eg, Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate it s feasibility.

  3. Effects of nonylphenol on vitellogenin synthesis in adult males of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, G; Prisco, M; Agnese, M; Verderame, M; Rosati, L; Limatola, E; Andreuccetti, P

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of nonylphenol (NP), an oestrogen-like environmental pollutant, on the vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in adult males of the aplacental viviparous cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata. The VTG recovery in males is considered a biomarker of xeno-oestrogenic pollution as this lipophosphoglycoprotein is physiologically induced by oestrogens only in females of oviparous and ovoviparous vertebrates. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, T. marmorata males injected with nonylphenol showed the presence of VTG in the liver and the kidney. In particular, vtg messenger (m)RNA and VTG protein were expressed in the liver, whereas in the kidney cells only the presence of VTG was recorded. By contrast, no expression for VTG was detected in the testis. These results demonstrate that in T. marmorata NP induces the expression of vtg only in the liver; the presence of VTG in the kidney and its absence in the testis are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Effect of Beam Energy on Weld Geometric Characteristics in Nd:YAG Laser Overlapping Spot Welding of Thin AISI 304 Stainless Steel Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsanska, Hana; Chmelickova, Hana; Hrabovsky, Miroslav

    2010-10-01

    Weld geometric characteristics in laser overlapping spot welding of 0.6-mm AISI 304 stainless steel sheets were investigated. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser with maximal average power of 150 W was used for welding experiments with different laser beam energies in the range of 3.5 J to 6.2 J, keeping all other processing parameters constant. The main objective of these experiments was to study the effect of energy changes and to identify the welding mode in dependency on the beam effective peak power density. Each weld surface and its cross section were analyzed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. The spot diameter on the specimen, weld width, and penetration depth were measured. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction was realized to describe the effect of energy changes on weld surface properties.

  5. Ultrasonic Spot Welding of a Rare-Earth Containing ZEK100 Magnesium Alloy: Effect of Welding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macwan, A.; Chen, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic spot welding was used to join a low rare-earth containing ZEK100 Mg alloy at different levels of welding energy, and tensile lap shear tests were conducted to evaluate the failure strength in relation to the microstructural changes. It was observed that dynamic recrystallization occurred in the nugget zone; the grain size increased and microhardness decreased with increasing welding energy arising from the increasing interface temperature and strain rate. The weld interface experienced severe plastic deformation at a high strain rate from ~500 to ~2100 s-1 with increasing welding energy from 500 to 2000 J. A relationship between grain size and Zener-Hollomon parameter, and a Hall-Petch-type relationship between microhardness and grain size were established. The tensile lap shear strength and failure energy were observed to first increase with increasing welding energy, reach the maximum values at 1500 J, and then decrease with a further increase in the welding energy. The samples welded at a welding energy ≤1500 J exhibited an interfacial failure mode, while nugget pull-out occurred in the samples welded at a welding energy above 1500 J. The fracture surfaces showed typical shear failure. Low-temperature tests at 233 K (-40 °C) showed no significant effect on the strength and failure mode of joints welded at the optimal welding energy of 1500 J. Elevated temperature tests at 453 K (180 °C) revealed a lower failure load but a higher failure energy due to the increased deformability, and showed a mixed mode of partial interfacial failure and partial nugget pull-out.

  6. Acaricidal and oviposition deterring effects of santalol identified in sandalwood oil against two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Hyun Sik; Lim, Eu Gene; Kim, Jinwoo; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-four plant essential oils were screened for their acaricidal and oviposition deterrent activities against two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), in the laboratory using a leaf-dip bioassay. From initial trials, sandalwood and common thyme oils were observed to be the most effective against TSSM adult females. Subsequent trials confirmed that only sandalwood oil was significantly active (87.2???2.9% mortality) against TSSM adult females. Sandalw...

  7. Evaluation of the charge-sharing effects on spot intensity in XRD setup using photon-counting pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, H.-E.; Mattsson, C.G.; Norlin, B.; Froejdh, C.; Bethke, K.; Vries, R. de

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine how charge loss due to charge sharing in photon-counting pixels detectors affects the recording of spot intensity in an X-ray diffraction (XRD) setup. In the photon-counting configuration, the charge from photons that are absorbed at the boarder of a pixel will be shared between two pixels. If the threshold is high enough, these photons will not be counted whereas if it is low enough, they will be counted twice. In an XRD setup, the intensity and position of various spots should be recorded. Thus, the intensity measure will be affected by the setting of the threshold. In this study, we used a system level Monte Carlo simulator to evaluate the variations in the intensity signals for different threshold settings and spot sizes. The simulated setup included an 8keV mono-chromatic source (providing a Gaussian shaped spot) and the MEDIPIX2 photon-counting pixel detector (55 μm x 55 μm pixel size with 300μm silicon) at various detector biases. Our study shows that the charge-sharing distortion can be compensated by numerical post processing and that high resolution in both charge distribution and position can be achieved

  8. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae K...

  9. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mites and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae K...

  10. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesoeren, A.

    1986-12-01

    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  11. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  12. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  13. Improvement of irradiation effects database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guohuo; Xu Xi; Jia Wenhai

    2003-01-01

    The design method of irradiation effects database is related in this paper. The structure of irradiation effects database is perfected by Delphi, query and calculation of the data have completed, and printing and outputting data report form have fulfilled. Therefore, data storage platform for reliability and vulnerability analyzing of harden irradiation effects of the component and system is offered

  14. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pury, T.; Tsen, M.L.S.; Gray, F.L.; Stehr, R.E.; Konle, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  15. Effect of material flow on joint strength in activation spot joining of Al alloy and steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Goro; Yogo, Yasuhiro; Takao, Hisaaki

    2014-08-01

    A new joining method for dissimilar metal sheets was developed where a rotated consumable rod of Al alloy is pressed onto an Al alloy sheet at the part overlapped with a mild steel sheet. The metal flow in the joining region is increased by the through-hole in the Al sheet and consumable Al rod. The rod creates the joint interface and pads out of the thinly joined parts through pressing. This produces a higher joint strength than that of conventional friction stir spot welding. Measurements of the joint interface showed the presence of a 5-10 nm thick amorphous layer consisting of Al and Mg oxides.

  16. Effect of material flow on joint strength in activation spot joining of Al alloy and steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Goro; Yogo, Yasuhiro; Takao, Hisaaki

    2014-01-01

    A new joining method for dissimilar metal sheets was developed where a rotated consumable rod of Al alloy is pressed onto an Al alloy sheet at the part overlapped with a mild steel sheet. The metal flow in the joining region is increased by the through-hole in the Al sheet and consumable Al rod. The rod creates the joint interface and pads out of the thinly joined parts through pressing. This produces a higher joint strength than that of conventional friction stir spot welding. Measurements of the joint interface showed the presence of a 5-10 nm thick amorphous layer consisting of Al and Mg oxides

  17. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  18. Measurement of Scenic Spots Sustainable Capacity Based on PCA-Entropy TOPSIS: A Case Study from 30 Provinces, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuedong; Liu, Canmian; Li, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    In connection with the sustainable development of scenic spots, this paper, with consideration of resource conditions, economic benefits, auxiliary industry scale and ecological environment, establishes a comprehensive measurement model of the sustainable capacity of scenic spots; optimizes the index system by principal components analysis to extract principal components; assigns the weight of principal components by entropy method; analyzes the sustainable capacity of scenic spots in each province of China comprehensively in combination with TOPSIS method and finally puts forward suggestions aid decision-making. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference for the study of the sustainable development of scenic spots and is very significant for considering the sustainable development of scenic spots and auxiliary industries to establish specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement. PMID:29271947

  19. Measurement of Scenic Spots Sustainable Capacity Based on PCA-Entropy TOPSIS: A Case Study from 30 Provinces, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuedong; Liu, Canmian; Li, Zhi

    2017-12-22

    In connection with the sustainable development of scenic spots, this paper, with consideration of resource conditions, economic benefits, auxiliary industry scale and ecological environment, establishes a comprehensive measurement model of the sustainable capacity of scenic spots; optimizes the index system by principal components analysis to extract principal components; assigns the weight of principal components by entropy method; analyzes the sustainable capacity of scenic spots in each province of China comprehensively in combination with TOPSIS method and finally puts forward suggestions aid decision-making. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference for the study of the sustainable development of scenic spots and is very significant for considering the sustainable development of scenic spots and auxiliary industries to establish specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement.

  20. The Merit-order effect. A detailed analysis of the price effect of renewable electricity generation on spot market prices in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensfuss, F.; Ragwitz, M.; Genoese, M.

    2007-07-01

    The German feed-in support of electricity generation from renewable energy sources has led to high growth rates of the supported technologies. Critics state that the costs for consumers are too high. An important aspect to be considered in the discussion is the price effect created by renewable electricity generation. This paper seeks to analyse the impact of privileged renewable electricity generation on the electricity market in Germany. The central aspect to be analysed is the impact of renewable electricity generation on spot market prices. The results generated by an agent-based simulation platform indicate that the financial volume of the price reduction is considerable. In the short run, this gives rise to a distributional effect which creates savings for the demand side by reducing generator profits. In the case of the year 2006, the volume of the merit-order effect exceeds the volume of the net support payments for renewable electricity generation which have to be paid by consumers. (orig.)

  1. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne

    2013-01-01

    The effects of essential oils (EO), cold water (CWE), hot water (HWE) and ethanol (ETHE) extracts of Callistemon citrinus L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf on the radial growth of Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) M.B. Ellis and Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, the control of brown spot...... in the non-treated and treated samples with a low incidence (0-4 of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, the combined use of the essential oil of C. citrinus as a seed treatment and spraying the plants with 2 % ethanol followed by 2 % (w/v) aqueous extracts of C. citrinus or C. citratus increased the emergence...

  2. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Remineralization effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel white spot lesions. A quantitative energy dispersive X ray elemental analysis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate, by means of elemental analysis the mineral density, calcium, and phosphorus weight percent of sound enamel, demineralized and CPP-ACP treated enamel. Elemental analysis allows elemental and isotopic composition of a biologic sample. It can be qualitative (determining what elements are present, and quantitative (determining how much of each are present. INCA Energy 250, Oxford Analytical Instruments Ltd. (UK, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system for elemental analysis was performed on random assigned samples. Methods: 12 sound premolars were extracted for orthodontic reason. Each tooth was sectioned by using a double-faced diamond microtome under water cooling into three section for a total of 36 samples and randomly assigned to three groups: Group 1 (control, Group 2 (WS: white spot , Group 3 (WST white spot treated of 12 samples each. Samples (Group 2 and Group 3 underwent equally to 24 h and 48 h of acid bath duration. Then all the treated samples (Group 3 were coated with CPP-ACP for 5 min before immersion into water twice a day. Group 2 served as control for enamel damage evaluation. Inca Point & ID, an analytic platform software for SEM was used for elemental analysis on samples from Group 1 (C, 2 (WS and Group 3 (WST in order to determine the weight % and atomic % presence of Ca and P. Results: The results of the samples analysis from the three Groups show different weight % and atomic% of Ca and P, and clearly reflect the different mineralization rates. Conclusions: 10% Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, promotes remineralization in vitro. The results of this in vitro study completely agree with this statement. Clinical studies to investigate the intraoral effectiveness of topical applications of CPP-ACP on white spot lesions are required to confirm these results.

  4. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    increased when blood samples were stored for a period of time before the centrifugation, for certain cytokines more than 1000 fold compared to serum and plasma isolated and frozen immediately after venepuncture. The concentrations in serum generally increased more than in plasma. The measurable......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  5. Combined effects of elevated CO2 and natural climatic variation on leaf spot diseases of redbud and sweetgum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrone, Andrew J; Hamilton, Jason G; Krafnick, Anthony J; Aldea, Mihai; Knepp, Rachel G; DeLucia, Evan H

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric CO(2) concentrations are predicted to double within the next century and alter climate regimes, yet the extent that these changes will affect plant diseases remains unclear. In this study conducted over five years, we assessed how elevated CO(2) and interannual climatic variability affect Cercospora leaf spot diseases of two deciduous trees. Climatic data varied considerably between the five years and altered disease expression. Disease incidence and severity for both species were greater in years with above average rainfall. In years with above average temperatures, disease incidence for Liquidambar styraciflua was decreased significantly. When significant changes did occur, disease incidence and severity always increased under elevated CO(2). Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of leaves revealed that any visible increase in disease severity induced by elevated CO(2) was mitigated by higher photosynthetic efficiency in the remaining undamaged leaf tissue and in a halo surrounding lesions.

  6. Effects of atrazine on egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and its endosymbiotic alga (Oophila amblystomatis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Leilan; Brain, Richard A.; Hosmer, Alan J.; Nema, Mohini; Müller, Kirsten M.; Solomon, Keith R.; Hanson, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic growth of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) is enhanced by the presence of the green alga Oophila amblystomatis, in the egg capsule. To further assess potential impacts of herbicides on this relationship, A. maculatum egg masses were exposed to atrazine (0–338 μg/L) until hatching (up to 66 days). Exposure to atrazine reduced PSII yield of the symbiotic algae in a concentration-dependent manner, but did not significantly affect visible algal growth or any metrics associated with salamander development. Algal cells were also cultured in the laboratory for toxicity testing. In the 96-h growth inhibition test (0–680 μg/L), ECx values were generally greater than those reported for standard algal test species. Complete recovery of growth rates occurred within 96-h of transferring cells to untreated media. Overall, development of A. maculatum embryos was not affected by exposure to atrazine at concentrations and durations exceeding those found in the environment. - Highlights: • The yellow-spotted salamander produces eggs that are colonized by a symbiotic green alga. • We tested the sensitivity of this system to the herbicide atrazine. • Embryo development was not significantly affected by exposure at up to 300 μg/L. • The alga was isolated and 96-h growth tests were performed in the laboratory. • EC50s for Oophila sp. were >100 μg/L. - Development of Ambystoma maculatum embryos in egg masses was not impacted by exposure to atrazine at concentrations and durations exceeding those commonly found in the environment.

  7. School effectiveness and school improvement : Sustaining links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ideally, school effectiveness research and school improvement might have a relationship with a surplus value for both. In reality, this relationship is often troublesome. Some problems can be attributed to the intrinsic differences between effectiveness and improvement, such as different missions.

  8. Cotton-wool spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C; Brown, M M; Hiller, T; Fischer, D; Benson, W E; Magargal, L E

    1985-01-01

    A series of 24 consecutive patients presenting with a fundus picture characterized by a predominance of cotton-wool spots, or a single cotton-wool spot, is reported. Excluded were patients with known diabetes mellitus. Etiologic conditions found included previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in five patients, systemic hypertension in five patients, cardiac valvular disease in two patients, radiation retinopathy in two patients, and severe carotid artery obstruction in two patients. Dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, leukemia, AIDS, Purtscher's retinopathy, metastatic carcinoma, intravenous drug abuse, partial central retinal artery obstruction, and giant cell arteritis were each found in one patient. In only one patient did a systemic workup fail to reveal an underlying cause. The presence of even one cotton-wool spot in an otherwise normal fundus necessitates an investigation to ascertain systemic etiologic factors.

  9. Tests of fixity of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Emilia A.; Andrews, David L.; Gordon, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of inter-hot spot motion have been debated for decades. Herein we present updated predictions for the tracks of the Tristan da Cunha, Réunion, and Iceland hot spots assuming them to be fixed relative to Pacific hot spots. Uncertainties in Pacific hot spot rotations, which include uncertainties in the current locations of hot spots of 100-200 km, are combined with uncertainties in relative plate motions accumulated through the plate circuit to obtain the final uncertainty in the predicted positions (including uncertainties of 150-200 km in the current locations of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots). Improvements to reconstruction methods, to relative plate reconstructions, to age dates along the tracks, and to the geomagnetic reversal timescale lead to significant changes from prior results. When compared with the observed tracks, the predicted tracks indicate nominal rates of motion of only 2-6 mm a-1 of these Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots over the past 48 Ma. Within the uncertainties, the rates range from no motion to rates as high as 8-13 mm a-1. For reconstructions prior to 48 Ma B.P., however, the apparent rates of inter-hot spot motion are much larger, 46-55 ± 20 mm a-1, if the motion occurred entirely between 68 Ma B.P. and 48 Ma B.P. Either hot spots moved rapidly before 48 Ma B.P., and slowed drastically at ≈ 48 Ma B.P., or global plate circuits through Antarctica become less reliable as one goes increasingly further into the past. Most paleomagnetic data favor the latter explanation.

  10. Efeito do tipo de revestimento na soldagem a ponto de aços galvanizados Effect of coating type on spot welding of galvanized steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcélio Anício da Silva

    2010-09-01

    -Cu (brass. Spot welding tests were carried out in IF steels coated in an industrial hot-dip galvanizing line with pure zinc (GI and a Zn-Fe alloy (GA. Three welding joints were evaluated: GA/GA, GI/GI and GA/GI. Dynamic weldability diagrams and electrode life were determined for each kind of joint. The results indicated that welding current increased more quickly with the number of welds for the GI/ GI joints. This result was associated with the fastest contamination of the electrode by zinc. For the GA/GI joints, welding current levels for adequate welding increased faster than for GA/GA joints but slower than for GI/GI joints. In general, the spot welding tests with GA/GI joints presented results closer to that of the GA/GA joints than to the spot welding tests with GI/GI joints. Such results showed the positive influence of the GA coating, even for joints including both coatings to improve the spot weldability of zinc coated steels.

  11. Independent and arbitrary generation of spots in the 3D space domain with computer generated holograms written on a phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jian; Xia, Yang; Wang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    An improved multiple independent iterative plane algorithm, based on a projection optimization idea, is proposed for the independent and arbitrary generation of one spot or multiple spots in a speckle-suppressed 3D work-area. Details of the mathematical expressions of the algorithm are given to theoretically show how it is improved for 3D spot generation. Both simulations and experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of the algorithm for independent and arbitrary 3D spot generation in several different cases. Simulation results agree well with experimental results, which validates the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed. Several additional experiments are demonstrated for fast and independent generation of four or more spots in the 3D space domain, which confirms the capabilities and practicalities of the algorithm further. (paper)

  12. Improving the pedagogical effectiveness of medical videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio-Morin, Christian; Brisebois, Simon; Becotte, Annick; Mior, Frédéric

    2017-07-01

    Videos are often employed in medical cursus, yet few guidelines are available to help with their production. Mayer's cognitive theory of multimedia learning is the most cited evidence-based framework for improving pedagogical effectiveness of multimedia content. Based on this framework, we identified four workflow interventions to improve the effectiveness of video content in the context of medical education: (1) choosing appropriate content; (2) optimizing the voiceover; (3) optimizing the supporting visuals and (4) planning the shooting schedule in advance. Content creators should think about pedagogical effectiveness and aim to improve their work by applying evidence-based principles.

  13. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  14. Effect of Brass Interlayer Sheet on Microstructure and Joint Performance of Ultrasonic Spot-Welded Copper-Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Mantra Prasad; Kumar, Abhishek; Sahoo, Susanta Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Solid-state ultrasonic spot welding (USW) inevitably offers a potential solution for joining dissimilar metal combination like copper (Cu) and steel (SS). In this study, the USW has been performed on Cu (UNS C10100) and SS (AISI 304) with brass interlayer by varying various welding parameters, aiming to identify the interfacial reaction, changes in microstructure and weld strength. The highest tensile shear and T-peel failure loads of 1277 and 174 N are achieved at the optimum conditions like 68 µm of vibration amplitude, 0.42 MPa of weld pressure and 1 s of weld time. The fractured surface analysis of brass interlayer and AISI 304 stainless steel samples reveals the features like swirls, voids and intermetallic compounds (IMCs). These IMCs are composed of CuZn and FeZn composite-like structures with 1.0 μm thickness. This confirms that the weld quality is specifically sensitive to the levels of input parameter combinations as well as the type of material present on the sonotrode side.

  15. Effect of dietary cadmium on fitness, growth, genotoxicity and accumulation in the Yellow-spotted River Turtle, Podocnemis unifilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frossard, Alexandra; Ferreira, Paulo D.; Carneiro, Maria T.W.D.; Heringer, Otávio A.; Endringer, Denise C.; Gomes, Levy C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to expose the Yellow-spotted River Turtle, Podocnemis unifilis, to dietary cadmium (Cd) contamination. The P. unifilis were fed with a Cd contaminated diet (590 µg g −1 ) or a control diet for 30 and 60 days. After the Cd feeding period, the locomotor performance and specific growth rate were assessed. Blood samples were drawn for micronuclei analysis and tissues were collected to analyze the Cd concentration. Dietary Cd influenced the fitness of turtles at 30 days (righting time 752 s), but not after 60 days (righting time 43.67 s). Micronuclei in erythrocytes (12 ± 5‰) were significantly greater in contaminated turtle at 60 days. Cd accumulation is found in gut, intestine, kidney, fat, liver and blood of animals from contaminated diet group and the Cd concentration of almost all the tissues had increased following the 30–60-day feeding period. Cd does not impair animal the fitness after sixty days of dietary treatment, but it does can cause an accumulation on P. unifilis

  16. Effect of dietary cadmium on fitness, growth, genotoxicity and accumulation in the Yellow-spotted River Turtle, Podocnemis unifilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frossard, Alexandra; Ferreira, Paulo D. [Universidade Vila Velha, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil); Carneiro, Maria T.W.D. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Heringer, Otávio A. [Universidade Vila Velha, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil); Tommasi Analítica, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil); Endringer, Denise C. [Universidade Vila Velha, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil); Gomes, Levy C., E-mail: levy.gomes@uvv.br [Universidade Vila Velha, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to expose the Yellow-spotted River Turtle, Podocnemis unifilis, to dietary cadmium (Cd) contamination. The P. unifilis were fed with a Cd contaminated diet (590 µg g{sup −1}) or a control diet for 30 and 60 days. After the Cd feeding period, the locomotor performance and specific growth rate were assessed. Blood samples were drawn for micronuclei analysis and tissues were collected to analyze the Cd concentration. Dietary Cd influenced the fitness of turtles at 30 days (righting time 752 s), but not after 60 days (righting time 43.67 s). Micronuclei in erythrocytes (12 ± 5‰) were significantly greater in contaminated turtle at 60 days. Cd accumulation is found in gut, intestine, kidney, fat, liver and blood of animals from contaminated diet group and the Cd concentration of almost all the tissues had increased following the 30–60-day feeding period. Cd does not impair animal the fitness after sixty days of dietary treatment, but it does can cause an accumulation on P. unifilis.

  17. Using Belbin's Role to Improve Team Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, K. Todd; Henry, Sallie M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a controlled experiment conducted with software engineering students that demonstrates the utility of forming teams based on R. Meredith Belbin's set of team roles. The overall research effort is a demonstration of the general utility of Belbin's roles in improving the effectiveness of teams, even industry teams. The significance of this work is twofold: performance and team viability. Performance improvements clearly improve a team's productivity; viability issues are i...

  18. Effect of amlodipine, efonidipine, and trichlormethiazide on home blood pressure and upper-normal microalbuminuria assessed by casual spot urine test in essential hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Miki; Inoue, Ryusuke; Satoh, Michihiro; Watabe, Daisuke; Hanazawa, Tomohiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Obara, Taku; Imai, Yutaka

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of irbesartan alone and combined with amlodipine, efonidipine, or trichlormethiazide on blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin (UA) excretion in hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria (30≤UA/creatinine (Cr) ratio [UACR] <300 mg/g Cr) and upper-normal microalbuminuria (10≤UACR<30 mg/g Cr). This randomized controlled trial enrolled 175 newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients (home systolic blood pressure [SBP]≥135 mmHg; 10≤UACR<300 mg/g Cr of casual spot urine at the first visit to clinic). All patients were treated with irbesartan (week 0). Patients who failed to achieve home SBP ≤125 mmHg on 8-week irbesartan monotherapy (nonresponders, n = 115) were randomized into three additional drug treatment groups: trichlormethiazide (n = 42), efonidipine (n = 39), or amlodipine (n = 34). Irbesartan monotherapy decreased home SBP and first morning urine samples (morning UACR) for 8 weeks (p < 0.0001). At 8 weeks after randomization, all three additional drugs decreased home SBP (p < 0.0002) and trichlormethiazide significantly decreased morning UACR (p = 0.03). Amlodipine decreased morning UACR in patients with microalbuminuria based on casual spot urine samples (p = 0.048). However, multivariate analysis showed that only higher home SBP and UACR at week 8, but not any additional treatments, were significantly associated with UACR reduction between week 8 and week 16. In conclusion, crucial points of the effects of combination therapy on UACR were basal UACR and SBP levels. The effect of trichlormethiazide or amlodipine treatment in combination with irbesartan treatment on microalbuminuria needs to be reexamined based on a larger sample size after considering basal UACR and SBP levels.

  19. Effect of Welding Current on the Structure and Properties of Resistance Spot Welded Dissimilar (Austenitic Stainless Steel and Low Carbon Steel) Metal Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawon, M. R. A.; Gulshan, F.; Kurny, A. S. W.

    2015-04-01

    1.5 mm thick sheet metal coupons of austenitic stainless steel and plain low carbon steel were welded by resistance spot welding technique. The effects of welding current in the range 3-9 kA on the structure and mechanical properties of welded joint were investigated. The structure was studied by macroscopic, microscopic and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing and microhardness measurements. Asymmetrical shape weld nugget was found to have formed in the welded joint which increased in size with an increase in welding current. The fusion zone showed cast structure with coarse columnar grain and dendritic with excess delta ferrite in austenitic matrix. Microhardness of the weld nugget was maximum because of martensite formation. An increase in welding current also increased tensile strength of the weld coupon. An attempt has also been made to relate the mode of fracture with the welding current.

  20. Effect of different temperatures on consumption of two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, eggs by the predatory thrips, Scolothrips longicornis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variables such as temperature are important factors affecting the efficacy of biological control agents. This study evaluated the predation rate of the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae...... Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. Based on daily and total prey consumption of different life stages of S. longicornis on spider mite eggs at temperatures covering the range suitable for development and survival of the predator (15º C to 37º C, 60 ± 10% RH, 16:8 L......:D), there was a significant effect of temperature on prey consumption. The number of prey consumed daily by first and second instar larvae increased linearly with increasing temperature from 15 ºC to 37 ºC, whereas daily consumption of preovipositing and postovipositing females was uninfluenced by temperature. Lower...

  1. Epidemiological Features and Trends of Brown Spot of Pear Disease Based on the Diversity of Pathogen Populations and Climate Change Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moragrega, Concepció; Puig, Mireia; Ruz, Lídia; Montesinos, Emilio; Llorente, Isidre

    2018-02-01

    Brown spot of pear, caused by the fungus Stemphylium vesicarium, is an emerging disease of economic importance in several pear-growing areas in Europe. In recent years, new control strategies combining sanitation practices and fungicide applications according to developed forecasting models have been introduced to manage the disease. However, the pathogenic and saprophytic behavior of this pathogen makes it difficult to manage the disease. In addition, climate change can also result in variations in the severity and geographical distribution of the disease. In this study, ecological and epidemiological aspects of brown spot of pear disease related to inoculum characterization and climate change impact were elucidated. The pathogenic variation in S. vesicarium populations from pear orchards and its relationship to inoculum sources (air samples, leaf debris, and infected host and nonhost tissues) was determined using multivariate analysis. In total, six variables related to infection and disease development on cultivar Conference pear detached leaves of 110 S. vesicarium isolates were analyzed. A high proportion of isolates (42%) were nonpathogenic to pear; 85% of these nonpathogenic isolates were recovered from air samples. Most isolates recovered from lesions (93%) and pseudothecia (83%) were pathogenic to pear. A group of pathogenic isolates rapidly infected cultivar Conference pear leaves resulted in disease increase that followed a monomolecular model, whereas some S. vesicarium isolates required a period of time after inoculation to initiate infection and resulted in disease increase that followed a logistic model. The latter group was mainly composed of isolates recovered from pseudothecia on leaf debris, whereas the former group was mainly composed of isolates recovered from lesions on pear fruit and leaves. The relationship between the source of inoculum and pathogenic/aggressiveness profile was confirmed by principal component analysis. The effect of

  2. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  3. Advanced spot quality analysis in two-colour microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetter Guillaume

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image analysis of microarrays and, in particular, spot quantification and spot quality control, is one of the most important steps in statistical analysis of microarray data. Recent methods of spot quality control are still in early age of development, often leading to underestimation of true positive microarray features and, consequently, to loss of important biological information. Therefore, improving and standardizing the statistical approaches of spot quality control are essential to facilitate the overall analysis of microarray data and subsequent extraction of biological information. Findings We evaluated the performance of two image analysis packages MAIA and GenePix (GP using two complementary experimental approaches with a focus on the statistical analysis of spot quality factors. First, we developed control microarrays with a priori known fluorescence ratios to verify the accuracy and precision of the ratio estimation of signal intensities. Next, we developed advanced semi-automatic protocols of spot quality evaluation in MAIA and GP and compared their performance with available facilities of spot quantitative filtering in GP. We evaluated these algorithms for standardised spot quality analysis in a whole-genome microarray experiment assessing well-characterised transcriptional modifications induced by the transcription regulator SNAI1. Using a set of RT-PCR or qRT-PCR validated microarray data, we found that the semi-automatic protocol of spot quality control we developed with MAIA allowed recovering approximately 13% more spots and 38% more differentially expressed genes (at FDR = 5% than GP with default spot filtering conditions. Conclusion Careful control of spot quality characteristics with advanced spot quality evaluation can significantly increase the amount of confident and accurate data resulting in more meaningful biological conclusions.

  4. Chocolate spot of Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Cheewangkoon, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Hyde, K.D.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Chocolate Spot leaf disease of Eucalyptus is associated with several Heteroconium-like species of hyphomycetes that resemble Heteroconium s.str. in morphology. They differ, however, in their ecology, with the former being plant pathogenic, while Heteroconium s.str. is a genus of sooty moulds. Results of molecular analyses, inferred from DNA sequences of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nrDNA, delineated four Heteroconium-like species on Eucalyptus, name...

  5. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  6. Coaching for improved personal and organizational effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.; Williams, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Leadership ability and highly developed interpersonal skills are essential for both organizational and personal effectiveness. High-performance organizations have typically taken an integrated approach to address these critical needs. One element of a comprehensive strategy to improve these key competencies is to provide both individual and work-group coaching. This paper describes what leaders at the Pt. Lepreau NGS have experienced while receiving personal and small group coaching, and the effect it has had on their overall performance effectiveness. (author)

  7. Spot detection in microscopy images using Convolutional Neural Network with sliding-window approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabaso, Matsilele A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust spot detection in microscopy image analysis serves as a critical prerequisite in many biomedical applications. Various approaches that automatically detect spots have been proposed to improve the analysis of biological images. In this paper...

  8. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  9. Effects of Microencapsulated Synbiotic Administration at Different Dosages against heavy co-infection of White Spot Disease (WSD and Vibrio harveyi in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunarty Yunarty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available White spot disease (WSD is one of infectious disease in shrimp caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. This study aimed to determine the dosage immunological effects and growth performances of microencapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus NP5 and mannan oligosaccharide at different dosages on Pacific white shrimp.  The microencapsulated synbiotic   was administered as feed supplementation  against the co-infection of   WSSV and Vibrio harveyi. Synbiotic was encapsulated by spray drying method, further feed supplemented to Pacific white shrimp for 30 days at a  dosages of 0.5% (A, 1% (B, 2% (C and control treatments, i.e. without any microencapsulated synbiotic administration as positive control (D and negative control (E. The challenge test was performed on day 30 after feeding supplementation, then the experimental shrimps were injected by WSSV intramuscularly   at the infective dosage of 104 copies.-ml-1. Afterwards,   24 hours after WSSV injection the shrimps were immersed in water contained cells suspension of V. harveyi  at the cells population dosage of 106 CFU-.ml-1. All synbiotic treatments showed better results with the values of Total Haemocyte Count (THC, Phenoloxidase (PO and Respiratory Burst (RB, were higher (P<0.05 compared to positive control. The specific growth rates (SGR of A, B and C showed higher than both controls of D and E. The feed conversion ratio (FCR value of synbiotic treatments were lower (P<0.05 than both controls. However, the administration of microencapsulated synbiotic have not been able to prevent heavy impact of WSSV and V. harveyi co-infection due to lower SR and mortality pattern which continued to increase.   Keywords: Synbiotic, Litopenaeus vannamei, WSSV, Vibrio harveyi, co-infection

  10. Improving jet distributions with effective field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christian W; Schwartz, Matthew D

    2006-10-06

    We obtain perturbative expressions for jet distributions using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). By matching SCET onto QCD at high energy, tree level matrix elements and higher order virtual corrections can be reproduced in SCET. The resulting operators are then evolved to lower scales, with additional operators being populated by required threshold matchings in the effective theory. We show that the renormalization group evolution and threshold matchings reproduce the Sudakov factors and splitting functions of QCD, and that the effective theory naturally combines QCD matrix elements and parton showers. The effective theory calculation is systematically improvable and any higher order perturbative effects can be included by a well-defined procedure.

  11. Improving product introduction through effective design reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelnik, Tammy M

    2003-01-01

    The design review process is a part of the manufacturer's due diligence in developing a safe and effective product. Design review provides early and on-going independent feedback to developers. By adopting a proactive review process, design improvements can be pursued at an optimum time in the product development effort, i.e., when it will cost less to implement changes and when these changes may have the greatest impact. Effective implementation of the design review requirement will lead to better medical products and improved product introduction results.

  12. [Study on Hexagonal Super-Lattice Pattern with Light Spot and Dim Spot in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Dong, Li-fang; Niu, Xue-jiao; Zhang, Chao

    2016-02-01

    The hexagonal super-lattice pattern composed of the light spot and the dim spot is firstly observed and investigated in the discharge of gas mixture of air and argon by using the dielectric barrier discharge device with double water electrodes. It is found that the dim spot is located at the center of its surrounding three light spots by observing the discharge image. Obviously, the brightness of the light spot and the dim spot are different, which indicates that the plasma states of the light spot and the dim spot may be different. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the light spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the light spot and the dim spot are calculated. Based on the relative intensity ratio of the line at 391.4 nm and the N₂ line at 394.1 nm, the average electron energies of the light spot and the dim spot are investigated. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the light spot and the dim spot. The experiment shows that the molecule vibration temperature, average electron energy and the electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the light spot in the same argon content. The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the light spot and dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 70% to 95%, while average electron energies of the light spot and dim spot decrease gradually. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the decisive effect on the formation of the dim spot. The experiment above plays an important role in studying the formation mechanism of the hexagonal super-lattice pattern with light spot and

  13. Unsupervised Word Spotting in Historical Handwritten Document Images using Document-oriented Local Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoris, Konstantinos; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Gatos, Basilis

    2017-05-03

    Word spotting strategies employed in historical handwritten documents face many challenges due to variation in the writing style and intense degradation. In this paper, a new method that permits effective word spotting in handwritten documents is presented that it relies upon document-oriented local features which take into account information around representative keypoints as well a matching process that incorporates spatial context in a local proximity search without using any training data. Experimental results on four historical handwritten datasets for two different scenarios (segmentation-based and segmentation-free) using standard evaluation measures show the improved performance achieved by the proposed methodology.

  14. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  15. Abstract: Improving Effectiveness of Student Learning Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Improving Effectiveness of Student Learning Experiences during Clinical Rotations at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH) ... These expectations included collaboration with the clinical instructors, ward staff nurses, and the HRH clinical mentors. The ward managers facilitated structured learning by assisting the ...

  16. Contextual factors and effective school improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Hechuan; Creemers, Bert P. M.; de Jong, Rob

    This research provides policy-makers, researchers, and educators at all levels with a glimpse of the contextual influence on effective school improvement (ESI) in 8 European countries. What are the factors at the contextual level, particularly at the national level, which influence ESI? Are there

  17. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  18. Acaricidal and oviposition deterring effects of santalol identified in sandalwood oil against two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyun Sik; Lim, Eu Gene; Kim, Jinwoo; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2011-12-01

    Thirty-four plant essential oils were screened for their acaricidal and oviposition deterrent activities against two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), in the laboratory using a leaf-dip bioassay. From initial trials, sandalwood and common thyme oils were observed to be the most effective against TSSM adult females. Subsequent trials confirmed that only sandalwood oil was significantly active (87.2 ± 2.9% mortality) against TSSM adult females. Sandalwood oil also demonstrated oviposition deterring effects based on a 89.3% reduction of the total number of eggs on leaf disks treated with the oil. GC-MS analysis revealed that the main components of the sandalwood oil were α-santalol (45.8%), β-santalol (20.6%), β-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-β-santalol (3.3%). A mixture of α- and β-santalol (51.0:22.9, respectively) produced significantly higher mortality (85.5 ± 2.9%) and oviposition deterrent effects (94.7% reduction in the number of eggs) than the control. Phytotoxicity was not shown on rose shoots to which a 0.1% solution of sandalwood oil was applied.

  19. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  20. Effect of Curved Surface Shape and Feed Velocity on Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Gray Cast Iron After Spot Continual Induction Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai; Qin, Xunpeng; Chen, Xuliang; Wang, Zhou; Zhu, Zhenhua; Cheng, Man

    2017-05-01

    Spot continual induction hardening (SCIH) is a surface heat treatment process, which can strengthen more than one small area or relative large area on complicated component surface. In order to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties of gray cast iron with curved surface after SCIH, the microstructure, microhardness and residual stresses were analyzed under different process conditions. The results showed that the martensite grain in hardened region of concave surface was larger than that of convex surface. The domain sizes of concave and convex surfaces were smaller than that of matrix region due to the high heating rate in SCIH process. The phase transformation depth increased with the increasing of convex surface radius but decreased with the increasing of concave surface radius. The maximum values of residual tensile and compressive stresses increased with the increasing of feed velocity for convex and concave surfaces, respectively. The appearance positions of maximum tensile and compressive stresses were closer to center for convex and concave surfaces, respectively, when feed velocity increased from 1 to 5 mm/s. The achieved results indicated that the SCIH with relatively low feed velocity was more suitable for improving the mechanical properties of gray cast iron. Compared with convex surface, the concave surface of workpiece can obtain better mechanical properties under the same feed velocity of inductor.

  1. Analysis of ochratoxin A in dried blood spots - Correlation between venous and finger-prick blood, the influence of hematocrit and spotted volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteresch, Bernd; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    We report the improvement of a method for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2'R-ochratoxin A in dried blood spots (DBS) by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The DBS technique was advanced for the analysis of these two compounds in DBS with unknown amounts of blood as well as varying hematocrit values. Furthermore the comparability of venous vs. capillary blood was investigated. Human whole blood samples were spotted, dried, and extracted with a solvent consisting of acetone, acetonitrile and water for analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. Quantification was carried out by stable isotope labelled internal standards. Blood samples of volunteers (n=50) were used to further optimize and simplify the procedure. Ochratoxin A and 2'R-ochratoxin A concentrations found in the entire spots (approx. 100 μL blood) were compared with punched DBS discs of 8.8mm size containing approximately 20 μL blood. As a result the amounts of both toxins in a punched 8.8mm disc correlate well with the entire DBS. Also the use of capillary blood from finger-pricks versus venous blood was evaluated. The analyte levels correlate as well indicating that the less invasive finger-prick sampling gives also reliable results. The influence of hematocrit was investigated in a range of 25-55% according to the hematocrit in the used real blood samples (34-46% hematocrit). However no significant hematocrit effect was observed for the utilized real blood samples. Moreover different blood volumes were spotted and punched as a minimal spot size is usually recommended for accurate analysis. In this experiment finger-prick samples typically consist of about 90 μL blood. Therefore spots of 75, 100 and 125 μL blood were prepared and analyzed. Similar to the hematocrit effect, no considerable influence was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. No Effect of Body Size on the Frequency of Calling and Courtship Song in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body size and vocalization parameters has been studied in many animal species. In insect species, however, the effect of body size on song frequency has remained unclear. Here we analyzed the effect of body size on the frequency spectra of mating songs produced by the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. We recorded the calling songs and courtship songs of male crickets of different body sizes. The calling songs contained a frequency component that peaked at 5.7 kHz. On the other hand, courtship songs contained two frequency components that peaked at 5.8 and 14.7 kHz. The dominant frequency of each component in both the calling and courtship songs was constant regardless of body size. The size of the harp and mirror regions in the cricket forewings, which are the acoustic sources of the songs, correlated positively with body size. These findings suggest that the frequency contents of both the calling and courtship songs of the cricket are unaffected by whole body, harp, or mirror size.

  3. Phantom-based standardization of CT angiography images for spot sign detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morotti, Andrea; Rosand, Jonathan [Harvard Medical School, Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, J. P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Romero, Javier M. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, J. P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Neuroradiology Service, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Jessel, Michael J.; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin; Greenberg, Steven M. [Harvard Medical School, J. P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Hernandez, Andrew M.; Boone, John M. [University of California Davis, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Burns, Joseph D. [Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Burlington, MA (United States); Shah, Qaisar A. [Abington Memorial Hospital, Abington, PA (United States); Bergman, Thomas A. [Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Suri, M.F.K. [St. Cloud Hospital, St. Cloud, MN (United States); Ezzeddine, Mustapha [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Kirmani, Jawad F. [JFK Medical Center, Stroke and Neurovascular Center, Edison, NJ (United States); Agarwal, Sachin [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Hays Shapshak, Angela [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Messe, Steven R. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Venkatasubramanian, Chitra [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Palmieri, Katherine [The University of Kansas Health System, Kansas City, KS (United States); Lewandowski, Christopher [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Chang, Tiffany R. [University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Ira [Colorado Neurological Institute, Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, CO (United States); Rose, David Z. [Tampa General Hospital, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Smith, Wade [UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hsu, Chung Y.; Liu, Chun-Lin [China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (China); Lien, Li-Ming; Hsiao, Chen-Yu [Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei (China); Iwama, Toru [Gifu University Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Qureshi, Adnan I. [University of Minnesota, Zeenat Qureshi Stroke Research Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Cassarly, Christy; Hebert Martin, Renee [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charleston, SC (United States); Goldstein, Joshua N. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, J. P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Collaboration: ATACH-II and NETT Investigators

    2017-09-15

    The CT angiography (CTA) spot sign is a strong predictor of hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, CTA parameters vary widely across centers and may negatively impact spot sign accuracy in predicting ICH expansion. We developed a CT iodine calibration phantom that was scanned at different institutions in a large multicenter ICH clinical trial to determine the effect of image standardization on spot sign detection and performance. A custom phantom containing known concentrations of iodine was designed and scanned using the stroke CT protocol at each institution. Custom software was developed to read the CT volume datasets and calculate the Hounsfield unit as a function of iodine concentration for each phantom scan. CTA images obtained within 8 h from symptom onset were analyzed by two trained readers comparing the calibrated vs. uncalibrated density cutoffs for spot sign identification. ICH expansion was defined as hematoma volume growth >33%. A total of 90 subjects qualified for the study, of whom 17/83 (20.5%) experienced ICH expansion. The number of spot sign positive scans was higher in the calibrated analysis (67.8 vs 38.9% p < 0.001). All spot signs identified in the non-calibrated analysis remained positive after calibration. Calibrated CTA images had higher sensitivity for ICH expansion (76 vs 52%) but inferior specificity (35 vs 63%) compared with uncalibrated images. Normalization of CTA images using phantom data is a feasible strategy to obtain consistent image quantification for spot sign analysis across different sites and may improve sensitivity for identification of ICH expansion. (orig.)

  4. Effects of bioflavonoids on oviposition behavior in the pink-spotted ladybird beetle Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One goal of our current research is to mass produce ladybird beetles for biological control of plant pests in greenhouses and other protective structures. Cost-effective mass production involves the use of alternative prey/foods or artificial diets (rather than natural prey, e.g., aphids). One chall...

  5. Numerical simulation of the unsteady heat-transfer in a turbine-rotor in consideration of hot-spot effects. Final report; AG-Turbo-Vorhaben 1.324: Numerische Simulation des instationaeren Waermeuebergangs an einem Turbinenrotor unter Einschluss von Heissstellen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuernberger, D.

    2001-07-01

    In this research project the influence of hot-gas effects, so called hot-spots, to the thermal load of high pressure turbine rotors was investigated in. Generally the total process efficiency can massively be improved by an increase of the temperature level at turbine entrance. However the temperatures of modern gas turbines can only be realized by efficient cooling techniques of the turbine blade materials. Furthermore the turbine stages close to the combustion chamber are exposed to an additional thermal loading due to the so called hot-spots. These streaks of unburned fuel entering the first turbine passages can cause a dramatic increase of local temperature in their afterburning process. For an optimized thermal design a detailed knowledge of these hot-streaks and their interaction with the unsteady flow through the turbomachinery flow is necessary. With this research program time accurate numerical investigations were performed to analyze the interaction process between the occurring hot gases and the high loaded turbine rotors. The numerical simulations started with fundamental investigation of the hot-spot and heat transfer modeling. Based on these developements threedimensional time accurate simulations for a realistic high pressure turbine configuration were performed. Herein the unsteady mechanisms of the hot gases and their influence on the heat transfer of the blade material was analyzed. In total the hot-streaks lead to a massiv increase of the thermal loading mainly on the pressure sides. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Forschungsvorhabens wurden der Einfluss von Heissgaseffekten, sogenannten Hot-Spots auf die thermische Belastung von Turbinenrotoren numerisch untersucht. Gemeinhin sind die sehr hohen Turbineneintrittstemperaturen, deren Erhoehung einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur Verbesserung des gesamten Prozesswirkungsgrades leisten, nur durch effektive Kuehlungsmassnahmen der Schaufelwerkstoffe realisierbar. Zudem erfahren diese unmittelbar dem

  6. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack.

  7. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  8. Different methods of fluoride delivery in prevention of white spot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orthodontic patients on fixed appliances are at an increased risk of developing white spot lesions which can progress to frank cavitations. Fluoride application in different forms has been shown to be effective in the reduction of formation of white spot lesions. The aim of this short communication is to discuss different ...

  9. Laser Beam Caustic Measurement with Focal Spot Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Gong, Hui; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    In industrial applications of high power CO2-lasers the caustic characteristics of the laser beam have great effects on the performance of the lasers. A welldefined high intense focused spot is essential for reliable production results. This paper presents a focal spot analyser that is developed...... for measuring the beam profiles of focused high power CO2-lasers....

  10. Effect of Welding Current and Time on the Microstructure, Mechanical Characterizations, and Fracture Studies of Resistance Spot Welding Joints of AISI 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianersi, Danial; Mostafaei, Amir; Mohammadi, Javad

    2014-09-01

    This article aims at investigating the effect of welding parameters, namely, welding current and welding time, on resistance spot welding (RSW) of the AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel sheets. The influence of welding current and welding time on the weld properties including the weld nugget diameter or fusion zone, tensile-shear load-bearing capacity of welded materials, failure modes, energy absorption, and microstructure of welded nuggets was precisely considered. Microstructural studies and mechanical properties showed that the region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. Electron microscopic studies indicated different types of delta ferrite in welded nuggets including skeletal, acicular, and lathy delta ferrite morphologies as a result of nonequilibrium phases, which can be attributed to a fast cooling rate in the RSW process. These morphologies were explained based on Shaeffler, WRC-1992, and pseudo-binary phase diagrams. The optimum microstructure and mechanical properties were achieved with 8-kA welding current and 4-cycle welding time in which maximum tensile-shear load-bearing capacity or peak load of the welded materials was obtained at 8070 N, and the failure mode took place as button pullout with tearing from the base metal. Finally, fracture surface studies indicated that elongated dimples appeared on the surface as a result of ductile fracture in the sample welded in the optimum welding condition.

  11. Effect of Dwell Time on Joint Interface Microstructure and Strength of Dissimilar Friction Stir Spot-Welded Al-5083 and St-12 Alloy Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereiduni, Eskandar; Movahedi, Mojtaba; Kokabi, Amir Hossein; Najafi, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Joining of Al-5083 alloy sheet to St-12 steel sheet was performed using a new friction stir spot welding (FSSW) technique in which the tool pin tip did not enter lower steel sheet. Effect of dwell time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints was studied by various methods including microhardness measurements, shear test, stereo and light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Results indicated that compared to the conventional FSSW process, stronger joints can be achieved by this FSSW technique. Cross-sectional observation of the failed specimens indicated the occurrence of final fracture from the circumference of the tool pin where the Al sheet thickness was decreased as a result of the tool pin penetration. However, microhardness measurements introduced these fracture locations as the hardest regions of the Al part of welds. In addition to the Al3Fe and Al5Fe2 intermetallic compounds reported in the literature to form at the interface of dissimilar Al/steel joints, a third layer of AlFe intermetallic compound was also identified adjacent to the steel side of welds. Enhancement of the dwell time from 5 to 15 seconds increased the intermetallic layer thickness from 1.7 to 3 µm and resulted in the formation of harder stirred zone. This consequently increased the strength of the weld.

  12. Effect of Three-spot Seahorse Petroleum Ether Extract on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Macrophage RAW264.7 Inflammatory Cytokine Nitric Oxide and Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, LiPing; Shen, XuanRi; Chen, GuoHua; Cao, XianYing; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Three-Spot seahorse is a traditional medicine in Asian countries. However, the alcohol extract is largely unknown for its anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed at elucidating fraction of potent anti-inflammatory activity of seahorse. A systematic solvent extraction method of liquid-liquid fractionation of ethanol crude extract gave four fractions petroleum ether (PE), and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), water saturated butanol (n-BuOH), water (H2O). In this study, PE extract was selected for further study after preliminary screening test, and was connected to silica column chromatography and eluted with different polarity of mobile phases, and obtained four active fractions (Fr I, Fr II, Fr III, Fr IV). Effect of separated fractions on inflammation was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine RAW264.7 cells in vitro. The result shows that seahorse extract was capable of inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) significantly in a dose dependent manner and exhibited no notable cytotoxicity on cell viability. IC50 of fraction IV was 36.31 μg/mL, indicating that separated fraction possessed potent NO inhibitory activity against LPS-induced inflammatory response, thus, demonstrated its in vitro anti-inflammatory potentiality, it may be at least partially explained by the presence of anti-inflammation active substances, phenolic compounds, phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It could be suggested that seahorse lipid-soluble components could be used in functional food and anti-inflammatory drug preparations.

  13. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p  0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored 4.0 (the defect limit of quality) of flavour, texture and overall acceptability in untrained sensory evaluation using a seven-point hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities.

  14. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra [University of Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN, Lyon (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Pomarède, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-09-20

    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.

  15. Effects of a tropical cyclone on the distribution of hatchery-reared black-spot tuskfish Choerodon schoenleinii determined by acoustic telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Y; Okuyama, J; Asami, K; Okuzawa, K; Yoseda, K; Arai, N

    2010-08-01

    The effects of a tropical cyclone on the distribution of hatchery-reared black-spot tuskfish Choerodon schoenleinii were examined using acoustic telemetry. Nine fish were released in Urasoko Bay, Ishigaki Island, Japan, in September 2006, and another nine were released in June to July 2007, before a cyclone's passing through the area in September 2007. Data for the fish released in 2006 were used as the cyclone-inexperienced group to compare their distribution pattern to that of the 2007 cyclone-experienced group. Both groups of fish were monitored for up to 150 days. Of the nine fish in each group, four (44%) and two (22%) were monitored for over 150 days in the cyclone-inexperienced and the cyclone-experienced groups, respectively. Three of the five fish that had settled in the monitoring area left the area within a few days of the cyclone event. To estimate the time of disappearance of the fish, maximum wind speed during a period of 7 days (indicating the occurrence and intensity of the tropical cyclone), fish size and release year were evaluated as explanatory variables using a Cox proportional hazards model with Akaike's information criterion. The best predictive model included the effect of maximum wind speed. One fish that left the monitoring area displayed movement patterns related to strong winds, suggesting that wind-associated strong currents swept the fish away. No relationships were found between the movement patterns of the other two fish and any physical environmental data. The daily detection periods of one of the two fish gradually decreased after the cyclone hit, and this fish eventually left the monitoring area within 3 days, suggesting that it shifted to a habitat outside the monitoring area. These results indicate that tropical cyclones have both direct and indirect effects on the distribution of hatchery-reared C. schoenleinii.

  16. Opioid adjuvant strategy: improving opioid effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihel, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Opioid analgesics continue to be the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment of moderate to severe pain. Many patients, particularly those suffering from chronic pain, require chronic high-dose analgesic therapy. Achieving clinical efficacy and tolerability of such treatment regimens is hampered by the appearance of opioid-induced side effects such as tolerance, hyperalgesia and withdrawal syndrome. Among the therapeutic options to improve the opioid effectiveness, this current review focuses on strategies combining opioids to other drugs that can modulate opioid-mediated effects. We will discuss about experimental evidences reported for several potential opioid adjuvants, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, 5-HT7 agonists, sigma-1 antagonists, I2-R ligands, cholecystokinin antagonists, neuropeptide FF-R antagonists and toll-like receptor 4 antagonists.

  17. Effect of sublethal exposure of Cartap on hypothalamo-neurosecretory system of the freshwater spotted murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D K; Bohidar, K; Pandey, A K

    2008-11-01

    In order to record the effect of carbamate pesticide on hypothalamus of Channa punctatus, fish were exposed to sublethal concentration (0.18 mg l(-1), 30% LC50 for 96 hr) of Cartap for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr under static bioassay condition. Hypothalamo-neurosecretory complex of the murrel consisted mainly of nucleus preopticus (NPO), nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT) and their axonal tracts. NPO is a paired structure situtated on either side of the third ventricle anterodorsal to the optic chiasma and looked inverted L-shape in the sagittal section. NPO is morphologically divisible into a dorsal pars magnocellularis (PMC) consisting of large neurons and ventral pars parvocellularis (PPC) formed of smaller neurosecretory cells. NLT cells are distributed in the infundibular floor adjacent to the pituitary stalk. Sublethal Cartap treatment induced an initial hypertrophy of the neurosecretory cells of NPO and NLT followed by loss of staining affinity as well as varying degrees of cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis. Herring bodies (HB) were also encountered in the neurohypophysis of the treated fishes.

  18. TH-CD-209-05: Impact of Spot Size and Spacing On the Quality of Robustly-Optimized Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Plans for Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W; Ding, X; Hu, Y; Shen, J; Korte, S; Bues, M; Schild, S; Wong, W; Chang, J; Liao, Z; Sahoo, N; Herman, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how spot size and spacing affect plan quality, especially, plan robustness and the impact of interplay effect, of robustly-optimized intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans for lung cancer. Methods: Two robustly-optimized IMPT plans were created for 10 lung cancer patients: (1) one for a proton beam with in-air energy dependent large spot size at isocenter (σ: 5–15 mm) and spacing (1.53σ); (2) the other for a proton beam with small spot size (σ: 2–6 mm) and spacing (5 mm). Both plans were generated on the average CTs with internal-gross-tumor-volume density overridden to irradiate internal target volume (ITV). The root-mean-square-dose volume histograms (RVH) measured the sensitivity of the dose to uncertainties, and the areas under RVH curves were used to evaluate plan robustness. Dose evaluation software was developed to model time-dependent spot delivery to incorporate interplay effect with randomized starting phases of each field per fraction. Patient anatomy voxels were mapped from phase to phase via deformable image registration to score doses. Dose-volume-histogram indices including ITV coverage, homogeneity, and organs-at-risk (OAR) sparing were compared using Student-t test. Results: Compared to large spots, small spots resulted in significantly better OAR sparing with comparable ITV coverage and homogeneity in the nominal plan. Plan robustness was comparable for ITV and most OARs. With interplay effect considered, significantly better OAR sparing with comparable ITV coverage and homogeneity is observed using smaller spots. Conclusion: Robust optimization with smaller spots significantly improves OAR sparing with comparable plan robustness and similar impact of interplay effect compare to larger spots. Small spot size requires the use of larger number of spots, which gives optimizer more freedom to render a plan more robust. The ratio between spot size and spacing was found to be more relevant to determine plan

  19. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  20. Multiple spots of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of severe chronic central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsakonas GD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available George D Tsakonas, Athanasios I Kotsolis, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Ilias Georgalas, Dimitrios Papakonstantinou, Ioannis D LadasFirst Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School of Athens University, Athens, GreecePurpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluorescein angiography (FA-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT for the treatment of severe chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC.Methods: Patients presenting with chronic CSC with multiple areas of retinal pigment epithelium decompensation, with or without focal leaks, were treated with FA-guided full-fluence PDT. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, optical coherence tomography (OCT, FA, indocyanine green angiography, and fundus autofluorescence were used to determine functional and anatomic outcomes.Results: Twenty-one eyes (17 patients were treated with PDT and followed for a median of 24 months (range, 12–73. In fourteen eyes (66.66%, two PDT spots were performed within the same session. In three eyes (14.28%, three PDT spots were performed, in two eyes (9.52% four spots, and in two eyes (9.52% five spots. In 17 eyes (80.95%, the leakage in FA and the subretinal fluid in OCT disappeared after only one session of PDT. In four eyes (19.05%, a second session – with only one spot – of PDT was required due to persistent or recurrent leakage and subfoveal SRF. Median BCVA improved significantly from 20/63 at baseline to 20/40 at 3 months (P = 0.0002 and 20/32 at 6 months (P < 0.0001, and remained improved until the last examination (20/25, P < 0.0001. Two patients complained of a transient central scotoma after the treatment.Conclusion: FA-guided full-fluence PDT with multiple PDT spots within the same session seems to be effective and safe for the treatment of chronic CSC cases with multiple areas of retinal pigment epithelium decompensation.Keywords: central serous chorioretinopathy, photodynamic therapy

  1. Ultrasonic assessment of tension shear strength in resistance spot welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghanizadeh, Abbas

    2015-05-01

    Resistance spot welding is extensively used to join sheet steel in the automotive industry. Ultrasonic non-destructive techniques for evaluation of the mechanical properties of resistance spot welding are presented. The aim of this study is to develop the capability of the ultrasonic techniques as an efficient tool in the assessment of the welding characterization. Previous researches have indicated that the measurements of ultrasonic attenuation are sensitive to grain- size variations in an extensive range of metallic alloys. Other researchers have frequently described grain sizes which are able to have significant effects on the physical characteristics of the material. This research provides a novel method to estimate the tension-shear strengths of the resistance spot welding directly from the ultrasonic attenuation measurements. The effects of spot welding parameters on the ultrasonic waves are further investigated. The results confirm that it is possible to determine the spot welding parameters for individual quality by using ultrasonic test.

  2. The effectiveness of a pyriprole (125 mg/ml) and a metaflumizone (150 mg/ml) combined with amitraz (150 mg/ml) spot-on treatment in preventing Phlebotomus perniciosus from feeding on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C; Roques, M; Franc, M

    2008-03-01

    A controlled clinical trial was performed to assess the effectiveness of a pyriprole (125 mg/ml) and a metaflumizone (150 mg/ml) combined with amitraz (150 mg/ml) spot-on treatment (recommended dosage) in preventing adult female sandflies (Phlebotomus perniciosus) from feeding on dogs. Sandfly mortality was also assessed. Twelve beagle dogs were used in the study. Prior to treatment they were checked for their attractiveness to sandflies, ranked accordingly to generate partner triplets of equivalent sensitivity to sandflies: four control dogs, four treated with the pyriprole and four with the metaflumizone spot-on. The dogs were challenged with 50 unfed adult female sandflies (8-10 days old), in cages for one hour on Day 1 and Day 7. The sandflies were checked for blood feeding and mortality at one hour, 24 hours and 48 hours after exposure to the dogs. A very poor anti-feeding effect (near 7%) was seen on sandflies with the metaflumizone combined with amitraz and no antifeeding effect was seen with pyriprole. The sandfly mortality effect as a result of exposure to treated dogs was under 20% for the two spot-on. The two formulations could not be proposed in a leishmaniosis prevention program.

  3. The effectiveness of a pyriprole (125 mg/ml and a metaflumizone (150 mg/ml combined with amitraz (150 mg/ml spot-on treatment in preventing Phlebotomus perniciosus from feeding on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A controlled clinical trial was performed to assess the effectiveness of a pyriprole (125 mg/ml and a metaflumizone (150 mg/ml combined with amitraz (150 mg/ml spot-on treatment (recommended dosage in preventing adult female sandflies (Phlebotomus perniciosus from feeding on dogs. Sandfly mortality was also assessed. Twelve beagle dogs were used in the study. Prior to treatment they were checked for their attractiveness to sandflies, ranked accordingly to generate partner triplets of equivalent sensitivity to sandflies: four control dogs, four treated with the pyriprole and four with the metaflumizone spot-on. The dogs were challenged with 50 unfed adult female sandflies (8-10 days old, in cages for one hour on Day 1 and Day 7. The sandflies were checked for blood feeding and mortality at one hour, 24 hours and 48 hours after exposure to the dogs. A very poor anti-feeding effect (near 7% was seen on sandflies with the metaflumizone combined with amitraz and no antifeeding effect was seen with pyriprole. The sandfly mortality effect as a result of exposure to treated dogs was under 20% for the two spot-on. The two formulations could not be proposed in a leishmaniosis prevention program.

  4. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  5. Strategic Improvements to TSA Spot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    teen -aged college students as a representative sample of human behavior worldwide.27 Dr. John Grohol has cast doubt on the usefulness of the data...principles from the disciplines of physiology, psychology, neuroscience, specific research regarding suicide bombers, as well as a pioneer practitioner’s... suicide bombers.49 The basic premise is that a engaged in high consequence deception is experiencing fear (of discovery), stress, anxiety, or

  6. White spot lesions after orthodontic fixed appliance treatment : The effectiveness of MI Paste Plus® as a remineralising agent: A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, M.W.

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis, research is being described that aims at secondary prevention of white spot lesions (WSL), i.e., the remineralisation of these lesions. Also methods to monitor existing WSL in time and methods to predict risk of the formation of WSL are analysed. As described in this thesis, the

  7. Effects of new export rules, a spotted owl plan, and recession on timber prices and shipments from the Douglas-fir region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Wendy J. McGInnls

    1992-01-01

    Several recently emplaced and potential Northwest timber policies are causing considerable market turbulence. Estimated were price and volume changes induced by three supply-side policies (a state-log export embargo, forest replanning, and spotted owl reservations) and the demand slide of 1990-91. Impacts were gauged separately and together by using a four-sector model...

  8. Review: magnetically assisted resistance spot welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. B. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China); Li, D. L. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China); Lin, Z. Q. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China); David, Stan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tang, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-25

    Currently, the use of advanced high strength steels (AHSSs) is the most cost effective means of reducing vehicle body weight and maintaining structural integrity at the same time. However, AHSSs present a big challenge to the traditional resistance spot welding (RSW) widely applied in automotive industries because the rapid heating and cooling procedures during RSW produce hardened weld microstructures, which lower the ductility and fatigue properties of welded joints and raise the probability of interfacial failure under external loads. Changing process parameters or post-weld heat treatment may reduce the weld brittleness, but those traditional quality control methods also increase energy consumption and prolong cycle time. In recent years, a magnetically assisted RSW (MA-RSW) method was proposed, in which an externally applied magnetic field would interact with the conduction current to produce a Lorentz force that would affect weld nugget formation. This paper is a review of an experimental MA-RSW platform, the mode of the external magnetic field and the mechanism that controls nugget shape, weld microstructures and joint performance. In conclusion, the advantages of the MA-RSW method in improving the weldability of AHSSs are given, a recent application of the MA-RSW process to light metals is described and the outlook for the MA-RSW process is presented.

  9. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  10. Phantom-based standardization of CT angiography images for spot sign detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Andrea; Romero, Javier M; Jessel, Michael J; Hernandez, Andrew M; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin; Burns, Joseph D; Shah, Qaisar A; Bergman, Thomas A; Suri, M Fareed K; Ezzeddine, Mustapha; Kirmani, Jawad F; Agarwal, Sachin; Shapshak, Angela Hays; Messe, Steven R; Venkatasubramanian, Chitra; Palmieri, Katherine; Lewandowski, Christopher; Chang, Tiffany R; Chang, Ira; Rose, David Z; Smith, Wade; Hsu, Chung Y; Liu, Chun-Lin; Lien, Li-Ming; Hsiao, Chen-Yu; Iwama, Toru; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Cassarly, Christy; Greenberg, Steven M; Martin, Renee' Hebert; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosand, Jonathan; Boone, John M; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2017-09-01

    The CT angiography (CTA) spot sign is a strong predictor of hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, CTA parameters vary widely across centers and may negatively impact spot sign accuracy in predicting ICH expansion. We developed a CT iodine calibration phantom that was scanned at different institutions in a large multicenter ICH clinical trial to determine the effect of image standardization on spot sign detection and performance. A custom phantom containing known concentrations of iodine was designed and scanned using the stroke CT protocol at each institution. Custom software was developed to read the CT volume datasets and calculate the Hounsfield unit as a function of iodine concentration for each phantom scan. CTA images obtained within 8 h from symptom onset were analyzed by two trained readers comparing the calibrated vs. uncalibrated density cutoffs for spot sign identification. ICH expansion was defined as hematoma volume growth >33%. A total of 90 subjects qualified for the study, of whom 17/83 (20.5%) experienced ICH expansion. The number of spot sign positive scans was higher in the calibrated analysis (67.8 vs 38.9% p signs identified in the non-calibrated analysis remained positive after calibration. Calibrated CTA images had higher sensitivity for ICH expansion (76 vs 52%) but inferior specificity (35 vs 63%) compared with uncalibrated images. Normalization of CTA images using phantom data is a feasible strategy to obtain consistent image quantification for spot sign analysis across different sites and may improve sensitivity for identification of ICH expansion.

  11. Efeito de indutores de resistência em cafeeiro contra a mancha de Phoma Effect of resistance inducers on coffee against Phoma leaf spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutemberg Barone Araújo Nojosa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O efeito dos produtos acibenzolar S-metil ester (ASM, Bion®, fosfito de potássio (Hortifós PK® e de um fertilizante foliar (Nutex Axcell® foi avaliado sobre a germinação de esporos e no crescimento micelial de Phoma costarricensis. O efeito desses produtos também foi avaliado na severidade da mancha de Phoma em mudas de cafeeiro. O percentual de germinação dos conídios de P. costarricensis não foi afetado pelas doses de fosfito e ASM, mas reduções no crescimento micelial do fungo foram observadas. A AACPD e a severidade da doença foram menores em todos os tratamentos quando comparados com a testemunha inoculada. Nas plantas tratadas com o fungicida tebuconazole, utilizado como padrão, foi observada redução de 50,9% na severidade da doença. Os menores valores de severidade e de AACPD foram observados nas plantas tratadas com ASM 0,1 g/L; Fosfito 2,5 mL/L; Fosfito 5,0 mL/L e o fertilizante Nutex Axcell® 4,0 mL/L.The effect of acibenzolar S-metil ester (ASM, Bion®, potassium phosfite (Hortifós PK® and of a foliar fertilizer (Nutex Axcell® was assessed on the spore germination and mycelial growth of Phoma costarricensis. The effect of these products on severity of Phoma leaf spot was also assessed on coffee seedlings. The percentage of conidial germination of P. costarricensis was not affected by doses of phosfite and ASM, but reductions on the mycelial growth of the fungus were detected. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC and the disease severity were lower in all treatments compared to the inoculated control. There was a reduction of 50.9% on disease severity in plants treated with the standard fungicide tebuconazole. Low values for severity and AUDPC were observed when plants were treated with ASM 0.1 g/L; phosfite 2.5 mL/L; phosfite 5.0 mL/L and the fertilizer Nutex Axcell® at 4.0 mL/L, which differed from other treatments.

  12. Changing lanes in a simulator: effects of aging on the control of the vehicle and visual inspection of mirrors and blind spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalliere, Martin; Laurendeau, Denis; Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine lane change strategies in active younger and older drivers. Visual inspection of mirrors and the blind spot and the control of the vehicle were documented in a simulator environment. Younger (n = 10, 21-31 years) and older (n = 11, 65-75 years) active drivers drove through a continuous simulated environment including urban and rural sections. The scenario included events where, to negotiate a secure lane change, the driver needed to look at 3 regions of interest (ROI): (1) the rearview mirror, (2) the left side mirror, and (3) the left blind spot. The lane change maneuvers were necessary to avoid a vehicle parked halfway in the rightmost lane that was partially or completely blocking the lane or for overtaking a slower moving vehicle. Compared with younger drivers, older drivers showed a reduced frequency of visual inspection toward the rearview mirror and the blind spot. Also, though the older drivers showed a constant frequency of visual inspection across the 2 types of driving maneuvers, the younger drivers increased their frequency of inspection when overtaking a slower vehicle. Control of the car was mostly similar for both groups. A better knowledge of the drivers' visual search strategies when changing lanes could help in identifying suboptimal strategies at-risk of causing crashes and also serves to develop retraining programs.

  13. Spot: a new Monte Carlo solver for fast alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Eriksson, L.G.; Basiuk, V.; Imbeaux, F.

    2004-01-01

    The predictive transport code CRONOS has been augmented by an orbit following Monte Carlo code, SPOT (Simulation of Particle Orbits in a Tokamak). The SPOT code simulates the dynamics of nonthermal particles, and takes into account effects of finite orbit width and collisional transport of fast ions. Recent developments indicate that it might be difficult to avoid, at least transiently, current holes in a reactor. They occur already on existing tokamaks during advanced tokamak scenarios. The SPOT code has been used to study the alpha particle behaviour in the presence of current holes for both JET and ITER relevant parameters. (authors)

  14. Transmissibilidade e efeito do tratamento de sementes de cafeeiros com mancha manteigosa (C. gloeosporioides Transmission and effect of fungicide treatment on seeds of coffee trees affected by blister spot (C. gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar Batista Ferreira

    2010-02-01

    assessment of the transmission of blister spot(C. gloeosporioides from seed to plant, and (ii an observation study on the effect of seed treatment with fungicides used in the control of that disease. Natural transmission of the fungus was studied in seeds collected from both healthy and diseased 'Catucaí' coffee trees. The endocarp of the seeds was removed, and the seeds were sowed in sterilized sand substrate. The symptoms and the death process of hypocotyls were evaluated. Additionally, the incidence of blister spot (C. gloeosporioides was assessed through blotter test in both fungicide treated and untreated seeds. A large number of hypocotyl deaths in seeds obtained from blister spot trees were observed, whereas seeds collected from healthy trees produced healthy seedlings. A total of 5.2% of the seedlings from blister spot trees were apparently healthy. But after the completion of the development of the first pair of leaves, blister spot symptoms were observed. When treated with fungicides (benzimidazol + dimethyldithiocarbamate, seeds from blister spot and healthy trees were free of fungi. Seeds collected from blister spot trees presented an incidence of 29.8% C. gloeosporioides , whereas seeds collected from healthy trees had an incidence of 1.2%. Therefore, based on the results of this study, it was clear that seeds were the principle means of transmission of blister spot in coffee.

  15. The effect of water and shampooing on the efficacy of fluralaner spot-on solution against Ixodes ricinus and Ctenocephalides felis infestations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, Janina; Gale, Boyd; Zschiesche, Eva; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2016-05-31

    Fluralaner spot-on solution provides immediate and persistent efficacy against tick and flea infestations in dogs and cats for 12-weeks following topical administration. The active ingredient fluralaner is distributed systemically following transdermal absorption. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis whether water-immersion or shampooing of dogs following administration of fluralaner spot-on solution has an impact on subsequent tick and flea efficacy. Thirty-two Beagle dogs were allocated to four study groups of 8 dogs each. On day 0, dogs in the 2 treatment groups received topical administration of fluralaner (Bravecto™ spot-on solution) according to label instructions. Dogs in the 2 corresponding control groups remained untreated. On days 3, 21, 49, and 77 dogs in one treatment group and control group were water-immersed for 2-5 min, while dogs in the other treatment group and control group were shampooed 6-8 min with a commercial foaming micro-emulsion, unscented product. On days 4, 28, 56, and 84 all dogs were co-infested with 50 ± 2 female and 10 ± 2 male Ixodes ricinus and 100 ± 4 Ctenocephalides felis, with tick and flea removal and counts 48 ± 2 h post-infestation. Efficacy against ticks and fleas was calculated for each assessment time point. No treatment-related adverse event was observed in any of the 16 dogs treated with fluralaner spot-on solution during the study. Efficacy against ticks at each assessment time point was between 99.7 and 100 % in the water-immersed group and between 99.2 and 100 % in the shampooed group. Efficacy against fleas was 100 % at each assessment time point as well in the water-immersed as the shampooed group. Tick and flea reduction in both treatment groups was significant at all assessment time points (p fluralaner spot-on solution had an impact on the excellent tick and flea efficacy over the 12-week recommended re-treatment interval.

  16. Cold Spots in Neonatal Incubators Are Hot Spots for Microbial Contamination▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goffau, Marcus C.; Bergman, Klasien A.; de Vries, Hendrik J.; Meessen, Nico E. L.; Degener, John E.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal stability is essential for the survival and well-being of preterm neonates. This is achieved in neonatal incubators by raising the ambient temperature and humidity to sufficiently high levels. However, potentially pathogenic microorganisms also can thrive in such warm and humid environments. We therefore investigated whether the level of microbial contamination (i.e., the bacterial load) inside neonatal incubators can be predicted on the basis of their average temperature and relative humidity settings, paying special attention to local temperature differences. Swab samples were taken from the warmest and coldest spots found within Caleo incubators, and these were plated to determine the number of microbial CFU per location. In incubators with high average temperature (≥34°C) and relative humidity (≥60%) values, the level of microbial contamination was significantly higher at cold spots than at hot spots. This relates to the fact that the local equilibrium relative humidity at cold spots is sufficiently high to sustain microbial growth. The abundance of staphylococci, which are the main causative agents of late-onset sepsis in preterm neonates, was found to be elevated significantly in cold areas. These findings can be used to improve basic incubator hygiene. PMID:22003021

  17. Cold spots in neonatal incubators are hot spots for microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goffau, Marcus C; Bergman, Klasien A; de Vries, Hendrik J; Meessen, Nico E L; Degener, John E; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2011-12-01

    Thermal stability is essential for the survival and well-being of preterm neonates. This is achieved in neonatal incubators by raising the ambient temperature and humidity to sufficiently high levels. However, potentially pathogenic microorganisms also can thrive in such warm and humid environments. We therefore investigated whether the level of microbial contamination (i.e., the bacterial load) inside neonatal incubators can be predicted on the basis of their average temperature and relative humidity settings, paying special attention to local temperature differences. Swab samples were taken from the warmest and coldest spots found within Caleo incubators, and these were plated to determine the number of microbial CFU per location. In incubators with high average temperature (≥ 34°C) and relative humidity (≥ 60%) values, the level of microbial contamination was significantly higher at cold spots than at hot spots. This relates to the fact that the local equilibrium relative humidity at cold spots is sufficiently high to sustain microbial growth. The abundance of staphylococci, which are the main causative agents of late-onset sepsis in preterm neonates, was found to be elevated significantly in cold areas. These findings can be used to improve basic incubator hygiene.

  18. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  19. Mixing Assisted "Hot Spots" Occupying SERS Strategy for Highly Sensitive In Situ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Chuanlong; Chen, Kexiang; Cui, Yiping

    2018-03-20

    To solve the problem that analyte molecules cannot easily enter "hot spots" on a conventional solid SERS substrate, we developed a mixing-assisted "hot spots" occupying (MAHSO) SERS strategy to improve utilization of "hot spots". Compared with the conventional substrate, the MAHSO substrate enhances the sensitivity of SERS measurement by thousands of times. The MAHSO substrate possesses excellent properties of high enhancement, high uniformity, and long-term stability because the MAHSO substrate is integrated inside an ultrafast microfluidic mixer. The mixer makes analytes and metal colloid homogeneously mixed, and analytes are naturally located in "hot spots", the gaps between adjacent NPs, during the process that NPs deposit on the channel wall. As a multi-inlet device, the MAHSO chip offers a convenient in situ method to study environmental effects on analytes or molecular interactions by flexibly regulating fluid in microchannels and monitoring responses of analytes by SERS spectra. Because all experiments are conducted in aqueous environments, which is similar to the physiological conditions, the MAHSO chip is especially suitable to be applied to study biomolecules. Using this strategy, different conformational changes of the wild type and mutant G150D of protein PMP22-TM4 depending on environmental pH have been observed in situ and analyzed. As a lab-on-a-chip (LoC) device, the MAHSO SERS chip will benefit the field of molecular dynamics, as well as molecule-molecule or molecule-surface interactions in the future.

  20. Crowdsourcing the identification of organisms: A case-study of iSpot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvertown, Jonathan; Harvey, Martin; Greenwood, Richard; Dodd, Mike; Rosewell, Jon; Rebelo, Tony; Ansine, Janice; McConway, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Accurate species identification is fundamental to biodiversity science, but the natural history skills required for this are neglected in formal education at all levels. In this paper we describe how the web application ispotnature.org and its sister site ispot.org.za (collectively, “iSpot”) are helping to solve this problem by combining learning technology with crowdsourcing to connect beginners with experts. Over 94% of observations submitted to iSpot receive a determination. External checking of a sample of 3,287 iSpot records verified > 92% of them. To mid 2014, iSpot crowdsourced the identification of 30,000 taxa (>80% at species level) in > 390,000 observations with a global community numbering > 42,000 registered participants. More than half the observations on ispotnature.org were named within an hour of submission. iSpot uses a unique, 9-dimensional reputation system to motivate and reward participants and to verify determinations. Taxon-specific reputation points are earned when a participant proposes an identification that achieves agreement from other participants, weighted by the agreers’ own reputation scores for the taxon. This system is able to discriminate effectively between competing determinations when two or more are proposed for the same observation. In 57% of such cases the reputation system improved the accuracy of the determination, while in the remainder it either improved precision (e.g. by adding a species name to a genus) or revealed false precision, for example where a determination to species level was not supported by the available evidence. We propose that the success of iSpot arises from the structure of its social network that efficiently connects beginners and experts, overcoming the social as well as geographic barriers that normally separate the two. PMID:25685027

  1. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  2. IMRT fluence map editing to control hot and cold spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor Cook, J.; Tobler, Matt; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Watson, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Manually editing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fluence maps effectively controls hot and cold spots that the IMRT optimization cannot control. Many times, re-optimizing does not reduce the hot spots or increase the cold spots. In fact, re-optimizing only places the hot and cold spots in different locations. Fluence-map editing provides manual control of dose delivery and provides the best treatment plan possible. Several IMRT treatments were planned using the Varian Eclipse planning system. We compare the effects on dose distributions between fluence-map editing and re-optimization, discuss techniques for fluence-map editing, and analyze differences between fluence editing on one beam vs. multiple beams. When editing a beam's fluence map, it is essential to choose a beam that least affects dose to the tumor and critical structures. Editing fluence maps gives an advantage in treatment planning and provides controlled delivery of IMRT dose

  3. Improving Organisational Effectiveness of Coalition Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    group processes. New York: John Wiley. (pp. 131- 185). [21] Harpaz, I. (2002). Advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting for the individual... telecommuting arrangements: Worker perception and managerial prescriptions. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 57(3), 35-42. Improving Organisational

  4. Effectiveness of a quality-improvement program in improving management of primary care practices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szecsenyi, J.; Campbell, S.M.; Broge, B.; Laux, G.; Willms, S.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Goetz, K.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Practice Assessment program provides feedback and outreach visits to primary care practices to facilitate quality improvement in five domains (infrastructure, people, information, finance, and quality and safety). We examined the effectiveness of this program in improving

  5. Vector spot compensation applied in a CNC system for laser cutting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiong; Li, Shimin; Xu, Zhene; Wu, Heqing; Yin, Quan

    1999-09-01

    The vector spot compensation (VSP) is discussed in CNC system for laser cutting machine. The accuracy of laser cutting will be improved by VSP. The modularized vector algorithm which is different from that of traditional geometry algorithm not only unites the symbol system and simplifies the programming complexity, but also improves the spot compensation speed and offers the essential data for the spline interpolation.

  6. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  7. Effects of thermal stress on the mRNA expression of SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 in the spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Moon-Kyeong; Park, Ho-Ra; Yeo, Won-Jun; Han, Kyung-Nam

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the thermal stress response in the spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus). Spotted sea basses were exposed to 4 different water temperatures (20, 22, 24, and 28°C) in increasing increments of 2°C/h from 18°C (control) for different time periods (0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Subsequently, 3 tissues (liver, muscle, and gill) were isolated, and the levels of SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 mRNA were assessed. SOD mRNA expression was maintained at baseline levels of control fish at all water temperatures in the liver, while muscle and gill tissue showed an increase followed by a decrease over each certain time with higher water temperature. HSP90 mRNA expression increased in the liver at ≤ 24°C over time, but maintained baseline expression at 28°C. In muscle, HSP90 mRNA expression gradually increased at all water temperatures, but increased and then decreased at ≥ 24°C in gill tissue. HSP70 mRNA expression exhibited an increase and then a decrease in liver tissue at 28°C, but mainly showed similar expression patterns to HSP90 in all tissues. These results suggest the activity of a defense mechanism using SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 in the spotted sea bass upon rapid increases in water temperature, where the expression of these genes indicated differences between tissues in the extent of the defense mechanisms. Also, these results indicate that high water temperature and long-term thermal stress exposure can inhibit physiological defense mechanisms.

  8. Effects of Thermal Stress on the mRNA Expression of SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 in the Spotted Sea Bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Moon-Kyeong; Park, Ho-Ra; Yeo, Won-Jun; Han, Kyung-Nam

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the thermal stress response in the spotted sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus). Spotted sea basses were exposed to 4 different water temperatures (20, 22, 24, and 28°C) in increasing increments of 2°C/h from 18°C (control) for different time periods (0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Subsequently, 3 tissues (liver, muscle, and gill) were isolated, and the levels of SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 mRNA were assessed. SOD mRNA expression was maintained at baseline levels of control fish at all water temperatures in the liver, while muscle and gill tissue showed an increase followed by a decrease over each certain time with higher water temperature. HSP90 mRNA expression increased in the liver at ≤ 24°C over time, but maintained baseline expression at 28°C. In muscle, HSP90 mRNA expression gradually increased at all water temperatures, but increased and then decreased at ≥ 24°C in gill tissue. HSP70 mRNA expression exhibited an increase and then a decrease in liver tissue at 28°C, but mainly showed similar expression patterns to HSP90 in all tissues. These results suggest the activity of a defense mechanism using SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 in the spotted sea bass upon rapid increases in water temperature, where the expression of these genes indicated differences between tissues in the extent of the defense mechanisms. Also, these results indicate that high water temperature and long-term thermal stress exposure can inhibit physiological defense mechanisms.

  9. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  10. Pre-analytical and analytical validations and clinical applications of a miniaturized, simple and cost-effective solid phase extraction combined with LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous determination of catecholamines and metanephrines in spot urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoguang Sunny; Li, Shu; Kellermann, Gottfried

    2016-10-01

    It remains a challenge to simultaneously quantify catecholamines and metanephrines in a simple, sensitive and cost-effective manner due to pre-analytical and analytical constraints. Herein, we describe such a method consisting of a miniaturized sample preparation and selective LC-MS/MS detection by the use of second morning spot urine samples. Ten microliters of second morning urine sample were subjected to solid phase extraction on an Oasis HLB microplate upon complexation with phenylboronic acid. The analytes were well-resolved on a Luna PFP column followed by tandem mass spectrometric detection. Full validation and suitability of spot urine sampling and biological variation were investigated. The extraction recovery and matrix effect are 74.1-97.3% and 84.1-119.0%, respectively. The linearity range is 2.5-500, 0.5-500, 2.5-1250, 2.5-1250 and 0.5-1250ng/mL for norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, normetanephrine and metanephrine, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay imprecisions are ≤9.4% for spiked quality control samples, and the respective recoveries are 97.2-112.5% and 95.9-104.0%. The Deming regression slope is 0.90-1.08, and the mean Bland-Altman percentage difference is from -3.29 to 11.85 between a published and proposed method (n=50). A correlation observed for the spot and 24h urine collections is significant (n=20, p<0.0001, r: 0.84-0.95, slope: 0.61-0.98). No statistical differences are found in day-to-day biological variability (n=20). Reference intervals are established for an apparently healthy population (n=88). The developed method, being practical, sensitive, reliable and cost-effective, is expected to set a new stage for routine testing, basic research and clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved Inference of Heteroscedastic Fixed Effects Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Saeed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heteroscedasticity is a stern problem that distorts estimation and testing of panel data model (PDM. Arellano (1987 proposed the White (1980 estimator for PDM with heteroscedastic errors but it provides erroneous inference for the data sets including high leverage points. In this paper, our attempt is to improve heteroscedastic consistent covariance matrix estimator (HCCME for panel dataset with high leverage points. To draw robust inference for the PDM, our focus is to improve kernel bootstrap estimators, proposed by Racine and MacKinnon (2007. The Monte Carlo scheme is used for assertion of the results.

  12. Impact of South Atlantic Anomaly on the SPOT and Envisat DORIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanek, Petr; Dousa, Jan; Filler, Vratislav; Hugentobler, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) refers to the area where the Earth's inner Van Allen radiation belt comes closest to the Earth's surface, leading to increased levels of cosmic radiation at lower altitudes than elsewhere over the surface. A strong effect of the SAA on the quality of Jason-1 DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) observations is well known and several relevant analyses has been published. However, the significant effect of SAA on the other DORIS satellites has not been known. The goal of the paper is to bring a detail analyses of possible SAA effect on the SPOT -2,4,5 and the Envisat DORIS observations. The resulted zenithal total delay (ZTD), oscillator frequency offset and station coordinates, estimated using single-satellite data processing, are presented and discussed. A DORIS-GNSS ZTD comparison is done in addition. A significant bias was detected when processing SPOT-5 data for South American stations Santiago in Chille, Cachoeira Paulista in Brasil and Arequipa in Peru. Even if the detected bias is much lower than in case of Jason-1 and doesn't degrade the DORIS observation so strongly, possible future approach of the SPOT-5 SAA effect elimination (model of oscillator behavior or exclusion of the most corrupted observations) could improve the DORIS solutions. A comparable level of SAA-related effect was not detected for any other of the analyzed satellites.

  13. Housing improvement and home safety Effectiveness Matters

    OpenAIRE

    , Crd; Sphr@, L; , MrcSphsu

    2014-01-01

    The homes we live in impact on health, wellbeing and health inequalities. Treating illnesses directly related to living in cold, damp and dangerous homes costs the NHS £2.5 billion per year. Ensuring affordable warmth through insulation and more efficient heating can improve health and wellbeing. Home safety assessment and modification can reduce falls and risk of falling in older people. Education, promotion of exercise and wearing of appropriate footwear, environmental modifications and tra...

  14. The Uses and Impacts of Mobile Computing Technology in Hot Spots Policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, Christopher S; Lum, Cynthia; Hibdon, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have much potential for improving police performance, but there has been little research testing whether they have made police more effective in reducing crime. To study the uses and crime control impacts of mobile computing technology in the context of geographically focused "hot spots" patrols. An experiment was conducted using 18 crime hot spots in a suburban jurisdiction. Nine of these locations were randomly selected to receive additional patrols over 11 weeks. Researchers studied officers' use of mobile information technology (IT) during the patrols using activity logs and interviews. Nonrandomized subgroup and multivariate analyses were employed to determine if and how the effects of the patrols varied based on these patterns. Officers used mobile computing technology primarily for surveillance and enforcement (e.g., checking automobile license plates and running checks on people during traffic stops and field interviews), and they noted both advantages and disadvantages to its use. Officers did not often use technology for strategic problem-solving and crime prevention. Given sufficient (but modest) dosages, the extra patrols reduced crime at the hot spots, but this effect was smaller in places where officers made greater use of technology. Basic applications of mobile computing may have little if any direct, measurable impact on officers' ability to reduce crime in the field. Greater training and emphasis on strategic uses of IT for problem-solving and crime prevention, and greater attention to its behavioral effects on officers, might enhance its application for crime reduction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Is there a Sweet Spot in Ethical Trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2018-01-01

    might emerge, reflecting an amended version of Gereffi et al.'s (2005) theory of value chain governance. We conclude that the possibility of identifying a sweet spot in ethical trade improves as we move from market-based transactions toward hierarchical governance in global production networks.......We undertake a critical appraisal of the existence of the so- called 'sweet spot' in ethical trade at which the interests of buyers, suppliers, and workers intersect to enable benefits for commercial buyers and suppliers and improvements in the conditions of workers at the base of global production...... networks. In turn, we take the perspectives of three central actors typically involved in ethical trade: buyers/brands, suppliers in the Global South, and workers at the base of these networks. By applying all three perspectives, we theorize about the circumstances in which the sweet spot in ethical trade...

  16. Effect of formation and state of interface on joint strength in friction stir spot welding for advanced high strength steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Koichi; Matsushita, Muneo; Ikeda, Rinsei; Oi, Kenji

    2014-08-01

    The tensile shear strength and cross tension strength of friction stir spot welded joints were evaluated in the cases of lap joints of 270 N/mm2 grade and 980 N/mm2 grade cold rolled steel sheets with respect to the stir zone area, hardness distribution, and interface condition between the sheets. The results suggested that both the tensile shear strength and cross tension strength were based on the stir zone area and its hardness in both grades of steel. The "hook" shape of the interface also affected the joint strength. However, the joining that occurred across the interfaces had a significant influence on the value of the joint strength in the case of the 270 N/mm2 grade steel.

  17. Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads and 17 months (19 heads; Romanian Spotted x Holstein first generation crossbreed of aged 12 months (29 heads and 17 months (20 heads. The Romanian Spotted breed steer, show superiority in terms of carcass weight compared to crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein, therefore this breed has a better suitability for fattening for meat. Regarding dressing percentage is higher in crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein compared with Romanian Spotted breed steers, but the difference is insignificant.

  18. Dominant white spotting in the Chinese hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, C; Henwood, J; Robinson, R

    1987-01-01

    An autosomal dominant white spotting mutant is described for the Chinese hamster. The mutant gene is designated as dominant spot (symbol Ds). The homozygote DsDs is a prenatal lethal while the heterozygote Ds + displays white spotting. The expression of white is variable, ranging from a white forehead spot to extensive white on the body. The venter is invariably white. Growth appears to be normal and the fertility of both sizes shows no impairment.

  19. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  20. Effectiveness of trained community volunteers in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... Introduction: Malaria accounts for 70% of illnesses and 30% of deaths among children under 5 years in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of trained community volunteers in delivering multiple anti‑malaria interventions to achieve rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality among ...

  1. On cold spots in tumor subvolumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Wolfgang A.; Fowler, Jack F.

    2002-01-01

    Losses in tumor control are estimated for cold spots of various 'sizes' and degrees of 'cold dose'. This question is important in the context of intensity modulated radiotherapy where differential dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for targets that abut a critical structure often exhibit a cold dose tail. This can be detrimental to tumor control probability (TCP) for fractions of cold volumes even as small as 1%, if the cold dose is lower than the prescribed dose by substantially more than 10%. The Niemierko-Goitein linear-quadratic algorithm with γ 50 slope 1-3 was used to study the effect of cold spots of various degrees (dose deficit below the prescription dose) and size (fractional volume of the cold dose). A two-bin model DVH has been constructed in which the cold dose bin is allowed to vary from a dose deficit of 1%-50% below prescription dose and to have volumes varying from 1% to 90%. In order to study and quantify the effect of a small volume of cold dose on TCP and effective uniform dose (EUD), a four-bin DVH model has been constructed in which the lowest dose bin, which has a fractional volume of 1%, is allowed to vary from 10% to 45% dose deficit below prescription dose. The highest dose bin represents a simultaneous boost. For fixed size of the cold spot the calculated values of TCP decreased rapidly with increasing degrees of cold dose for any size of the cold spot, even as small as 1% fractional volume. For the four-subvolume model, in which the highest dose bin has a fractional volume of 80% and is set at a boost dose of 10% above prescription dose, it is found that the loss in TCP and EUD is moderate as long as the cold 1% subvolume has a deficit less than approximately 20%. However, as the dose deficit in the 1% subvolume bin increases further it drives TCP and EUD rapidly down and can lead to a serious loss in TCP and EUD. Since a dose deficit to a 1% volume of the target that is larger than 20% of the prescription dose may lead to serious loss of

  2. Improved measurement of thermal effects on microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastani, Mansur

    1993-01-01

    The objectives were to introduce a simple methodology which could be used to replace the time-consuming and expensive conventional methods of metallographic and quantitative analysis of thermal treatment effect on microstructure. Metallurgical analysis continually calls for the evaluation of thermal treatment effects on microstructure. This commonly demands metallographic sample preparation and microscopic examination, which are time absorbing and costly. These drawbacks are burdensome when large numbers of samples must be levied fast. Mechanical testing can sometimes be substituted, but sample size and shape frequently make these methods impractical. The experiment described here is ideal for the microstructural evaluation of lamp filaments and other wire samples such as copper wire which can be conveniently coiled.

  3. Improvement of the effectiveness of regulatory management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The project ARCAL LXVI has as its objective strengthening the national capabilities of the regulatory authorities to achieve an adequate level of radiation safety by training their staff in the implementation of the safety guidelines developed by a prior TC regional project under the framework of the ARCAL Programme and to measure its effectiveness. Detailed program of activities for the years 2001/2002 is presented at this meeting

  4. Antiferromagnetism and hot spots in CeIn3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Pavel; Gor'kov, Lev

    2006-03-01

    Enormous mass enhancement at ``hot spots'' on the Fermi surface (FS) of the antiferromagnetic CeIn3 has been reported at strong magnetic field near its antiferromagnetic quantum critical point [T. Ebihara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 246401 (2004)]. The effect was ascribed to anomalous spin fluctuations at these spots owing to peculiar strong many-body interactions. The ``hot spots'' lie at the positions on FS same as in non-magnetic LaIn3 where the narrow necks are protruded, thus, hinting on their possible relation. Assuming that in paramagnetic phase CeIn3 has similar spectrum, we study the influence of the antiferromagnetic ordering (AFM) on the energy spectrum of CeIn3 and show that its FS undergoes a topological change at the onset of AFM. The necks at the ``hot spots'' are truncated by the AFM, thus restoring the almost spherical d-part of the FS of CeIn3. Applied field suppresses the AFM and restores the necks on the FS (so-called 2.5-order phase transition) leading to logarithmic divergence of the dHvA effective mass when the electron trajectory passes near or through the restored necks. This effect fully explains the observed dHvA mass enhancement in the ``hot spots'' in the frameworks of one-particle approximation and leads to the predictions concerning the spin-dependence of the effective electron mass.

  5. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  6. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Spot heating; overloading; fatigue crack growth retardation; residual stress; delay cycles. 1. Introduction. Despite the advances in the understanding of fatigue failure and the consequent improvement in the design of structures and components, fatigue is still the most common cause of service failure. During the growth of a.

  8. Improving Single Event Effects Testing Through Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation encountered in space environments can be damaging to microelectronics and potentially cause spacecraft failure. Single event effects (SEE) are a type of radiation effect that occur when an ion strikes a device. Single event gate rupture (SEGR) is a type of SEE that can cause failure in power transistors. Unlike other SEE rates in which a constant linear energy transfer (LET) can be used, SEGR rates sometimes require a non-uniform LET to be used to be accurate. A recent analysis shows that SEGR rates are most easily calculated when the environment is described as a stopping rate per unit volume for each ion species. Stopping rates in silicon for pertinent ions were calculated using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) software and CREME-MC software. A reference table was generated and can be used by others to calculate SEGR rates for a candidate device. Additionally, lasers can be used to simulate SEEs, providing more control and information at lower cost than heavy ion testing. The electron/hole pair generation rate from a laser pulse in a semiconductor can be related to the LET of an ion. MATLAB was used to generate a plot to easily make this comparison.

  9. Influence of the Laser Spot Size, Focal Beam Profile, and Tissue Type on the Lipid Signals Obtained by MALDI-MS Imaging in Oversampling Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegelmann, Marcel; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Soltwisch, Jens

    2016-12-01

    To improve the lateral resolution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) beyond the dimensions of the focal laser spot oversampling techniques are employed. However, few data are available on the effect of the laser spot size and its focal beam profile on the ion signals recorded in oversampling mode. To investigate these dependencies, we produced 2 times six spots with dimensions between 30 and 200 μm. By optional use of a fundamental beam shaper, square flat-top and Gaussian beam profiles were compared. MALDI-MSI data were collected using a fixed pixel size of 20 μm and both pixel-by-pixel and continuous raster oversampling modes on a QSTAR mass spectrometer. Coronal mouse brain sections coated with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid matrix were used as primary test systems. Sizably higher phospholipid ion signals were produced with laser spots exceeding a dimension of 100 μm, although the same amount of material was essentially ablated from the 20 μm-wide oversampling pixel at all spot size settings. Only on white matter areas of the brain these effects were less apparent to absent. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that these findings can presumably be attributed to different matrix morphologies depending on tissue type. We propose that a transition in the material ejection mechanisms from a molecular desorption at large to ablation at smaller spot sizes and a concomitant reduction in ion yields may be responsible for the observed spot size effects. The combined results indicate a complex interplay between tissue type, matrix crystallization, and laser-derived desorption/ablation and finally analyte ionization.

  10. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  11. Effects of small peptides, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on growth performance, digestive enzymes, and oxidative stress in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, juveniles reared in artificial seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yongzhou; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaopu; Long, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture production efficiency may increase by using feed additives. This study investigated the effects of different dietary additives [w/w: 2% small peptides, 0.01% probiotics ( Bacillus licheniformis) and 0.2% prebiotics (inulin)] on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and oxidative stress in juvenile Epinephelus coioides reared in artificial seawater of two salt concentrations (13.5 vs. 28.5). Weight gain rate was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides, B. licheniformis, inulin, or synbiotics than that in fish fed the basal diet; the greatest weight gain rate was found in fish fed the small peptide treatment [56.0% higher than basal diet]. Higher feed efficiency was detected in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides than that of fish in the other dietary treatments. Total protease activity in the stomach and intestines was highest in fish fed the small peptide-treated diet, whereas lipase activity was highest in those fed synbiotics (combination of Bacillus licheniformis and inulin) than that in fish fed the other treatments. Antioxidant enzyme (total superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde content were higher in fish receiving the dietary supplements and maintained in artificial seawater containing 13.5 salinity compared with those in the control (28.5). Hepatic catalase activity in grouper fed the diets with small peptides or synbiotics decreased significantly compared with that in control fish. Overall, the three types of additives improved growth rate of juvenile grouper and digestive enzymes activities to varying degrees but did not effectively improve antioxidant capacity under low-salinity stress conditions.

  12. Design of the smart scenic spot service platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min; Wang, Shi-tai

    2015-12-01

    With the deepening of the smart city construction, the model "smart+" is rapidly developing. Guilin, the international tourism metropolis fast constructing need smart tourism technology support. This paper studied the smart scenic spot service object and its requirements. And then constructed the smart service platform of the scenic spot application of 3S technology (Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) and the Internet of things, cloud computing. Based on Guilin Seven-star Park scenic area as an object, this paper designed the Seven-star smart scenic spot service platform framework. The application of this platform will improve the tourists' visiting experience, make the tourism management more scientifically and standardly, increase tourism enterprises operating earnings.

  13. Using implementation tools to design and conduct quality improvement projects for faster and more effective improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovretveit, John; Mittman, Brian; Rubenstein, Lisa; Ganz, David A

    2017-10-09

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to enable improvers to use recent knowledge from implementation science to carry out improvement changes more effectively. It also highlights the importance of converting research findings into practical tools and guidance for improvers so as to make research easier to apply in practice. Design/methodology/approach This study provides an illustration of how a quality improvement (QI) team project can make use of recent findings from implementation research so as to make their improvement changes more effective and sustainable. The guidance is based on a review and synthesis of improvement and implementation methods. Findings The paper illustrates how research can help a quality project team in the phases of problem definition and preparation, in design and planning, in implementation, and in sustaining and spreading a QI. Examples of the use of different ideas and methods are cited where they exist. Research limitations/implications The example is illustrative and there is little limited experimental evidence of whether using all the steps and tools in the one approach proposed do enable a quality team to be more effective. Evidence supporting individual guidance proposals is cited where it exists. Practical implications If the steps proposed and illustrated in the paper were followed, it is possible that quality projects could avoid waste by ensuring the conditions they need for success are in place, and sustain and spread improvement changes more effectively. Social implications More patients could benefit more quickly from more effective implementation of proven interventions. Originality/value The paper is the first to describe how improvement and implementation science can be combined in a tangible way that practical improvers can use in their projects. It shows how QI project teams can take advantage of recent advances in improvement and implementation science to make their work more effective and sustainable.

  14. Combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and natural climatic variation on leaf spot diseases of redbud and sweetgum trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElrone, Andrew J., E-mail: ajmcelrone@ucdavis.ed [USDA-ARS, Crops Pathology and Genetics Research Unit, 2154 RMI North, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hamilton, Jason G. [Department of Biology, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Krafnick, Anthony J. [Department of Biology, Saint Joseph' s University, Philadelphia, PA 19131 (United States); Aldea, Mihai; Knepp, Rachel G.; DeLucia, Evan H. [Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are predicted to double within the next century and alter climate regimes, yet the extent that these changes will affect plant diseases remains unclear. In this study conducted over five years, we assessed how elevated CO{sub 2} and interannual climatic variability affect Cercospora leaf spot diseases of two deciduous trees. Climatic data varied considerably between the five years and altered disease expression. Disease incidence and severity for both species were greater in years with above average rainfall. In years with above average temperatures, disease incidence for Liquidambar styraciflua was decreased significantly. When significant changes did occur, disease incidence and severity always increased under elevated CO{sub 2}. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of leaves revealed that any visible increase in disease severity induced by elevated CO{sub 2} was mitigated by higher photosynthetic efficiency in the remaining undamaged leaf tissue and in a halo surrounding lesions. - Climatic variation had a greater impact than elevated CO{sub 2} on Cercospora diseases, especially since leaf photosynthetic efficiency increased under elevated CO{sub 2}.

  15. Modeling hourly Electricity Spot Market Prices as non stationary functional times series

    OpenAIRE

    Liebl, Dominik

    2010-01-01

    The instantaneous nature of electricity distinguishes its spot prices from spot prices for equities and other commodities. Up to now electricity cannot be stored economically and therefore demand for electricity has an untempered effect on electricity prices. In particular, hourly electricity spot prices show a vast range of dynamics which can change rapidly. In this paper we introduce a robust version of functional principal component analysis for sparse data. The functional perspective inte...

  16. Hot spot exercise: 1975 (HSX-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trolan, R.T.; Wilson, R.L.; Jessen, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A special unannounced exercise, called HOT SPOT Exercise--1975 (HSX-75), was prepared to test the general capability of the LLL ALERT Program to activate and deploy the LLL and Sandia Laboratory, Livermore (SLL) component of the ERDA/ARG. The exercise activities were limited to the LLL facilities in Livermore and the Site 300 explosive test facility located approximately 15 miles southeast of Livermore. The exercise simulated an accident at a U.S. Army storage facility (Site 300). The simulated accident involved two LLL designed weapons (W-70). One weapon was dropped during unloading operations and ignited the gas tank of the weapon transporter. The subsequent fire caused a low-order detonation of the high explosive component. The fire caused dispersal of fissile material downwind from the site. A second weapon was damaged in the explosion by fragments from the first weapon. The extent of damage to the second weapon was initially unknown. The exercise was conducted on September 23, 1975. A complete description of the specific nature of the simulated accident is contained in the scenario. Umpires were assigned to evaluate and subsequently report on the effectiveness of the response. All test objectives were accomplished. The following appendices are included: operational safety procedures, photographs and site map, HOT SPOT equipment, atmospheric release advisory capability, personnel list, chronology of events, and critique comments

  17. The effectiveness of a novel steaming method in improving small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of a novel steaming method in improving small scale syobean dehulling. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... steaming method is simple and can be applied in rural areas as a preconditioning stage to improve soybeans processing prior to dehulling especially at small scale ...

  18. Effect of aircraft technology improvements on intercity energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    An examination of the growth or decline in energy consumption in short haul, high density intercity transportation is made in relation to changes in aeronautical technology. Improvements or changes in the technology of competitive modes are also included. Certain improvements in air traffic control procedures were included to determine their effectiveness in saving energy along with a fuel efficient turboprop short haul aircraft concept.

  19. Distributed collaborative team effectiveness: measurement and process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.; Hihn, J.; Wilkinson, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement methodology developed for assessing the readiness, and identifying opportunities for improving the effectiveness, of distributed collaborative design teams preparing to conduct a coccurent design session.

  20. Oil futures and spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samii, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  1. Performance improvement planning : developing effective billing and collection practices

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2008-01-01

    Effective billing and collection systems are a critical component for ensuring the viability of a service provider. Improving billing and collection activities has an immediate impact on the revenue streams of a service provider that can, in turn, help the service provider in improving services. However, while effective billing and collection practices depend on many internal factors (including customer databases, the extent of metered and unmetered service provision, tariff and billing struc...

  2. Optimization of locations of diffusion spots in indoor optical wireless local area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltokhey, Mahmoud W.; Mahmoud, K. R.; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Obayya, Salah S. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel optimization of the locations of the diffusion spots in indoor optical wireless local area networks, based on the central force optimization (CFO) scheme. The users' performance uniformity is addressed by using the CFO algorithm, and adopting different objective function's configurations, while considering maximization and minimization of the signal to noise ratio and the delay spread, respectively. We also investigate the effect of varying the objective function's weights on the system and the users' performance as part of the adaptation process. The results show that the proposed objective function configuration-based optimization procedure offers an improvement of 65% in the standard deviation of individual receivers' performance.

  3. Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on multipliers cannot generate a unique clearing price. Although such situations are rare, they can cause significant uncertainties and complexities in market dispatch. In practice, this situation is solved through simple empirical methods, which may cause additional operations or biased allocation. Based...... the results of the theoretical analysis, and further demonstrate that the method performs effectively in both uniform-pricing and nodalpricing markets....

  4. Space-time modeling of electricity spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Girum Dagnachew; Haldrup, Niels

    In this paper we derive a space-time model for electricity spot prices. A general spatial Durbin model that incorporates the temporal as well as spatial lags of spot prices is presented. Joint modeling of space-time effects is necessarily important when prices and loads are determined in a network...... of power exchange areas. We use data from the Nord Pool electricity power exchange area bidding markets. Different spatial weight matrices are considered to capture the structure of the spatial dependence process across different bidding markets and statistical tests show significant spatial dependence...

  5. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  6. Spot Variance Path Estimation and its Application to High Frequency Jump Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.S.; Janus, P.; Koopman, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers spot variance path estimation from datasets of intraday high-frequency asset prices in the presence of diurnal variance patterns, jumps, leverage effects, and microstructure noise. We rely on parametric and nonparametric methods. The estimated spot variance path can be used to

  7. Effect of information sources on production of improved crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of information sources on production of improved crop varieties among farmers in River State. DO Onu. Abstract. The importance of information to agricultural development cannot be overemphasized. Without the right information there cannot be meaningful agricultural development. This study investigated the effect of ...

  8. Small-scale estimation of relative abundance for the coastal spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata in Costa Rica: the effect of habitat and seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J May-Collado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The coastal spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata graffmani is one of the most common species of dolphin in inshore Pacific waters of Costa Rica. We conducted surveys in protected waters of the Papagayo Gulf, Costa Rica, to determine relative abundance of dolphins in relation to environmental variables. We used Generalized Additive Models to investigate the influence of a particular set of environmental factors and determine inter-annual trends in relative abundance. School sizes ranged from 1 to 50 individuals ( mean 9.95, SD=10.28. The number of dolphins increased linearly with water depth and transparency, and non-linearly with the dissolved oxygen concentration. High variability in the relative abundance occurred during the dry season (January-April. A previous study on this population found that high number of groups are involved in foraging activities during the dry season. Seasonal changes in relative abundance probably are associated with food availability, a variable that we did not measure. Understanding local resident populations may have important implications for conservation and management strategies. Large-scale studies may overlook variables affecting the abundance of local resident populations that may be detected with studies on a smaller scale such as this one.El delfín manchado costero (Stenella attenuata graffmani es una de las especies de delfines mas comunes de las aguas costeras del Pacifico de Costa Rica. En este estudio realizamos muestreos dentro de las aguas protegidas del Golfo de Papagayo para determinar su abundancia relativa en relación a características físico-químicas de su hábitat. Usamos modelos aditivos generalizados para investigar la influencia de un juego de variables ambientales y determinar tendencias inter-anuales en la abundancia relativa. El tamaño de los grupos varió de 1 a 50 individuos (promedio 9.95, SD=10.28. La cantidad de delfines aumentó linealmente con la profundidad y claridad del

  9. Hot spots of mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilarranz, Luis J; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating interactions into a biogeographical framework may serve to understand how interactions and the services they provide are distributed in space. We begin by simulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of realistic mutualistic networks inhabiting spatial networks of habitat patches. We proceed by comparing the predicted patterns with the empirical results of a set of pollination networks in isolated hills of the Argentinian Pampas. We first find that one needs to sample up to five times as much area to record interactions as would be needed to sample the same proportion of species. Secondly, we find that peripheral patches have fewer interactions and harbour less nested networks - therefore potentially less resilient communities - compared to central patches. Our results highlight the important role played by the structure of dispersal routes on the spatial distribution of community patterns. This may help to understand the formation of biodiversity hot spots. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  10. Spot counting on fluorescence in situ hybridization in suspension images using Gaussian mixture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijia; Sa, Ruhan; Maguire, Orla; Minderman, Hans; Chaudhary, Vipin

    2015-03-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities are important diagnostic and prognostic criteria for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A flow cytometry-based imaging approach for FISH in suspension (FISH-IS) was established that enables the automated analysis of several log-magnitude higher number of cells compared to the microscopy-based approaches. The rotational positioning can occur leading to discordance between spot count. As a solution of counting error from overlapping spots, in this study, a Gaussian Mixture Model based classification method is proposed. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of GMM are used as global image features of this classification method. Via Random Forest classifier, the result shows that the proposed method is able to detect closely overlapping spots which cannot be separated by existing image segmentation based spot detection methods. The experiment results show that by the proposed method we can obtain a significant improvement in spot counting accuracy.

  11. Spot Welding of 6061 Aluminum Alloy by Friction Stir Spot Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tashkandi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the effect of welding parameters on the lap-shear fracture load of the welded joints prepared by friction stir spot welding. Four different weld parameters were analyzed: rotational speed, dwell time, pin length and shoulder size of the welding tool. It was found that the lap-shear fracture load increases with an increase of the welding parameters to a limited value and decreases with further increase. The strong welded joints failed under nugget-pull out fracture.

  12. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm x 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25°C air temperature, 20-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm), and heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm 2 ). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈ 200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm 2 . Finally, this work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  13. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle; Neely, Jason; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-03-01

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm × 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25 °C air temperature, 20%-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm) and applied heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm2. This work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  14. Correlated wounded hot spots in proton-proton interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Petersen, Hannah; Soto-Ontoso, Alba

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the effect of nontrivial spatial correlations between proton constituents, considered in this work to be gluonic hot spots, on the initial conditions of proton-proton collisions from ISR to Large Hadron Collider energies, i.e., √{s }=52.6 , 7000, and 13 000 GeV. The inclusion of these correlations is motivated by their fundamental role in the description of a recently observed new feature of p p scattering at √{s }=7 TeV, the hollowness effect. Our analysis relies on a Monte Carlo Glauber approach including fluctuations in the hot spot positions and their entropy deposition in the transverse plane. We explore both the energy dependence and the effect of spatial correlations on the number of wounded hot spots, their spatial distribution, and the eccentricities, ɛn, of the initial state geometry of the collision. In minimum bias collisions we find that the inclusion of short-range repulsive correlations between the hot spots reduces the value of the eccentricity (ɛ2) and the triangularity (ɛ3). In turn, upon considering only the events with the highest entropy deposition, i.e., the ultracentral ones, the probability of having larger ɛ2 ,3 increases significantly in the correlated scenario. Finally, the eccentricities show a quite mild energy dependence.

  15. Remote Dose-Dependent Effects of Dry Needling at Distant Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles on Reduction of Substance P Levels of Proximal Muscle and Spinal Cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Ling Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dry needling at distant myofascial trigger points is an effective pain management in patients with myofascial pain. However, the biochemical effects of remote dry needling are not well understood. This study evaluates the remote effects of dry needling with different dosages on the expressions of substance P (SP in the proximal muscle, spinal dorsal horns of rabbits. Methods. Male New Zealand rabbits (2.5–3.0 kg received dry needling at myofascial trigger spots of a gastrocnemius (distant muscle in one (1D or five sessions (5D. Bilateral biceps femoris (proximal muscles and superficial laminaes of L5-S2, T2-T5, and C2-C5 were sampled immediately and 5 days after dry needling to determine the levels of SP using immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Immediately after dry needling for 1D and 5D, the expressions of SP were significantly decreased in ipsilateral biceps femoris and bilateral spinal superficial laminaes (P<.05. Five days after dry needling, these reduced immunoactivities of SP were found only in animals receiving 5D dry needling (P<.05. Conclusions. This remote effect of dry needling involves the reduction of SP levels in proximal muscle and spinal superficial laminaes, which may be closely associated with the control of myofascial pain.

  16. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dallas; Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  17. Models and methods for hot spot safety work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte

    2002-01-01

    and statistical methods less developed. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to improving "State of the art" in Denmark. Basis for the systematic hot spot safety work are the models describing the variation in accident counts on the road network. In the thesis hierarchical models disaggregated on time...... is the task of improving road safety through alterations of the geometrical and environmental characteristics of the existing road network. The presently applied models and methods in hot spot safety work on the Danish road network were developed about two decades ago, when data was more limited and software...... are derived. The proposed models are shown to describe variation in accident counts better than the models currently at use in Denmark. The parameters of the models are estimated for the national and regional road network using data from the Road Sector Information system, VIS. No specific accident models...

  18. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  19. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  20. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  1. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  2. Remote Dose-Dependent Effects of Dry Needling at Distant Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles on Reduction of Substance P Levels of Proximal Muscle and Spinal Cords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Liu, Szu-Yu; Hong, Chang-Zern

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dry needling at distant myofascial trigger points is an effective pain management in patients with myofascial pain. However, the biochemical effects of remote dry needling are not well understood. This study evaluates the remote effects of dry needling with different dosages on the expressions of substance P (SP) in the proximal muscle, spinal dorsal horns of rabbits. Methods. Male New Zealand rabbits (2.5–3.0 kg) received dry needling at myofascial trigger spots of a gastrocnemius (distant muscle) in one (1D) or five sessions (5D). Bilateral biceps femoris (proximal muscles) and superficial laminaes of L5-S2, T2-T5, and C2-C5 were sampled immediately and 5 days after dry needling to determine the levels of SP using immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Immediately after dry needling for 1D and 5D, the expressions of SP were significantly decreased in ipsilateral biceps femoris and bilateral spinal superficial laminaes (P dry needling, these reduced immunoactivities of SP were found only in animals receiving 5D dry needling (P dry needling involves the reduction of SP levels in proximal muscle and spinal superficial laminaes, which may be closely associated with the control of myofascial pain. PMID:25276839

  3. Life course models: improving interpretation by consideration of total effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Popham, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Life course epidemiology has used models of accumulation and critical or sensitive periods to examine the importance of exposure timing in disease aetiology. These models are usually used to describe the direct effects of exposures over the life course. In comparison with consideration of direct effects only, we show how consideration of total effects improves interpretation of these models, giving clearer notions of when it will be most effective to intervene. We show how life course variation in the total effects depends on the magnitude of the direct effects and the stability of the exposure. We discuss interpretation in terms of total, direct and indirect effects and highlight the causal assumptions required for conclusions as to the most effective timing of interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. Method to measure the position offset of multiple light spots in a distributed aperture laser angle measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoli; Cheng, Haobo; Xu, Chunyun; Feng, Yunpeng

    2017-02-20

    In this paper, an accurate measurement method of multiple spots' position offsets on a four-quadrant detector is proposed for a distributed aperture laser angle measurement system (DALAMS). The theoretical model is put forward, as well as the corresponding calculation method. This method includes two steps. First, as the initial estimation, integral approximation is applied to fit the distributed spots' offset function; second, the Boltzmann function is employed to compensate for the estimation error to improve detection accuracy. The simulation results attest to the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method, and tolerance synthesis analysis of DALAMS is conducted to determine the maximum uncertainties of manufacturing and installation. The maximum angle error is less than 0.08° in the prototype distributed measurement system, which shows the stability and robustness for prospective applications.

  5. Beyond the collaborative: spreading effective improvement in hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Mark R; Nether, Klaus; Mayer, Carrie; Dickerson, Melody F

    2015-01-01

    Data assessing the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) collaboratives are mixed; spreading improvement beyond the original collaborative group has proved difficult. Little is known about whether organizations that did not participate in the collaborative are able to effectively employ interventions developed or implemented by those organizations that did participate. The Joint Commission Center for Transforming Healthcare conducted a collaborative QI project with eight hospitals, using Lean, Six Sigma, and change management methods to improve hand hygiene compliance. Participating hospitals achieved a 70.5% relative improvement (47.5% to 81.0%; p < .001). Following this project, working with an additional 19 hospitals, the Center created Web-based tools to enable health care organizations to use the same methods employed by the original eight hospitals without needing any knowledge or experience with Lean, Six Sigma, or change management. This Targeted Solutions Tool® (TST)® allowed organizations to discover the most important, specific causes of hand hygiene noncompliance in their facilities and to target interventions at those causes. In the first three years, 289 health care organizations used the TST to initiate 1,495 projects to improve hand hygiene compliance. Of the 769 projects at 174 organizations for which baseline and improvement data were available, average compliance improved from 57.9% to 83.5% (p < .0001). Similar improvement was observed in many clinical care settings, including ambulatory, long term care, inpatient pediatrics, critical care, and adult medical/surgical units. Hospitals and other health care organizations using the TST achieved levels of hand hygiene compliance comparable to those experienced by the participants in the original collaborative.

  6. Effect of Volunteer Household Counseling in Improving Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), a program by Jhpiego global, implemented maternal and newborn health project between 2006 and 2010 in Kano and Zamfara States, Nigeria. This was evaluated with an objective to characterize the effects of volunteer household counselors (VHCs) upon improving ...

  7. Effects of Quality Improvement System for Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Kavanaugh, Amy; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Till, Lance; Watson, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Using multiple years of data collected from about 100 child care centers in Palm Beach County, Florida, the authors studied whether the Quality Improvement System (QIS) made a significant impact on quality of child care centers. Based on a pre- and postresearch design spanning a period of 13 months, QIS appeared to be effective in improving…

  8. Identifying strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this project was to identify strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws. The project explored the possible factors that relate to the use and nonuse of booster seats, and examined the attitudes of law enforcement of...

  9. Improving the Effectiveness of Public-Private Partnerships in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fundamental aim of forming a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is to improve the provision of public services generally and in terms of quality and accessibility in particular. Unfortunately, realizing this aim as effectively as desired has eluded many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. This has particularly been witnessed in ...

  10. Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by combining chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by combining chitosan coating with ascorbic acid treatment during postharvest storage. ... Moreover, increased activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and contents of AsA and glutathione were observed in pulp of treated fruit, thus leading to lowered contents ...

  11. Mass Counseling: Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge, Attitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass Counseling: Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Regarding Blood Donation. ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... and post‑counseling knowledge, attitude, and behavior (KAB) scores regarding blood donation were assessed using a pre‑tested semi‑structured questionnaire.

  12. An improved modelling of asynchronous machine with skin-effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional method of analysis of Asynchronous machine fails to give accurate results especially when the machine is operated under high rotor frequency. At high rotor frequency, skin-effect dominates causing the rotor impedance to be frequency dependant. This paper therefore presents an improved method of ...

  13. Effectiveness Of Six Thinking Hats Training In Improving The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effectiveness of Six Thinking Hats Training in improving the psychological well- being of prisoners. The study consisted of 24 convicted prisoners whose ages ranged from 19-60 years with a mean of 22.50 years. A 2x2 experimental group design was adopted, and subjects were randomly ...

  14. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Fromme

    2006-06-01

    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of low-cost prototype hardware, acquisition of infrared thermal data, and initial design of a Smart-Camera based system.

  15. strategies for improving supervisory skills for effective primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    certain basic concepts such as inspection and supervision, the responsibility of supervisors, relevant areas in ... Strategies For Improving Supervisory Skills For Effective Primary Education In Nigeria. Enaigbe A. P. 236 ... book, attendance book etc. 6) Managerial Skills: These are skills on time management, good use.

  16. Implementing effective simulation-based education to improve ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Implementing effective simulation-based education to improve maternal newborn and child health in a resource-constrained setting. The Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research, to be held in Vancouver from November 14-18, 2016, will be the largest global health conference held in Canada in recent years.

  17. Factors cost effectively improved using computer simulations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors cost effectively improved using computer simulations of maize yields in semi-arid Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Abstract. Achieving food security is a challenge for the developed and developing world. ... Most African farmers do not have the computer resources or expertise to implement these types of technology.

  18. Trapped in a tight spot: Scaling effects occur when, according to the action-specific account, they should not, and fail to occur when they should.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca

    2018-01-16

    The action-specific account of perception claims that what we see is perceptually scaled according to our action capacity. However, it has been argued that this account relies on an overly confirmatory research strategy-predicting the presence of, and then finding, an effect (Firestone & Scholl, 2014). A comprehensive approach should also test disconfirmatory predictions, in which no effect is expected. In two experiments, we tested one such prediction based on the action-specific account, namely that scaling effects should occur only when participants intend to act (Witt, Proffitt, & Epstein, 2005). All participants wore asymmetric gloves in which one glove was padded with extra material, so that one hand was wider than the other. Participants visually estimated the width of apertures. The action-specific account predicts that the apertures should be estimated as being narrower for the wider hand, but only when participants intend to act. We found this scaling effect when it should not have occurred (Exp. 1, for participants who did not intend to act), as well as no effect when it should have occurred (Exp. 2, for participants who intended to act but were given a cover story for the visibility and position of their hands). Thus, the cover story used in Experiment 2 eliminated the scaling effect found in Experiment 1. We suggest that the scaling effect observed in Experiment 1 likely resulted from demand characteristics associated with using a salient, unexplained manipulation (e.g., telling people which hand to use to do the task). Our results suggest that the action-specific account lacks predictive power.

  19. A System for Harvesting Eggs from the Pink-Spotted Lady Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret L. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink-spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. Adult beetles placed in square, transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on the materials provided. We harvested eggs from these substrates in quantities sufficient for either destructive sampling or synchronous development of larvae. We evaluated effects of crowding inside cages; effects of a chemical attractant on oviposition behavior; egg cannibalism. Females preferred a textured surface rather than a smooth, waxy one for laying eggs. Crowding inhibited oviposition of beetles. Presence of a chemical attractant (methyl salicylate did not significantly improve oviposition. This paper describes an inexpensive system for harvesting eggs from C. maculata. Refinement of this system should improve oviposition and reduce cannibalism.

  20. Assessing Frogeye Leaf Spot Resistance on Recommended Soybean Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Jeong Kang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean frogeye leaf spot caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina Hara, has known to lead a severe reduction of crop yield. Since frogeye leaf spot on soybean has recently become a serious problem in Korea, the susceptibility of recent recommended cultivars against C. sojina had been tested. To standardize the disease severity of soybean, the optimum sporulation condition of C. sojina and the disease index were established in this study. Sporulation was maximized on the 10% V8 juice agar with 12 h light and 12 h dark at 25°C. Spore suspension (105 spores/ml was sprayed on the leaves of soybean (V6 stage, and the disease responses to each isolate were evaluated on 28 days after inoculation. As a result, Daepung, Shinpaldal2ho, Yeonpung and Cheonga showed the resistance reaction to 8, 7, 6, 6 isolates of C. sojina, respectively, whereas Cheongja, Hwangkeum, Taekwang, Daewon, Cheonsang and Sinhwa showed the susceptible reaction to 8 isolates of C. sojina. Breeding the resistant soybean cultivars against C. sojina requires a uniform resistance for screening technique. The disease index of frogeye leaf spot on soybean developed in this study can be effectively used for the accurate field assay to select the frogeye leaf spot resistant soybean.

  1. Detection, Tracking and Analysis of Turbulent Spots and Other Coherent Structures in Unsteady Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalle, Jacques; Ashpis, David (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Transition on turbine blades is an important factor in the determination of eventual flow separation and engine performance. The phenomenon is strongly affected by unsteady flow conditions (wake passing). It is likely that some physics of unsteadiness should be included in advanced models, but it is unclear which properties would best embody this information. In this paper, we use a GEAE experimental database in unsteady transition to test some tools of spot identification, tracking and characterization. In this preliminary study, we identify some parameters that appear to be insensitive to wake passing effects, such as convection speed, and others more likely to require unsteady modeling. The main findings are that wavelet duration can be used as a measure of spot size, and that spot energy density is most closely correlated to the wake passing. The energy density is also correlated to spot size, but spot size appears unrelated to the phase angle. Recommendations are made for further study.

  2. HUBBLE FINDS NEW DARK SPOT ON NEPTUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

  3. Accurate prediction of hot spot residues through physicochemical characteristics of amino acid sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Peng

    2013-07-23

    Hot spot residues of proteins are fundamental interface residues that help proteins perform their functions. Detecting hot spots by experimental methods is costly and time-consuming. Sequential and structural information has been widely used in the computational prediction of hot spots. However, structural information is not always available. In this article, we investigated the problem of identifying hot spots using only physicochemical characteristics extracted from amino acid sequences. We first extracted 132 relatively independent physicochemical features from a set of the 544 properties in AAindex1, an amino acid index database. Each feature was utilized to train a classification model with a novel encoding schema for hot spot prediction by the IBk algorithm, an extension of the K-nearest neighbor algorithm. The combinations of the individual classifiers were explored and the classifiers that appeared frequently in the top performing combinations were selected. The hot spot predictor was built based on an ensemble of these classifiers and to work in a voting manner. Experimental results demonstrated that our method effectively exploited the feature space and allowed flexible weights of features for different queries. On the commonly used hot spot benchmark sets, our method significantly outperformed other machine learning algorithms and state-of-the-art hot spot predictors. The program is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Spot Reminder System for the Visually Impaired Based on a Smartphone Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Hotaka; Orita, Kazunori; Aoyagi, Mayumi; Ezaki, Nobuo; Mizuno, Shinji

    2017-02-04

    The present paper proposes a smartphone-camera-based system to assist visually impaired users in recalling their memories related to important locations, called spots, that they visited. The memories are recorded as voice memos, which can be played back when the users return to the spots. Spot-to-spot correspondence is determined by image matching based on the scale invariant feature transform. The main contribution of the proposed system is to allow visually impaired users to associate arbitrary voice memos with arbitrary spots. The users do not need any special devices or systems except smartphones and do not need to remember the spots where the voice memos were recorded. In addition, the proposed system can identify spots in environments that are inaccessible to the global positioning system. The proposed system has been evaluated by two experiments: image matching tests and a user study. The experimental results suggested the effectiveness of the system to help visually impaired individuals, including blind individuals, recall information about regularly-visited spots.

  5. High-resolution UV-visible spectroscopy of lunar red spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Lucey, P. G.; Hawke, B. R.

    1991-01-01

    A spectral reflectance study of selected lunar 'red spots', highland areas characterized by an absorption in the ultraviolet relative to the visible was conducted. Some red spots were suggested to be the sites of ancient highland volcanism. High-resolution spectral data of eight red spots on the western portion of the moon over the wavelength region 0.39-0.82 micron were obtained. Much spectral variation among these red spots in the magnitude as well as the wavelength position of the ultraviolet absorption were found. Spectral structure at visible and near-infrared wavelength were also identified. These spectral differences indicate that red spots do not have a single mineralogical composition, which in turn suggests that red spots may have multiple origins. Additional imaging spectroscopic observations were taken of the Herigonius red spot, a morphologically complex region northeast of Mare Humorum. These data reveal significant spectral differences among the various morphological units within the Herigonius red spot. Although some of these are likely due to the effects of the maturation process, others appear to reflect differences in mineral abundances and composition.

  6. Modeling co-occurrence of northern spotted and barred owls: accounting for detection probability differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Larissa L.; Reid, Janice A.; Forsman, Eric D.; Nichols, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Barred owls (Strix varia) have recently expanded their range and now encompass the entire range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). This expansion has led to two important issues of concern for management of northern spotted owls: (1) possible competitive interactions between the two species that could contribute to population declines of northern spotted owls, and (2) possible changes in vocalization behavior and detection probabilities of northern spotted owls induced by presence of barred owls. We used a two-species occupancy model to investigate whether there was evidence of competitive exclusion between the two species at study locations in Oregon, USA. We simultaneously estimated detection probabilities for both species and determined if the presence of one species influenced the detection of the other species. Model selection results and associated parameter estimates provided no evidence that barred owls excluded spotted owls from territories. We found strong evidence that detection probabilities differed for the two species, with higher probabilities for northern spotted owls that are the object of current surveys. Non-detection of barred owls is very common in surveys for northern spotted owls, and detection of both owl species was negatively influenced by the presence of the congeneric species. Our results suggest that analyses directed at hypotheses of barred owl effects on demographic or occupancy vital rates of northern spotted owls need to deal adequately with imperfect and variable detection probabilities for both species.

  7. Conduction-driven cooling of LED-based automotive LED lighting systems for abating local hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saati, Ferina; Arik, Mehmet

    2018-02-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED)-based automotive lighting systems pose unique challenges, such as dual-side packaging (front side for LEDs and back side for driver electronics circuit), size, harsh ambient, and cooling. Packaging for automotive lighting applications combining the advanced printed circuit board (PCB) technology with a multifunctional LED-based board is investigated with a focus on the effect of thermal conduction-based cooling for hot spot abatement. A baseline study with a flame retardant 4 technology, commonly known as FR4 PCB, is first compared with a metal-core PCB technology, both experimentally and computationally. The double-sided advanced PCB that houses both electronics and LEDs is then investigated computationally and experimentally compared with the baseline FR4 PCB. Computational models are first developed with a commercial computational fluid dynamics software and are followed by an advanced PCB technology based on embedded heat pipes, which is computationally and experimentally studied. Then, attention is turned to studying different heat pipe orientations and heat pipe placements on the board. Results show that conventional FR4-based light engines experience local hot spots (ΔT>50°C) while advanced PCB technology based on heat pipes and thermal spreaders eliminates these local hot spots (ΔT<10°C), leading to a higher lumen extraction with improved reliability. Finally, possible design options are presented with embedded heat pipe structures that further improve the PCB performance.

  8. QTL mapping of resistance to gray leaf spot in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Ling; Fan, Xingming; Tan, Jing; Chen, Wei; Xu, Mingliang

    2012-12-01

    Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by the causal fungal pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most serious foliar diseases of maize worldwide. In the current study, a highly resistant inbred line Y32 and a susceptible line Q11 were used to produce segregating populations for both genetic analysis and QTL mapping. The broad-sense heritability (H (2)) for GLS resistance was estimated to be as high as 0.85, indicating that genetic factors played key roles in phenotypic variation. In initial QTL analysis, four QTL, located on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, and 8, were detected to confer GLS resistance. Each QTL could explain 2.53-23.90 % of the total phenotypic variation, predominantly due to additive genetic effects. Two major QTL, qRgls1 and qRgls2 on chromosomes 8 and 5, were consistently detected across different locations and replicates. Compared to the previous results, qRgls2 is located in a 'hotspot' for GLS resistance; while, qRgls1 does not overlap with any other known resistance QTL. Furthermore, the major QTL-qRgls1 was fine-mapped into an interval of 1.4 Mb, flanked by the markers GZ204 and IDP5. The QTL-qRgls1 could enhance the resistance percentages by 19.70-61.28 %, suggesting its usefulness to improve maize resistance to GLS.

  9. Pink Spot - Literature Review and Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petel, Roy; Fuks, Anna

    Pink spots in teeth were first described by Mummery in 1920, and were related to resorption. Resorption is a pathologic process that often eludes the clinician with its varied etiologic factors and diverse clinical presentations. Resorption can be generally classified as internal and external resorption. Internal resorption has been described as a rare occurrence as compared to external resorption. This article describes a pink spot that was diagnosed as a progressing resorption process. Early diagnosis enabled a successful management of the lesion. Early diagnosis and treatment of an internal resorption, clinically seen as a pink spot, in a primary central incisor may prevent its fast progress and subsequent loss.

  10. Time effectiveness of capillary effect improvement of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiwen; Wei Weixing; He Yanhe; Zhao Yuanqing; Pan Liyiji; Li Xuemei; Shi Shaodui; Li Guangxin

    2010-01-01

    The time effectiveness of capillary effect improvement of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging was studied. The ramie fabrics were processed in fulfilling with different gas (O 2 , N 2 , Ar) by different parameters (such as pressure,power and time) plasma. The capillary effect of the ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging was tested at different time. The results indicate that the capillary effect of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging has been improved, the improvement of the capillary effect firstly decrease rapidly, then slowly, and become stable after 15 day, it indicate that improvement of the ramie fabrics capillary has good time effectiveness, and the plasma parameter for the best capillary effect improvement of ramie fabric is 100 W and 40 Pa processed 20 min by oxygen plasma. (authors)

  11. Improving the effectiveness of condom advertising: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, D L; Crowley, A E

    1995-01-01

    A limited number of studies have examined ways that health promotion messages about condoms can be improved, leading to increased purchase and use. This study tests alternative message structures as a potential avenue to improving condom advertising. As hypothesized, two-sided messages (positive and negative information about the product category) result in more positive attitudes toward the advertisement and the brand than do one-sided messages (positive information only about the product category). The study's implications for health care marketers interested in developing more effective advertising for condoms and other health care products are discussed.

  12. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David LaRose

    2006-07-01

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2005 to May 14, 2006. Highlights include significant improvements in the accuracy and reliability of computer-vision based vulcanized splice detection, deployment of the vulcanized splice detection algorithms for daily use in two working mines, and successful demonstration of an early prototype of a Smart-Camera based system for on-site mechanical splice detection in coal mine installations.

  13. Effectiveness of a quality-improvement program in improving management of primary care practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsenyi, Joachim; Campbell, Stephen; Broge, Bjoern; Laux, Gunter; Willms, Sara; Wensing, Michel; Goetz, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Background: The European Practice Assessment program provides feedback and outreach visits to primary care practices to facilitate quality improvement in five domains (infrastructure, people, information, finance, and quality and safety). We examined the effectiveness of this program in improving management in primary care practices in Germany, with a focus on the domain of quality and safety. Methods: In a before–after study, 102 primary care practices completed a practice assessment using the European Practice Assessment instrument at baseline and three years later (intervention group). A comparative group of 102 practices was included that completed their first assessment using this instrument at the time of the intervention group’s second assessment. Mean scores were based on the proportion of indicators for which a positive response was achieved by all of the practices, on a scale of 0 to 100. Results: We found significant improvements in all domains between the first and second assessments in the intervention group. In the domain of quality and safety, improvements in scores (mean scores were based on the proportion of indicators for which a positive response was achieved by all of the practices, on a scale of 0 to 100) were observed in the following dimensions: complaint management (from a mean score of 51.2 at first assessment to 80.7 at second assessment); analysis of critical incidents (from 79.1 to 89.6); and quality development, quality policy (from 40.7 to 55.6). Overall scores at the time of the second assessment were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the comparative group. Interpretation: Primary care practices that completed the European Practice Assessment instrument twice over a three-year period showed improvements in practice management. Our findings show the value of the quality-improvement cycle in the context of practice assessment and the use of established organizational standards for practice management with the

  14. Effect of welding parameters (plunge depths of shoulder, pin geometry, and tool rotational speed) on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of friction stir spot welded aluminum 2024-T3 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidar, Moslem; Sarab, Mahsa Lali; Taheri, Morteza; Khodabandeh, Alireza [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of welding parameters on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 joined by friction stir spot welding. The welding parameters in this work are tool rotational speed, plunge depths of shoulder, and pin geometry. In accordance with the methods of previous investigations, the rotational speeds were set to 630 rpm to 2000 rpm. Two pin geometries with concave shoulder were used: triangular and cylindrical. The plunge depths of the shoulder were 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mm. The shoulder diameter and pin height for both geometries were 14 and 2.4 mm, respectively. The diameter of the cylindrical and triangular pins was 5 mm. Results show that the parameters mentioned earlier influence fracture mode under tension shear loading. Two different fracture modes were observed during the examinations. Low-penetration depths and low-rotational speeds lead to shear fracture, whereas high values of these factors cause the tension-shear fracture mode. Fracture of the lower sheet sometimes occurs at high rotational speeds.

  15. BREEDING OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM RESISTANT TO TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Monakhos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of tomato lines resistance test to tomato spotted wilt virus and its comparison to molecular marker SCAR Sw421 genotyping data is shown. A molecular marker SCAR Sw421 analysis allowed identifying homozygous and heterozygous tomato genotypes possessing Sw5 alleles in segregating populations. Selected tomato lines possessing dominant homozygous alleles of Sw5 gene represent a tomato germplasm resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus and would be useful for following crop improvement.

  16. Statistical analysis of Nomao customer votes for spots of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálovics, Róbert; Daróczy, Bálint; Benczúr, András; Pap, Julia; Ermann, Leonardo; Phan, Samuel; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of votes of customers for spots of France collected by the startup company Nomao. The frequencies of votes per spot and per customer are characterized by a power law distribution which remains stable on a time scale of a decade when the number of votes is varied by almost two orders of magnitude. Using the computer science methods we explore the spectrum and the eigenvalues of a matrix containing user ratings to geolocalized items. Eigenvalues nicely map to large towns and regions but show certain level of instability as we modify the interpretation of the underlying matrix. We evaluate imputation strategies that provide improved prediction performance by reaching geographically smooth eigenvectors. We point on possible links between distribution of votes and the phenomenon of self-organized criticality.

  17. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  18. Detecting Blind Spot By Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ajay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety remains a top concern for automobile industries and new-car shoppers. Detection of Blind Spots is a major concern for safety issues. So automobiles have been constantly updating their products with new technologies to detect blind spots so that they can add more safety to the vehicle and also reduce the road accidents. Almost 1.5 million people die in road accidents each year. Blind spot of an automobile is the region of the vehicle which cannot be observed properly while looking either through side or rear mirror view. To meet the above requirements this paper describes detecting blind spot by using ultrasonic sensor and controlling the direction of car by automatic steering. The technology embedded in the system is capable of automatically steer the vehicle away from an obstacle if the system determines that a collision is impending or if the vehicle is in the vicinity of our car.

  19. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  20. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  1. A telemetry experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated fish in South Africa was investigated by conducting a tracking experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in the East Kleinemonde Estuary. The telemetry equipment comprised two VEMCO V8 transmitters and a ...

  2. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of ''free thyroxin'' in dried blood spots on filter paper - preliminary observations on the effective differentiation of subjects with congenital hypothyroidism from those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin and normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, H.; Miyai, K.; Ichihara, K.; Amino, N.; Harada, T.; Nose, O.; Tanizawa, O.

    1982-01-01

    In this sensitive, simple method for measuring ''free thyroxin'' (FT 4 ) in eluates of dried blood spots on filter paper by use of a radioimmunoassay kit (Amerlex Free T 4 RIA), the measurable range of FT 4 is 1.8 to 57 ng/L (equivalent to the concentration in serum), or 7 to 237 fg/tube. The mean coefficients of variation for within assay-within spots, within assay-between spots, and between assays were 5.3%, 5.0%, and 6.2%, respectively. FT 4 in blood spotted on filter paper is stable for at least a month when dried and kept at either -20 0 C, 4 0 C, room temperature (about 25 0 C), or 37 0 C. The results for FT 4 in dried blood spots correlated closely with the free-T 4 concentration in serum (r = 0.99). The method can be used to differentiate cases of primary and secondary hypothyroidism from normal subjects and those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin. This method may be useful in screening for congenital hypothyroidism, because sample-retesting is not necessary

  4. A simulated Linear Mixture Model to Improve Classification Accuracy of Satellite Data Utilizing Degradation of Atmospheric Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDAD Elmahboub

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in remote sensing have attempted to increase the accuracy of land cover information extracted from remotely sensed imagery. Factors that influence the supervised and unsupervised classification accuracy are the presence of atmospheric effect and mixed pixel information. A linear mixture simulated model experiment is generated to simulate real world data with known end member spectral sets and class cover proportions (CCP. The CCP were initially generated by a random number generator and normalized to make the sum of the class proportions equal to 1.0 using MATLAB program. Random noise was intentionally added to pixel values using different combinations of noise levels to simulate a real world data set. The atmospheric scattering error is computed for each pixel value for three generated images with SPOT data. Accuracy can either be classified or misclassified. Results portrayed great improvement in classified accuracy, for example, in image 1, misclassified pixels due to atmospheric noise is 41 %. Subsequent to the degradation of atmospheric effect, the misclassified pixels were reduced to 4 %. We can conclude that accuracy of classification can be improved by degradation of atmospheric noise.

  5. The Leadership Roles of a Principal in Improving School Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanuddin Burhanuddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership roles and practices of the principal in improving school effectiveness. This descriptive study involved the principal , counselor, and 11 teachers from the Tonsley Park Primary School in South Australia. The findings showed that all respondents generally regarded team leader as the most important role, while supervisor was rated as the least important. Of the 20 tasks observed, generally revealed that a principal should work cooperatively with staff to ensure more effective use of their skills. While, the task of a principal in making decisions on staff development programs was not necessarily expected by the practicing teachers. All respondents considered organization coordination as the most important area within which a principal should provide more leadership, while curriculum or instructional improvement and innovation was regarded as the least important

  6. Grid Patient Appointment Template Design to Improve Scheduling Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current outpatient delivery systems have been problematic in their ability to effectively schedule appointments and grant patients access to care. A better appointment system has demonstrated improvement on these issues. The objective of this study is to develop a grid appointment system to further improve the scheduling flexibility by determining the minimum length of appointment slots that optimizes the total costs of patient waiting, physician idling, and overtime. This minimum length is used for the patient type requiring the least amount of treatment time such as return visit (RV, and multiplications of the minimum length are for patient types with longer treatment such as new patients (NP. The results indicated that the proposed grid system adjusts to demand changes at least 15% more cost-effective when grouping two RVs into an NP or dividing an NP into two RVs compared to the base-line scheduling approaches that build around the mean treatment time.

  7. THE INFORMATION CONTENT IN ANALYTIC SPOT MODELS OF BROADBAND PRECISION LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, Lucianne M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08534 (United States); Basri, Gibor [Astronomy Department, University of California at Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Valenti, Jeff A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    We present the results of numerical experiments to assess degeneracies in light curve models of starspots. Using synthetic light curves generated with the Cheetah starspot modeling code, we explore the extent to which photometric light curves constrain spot model parameters, including spot latitudes and stellar inclination. We also investigate the effects of spot parameters and differential rotation on one's ability to correctly recover rotation periods and differential rotation in the Kepler light curves. We confirm that in the absence of additional constraints on the stellar inclination, such as spectroscopic measurements of vsin i or occultations of starspots by planetary transits, the spot latitude and stellar inclination are difficult to determine uniquely from the photometry alone. We find that for models with no differential rotation, spots that appear on opposite hemispheres of the star may cause one to interpret the rotation period to be half of the true period. When differential rotation is included, the changing longitude separation between spots breaks the symmetry of the hemispheres and the correct rotation period is more likely to be found. The dominant period found via periodogram analysis is typically that of the largest spot. Even when multiple spots with periods representative of the star's differential rotation exist, if one spot dominates the light curve the signal of differential rotation may not be detectable from the periodogram alone. Starspot modeling is applicable to stars with a wider range of rotation rates than other surface imaging techniques (such as Doppler imaging), allows subtle signatures of differential rotation to be measured, and may provide valuable information on the distribution of stellar spots. However, given the inherent degeneracies and uncertainty present in starspot models, caution should be exercised in their interpretation.

  8. THE INFORMATION CONTENT IN ANALYTIC SPOT MODELS OF BROADBAND PRECISION LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Basri, Gibor; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of numerical experiments to assess degeneracies in light curve models of starspots. Using synthetic light curves generated with the Cheetah starspot modeling code, we explore the extent to which photometric light curves constrain spot model parameters, including spot latitudes and stellar inclination. We also investigate the effects of spot parameters and differential rotation on one's ability to correctly recover rotation periods and differential rotation in the Kepler light curves. We confirm that in the absence of additional constraints on the stellar inclination, such as spectroscopic measurements of vsin i or occultations of starspots by planetary transits, the spot latitude and stellar inclination are difficult to determine uniquely from the photometry alone. We find that for models with no differential rotation, spots that appear on opposite hemispheres of the star may cause one to interpret the rotation period to be half of the true period. When differential rotation is included, the changing longitude separation between spots breaks the symmetry of the hemispheres and the correct rotation period is more likely to be found. The dominant period found via periodogram analysis is typically that of the largest spot. Even when multiple spots with periods representative of the star's differential rotation exist, if one spot dominates the light curve the signal of differential rotation may not be detectable from the periodogram alone. Starspot modeling is applicable to stars with a wider range of rotation rates than other surface imaging techniques (such as Doppler imaging), allows subtle signatures of differential rotation to be measured, and may provide valuable information on the distribution of stellar spots. However, given the inherent degeneracies and uncertainty present in starspot models, caution should be exercised in their interpretation.

  9. Effects of near infrared laser radiation associated with photoabsorbing cream in preventing white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Ângela Sueli Soares Braga; Hanashiro, Fernando Seishim; de Sant'Anna, Giselle Rodrigues; Steagall Júnior, Washington; Barbosa, Patrícia Silva; de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of a low-power infrared laser on the inhibition of bovine enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets. Near infrared lasers have been suggested as alternative approaches because they may produce an increase in resistance to dental caries. Forty-eight blocks of enamel obtained from bovine incisor teeth were divided into six groups: Group 1 (control), without treatment; Group 2 (C), photoabsorbing cream; Group 3 (CF), photoabsorbing cream with fluoride; Group 4 (L), irradiation with low-level infrared laser (λ=830 nm) at an energy density of 4.47 J/cm2; Group 5 (L+C), photoabsorbing cream followed by low-level infrared laser irradiation; and Group 6 (L+CF), photoabsorbing cream with fluoride followed by low-level infrared laser irradiation. After these procedures, the enamel blocks received an assortment of orthodontic brackets and were then submitted to pH cycling to simulate a highly cariogenic challenge. The enamel surface demineralization around the orthodontic brackets, according to the different treatments, was quantified by fluorescence loss analysis by quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). The fluorescence loss, expressed as ΔF (percentage of loss fluorescence), was statistically examined by analysis of variance and the Tukey test. The control group (-10.48±2.85) was statistically similar to Group C (-14.52±7.80), which presented the lowest values of ΔF when compared with Groups FC (-3.67±3.21), L (-2.79±1.68), CL (-1.05±0:50), and CFL (-0.60±0:43). However, Groups FC, L, CL, and CFL showed no statistically significant differences among them. It can be concluded that both the low-level infrared laser and photoabsorbing cream with fluoride were effective in inhibiting the development of caries in enamel around orthodontic brackets, even in situations of high cariogenic challenge.

  10. Improving productivity through more effective supervision: motivational keys that work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingert, E A; Wanat, J A

    1984-01-01

    "It is our belief that once security management has recognized the key roles played by their supervisory personnel, much can be done to improve the work, morale, and effectiveness of the security force. To this end, it is the responsibility of management to see that their supervisory staff is properly equipped and trained to assist their subordinates to use, as it were, the right tools".

  11. Effective Conveyer Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David LaRose

    2006-11-14

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from May 15, 2006 to November 14, 2006. Progress during this period includes significant advances in development of a Smart Camera based prototype system for on-site mechanical splice detection, and continued deployment of both the mechanical splice detection system and the vulcanized splice detection system in area coal mines.

  12. Aerosol characterization and pulmonary responses in rats after short-term inhalation of fumes generated during resistance spot welding of galvanized steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Antonini

    Full Text Available Resistance spot welding is a common process to join metals in the automotive industry. Adhesives are often used as sealers to seams of metals that are joined. Anti-spatter compounds sometimes are sprayed onto metals to be welded to improve the weldability. Spot welding produces complex aerosols composed of metal and volatile compounds (VOCs which can cause lung disease in workers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12/treatment group were exposed by inhalation to 25 mg/m3 of aerosol for 4 h/day × 8 days during spot welding of galvanized zinc (Zn-coated steel in the presence or absence of a glue or anti-spatter spray. Controls were exposed to filtered air. Particle size distribution and chemical composition of the generated aerosol were determined. At 1 and 7 days after exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was performed to assess lung toxicity. The generated particles mostly were in the submicron size range with a significant number of nanometer-sized particles formed. The primary metals present in the fumes were Fe (72.5% and Zn (26.3%. The addition of the anti-spatter spray and glue did affect particle size distribution when spot welding galvanized steel, whereas they had no effect on metal composition. Multiple VOCs (e.g., methyl methacrylate, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetone, benzene, xylene were identified when spot welding using either the glue or the anti-spatter spray that were not present when welding alone. Markers of lung injury (BAL lactate dehydrogenase and inflammation (total BAL cells/neutrophils and cytokines/chemokines were significantly elevated compared to controls 1 day after exposure to the spot welding fumes. The elevated pulmonary response was transient as lung toxicity mostly returned to control values by 7 days. The VOCs or the concentrations that they were generated during the animal exposures had no measurable effect on the pulmonary responses. Inhalation of galvanized spot welding fumes caused acute lung toxicity

  13. Effect of fungicides and alternative products in control of anthracnose and black spot of guavaEfeito de fungicidas e produtos alternativos no controle da antracnose e da pinta preta da goiaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides in controlling in vitro and in vivo the causal agents of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum and black spot (Guignardia psidii and evaluate the effect of alternative products to control these diseases. Inhibition of mycelial growth of the pathogens was evaluated for ten fungicides at concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 mg L-1 of active ingredient in potato-dextrose-agar medium. The effectiveness of the fungicides azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, cyproconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin in controlling disease incidence and severity of anthracnose, through applications in the field, was measured in fruits collected at three stages of maturation, according to the skin color (dark green, light green and yellowish green. In postharvest dipping of fruits, the products evaluated were citric acid, peracetic acid, salicylic acid, sodium bicarbonate, chlorine dioxide, Ecolife® and chitosan. The fungicides azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole were highly effective in inhibiting the in vitro mycelial growth of G. psidii and moderately to highly effective in inhibiting C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. In field conditions, the fungicide azoxystrobin + difenoconazole was effective in controlling anthracnose and black spot in fruit at three maturity stage (skin color yellowish green. The alternative products tested were ineffective in the curative control of anthracnose and early blight at postharvest of guava. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência de fungicidas no controle in vitro e in vivo dos agentes causais da antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e C. acutatum e da pinta preta (Guignardia psidii da goiaba e avaliar o efeito de produtos alternativos no controle pós-colheita destas doenças. A inibição do crescimento micelial dos patógenos foi avaliada para

  14. Thermal Wave Imaging: Flying SPOT Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqian

    1993-01-01

    A novel "Flying Spot" infrared camera for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and nondestructive characterization is presented. The camera scans the focal point of an unmodulated heating laser beam across the sample in a raster. The detector of the camera tracks the heating spot in the same raster, but with a time delay. The detector is thus looking at the "thermal wake" of the heating spot. The time delay between heating and detection is determined by the speed of the laser spot and the distance between it and the detector image. Since this time delay can be made arbitrarily small, the camera is capable of making thermal wave images of phenomena which occur on a very short time scale. In addition, because the heat source is a very small spot, the heat flow is fully three-dimensional. This makes the camera system sensitive to features, like tightly closed vertical cracks, which are invisible to imaging systems which employ full-field heating. A detailed theory which relates the temperature profile around the heating spot to the sample thermal properties is also described. The camera represents a potentially useful tool for measuring thermal diffusivities of materials by means of fitting the recorded temperature profiles to the theoretical curves with the diffusivity as a fitting parameter.

  15. Improving Teaching Effectiveness: Implementation. The Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching through 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Brian M.; Garet, Michael S.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Robyn, Abby; Poirier, Jeffrey; Holtzman, Deborah; Fulbeck, Eleanor S.; Chambers, Jay; de los Reyes, Iliana Brodziak

    2016-01-01

    To improve the U.S. education system through more-effective classroom teaching, in school year 2009-2010, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation announced four Intensive Partnership for Effective Teaching sites. The Intensive Partnerships Initiative is based on the premise that efforts to improve instruction can benefit from high-quality measures…

  16. Evaluation of multimodal feedback effects on improving rowing competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korman Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the selection and preliminary evaluation of different types of modal and information feedback in virtual environment to facilitate acquisition and transfer of a complex motor-cognitive skill of rowing. Specifically, we addressed the effectiveness of immediate information feedback provided visually as compared to sensory haptic feedback on the improvement in hands kinematics and changes in cognitive load during the course of learning the basic rowing technique. Several pilot experiments described in this report lead to the evaluation and optimization of the training protocol, to enhance facilitatory effects of adding visual and haptic feedback during training.

  17. Exact RG invariance and symmetry improved 2PI effective potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Pilaftsis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Symmetry Improved Two-Particle-Irreducible (SI2PI formalism is a powerful tool to calculate the effective potential beyond perturbation theory, whereby infinite sets of selective loop-graph topologies can be resummed in a systematic and consistent manner. In this paper we study the Renormalization-Group (RG properties of this formalism, by proving for the first time a number of new field-theoretic results. First, the RG runnings of all proper 2PI couplings are found to be UV finite, in the Hartree–Fock and sunset approximations of the 2PI effective action. Second, the SI2PI effective potential is exactly RG invariant, in contrast to what happens in the ordinary One-Particle-Irreducible (1PI perturbation theory, where the effective potential is RG invariant only up to higher orders. Finally, we show how the effective potential of an O(2 theory evaluated in the SI2PI framework, appropriately RG improved, can reach a higher level of accuracy, even up to one order of magnitude, with respect to the corresponding one obtained in the 1PI formalism.

  18. Improving robustness of complex networks via the effective graph resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangrong; Pournaras, Evangelos; Kooij, Robert E.; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2014-09-01

    Improving robustness of complex networks is a challenge in several application domains, such as power grids and water management networks. In such networks, high robustness can be achieved by optimizing graph metrics such as the effective graph resistance, which is the focus of this paper. An important challenge lies in improving the robustness of complex networks under dynamic topological network changes, such as link addition and removal. This paper contributes theoretical and experimental findings about the robustness of complex networks under two scenarios: (i) selecting a link whose addition maximally decreases the effective graph resistance; (ii) protecting a link whose removal maximally increases the effective graph resistance. Upper and lower bounds of the effective graph resistance under these topological changes are derived. Four strategies that select single links for addition or removal, based on topological and spectral metrics, are evaluated on various synthetic and real-world networks. Furthermore, this paper illustrates a novel comparison method by considering the distance between the added or removed links, optimized according to the effective graph resistance and the algebraic connectivity. The optimal links are different in most cases but in close proximity.

  19. The effect of introducing point-of-care or dried blood spot analysis on the uptake of hepatitis C virus testing in high-risk populations: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Josh T; Dillon, John F

    2015-11-01

    Testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection typically relies upon blood samples taken by traditional phlebotomy for laboratory processing. Novel testing methods, including using dried blood spots (DBS) and point-of-care (PoC) testing enable easier access to high risk populations who have less frequent contact with healthcare professionals. Many of these individuals have been exposed to HCV but have not previously been tested. We aimed to establish whether the availability of these novel testing methods increased either uptake of testing or the number of new diagnoses of HCV. The PubMed, Cochrane and SCOPUS databases were searched for terms relating to the study. References and associated bibliographies were also examined for further relevant articles. Studies were included if they contained quantitative data on frequency of testing and/or new diagnoses following the introduction of PoC and/or DBS testing of high-risk populations. Studies were then examined for findings and limitations and graded upon the quality of evidence provided. No studies were found which introduced PoC testing and determined its effect on frequency of testing or new diagnoses. Six studies were identified in which DBS testing was introduced and its effect evaluated. Two of the studies were randomised controlled trials, two were prospective cohort studies, one was an ecological study and one was a clinical audit. Populations studied included those attending substance misuse clinics, prisons and needle exchanges. Injection drug use was the commonest risk factor for HCV. Five of the six studies provided evidence that the introduction of DBS testing increased the number of tests, new diagnoses or both. Current evidence indicates that DBS testing availability may increase the uptake of testing for HCV in high-risk populations. There is currently no evidence regarding the efficacy of PoC testing in these populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal imaging of hot spots in nanostructured microstripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidi, E; Lesueur, J; Aigouy, L [LPEM, CNRS UPR5, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Labeguerie-Egea, J; Mortier, M, E-mail: lionel.aigouy@espci.f [LCMCP, CNRS UMR 7574, ENSCP, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2010-03-01

    By scanning thermal microscopy, we study the behavior of nanostructured metallic microstripes heated by Joule effect. Regularly spaced indentations have been made along the thin film stripe in order to create hot spots. For the designed stripe geometry, we observe that heat remains confined in the wire and in particular at shrinkage points within {approx}1{mu}m{sup 2}. Thermal maps have been obtained with a good lateral resolution (< 300nm) and a good temperature sensitivity ({approx}1K).

  1. Electron beam spot size stabilization for radiographic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated through computer simulations that self-biasing the target can effectively control the ion column which causes radial pinching of the electron beam, resulting in the growth of spot size on target. This method has the unique features in simplicity and non-intrusiveness in its implementation into radiographic systems. The concept is being actively explored experimentally at the Integrated Test Stand (ITS)

  2. Added value of delayed computed tomography angiography in primary intracranial hemorrhage and hematoma size for predicting spot sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te Chang; Chen, Tai Yuan; Shiue, Yow Ling; Chen, Jeon Hor; Hsieh, Tsyh-Jyi; Ko, Ching Chung; Lin, Ching Po

    2018-04-01

    Background The computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign represents active contrast extravasation within acute primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is an independent predictor of hematoma expansion (HE) and poor clinical outcomes. The spot sign could be detected on first-pass CTA (fpCTA) or delayed CTA (dCTA). Purpose To investigate the additional benefits of dCTA spot sign in primary ICH and hematoma size for predicting spot sign. Material and Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 patients who underwent non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTA within 24 h of onset of primary ICH. The presence of spot sign on fpCTA or dCTA, and hematoma size on NCCT were recorded. The spot sign on fpCTA or dCTA for predicting significant HE, in-hospital mortality, and poor clinical outcomes (mRS ≥ 4) are calculated. The hematoma size for prediction of CTA spot sign was also analyzed. Results Only the spot sign on dCTA could predict high risk of significant HE and poor clinical outcomes as on fpCTA ( P sign on fpCTA or dCTA in the absence of intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Conclusion This study clarifies that dCTA imaging could improve predictive performance of CTA in primary ICH. Furthermore, the XY value is the best predictor for CTA spot sign.

  3. Nuclear Reactor Accident Fallout Artifacts: Unusual Black Spots on Digital Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimura, Yasuhiro; Chida, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident resulted in the discharge of radioactive particulate material into the atmosphere. Consequently, several hospitals in Japan have observed black spots on x-ray computed radiography (CR) images caused by particulate radioactive fallout. These black spots have no effect on human health. To reduce the influence of black spots on CR images, we need to erase latent images on imaging plates (IPs) immediately before clinical use and read the IPs soon after the x-ray examination. Alternatively, the contaminated felt of a cassette can be cleaned or exchanged, if possible.

  4. Analysis of lattice spots dazzling to CCD irradiated by CW laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rongzhen; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Hua; Ren, Guangsen; Hao, Yongwang

    2017-05-01

    The dazzling phenomena such as point saturation, line crosstalk present successively when laser irradiates on the CCD camera. We use CW laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm to irradiate the interline transfer area array CCD, CCD emerges lattice spots under the lens focusing. Based on geometrical optics, we use theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to study the mechanization of lattice spots. Laser jamming effects to the same CCD are different between 532 nm and 1064 nm. This is because the 532 nm laser diffracts with the chip, while 1064 nm laser interferences with its reflected light in the transmission process. Meanwhile, the mechanization of the ring surrounding the main spot is analyzed.

  5. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  6. macula: Rotational modulations in the photometry of spotted stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, David M.

    2012-09-01

    Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding (1977) and Dorren (1987), who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. That model is extended to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry such as that by Kepler. Macula, a Fortran 90 code, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalisations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. The inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren (1987) for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well-suited for inference problems.

  7. Audits and their effectiveness in improving plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    For several years, the NRC's performance appraisal teams (PATs) have been assessing the effectiveness of the various audit programs established by operating nuclear power plants. A major focus of the PAT assessments is on the audit programs mandated by 10 CFR, technical specifications, industry codes and standards, and NRC operating license conditions. These audits are typically performed by a plant's quality assurance organization, and program oversight is often provided at the corporate level by a safety review committee. The scope of these audit programs is broad, typically including such functional areas as maintenance, operations, health physics, emergency preparedness, training, procurement, and security. For an audit program to be truly effective in improving plant performance beyond the minimum level established by regulatory requirements, the audits must first be effective in identifying deficiencies that go beyond minimum regulatory requirements. The PAT experience to date is that typical industry audit programs are not designed to identify these types of deficiencies

  8. Fast GPU-based spot extraction for energy-dispersive X-ray Laue diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghabi, F.; Schipper, U.; Kolb, A.; Send, S.; Abboud, A.; Pashniak, N.; Pietsch, U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for fast online analysis of X-ray Laue spots taken by means of an energy-dispersive X-ray 2D detector. Current pnCCD detectors typically operate at some 100 Hz (up to a maximum of 400 Hz) and have a resolution of 384 × 384 pixels, future devices head for even higher pixel counts and frame rates. The proposed online data analysis is based on a computer utilizing multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which allow for fast and parallel data processing. Our multi-GPU based algorithm is compliant with the rules of stream-based data processing, for which GPUs are optimized. The paper's main contribution is therefore an alternative algorithm for the determination of spot positions and energies over the full sequence of pnCCD data frames. Furthermore, an improved background suppression algorithm is presented.The resulting system is able to process data at the maximum acquisition rate of 400 Hz. We present a detailed analysis of the spot positions and energies deduced from a prior (single-core) CPU-based and the novel GPU-based data processing, showing that the parallel computed results using the GPU implementation are at least of the same quality as prior CPU-based results. Furthermore, the GPU-based algorithm is able to speed up the data processing by a factor of 7 (in comparison to single-core CPU-based algorithm) which effectively makes the detector system more suitable for online data processing

  9. Improvements of cyberspace and effects to the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedıklı, Münir

    2014-06-01

    Wars previously being executed at land and sea have also become applicable in air and space due to the advancements of aircraft and satellite systems. Rapid improvements in information technologies have triggered the concept of cyberspace which is considered as the fifth dimension of war. While transferring information quickly from physical area to electronic/digital area, cyberspace has caused to emerge a lot of threats and methods like cyber-attack, cyber-crime, cyber war which are spreading too rapidly. Individuals, institutions and establishments have begun to take their own cyber security precautions to cope with these threats. This study gives information about the concepts and advances on cyberspace in order to raise comprehensive awareness. The study also focuses on the effects of these improvements in the battlefield, and analyzes them.

  10. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation symptoms of metal fumes exposure on automobile spot welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Shen, Wu-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    Spot or resistance welding has been considered less hazardous than other types of welding. Automobile manufacturing is a major industry in Taiwan. Spot and arc welding are common processes in this industry. The respiratory effects on automobile spot welders exposed to metal fumes are investigated. The cohort consisted of 41 male auto-body spot welders, 76 male arc welders, 71 male office workers, and 59 assemblers without welding exposure. Inductivity Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) was applied to detect metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in the post-shift urine samples. Demographic data, work history, smoking status, and respiratory tract irritation symptoms were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also performed. There were significantly higher values for average urine metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in spot welders and arc welders than in the non-welding controls. There were 4 out of 23 (17.4%) abnormal forced vital capacity (FVC) among the high-exposed spot welders, 2 out of 18 (11.1%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 6 out of 130 (4.6%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of restrictive airway abnormalities (P = 0.036) after adjusting for other factors. There were 9 out of 23 (39.1%) abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) among high-exposed spot welders, 5 out of 18 (27.8%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 28 out of 130 (21.5%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a borderline significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of obstructive lung function abnormalities (P = 0.084) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a significant dose-response relationship of airway irritation symptoms (cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis) among the spot welders. Arc welders with high exposure status also had a significant risk of obstructive lung abnormalities (PEFR

  11. Improved Prediction of the Doppler Effect in TRISO Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Ortensi; A.M. Ougouag

    2009-05-01

    The Doppler feedback mechanism is a major contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated High Temperature Reactors that use fuel based on TRISO particles. It follows that the correct prediction of the magnitude and time-dependence of this feedback effect is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. Since the effect is directly dependent on the actual temperature reached by the fuel during transients, the underlying phenomena of heat transfer and temperature rise must be correctly predicted. This paper presents an improved model for the TRISO particle and its thermal behavior during transients. The improved approach incorporates an explicit TRISO heat conduction model to better quantify the time dependence of the temperature in the various layers of the TRISO particle, including its fuel central zone. There follows a better treatment of the Doppler Effect within said fuel zone. The new model is based on a 1-D analytic solution for composite media using the Green’s function technique. The modeling improvement takes advantage of some of the physical behavior of TRISO fuel under irradiation and includes a distinctive look at the physics of the neutronic Doppler Effect. The new methodology has been implemented within the coupled R-Z nodal diffusion code CYNOD-THERMIX. The new model has been applied to the analysis of earthquakes (presented in a companion paper). In this paper, the model is applied to the control rod ejection event, as specified in the OECD PBMR-400 benchmark, but with temperature dependent thermal properties. The results obtained for this transient using the enhanced code are a considerable improvement over the predictions of the original code. The incorporation of the enhanced model shows that the Doppler Effect plays a more significant role than predicted by the original unenhanced model based on the THERMIX homogenized fuel region model. The new model shows that the overall energy generation during the rod

  12. Effectiveness of a quality improvement curriculum for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Tartaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As health systems find ways to improve quality of care, medical training programs are finding opportunities to prepare learners on principles of quality improvement (QI. The impact of QI curricula for medical students as measured by student learning is not well delineated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a QI curriculum for senior medical students as measured by student knowledge and skills. Methods: This study was an observational study that involved a self-assessment and post-test Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool (QIKAT for intervention and control students. A QI curriculum consisting of online modules, live discussions, independent readings and reflective writing, and participation in a mentored QI project was offered to fourth-year medical students completing an honor's elective (intervention group. Senior medical students who received the standard QI curriculum only were recruited as controls. Results: A total of 22 intervention students and 12 control students completed the self-assessment and QIKAT. At baseline, there was no difference between groups in self-reported prior exposure to QI principles. Students in the intervention group reported more comfort with their skills in QI overall and in 9 of the 12 domains (p<0.05. Additionally, intervention students performed better in each of the three case scenarios (p<0.01. Discussion: A brief QI curriculum for senior medical students results in improved comfort and knowledge with QI principles. The strengths of our curriculum include effective use of classroom time and faculty mentorship with reliance on pre-existing online modules and written resources. Additionally, the curriculum is easily expandable to larger groups of students and transferable to other institutions.

  13. Effectiveness of the Spirometry 360 Quality Improvement Program for Improving Asthma Care: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione-Smith, Rita; Zhou, Chuan; Corwin, Michael J; Taylor, James A; Rice, Fiona; Stout, James W

    To determine the effectiveness of the Spirometry 360 distance learning quality improvement (QI) program for enhancing the processes and outcomes of care for children with asthma. Cluster randomized controlled trial involving 25 matched pairs of pediatric primary care practices. Practices were recruited from 2 practice-based research networks: the Slone Center Office-based Research Network at Boston University, Boston, Mass, and the Puget Sound Pediatric Research Network, Seattle, Wash. Study participants included providers from one of the 50 enrolled pediatric practices and 626 of their patients with asthma. Process measures assessed included spirometry test quality and appropriate prescription of asthma controller medications. Outcome measures included asthma-specific health-related quality of life, and outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient utilization for asthma. At baseline, 25.4% of spirometry tests performed in control practices and 50.4% of tests performed in intervention practices were of high quality. During the 6-month postintervention period, 28.7% of spirometry tests performed in control practices and 49.9% of tests performed in intervention practices were of high quality. The adjusted difference-of-differences analysis revealed no intervention effect on spirometry test quality. Adjusted differences-of-differences analysis also revealed no intervention effect on appropriate use of controller medications or any of the parent- or patient-reported outcomes examined. In this study, the Spirometry 360 distance learning QI program was ineffective in improving spirometry test quality or parent- or patient-reported outcomes. QI programs like the one assessed here may need to focus on practices with lower baseline performance levels or may need to be tailored for those with higher baseline performance. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trigonelline and vildagliptin antidiabetic effect: improvement of insulin signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldakinah, Amat-Alrazaq A; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y; Abdallah, Dalaal M; El-Abhar, Hanan S

    2017-07-01

    Trigonelline (TRG) is known to have an antidiabetic efficacy; however, its mechanism is not entirely elucidated. Hence, its effect on insulin signaling, besides its effectiveness in combination with vildagliptin (VLD) in a Type 2 diabetes model has been tested. TRG (50 mg/kg; p.o) lowered serum glucose, fructosamine, insulin, and HOMA-IR index and increased insulin sensitivity in soleus muscle via augmenting insulin receptor autophosphorylation (IR-PH), pT308-Akt, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Additionally, it reduced muscle advanced glycation end products and lipid peroxides with increased glutathione. TRG showed an anti-lipidemic effect lowering serum and/or muscle total cholesterol, triglycerides, and FFAs to decrease body weight, and visceral/epididymal indices. Furthermore, VLD (3 and 10 mg/kg, p.o) increased IR-PH, pT308-Akt, and GLUT4 to improve insulin signaling. The combined effect of TRG with the low dose of VLD was mostly confined to the reduction of the aberrant lipid profile. The beneficial effect of TRG on insulin sensitivity and glucose/ lipid homeostasis is mediated by the enhancement of the insulin signaling and antioxidant property. Moreover, the positive impact of VLD on pT308-Akt is an integral part in insulin signaling, and hence its antidiabetic effect. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Mean Streets and Mental Health: Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder at Crime Hot Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, David; Cave, Breanne; Nelson, Matthew; White, Clair; Haviland, Amelia; Ready, Justin; Lawton, Brian; Sikkema, Kathleen

    2018-03-07

    This study explores the relationship between mental health and place at microgeographic units of analysis. We examine self-reported symptomology for depression and PTSD for 2,724 survey respondents interviewed in three types of randomly selected street segments: violent crime hot spots, cool spots, and cold spots. We find that the mean symptomology score is 61% higher for depression in violent crime hot spots than cold spots, and 85% higher for PTSD. Overall, we estimate that 14.8% of residents of violent crime hot spots meet thresholds for moderate depression or a diagnosis of PTSD. This can be compared to only 6.5% of residents at the cold spots. Using PSM and weighted negative binomial regression approaches we show that observable selection factors are not responsible for the relationships identified. Examining geographic influences, we find an important area effect of violent crime for both mental health measures, and an additional impact of the specific street of residence for PTSD. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  16. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads

    2017-01-01

    in venous blood. Samples with different hematocrit were spotted onto filter paper to assess hematocrit effect. RESULTS: The established method was precise and accurate for measurement of most elements in DBS. There was a significant but relatively weak correlation between measurement of the elements Mg, K......BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. METHODS: Elements were...... extracted from punches and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was evaluated with quality controls with defined element concentration and blood spiked with elements to assess accuracy and imprecision. DBS element concentrations were compared with concentrations...

  17. Improved effectiveness of GPS RAIM through ridge regression signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Robert J.; Van Graas, Frank; Kuhl, Mark R.

    1989-01-01

    A measurement processing method has been developed which markedly improves the GPS Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) software-based algorithm system's effectiveness in detecting satellite signal failures. Detection is via the consistency of a redundant set of pseudorange measurements. When five satellites are in view, five different subsolutions can be calculated; the integrity alarm is triggered on the basis of subsolution comparisons. Because a poor distribution of the satellites also causes RAIM subsolution scattering, a methodology for selecting the covariance matrix is presented which incorporates ridge regression into a Kalman filter.

  18. Friction stir spot welding of dissimilar aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) has been proposed as an effective technology to spot weld the so-called “difficult to be welded” metal alloys such as thin sheets aluminum alloys and dissimilar materials. FSSW is derived from friction stir welding technology, its principle benefit being low cost joining, lower welding temperature and shorter welding time than conventional welding methods. In this study, dissimilar AlMg 3 and AlCu 4 Mg 1 aluminium alloy plates were FSSWed by offsetting the low strength sheet on upper side of the weld. The effects of tool rotation speed on the microstructure, lap shear fracture load (LSFL), microhardness and fracture features of the weld are investigated by constant welding parameters. The maximum LSFL was obtained by increasing the tool rotational speed. However, the joints exhibited pull-out nugget fracture mode under lap shear tensile testing conditions. The largest completely bonded zone was observed as 5.86 mm which was narrower at the opposite position of the joint. Key words: friction stir spot welding, aluminium alloys, mechanical properties, dissimilar joint, welding parameters

  19. Comparing the spot prices from Powernext and EEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, A.; Armstrong, M.

    2005-01-01

    EEX, as well as a high degree of similarity. The second section studies the time correlations between the two time series. Rather than using auto and cross correlations which are sensitive to the estimate of the mean, we have chosen to use vario-grams. The third section focuses on the buy and sell curves that effectively determine the spot prices. Some preliminary conclusions are given in the fourth section

  20. Training needs analysis for MSMEs: how to improve training effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohayati, Y.; Wulandari, S.

    2017-12-01

    The study aims to analyze training needs for MSMEs in the area of Kabupaten Bandung by selecting the case of MSMEs joined in Association for Agricultural Product Process, focusing on marketing as the main topic of the training. The needs analysis was required to improve training participation and effectiveness. Both aspects are important to notice since making MSMEs participate in training is not an easy task. Similarly, the needs analysis was carried out to anticipate participants’ thoughts that the training does not give any benefits for them or is ineffective because it does not meet their needs although it was actually to help MSMEs improve their marketing knowledge expected to lead to their success. This research involved 100 MSMEs with business ages starting from less than five years to more than 15 years. Those involved MSMEs were dominated by MSMEs targeting local marketing areas. The data were collected by survey and judgmental sampling technique. By conducting a descriptive analysis, it can be concluded that the needs of SMEs on marketing training materials should focus on improving marketing skills such as product development, sales, and use of marketing media as well as discussing legal aspects such as the need for certification and product brand. The results of the study also concluded that there is a need for training that is supplemented by making visits to more successful SMEs as well as practices with on the job training methods.

  1. Effective Interpersonal Communication: A Practical Guide to Improve Your Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertino, Kathleen A

    2014-09-30

    Use of effective interpersonal communication strategies by nurses in both personal and professional settings, may reduce stress, promote wellness, and therefore, improve overall quality of life. This article briefly explores the concept of interpersonal communication as it relates to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs; describes personal variables and the interaction of internal and external variables that can impact communication; and discusses possible causes and consequences of ineffective communication. Drawing on both the literature and experiences as a longtime provider of care in the mental health field, the author offers multiple practical strategies, with specific examples of possible responses for effective communication. Recommendations in this article are intended for nurses to consider as they seek healthy communication strategies that may be useful in both their personal and professional lives.

  2. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  3. Computational analysis of hot-spot formation by quasi-steady deformation waves in porous explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, John; Chakravarthy, Sunada; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2013-05-01

    The impact and shock sensitivity of porous (granular) high-explosives is related to the formation of small mass regions of elevated temperature within the material called hot-spots by dissipative mechanisms such as plastic and friction work. Because of their small size, hot-spots are difficult to experimentally interrogate, particularly for high volumetric strain rates (ɛ˙V>10,000 s-1). In this study, simulations are performed for large ensembles of deformable particles (≈4000 particles) using a combined finite and discrete element technique to characterize statistical distributions of hot-spot intensity, geometry, and spatial proximity within and behind quasi-steady, piston supported uniaxial waves in granular HMX (C4H8N8O8). Emphasis is placed on examining how the material's initial particle packing density, characterized by its effective solid volume fraction ϕ¯s ,0, affects hot-spot statistics for pressure dominated waves corresponding to piston speeds within the range 300≤Up≤500 m /s. Predictions indicate that hot-spot intensity is only marginally affected by initial porosity (1-ϕ¯s ,0) for all piston speeds, whereas hot-spot size, number density, volume fraction, and volume specific surface area appreciably increase with porosity and exponentially increase with piston speed. Minor variations in particle shape are predicted to be largely inconsequential. Joint distributions of hot-spot intensity and size are combined with thermal explosion data to identify and examine critical hot-spots that quickly react behind waves. These results indicate that the observed increase in sensitivity with initial porosity for sustained loading is likely due to an increase in hot-spot size and number rather than intensity.

  4. Effectively Managing Nuclear Risk Through Human Performance Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, Richard; Lake, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. commercial nuclear industry has just completed an outstanding decade of plant performance. Safety levels and electric production are at unprecedented high levels and continue to exceed even high industry goals. Nuclear energy continues to keep the highest priority on performance improvement programs and highly trained and qualified people that maintain its record setting safety and reliability of operations. While the industry has maintained a high level of performance, the advent of deregulation and the consolidation of nuclear power plant ownership, as well as the current climate for concern about both rising energy costs and the availability of power, have raised the standard for nuclear energy's level of competitiveness in today's market place. The resulting challenge is how to more effectively manage risk and to improve performance even further in a generally high-performing industry. One of the most effective ways to develop this culture is to apply the principles of Hum an Performance Technology, or HPT. HPT is a relatively new field. Its principles are derived from the research and practice of behavioral and cognitive psychologists, instructional technologists, training designers, organizational developers, and various human resource specialists. Using the principles of HPT can help the nuclear industry successfully meet ever-changing environmental and business demands

  5. An improved system of detecting single event effect in SRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Teng; Wang Xiaohui; Zhang Zhangang; Liu Tianqi; Gu Song; Yang Zhenlei; Su Hong; Liu Jie

    2014-01-01

    The material research center in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP, CAS) have made a fruitful achievements in the research of single event effects (SEEs) occurring in static random access memory (SRAM). However, there are some drawbacks exist in the two systems of detecting SEE owning by the material research center. Therefore, an improved method of detecting SEE is proposed, and the method functionality is implemented in a circuit. Further, a sequence of experiments are carried out in the beam radiation terminal of the Heavy Ion Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), and a bunch of experimental data are collected. The irradiation tests were carried out using 129 Xe for the SEE research of 65 nm SRAMs; Using 12 C for the SEE research of the 65, 130 and 150 nm SRAMs with ECC module; Using 129 Xe for the SEL research of the common commercial SRAMs and so on. These experiments provide a statistical evidence of the effectiveness and robustness of the improved system. It is believed that the proposed system will be beneficial for detecting SEE in diverse settings, and it could be taken advantage of as a platform for future research on SEE tests in more intricate devices. (authors)

  6. Spotting Stellar Activity Cycles in Gaia Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Agol, Eric; Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2018-03-01

    Astrometry from Gaia will measure the positions of stellar photometric centroids to unprecedented precision. We show that the precision of Gaia astrometry is sufficient to detect starspot-induced centroid jitter for nearby stars in the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) sample with magnetic activity similar to the young G-star KIC 7174505 or the active M4 dwarf GJ 1243, but is insufficient to measure centroid jitter for stars with Sun-like spot distributions. We simulate Gaia observations of stars with 10 year activity cycles to search for evidence of activity cycles, and find that Gaia astrometry alone likely can not detect activity cycles for stars in the TGAS sample, even if they have spot distributions like KIC 7174505. We review the activity of the nearby low-mass stars in the TGAS sample for which we anticipate significant detections of spot-induced jitter.

  7. Canine generalized demodicosis treated with varying doses of a 2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid spot-on and oral ivermectin: parasiticidal effects and long-term treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Tara E; Halliwell, Richard E; Fields, Paul J; Louw, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoff; Louw, Jakobus; Pinckney, Rhonda

    2014-10-15

    Advocate(®) (2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid) (Bayer HealthCare, Leverkusen, Germany) is a multiparasiticidal spot-on authorized for treating canine demodicosis in many countries. This blinded, randomized three-phase clinical trial compared its efficacy employing different dosing regimens with that of ivermectin. In the blinded first phase, 58 dogs suffering from generalized demodicosis were randomly assigned to one of four groups and treated with monthly, biweekly or weekly applications of Advocate(®), or with oral ivermectin (IVR) at 500 μg/kg daily. Dogs were evaluated clinically and multiple skin scrapings undertaken every 4 weeks until parasitological cure was achieved (defined as two consecutive series of deep skin scrapings at monthly intervals negative for all life forms). Forty dogs completed the 16-week initial blinded phase, with 5 cases achieving parasitological cure. Five dogs were deemed treatment failures and subsequently treated with ivermectin. The treatment protocol was then changed for the remaining 35 dogs and this cross-over phase (Phase 2) was maintained for a further 8 weeks with an additional 9 dogs achieving parasitological cure. Thereafter, all remaining animals were treated with IVR until cured (Phase 3). Overall, 26 dogs achieved parasitological cure during the clinical investigation. Of these, 23 remained disease-free for at least 12 months while two were lost to follow up and one died of unrelated causes. A total of 32 (55.2%) dogs were withdrawn at various stages of the investigation including the 5 dogs that were judged treatment failures. Other reasons for withdrawal included: non-compliance, lost to follow-up, ivermectin toxicity or reasons unrelated to the investigation. No adverse effects were attributable to the use of Advocate(®). Parasiticidal efficacy was assessed by changes in mite counts (live adult, juvenile and egg) and skin lesion extent & severity scores. Statistical significance was assessed using ANCOVA with

  8. The simulation of the electron beam spot control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Emilian Oltean

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Electron beams have many special properties which make them particularly well suited for use in materials processing, wherever conventional techniques failed or proved to be inefficient. The entire process has a lot of time varying parameters, so using a distributed control system for 3d position of the electron beam spot may improve the quality of the material processing. Matlab environment was used for model implementation and simulations of the control system which contains the focusing and deflecting components. Due the nature of the process and knowing the electron beam equipment we proposed for the simulations scenarios with a 3D virtual surface.

  9. The research of "blind" spot in the LVQ network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhanjie; Nan, Shupo; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays competitive neural network has been widely used in the pattern recognition, classification and other aspects, and show the great advantages compared with the traditional clustering methods. But the competitive neural networks still has inadequate in many aspects, and it needs to be further improved. Based on the learning Vector Quantization Network proposed by Learning Kohonen [1], this paper resolve the issue of the large training error, when there are "blind" spots in a network through the introduction of threshold value learning rules and finally programs the realization with Matlab.

  10. Volume dips; spot price ranges narrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the September 1994 uranium market summary. Volume in the spot concentrates market fell below 1 million lbs U3O8. In total, twelve deals took place compared to 28 deals in August. Of the twelve deals, three took place in the spot concentrates market, two took place in the medium and long-term market, three in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. Restricted prices weakened, but unrestricted prices firmed slightly. The enrichment price range narrowed a bit

  11. Fast Keyword Spotting in Telephone Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we present a system designed for detecting keywords in telephone speech. We focus not only on achieving high accuracy but also on very short processing time. The keyword spotting system can run in three modes: a an off-line mode requiring less than 0.1xRT, b an on-line mode with minimum (2 s latency, and c a repeated spotting mode, in which pre-computed values allow for additional acceleration. Its performance is evaluated on recordings of Czech spontaneous telephone speech using rather large and complex keyword lists.

  12. Valuation of active blind spot detection systems by younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souders, Dustin J; Best, Ryan; Charness, Neil

    2017-09-01

    Due to their disproportional representation in fatal crashes, younger and older drivers both stand to benefit from in-vehicle safety technologies, yet little is known about how they value such technologies, or their willingness to adopt them. The current study investigated older (aged 65 and greater; N=49) and younger (ages 18-23; N=40) adults' valuation of a blind spot monitor and asked if self-reported visual difficulties while driving predicted the amount participants were willing to pay for a particular system (BMW's Active Blind Spot Detection System) that was demonstrated using a short video. Large and small anchor values ($250 and $500, respectively) were used as between subjects manipulations to examine the effects of initial valuation, and participants proceeded through a short staircase procedure that offered them either the free installation of the system on their current vehicle or a monetary prize ($25-$950) that changed in value according to which option they had selected in the previous step of the staircase procedure. Willingness to use other advanced driver assistance systems (lane-departure warning, automatic lane centering, emergency braking, adaptive cruise control, and self-parking systems) was also analyzed, additionally controlling for prior familiarity of those systems. Results showed that increased age was associated with a higher valuation for the Active Blind Spot Detection System in both the large and small anchor value conditions controlling for income, gender, and technology self-efficacy. Older adults valued blind spot detection about twice as much ($762) as younger adults ($383) in the large anchor condition, though both groups' values were in the range for the current cost of an aftermarket system. Similarly, age was the most robust positive predictor of willingness to adopt other driving technologies, along with system familiarity. Difficulties with driving-related visual factors also positively predicting acceptance levels for

  13. Climate impacts on global hot spots of marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Francisco; Afán, Isabel; Davis, Lloyd S; Chiaradia, André

    2017-02-01

    Human activities drive environmental changes at scales that could potentially cause ecosystem collapses in the marine environment. We combined information on marine biodiversity with spatial assessments of the impacts of climate change to identify the key areas to prioritize for the conservation of global marine biodiversity. This process identified six marine regions of exceptional biodiversity based on global distributions of 1729 species of fish, 124 marine mammals, and 330 seabirds. Overall, these hot spots of marine biodiversity coincide with areas most severely affected by global warming. In particular, these marine biodiversity hot spots have undergone local to regional increasing water temperatures, slowing current circulation, and decreasing primary productivity. Furthermore, when we overlapped these hot spots with available industrial fishery data, albeit coarser than our estimates of climate impacts, they suggest a worrying coincidence whereby the world's richest areas for marine biodiversity are also those areas mostly affected by both climate change and industrial fishing. In light of these findings, we offer an adaptable framework for determining local to regional areas of special concern for the conservation of marine biodiversity. This has exposed the need for finer-scaled fishery data to assist in the management of global fisheries if the accumulative, but potentially preventable, effect of fishing on climate change impacts is to be minimized within areas prioritized for marine biodiversity conservation.

  14. Seed treatment for control leaf spot diseases of spring wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Krzyzińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2001 and 2002 at the Institute of Plant Protection Branch in Sooenicowice research work was performed on seed treatment with fungicides against leaf diseases of spring wheat cv. Ismena caused by pathogenic fungi: Blumeria graminis, Phaeasphaeria nodorum, Puccinia recondita i Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Two variants of protection were included in the experiment: seed dressing with fungicides or seed dressing and single application of foliar spray at GS 49. At early growth stages of spring wheat a very high biological activity against powdery mildew, septoria leaf spot, brown rust and tan spot was recorded for seed dressing containing triticonazole+prochloraz. In the case of triadimenol+imazalil+fuberidazole only a weak, but long-lasting effect against brown rust and septoria leaf spot was observed. Leaf infection as well as 1000 grain mass and yield, in the experimental combination with using triticonazole+prochloraz were on the same level as in the experimental variant where after seed dressing with triadimenol+imazalil+fuberidazole plots were sprayed with tridemorf+epoxykonazole at GS 49. It was concluded that seed dressing preparation containing triticonazole+prochloraz constituted a good base for protection of spring wheat against foliar diseases.

  15. Raman spectroelectrochemistry of molecules within individual electromagnetic hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegai, Timur; Vaskevich, Alexander; Rubinstein, Israel; Haran, Gilad

    2009-10-14

    The role of chemical enhancement in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) remains a contested subject. We study SERS spectra of 4-mercaptopyridine molecules excited far from the molecular resonance, which are collected from individual electromagnetic hot spots at concentrations close to the single-molecule limit. The hot spots are created by depositing Tollen's silver island films on a transparent electrode incorporated within an electrochemical cell. Analysis of the intensity of the spectra relative to those obtained from individual rhodamine 6G molecules on the same surface provides a lower limit of approximately 3 orders of magnitude for the chemical enhancement. This large enhancement is likely to be due to a charge transfer resonance involving the transfer of an electron from the metal to an adsorbed molecule. Excitation at three different wavelengths, as well as variation of electrode potential from 0 to -1.2 V, lead to significant changes in the relative intensities of bands in the spectrum. It is suggested that while the bulk of the enhancement is due to an Albrecht A-term resonance Raman effect (involving the charge transfer transition), vibronic coupling provides additional enhancement which is sensitive to electrode potential. The measurement of potential-dependent SERS spectra from individual hot spots opens the way to a thorough characterization of chemical enhancement, as well to studies of redox phenomena at the single-molecule level.

  16. Impacts of Implosion Asymmetry And Hot Spot Shape On Ignition Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Yi, S. Austin; Batha, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Implosion symmetry plays a critical role in achieving high areal density and internal energy at stagnation during hot spot formation in ICF capsules. Asymmetry causes hot spot irregularity and stagnation de-synchronization that results in lower temperatures and areal densities of the hot fuel. These degradations significantly affect the alpha heating process in the DT fuel as well as on the thermonuclear performance of the capsules. In this work, we explore the physical factors determining the shape of the hot spot late in the implosion and the effects of shape on Î+/-particle transport. We extend our ignition theory [1-4] to include the hot spot shape and quantify the effects of the implosion asymmetry on both the ignition criterion and capsule performance. We validate our theory with the NIF existing experimental data Our theory shows that the ignition criterion becomes more restrictive with the deformation of the hot spot. Through comparison with the NIF data, we demonstrate that the shape effects on the capsules' performance become more explicit as the self-heating and yield of the capsules increases. The degradation of the thermonuclear burn by the hot spot shape for high yield shots to date can be as high as 20%. Our theory is in good agreement with the NIF data. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  17. Identification of Damaged Spot Welds in a Complicated Joined Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, M A; Rani, M N Abdul; Ouyang, H; Deng, H; James, S, E-mail: h.ouyang@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, Harrison Hughes Building, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-19

    In automotive engineering, spot welds on assembled structures such as Body in White (BiW) have a significant effect on the vehicles' dynamic characteristics. Understandably, imperfections in the spot welds will cause variations in the dynamic properties such as natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, a complicated welded structure which is a simplified Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) platform is investigated. The structure fabricated from thin metal sheets consists of ten components. They are jointed together by a number of scattered spot welds. NASTRAN Solution 200 based on sensitivity analysis is used to identify the most sensitive parameters to natural frequencies. The numerical model of the undamaged structure is initially updated in order to minimise the discrepancies between the measured and numerical data using NASTRAN optimisation code. The initial updated model serves as a benchmark for the subsequent structural damage identification. The numerical data of the benchmark model is then compared with the measured data obtained from the damaged structure. The same updating procedure is applied to the benchmark model in order to bring the numerical data as close as possible to the measured data of the damaged structure. The disparity in certain parameter values from the parameter values used in the benchmark model shows a fault or damage in the location of a particular joint, depending on the severity of this disparity. The challenge in this work is to localise damaged area and quantify the damage of the complicated structure with multiple spot welds in the presence of uncertainty in the location and material properties of the welds.

  18. DOES QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IMPROVE PATIENTS’ HEALTH? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASURES OF EFFECT USED IN PDSA PROJECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Nanna Kastrup; Vestergaard, Anne Sig; Ehlers, Lars Holger

    Abstract Introduction Quality improvement is an inherent part of modern healthcare systems worldwide, used for the continuous advancement in effectiveness and safety. Amongst other approaches, the plan-do-study-act (PDSA) method, a four-step iterative method, is widely used for testing...... and implementation of quality-improving interventions in health care despite a poor evidence of its effectiveness. Accepting the premise that the underlying purpose of improvements in health care is to improve patients’ health as suggested by, amongst others, the American National Academy of Medicine, the data...... measurements used to assess the impact of quality improvement projects, consequently, ought to reflect how they eventually impact patients’ health. Objectives The purpose of the present paper is to review recently published PDSA projects to investigate how the effect of quality improvements are being measured...

  19. Improving medical stores management through automation and effective communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Cariappa, M P; Marwaha, Vishal; Sharma, Mukti; Arora, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Medical stores management in hospitals is a tedious and time consuming chore with limited resources tasked for the purpose and poor penetration of Information Technology. The process of automation is slow paced due to various inherent factors and is being challenged by the increasing inventory loads and escalating budgets for procurement of drugs. We carried out an indepth case study at the Medical Stores of a tertiary care health care facility. An iterative six step Quality Improvement (QI) process was implemented based on the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle. The QI process was modified as per requirement to fit the medical stores management model. The results were evaluated after six months. After the implementation of QI process, 55 drugs of the medical store inventory which had expired since 2009 onwards were replaced with fresh stock by the suppliers as a result of effective communication through upgraded database management. Various pending audit objections were dropped due to the streamlined documentation and processes. Inventory management improved drastically due to automation, with disposal orders being initiated four months prior to the expiry of drugs and correct demands being generated two months prior to depletion of stocks. The monthly expense summary of drugs was now being done within ten days of the closing month. Improving communication systems within the hospital with vendor database management and reaching out to clinicians is important. Automation of inventory management requires to be simple and user-friendly, utilizing existing hardware. Physical stores monitoring is indispensable, especially due to the scattered nature of stores. Staff training and standardized documentation protocols are the other keystones for optimal medical store management.

  20. Laser reflection spot as a pattern in a diamond coating – a microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA S. RISTIĆ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond coatings were deposited by the synchronous and coupled action of a hot filament CVD method and a pulsed CO2 laser in spectro-absorbing and spectro-non-absorbing diamond precursor atmospheres. The obtained coatings were structured/patterned, i.e., they were comprised of uncovered, bare locations. An extra effect observed only in the spectro-active diamond precursor atmosphere was the creation of another laser spot in the coating – a reflection spot. In order to establish the practical usability of the latter one, extensive microscopic investigations were performed with consideration of the morphology changes in the spot of the direct laser beam. Normal incidence SEM images of this spot showed a smooth surface, without any pulse radiation damage. AFM imaging revealed the actual surface condition and gave precise data on the surface characteristics.

  1. Transitional–turbulent spots and turbulent–turbulent spots in boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional–turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a Λ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional–turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional–turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional–turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent–turbulent spots. These turbulent–turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional–turbulent spots, these turbulent–turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent–turbulent spots. PMID:28630304

  2. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-03

    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  3. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a ΛΛ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  4. Improving Charging-Breeding Simulations with Space-Charge Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Ryan; Kwiatkowski, Ania; Steinbrügge, René

    2016-09-01

    Rare-isotope-beam facilities use Highly Charged Ions (HCI) for accelerators accelerating heavy ions and to improve measurement precision and resolving power of certain experiments. An Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is able to create HCI through successive electron impact, charge breeding trapped ions into higher charge states. CBSIM was created to calculate successive charge breeding with an EBIT. It was augmented by transferring it into an object-oriented programming language, including additional elements, improving ion-ion collision factors, and exploring the overlap of the electron beam with the ions. The calculation is enhanced with the effects of residual background gas by computing the space charge due to charge breeding. The program assimilates background species, ionizes and charge breeds them alongside the element being studied, and allows them to interact with the desired species through charge exchange, giving fairer overview of realistic charge breeding. Calculations of charge breeding will be shown for realistic experimental conditions. We reexamined the implementation of ionization energies, cross sections, and ion-ion interactions when charge breeding.

  5. Side-effects of improving CERN's spam filter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To further improve the fight against spam (unsolicited email), CERN implemented in June a mechanism that returns electronic mail messages to the sender if the originating server is wrongly configured. This "reverse DNS lookup" is an increasingly widespread technique to identify whether the sending e-mail server is legitimate and has a valid host name. This change has nearly doubled the spam rejection efficiency at CERN. However, it has a known side-effect. A small number of correspondents are sending legitimate electronic mail to CERN from mail servers that are incorrectly configured (in technical terms, they do not have a reverse DNS registration). These persons will have their messages returned to them with an error message, provided their sender address is valid. The typical error message that the correspondent receives in such cases is "Relaying denied. No reverse DNS configured for IP". If a correspondent complains to you that emails they are sending you at CERN are being returned with...

  6. Improving Rehabilitation Effectiveness by Enhancing the Creative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitney, William A.; Bunton, Edwin E.

    1995-01-01

    Creativity is a tacit component of a rehabilitation program that must be exercised by a clinician to avoid stagnation of rehabilitative innovation. Enhancing creativity can improve rehabilitation effectiveness but requires a conscious effort on the part of a clinician. There are many components to encouraging the creative process, but few authors have grouped them into a single step-by-step process. The authors of this paper have developed the CLEAR method to enhancing creativity. This method represents a summation of various strategies offered in the literature and comprises five steps: 1) challenging old routines, 2) learning new attitudes, 3) enlisting idea-generation exercises, 4) assessing the new idea for safety, and 5) revising the idea so that it is safe and suitable for rehabilitation. ImagesFig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4. PMID:16558347

  7. Reducing Dose Uncertainty for Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy of Moving Tumors by Optimizing the Spot Delivery Sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Heng; Zhu, X. Ronald; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a novel delivery strategy for reducing the respiratory motion–induced dose uncertainty of spot-scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: The spot delivery sequence was optimized to reduce dose uncertainty. The effectiveness of the delivery sequence optimization was evaluated using measurements and patient simulation. One hundred ninety-one 2-dimensional measurements using different delivery sequences of a single-layer uniform pattern were obtained with a detector array on a 1-dimensional moving platform. Intensity modulated proton therapy plans were generated for 10 lung cancer patients, and dose uncertainties for different delivery sequences were evaluated by simulation. Results: Without delivery sequence optimization, the maximum absolute dose error can be up to 97.2% in a single measurement, whereas the optimized delivery sequence results in a maximum absolute dose error of ≤11.8%. In patient simulation, the optimized delivery sequence reduces the mean of fractional maximum absolute dose error compared with the regular delivery sequence by 3.3% to 10.6% (32.5-68.0% relative reduction) for different patients. Conclusions: Optimizing the delivery sequence can reduce dose uncertainty due to respiratory motion in spot-scanning proton therapy, assuming the 4-dimensional CT is a true representation of the patients' breathing patterns.

  8. Visualization of Spot- welding Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution devotes to monitoring of processes running during joining of steel sheets by incadescent so called point welding using non-destructive trial method – acoustic emission (AE. The joining process is detailed described within experimental measuring from the point of view of metallurgic effects runnig during weld creation (records obtained by means of AE method. It takes into consideration quality of joined steels within welding data of steel producer. Steel welding (determined by chemical composition during mechanical verification and firmness of welds consider results of measurement AE and fracture effect of point joints. The measurement also demonstrates conclusion about connection of metallurgic processes with material wave effects (AE measurement and their impact on firmness of joint at steel with guaranteed welding, difficult welding and at their potential combination.

  9. Characterization and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with leaf spot of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nurul Husna; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Mohamed Nor, Nik Mohd Izham; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2018-01-01

    Leaf spot diseases are mainly caused by fungi including Fusarium. In the present study several species of Fusarium were isolated from the leaf spot lesion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) Based on morphological characteristics, TEF-1α sequences and phylogenetic analysis, five species were identified as F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. mangiferae, F. solani and F. chlamydosporum. Pathogenicity test indicated that representative isolates of F. proliferatum, F. semitectum and F. chlamydosporum were pathogenic on mango leaves causing leaf spot with low to moderate virulence. Nevertheless, abundance of spots on the leaf can disrupt photosynthesis which in turn reduced growth, and lead to susceptibility to infection by opportunistic pathogens due to weakening of the plant. Fusarium solani and F. mangiferae were non-pathogenic and it is possible that both species are saprophyte which associated with nutrient availability on the surface of the leaf through decaying leave tissues. The occurrence of Fusarium spp. on the leaf spot lesion and the effect from the disease needs to be considered when developing disease management method of mango cultivation as numerous spot on the leaves could effect the photosynthesis process and finally giving low yield and less quality of mango. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  11. Hot-spot tectonics on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis is that extensional tectonics and low-angle detachment faults probably occur on Io in association with the hot spots. These processes may occur on a much shorter timescale on Ion than on Earth, so that Io could be a natural laboratory for the study of thermotectonics. Furthermore, studies of heat and detachment in crustal extension on Earth and the other terresrial planets (especially Venus and Mars) may provide analogs to processes on Io. The geology of Io is dominated by volcanism and hot spots, most likely the result of tidal heating. Hot spots cover 1 to 2% of Io's surface, radiating at temperatures typically from 200 to 400 K, and occasionally up to 700K. Heat loss from the largest hot spots on Io, such as Loki Patera, is about 300 times the heat loss from Yellowstone, so a tremendous quantity of energy is available for volcanic and tectonic work. Active volcanism on Io results in a resurfacing rate as high as 10 cm per year, yet many structural features are apparent on the surface. Therefore, the tectonics must be highly active.

  12. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  13. Effectiveness Of UVC Lights Irradiation To Improve Energy Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A. Bilal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available HVAC Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning is the largest consumer of energy in commercial and industrial buildings. HVAC systems account for an approximated 50 of energy use in buildings. The sources of contamination and odour comes from the growth of bacteria mold and fungus that accumulate and develop on wet surfaces of HVAC coils and drain pans causing respiratory infection cough tight chest and wheezing. Besides the effects on human health Fungal contamination that adheres to the fins of cooling coil of air handling unit AHU cause a significant increase in pressure drop across the coil and decrease in heat exchange efficiency which Leeds to loss of cooling capacity and additional energy use. To prevent the fungal and microorganism growth on the cooling coil and drain pan of HVAC systems many studies conducted but not all these solutions were sufficient to remove microbial organism from the HVAC 100 . The UV-C light options through a process known as UVGI Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation is a technology showed a significant impact to produce clean air and improve indoor air quality 16. UVGI lights produce short wavelength light kills microorganisms including viruses bacteria mold and many other fungi by disrupting their DNA. The effectiveness of UVGI installed inside HVAC systems depends on many factors and the application Methods in HVAC systems. A few studies showed whether the use of UVGI results in energy saving. The objective of this study is to find the effect of fungal growth on the cooling coil surface by using field measurements at actual operating conditions of heat transfer and air flow for a non-irradiated coil in comparison to irradiated coil .Hence evaluate if there would be an enthalpy change at the coil and document the effectiveness of UVGI coil cleaning on restoring cooling capacity and save energy.

  14. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified

  15. Brazil nuts: an effective way to improve selenium status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Christine D; Chisholm, Alexandra; McLachlan, Sarah K; Campbell, Jennifer M

    2008-02-01

    Brazil nuts provide a rich natural source of selenium, yet no studies have investigated the bioavailability of selenium in humans. We investigated the efficacy of Brazil nuts in increasing selenium status in comparison with selenomethionine. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 59 New Zealand adults. Participants consumed 2 Brazil nuts thought to provide approximately 100 mug Se, 100 mug Se as selenomethionine, or placebo daily for 12 wk. Actual intake from nuts averaged 53 mug Se/d (possible range: 20-84 mug Se). Plasma selenium and plasma and whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk, and effects of treatments were compared. Plasma selenium increased by 64.2%, 61.0%, and 7.6%; plasma GPx by 8.3%, 3.4%, and -1.2%; and whole blood GPx by 13.2%, 5.3%, and 1.9% in the Brazil nut, selenomethionine, and placebo groups, respectively. Change over time at 12 wk in plasma selenium (P nut (P nut group than in the placebo (P = 0.002) and selenomethionine (P = 0.032) groups. Consumption of 2 Brazil nuts daily is as effective for increasing selenium status and enhancing GPx activity as 100 mug Se as selenomethionine. Inclusion of this high-selenium food in the diet could avoid the need for fortification or supplements to improve the selenium status of New Zealanders.

  16. Semi-automated extraction of landslides in Taiwan based on SPOT imagery and DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisank, Clemens; Hölbling, Daniel; Friedl, Barbara; Chen, Yi-Chin; Chang, Kang-Tsung

    2014-05-01

    The vast availability and improved quality of optical satellite data and digital elevation models (DEMs), as well as the need for complete and up-to-date landslide inventories at various spatial scales have fostered the development of semi-automated landslide recognition systems. Among the tested approaches for designing such systems, object-based image analysis (OBIA) stepped out to be a highly promising methodology. OBIA offers a flexible, spatially enabled framework for effective landslide mapping. Most object-based landslide mapping systems, however, have been tailored to specific, mainly small-scale study areas or even to single landslides only. Even though reported mapping accuracies tend to be higher than for pixel-based approaches, accuracy values are still relatively low and depend on the particular study. There is still room to improve the applicability and objectivity of object-based landslide mapping systems. The presented study aims at developing a knowledge-based landslide mapping system implemented in an OBIA environment, i.e. Trimble eCognition. In comparison to previous knowledge-based approaches, the classification of segmentation-derived multi-scale image objects relies on digital landslide signatures. These signatures hold the common operational knowledge on digital landslide mapping, as reported by 25 Taiwanese landslide experts during personal semi-structured interviews. Specifically, the signatures include information on commonly used data layers, spectral and spatial features, and feature thresholds. The signatures guide the selection and implementation of mapping rules that were finally encoded in Cognition Network Language (CNL). Multi-scale image segmentation is optimized by using the improved Estimation of Scale Parameter (ESP) tool. The approach described above is developed and tested for mapping landslides in a sub-region of the Baichi catchment in Northern Taiwan based on SPOT imagery and a high-resolution DEM. An object

  17. Improving outpatient safety through effective electronic communication: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Sawhney, Mona K; Wilson, Lindsey; Sittig, Dean F; Esquivel, Adol; Watford, Monica; Davis, Traber; Espadas, Donna; Singh, Hardeep

    2009-09-25

    Health information technology and electronic medical records (EMRs) are potentially powerful systems-based interventions to facilitate diagnosis and treatment because they ensure the delivery of key new findings and other health related information to the practitioner. However, effective communication involves more than just information transfer; despite a state of the art EMR system, communication breakdowns can still occur. [1-3] In this project, we will adapt a model developed by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) to understand and improve the relationship between work systems and processes of care involved with electronic communication in EMRs. We plan to study three communication activities in the Veterans Health Administration's (VA) EMR: electronic communication of abnormal imaging and laboratory test results via automated notifications (i.e., alerts); electronic referral requests; and provider-to-pharmacy communication via computerized provider order entry (CPOE). Our specific aim is to propose a protocol to evaluate the systems and processes affecting outcomes of electronic communication in the computerized patient record system (related to diagnostic test results, electronic referral requests, and CPOE prescriptions) using a human factors engineering approach, and hence guide the development of interventions for work system redesign. This research will consist of multiple qualitative methods of task analysis to identify potential sources of error related to diagnostic test result alerts, electronic referral requests, and CPOE; this will be followed by a series of focus groups to identify barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving the electronic communication system. Transcripts from all task analyses and focus groups will be analyzed using methods adapted from grounded theory and content analysis.

  18. Spatial and temporal distributions of Martian north polar cold spots before, during, and after the global dust storm of 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, C.; Titus, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s, Mariner and Viking observed features in the Mars northern polar region that were a few hundred kilometers in diameter with 20 fj,m brightness temperatures as low as 130 K (considerably below C02 ice sublimation temperatures). Over the past decade, studies have shown that these areas (commonly called "cold spots") are usually due to emissivity effects of frost deposits and occasionally to active C02 snowstorms. Three Mars years of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data were used to observe autumn and wintertime cold spot activity within the polar regions. Many cold spots formed on or near scarps of the perennial cap, probably induced by adiabatic cooling due to orographic lifting. These topographically associated cold spots were often smaller than those that were not associated with topography. We determined that initial grain sizes within the cold spots were on the order of a few millimeters, assuming the snow was uncontaminated by dust or water ice. On average, the half-life of the cold spots was 5 Julian days. The Mars global dust storm in 2001 significantly affected cold spot activity in the north polar region. Though overall perennial cap cold spot activity seemed unaffected, the distribution of cold spots did change by a decrease in the number of topographically associated cold spots and an increase in those not associated with topography. We propose that the global dust storm affected the processes that form cold spots and discuss how the global dust storm may have affected these processes. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Residual Stress Distribution and Microstructure at a Laser Spot of AISI 304 Stainless Steel Subjected to Different Laser Shock Peening Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different laser shock peening (LSP impacts on the three-dimensional displayed distributions of surface and in-depth residual stress at a laser spot of AISI 304 stainless steel were investigated by X-ray diffraction technology with the sin2φ method and MATLAB 2010a software. Microstructural evolution in the top surface subjected to multiple LSP impacts was presented by means of cross-sectional optical microscopy (OM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM observations. Experimental results and analysis indicated that residual stress distribution and microstructure at a laser spot depended strongly on the number of multiple LSP impacts, and refined grain and ultra-high strain rate play an important role in the improvement of compressive residual stress of AISI 304 stainless steel. The analysis of treatment of the extended surface was presented to obtain uniform surface properties on the top surface of AISI 304 stainless steel.

  20. Impact of Spot Size and Beam-Shaping Devices on the Treatment Plan Quality for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Yock, Torunn I.; Depauw, Nicolas; Madden, Thomas M.; Kooy, Hanne M.; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess the clinical impact of spot size and the addition of apertures and range compensators on the treatment quality of pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy and to define when PBS could improve on passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT). Methods and Materials: The patient cohort included 14 pediatric patients treated with PSPT. Six PBS plans were created and optimized for each patient using 3 spot sizes (∼12-, 5.4-, and 2.5-mm median sigma at isocenter for 90- to 230-MeV range) and adding apertures and compensators to plans with the 2 larger spots. Conformity and homogeneity indices, dose-volume histogram parameters, equivalent uniform dose (EUD), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and integral dose were quantified and compared with the respective PSPT plans. Results: The results clearly indicated that PBS with the largest spots does not necessarily offer a dosimetric or clinical advantage over PSPT. With comparable target coverage, the mean dose (D mean ) to healthy organs was on average 6.3% larger than PSPT when using this spot size. However, adding apertures to plans with large spots improved the treatment quality by decreasing the average D mean and EUD by up to 8.6% and 3.2% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Decreasing the spot size further improved all plans, lowering the average D mean and EUD by up to 11.6% and 10.9% compared with PSPT, respectively, and eliminated the need for beam-shaping devices. The NTCP decreased with spot size and addition of apertures, with maximum reduction of 5.4% relative to PSPT. Conclusions: The added benefit of using PBS strongly depends on the delivery configurations. Facilities limited to large spot sizes (>∼8 mm median sigma at isocenter) are recommended to use apertures to reduce treatment-related toxicities, at least for complex and/or small tumors.

  1. Understanding and controlling hot spots of crime: the importance of formal and informal social controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, David; Groff, Elizabeth R; Yang, Sue-Ming

    2014-02-01

    Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs that address opportunity or structural factors related to crime are usually delivered to entire cities, sections of cities or to specific neighborhoods, but our results indicate geographically targeting these programs to specific street segments may increase their efficacy. We link crime incidents to over 24,000 street segments (the two block faces on a street between two intersections) over a 16-year period, and identify distinct developmental patterns of crime at street segments using group-based trajectory analysis. One of these patterns, which we term chronic crime hot spots, includes just 1 % of street segments but is associated with 23 % of crime in the city during the study period. We then employ multinomial regression to identify the specific risk and protective factors that are associated with these crime hot spots. We find that both situational opportunities and social characteristics of places strongly distinguish chronic crime hot spots from areas with little crime. Our findings support recent efforts to decrease crime opportunities at crime hot spots through programs like hot spots policing, but they also suggest that social interventions directed at crime hot spots will be important if we are to do something about crime problems in the long run. We argue in concluding that micro level programs which focus crime prevention efforts on specific street segments have the potential to be less costly and more effective than those targeted at larger areas such as communities or neighborhoods.

  2. Patogenesis of White Spot Virus Infection (WSV on Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus Monodon Fab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alifuddin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis determination of white spot disease on tiger shrimp to study effect of various white spot virus concentrations on pathological changes was conducted by water borne infection with the several of viral concentration within 60 minute using black tiger shrimp post larvae. The result showed the incubation period of the disease based on appeareance of white spot at 2-2000 ng/ml is 17 days p.i., whilst at 0.2-0.02 ng/ml is 19 days p.i. It seem, the lowest viral concentration stimulated respond immune of shrimp which indicated by low mortalities percentage (13.3 and 10.6%. Stage of disease development recognized throughout histological analyse, based on hypertropie of nuclei, is stage 0-4. Based on microscopic observation, the white spot seen pleomorphic forms which related to its development and seem to be used as rapid diagnostic tool for indicating of WS infection. This study also proved by histological observation that hepatopancreatic tissue can be infected as well as epidermis of carapace, gill, intestine and lymphoid tissues. One of pathological changes by WS infection is white spot as pathogonomic lesi of the disease. Keyword : White spot virus, infectious disease, tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fab.

  3. Optical and surface analysis of DNA microarrays to assess printed spot heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja Rao, Archana

    DNA microarrays have been plagued with analytical problems with quantitation, metrics, figures of merit, and reliability and reproducibility issues, hindering their acceptance in clinical and diagnostic settings. The main deficiency in the printed DNA format is the microspot heterogeneity occurring during array fabrication and further amplified during target hybridization. Work described in this dissertation focuses on assessment of DNA microarray spots generated with conventional pin-type contact printing of fluorescently labeled DNA probes, on industry-standard commercial polymer-coated array slides and their hybridization with complementary oligomer DNA target. Printing of probe DNA microspots shares many features of commonly reported droplet evaporation dynamics that lead to different drying patterns and spot morphologies. This study directly identifies and analyzes different DNA probe chemical and spatial microenvironments within spots, analyzed with high-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) chemical imaging, confocal epifluorescence, and probe microscopy force imaging methods. Drying of DNA probe spots shows Marangoni flow effects with high densities of probe DNA-Cy3 located in spot centers and nonhomogeneous DNA distributed radially within printed spots with both TOF-SIMS imaging and epifluorescence microscopy. Target hybridization kinetics and duplex formation were assessed using real-time in situ confocal imaging, and confirmed radial hemispherical diffusion-mediated distribution of target capture from spot edge to its interior. Kinetic modeling indicates pseudo-first order kinetics due to transport limitations and local density-dependent probe interactions with diffusing target. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and photobleaching results show that the high- density probe overcrowding in spots facilitates a broad range of target binding interactions regardless of dye orientations. Moreover, lateral probe density

  4. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešnjak, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones

  5. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  6. Improving quality through effective implementation of information technology in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvretveit, John; Scott, Tim; Rundall, Thomas G; Shortell, Stephen M; Brommels, Mats

    2007-10-01

    To describe an implementation of one information technology system (electronic medical record, EMR) in one hospital, the perceived impact, the factors thought to help and hinder implementation and the success of the system and compare this with theories of effective IT implementation. To draw on previous research, empirical data from this study is used to develop IT implementation theory. Qualitative case study, replicating the methods and questions of a previously published USA EMR implementation study using semi-structured interviews and documentation. Large Swedish teaching hospital shortly after a merger of two hospital sites. Thirty senior clinicians, managers, project team members, doctors and nurses. The Swedish implementation was achieved within a year and for under half the budget, with a generally popular EMR which was thought to save time and improve the quality of patient care. Evidence from this study and findings from the more problematic USA implementation case suggests that key factors for cost effective implementation and operation were features of the system itself, the implementation process and the conditions under which the implementation was carried out. There is empirical support for the IT implementation theory developed in this study, which provides a sound basis for future research and successful implementation. Successful implementation of an EMR is likely with an intuitive system, requiring little training, already well developed for clinical work but allowing flexibility for development, where clinicians are involved in selection and in modification for their department needs and where a realistic timetable is made using an assessment of the change-capability of the organization. Once a system decision is made, the implementation should be driven by top and departmental leaders assisted by competent project teams involving information technology specialists and users. Corrections for unforeseen eventualities will be needed, especially

  7. Cost-effectiveness of improving pediatric hospital care in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Edward I; Gomez, Ivonne; Nuñez, Oscar; Wong, Yudy

    2011-11-01

    To determine the costs and cost-effectiveness of an intervention to improve quality of care for children with diarrhea or pneumonia in 14 hospitals in Nicaragua, based on expenditure data and impact measures. Hospital length of stay (LOS) and deaths were abstracted from a random sample of 1294 clinical records completed at seven of the 14 participating hospitals before the intervention (2003) and 1505 records completed after two years of intervention implementation ("post-intervention"; 2006). Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were derived from outcome data. Hospitalization costs were calculated based on hospital and Ministry of Health records and private sector data. Intervention costs came from project accounting records. Decision-tree analysis was used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness. Average LOS decreased from 3.87 and 4.23 days pre-intervention to 3.55 and 3.94 days post-intervention for diarrhea (P = 0.078) and pneumonia (P = 0.055), respectively. Case fatalities decreased from 45/10 000 and 34/10 000 pre-intervention to 30/10 000 and 27/10 000 post-intervention for diarrhea (P = 0.062) and pneumonia (P = 0.37), respectively. Average total hospitalization and antibiotic costs for both diagnoses were US$ 451 (95% credibility interval [CI]: US$ 419-US$ 482) pre-intervention and US$ 437 (95% CI: US$ 402-US$ 464) post-intervention. The intervention was cost-saving in terms of DALYs (95% CI: -US$ 522- US$ 32 per DALY averted) and cost US$ 21 per hospital day averted (95% CI: -US$ 45- US$ 204). After two years of intervention implementation, LOS and deaths for diarrhea decreased, along with LOS for pneumonia, with no increase in hospitalization costs. If these changes were entirely attributable to the intervention, it would be cost-saving.

  8. Spotted-Leaf Mutants of Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-na HUANG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many rice spotted-leaf (spl mutants are ideal sources for understanding the mechanisms involved in blast resistance, bacterial blight resistance and programmed cell death in plants. The genetic controls of 50 spotted-leaf mutants in rice have been characterized and a few spotted-leaf genes have been isolated as well. This article reviews the origin, genetic modes, isolation and characterization of spotted-leaf genes responsible for their phenotypes, and their resistance responses to main rice diseases.

  9. Reproduction of two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Teles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, is a common fish species along rocky shores in northern European waters. It is a small (40-60 mm, semipelagic marine fish, forming loose shoals in association with microalgae vegetation and mussel beds growing on the rock surface. It is a short-lived species, with a life span of 1-2 years. Both sexes display courtship behaviour and have sexual ornamentation during the breeding season. Male ornaments consist of large dorsal fins with iridescent blue lines, and iridescent blue spots along the sides of the body. Females develop a conspicuous, bright orange belly at sexual maturity. Due to these characteristics this species could have a great interest for ornamental aquariums. In previous work the maintenance of G. flavescens at high temperatures (until 23°C was successful. The aim of this study was to test the reproduction in captivity of G. flavescens. Six replicates were used (18L aquariums at the temperature of 18°C. In each replicate, two males and four females were introduced to an aquarium, where the males chose between two nests and courted the females. During the 112 days of the experiment the females spawned five times but only three spawns had success. The eggs take approximately 8 days to become mature. On the three spawns have hatched 300, 361 and 510 larvae at a time. The larvae were kept in a separate container and fed with alive rotifers and survived a maximum of 21 days. The reproduction of the two-spotted goby in captivity is possible at 18°C, but it is necessary to improve the conditions to rearing the larvae.

  10. Improved effectiveness of performance monitoring in amateur instrumental musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzsch, Ines; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Kansal, Nayantara

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a cross-sectional study investigating the influence of instrumental music practice on the ability to monitor for and respond to processing conflicts and performance errors. Behavioural and electrophysiological indicators of response monitoring in amateur musicians with various skill levels were collected using simple conflict tasks. The results show that instrumental musicians are better able than non-musicians to detect conflicts and errors as indicated by systematic increases in the amplitude of the error-related negativity and the N200 with increasing levels of instrumental practice. Also, high levels of musical training were associated with more efficient and less reactive responses after experience of conflicts and errors as indicated by reduced post-error interference and post-conflict processing adjustments. Together, the present findings suggest that playing a musical instrument might improve the ability to monitor our behavior and adjust our responses effectively when needed. As these processes are amongst the first to be affected by cognitive aging, our evidence could promote musical activity as a realistic intervention to slow or even prevent age-related decline in frontal cortex mediated executive functioning. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Current-Induced Forces and Hot Spots in Biased Nanojunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the interplay of current-induced forces (CIFs), Joule heating, and heat transport inside a current-carrying nanoconductor. We find that the CIFs, due to the electron-phonon coherence, can control the spatial heat dissipation in the conductor. This yields a significant...... asymmetric concentration of excess heating (hot spot) even for a symmetric conductor. When coupled to the electrode phonons, CIFs drive different phonon heat flux into the two electrodes. First-principles calculations on realistic biased nanojunctions illustrate the importance of the effect....

  12. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Musashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation.

  13. Large-spot subthreshold transpupillary thermotherapy for chronic serous macular detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lo Giudice

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Lo Giudice1, Valentina de Belvis2, Marco Tavolato1, Alessandro Galan11San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital, Padova, Italy; 2Paediatric Low Vision Center, Paediatric Rare Eye Disease Center, Department of Paediatrics, University of Padova, ItalyPurpose: To report the effect of subthreshold transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT in treating serous detachment of the neurosensory retina secondary to chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CCSC.Methods: Seven eyes from five patients with CCSC, persistent serous detachment of the neurosensory retina and a clinical course of between 12 and 60 months were treated. All eyes received large-spot TTT guided by indocyanine green angiography (ICGA. Subthreshold TTT was performed using an 810 nm diode laser with a spot size of 3.0 mm (power was set at 350 mW. Treatment was applied for 60 seconds to the areas of choroidal hyperfluorescence on ICGA.Results: The mean number of TTT sessions was 1.4 ± 0.5. All eyes were followed up for at least 6 months (mean 9.6 ± 3.2 standard deviation; range 6–12 months. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity was significantly better compared with baseline. All TTT-treated eyes had stable or improved vision (P < 0.001. Mean optical coherence tomography (OCT central foveal thickness was significantly lower in all patients (P < 0.001 compared with pretreatment OCT, with a reduction in subretinal fluid and resolution of serous detachment associated with anatomical fovea restoration. No patient had any treatment-related side effects.Conclusion: Modified subthreshold TTT appears to have a beneficial effect in treating patients with CCSC and persistent neurosensory detachment. The encouraging results and lack of visually significant complications suggest that further investigation is warranted.Keywords: central serous chorioretinopathy, indocyanine green angiography, neurosensory detachment, transpupillary

  14. 7 CFR 27.93 - Bona fide spot markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Spot Markets § 27.93 Bona fide spot markets. The following markets have been determined, after investigation, and are hereby... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bona fide spot markets. 27.93 Section 27.93...

  15. Sowing rates for reforestation by the seed-spotting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert; Harry A. Fowells

    1964-01-01

    Presents guides to determine the number of seeds to sow per spot and the number of spots required per acre to obtain acceptable stocking. Based on theoretical probabilities, these guides were found to be reasonably close to actual field results When the probability-of-success was at least 55 percent. To compensate for lower actual stocking, increase the number of spots...

  16. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  17. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  18. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  19. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. ... has been increasingly hampered by white spot syndrome disease caused by White Spot ..... metabolic proteins have additional roles in immunity and transcriptional ...

  20. Spot-Welding Gun With Pivoting Twin-Collet Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Francis; Simpson, Gareth; Hoult, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Modified spot-welding gun includes pivoting twin-collet assembly that holds two spot-welding electrodes. Designed to weld highly conductive (30 percent gold) brazing-alloy foils to thin nickel alloy workpieces; also suitable for other spot-welding applications compatible with two-electrode configuration.

  1. Ação do biofertilizante Agrobio sobre a mancha-bacteriana e desenvolvimento de mudas de pimentão Effect of the Agrobio biofertilizer on the bacterial spot and the development of bell pepper transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia S.R. Deleito

    2005-03-01

    beneficial effect of Agrobio on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. transplants under greenhouse conditions. Two cultivars, 'Cascadura Ikeda' and 'Cascadura Itaipu' were used. Four Agrobio treatments, all diluted 5% (v/v in distilled water were used. They consisted of: (a raw; (b autoclaved (120ºC/20 min; (c filtered in millipore (0,22 µ diameter and (d the fraction retained on the millipore. They were applied as foliage sprays or directly on the substrate. As control treatments, oxytetracicline + streptomycin sulphate (0.8 g L-1, copper oxichloride (2.4 g L-1 and water were used. Raw of filtered Agrobio, as a foliage spray, resulted in better control of the disease and higher growth of the transplants, compared to autoclaved and fraction retained of the Agrobio and substrate sprays. All Agrobio treatments resulted in a less satisfactory disease control when compared to the commercial products, copper oxichloride and oxitetracicline + streptomycin sulphate, but more, effective than water. Agrobio stimulated the vegetative growth of the transplants, reduced the incidence of bacterial spot, increased the leaf area and promoted a better retention of infected leaves and the Bacillus spp. population.

  2. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  3. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  4. SPS remanent radiation the warm spots

    CERN Document Server

    Billen, R

    1998-01-01

    The remanent radiation in the SPS ring is measured after each operational period. We all know very well the "hot spots" in the dedicated regions for particle injection and extraction. So far, not a lot of attention has been paid to those regions where there are clear traces of radiation, without an obvious reason. From an operational point of view, these regions might be quite important, since they could reveal a specific problem. This paper will look into those "warm spots", their location in the SPS ring and the transverse plane in which the radiation originates. Some classification of typical problem classes is made, as well as hints to the possible origins of the radiation problems.

  5. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William L.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  6. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems...... all had significant influences on parasite survival. Strategic treatment using the environmentally friendly chemical sodium percarbonate in combination with continuous micro-filtering of the pond water is suggested for control and management of this parasitosis....

  7. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail: taj355@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  8. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  9. Heap hot spots visualization in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavi, Babak; Driesen, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Data memory (heap) management is a particularly important feature of the Java programming environment. The visualization of memory location in form of hot spots can help to see how the data cache is used during the execution of a program. The behavior of such executed program can be thus speculated. Through a series of experiments using Load and Store trace files, some pertinent aspect of data memory accessing, can be visualized, including the frequency of how often the Java virtual machine r...

  10. Forecasting European thermal coal spot prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Krzemień

    2015-01-01

    Finally, in order to analyse the time series model performance a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN was used and its performance compared against the whole AR(2 process. Empirical results obtained confirmed that there is no statistically significant difference between both methods. The GRNN analysis also allowed pointing out the main drivers that move the European Thermal Coal Spot prices: crude oil, USD/CNY change and supply side drivers.

  11. DNA-nanostructure-assembly by sequential spotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitenstein Michael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to create nanostructures with biomolecules is one of the key elements in nanobiotechnology. One of the problems is the expensive and mostly custom made equipment which is needed for their development. We intended to reduce material costs and aimed at miniaturization of the necessary tools that are essential for nanofabrication. Thus we combined the capabilities of molecular ink lithography with DNA-self-assembling capabilities to arrange DNA in an independent array which allows addressing molecules in nanoscale dimensions. Results For the construction of DNA based nanostructures a method is presented that allows an arrangement of DNA strands in such a way that they can form a grid that only depends on the spotted pattern of the anchor molecules. An atomic force microscope (AFM has been used for molecular ink lithography to generate small spots. The sequential spotting process allows the immobilization of several different functional biomolecules with a single AFM-tip. This grid which delivers specific addresses for the prepared DNA-strand serves as a two-dimensional anchor to arrange the sequence according to the pattern. Once the DNA-nanoarray has been formed, it can be functionalized by PNA (peptide nucleic acid to incorporate advanced structures. Conclusions The production of DNA-nanoarrays is a promising task for nanobiotechnology. The described method allows convenient and low cost preparation of nanoarrays. PNA can be used for complex functionalization purposes as well as a structural element.

  12. NOTE - Genetic control of resistance to gray leaf spot of maize in tropical germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Humberto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to assess the nature and magnitude of gene effects for resistance to Cercospora leaf spot. A randomized block design with three replications was used. The data were obtained at the plant level by assessing the disease severity. The data were analyzed per experiment, using the average data per plot. A dominant-additive genetic model without epistasis was considered, with estimation of the components of means and variance. The genetic control of resistance to gray leaf spot is polygenic with predominance of the additive effects. Dominance was observed in a few small-effect loci and high heritability values.

  13. Effects of Improved Access to Transportation on Emergency obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduction in maternal mortality has not been appreciable in most low-income countries. Improved access to transport for mothers is one way to improve maternal health. This study evaluated a free-of-charge 24-hour ambulance and communication services intervention in Oyam district using 'Caesarean section rate' (CSR) ...

  14. Technical report for effective estimation and improvement of quality system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2000-06-01

    This technical report provides the methods on how to improve the Quality System, in R and D part. This report applies on the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design, fabrication in nuclear projects. The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear power item design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of improvement of QA systems

  15. Superluminal Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings: Sweeping Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2015-02-01

    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots moving with superluminal speeds across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown here that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are not particle pair events-they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Real spot pair illumination events occur unambiguously on the scattering surface when spot speeds diverge, while virtual spot pair events are observer dependent and perceived only when real spot radial speeds cross the speed of light. Specifically, a virtual spot pair creation event will be observed when a real spot's speed toward the observer drops below c, while a virtual spot pair annihilation event will be observed when a real spot's radial speed away from the observer rises above c. Superluminal spot pair events might be found angularly, photometrically, or polarimetrically, and might carry useful geometry or distance information. Two example scenarios are briefly considered. The first is a beam swept across a scattering spherical object, exemplified by spots of light moving across Earth's Moon and pulsar companions. The second is a beam swept across a scattering planar wall or linear filament, exemplified by spots of light moving across variable nebulae including Hubble's Variable Nebula. In local cases where the sweeping beam can be controlled and repeated, a three-dimensional map of a target object can be constructed. Used tomographically, this imaging technique is fundamentally different from lens photography, radar, and conventional lidar.

  16. Forecasting electricity spot-prices using linear univariate time-series models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaresma, Jesus Crespo; Hlouskova, Jaroslava; Kossmeier, Stephan; Obersteiner, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the forecasting abilities of a battery of univariate models on hourly electricity spot prices, using data from the Leipzig Power Exchange. The specifications studied include autoregressive models, autoregressive-moving average models and unobserved component models. The results show that specifications, where each hour of the day is modelled separately present uniformly better forecasting properties than specifications for the whole time-series, and that the inclusion of simple probabilistic processes for the arrival of extreme price events can lead to improvements in the forecasting abilities of univariate models for electricity spot prices. (Author)

  17. A rough multi-factor model of electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new continuous-time mathematical model of electricity spot prices which accounts for the most important stylized facts of these time series: seasonality, spikes, stochastic volatility, and mean reversion. Empirical studies have found a possible fifth stylized fact, roughness, and our approach explicitly incorporates this into the model of the prices. Our setup generalizes the popular Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based multi-factor framework of and allows us to perform statistical tests to distinguish between an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based model and a rough model. Further, through the multi-factor approach we account for seasonality and spikes before estimating – and making inference on – the degree of roughness. This is novel in the literature and we present simulation evidence showing that these precautions are crucial for accurate estimation. Lastly, we estimate our model on recent data from six European energy exchanges and find statistical evidence of roughness in five out of six markets. As an application of our model, we show how, in these five markets, a rough component improves short term forecasting of the prices. - Highlights: • Statistical modeling of electricity spot prices • Multi-factor decomposition • Roughness • Electricity price forecasting

  18. Bilateral Macular Roth Spots as a Manifestation of Subacute Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Ceglowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of impaired vision in the right eye (OD. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA (LogMAR was 1.1 for the right eye and 0.0 for the left eye (OS. Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhages resembling Roth spots in both macular regions. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT showed intraretinal pseudocysts and hyperreflective deposits in the areas corresponding to the Roth spots. Conducted blood tests revealed elevated D-dimer concentration, increased total number of neutrophils, high C-reactive protein concentration, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Procalcitonin concentration, platelet count, and body temperature were within normal ranges. A blood culture was ordered and yielded Streptococcus mitis and intravenous antibiotics were started immediately. The patient started complaining of chest and left calf pain. The systemic examination revealed infective endocarditis accompanied by bicuspid aortic valve and paravalvular abscess formation. The patient underwent cardiac surgery with mechanical aortic valve implantation. After recovery, the patient’s visual acuities improved fully. Control ophthalmic examination, including SD-OCT, showed no abnormalities.

  19. Superluminal Sweeping Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots that move superluminally across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are not particle pair events -- they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Astronomical settings where superluminal spot pairs might be found include Earth's Moon, passing asteroids, pulsars, and variable nebula. Potentially recoverable information includes three dimensional imaging, relative geometric size factors, and distances.

  20. Depth Of Modulation And Spot Size Selection In Bar-Code Laser Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Eric; Swartz, Jerome

    1982-04-01

    Many optical and electronic considerations enter into the selection of optical spot size in flying spot laser scanners of the type used in modern industrial and commerical environments. These include: the scale of the symbols to be read, optical background noise present in the symbol substrate, and factors relating to the characteristics of the signal processor. Many 'front ends' consist of a linear signal conditioner followed by nonlinear conditioning and digitizing circuitry. Although the nonlinear portions of the circuit can be difficult to characterize mathematically, it is frequently possible to at least give a minimum depth of modulation measure to yield a worst-case guarantee of adequate performance with respect to digitization accuracy. Depth of modulation actually delivered to the nonlinear circuitry will depend on scale, contrast, and noise content of the scanned symbol, as well as the characteristics of the linear conditioning circuitry (eg. transfer function and electronic noise). Time and frequency domain techniques are applied in order to estimate the effects of these factors in selecting a spot size for a given system environment. Results obtained include estimates of the effects of the linear front end transfer function on effective spot size and asymmetries which can affect digitization accuracy. Plots of convolution-computed modulation patterns and other important system properties are presented. Considerations are limited primarily to Gaussian spot profiles but also apply to more general cases. Attention is paid to realistic symbol models and to implications with respect to printing tolerances.

  1. The impact of Australian ETS news on wholesale spot electricity prices: An exploratory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Julien

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of news concerning the development of emissions trading in Australia (such as the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)) on wholesale electricity spot prices, by using a database of 117 news announcements from December 1, 1998 to July 1, 2009. As power producers constitute the bulk of the participants of the proposed Australian emissions trading scheme, regulatory changes (about allocation, banking, coverage, targets) are indeed likely to affect the five interconnected electricity markets in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania. We assess these effects with an ARMA(1,1)-GARCH(1,1) model, where daily electricity spot prices are regressed against exogenous variables in the mean and variance equations. This article constitutes the first empirical analysis of Australian ETS news effects on electricity wholesale spot prices. Our results show two asymmetric types of news effects, depending on their information content.

  2. Effect of design improvements on ALARA exposures in PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.N.; Mohandas, P.V.; Gupta, Ashok; Hussain, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Design improvements in Indian PHWRs over last thirty years have remarkably reduced the occupational and public exposures. Some of the radiologically offending systems were altogether changed, equipment was judiciously relocated and at component level reduction in number and improvement in quality was carried out. As a result the collective occupational exposures could be brought down by a factor of about 4-5 and average public exposure by a factor of about 10. Since the design improvements are continuous ongoing processes further reduction in exposure will be definitely brought in the coming years. (author)

  3. Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten; Kristensen, Bjarne; Tranæus, Sofia; Karlsson, Lena; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Twetman, Svante

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSL) detected after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sixty healthy adolescents with ≥1 clinically visible WSL at debonding were recruited and randomly allocated to a randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to topically apply a CPP-ACP -containing agent (Tooth Mousse, GC Europe) once daily and the subjects of the control group brushed their teeth with standard fluoride toothpaste. The intervention period was 4 weeks and the endpoints were quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) on buccal surfaces of the upper incisors, cuspids and first premolars and visual scoring from digital photos. The attrition rate was 15%, mostly due to technical errors, and 327 lesions were included in the final evaluation. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) regression of the WSL was disclosed in both study groups compared to baseline, but there was no difference between the groups. The mean area of the lesions decreased by 58% in the CPP-ACP group and 26% in the fluoride group (p = 0.06). The QLF findings were largely reflected by the clinical scores. No side effects were reported. Topical treatment of white spot lesions after debonding of orthodontic appliances with a casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate agent resulted in significantly reduced fluorescence and a reduced area of the lesions after 4 weeks as assessed by QLF. The improvement was however not superior to the "natural" regression following daily use of fluoride toothpaste.

  4. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.414 Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or...

  5. Characterization of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Resistance Spot Welded DP600 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramazani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance spot welding (RSW as a predominant welding technique used for joining steels in automotive applications needs to be studied carefully in order to improve the mechanical properties of the spot welds. The objectives of the present work are to characterize the resistance spot weldment of DP600 sheet steels. The mechanical properties of the welded joints were evaluated using tensile-shear and cross-tensile tests. The time-temperature evolution during the welding cycle was measured. The microstructures observed in different sites of the welds were correlated to thermal history recorded by thermocouples in the corresponding areas. It was found that cracks initiated in the periphery region of weld nuggets with a martensitic microstructure and a pull-out failure mode was observed. It was also concluded that tempering during RSW was the main reason for hardness decrease in HAZ.

  6. Time Resolved X-Ray Spot Size Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Roger; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Weir, John

    2005-01-01

    A diagnostic was developed for the determination of temporal history of an X-ray spot. A pair of thin (0.5 mm) slits image the x-ray spot to a fast scintillator which is coupled to a fast detector, thus sampling a slice of the X-Ray spot. Two other scintillator/detectors are used to determine the position of the spot and total forward dose. The slit signal is normalized to the dose and the resulting signal is analyzed to get the spot size. The position information is used to compensate for small changes due to spot motion and misalignment. The time resolution of the diagnostic is about 1 ns and measures spots from 0.5 mm to over 3 mm. The theory and equations used to calculate spot size and position are presented, as well as data. The calculations assume a symmetric, Gaussian spot. The spot data is generated by the ETA II accelerator, a 2kA, 5.5 MeV, 60ns electron beam focused on a Tantalum target. The spot generated is typically about 1 mm FWHM. Comparisons are made to an X-ray pinhole camera which images th...

  7. Spot-Scanning Proton Arc (SPArc) Therapy: The First Robust and Delivery-Efficient Spot-Scanning Proton Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xuanfeng, E-mail: Xuanfeng.ding@beaumont.org; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, J. Michele; Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Stevens, Craig; Yan, Di

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To present a novel robust and delivery-efficient spot-scanning proton arc (SPArc) therapy technique. Methods and Materials: A SPArc optimization algorithm was developed that integrates control point resampling, energy layer redistribution, energy layer filtration, and energy layer resampling. The feasibility of such a technique was evaluated using sample patients: 1 patient with locally advanced head and neck oropharyngeal cancer with bilateral lymph node coverage, and 1 with a nonmobile lung cancer. Plan quality, robustness, and total estimated delivery time were compared with the robust optimized multifield step-and-shoot arc plan without SPArc optimization (Arc{sub multi-field}) and the standard robust optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan. Dose-volume histograms of target and organs at risk were analyzed, taking into account the setup and range uncertainties. Total delivery time was calculated on the basis of a 360° gantry room with 1 revolutions per minute gantry rotation speed, 2-millisecond spot switching time, 1-nA beam current, 0.01 minimum spot monitor unit, and energy layer switching time of 0.5 to 4 seconds. Results: The SPArc plan showed potential dosimetric advantages for both clinical sample cases. Compared with IMPT, SPArc delivered 8% and 14% less integral dose for oropharyngeal and lung cancer cases, respectively. Furthermore, evaluating the lung cancer plan compared with IMPT, it was evident that the maximum skin dose, the mean lung dose, and the maximum dose to ribs were reduced by 60%, 15%, and 35%, respectively, whereas the conformity index was improved from 7.6 (IMPT) to 4.0 (SPArc). The total treatment delivery time for lung and oropharyngeal cancer patients was reduced by 55% to 60% and 56% to 67%, respectively, when compared with Arc{sub multi-field} plans. Conclusion: The SPArc plan is the first robust and delivery-efficient proton spot-scanning arc therapy technique, which could potentially be implemented

  8. Dark-spot segmentation for oil spill detection based on multifeature fusion classification in single-pol synthetic aperture radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Haitao; Zhang, Xingyao; Xi, Yuyang; Zhang, Xi; Li, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, oil spill surveillance with space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has received unprecedented attention and has been gradually developed into a common technique for maritime environment protection. A typical SAR-based oil spill detection process consists of three steps: (1) dark-spot segmentation, (2) feature extraction, and (3) oil spill and look-alike discrimination. As a preliminary task in the oil spill detection process chain, dark-spot segmentation is a critical and fundamental step prior to feature extraction and classification, since its output has a direct impact on the two subsequent stages. The balance between the detection probability and false alarm probability has a vital impact on the performance of the entire detection system. Unfortunately, this problem has not drawn as much attention as the other two stages. A specific effort has been placed on dark-spot segmentation in single-pol SAR imagery. A combination of fine designed features, including gray features, geometric features, and textural features, is proposed to characterize the oil spill and seawater for improving the performance of dark-spot segmentation. In the proposed process chain, a histogram stretching transform is incorporated before the gray feature extraction to enhance the contrast between possible oil spills and water. A simple but effective multiple-level thresholding algorithm is developed to conduct a binary classification before the geometric feature extraction to obtain more accurate area features. A local binary pattern code is computed and assigned as the textural feature for a pixel to characterize the physical difference between oil spills and water. The experimental result confirms that the proposed fine designed feature combination outperforms existing approaches in both aspects of overall segmentation accuracy and the capability to balance detection probability and false alarm probability. It is a promising alternative that can be incorporated into

  9. X-ray focal spot reconstruction by circular penumbra analysis—Application to digital radiography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Domenico, Giovanni, E-mail: didomenico@fe.infn.it; Cardarelli, Paolo; Taibi, Angelo; Gambaccini, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122, Italy and INFN - sezione di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122 (Italy); Contillo, Adriano [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122 (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    proven to be effective for simulated images and the results of the experimental test suggest that it could be considered as an alternative technique for focal spot distribution evaluation. The method offers the possibility to measure the actual focal spot size and emission distribution at the same exposure conditions as clinical routine, avoiding high tube loading as in the case of the pin-hole imaging technique.

  10. Society, demography and genetic structure in the spotted hyena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Smith, Jennifer E; Strelioff, Christopher C; Van Horn, Russell C; Watts, Heather E

    2012-02-01

    Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are large mammalian carnivores, but their societies, called 'clans', resemble those of such cercopithecine primates as baboons and macaques with respect to their size, hierarchical structure, and frequency of social interaction among both kin and unrelated group-mates. However, in contrast to cercopithecine primates, spotted hyenas regularly hunt antelope and compete with group-mates for access to kills, which are extremely rich food sources, but also rare and ephemeral. This unique occurrence of baboon-like sociality among top-level predators has favoured the evolution of many unusual traits in this species. We briefly review the relevant socio-ecology of spotted hyenas, document great demographic variation but little variation in social structure across the species' range, and describe the long-term fitness consequences of rank-related variation in resource access among clan-mates. We then summarize patterns of genetic relatedness within and between clans, including some from a population that had recently gone through a population bottleneck, and consider the roles of sexually dimorphic dispersal and female mate choice in the generation of these patterns. Finally, we apply social network theory under varying regimes of resource availability to analyse the effects of kinship on the stability of social relationships among members of one large hyena clan in Kenya. Although social bonds among both kin and non-kin are weakest when resource competition is most intense, hyenas sustain strong social relationships with kin year-round, despite constraints imposed by resource limitation. Our analyses suggest that selection might act on both individuals and matrilineal kin groups within clans containing multiple matrilines. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Improving effective surgical delivery in humanitarian disasters: lessons from Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Chu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Chu and colleagues describe the experiences of Médecins sans Frontières after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and discuss how to improve delivery of surgery in humanitarian disasters.

  12. Effects of erythropoietin in improving function of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Meshkini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute Spinal Cord Injury (ASCI is one of the most common and important disorders in the field of neurosurgery. Progress achieved in relation to the care provided to repair spinal cord injuries have been taken from ancient times to the present day. Recently Neuroprotective therapies have attracted a lot of staff to approach the patient. Research scientists have shown that there is a possibility of recovery after spinal cord injury. Many pharmacological agents, Erythropoietin, in this field are used to reduce secondary damage after the primary insult and try to preserve nerve tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Erythropoietin on sensory and motor status of patients with acute spinal cord injury. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 60 patients with acute spinal cord injury in the Frankel classification, the category A to C, and the selection of matched Frankel class into two groups A and B (each group consisted of 30 patients was done. Group A underwent conventional treatment received methylprednisolone, were used erythropoietin and were compared after 4days,6-months intervals in terms of complete and incomplete cord injury  status with group B (that underwent only conventional treatment such as methylprednisolone. Results: In our study of two groups there were 16 patients with complete spinal cord injury and 44 patients were had incomplete SCI. In the period of 4 days after the onset of the study, patients with complete SCI in case and control group did not recover. In Patients with incomplete spinal cord injury in case group 13 of 21 patients (62% and 2 of 23 patients (9% in the control group were cured. In the period of 6 months after the study, 2 of 8 patients (25% in case group with complete cord had recovery. In the control group of patients with complete spinal cord injury didn't have any recovery. Also in incomplete SCI 12 of 19 patients (63% in case group and 5 of 21 patients (23% in the

  13. [Scanning electron microscopic investigations of cutting edge quality in lamellar keratotomy using the Wavelight femtosecond laser (FS-200) : What influence do spot distance and an additional tunnel have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, T; Höche, T; Heichel, J

    2018-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers (fs-lasers) are established cutting instruments for the creation of LASIK flaps. Previous studies often showed even rougher surfaces after application of fs-laser systems compared to lamellar keratotomy with mechanical microkeratomes. When cutting the cornea with fs-lasers, an intrastromal gas development occurs, which has a potentially negative influence on the cutting quality if the gas cannot be dissipated; therefore, manufacturers have chosen the way of gas assimilation in so-called pockets. The investigated system creates a tunnel which opens under the conjunctiva. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a tunnel as well as the influence of different spot distances on the quality of cut surfaces and edges. In this experimental study on freshly enucleated porcine eyes (n = 15), the following cuts were carried out with the FS-200 (Wavelight, Erlangen, Germany): 1. standard setting (spot and line separation 8 µm), 2. with tunnel for gas drainage, 3. without gas-conducting tunnel, 4. with increased spot spacing (spot and line separation 9 μm instead of 8 μm) and 5. with reduced spot spacing (spot and line separation 7 μm instead of 8 μm). Subsequently, scanning electron microscopy (FEI Quanta 650, Hillsboro, OR) of the cut edges and surfaces as well as the gas drain tunnel were performed. The evaluation was based on an established score. The current fs-laser system (200 Hz) is able to create smooth cutting surfaces and sharp edges. The changed density of laser pulses compared to the standard settings with a reduced or increased distance between the pulses, did not achieve any further improvement in the surface quality. The gas-conducting tunnel could be detected by scanning electron microscope. In the case of cutting without a tunnel, roughened surfaces and irregularities on the cutting edges were found. When the FS-200 fs-laser is used, LASIK cuts with very smooth cut surfaces and sharp cutting

  14. Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten; Kristensen, Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSL) detected after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sixty healthy adolescents with >/=1 clinically visible WSL at debonding were...... findings were largely reflected by the clinical scores. No side effects were reported. Topical treatment of white spot lesions after debonding of orthodontic appliances with a casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate agent resulted in significantly reduced fluorescence and a reduced...

  15. Dual focal-spot imaging for phase extraction in phase-contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Edwin F.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dual focal spot imaging as a method for extracting the phase component from a phase-contrast radiography image. All measurements were performed using a microfocus tungsten-target x-ray tube with an adjustable focal-spot size (0.01 mm to 0.045 mm). For each object, high-resolution digital radiographs were obtained with two different focal spot sizes to produce matched image pairs in which all other geometric variables as well as total exposure and tube kVp were held constant. For each image pair, a phase extraction was performed using pixel-wise division. The phase-extracted image resulted in an image similar to the standard image processing tool commonly referred to as 'unsharp masking' but with the additional edge-enhancement produced by phase-contrast effects. The phase-extracted image illustrates the differences between the two images whose imaging parameters differ only in focal spot size. The resulting image shows effects from both phase contrast as well as geometric unsharpness. In weakly attenuating materials the phase-contrast effect predominates, while in strongly attenuating materials the phase effects are so small that they are not detectable. The phase-extracted image in the strongly attenuating object reflects differences in geometric unsharpness. The degree of phase extraction depends strongly on the size of the smallest focal spot used. This technique of dual-focal spot phase-contrast radiography provides a simple technique for phase-component (edge) extraction in phase-contrast radiography. In strongly attenuating materials the phase-component is overwhelmed by differences in geometric unsharpness. In these cases the technique provides a form of unsharp masking which also accentuates the edges. Thus, the two effects are complimentary and may be useful in the detection of small objects

  16. Improvements to the solar cell efficiency and production yields of low-lifetime wafers with effective phosphorus gettering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jiunn-Chenn; Chen, Ping-Nan; Chen, Chih-Min; Wu, Chung-Han

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Variable-temperature gettering improves efficiencies when the wafer quality is poor. • High-quality wafers need not be used for variable-temperature gettering. • The proposed gettering method is based on an existing diffusion process. • It has a potential interest for hot-spot prevention. -- Abstract: This research focuses on the improvement of solar cell efficiencies in low-lifetime wafers by implementing an appropriate gettering method of the diffusion process. The study also considers a reduction in the value of the reverse current at −12 V, an important electrical parameter related to the hot-spot heating of solar cells and modules, to improve the product's quality during commercial mass production. A practical solar cell production case study is examined to illustrate the use of the proposed method. The results of this case study indicate that variable-temperature gettering significantly improves solar cell efficiencies by 0.14% compared to constant-temperature methods when the wafer quality is poor. Moreover, this study finds that variable-temperature gettering raises production yields of low quality wafers by more than 30% by restraining the measurement value of the reverse current at −12 V during solar cell manufacturing

  17. Effect of concentrate supplementation on feed consumption, nutrient utilization and blood metabolite profile in captive spotted deer (Axis axis) fed oat (Avena sativa) and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) fodders based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, C; Das, A; Katole, Shrikant; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, D

    2013-03-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum level of a maize-soybean meal-wheat bran concentrate supplement fed to captive spotted deer fed an oat and berseem fodder-based diet. Twelve adult spotted deer [64-76 kg body weight (BW)] were distributed into three groups of four each and were housed individually. A diet consisting of 5 kg of oat fodder and 5.5 kg of berseem fodder was offered to each one of the experimental animals. The animal in group I received no supplementary concentrate, whereas, those in groups II and III received 0.5 and 1 kg of supplementary concentrate, respectively. A 60 days digestibility trial was conducted with a 5 days collection period on Days 55-59 of the trial. Blood samples were collected from all animals on Day 60 of the experiment. Average daily dry matter intake (DMI) was 1,224, 1,613, and 1,574 g/day in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake was lowest (P II and I. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was highest (P II. Digestibility of OM and CP was lowest (P energy was highest (P II (69.3%) and I (66.2%). Digestible energy (DE) intake (kcal/kg BW(0.75) ) was highest (P II (180.9) and I (129.8). Initial BW was 72.7, 72.5, and 71.0 kg, whereas, final BW was 71.0, 72.7, and 73.5 kg, in groups I, II and III, respectively. Average daily change in body mass was significantly (P II, and III, respectively. Blood glucose and cholesterol concentration was highest (P II and I. Serum concentration of Cu and Zn was highest (P II and I. Supplementation of forage only diet with 0.5 kg of concentrate mixture increased intake and digestibility of nutrients, without change in body mass. Animals fed 1 kg of supplementary concentrate received energy in excess of requirements, were consistently gaining body mass and were prone to obesity. Thus, it is a right strategy to supplement forage only diet of captive spotted deer with 0.5 kg of concentrate. © 2013

  18. The Effect of School Improvement Planning on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, David J.; Conway, James M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that schools in Connecticut's Alliance Districts (lowest-performing districts) with higher-quality school improvement plans (SIPs) would have higher levels of student achievement. An exploratory research question evaluated whether SIPs predicted achievement of particular subgroups. SIPs were obtained and scored…

  19. Effect of two psychological techniques in improving academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A validated Mathematics Ability Test (MAT) was administered to the three groups before and after the experimental programme which was packaged into 8 ... The result is an indication that students' Mathematical ability can be improved using psychological strategies and these should be factored in secondary school

  20. Effective interventions on service quality improvement in a physiotherapy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Farid; Tabrizi, JafarSadegh; Eteraf Oskouei, MirAli; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Service quality is considered as a main domain of quality associ-ated with non-clinical aspect of healthcare. This study aimed to survey and im-proves service quality of delivered care in the Physiotherapy Clinic affiliated with the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. A quasi experimental interventional study was conducted in the Physiotherapy Clinic, 2010-2011. Data were collected using a validated and reli-able researcher made questionnaire with participation of 324 patients and their coadjutors. The study questionnaire consisted of 7 questions about demographic factors and 38 questions for eleven aspects of service quality. Data were then analyzed using paired samples t-test by SPSS16. In the pre intervention phase, six aspects of service quality including choice of provider, safety, prevention and early detection, dignity, autonomy and availability achieved non-acceptable scores. Following interventions, all aspects of the service quality improved and also total service quality score improved from 8.58 to 9.83 (PService quality can be improved by problem implementation of appropriate interventions. The acquired results can be used in health system fields to create respectful environments for healthcare customers.

  1. Improving treatment decisions from radiographs: effect of a decision aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mileman, P.A.; van den Hout, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether dental students’ accuracy of treatment decision making for dentine caries using radiographs improved after using a decision aid (DA). Methods: Dental students (n = 227) assessed the need for treatment for proximal surfaces of a test set of radiographs for a scenario patient.

  2. Laser spot detection based on reaction diffusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Dormido, R.; Duro, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-11, č. článku 315. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser spot detection * laser beam detection * reaction diffusion models * Fitzhugh-Nagumo model * reaction diffusion computation * Turing patterns Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  3. The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f 2 , where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion

  4. Identification of optimum friction stir spot welding process parameters controlling the properties of low carbon automotive steel joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Lakshminarayanan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir spot welding is a novel solid state process that has recently received considerable attention from various industries including automotive sectors due to many advantages over the resistance spot welding. However to apply this technique, the process parameters must be optimized to obtain improved mechanical properties compared to resistance spot welding. To achieve this, in this investigation, design of experiments was used to conduct the experiments for exploring the interdependence of the process parameters. A second order quadratic model for predicting the lap shear tensile strength of friction stir spot welded low carbon automotive steel joints was developed from the experimental obtained data. It is found that dwell time plays a major role in deciding the joint properties, which is followed by rotational speed and plunge depth. Further optimum process parameters were identified for maximum lap shear tensile strength using numerical and graphical optimization techniques.

  5. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism using the Meditec MEL 70 spot scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzen, Klaus; Fiedler, Joachim; Pieger, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate safety, predictability, efficacy, and stability of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for spherical hyperopia and hyperopia with astigmatism. In this retrospective study we analyzed the results of 23 eyes of 23 patients who had LASIK for spherical hyperopia (preoperative cylinder ring for a 9.5-mm flap diameter; Asclepion-Meditec MEL 70 G-scan flying spot laser with a 1.8-mm Gaussian beam). In Group 1 (spherical hyperopia), mean preoperative spherical equivalent refraction was +4.88 +/- 2.13 D (range +2.13 to +9.63 D); in Group 2 (hyperopic astigmatism), +4.33 +/- 2.15 D (range +0.50 to +9.50 D). One year after LASIK, mean spherical equivalent refraction was +0.30 +/- 0.90 D (range -0.75 to +2.50 D) in Group 1 and +0.29 +/- 1.27 D (range -3.25 to +3.25 D) in Group 2. In Group 1, 78%, and in Group 2, 42% were within +/- 0.50 D. In Group 1, no eyes lost two or more lines, and one eye (6%) lost one line of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 1 year. In Group 2, one eye (4%) lost one line and one eye (4%) lost more than two lines at 1 year. Uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better was achieved in 83% (Group 1) vs. 62% (Group 2) at 1 year; these values improved to 100% vs. 71% for corrections up to +6.00 D. LASIK with the Meditec MEL 70 G-Scan flying spot laser seemed to be safe and effective for hyperopia and hyperopia with astigmatism for corrections up to +6.00 D. Large flap diameters are necessary to avoid epithelial ingrowth.

  7. A simple repeat polymorphism in the MITF-M promoter is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Baranowska Körberg

    Full Text Available The white spotting locus (S in dogs is colocalized with the MITF (microphtalmia-associated transcription factor gene. The phenotypic effects of the four S alleles range from solid colour (S to extreme white spotting (s(w. We have investigated four candidate mutations associated with the s(w allele, a SINE insertion, a SNP at a conserved site and a simple repeat polymorphism all associated with the MITF-M promoter as well as a 12 base pair deletion in exon 1B. The variants associated with white spotting at all four loci were also found among wolves and we conclude that none of these could be a sole causal mutation, at least not for extreme white spotting. We propose that the three canine white spotting alleles are not caused by three independent mutations but represent haplotype effects due to different combinations of causal polymorphisms. The simple repeat polymorphism showed extensive diversity both in dogs and wolves, and allele-sharing was common between wolves and white spotted dogs but was non-existent between solid and spotted dogs as well as between wolves and solid dogs. This finding was unexpected as Solid is assumed to be the wild-type allele. The data indicate that the simple repeat polymorphism has been a target for selection during dog domestication and breed formation. We also evaluated the significance of the three MITF-M associated polymorphisms with a Luciferase assay, and found conclusive evidence that the simple repeat polymorphism affects promoter activity. Three alleles associated with white spotting gave consistently lower promoter activity compared with the allele associated with solid colour. We propose that the simple repeat polymorphism affects cooperativity between transcription factors binding on either flanking sides of the repeat. Thus, both genetic and functional evidence show that the simple repeat polymorphism is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

  8. Microbiological and biochemical changes in pearl spot (Etroplus suratensis Bloch) stored under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, K V; Sonaji, E R; Manju, S; Jose, L; Gopal, T K S; Ravisankar, C N

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of packaging [air, modified atmosphere (MA)] on microbial growth, sensory and chemical parameters and also on shelf life of fresh pearl spot (Etroplus suratensis Bloch) and on the selection of microbial association. Fresh pearl spot (whole, gutted) were packaged under both 100% air and MAs (40%CO(2)/60% O(2), 50%CO(2)/50%O(2), 60% CO(2)/40%O(2), 70% CO(2)/30% O(2) and 40% CO(2)/30% O(2)/30% N(2)) and stored at 0 degrees C. Microbial growth (counts of total aerobic bacteria, H(2)S-producing bacteria, Lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta, yeast and mould), chemical spoilage indicators (pH, total volatile basic nitrogen) and sensory characteristics were monitored. Microbial changes in Pearl spot packed under 100% air and 40% CO(2)/30%O(2)/30% N(2) were similar. The total volatile basic nitrogen values increased, but the values never exceeded the acceptability limit of 25 mg 100 g(-1). MA 60% CO(2) : 40%O(2) was found to be better with a shelf life of 21 days whereas air stored samples had a shelf-life of 12-14 days only. Storage of pearl spot under MAs 60% CO(2) : 40%O(2) is a promising method to extend shelf-life. Longer shelf life expands the market potential of pearl spot and reduces waste during distribution and retail display.

  9. [An experiment to estimate locations of radioisotopes producing black spots on medical images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Hanamitsu, Hiroki; Mori, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Caused by the accident of nuclear power plants in the Fukushima at 2011, many radioisotopes (RI) were diffused to the environment. As a result, X-ray detectors were stained with RIs and black spots appeared on the medical images. Using the RI of (134)Cs and (137)Cs, black spots which appeared on the photostimulable phosphor plate (X-ray detector) were reproduced experimentally. The aim of this study is the following two points; firstly, to clarify the relationship between long-time irradiations of RI and fading effect, and secondly, to clarify the positional relationship between the RI sources and the X-ray detector based on irradiation times of RI. For the latter experiment, the samples were made by spraying water (containing the RI) in order to reproduce small point sources. Then, the sources were placed on the photostimulable phosphor plate or on the cassette, and corresponding images with different irradiation times were taken. The black spots could be reproduced with the condition, in which sources were directly adhered to the photostimulable phosphor plate. We observed the black spots when sources were placed on the cassette for one week. Based on the result, we summarized that the RI which are directly adhered on the photostimulable phosphor plate may produce the black spots.

  10. Temperature effect on water absorption in an improved periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have been carried out on the water absorption of the improved periwinkle reinforced cement stabilized lateritic bricks. These bricks were produced at different cement to laterite to periwinkle ratio of 1:3:1, 2:3:1, 3:3:1, 3:2:1, 3:1:1, and fired at an elevated temperature of 10000C and 11500C, respectively. From the ...

  11. THE WORMS COMPOST - EFFECTIVE FERTILIZER FOR IMPROVING DEGRADED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa CREMENEAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of organic waste is a difficult, complex and intractable in Moldova, according to international standards. Acute problem of organic matter from livestock sector waste is generated by storing them in unauthorized areas. Organic waste management strategies require different methods. One of them is organic waste bio conversion technology by worm’s cultivation. As the main natural wealth of the Republic of Moldova, soil requires a special care. Agriculture, in particular, should pay attention to the soil’s humus and nutrient status – and restore losses of humus and the nutrients used by crops. This requires measures to improve soil fertility. Land use provides, first of all return losses of humus and nutrients used by plants. Therefore measures required to improve soil fertility. The essence of the research was to highlight the role of worms compost improve the soil. To this end, in ETS "Maximovca" was organized an experiment that included three groups (two - experimental, to fund worms compost and one - control the natural background. Observations on soil fertility have been conducted over three years. The soil samples were collected by usual methods determined values of organic matter and humus. The results of the investigations, to determine the values of organic matter and humus samples collected from surface and depth 15 cm exceeded that of the sample control group to 29,7%; 11,4% and 34,3%; 37,1% in experimental group I and 9,3%; 11,6% and 45,5%; 45,5% in experimental group II. Therefore, worms compost embedded in a dose of 3-4 tons / ha during three years, has improved the fertility of the soil

  12. Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction and Spot Sign in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Andrea; Brouwers, H Bart; Romero, Javier M; Jessel, Michael J; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Cassarly, Christy; Greenberg, Steven M; Martin, Renee Hebert; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2017-08-01

    The computed tomographic angiography (CTA) spot sign is associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) expansion and may mark those patients most likely to benefit from intensive blood pressure (BP) reduction. To investigate whether the spot sign is associated with ICH expansion across a wide range of centers and whether intensive BP reduction decreases hematoma expansion and improves outcome in patients with ICH and a spot sign. SCORE-IT (Spot Sign Score in Restricting ICH Growth) is a preplanned prospective observational study nested in the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage II (ATACH-II) randomized clinical trial. Participants included consecutive patients with primary ICH who underwent a CTA within 8 hours from onset at 59 sites from May 15, 2011, through December 19, 2015. Data were analyzed for the present study from July 1 to August 31, 2016. Patients in ATACH-II were randomized to intensive (systolic BP target, sign, and 24 of 123 without missing data (19.5%) experienced ICH expansion. The spot sign was associated with expansion with sensitivity of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.34-0.74) and specificity of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.53-0.72). After adjustment for potential confounders, intensive BP treatment was not associated with a significant reduction of ICH expansion (relative risk, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.27-2.51; P = .74) or improved outcome (relative risk of 90-day modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.53-2.91; P = .62) in spot sign-positive patients. The predictive performance of the spot sign for ICH expansion was lower than in prior reports from single-center studies. No evidence suggested that patients with ICH and a spot sign specifically benefit from intensive BP reduction. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01176565.

  13. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  14. Improvement effect of green tea on hepatic dysfunction, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... effects against cancers. The present study was designed to assess the pro- tective effect of green tea infusion by evaluating the free radicals scavenging capacity using the DPPH and NBT / riboflavin in vitro. In vivo, the liver dysfunction paramet- ers rate, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes acti-.

  15. Knowledge about the 'Greenhouse Effect': Have College Students Improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Helen; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The ideas of Year I undergraduate biology students about the consequences, causes, and cures of the 'greenhouse effect' was determined using a closed-form questionnaire, and results were compared with a parallel study undertaken nearly 10 years ago. Many of the students in the present survey were unaware of the potential effect of global warming…

  16. Improving listening skills of tertiary level students for effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listening is essential to the leaming process. Students in tertiary institutions of learning need to acquire effective listening and note-taking skiils in order to benefit from lectures. This paper focused on factors militating against effective listening during lectures such as poor rate of presentation, poor communication skills, ...

  17. Effects of different planting dates on improving yield of Fritillaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fritillaria imperialis and F. persica were planted during April 2003 and May 2004 growing seasons on the basis of split block design with three replications to investigate the effects of planting dates on various plant parameters and extent of recovery by planting 25% damaged bulbs. The results showed significant effects of ...

  18. Evidence for the spotting hypothesis in gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the visual spotting hypothesis in 10 experts and 10 apprentices as they perform back aerial somersaults from a standing position with no preparatory jumps (short flight duration condition) and after some preparatory jumps with a flight time of 1s (long flight duration condition). Differences in gaze behavior and kinematics were expected between experts and apprentices and between experimental conditions. Gaze behavior was measured using a portable and wireless eye-tracking system in combination with a movement-analysis system. Experts exhibited a smaller landing deviation from the middle of the trampoline bed than apprentices. Experts showed higher fixation ratios during the take-off and flight phase. Experts exhibited no blinks in any of the somersaults in both conditions, whereas apprentices showed significant blink ratios in both experimental conditions. The findings suggest that gymnasts can use visual spotting during the back aerial somersault, even when the time of flight is delimited. We conclude that knowledge about gaze-movement relationships may help coaches develop specific training programs in the learning process of the back aerial somersault.

  19. Senzorové uzly Java Sun SPOT

    OpenAIRE

    Malina, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá využitím senzorových uzlů Java Sun Spot pro vícebodové bezdrátové sledování teploty a její regulace pomocí těchto uzlů. V teoretické části je uveden popis, složení a ovládání senzorových uzlů Java Sun Spot. V praktické části jsou uvedeny naprogramované aplikace, ve vývojovém prostředí NetBeans, pro bezdrátové sledování teploty, kapacity baterie a jejich zobrazení na hostitelském počítači ve formě grafu. Ve druhé části praktické části je popsán způsob regulace t...

  20. Resistance to leaf spot disease in peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: Leaf spot disease causes defoliation of peanut plants during pod development thereby reducing yield. To induce mutations for resistance to the disease, dormant seeds of peanut were irradiated with 10-40 kR gamma rays with pre- and post-irradiation treatments to minimize radiation damage. Spores of the causal fungi, Cercospora arachidicola Hori and Cercosporidium personatum (B and C) Deigh., were cultured under asceptic conditions in PDA medium with 2-3 drops of 10% table salt solution to enhance development of spores. The first two leaves of M 2 seedlings were hand-inoculated two or three times in the field at one week intervals. Out of a total of 2,453 M 2 seedlings inoculated thrice, 9 plants showed complete resistance based on degree of infection. However, after recurrent selection, only 3 M 5 lines gave complete resistance, the rest exhibiting only intermediate resistance. The disease resistant lines yielded almost twice as much as several commercial varieties due to extensive leaf defoliation in the latter. One of the mutant lines is being crossed with some popular susceptible varieties. Inheritance studies showed that leaf spot resistance is governed by two recessive mutant genes acting complementary. The F 2 ratio was close to 15:1. The mutant lines are presently evaluated through the Bureau of Plant Industry before seeds are distributed to peanut growers. (author)