WorldWideScience

Sample records for sports teams findings

  1. Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...

  2. Sports Teams Extend Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traditional high school athletic teams, Unified Sports teams are designed to immerse students with intellectual disabilities in a facet of school culture that has largely eluded them. Nationwide, more than 2,000 schools in 42 states have the teams, where the ideal is for about half the athletes on each team to be students with intellectual…

  3. Nutrition in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Professional Team Sports Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....

  5. Team Building for Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Gordon A.; Loughead, Todd M.; Newin, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Participation in youth sport generally begins to decline after the age of 12. Among the reasons for this are personal aspects such as lack of desire, and social aspects including negative experiences with coaches. One way that coaches can improve the sporting environment is through group activities that promote team building. The purpose of this…

  6. Youth, Team sports and Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard

    of a team sports project as well as coaching and mentoring, the project goal was to challenge the boys to be part of a new shared and empowering community, so that they actively experienced the ability to take responsibility for themselves and others in the arenas where they lived. In close co......-operation with the local sports club ’Nørrebro United’, 26 volunteer coaches (coaching the boys in school), school staff, the local community and not least the young people themselves, the intervention gradually took it’s own form. The intention of this strong local co-operation, was to clarify the young participants...... bullet points. We will use voices from the project, like volunteer coaches and the local sports club Nørrebro United. This final discussion will broaden the local agenda of this research project towards a more general discussion with the participants....

  7. Game Intelligence in Team Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Lennartsson, Jan; Lidstr?m, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl

    2015-01-01

    We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies.

  8. Game intelligence in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Jan; Lidström, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl

    2015-01-01

    We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies.

  9. Game Intelligence in Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Jan; Lidström, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl

    2015-01-01

    We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies. PMID:25970581

  10. Safety in Team Sports. Sports Safety Series, Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph examines methods of promoting safe practices in the conduct of selected team sports with the aim of reducing and eliminating the occurrance of injuries. The team sports discussed are baseball and softball, basketball, field hockey, tackle football, touch and flag football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and soccer. (MJB)

  11. Team mums: team sport experiences of athletic mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Batey, Jo; Owton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining involvement in sport and exercise activities is a challenge for mothers with young children. This study therefore qualitatively explores the experiences of 7 mothers who have managed to remain physically active in team sports exploring how the team environment might meet their psychological needs. We analyse the results through Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Semi-structured interviews were thematically analysed to reveal the following themes: perceived benefits of sport, perceiv...

  12. Antecedents of Player Satisfaction in Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Merrill J.

    1981-01-01

    Satisfaction of participants in team sports hinges on psychosocial needs of individual athletes. Team affiliation creates a ready-made social structure in which emotional rewards of close friendships, motivation to achieve particular goals, and social reinforcement through personal recognition are granted. Other factors include: (1) team size; (2)…

  13. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  14. Organizational socialization in team sport environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A J; Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2016-04-01

    Socialization tactics are often used to manage initial group member interactions in a way that facilitates transition experiences. Although this process is heavily researched in organizational contexts, we sought to extend this line of inquiry to sport by examining the nature of socialization tactics used to integrate new members into existing teams. Interviews were conducted with 12 coaches and 12 athletes from several Canadian Interuniversity Sport teams to explore the nature of socialization and the circumstances underscoring why certain approaches are taken over others. A key process involved establishing congruency of role expectations between incoming athletes and group leaders, and socialization processes balanced expectations of conformity with encouragement of individual personalities within the group. A conceptual basis to examine socialization into team sport environments is discussed in relation to the extant organizational theories, and the practical implications of delineating sport socialization tactics are forwarded. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dynamic Systems Theory and Team Sport Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gréhaigne, Jean-Francis; Godbout, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the theory of dynamic systems and its use in the domains of the study and coaching of team sports. The two teams involved in a match are looked at as two interacting systems in movement, where opposition is paramount. A key element for the observation of game play is the notion of configuration of play and its ever-changing…

  16. What is the most interesting team sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Federico; Ben-Naim, Eli; Redner, Sidney

    2006-03-01

    What is the most interesting team sport? We answer this question via an extensive statistical survey of game scores, consisting of more than 1/4 million games in over a century. We propose the likelihood of upsets as a measure of competitiveness. We demonstrate the utility of this measure via a comparative analysis of several popular team sports including soccer, baseball, hockey, basketball, and football. We also develop a mathematical model, in which the stronger team is favored to win a game. This model allows to us conveniently estimate the likelihood of upsets from the more easily-accessible standings data.

  17. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  18. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.

  19. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical an...

  20. Team Synergies in Sport: Theory and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i) dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii) reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii) interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv), degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviors self-organize into a group synergy. Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts. Complex adaptive systems, synergies, group

  1. Sport-specific nutrition: practical strategies for team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs.

  2. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email: frank.bensch@hus.fi

    2011-12-15

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  3. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2011-01-01

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  4. Group cohesion in sports teams of different professional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazha M. Devishvili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The paper also considered the phenomenon of the emergence of the aggregate subject in the process of joint activity. when the participants feel themselves as a whole and experience feelings of satisfaction and a surge of energy. Objective. The main objective of the work is to investigate the relationship between the level of team cohesion and subjective feelings of unity of its players. As additional variables in the study there is a sport (football and volleyball and team level (amateur and professional. To test the assumptions. two methods were used (the Sport Team Cohesion Questionnaire and the Subject Unity Index. which allow not only to determine the overall level of cohesion and unity. but also to reveal the structure of both phenomena. The study involved two men’s volleyball and two men’s football teams of different ages: 8-9 years (39 athletes; 12-14 years (24 athletes and 18-25 years (41 athletes. Design. For amateur groups represented by children’s and teenage sports teams. significant correlations between unity and unity were obtained (r = 0.618. p <0.01; r = 0.477. p <0.05. For professional teams. no significant correlations were found. Influence of the sport on cohesion is also different for amateur and professional teams. In the first case. the cohesion is higher for football players (U = 118. p <0.05. and in the second case for volleyball players (U = 124. p <0.05. Results. The findings indicate that the professional level of players affects group

  5. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  6. Team synergies in sport: Theory and measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Araújo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv, degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviours self-organize into a group synergy.Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts.

  7. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  8. Evaluating strategic periodisation in team sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sam; Joyce, David

    2018-02-01

    The planned peaking for matches or events of perceived greatest priority or difficulty throughout a competitive season is commonplace in high-level team sports. Despite this prevalence in the field, little research exists on the practice. This study aimed to provide a framework for strategic periodisation which team sport organisations can use to evaluate the efficacy of such plans. Data relating to factors potentially influencing the difficulty of matches were obtained for games played in the 2014 Australian Football League season. These included the match location, opposition rank, between-match break and team "form". Binary logistic regression models were developed to determine the level of association between these factors and match outcome (win/loss). Models were constructed using "fixed" factors available to clubs prior to commencement of the season, and then also "dynamic" factors obtained at monthly intervals throughout the in-season period. The influence of playing away from home on match difficulty became stronger as the season progressed, whilst the opposition rank from the preceding season was the strongest indicator of difficulty across all models. The approaches demonstrated in this paper can be used practically to evaluate both the long- and short-term efficacy of strategic periodisation plans in team sports as well as inform and influence coach programming.

  9. Sustainability as a team sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Sawahata (Lesa); G.M. Whiteman (Gail)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Making sense of climate change and understanding the impact that changing earth systems will have on business globally is one of the aims of the Centre for Eco-Transformation. Finding credible management solutions to these immense challenges is another.

  10. Cohesion, team mental models, and collective efficacy: towards an integrated framework of team dynamics in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Edson; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Yang, Yanyun

    2015-01-01

    A nomological network on team dynamics in sports consisting of a multiframework perspective is introduced and tested. The aim was to explore the interrelationship among cohesion, team mental models (TMMs), collective efficacy (CE) and perceived performance potential (PPP). Three hundred and forty college-aged soccer players representing 17 different teams (8 female and 9 male) participated in the study. They responded to surveys on team cohesion, TMMs, CE and PPP. Results are congruent with the theoretical conceptualisation of a parsimonious view of team dynamics in sports. Specifically, cohesion was found to be an exogenous variable predicting both TMMs and CE beliefs. TMMs and CE were correlated and predicted PPP, which in turn accounted for 59% of the variance of objective performance scores as measured by teams' season record. From a theoretical standpoint, findings resulted in a parsimonious view of team dynamics, which may represent an initial step towards clarifying the epistemological roots and nomological network of various team-level properties. From an applied standpoint, results suggest that team expertise starts with the establishment of team cohesion. Following the establishment of cohesiveness, teammates are able to advance team-related schemas and a collective sense of confidence. Limitations and key directions for future research are outlined.

  11. Working with sports organizations and teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, David R; Garvin, Michelle

    2016-12-01

    Athletes and coaches at all competitive levels will utilize sports performance and psychiatric services at very high rates if the services are offered on-site and free of charge and are broad in scope and culturally sensitive. Services should be available throughout the team year and cover areas such as team building, mental preparation, stress control, substance prevention, sleep and energy regulation, injury recovery, crisis intervention, and mental disorder treatment. The staff offering these services should be diverse by gender, profession, and culture, and the fees should be paid by the organization. When these services are endorsed by the team's leaders and integrated with the athletic training/medical/player development staff, their utilization will grow quickly and lead to positive outcomes individually and collectively.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AMONG TEAM SPORT AND INDIVIDUAL SPORT ATHLETES IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani Hossein; Hojati Zahra; Reza Attarzadeh Hossini Seyed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate) and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball). The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Invent...

  13. Group cohesion in sports teams of different professional level

    OpenAIRE

    Vazha M. Devishvili; Marina O. Mdivani; Daria S. Elgina

    2017-01-01

    Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The pape...

  14. Injury risk is different in team and individual youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Daniel; Frisch, Anne; Malisoux, Laurent; Urhausen, Axel; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Seil, Romain

    2013-05-01

    This study compared sports injury incidence in young high-level athletes from various team and individual sports and investigated if sport participation patterns are linked to injuries. Prospective cohort follow-up. Pupils from a public sports school (12-19 years) were recruited over two separate school years (2008-2009: 42 weeks, n=199 athletes; 2009-2010: 40 weeks, n=89 athletes). Training and competition volume and intensity were recorded via a personal sports diary. Sports injuries (time-loss definition) were registered by medical staff members using a standardized questionnaire. Injury incidence was significantly higher in team compared with individual sports (6.16 versus 2.88 injuries/1000h, respectively), as a result of a higher incidence of both traumatic (RR=2.17; CI95%=1.75-2.70; pteam sports participation had a hazard ratio of 2.00 (CI95%=1.49-2.68; pteam sports, whereas the number of intense training sessions per 100 days was significantly lower. In team sports, the number of competitions per 100 days was positively associated with injuries (HR=1.072; CI95% [1.033; 1.113]; pTeam sports participation entailed a higher injury risk, whatever the injury category. Further research should elucidate the role of characteristics related to sport participation in injury causation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Aerobic Fitness in Young Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended.

  16. SMART (Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation Team) Centers: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    providers ( sports medicine doctors, physical therapists, certified athletic trainers [ATC’s], podiatrists, and chiropractors) into one clinic. Core principals...Patellar Tendonitis), and 733.93 (Lower Leg Stress Fractures) are significantly lower than the corresponding PEB rates for NHCP Orthopedics and Sports ... Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation Team) Center. SMART Centers address the multitude of muscular skeletal injuries encountered at Recruit Training

  17. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is

  18. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  19. Oxytocin and the biopsychology of performance in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.

  20. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan Pepping

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.

  1. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport. PMID:22997498

  2. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  3. Cross-Cultural Conflicts within Sports Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stura, Claudia; Johnston, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    Since sports are increasingly used a way to bring formerly conflicting parties together post-conflict, more work needs to be done to ensure that sports are actually conducted in a way that promotes peace rather than exacerbates the conflict. Since many sports-for-peace programs cross cultural boundaries, this exploratory study was conducted to…

  4. How to make sense of team sport data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Manuel; Janetzko, Halldór; Seebacher, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    in general. We identify challenges arising when facing these data sets and we propose a multi-facet view and analysis including pattern detection, context-aware analysis, and visual explanation. We also present applicable methods and technologies covering the heterogeneous aspects in team sport data.......Automatic and interactive data analysis is instrumental in making use of increasing amounts of complex data. Owing to novel sensor modalities, analysis of data generated in professional team sport leagues such as soccer, baseball, and basketball has recently become of concern, with potentially high...... or groups of players happened, and what the respective influencing factors are. We consider team sport as group movement including collaboration and competition of individuals following specific rule sets. Analyzing team sports is a challenging problem as it involves joint understanding of heterogeneous...

  5. Injuries in team sport tournaments during the 2004 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri

    2006-04-01

    Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.

  6. Botswana team sport players' perception of cohesion and imagery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception of cohesion and imagery use among 45 elite team sport players in Botswana were assessed with the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron et al., 1985) and the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall et al., 1998) to determine whether a relationship exists between the variables, and whether imagery use will ...

  7. Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-Related Issues Facing Professional Team-Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; Coutts, Aaron J; Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim

    2015-11-01

    While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.

  8. Spatial dynamics of team sports exposed by Voronoi diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sofia; Milho, João; Travassos, Bruno; Araújo, Duarte

    2012-12-01

    Team sports represent complex systems: players interact continuously during a game, and exhibit intricate patterns of interaction, which can be identified and investigated at both individual and collective levels. We used Voronoi diagrams to identify and investigate the spatial dynamics of players' behavior in Futsal. Using this tool, we examined 19 plays of a sub-phase of a Futsal game played in a reduced area (20 m(2)) from which we extracted the trajectories of all players. Results obtained from a comparative analysis of player's Voronoi area (dominant region) and nearest teammate distance revealed different patterns of interaction between attackers and defenders, both at the level of individual players and teams. We found that, compared to defenders, larger dominant regions were associated with attackers. Furthermore, these regions were more variable in size among players from the same team but, at the player level, the attackers' dominant regions were more regular than those associated with each of the defenders. These findings support a formal description of the dynamic spatial interaction of the players, at least during the particular sub-phase of Futsal investigated. The adopted approach may be extended to other team behaviors where the actions taken at any instant in time by each of the involved agents are associated with the space they occupy at that particular time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Trust for Leadership in Team Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Gulak-Lipka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s sport in many ways is like business. Numerous con­cepts as well as characteristics are adequate for both. The role of leaders in sports and business is invaluable when it comes to reaching goals or creating positive work environment. The aim of the paper is to identify the role of trust in relationships within a sport team, particularly between the leader and the rest of the group (trust in leader, and to highlight the impact of trust on the effectiveness of leaders’ work and successes achieved by a team.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AMONG TEAM SPORT AND INDIVIDUAL SPORT ATHLETES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltani Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball. The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. This inventory was distributed among the subjects about 30 minutes before the first competition. Finally by one-way ANOVA data was analyzed. Results: The results indicated that the mean score of somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety among individual sport athletes was significantly higher than that of team sport athletes (p0.05. Conclusion: It seems the being part of a team alleviates some of the pressure experienced by those who compete alone. It seems the individual sport athletes may be more exposed to evaluation and more engaged in their own skills and abilities than team sport athletes given that responsibility for performance is not distributed across several performers.

  11. Social network analysis applied to team sports analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Explaining how graph theory and social network analysis can be applied to team sports analysis, This book presents useful approaches, models and methods that can be used to characterise the overall properties of team networks and identify the prominence of each team player. Exploring the different possible network metrics that can be utilised in sports analysis, their possible applications and variances from situation to situation, the respective chapters present an array of illustrative case studies. Identifying the general concepts of social network analysis and network centrality metrics, readers are shown how to generate a methodological protocol for data collection. As such, the book provides a valuable resource for students of the sport sciences, sports engineering, applied computation and the social sciences.

  12. The Application of Social Network Analysis to Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Dean; Robins, Garry; Kremer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews how current social network analysis might be used to investigate individual and group behavior in sporting teams. Social network analysis methods permit researchers to explore social relations between team members and their individual-level qualities simultaneously. As such, social network analysis can be seen as augmenting…

  13. The podiatrist as a member of the sports medicine team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David W

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the history of sports medicine highlighting the "jogging boom" of the 1970s and the advocacy of Dr George Sheehan, which boosted the position of podiatry in sports medicine. Significant events in mainstream sports medicine that promoted the rise of podiatric medicine are discussed. Reasons as to why podiatric medicine should be a member of the sports medicine team are outlined, and lastly, examples that highlight podiatric medicine as participants alongside other specialties in the evaluation and care of athletes are given. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Team Physicians, Sports Medicine, and the Law: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Dionne L

    2016-04-01

    The recognition of sports medicine and promulgation of practice guidelines for team physicians will push general medical malpractice standards to evolve into a more specialized standard of care for those who practice in this area. To the extent that practicing medicine in the sports context involves calculations that do not arise in typical medical practice, the sports medicine community can help elucidate those issues and create appropriate guidelines that can serve to inform athlete-patients and educate courts. Doing so will help best set the terms by which those who practice sports medicine are judged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. It's Time to Start Changing the Game: A 12-Week Workplace Team Sport Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Munir, Fehmidah

    2017-08-23

    A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n = 28 participants) or control (n = 20 participants) groups. The team sport sessions were underpinned by psychological behaviour change theory and consisted of weekly 1-h team sport sessions for 12 weeks. Measures of aerobic fitness, physical activity behaviour, group cohesion, interaction and communication, psychological wellbeing, health, anthropometrics and workplace experiences were recorded pre- and post-intervention. Data were analysed using a series of mixed ANOVAs. After 12 weeks significant improvements were observed in VO 2 max (+ 4.5 ± 5.8 ml/min kg, P intervention group. A significant (P intervention group. Participation in team sport may be an effective method to improve the aerobic fitness and physical activity behaviour of employees, and promote interpersonal communication between colleagues. Individual health outcomes and social interactions have the capacity to influence the health of the organisation. The extent of which these findings are replicable across a scope of organisations should be examined objectively over the long term.

  16. Talent development in adolescent team sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Darren J; Naughton, Geraldine A

    2010-03-01

    Traditional talent development pathways for adolescents in team sports follow talent identification procedures based on subjective games ratings and isolated athletic assessment. Most talent development models are exclusive rather than inclusive in nature. Subsequently, talent identification may result in discontentment, premature stratification, or dropout from team sports. Understanding the multidimensional differences among the requirements of adolescent and elite adult athletes could provide more realistic goals for potential talented players. Coach education should include adolescent development, and rewards for team success at the adolescent level should reflect the needs of long-term player development. Effective talent development needs to incorporate physical and psychological maturity, the relative age effect, objective measures of game sense, and athletic prowess. The influences of media and culture on the individual, and the competing time demands between various competitions for player training time should be monitored and mediated where appropriate. Despite the complexity, talent development is a worthy investment in professional team sport.

  17. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  18. Number of Years of Team and Individual Sport Participation During Adolescence and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Jewett, Rachel; Ashdown-Franks, Garcia; Belanger, Mathieu; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = -.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.

  19. A Comparison between Learning Style Preferences, Gender, Sport and Achievement in Elite Team Sport Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Braakhuis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.

  20. What benefits does team sport hold for the workplace? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Munir, Fehmidah

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity is proven to be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases and all-cost mortality. Public health policy recommends community settings worldwide such as the workplace to promote physical activity. Despite the growing prevalence of workplace team sports, studies have not synthesised their benefits within the workplace. A systematic review was carried out to identify articles related to workplace team sports, including intervention, observational and qualitative studies. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings suggest team sport holds benefits not only for individual health but also for group cohesion and performance and organisational benefits such as the increased work performance. However, it is unclear how sport is most associated with these benefits as most of the studies included poorly described samples and unclear sports activities. Our review highlights the need to explore and empirically understand the benefits of workplace team sport for individual, group and organisational health outcomes. Researches carried out in this field must provide details regarding their respective samples, the sports profile and utilise objective measures (e.g., sickness absence register data, accelerometer data).

  1. The influence of previous sport experiences in transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine how players’ positional data can be used to assess the transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports (basketball, football and rugby) in early specialized and diversified sport careers. Thirty-four college students were divided into early specialization and early diversification groups, according to information provided by a questionnaire designed to obtain detailed information about their sports career. In-game derived variables were calculated based on ...

  2. Travel medicine advice to UK based international motor sport teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, A

    2000-01-01

    International motor sport teams travel extensively. Over the years, the design and build of racing cars has improved so that morbidity and mortality in motor sport has been lessened. Those team members supporting the competitors need to be physically and mentally fit to perform complicated tasks, despite having traveled. This group of travelers has not been studied to any extent previously. An anonymous questionnaire asking some basic travel medicine related questions was distributed to the support team members of a Rally team, and Formula One Grand Prix team. Both teams were based in the UK, and competed in all the rounds of their respective world championships. Ten Rally team members and 18 Formula One team members responded to the questionnaire. The results showed moderate coverage of commonly used vaccinations; appropriate use of antimalarials and insect repellents, but by no means by all team members; little or no problems with traveler's diarrhea; some tendencies to problems related to jet lag, but no real attempt to prevent the problem; and finally some attempt at skin protection against solar damage. Support teams are reasonably well prepared for the combination of, the rigors of frequent travel, and a demanding job. There is a deficit in vaccine coverage, especially of both hepatitis A and B, some education is needed in preventing skin problems later in life due to sun exposure, and further study of jet lag and its implications might be appropriate.

  3. Is perceived athlete leadership quality related to team effectiveness? A comparison of three professional sports teams

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S. Alexander; Mallett, Cliff J.; Steffens, Niklas K.; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Design. Three professional football teams (N = 135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Methods. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players’ leadership quality in...

  4. Enhancing Performance & Preventing Injuries in Team Sport Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Hendrike

    2016-01-01

    Next to physical load and recovery as a result of training, psychosocial stress and recovery affect performance and injury risk of team sport players. This can be concluded based on a series of studies that focus on the relation between jumping technique, training load, training recovery,

  5. Are Children's Competitive Team Sports Socializing Agents for Corporate America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlage, Gai Ingham

    In a study of the similarities between childrens' competitive team sports and the typical corporate or business environment, two research questions were posed: (1) Does the structural organization of childrens' soccer and ice hockey organizations resemble that of American corporations?; and (2) Are the values of childrens' competitive sports…

  6. Benefits of team sport for organisations | Joubert | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One thing is certain: work is an important part of our lives. Work adds value to an individual in the form of self-actualisation, security and relationships. The purpose of this research was to explore employees' experiences of the benefits of organisational team sport activities. The qualitative exploration study was conducted ...

  7. Safe leads and lead changes in competitive team sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, A.; Kogan, M.; Redner, S.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size L and game time t . Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40 000 games across four professional or semiprofessional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.

  8. PERFORMANCE LEVEL AFFECTS THE DIETARY SUPPLEMENT INTAKE OF BOTH INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifigenia Giannopoulou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement (DS intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62 between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775 and team sports (n = 2008. To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44% compared to team sport athletes (35% (p < 0.001. Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations.

  9. Sports Biostatistician: a critical member of all sports science and medicine teams for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-12-01

    Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Team behaviour analysis in sports using the poisson equation

    OpenAIRE

    Direkoglu, Cem; O'Connor, Noel E.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel physics-based model for analysing team play- ers’ positions and movements on a sports playing field. The goal is to detect for each frame the region with the highest population of a given team’s players and the region towards which the team is moving as they press for territorial advancement, termed the region of intent. Given the positions of team players from a plan view of the playing field at any given time, we solve a particular Poisson equation to generate a smooth di...

  11. "Yes, we can!" review on team confidence in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Mertens, Niels; Feltz, Deborah; Boen, Filip

    2017-08-01

    During the last decade, team confidence has received more and more attention in the sport psychology literature. Research has demonstrated that athletes who are more confident in their team's abilities exert more effort, set more challenging goals, are more resilient when facing adversities, and ultimately perform better. This article reviews the existing literature in order to provide more clarity in terms of the conceptualization and the operationalization of team confidence. We thereby distinguish between collective efficacy (i.e., process-oriented team confidence) and team outcome confidence (i.e., outcome-oriented team confidence). In addition, both the sources as well as the outcomes of team confidence will be discussed. Furthermore, we will go deeper into the dispersion of team confidence and we will evaluate the current guidelines on how to measure both types of team confidence. Building upon this base, the article then highlights interesting avenues for future research in order to further improve both our theoretical knowledge on team confidence and its application to the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GPP Webinar: Green Power Use and Opportunities for Sports Teams & Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar on the green power use by sports teams and their venues. Focused on how and why sports teams and venues use green power, review of available product options, and best practices for procuring renewable energy.

  13. Sport and team differences on baseline measures of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Adam; Piecora, Kyle; Schuster, Danielle; Webbe, Frank

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) mandating the presence and practice of concussion-management plans in collegiate athletic programs, institutions will consider potential approaches for concussion management, including both baseline and normative comparison approaches. To examine sport and team differences in baseline performance on a computer-based neurocognitive measure and 2 standard sideline measures of cognition and balance and to determine the potential effect of premorbid factors sex and height on baseline performance. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. A total of 437 NCAA Division II student-athletes (males = 273, females = 164; age = 19.61 ± 1.64 years, height = 69.89 ± 4.04 inches [177.52 ± 10.26 cm]) were recruited during mandatory preseason testing conducted in a concussion-management program. The computerized Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (Form A; SAC), and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Players on the men's basketball team tended to perform worse on the baseline measures, whereas soccer players tended to perform better. We found a difference in total BESS scores between these sports (P = .002). We saw a difference between sports on the hard-surface portion of the BESS (F6,347 = 3.33, P = .003, ηp(2) = 0.05). No sport, team, or sex differences were found with SAC scores (P > .05). We noted differences between sports and teams in the CRI indices, with basketball, particularly the men's team, performing worse than soccer (P sport differences, height was a covariate for the team (F1,385 = 5.109, P = .02, ηp(2) = 0.013) and sport (F1,326 = 11.212, P = .001, ηp(2) = 0.033) analyses, but the interaction of sex and sport on CRI indices was not significant in any test (P > .05). Given that differences in neurocognitive functioning and performance among sports and teams exist, the comparison of posttraumatic and baseline assessment may lead to more

  14. The Economics of professional team sports: content, trends and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASSILIKI AVGERINOU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the prevailing content, trends and future developments of professional team sports economics. The purpose of this paper is not to provide a full record of all professional team sports related research with an economic content, but rather to point out the main issues that sports economics tackle since their birth and track the evolution of these issues as a response to the changing environment of team sports. League market structure, team objectives, demand, financing, labour markets and sports broadcasting are the most prominent areas of interest in professional team sports economics. Differences in organizational structure of professional team sports in Europe and U.S.A. shape the research agenda on the two sides of the Atlantic accordingly. Future developments should capture both economic and social aspects of contemporary professional team sports.

  15. The myth of the team captain as principal leader: extending the athlete leadership classification within sport teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Although coaches and players recognise the importance of leaders within the team, research on athlete leadership is sparse. The present study expands knowledge of athlete leadership by extending the current leadership classification and exploring the importance of the team captain as formal leader of the team. An online survey was completed by 4,451 participants (31% females and 69% males) within nine different team sports in Flanders (Belgium). Players (N = 3,193) and coaches (N = 1,258) participated on all different levels in their sports. Results revealed that the proposed additional role of motivational leader was perceived as clearly distinct from the already established roles (task, social and external leader). Furthermore, almost half of the participants (44%) did not perceive their captain as the principal leader on any of the four roles. These findings underline the fact that the leadership qualities attributed to the captain as the team's formal leader are overrated. It can be concluded that leadership is spread throughout the team; informal leaders rather than the captain take the lead, both on and off the field.

  16. Is perceived athlete leadership quality related to team effectiveness? A comparison of three professional sports teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Mallett, Clifford J; Steffens, Niklas K; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip

    2017-08-01

    Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Three professional football teams (N=135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players' leadership quality in four leadership roles (as task, motivational, social, and external leader) via an online survey. The leadership quality in each of these roles was then calculated in a social network analysis by averaging the indegree centralities of the three best leaders in that particular role. Participants also rated their team's performance and its functioning on multiple indicators. As hypothesized, the team with the highest-quality athlete leadership on each of the four leadership roles excelled in all indicators of team effectiveness. More specifically, athletes in this team had a stronger shared sense of the team's purpose, they were more highly committed to realizing the team's goals, and they had a greater confidence in their team's abilities than athletes in the other teams. Moreover, this team demonstrated a higher task-involving and a lower ego-involving climate, and excelled on all measures of performance. High-quality athlete leadership is positively related to team effectiveness. Given the importance of high-quality athlete leadership, the study highlights the need for well-designed empirically-based leadership development programs. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988

  18. Procrastination phenomenon in individual and team sports athletes’ activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Barabanshchikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern world imposes strict conditions on people in various types of activities. A huge amount of processed information, tight timelines and other factors may cause people’s inability to cope with their tasks. Thus, there is a popular habit to put off the work without thinking about the consequences. This trait called procrastination is inherent to a million people all over the world. The problem of procrastination is just beginning to develop in Russia. Nowadays lots of foreign research and foreign questionnaires are being translated and approbated. The aim of this research is to identify the level of athletes’ procrastination, and define the differences of procrastination patterns in individual and team sports athletes. Also we want to study the relationship between procrastination and athletes’ personal characteristics such as extroversion, neuroticism, control over the actions, motivation to success, anxiety, time perspective and decision-making style (coping, and also indicators of state anxiety using a sample of individual athletes (boxing, unarmed self-defence, judo, karate, kickboxing, wrestling, taekwondo and teams (hockey, football, volleyball. Correlation analysis shows structural differences of procrastination manifestations in different types of sport. Regression analysis shows that in athletes of individual sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusted R2 = 0,368 there is only one significant predictor of procrastination - the negative past (p = 0,007, β = 0,495. The negative past (p = 0,003, β = 0,463, the control over the planning of the action (p = 0,05, β = -0.220 and the monitoring of the implementation of the action (p = 0,003, β = -0,465 are the predictors of procrastination in team sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusred R2 = 0,368.

  19. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load.

  20. Fatigue and pacing in high-intensity intermittent team sport: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mark; Highton, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    With the advancements in player tracking technology, the topic of fatigue and pacing in team sport has become increasingly popular in recent years. Initially based upon a pre-conceived pacing schema, a central metabolic control system is proposed to guide the movement of players during team sport matches, which can be consciously modified based on afferent signals from the various physiological systems and in response to environmental cues. On the basis of this theory, coupled with the collective findings from motion-analysis research, we sought to define the different pacing strategies employed by team sport players. Whole-match players adopt a 'slow-positive' pacing profile (gradual decline in total running intensity), which appears to be global across the different team sports. High-intensity movement also declines in a 'slow-positive' manner across most team sport matches. The duration of the exercise bout appears to be important for the selected exercise intensity, with the first introduction to a match as a substitute or interchange player resulting in a 'one bout, all out' strategy. In a limited interchange environment, a second introduction to the match results in a 'second-bout reserve' strategy; otherwise, the 'one bout, all out' strategy is likely to be adopted. These pacing profiles are proposed to reflect the presence of a central regulator that controls the movement intensity of the player to optimize performance, as well as avoiding the harmful failure of any physiological system. The presence of 'temporary fatigue' reflects this process, whereby exercise intensity is consciously modulated from within the framework of a global pacing schema.

  1. The comparison of social skill levels of team sports athletes and individual sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Çepikkurt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study is to compare the level of social skills scores of undergraduate students at Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports according to sport types, gender and class levels. Material and Methods: To test the main hypothesis, a total of 112 student- athletes (47 female and 65 male, performing individual and team sports from the Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports were involved in this study. Data were collected by ‘Social Skills Inventory” developed by Riggio (1986, 1989 and adapted to Turkish by Yüksel (1998. Results: T -test results showed that the mean scores of 6 sub-dimensions of social skills scale does not change with regard to types of sports. But, there were significant differences of mean scores of social control changes with respect to gender and this score was higher for female athletes compared to male counterparts. Moreover, the results of Kruskal Wallis Analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in all sub dimensions except emotional awareness subscale compared to class level. First year students had the highest scores in terms of emotional expressivity, emotional control, social expressivity, social awareness, and social control. Conclusion: It could be stated that women are more successful in social skills, although the level of social skills of student-athletes does not differ according to sport.

  2. A Basic Study on Leadership of the Coaches in the College Sports Teams

    OpenAIRE

    畑, 攻; 柴田, 雅貴; 塚本, 正仁; 杉山, 歌奈子

    2004-01-01

    Leadership is one of the most important elements for team sports management, and concerning to members morale, team morale, maturity, and performance. In sports science area, it is expected that sports leadership would be defined and clarified to attain their objective. The purpose of the study was to identify sports leaders' behavior and function concerning with members' satisfaction. This study employed a specially designed questionnaire which were consisted of general demographics, academi...

  3. It's Time to Start Changing the Game: A 12-Week Workplace Team Sport Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Munir, Fehmidah

    2017-01-01

    Background A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. Methods A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n?=?28 participants) or control (n?=?20 participants) grou...

  4. Classification of Intensity in Team-Sport Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polglaze, Ted; Hogan, Cruz; Dawson, Brian; Buttfield, Alec; Osgnach, Cristian; Lester, Leanne; Peeling, Peter

    2018-02-09

    To assess the efficacy of critical metabolic power derived from variable-speed movement for classifying intensity in team sport activity. Elite male hockey players (n = 12) completed a series of time trials (100 yd, 400 yd, 1500 yd) and a 3-min all-out test to derive both critical speed (CS) and critical power (CP). Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BLa) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during each protocol. Participants (n = 10) then played 2 competitive hockey matches. Time spent >85% of HRmax was compared to time spent above CS (from the time trials) and CP (from the 3-min test). Between protocols, there was a moderate and non-significant association for CS (r = 0.359, P = 0.252), and a very large association for CP (r = 0.754, P = 0.005); the association was very large for peak HR (r = 0.866, P 85% HRmax and time spent above both CS (r = 0.719, P < 0.001) and CP (r = 0.867, P < 0.001). This relationship was stronger for CP compared to CS (Z = 3.29, P = 0.0007). Speed is not an appropriate parameter for the classification of team-sport activity comprising continual changes in speed and direction, however, critical metabolic power derived from variable-speed activity appears useful for this purpose.

  5. Hypothetical model of factors determining performance and sports achievement in team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trninić Marko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is formation of a comprehensive hypothetical dynamic interactional process model structured by assumed constructs, i.e. processes or mechanisms that obtain real features and influences on athlete's performance and athletic achievement. Thus there are formed and assumed reciprocal relations between high training and competition - based stress as the input variable, cognitive appraisal and interpretation as the mediator, and mood state as the moderator based on the development of the dynamic systems theory. Also, proposed model uses basic assumptions of the Action-Theory approach and it is in accordance with the contemporary socialcognitive view of team functioning in sports. Within the process model, the output variables are measures of efficacy evident through athlete's individual and team performance and athletic achievement. The situation, the team and athlete attributes, the performance and the athletic achievement are joined variables, and the individual and the collective efficacy are the consequence of their reciprocal interaction. Therefore, there are complex and reciprocal interactive processes in real sports and explorative situations amongst the attributes of athlete and team and the behaviour and situation that determine performance and athletic achievement. This is probably the result of an integrated network of reciprocal multi-causal activity of a set of stated assumed constructs from different theories. Thus the hypothetical model is an effort to describe elaborate correlations and/or interdependencies between internal and external determinants which presumably affect athlete's performance and athletic achievement.

  6. An Integrative Perspective on Interpersonal Coordination in Interactive Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Silvan; Macquet, Anne-Claire; Seiler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal coordination is a key factor in team performance. In interactive team sports, the limited predictability of a constantly changing context makes coordination challenging. Approaches that highlight the support provided by environmental information and theories of shared mental models provide potential explanations of how interpersonal coordination can nonetheless be established. In this article, we first outline the main assumptions of these approaches and consider criticisms that have been raised with regard to each. The aim of this article is to define a theoretical perspective that integrates the coordination mechanisms of the two approaches. In doing so, we borrow from a theoretical outline of group action. According to this outline, group action based on a priori shared mental models is an example of how interpersonal coordination is established from the top down. Interpersonal coordination in reaction to the perception of affordances represents the bottom-up component of group action. Both components are inextricably involved in the coordination of interactive sports teams. We further elaborate on the theoretical outline to integrate a third, constructivist approach. Integrating this third approach helps to explain interpersonal coordination in game situations for which no shared mental models are established and game situations that remain ambiguous in terms of perceived affordances. The article describes how hierarchical, sequential, and complex dimensions of action organization are important aspects of this constructivist perspective and how mental models may be involved. A basketball example is used to illustrate how top-down, bottom-up and constructivist processes may be simultaneously involved in enabling interpersonal coordination. Finally, we present the implications for research and practice. PMID:28894428

  7. Lead Us Not into Tanktation: A Simulation Modelling Approach to Gain Insights into Incentives for Sporting Teams to Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Geoffrey N.; Whitten, Athol R.

    2013-01-01

    Annual draft systems are the principal method used by teams in major sporting leagues to recruit amateur players. These draft systems frequently take one of three forms: a lottery style draft, a weighted draft, or a reverse-order draft. Reverse-order drafts can create incentives for teams to deliberately under-perform, or tank, due to the perceived gain from obtaining quality players at higher draft picks. This paper uses a dynamic simulation model that captures the key components of a win-maximising sporting league, including the amateur player draft, draft choice error, player productivity, and between-team competition, to explore how competitive balance and incentives to under-perform vary according to league characteristics. We find reverse-order drafts can lead to some teams cycling between success and failure and to other teams being stuck in mid-ranking positions for extended periods of time. We also find that an incentive for teams to tank exists, but that this incentive decreases (i) as uncertainty in the ability to determine quality players in the draft increases, (ii) as the number of teams in the league reduces, (iii) as team size decreases, and (iv) as the number of teams adopting a tanking strategy increases. Simulation models can be used to explore complex stochastic dynamic systems such as sports leagues, where managers face difficult decisions regarding the structure of their league and the desire to maintain competitive balance. PMID:24312243

  8. Sport-specific functional movement can simulate aspects of neuromuscular fatigue occurring in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Jan; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Krause, Frieder; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    Fatigue protocols have been used over the years to examine muscular exhaustion. As an alternative to approaches in laboratory settings, functional agility protocols claiming to mimic the multifaceted loads of athletic activity have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effects of a functional agility short-term fatigue protocol (FAST-FP) on neuromuscular function. Twenty-eight healthy sports students (15 males, aged 24.3 ± 2.4 years) completed the FAST-FP, which consists of four components: three counter-movement jumps (90% of individual maximum), a 20-s bout of step-ups, three bodyweight squats and an agility run. Tasks were repeated until the participants no longer achieved the required jump height in two consecutive sets. Outcomes (pre-post) encompassed subjective exhaustion (visual analogue scale [VAS]), maximum isometric voluntary force of the knee extensors (MIVF), reactive strength index (RSI), mean power frequency (MPF, measured using surface electromyography) and maximum knee range of motion (ROM). Post-intervention, VAS (+54 mm) increased significantly, while MIVF (-6.1%), RSI (-10.7%) and MPF (-4.1%) were reduced (p  0.05). The FAST-FP induces small-to-moderate impairments in neuromuscular function and considerable self-perceived fatigue. Current evidence on exhaustion developing in team sports suggests that this magnitude of fatigue is similar. The protocol might thus be valuable in the evaluation of treatments counteracting post-match fatigue in team sports.

  9. Agility in Team Sports: Testing, Training and Factors Affecting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P

    2016-03-01

    Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective

  10. Process model to implement organisational team sport interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that the implementation process starts where top management initiates sporting activities and makes the employees aware of sporting events. The employees need to be informed through induction, presentations, electronic mail, sports competitions among different departments and videos.

  11. What's Next in Complex Networks? Capturing the Concept of Attacking Play in Invasive Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, João; Lopes, Rui J; Araújo, Duarte

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of performance analysis within sports sciences is tied to technology development and practitioner demands. However, how individual and collective patterns self-organize and interact in invasive team sports remains elusive. Social network analysis has been recently proposed to resolve some aspects of this problem, and has proven successful in capturing collective features resulting from the interactions between team members as well as a powerful communication tool. Despite these advances, some fundamental team sports concepts such as an attacking play have not been properly captured by the more common applications of social network analysis to team sports performance. In this article, we propose a novel approach to team sports performance centered on sport concepts, namely that of an attacking play. Network theory and tools including temporal and bipartite or multilayered networks were used to capture this concept. We put forward eight questions directly related to team performance to discuss how common pitfalls in the use of network tools for capturing sports concepts can be avoided. Some answers are advanced in an attempt to be more precise in the description of team dynamics and to uncover other metrics directly applied to sport concepts, such as the structure and dynamics of attacking plays. Finally, we propose that, at this stage of knowledge, it may be advantageous to build up from fundamental sport concepts toward complex network theory and tools, and not the other way around.

  12. Does the face reveal athletic flair? : Positions in team sports and facial attractiveness00

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, J.H.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Wieling, M.

    2007-01-01

    Athleticism is sexually attractive, indicating that it may serve as a sign of heritable fitness. We hypothesized that just as some sports may more honestly signal fitness than other sports, some positions within team sports may more honestly signal fitness than other positions, because success in

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and skills regarding sports medicine among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killowe, C; Mkandawire, N C

    2005-06-01

    A study was conducted among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine. One hundred football players and thirteen team doctors were involved in the study. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data in an interview format. Among the players 37% had completed tertiary education and 60% had finished secondary school education. Most players had poor knowledge on prevention of injuries; had poor advice on diet; used illicit drugs or knew of fellow players using illicit drugs and believed in the role of magic in sports. All 13 team 'doctors' worked full-time in paramedical fields: 3 were orthopaedic clinical officers, 2 were physiotherapists and the rest were in various fields, such as dental technician, pharmacy assistant, medical assistant and dermatology technician, where trauma is not part of their basic training. Most team "doctors" were aware of the impact of HIV/AIDS on sports but few had good knowledge of the role of nutrition in sports and the effect of performance enhancing drugs in sports. Most believed in the role of magic in sports. Recommendations are made on the basis of these findings.

  14. Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

  15. Leadership as factor of men's student basketball team sports and games activities efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andryushina L.L.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of study is extension of information about combining psychological, athlete's physical and sports fitness qualification in playing sports in training process while studying in university. This study took place on 24 athletes, boys 18 - 21 years of different skills (the candidate for the master of sports - 9, first-class sportsman - 12, second-class sportsman - 3. It is proved that the effectiveness of sports and gaming activities in team sports will then be productive when there be a switch in the relationship between leading and famous players from the "subject - object" to "subject -subjective ". It was determined that the main precondition for the effectiveness of competitive activity is before head identification and formation of leadership behavior in teams players of team sports, where leadership is behavioral interaction process for individuals or teams to achieve established goals.

  16. Importance, reliability and usefulness of acceleration measures in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Cummins, Cloe J; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M

    2017-02-08

    The ability to accelerate, decelerate and change direction efficiently is imperative to successful team-sports performance. Traditional intensity-based thresholds for acceleration and deceleration may be inappropriate for time-series data, and have been shown to exhibit poor reliability, suggesting other techniques may be preferable. This study assessed movement data from one professional rugby league team throughout two full seasons and one pre-season period. Using both 5 Hz and 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS) units, a range of acceleration-based variables were evaluated for their inter-unit reliability, ability to discriminate between positions, and associations with perceived muscle soreness. The reliability of 5 Hz GPS for measuring acceleration and deceleration ranged from good to poor (CV = 3.7-27.1%), with the exception of high-intensity deceleration efforts (CV = 11.1-11.8%), the 10 Hz units exhibited moderate to good inter-unit reliability (CV = 1.2-6.9%). Reliability of average metrics (average acceleration/deceleration, average acceleration and average deceleration) ranged from good to moderate (CV = 1.2-6.5%). Substantial differences were detected between positions using time spent accelerating and decelerating for all magnitudes, but these differences were less clear when considering the count or distance above acceleration/deceleration thresholds. All average metrics detected substantial differences between positions. All measures were similarly related to perceived muscle soreness, with the exception of high-intensity acceleration and deceleration counts. This study has proposed that averaging the acceleration/deceleration demands over an activity may be a more appropriate method compared to threshold-based methods, due to a greater reliability between units, whilst not sacrificing sensitivity to within and between-subject changes.

  17. Peanuts & Crackerjacks: Economics of Pro Team Sports. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…

  18. Possible Hormone Predictors Of Physical Performance In Adolescent Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alanna C; Heazlewood, Ian T; Kitic, Cecilia M; Lys, Isabelle; Johnson, Liam

    2017-05-30

    The research aim of this study was to determine possible hormone predictors of physical performance in adolescent team sport athletes. Saliva samples were collected immediately prior to performance testing sessions from 114 state squad athletes (77 male, 37 female) participating in either Australian football, basketball, hockey, or netball. Participants completed tests of aerobic and anaerobic capacity, agility, power and speed. Samples were collected over 22 months at quarterly, six-monthly and/or yearly intervals depending on the testing schedule of the athlete. Saliva was analysed for testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) levels. A strong negative correlation existed between multistage fitness test performance and T:E ratio (r=-0.76, p=0.01) in females not taking oral contraceptives and a strong positive correlation existed between repeat agility total time and estradiol levels (r=-0.71, p=0.001) in females taking oral contraceptives. In males, strong negative correlations were evident for individual changes in planned agility time and estradiol levels (r=0.87, p=0.02), and CMJ height and T:C (r=-0.88, p=0.01). In females taking oral contraceptives a strong positive correlation was noted between individual change in yo-yo intermittent recovery test performance and T:E (r=0.74, p=0.01) and a strong negative correlation was noted between 20m speed and T:P (r=0.73, p=0.01). In females not taking oral contraceptives a strong negative correlation was found between individual change in CMJ height and T:P (r=-0.72, p=0.02). The findings show that in adolescent team sport athletes the P:E, T:E and the T:P ratios are important predictors of performance in tests of physical capacity. The findings also indicate estradiol and progesterone have a predictive function in the physical performance of adolescent male team sport athletes.

  19. Bring It to the Pitch: Combining Video and Movement Data to Enhance Team Sport Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Manuel; Janetzko, Halldor; Lamprecht, Andreas; Breitkreutz, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Philipp; Goldlucke, Bastian; Schreck, Tobias; Andrienko, Gennady; Grossniklaus, Michael; Keim, Daniel A

    2018-01-01

    Analysts in professional team sport regularly perform analysis to gain strategic and tactical insights into player and team behavior. Goals of team sport analysis regularly include identification of weaknesses of opposing teams, or assessing performance and improvement potential of a coached team. Current analysis workflows are typically based on the analysis of team videos. Also, analysts can rely on techniques from Information Visualization, to depict e.g., player or ball trajectories. However, video analysis is typically a time-consuming process, where the analyst needs to memorize and annotate scenes. In contrast, visualization typically relies on an abstract data model, often using abstract visual mappings, and is not directly linked to the observed movement context anymore. We propose a visual analytics system that tightly integrates team sport video recordings with abstract visualization of underlying trajectory data. We apply appropriate computer vision techniques to extract trajectory data from video input. Furthermore, we apply advanced trajectory and movement analysis techniques to derive relevant team sport analytic measures for region, event and player analysis in the case of soccer analysis. Our system seamlessly integrates video and visualization modalities, enabling analysts to draw on the advantages of both analysis forms. Several expert studies conducted with team sport analysts indicate the effectiveness of our integrated approach.

  20. SpaceWire Tiger Team Findings and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishac, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This technical report intends to highlight the key findings and recommendations of the SpaceWire Tiger Team for the CoNNeCT project. It covers findings which are technical in nature, covering design concepts and approaches.

  1. Sexual harassment and abuse in sport: the role of the team doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn

    2012-10-01

    Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.

  2. Get SMARTS] (Sports Medicine Research Team System): A Computerized Outpatient Data Collection System for Epidemiologic Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brodine, S

    1997-01-01

    .... This report describes features of the Sports Medicine Research Team System (SMARTS) and reviews results of a SMARTS supported prospective study of male Marine Corps recruits undergoing basic training...

  3. The experience and effect of team sport in a migrant culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard

    The experience and effect of team sport in a migrant culture Knud Ryom, Reinhard Stelter University of Copenhagen, Denmark Boys with migrant background have major difficulties to adjust and participate in the Danish school system and society (OECD,2010). This study aimed to investigate the possible...... effects of team sport as a social tool, used to develop social capability, identity and active citizenship in an area with major social challenges in Denmark. A team sport (football) was chosen because of positive results in social integration for individuals with a diverse cultural background...... (Hatzigeorgiadis et al,2013). The overall aim was to develop life-skills and social resilience by being part of a team sport. Furthermore, the goal was to enhance social capability and to increase the possibilities for acting actively and responsibly in one’s own life and in the local community...

  4. Sports Information Online: Searching the SPORT Database and Tips for Finding Sports Medicine Information Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Richard V.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The first article describes SPORT, a database providing international coverage of athletics and physical education, and compares it to other online services in terms of coverage, thesauri, possible search strategies, and actual usage. The second article reviews available online information on sports medicine. (CLB)

  5. Modelling Ball Circulation in Invasion Team Sports: A Way to Promote Learning Games through Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grehaigne, Jean-Francis; Caty, Didier; Godbout, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sport Education and "Tactical decision learning model" (TDLM) are two curriculum models used by physical education teachers in France to help students in the development of a tactical intelligence of game play in the didactics of team sports. Purpose: Identify prototypic configurations of play in the sense that they represent…

  6. Autonomy support and motivational responses across training and competition in individual and team sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined: (a) whether athletes’ (N = 348) perceived autonomy support (i.e., showing interest in athletes’ input and praising autonomous behavior) differs across contexts (training vs. competition) and sport types (individual vs. team sports), and (b) whether the relationships between

  7. A Research on Mathematical Thinking Skills: Mathematical Thinking Skills of Athletes in Individual and Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, Halil; Inan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Sinan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the mathematical thinking skills of licensed athletes engaged in individual and team sports. The research is designed as a survey model. The sample of the research is composed of 59 female and 170 male licensed athletes (n = 229) and (aged 14 to 52) licensed who do the sports of shooting, billiards, archery,…

  8. Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastella, Michele; Roach, Gregory D; Halson, Shona L; Sargent, Charli

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an essential component for athlete recovery due to its physiological and psychological restorative effects, yet few studies have explored the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes, and to compare the differences in sleep between athletes from individual and team sports. A total of 124 (104 male, 20 female) elite athletes (mean ± s: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years) from five individual sports and four team sports participated in this study. Participants' sleep/wake behaviour was assessed using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors for a minimum of seven nights (range 7-28 nights) during a typical training phase. Mixed-effects analyses of variances were conducted to compare the differences in the sleep/wake behaviour of athletes from two sport types (i.e. individual and team). Overall, this sample of athletes went to bed at 22:59 ± 1.3, woke up at 07:15 ± 1.2 and obtained 6.8 ± 1.1 h of sleep per night. Athletes from individual sports went to bed earlier, woke up earlier and obtained less sleep (individual vs team; 6.5 vs 7.0 h) than athletes from team sports. These data indicate that athletes obtain well below the recommended 8 h of sleep per night, with shorter sleep durations existing among athletes from individual sports.

  9. The Impact of Relationship Marketing on Team Loyalty (The Case Study:Sport Team Fans of Azadeghan Football League of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejman Ebrahimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of brand management of sport teams, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of relationship marketing dimensions, including team attachment, team trust, team involvement, and team selfexpression on team loyalty of fans of sport teams participating in Iran Azadeghan Football League. Sample size of this study included 480 fans of football teams, and structural equation modeling was used for analysis of data using Lisrel software. The results confirmed all hypotheses, except one hypothesis. Therefore, there is significant relationship between team self-expression and team attachment among football sport teams in Azadeghan Football League of Iran. The results show the importance of paying attention to fans of sports teams and use of their high potential and capacity that sports teams brand managers must pay particular attention to this enormous capacity. Regarding sports teams, the impact of relationship marketing, particularly dimensions of self-expression and team involvement was investigated for the first time in Iran.

  10. Predictability of physiological testing and the role of maturation in talent identification for adolescent team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D T; Naughton, G A; Torode, M

    2006-08-01

    Entrepreneurial marketing of sport increases demands on sport development officers to identify talented individuals for specialist development at the youngest possible age. Talent identification results in the streamlining of resources to produce optimal returns from a sports investment. However, the process of talent identification for team sports is complex and success prediction is imperfect. The aim of this review is to describe existing practices in physiological tests used for talent identification in team sports and discuss the impact of maturity-related differences on the long term outcomes particularly for male participants. Maturation is a major confounding variable in talent identification during adolescence. A myriad of hormonal changes during puberty results in physical and physiological characteristics important for sporting performance. Significant changes during puberty make the prediction of adult performance difficult from adolescent data. Furthermore, for talent identification programs to succeed, valid and reliable testing procedures must be accepted and implemented in a range of performance-related categories. Limited success in scientifically based talent identification is evident in a range of team sports. Genetic advances challenge the ethics of talent identification in adolescent sport. However, the environment remains a significant component of success prediction in sport. Considerations for supporting talented young male athletes are discussed.

  11. Prevalence and social-environmental correlates of sports team participation among alternative high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; Kubik, Martha Y; McMorris, Barbara J

    2011-07-01

    Alternative high school (AHS) students have low levels of physical activity (PA) and high rates of overweight/obesity. Sports team participation, a specific form of PA, is associated with increased PA and decreased overweight/obesity in general adolescent populations. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sports team participation among AHS students. In 2006, students (n = 145; mean age = 17 years; 52% male; 61% minorities; 64% low-income) attending 6 AHS in Minneapolis/St. Paul completed self-administered surveys. Mixed model logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between sports team participation and school staff support for PA, friend support for PA, and perceived barriers to PA. Among students, 40% participated on ≥ 1 sports teams. Odds of participating on a sports team were positively associated with support for PA from school staff (OR = 1.12, P = .014) and friends (OR = 1.15, P = .005), but inversely associated with perceived barriers to PA (OR = 0.95, P = .014). Results suggest that efforts to increase sports team participation among AHS students should target social-environmental factors. Further study is warranted.

  12. Modelling Movement Energetics Using Global Positioning System Devices in Contact Team Sports: Limitations and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Adrian J; Shorter, Kathleen; Cummins, Cloe; Murphy, Aron; Waldron, Mark

    2018-03-27

    Quantifying the training and competition loads of players in contact team sports can be performed in a variety of ways, including kinematic, perceptual, heart rate or biochemical monitoring methods. Whilst these approaches provide data relevant for team sports practitioners and athletes, their application to a contact team sport setting can sometimes be challenging or illogical. Furthermore, these methods can generate large fragmented datasets, do not provide a single global measure of training load and cannot adequately quantify all key elements of performance in contact team sports. A previous attempt to address these limitations via the estimation of metabolic energy demand (global energy measurement) has been criticised for its inability to fully quantify the energetic costs of team sports, particularly during collisions. This is despite the seemingly unintentional misapplication of the model's principles to settings outside of its intended use. There are other hindrances to the application of such models, which are discussed herein, such as the data-handling procedures of Global Position System manufacturers and the unrealistic expectations of end users. Nevertheless, we propose an alternative energetic approach, based on Global Positioning System-derived data, to improve the assessment of mechanical load in contact team sports. We present a framework for the estimation of mechanical work performed during locomotor and contact events with the capacity to globally quantify the work done during training and matches.

  13. Sports Team Participation Among US High School Girls, 1999-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Alan E; Uddin, Sayeedha F G

    2017-09-01

    Sports team participation has myriad benefits for girls. We used the 1999-2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative survey of US high school students, to examine time trends in sports team participation. Data from 2015 alone were examined for current differences in participation by sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and weight status. For both analyses, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions, with team participation as the dependent variable, were used. In 2015, 53% of US high school girls participated in team sports. Participation was higher among non-Hispanic white (60.7%) compared to Hispanic (40.7%) and Asian (35.6%) girls, and girls with normal-weight status (58.1%) compared to overweight (50.0%) and obese (36.5%) girls ( P team participation is imperative.

  14. Generic and sport-specific reactive agility tests assess different qualities in court-based team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Kidcaff, Andrew P; Berkelmans, Daniel M; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2016-03-01

    Comparisons between reactive agility tests incorporating generic and sport-specific stimuli have been performed only in field-based team sports. The aim of this study was to compare generic (light-based) and sport-specific (live opponent) reactive agility tests in court-based team sport athletes. Twelve semi-professional male basketball players (age: 25.9±6.7 yr; stature: 188.9±7.9 cm; body mass: 97.4±16.1 kg; predicted maximal oxygen uptake: 49.5±5.3 mL/kg 7 min) completed multiple trials of a Reactive Agility Test containing light-based (RAT-Light) and opponent-based stimuli (RAT-Opponent). Multiple outcome measures were collected during the RAT-Light (agility time and total time) and RAT-Opponent (decision time and total time). Mean performance times during the RAT-Light (2.233±0.224 s) were significantly (Pagility time and RAT-Opponent decision time (r10=0.20), while a trivial relationship was apparent between total performance times across tests (r10=0.02). Low commonality was observed between comparable measures across tests (R2=0-4%). Reactive agility tests containing light-based and live opponent stimuli appear to measure different qualities in court-based team sport athletes. Court-based team sport coaches and conditioning professionals should not use generic and sport-specific reactive agility tests interchangeably during athlete assessments.

  15. Sports and Regional Growth in Sweden - Is a successful professional sports team good for regional economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Värja, Emelie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether net inbound migration and per capita income growth of a municipality is affected when a local sports team enters or exits the premium national leagues in ice hockey or soccer in Sweden. Local governments frequently support a local professional team through direct subsidies; beneficial funding of arenas, etc., which often is motivated by alleged, positive externalities through effects on the attractiveness of the municipality as a leisure-travel destination, or ...

  16. Participation in Team Sports Can Eliminate the Effect of Social Loafing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Stanisław H; Szmajke, Andrzej; Kruger, Ankebé; Kübler, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    The effect known as Ringelmann effect states that as group size increases, individual behavior may be less productive. If this decrease in productivity in groups is attributed to a decrement in individual motivation, it is called social loafing. We tested hypotheses that the collectivism associated with participation in team sports would reduce the level of social loafing compared to people who were not involved in team sports. In one experiment, participants (n = 72; M age = 21.7 years, SD = 2.0) had to pull a rope individually and collectively. Groups of two, three, four, and six persons were formed from among individuals with no previous sports experience, and of those who had engaged in individual and team sports. For each team, the sum of individual achievements of the individuals constituting a team was computed. This sum served as the anticipated result (expected value). The expected values were later compared to the actual achievements, i.e., the value achieved by the whole team. The results of the study suggested that previous experience in collective (team) sports eliminated the effect of social loafing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. A test of processing efficiency theory in a team sport context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N C; Bellamy, M; Collins, D J; Newell, D

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we tested some key postulates of Eysenck and Calvo's processing efficiency theory in a team sport. The participants were 12 elite male volleyball players who were followed throughout the course of a competitive season. Self-report measures of pre-match and in-game cognitive anxiety and mental effort were collected in groups of players high and low in dispositional anxiety. Player performance was determined from the statistical analysis of match-play. Sets were classified according to the point spread separating the two teams into one of three levels of criticality. Game momentum was also analysed to determine its influence on in-game state anxiety. Significant differences in in-game cognitive anxiety were apparent between high and low trait anxiety groups. An interaction between anxiety grouping and momentum condition was also evident in cognitive anxiety. Differences in set criticality were reflected in significant elevations in mental effort, an effect more pronounced in dispositionally high anxious performers. Consistent with the predictions of processing efficiency theory, mental effort ratings were higher in high trait-anxious players in settings where their performance was equivalent to that of low trait-anxious performers. The usefulness of processing efficiency theory as an explanatory framework in sport anxiety research is discussed in the light of these findings.

  18. Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…

  19. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed

  20. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Silva

    Full Text Available Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds, sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances. A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads during different performance phases (attack and defense in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3. Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed

  1. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of

  2. Student Precision and Reliability of the Team Sport Assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TSAP) and formative assessment of invasion sport. The specific objectives were to determine the degree of agreement among expert observers, inter-observer reliability (internal consistency), and intra observer reliability (temporal reliability).

  3. Comparison of Home Advantage in College and Professional Team Sports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2015-09-01

    Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (preferee bias, territoriality and psychological factors. However, the influence of travel fatigue was inconclusive. Only for soccer was the home advantage greater for professionals. This was the only sport where crowd size appeared to be having an effect. In addition the rules of college soccer allow more substitution and hence greater coach intervention than in professional soccer, a factor that could also be reducing home advantage.

  4. For debate: consensus injury definitions in team sports should focus on missed playing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John; Hoskins, Wayne

    2007-05-01

    To compare the most commonly used and proposed injury definitions for surveillance systems in team sports and attempt to assess their suitability for consensus definitions in terms of reliability and functionality. The PubMed and SportDiscus databases were searched for papers on team sports that discussed consensus definitions or compared various definitions of injury. A continuum between the most broad "tissue damage" definition and the most narrow "match time loss only" definition was developed. A "match time loss only" injury definition can be reliably and accurately applied but only captures a small percentage of the total pool of all "tissue damage" injuries. There are some inherent biases in using a match time loss only definition (late season matches, matches with unequal breaks between games), but these are clearly visible. All other definitions improve the volume of data captured but suffer serious theoretical and/or practical flaws with respect to accuracy and reliability. No study using a broad definition has demonstrated good reliability to date (eg, using 2 independent recorders at the same team). A "match time loss only" injury definition is the most accurate and reliable of those commonly used in team sports. Other injury definitions are broader and may be more appropriate for individual team and specific injury studies. However, a match time loss definition is the most accurate and reliable tool for comparing injury rates at different teams and between different seasons within teams. Hence, we recommend this as the basis for the injury definition in a consensus statement.

  5. An investigation of how university sports team athletic therapists and physical therapists experience ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riendeau, Catherine; Parent-Houle, Valérie; Lebel-Gabriel, Marie Eve; Gauvin, Patrick; Liu, Le Yu; Pearson, Isabelle; Hunt, Matthew R

    2015-03-01

    Qualitative study using interpretive description methodology. The purpose of this study was to better understand how ethical issues are experienced by university sports team athletic therapists and physical therapists. In clinical practice, sports teams are associated with a range of ethical issues. Issues commonly reported in the literature include confidentiality, return-to-play decisions, conflicts of interest, advertising, doping, and use of local anesthetic. To date, there has been limited examination of how athletic therapists and physical therapists involved with sports teams experience these ethical issues, and limited exploration of how these ethical issues, when encountered, are shaped by therapists' professional roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 athletic or physical therapists working with sports teams in 5 Canadian provinces. The data were analyzed inductively, using a recursive approach and constant comparative techniques. Four key themes were developed relating to the participants' experiences of ethical issues: establishing and maintaining professional boundaries, striving for respectful and effective collaboration, seeking answers to ethical concerns, and living with the repercussions of challenging decisions. While many ethical issues reported by participants resemble those faced by sports medicine physicians, they are experienced in distinctive ways, due to differences in professional roles and identities. Issues concerning professional boundaries were also more prominent for the study participants than the literature has reported them to be for sports medicine physicians. Effective communication and enhanced collaboration appear to be key elements in managing these ethical challenges.

  6. Talent development of high performance coaches in team sports in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Ian; Campbell, Mark J; Macintyre, Tadhg Eoghan

    2017-04-01

    Coaches are central to the development of the expert performer and similarly to continued lifelong participation in sport. Coaches are uniquely positioned to deliver specific technical and tactical instruction and mentoring programmes that support the psychological and social development of athletes in a challenging, goal-oriented and motivational environment. The current study aimed to qualitatively investigate current coach learning sources and coaches' educational backgrounds in team sports in Ireland. Coaches from five team sports in Ireland were asked to complete an online questionnaire. Subsequently male coaches (n = 19) from five team sports who completed the questionnaire and met the inclusion criteria were invited to attend a follow-up semi-structured interview. Inclusion criteria for coaches were that they possess at least 10 years' experience coaching their sport and were coaching more than 4 hours per week. Formal coach education does not meet the needs of high performance coaches who rely more on self-directed learning and coaching experience as their main sources of CPD. Although prior playing experience at a high level is both valuable and desirable, there are concerns about fast-tracking of ex-players into high performance coaching roles. Preferred sources of education and the best learning environment for coaches of team sports in Ireland are more informal than formal. Further research is needed to examine how this learning is applied in a practical manner by examining coaching behaviours and the impact it has on the athlete development process.

  7. The Validity and Reliability of Global Positioning Systems in Team Sport: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Macfarlane T U; Scott, Tannath J; Kelly, Vincent G

    2016-05-01

    The use of global positioning systems (GPS) has increased dramatically over the last decade. Using signals from orbiting satellites, the GPS receiver calculates the exact position of the device and the speed at which the device is moving. Within team sports GPS devices are used to quantify the external load experienced by an athlete, allowing coaches to better manage trainings loads and potentially identify athletes who are overreaching or overtraining. This review aims to collate all studies that have tested either (or both) the validity or reliability of GPS devices in a team sport setting, with a particular focus on (a) measurements of distance, speed, velocities, and accelerations across all sampling rates and (b) accelerometers, player/body load and impacts in accelerometer-integrated GPS devices. A comprehensive search of the online libraries identified 22 articles that fit search criteria. The literature suggests that all GPS units, regardless of sampling rate, are capable of tracking athlete's distance during team sport movements with adequate intraunit reliability. One Hertz and 5Hz GPS units have limitations in their reporting of distance during high-intensity running, velocity measures, and short linear running (particularly those involving changes of direction), although these limitations seem to be overcome during measures recorded during team sport movements. Ten Hertz GPS devices seem the most valid and reliable to date across linear and team sport simulated running, overcoming many limitations of earlier models, whereas the increase to 15Hz GPS devices have had no additional benefit.

  8. Consequences of organizational commitment in abolished company sports team - a case study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuki; Hochi, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show that how the abolishment of company sports team influenced the organizational commitment in employees. In this study, Three-Component Model of Organizational Commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1997) was tested with 16 employees (10 males, 6 females) of T Company in NAGANO prefecture. The average age of the participants was 44, 50 years (SD=±0.85). And from 16 employees, 3 male employees were measured on organizational commitment with interview test. According to the analysis, the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team was not positive significant correlation. Furthermore, results of interview test did not show the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team. However, results of interview test showed the relation with organizational commitment of players in T Company sports team. Consequently, the goal to possess a sports team in T Company was not to boost organizational commitment in employees. In addition, it is necessary to reconsider the correlation among employees engaged in T Company in the future.

  9. The Comparison of Mental Rotation Performance in Team and Individual Sports of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pasand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a practical and causal-comparative study, the present study was aimed at comparing the mental rotation performance in team and individual sports among students. The statistical population included all of the female and male athletes (N=1500 from different districts of Shiraz, Iran who participated in the sport clubs. The participants of this study included 240 students between 12-14 years old (120 girls and 120 boys who were selected randomly from four sport fields (Volleyball, Basketball, Karate, and Gymnastics. Finally, 30 athletes were selected from each field. The Mentrat Program, a kind of software for the Mental Rotation Test was used as an evaluation tool. Analyses of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures were conducted to analysis of data. The results indicated that the impact of the rotational angle was significant in both team and individual groups (p0.05. It was also observed that there was a significant difference between the mental rotation scores of the males in the individual groups contrary to the ones in the team groups (p<0.05. As a whole, it seems that as the rotational angle increases, the ability of the mental rotation in the individual fields of sport (males will be higher compared to the team groups. Keywords: Mental Rotation, Rotational Angle, Team and Individual Sports, Students

  10. On the use of mobile inflatable hypoxic marquees for sport-specific altitude training in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P

    2013-12-01

    With the evolving boundaries of sports science and greater understanding of the driving factors in the human performance physiology, one of the limiting factors has now become the technology. The growing scientific interest on the practical application of hypoxic training for intermittent activities such as team and racket sports legitimises the development of innovative technologies serving athletes in a sport-specific setting. Description of a new mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic equipment. The system comprises two inflatable units-that is, a tunnel and a rectangular design, each with a 215 m(3) volume and a hypoxic trailer generating over 3000 Lpm of hypoxic air with FiO₂ between 0.21 and 0.10 (a simulated altitude up to 5100 m). The inflatable units offer a 45 m running lane (width=1.8 m and height=2.5 m) as well as a 8 m × 10 m dome tent. FiO₂ is stable within a range of 0.1% in normal conditions inside the tunnel. The air supplied is very dry-typically 10-15% relative humidity. This mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic equipment is a promising technological advance within sport sciences. It offers an opportunity for team-sport players to train under hypoxic conditions, both for repeating sprints (tunnel configuration) or small-side games (rectangular configuration).

  11. Global positioning systems (GPS) and microtechnology sensors in team sports: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Cloe; Orr, Rhonda; O'Connor, Helen; West, Cameron

    2013-10-01

    Use of Global positioning system (GPS) technology in team sport permits measurement of player position, velocity, and movement patterns. GPS provides scope for better understanding of the specific and positional physiological demands of team sport and can be used to design training programs that adequately prepare athletes for competition with the aim of optimizing on-field performance. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the depth and scope of reported GPS and microtechnology measures used within individual sports in order to present the contemporary and emerging themes of GPS application within team sports. A systematic review of the application of GPS technology in team sports was conducted. We systematically searched electronic databases from earliest record to June 2012. Permutations of key words included GPS; male and female; age 12-50 years; able-bodied; and recreational to elite competitive team sports. The 35 manuscripts meeting the eligibility criteria included 1,276 participants (age 11.2-31.5 years; 95 % males; 53.8 % elite adult athletes). The majority of manuscripts reported on GPS use in various football codes: Australian football league (AFL; n = 8), soccer (n = 7), rugby union (n = 6), and rugby league (n = 6), with limited representation in other team sports: cricket (n = 3), hockey (n = 3), lacrosse (n = 1), and netball (n = 1). Of the included manuscripts, 34 (97 %) detailed work rate patterns such as distance, relative distance, speed, and accelerations, with only five (14.3 %) reporting on impact variables. Activity profiles characterizing positional play and competitive levels were also described. Work rate patterns were typically categorized into six speed zones, ranging from 0 to 36.0 km·h⁻¹, with descriptors ranging from walking to sprinting used to identify the type of activity mainly performed in each zone. With the exception of cricket, no standardized speed zones or definitions were observed within or

  12. Gender- and Sport-Specific Associations Between Religiousness and Doping Behavior in High-Level Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Cubela, Mladen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2017-08-01

    Religiousness is known to be specifically associated with substance abuse, but there is an evident lack of studies investigating the association between religiousness and doping behavior as a specific type of substance abuse in athletes. This study aimed to provide evidence for possible gender- and sport-specific associations between religiousness and doping behavior among team-sport athletes of both genders. The participants were 886 athletes (21.9 ± 3.8 years of age; 352 females) involved in four sports: volleyball (n = 154; 78 females), handball (n = 206; 68 females), soccer (n = 316; 110 females) and basketball (n = 230; 96 females) from Croatia and Slovenia (all traditionally Roman Catholics). The data were collected using a previously validated structured questionnaire that examined sociodemographic, sport- and doping-related factors. In addition, religiousness was captured by the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith questionnaire (SCSRF). Gender-stratified simple logistic regressions were applied to determine associations between covariates and doping behavior (criterion). There was no significant difference in potential doping behavior between males and females (OR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.76-1.46), while females reported higher religiousness (SCSRF: 23.11 ± 3.23 and 25.46 ± 7.2 for males and females, respectively; t test = 1.82, p sport and age, the SCSRF remained a significant predictor of potential doping behavior (OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.99). For males, the belief that doping was present in sport was strongly associated with a higher likelihood of doping. Our results suggest that highly religious females involved in three of the studies sports (i.e., volleyball, handball and basketball) show a weaker tendency toward doping. Meanwhile, there is no evidence that religiousness influences doping behavior among male team-sport athletes. Therefore, sport-specific and gender-specific approach in studying possible relationships that exist

  13. Sport fans: evaluating the consistency between implicit and explicit attitudes toward favorite and rival teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jay L; Brown, Roderick O

    2014-04-01

    Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed.

  14. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200–2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform con...

  15. Team Performance and Sport Attendance of South African Super ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In professional rugby, competitions such as the Super Rugby and Currie Cup benefit from the lucrative money-generating opportunities offered. This study focuses on team performance and spectator attendance of the Super Rugby and Currie Cup competitions. Results indicated some interesting relationships between ...

  16. Applying the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model to older sport fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Daniel L; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary

    2011-01-01

    According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship between team identification and well-being, earlier studies focused solely on college student populations. The current study extended past work in this area by investigating the team identification/well-being relationship among older sport fans. A sample of older adults (N = 96; M age = 70.82) completed scales assessing demographics, identification with a local college basketball team, and measures of social psychological well-being. As hypothesized, team identification accounted for a significant proportion of unique variance in two measures of social psychological health (collective self-esteem and loneliness).

  17. Relationship between Target Orientations and Perceived Motivational Climate Levels of Students Engaged in Individual and Team Sports Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, Cansel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived motivational climate and target orientations of team and individual athletes who participate in sports at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of faculties. A total of 200 athletes (students at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of Gazi University, Selçuk…

  18. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude.

  19. Psychosocial Influences on children’s identification with sports teams: a case study of Australian Rules football supporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Anderson, A.

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the socialization of children into identification with a sports team. It presents a sociological approach which extends the insights obtained from research into psychological aspects of sports team identification. A conceptual model is presented which proffers an explanation of

  20. Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance.

  1. Postmatch recovery of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sports: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeven, Steven H; Brink, Michel S; Kosse, Silke J; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2018-01-01

    Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Systematic review. PubMed and Web of Science. This systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies was used to evaluate quality. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) original research evaluated players' physical recovery postmatch; (2) team/intermittent sports; and (3) at least two postmeasurements were compared with baseline values. Twenty-eight studies were eligible. Mean methodological quality was 11.2±1.11. Most used performance tests and biochemical markers were the countermovement jump test, sprint tests and creatine kinase (CK), cortisol (C) and testosterone (T), respectively. The current evidence demonstrates that underlying mechanisms of muscle recovery are still in progress while performance recovery is already reached. CK recovery time courses are up to ≥72 hours. Soccer and rugby players need more time to recover for sprint performance, CK and C in comparison to other team ball sports. There are more high-quality studies needed regarding recovery in various team sports and recovery strategies on an individual level should be evaluated. Ongoing insufficient recovery can be prevented by the use of the presented recovery time courses as specific practical recovery guidelines.

  2. Collaboration with Sport Psychologists as Viewed by Female Volleyball Junior Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrebski, Wojciech; Rutkowska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the need of female junior volleyball players to collaborate with a psychologist, considering previous sport career of those players. Material and methods: A group of 78 female volleyball players aged 14-17 years from 7 top Polish junior teams participated in the study. They were requested to fill questionnaires on their…

  3. Postmatch recovery of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sports : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven, Steven H; Brink, Michel S; Kosse, Silke J; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2018-01-01

    Background: Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. Objective: To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Study design:

  4. Games of Character: Team Sports, Games, and Character Development in Victorian Public Schools, 1850-1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the ascendance of team sports as tools of "character building" in British Victorian public schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. The focus of this enquiry is the commonly overlooked pedagogical innovation underlying this process--the utilisation of "organised games" as educational tools.…

  5. Allocation of Playing Time within Team Sports--A Problem for Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    The background of the article is the recurrent discussion about allocation of playing time in team sports involving children and young athletes. The objective is to analyse "why" playing time is a topic for discussion among parents, coaches and athletes. The following question is addressed: Under which condition is it "fair" to…

  6. Creating and Sustaining a Culture of Excellence: Insights from Accomplished University Team-Sport Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso-Morales, Daniela; Bloom, Gordon A.; Caron, Jeffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Winning several national championships is an extraordinary feat that very few university coaches have accomplished. The objective of this study was to investigate how some of Canada's most accomplished university team-sport coaches created and sustained a culture of excellence in their programs. Method: Six university coaches who had won…

  7. Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports? : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne Benjaminse; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; J.M. Dallinga

    2012-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these

  8. Effect of water immersion methods on post-exercise recovery from simulated team sport exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jeremy; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Wallman, Karen; Beilby, John

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of hot/cold contrast water immersion (CWI), cold-water immersion (COLD) and no recovery treatment (control) as post-exercise recovery methods following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise. Repeated sprint ability, strength, muscle soreness and inflammatory markers were measured across the 48-h post-exercise period. Eleven male team-sport athletes completed three 3-day testing trials, each separated by 2 weeks. On day 1, baseline measures of performance (10 m x 20 m sprints and isometric strength of quadriceps, hamstrings and hip flexors) were recorded. Participants then performed 80 min of simulated team sports exercise followed by a 20-m shuttle run test to exhaustion. Upon completion of the exercise, and 24h later, participants performed one of the post-exercise recovery procedures for 15 min. At 48 h post-exercise, the performance tests were repeated. Blood samples and muscle soreness ratings were taken before and immediately after post-exercise, and at 24h and 48 h post-exercise. In comparison to the control and CWI treatments, COLD resulted in significantly lower (pbenefit of CWI over control was a significant reduction in muscle soreness 24h post-exercise. This study demonstrated that COLD following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise offers greater recovery benefits than CWI or control treatments.

  9. Which Screening Tools Can Predict Injury to the Lower Extremities in Team Sports? A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is

  10. Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

  11. Jump Landing Characteristics Predicts Lower Extremity Injuries in Indoor Team Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, H. T. D.; Brink, M. S.; Benjaminse, A.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing

  12. Eating Disorders among Adolescent Female Athletes: Influence of Athletic Participation and Sport Team Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)

  13. Team sport and coaching - a dynamic interplay supporting development of self-concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud Eske; Wikman, Johan Michael; Stelter, Reinhard

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and experience of a team sport and coaching intervention upon self-concept in a sample of male school students with primarily migrant background. A convergent parallel mixed method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study ...... and more supportive social environment, as the result of their participation. Implications of the presented results are discussed, as well as strategies for working with team sport and coaching in a school setting in deprived areas or beyond.......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and experience of a team sport and coaching intervention upon self-concept in a sample of male school students with primarily migrant background. A convergent parallel mixed method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study...... (SDQ-II & YSEQ) and an interview study in a quasi-experimental design. A two-year intervention period was conducted with students in 7th, 8th and 9th grade. The interventions were a two-stringed effort with team sport and group coaching introduced to the participants. Quantitative results showed...

  14. Some comparative economics of the organization of sports: competition and regulation in north American vs. European professional team sports leagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreff, Wladimir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contends that a new research avenue is open to comparative economics which is the economic comparison between American (closed and European (open professional team sports leagues. It starts with sketching the major institutional differences between the two leagues systems. Then it surveys the American modelling of competitive balance in these sports leagues that objects pro-competitive balance regulation as being non Walrasian when (American teams are profit maximising. A next step is to cover how the Walrasian model has been adapted to European open leagues and their regulation of win maximising clubs under a hard budget constraint. Such approach has recently been outdated by models where win maximising clubs operate with a flexible supply of talent in a non cooperative game, given the globalization of the labour market for sporting talent (namely after the Bosman case. Finally, the article ploughs into a new research path advocating for a disequilibrium model where clubs would have a "soft" budget constraint rooted in their weak governance, and empirically tests a vicious circle between TV rights revenues and wages in French football that may explain the aforementioned disequilibrium.

  15. Divide and rule: A qualitative analysis of the debriefing process in elite team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquet, A-C; Ferrand, C; Stanton, N A

    2015-11-01

    This article aimed to gain an understanding of the process of debriefing during major competitions in elite team sports. Debrief interviews were conducted with 9 head coaches. The interview data were used to identify how head coaches divided up the tasks given to staff and team members prior to, and during the post-match debriefing. Results showed that debriefing consisted of two steps: preparation and presentation. Preparation referred to four successive tasks. Presentation to the team of players consisted of eight tasks relating to transformational and transactional styles of leadership. Coaches were shown to divide the labor within the staff and team. The data tend to support the view that in elite team sports, coaches are both transformational and transactional leaders, adapting their style of leadership to the situation, athletes and time available. This study provides insights into the task-work and team-work underlying team functioning and division of labor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of wearing compression garments on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity in temperate environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Laurence A; Dawson, Brian; Maloney, Shane K

    2009-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests compression garments (CGs) are being worn underneath normal playing attire during team sports. Wearing CGs as a baselayer could possibly increase heat storage, and so this field study investigated the effects of wearing CGs, comprising knee-length shorts and short-sleeved top underneath normal match-day attire (COMP), versus normal match-day attire alone (NORM) on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity. Ten match-fit field hockey players twice performed 4x15min exercise bouts consisting of repeated cycles of intermittent, varied-intensity 20m shuttle running (Loughborough intermittent shuttle test), once in COMP and once in NORM. Testing was conducted in an indoor gymnasium (ambient conditions: approximately 17 degrees C, approximately 60% relative humidity). Participants acted as their own controls. Heart rate (HR), 15m sprint time, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration, sweat rate and body core temperature (T(core)) were similar between trials (p>0.05). Mean skin temperature (T(skin)) was significantly higher in COMP than NORM (pteam sport exercise in temperate ambient conditions had no thermoregulatory benefits nor any detrimental effects on T(core), physiological performance or dehydration. However, the higher T(skin) may affect individual preference for wearing CGs as an undergarment during team sports.

  17. Effects of Plyometric Training on Physical Fitness in Team Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B; Chéour, Foued

    2016-12-01

    Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.

  18. Research design of decision support system for team sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Zukuwwan Zainol; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Kasim, Maznah Mat

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a suitable research procedure that can be referred to while conducting a Decision Support System (DSS) study, especially when the development activity of system artifacts becomes one of the research objectives. The design of the research procedure was based on the completion of a football DSS development that can help in determining the position of a player and the best team formation to be used during a game. After studying the relevant literature, we found that it is necessary to combine the conventional rainfall System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) approach with Case Study approach to help in structuring the research task and phases, which can contribute to the fulfillment of the research aim and objectives.

  19. The role of ecological dynamics in analysing performance in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Button, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Performance analysis is a subdiscipline of sports sciences and one-approach, notational analysis, has been used to objectively audit and describe behaviours of performers during different subphases of play, providing additional information for practitioners to improve future sports performance. Recent criticisms of these methods have suggested the need for a sound theoretical rationale to explain performance behaviours, not just describe them. The aim of this article was to show how ecological dynamics provides a valid theoretical explanation of performance in team sports by explaining the formation of successful and unsuccessful patterns of play, based on symmetry-breaking processes emerging from functional interactions between players and the performance environment. We offer the view that ecological dynamics is an upgrade to more operational methods of performance analysis that merely document statistics of competitive performance. In support of our arguments, we refer to exemplar data on competitive performance in team sports that have revealed functional interpersonal interactions between attackers and defenders, based on variations in the spatial positioning of performers relative to each other in critical performance areas, such as the scoring zones. Implications of this perspective are also considered for practice task design and sport development programmes.

  20. Tiger team findings related to DOE environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tiger Team Assessments were implemented in June 1989 as part of a strategy to ensure that DOE facilities fully comply with Federal, state, local and DOE environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) requirements. The Tiger Teams provide the Secretary of Energy with information on current ES ampersand H compliance status of each DOE facility and causes for noncompliance. To date, Tiger Team Assessments have been completed at 25 DOE facilities. With regard to assessments of environmental restoration activities, the performance of DOE facilities was evaluated against the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and DOE Order 5400.4, CERCLA Requirements, among others. Five major categories of environmental restoration-related findings were identified: (1) environmental restoration program planning and management (found at 60 percent of the sites assessed); (2) community relations/administrative record (60 percent); (3) characterization of extent of contamination (56 percent); (4) identification and evaluation of inactive waste sites (56 percent); and (5) DOE and NCP requirements for response action studies (44 percent). Primary causal factors for these findings were inadequate procedures, resources, supervision, and policy implementation

  1. Understanding the Consequences of Newcomer Integration Processes: The Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The ways in which newcomers are integrated into sport teams may have broad consequences for the athletes entering the group, as well as for the existing team members. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, the current research developed a questionnaire to assess athletes' perceptions of how newcomers are socialized into their group. Across four studies, think-aloud interviews (N = 8), an expert panel review (N = 6), cross-sectional tests of the factor structure (N Study 2  = 197; N Study 3  = 460), and a two-wave correlational design (N Study 4  = 194) were used to evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ). Collectively, these efforts identified a three-factor structure underlying the STSTQ and provided preliminary evidence for its validity. The STSTQ enables researchers to systematically examine the individual- and group-level consequences associated with the socialization tactics implemented in sport teams.

  2. IAEA Fact-Finding Team Completes Visit to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a preliminary assessment of the safety issues linked with TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. The team - created by an agreement of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Government of Japan - sought to identify lessons learned from the accident that can help improve nuclear safety around the world. To conduct its work, the team held extensive discussions with officials from the full range of Japanese nuclear-related agencies and visited three nuclear sites, including the nuclear power plant at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi. These visits gave the team a first-hand appreciation of the scale of devastation wreaked by the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March and of the extraordinary efforts Japanese workers have been applying ever since to stabilize the situation. ''Our entire team was humbled by the enormous damage inflicted by the tsunami on Japan. We are also profoundly impressed by the dedication of Japanese workers working to resolve this unprecedented nuclear accident,'' said team leader Mike Weightman, the United Kingdom's Chief Inspector of Nuclear Installations. The team was comprised of international experts with experience across a range of nuclear specialties. They came from 12 countries: Argentina, China, France, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. In a draft report summary delivered to Japanese authorities today, the team prepared a set of preliminary conclusions and identified lessons learned in three broad areas: external hazards, severe accident management and emergency preparedness. The final report will be delivered to the Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety at IAEA headquarters in Vienna from 20 to 24 June. The expert team made several preliminary findings and lessons learned, including: Japan's response to the nuclear

  3. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Leiter, Jeff; Hall, Thomas; McDonald, Patrick J; Sawyer, Scott; Silver, Norm; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The goal in this review was to summarize the results of clinical neuroimaging studies performed in patients with sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinar ypediatric concussion program. The authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records and neuroimaging findings for all patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and July 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age ≤ 19 years; and 2) physician-diagnosed SRC. All patients underwent evaluation and follow-up by the same neurosurgeon. The 2 outcomes examined in this review were the frequency of neuroimaging studies performed in this population (including CT and MRI) and the findings of those studies. Clinical indications for neuroimaging and the impact of neuroimaging findings on clinical decision making were summarized where available. This investigation was approved by the local institutional ethics review board. A total of 151 patients (mean age 14 years, 59% female) were included this study. Overall, 36 patients (24%) underwent neuroimaging studies, the results of which were normal in 78% of cases. Sixteen percent of patients underwent CT imaging; results were normal in 79% of cases. Abnormal CT findings included the following: arachnoid cyst (1 patient), skull fracture (2 patients), suspected intracranial hemorrhage (1 patient), and suspected hemorrhage into an arachnoid cyst (1 patient). Eleven percent of patients underwent MRI; results were normal in 75% of cases. Abnormal MRI findings included the following: intraparenchymal hemorrhage and sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst (1 patient); nonhemorrhagic contusion (1 patient); demyelinating disease (1 patient); and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, cerebellar volume loss, and nonspecific white matter changes (1 patient). Results of clinical neuroimaging studies are normal in the majority of pediatric patients with SRC. However, in selected cases neuroimaging can provide

  4. 'We' not 'I': health advocacy is a team sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubinette, Maria; Dobson, Sarah; Voyer, Stephane; Regehr, Glenn

    2014-09-01

    Health advocacy, although recognised as a professional responsibility, is often seen as overwhelming, perhaps because it is framed conceptually as an activity that each physician should undertake alone rather than as a collaborative process. In the context of a study exploring how effective physician health advocates conceptualise their roles and their activities related to health advocacy, we uncovered data that speak directly of the issue of whether the activities of health advocates are enacted as individual or collective pursuits. We interviewed ten physicians, identified by others as effective health advocates, regarding their advocacy activities. We collected and analysed data in an iterative process, informed by constructivist grounded theory, continuously refining the interview framework and examining evolving themes. The final coding scheme was applied to all transcripts. Health advocacy was viewed by these physicians as a collective activity. This collective construction of advocacy presented in three ways: (i) as teamwork by interprofessional teams of individuals with clearly defined roles and functional, task-oriented goals; (ii) as a process involving networks of resources or people that can be accessed for both support and reinforcement, and (iii) as a process involving collaborative think-tanks in which members contribute different perspectives to enact collective problem solving at a conceptual level. Effective health advocates do not conceptualise themselves as stand-alone experts who must do everything themselves. Their collective approach makes it possible for these physicians to incorporate health advocacy into their clinical practice. However, although conceptualising health advocacy as a collective activity may make it less daunting, this way of understanding health advocacy is not compatible with current formal descriptions of the associated competencies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Player Monitoring in Indoor Team Sports: Concurrent Validity of Inertial Measurement Units to Quantify Average and Peak Acceleration Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roell, Mareike; Roecker, Kai; Gehring, Dominic; Mahler, Hubert; Gollhofer, Albert

    2018-01-01

    The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU) broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia) were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA) system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK) during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory ( n = 56). A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF) and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF), Kalman-Filter (KF)] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6%) and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8%) both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6%) regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 - 17.8%). Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that IMU

  6. Player Monitoring in Indoor Team Sports: Concurrent Validity of Inertial Measurement Units to Quantify Average and Peak Acceleration Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Roell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory (n = 56. A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF, Kalman-Filter (KF] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6% and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8% both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6% regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 – 17.8%. Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that

  7. Social and task cohesion and the relationship with team sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been a resurgence of interest on the influence of social and task cohesion and academic performance of students in order to find a systematic relationship between cohesion and performance. The transition from high school to university can be stressful for those who are in the phase of emerging adulthood.

  8. Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinga, Joan M; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2012-09-01

    Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is evident. From this point of view it is important to know which screening tools can identify athletes who are at risk of injury to their lower extremities. The aim of this article is to determine the predictive values of anthropometric and/or physical screening tests for injuries to the leg, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee, hamstring, groin and ankle in team sports. A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to September 2011), EMBASE (1989 to September 2011) and CINAHL (1982 to September 2011). Based on inclusion criteria defined a priori, titles, abstracts and full texts were analysed to find relevant studies. The analysis showed that different screening tools can be predictive for injuries to the knee, ACL, hamstring, groin and ankle. For injuries in general there is some support in the literature to suggest that general joint laxity is a predictive measure for leg injuries. The anterior right/left reach distance >4 cm and the composite reach distance injuries. Furthermore, an increasing age, a lower hamstring/quadriceps (H : Q) ratio and a decreased range of motion (ROM) of hip abduction may predict the occurrence of leg injuries. Hyperextension of the knee, side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee laxity and differences in knee abduction moment between both legs are suggested to be predictive tests for sustaining an ACL injury and height was a predictive screening tool for knee ligament injuries. There is some evidence that when age increases, the probability of sustaining a hamstring injury increases. Debate exists in the analysed literature regarding measurement of the flexibility of the hamstring as a predictive screening tool, as well as using the H

  9. Perceptions of self of Division I team and individual sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Barbara Day; Black, Nate; Vincent, William J

    2010-04-01

    The Worth Index was administered to 176 Division I athletes who were competing in team and individual sports at Brigham Young University. The purpose of the study was to measure and compare their perceptions of worth and self-esteem. The Worth Index is a valid tool measuring whether an individual believes worth and self-esteem are earned by way of performance (conditional) or are inherent (unconditional). The Worth Index measures perceptions of basic human worth and worth as related to personal security, performance, and the physical self. The four subscales represent these four categories. There were no significant differences between the perceptions of athletes in team and individual sports on any of the subscales of the Worth Index. However, on each subscale, all participants combined rated themselves significantly higher on unconditional worth than conditional worth.

  10. Competitiveness and the Process of Co-adaptation in Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals toward different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.

  11. Competitiveness and the process of co-adaptation in team sport performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Passos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals towards different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.

  12. What are the Facilitators and Obstacles to Participation in Workplace Team Sport? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brinkley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participation in workplace team sport.Twenty-nine semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with office workers (58% female (36 ± 7.71 from manufacturing, public services, and educational services. Data was analysed through template analysis.Five sub-level (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, community and societal influences facilitate participation or create obstacles for participants. Participants were challenged by a lack of competence, self-efficacy, negative sporting ideals and amotivation. Unhealthy competition, an unstable work-life balance and unsupportive colleagues created obstacles to participation. An unsupportive organisation and workplace culture placed demands on workplace champions, funding, facilities and communication. Healthy competitions, high perceptions of competence and self-efficacy, and being motivated autonomously enabled participation. Further, relatedness and social support created a physical activity culture where flexible working was encouraged and team sport was promoted in accessible locations within the organisation. Researchers should consider accounting for complexity of these influences. A participatory approach may tailor interventions to individual organisations and the employees that work within them. Interventions whereby autonomy, competence and relatedness are supported are recommended. This may be achieved by adapting sports and training workplace champions.

  13. Comparing Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Measures of Team Sport Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Benjamin M; Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; King, Trish; Peeling, Peter

    2018-02-21

    To compare data from conventional GPS and new GNSS-enabled tracking devices, and to examine the inter-unit reliability of GNSS devices. Inter-device differences between 10 Hz GPS and GNSS devices were examined during laps (n=40) of a simulated game circuit (SGC) and during elite hockey matches (n=21); GNSS inter-unit reliability was also examined during the SGC laps. Differences in distance values and measures in three velocity categories (low 5 m.s -1 ) and acceleration/deceleration counts (>1.46 m.s -2 and GNSS reliability was examined using the coefficient of variation (CV) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Inter-device differences (P GNSS) differences (P GNSS devices had a lower HDoP score than GPS devices in all conditions. These findings suggest that GNSS devices may be more sensitive than GPS in quantifying the physical demands of team sport movements, but further study into the accuracy of GNSS devices is required.

  14. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  15. COMPARISON OF SELF-ESTEEM SCORES OF INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM SPORT ATHLETES AND NON-ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Nur ÇAĞLAYAN; Yılmaz UÇAN

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether there is any difference between self esteem scores of individuals who engaged in individual & team sports and non-athletes. Furthermore, self-esteem scores associated with age group, gender and years of playing experience variables were examined to determine the differences. Focus group consists of 304 athletes & nonathletes of 13–20 years old individuals living in Ankara, Istanbul and Sakarya. Rosenberg's self-esteem scale was used to measure...

  16. What are the Facilitators and Obstacles to Participation in Workplace Team Sport? A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Brinkley; Josie Freeman; Hilary McDermott; Fehmidah Munir

    2017-01-01

    Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participa...

  17. The Spawns of Creative Behavior in Team Sports: A Creativity Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara D. L.; Memmert, Daniel; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Developing creativity in team sports players is becoming an increasing focus in sports sciences. The Creativity Developmental Framework is presented to provide an updated science based background. This Framework describes five incremental creative stages (beginner, explorer, illuminati, creator, and rise) and combines them into multidisciplinary approaches embodied in creative assumptions. In the first training stages, the emphasis is placed on the enrollment in diversification, deliberate play and physical literacy approaches grounded in nonlinear pedagogies. These approaches allow more freedom to discover different movement patterns increasing the likelihood of emerging novel, adaptive and functional solutions. In the later stages, the progressive specialization in sports and the differential learning commitment are extremely important to push the limits of the creative progress at higher levels of performance by increasing the range of skills configurations. Notwithstanding, during all developmental stages the teaching games for understanding, a game-centered approach, linked with the constraints-led approach play an important role to boost the tactical creative behavior. Both perspectives might encourage players to explore all actions possibilities (improving divergent thinking) and prevents the standardization in their actions. Overall, considering the aforementioned practice conditions the Creativity Developmental Framework scrutinizes the main directions that lead to a long-term improvement of the creative behavior in team sports. Nevertheless, this framework should be seen as a work in progress to be later used as the paramount reference in creativity training. PMID:27617000

  18. For debate: consensus injury definitions in team sports should focus on encompassing all injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Lisa; Gissane, Conor; Gabbett, Tim J; King, Doug A

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the most effective method of collecting injury data by using a definition that encompasses all injuries into the data collection system. The definition provides an accurate picture of injury incidence and also allows filtering of records so that data can be reported in a variety of comparable ways. A qualitative review of literature in team sports, plus expert opinion, served as the basis for data collection strategies. Articles were retrieved from SportsDiscus and PubMed using the terms "sports injury definition" and "injury definition." These terms were searched for the period 1966 to November 2006. One of the major results (from this paper) that supports the use of an all-encompassing injury definition is that 70% to 92% of all injuries sustained fall into the transient category--that is, by only recording injuries that result in missed matches, the majority of injuries are missed and therefore injury rates are underreported. An injury definition should be the most encompassing definition that enables a true, global picture of injury incidence to be seen in participation in any team sport.

  19. Athletic pubalgia and the "sports hernia": MR imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoga, Adam C; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Omar, Imran M; Morrison, William B; Koulouris, George; Lopez, Hector; Chaabra, Avneesh; Domesek, John; Meyers, William C

    2008-06-01

    To retrospectively determine the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in patients with clinical athletic pubalgia, with either surgical or physical examination findings as the reference standard. Institutional review board approval was granted for this HIPAA-compliant study, and informed consent was waived. MR imaging studies in 141 patients (134 male patients, seven female patients; mean age, 30.1 years; range, 17-71 years) who had been referred to a subspecialist because of groin pain were reviewed for findings including hernia, pubic bone marrow edema, secondary cleft sign, and rectus abdominis and adductor tendon injury. MR imaging findings were compared with surgical findings for 102 patients, physical examination findings for all 141 patients, and MR imaging findings in an asymptomatic control group of 25 men (mean age, 29.8 years; range, 18-39 years). Sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging for rectus abdominis and adductor tendon injury were determined by using a chi(2) analysis, and significance of the findings was analyzed with an unpaired Student t test. Disease patterns seen at MR imaging were compared with those reported in the surgical and sports medicine literature. One hundred thirty-eight (98%) of 141 patients had findings at MR imaging that could cause groin pain. Compared with surgery, MR imaging had a sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of 68% and 100% for rectus abdominis tendon injury and 86% and 89% for adductor tendon injury. Injury in each of these structures was significantly more common in the patient group than in the control group (P pubalgia, including rectus abdominis insertional injury, thigh adductor injury, and articular diseases at the pubic symphysis (osteitis pubis). (c) RSNA, 2008.

  20. Quantifying synergies in two-versus-one situations in team sports: An example from Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, P; Milho, J; Button, C

    2018-04-01

    Collective behaviors in team sports result in players forming interpersonal synergies that contribute to performance goals. Because of the huge amount of variables that continuously constrain players' behavior during a game, the way that these synergies are formed remain unclear. Our aim was to quantify interpersonal synergies in the team sport of Rugby Union. For that purpose we used the Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis (UCM) to identify interpersonal synergies that are formed between ball carrier and support player in two-versus-one situations in Rugby Union. The inter-player angle close to the moment of the pass was used as a performance variable and players running lines velocities as task-relevant elements. Interpersonal synergies (UCM values above 1) were found in 19 out of 55 trials under analysis, which means that on 34% of the trials, the players' running line velocities contribute to stabilizing the inter-player angle close the moment of the pass. The strength of the synergy fluctuates over time indicating the existence of a location effect during attack phases in Rugby Union. UCM analysis shows considerable promise as a performance analysis tool in team sports to discriminate between skilled sub-groups of players.

  1. Self-organization processes in field-invasion team sports : implications for leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In nature, the interactions between agents in a complex system (fish schools; colonies of ants) are governed by information that is locally created. Each agent self-organizes (adjusts) its behaviour, not through a central command centre, but based on variables that emerge from the interactions with other system agents in the neighbourhood. Self-organization has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the tendencies for individual performers to interact with each other in field-invasion sports teams, displaying functional co-adaptive behaviours, without the need for central control. The relevance of self-organization as a mechanism that explains pattern-forming dynamics within attacker-defender interactions in field-invasion sports has been sustained in the literature. Nonetheless, other levels of interpersonal coordination, such as intra-team interactions, still raise important questions, particularly with reference to the role of leadership or match strategies that have been prescribed in advance by a coach. The existence of key properties of complex systems, such as system degeneracy, nonlinearity or contextual dependency, suggests that self-organization is a functional mechanism to explain the emergence of interpersonal coordination tendencies within intra-team interactions. In this opinion article we propose how leadership may act as a key constraint on the emergent, self-organizational tendencies of performers in field-invasion sports.

  2. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration performance in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamori, Naoki; Nosaka, Kazunori; Newton, Robert U

    2013-03-01

    Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a standing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration performance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background performed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) analysis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = -0.52) and propulsive impulse (r = -0.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant correlations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results suggest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longitudinal training studies.

  3. Sports Injury and Illness Epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Background Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. Aim To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Methods The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Results Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. Conclusions The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. PMID:25425714

  4. When Is a Sprint a Sprint? A Review of the Analysis of Team-Sport Athlete Activity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice J. Sweeting

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The external load of a team-sport athlete can be measured by tracking technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS, local positioning systems (LPS, and vision-based systems. These technologies allow for the calculation of displacement, velocity and acceleration during a match or training session. The accurate quantification of these variables is critical so that meaningful changes in team-sport athlete external load can be detected. High-velocity running, including sprinting, may be important for specific team-sport match activities, including evading an opponent or creating a shot on goal. Maximal accelerations are energetically demanding and frequently occur from a low velocity during team-sport matches. Despite extensive research, conjecture exists regarding the thresholds by which to classify the high velocity and acceleration activity of a team-sport athlete. There is currently no consensus on the definition of a sprint or acceleration effort, even within a single sport. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the varying velocity and acceleration thresholds reported in athlete activity profiling. The purposes of this review were therefore to (1 identify the various thresholds used to classify high-velocity or -intensity running plus accelerations; (2 examine the impact of individualized thresholds on reported team-sport activity profile; (3 evaluate the use of thresholds for court-based team-sports and; (4 discuss potential areas for future research. The presentation of velocity thresholds as a single value, with equivocal qualitative descriptors, is confusing when data lies between two thresholds. In Australian football, sprint efforts have been defined as activity >4.00 or >4.17 m·s−1. Acceleration thresholds differ across the literature, with >1.11, 2.78, 3.00, and 4.00 m·s−2 utilized across a number of sports. It is difficult to compare literature on field-based sports due to inconsistencies in velocity and

  5. When Is a Sprint a Sprint? A Review of the Analysis of Team-Sport Athlete Activity Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Alice J; Cormack, Stuart J; Morgan, Stuart; Aughey, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    The external load of a team-sport athlete can be measured by tracking technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS), local positioning systems (LPS), and vision-based systems. These technologies allow for the calculation of displacement, velocity and acceleration during a match or training session. The accurate quantification of these variables is critical so that meaningful changes in team-sport athlete external load can be detected. High-velocity running, including sprinting, may be important for specific team-sport match activities, including evading an opponent or creating a shot on goal. Maximal accelerations are energetically demanding and frequently occur from a low velocity during team-sport matches. Despite extensive research, conjecture exists regarding the thresholds by which to classify the high velocity and acceleration activity of a team-sport athlete. There is currently no consensus on the definition of a sprint or acceleration effort, even within a single sport. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the varying velocity and acceleration thresholds reported in athlete activity profiling. The purposes of this review were therefore to (1) identify the various thresholds used to classify high-velocity or -intensity running plus accelerations; (2) examine the impact of individualized thresholds on reported team-sport activity profile; (3) evaluate the use of thresholds for court-based team-sports and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. The presentation of velocity thresholds as a single value, with equivocal qualitative descriptors, is confusing when data lies between two thresholds. In Australian football, sprint efforts have been defined as activity >4.00 or >4.17 m·s -1 . Acceleration thresholds differ across the literature, with >1.11, 2.78, 3.00, and 4.00 m·s -2 utilized across a number of sports. It is difficult to compare literature on field-based sports due to inconsistencies in velocity and acceleration

  6. The Efficacy of Injury Prevention Programs in Adolescent Team Sports: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Najeebullah; Sanders, Ross; Hackett, Daniel; Hubka, Tate; Ebrahimi, Saahil; Freeston, Jonathan; Cobley, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Intensive sport participation in childhood and adolescence is an established cause of acute and overuse injury. Interventions and programs designed to prevent such injuries are important in reducing individual and societal costs associated with treatment and recovery. Likewise, they help to maintain the accrual of positive outcomes from participation, such as cardiovascular health and skill development. To date, several studies have individually tested the effectiveness of injury prevention programs (IPPs). To determine the overall efficacy of structured multifaceted IPPs containing a combination of warm-up, neuromuscular strength, or proprioception training, targeting injury reduction rates according to risk exposure time in adolescent team sport contexts. Systematic review and meta-analysis. With established inclusion criteria, studies were searched in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AusSportMed. The keyword search terms (including derivations) included the following: adolescents, sports, athletic injuries, prevention/warm-up programs. Eligible studies were then pooled for meta-analysis with an invariance random-effects model, with injury rate ratio (IRR) as the primary outcome. Heterogeneity among studies and publication bias were tested, and subgroup analysis examined heterogeneity sources. Across 10 studies, including 9 randomized controlled trials, a pooled overall point estimate yielded an IRR of 0.60 (95% CI = 0.48-0.75; a 40% reduction) while accounting for hours of risk exposure. Publication bias assessment suggested an 8% reduction in the estimate (IRR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.54-0.84), and the prediction interval intimated that any study estimate could still fall between 0.33 and 1.48. Subgroup analyses identified no significant moderators, although possible influences may have been masked because of data constraints. Compared with normative practices or control

  7. Team Sport in the Workplace? A RE-AIM Process Evaluation of ‘Changing the Game’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brinkley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The workplace is a priority setting to promote health. Team sports can be an effective way to promote both physical and social health. This study evaluated the potential enablers and barriers for outcomes of a workplace team sports intervention programme‘Changing the Game’ (CTG. This study was conducted in a FTSE 100 services organisation. This process evaluation was conducted using the RE-AIM framework. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used. Data were collected from the participants in the intervention group prior to, during and at the end of the intervention using interviews (n = 12, a focus group (n = 5, and questionnaires (n = 17. Organisational documentation was collected, and a research diary was recorded by the lead author. The evidence collected was triangulated to examine the reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the programme. Data was assessed through template analysis, and questionnaire data were analysed using multiple regression and a series of univariate ANOVAs. Results: CTG improved VO2 Max, interpersonal communication, and physical activity behaviour (efficacy over 12-weeks. This may be attributed to the supportive approach adopted within the design and delivery of the programme (implementation. Individual and organisational factors challenged the adoption and maintenance of the intervention. The recruitment and communication strategy limited the number of employees the programme could reach. Conclusion: The process evaluation suggests addressing the culture within workplaces may better support the reach, adoption and maintenance of workplace team sport programmes. Future research should consider investigating and applying these findings across a range of industries and sectors.

  8. Sports and colors: the color effect of team shirts on basketball games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Masanori

    2002-06-01

    The research for basketball has been focused upon the color effect on the team shirts by means of sports and colors. University basketball club members and university students (who did not belong to the university basketball club members) participated in this study. Colors of team shirts were analyzed by A.H. Munsell's method (Hue, Value, Chroma). To each of four games were given four different color conditions: The first is on condition that players of both teams wore different five-colored team shirts (white, red, blue, green, orange).The second is on condition that all players of both teams wore white team shirts. The third is on condition that all players of the one team wore red team shirts and the others wore orange. The fourth is on condition that all players of the one team wore blue team shirts and the others wore green. The questionnaire, the number of shots, and passes were analyzed of statistics (x2 :1 X m contingency table) on the above mentioned conditions. The results were as follows: (1) The number of successful shots that university basketball club members made were higher than university students. (2) The number of unsuccessful passes that university students made were higher than university basketball club members. (3) Analyzed by statistics (x2:1 X contingency table), the apparent distinction of the color effect was not found. These results could be due to players requirements of momentary judgement such as their recognition of the other players face or voice. This seems to depend upon different factors of the subject himself on a physical strength level as well as on a technical level.

  9. Use of integrated technology in team sports: a review of opportunities, challenges, and future directions for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda

    2014-02-01

    Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT

  10. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  11. Effects of Plyometric Training on Physical Fitness in Team Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimani Maamer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training (PT is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training. Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (<8 weeks has the potential to enhance a wide range of athletic performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.

  12. Social Identification in Sports Teams: The Role of Personal, Social, and Collective Identity Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William E; Brown, Rupert; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Vignoles, Vivian L; Manzi, Claudia; D'Angelo, Chiara; Holt, Jeremy J

    2017-04-01

    Based on motivated identity construction theory (MICT; Vignoles, 2011), we offer an integrative approach examining the combined roles of six identity motives (self-esteem, distinctiveness, belonging, meaning, continuity, and efficacy) instantiated at three different motivational levels (personal, social, and collective identity) as predictors of group identification. These identity processes were investigated among 369 members of 45 sports teams from England and Italy in a longitudinal study over 6 months with four time points. Multilevel change modeling and cross-lagged analyses showed that satisfaction of four personal identity motives (individuals' personal feelings of self-esteem, distinctiveness, meaning, and efficacy derived from team membership), three social identity motives (individuals' feelings that the team identity carries a sense of belonging, meaning, and continuity), and one collective identity motive (a shared belief in group distinctiveness) significantly predicted group identification. Motivational processes underlying group identification are complex, multilayered, and not reducible to personal needs.

  13. Shared knowledge or shared affordances? Insights from an ecological dynamics approach to team coordination in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Garganta, Júlio; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Aguiar, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has proposed that team coordination is based on shared knowledge of the performance context, responsible for linking teammates' mental representations for collective, internalized action solutions. However, this representational approach raises many questions including: how do individual schemata of team members become reformulated together? How much time does it take for this collective cognitive process to occur? How do different cues perceived by different individuals sustain a general shared mental representation? This representational approach is challenged by an ecological dynamics perspective of shared knowledge in team coordination. We argue that the traditional shared knowledge assumption is predicated on 'knowledge about' the environment, which can be used to share knowledge and influence intentions of others prior to competition. Rather, during competitive performance, the control of action by perceiving surrounding informational constraints is expressed in 'knowledge of' the environment. This crucial distinction emphasizes perception of shared affordances (for others and of others) as the main communication channel between team members during team coordination tasks. From this perspective, the emergence of coordinated behaviours in sports teams is based on the formation of interpersonal synergies between players resulting from collective actions predicated on shared affordances.

  14. A systematic review of core implementation components in team ball sport injury prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, James; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the use of specific exercise programmes to prevent musculoskeletal injuries in team ball sports has gained considerable attention, and the results of large-scale, randomised controlled trials have supported their efficacy. To enhance the translation of these interventions into widespread use, research trials must be reported in a way that allows the players, staff and policymakers associated with sports teams to implement these interventions effectively. In particular, information is needed on core implementation components, which represent the essential and indispensable aspects of successful implementation. To assess the extent to which team ball sport injury prevention trial reports have reported the core implementation components of the intervention, the intervention target and the use of any delivery agents (ie, staff or other personnel delivering the intervention). To summarise which specific types of intervention, intervention target and delivery agents are reported. To develop consensus between reviewers on the reporting of these components. Six electronic databases were systematically searched for English-language, peer-reviewed papers on injury prevention exercise programme (IPEP) trials in team ball sports. The reporting of all eligible trials was assessed by two independent reviewers. The reporting of the three core implementation components were coded as 'yes', 'no' or 'unclear'. For cases coded as 'yes', the specific types of interventions, intervention targets and delivery agents were extracted and summarised. The search strategy identified 52 eligible trials. The intervention and the intervention target were reported in all 52 trials. The reporting of 25 trials (48%) specified the use of delivery agents, the reporting of three trials (6%) specified not using delivery agents, and in the reporting of the remaining 24 trials (46%) the use of delivery agents was unclear. The reported intervention type was an IPEP alone in 43 trials (83

  15. Fluid Balance in Team Sport Athletes and the Effect of Hypohydration on Cognitive, Technical, and Physical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-10-01

    Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions. Significant hypohydration (mean body mass loss (BML) >2%) has been reported most consistently in soccer. Although American Football, rugby, basketball, tennis, and ice hockey have reported high sweating rates, fluid balance disturbances have generally been mild (mean BML sport performance has been studied mostly in soccer, basketball, cricket, and baseball, with mixed results. Hypohydration typically impaired performance at higher levels of BML (3-4%) and when the method of dehydration involved heat stress. Increased subjective ratings of fatigue and perceived exertion consistently accompanied hypohydration and could explain, in part, the performance impairments reported in some studies. More research is needed to develop valid, reliable, and sensitive sport-specific protocols and should be used in future studies to determine the effects of hypohydration and modifying factors (e.g., age, sex, athlete caliber) on team sport performance.

  16. Interpersonal distance regulates functional grouping tendencies of agents in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Milho, João; Fonseca, Sofia; Borges, João; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined whether, similar to collective agent behaviors in complex, biological systems (e.g., schools of fish and colonies of ants), performers in team sports displayed functional coordination tendencies, based on local interaction rules during performance. To investigate this issue, they used videogrammetry and digitizing procedures to observe interpersonal interactions in common 4 versus 2 + 2 subphases of the team sport of rugby union, involving 16 participants aged between 16 and 17 years of age. They observed pattern-forming dynamics in attacking subunits (n = 4 players) attempting to penetrate 2 defensive lines (n = 2 players in each). Data showed that within each attacking subunit, the 4 players displayed emergent functional grouping tendencies that differed between the 2 defensive lines. Results confirmed that grouping tendencies in attacking subunits of team games are sensitive to different task constraints, such as relative positioning to nearest defenders. It was concluded that running correlations were particularly useful for measuring the level of interpersonal coordination in functional grouping tendencies within attacking subunits.

  17. Creating and Sustaining a Culture of Excellence: Insights From Accomplished University Team-Sport Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso-Morales, Daniela; Bloom, Gordon A; Caron, Jeffrey G

    2017-12-01

    Winning several national championships is an extraordinary feat that very few university coaches have accomplished. The objective of this study was to investigate how some of Canada's most accomplished university team-sport coaches created and sustained a culture of excellence in their programs. Six university coaches who had won more than 30 national titles participated in this study. Each coach participated in a semistructured interview, and the qualitative data were inductively analyzed using a thematic analysis. The coaches noted that hard work and daily attention to detail, effective emotional management of themselves and their athletes, and continuous self-assessment (self-reflection and seeking mentors) were crucial elements that led to sustained excellence in their programs. This study offers one of the first empirical accounts of how highly successful university coaches developed and maintained a culture of excellence and success in their high-performance sport setting.

  18. Small-sided games in team sports training: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halouani, Jamel; Chtourou, Hamdi; Gabbett, Tim; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim

    2014-12-01

    Small-sided games (SSGs) incorporating skills, sport-specific movements, at intensities sufficient to promote aerobic adaptations, are being increasingly implemented in professional team sport environments. Small-sided games are often employed by coaches based on the premise that the greatest training benefits occur when training simulates the specific movement patterns and physiological demands of the sport. At present, there is relatively little information regarding how SSG can best be used to improve physical capacities and technical and tactical skills in team sports. It is possible that with some modifications (e.g., number of players, pitch size, coach encouragement, and wrestling), such games may be physiologically beneficial for athletes with relatively high initial aerobic fitness levels. For instance, it has been shown that 3-a-side soccer SSG resulted in higher intensity (i.e., greater overall distance, less jogging and walking, higher heart rate, and more tackling, dribbling, goal attempts, and passes) than 5-a-side SSG. Likewise, when player numbers were kept constant, a larger playing area increased the intensity of the SSG with a smaller playing area having the opposite effect. It has also been demonstrated that energy expenditure was similar between badminton and volleyball courts, but lower than that obtained in a basketball court. Moreover, it has been demonstrated in rugby that wrestling can increase the physical demands of SSG. Consistent coach encouragement can also increase training intensity, although most rule changes have trivial or no effect on exercise intensity. Further research is required to examine the optimal periodization strategies of SSG training for the long-term development of physiological capacity, technical skill, and tactical proficiency, while also minimizing the associated risk of injuries.

  19. Model training tasks as a tool for the construction of training process for athletes in team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Kostyukevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the design of the training process of athletes in team sports during an annual training cycle on the basis of model training tasks. The model training tasks are developed along with micro-and mesocycles, periods, and annual cycle for preparation of elite female volleyball players. The ratio of the training means and various types of training loads in the periods of macrocycle were determined. Introduction of model training tasks into the training process in team sports allows to efficiently plan and optimize the preparation of athletes, as well as to implement the principle of individualization in the development of a coherent team.

  20. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Nistrup, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...

  1. Variability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Denise; Cormack, Stuart; Coutts, Aaron J; Boyd, Luke J; Aughey, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    To examine the difference in distance measured by two global positioning system (GPS) units of the same model worn by the same player while performing movements common to team sports. Twenty elite Australian football players completed two trials of the straight line movement (10, 20, 40 m) at four speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), two trials of the changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and five trials of a team sport running simulation circuit. To assess inter-unit variability for total and high intensity running (HIR) distance measured in matches, data from eight field players were collected in three Australian Hockey League (AHL) matches during the 2009 season. Each subject wore two GPS devices (MinimaxX v2.5, Catapult, Australia) that collected position data at 5 Hz for each movement and match trial. The percentage difference ±90% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine differences between units. Differences (±90% CI) between the units ranged from 9.9 ± 4.7% to 11.9 ± 19.5% for straight line running movements and from 9.5 ± 7.2% to 10.7 ± 7.9% in the COD courses. Similar results were exhibited in the team sport circuit (11.1 ± 4.2%). Total distance (10.3 ± 6.2%) and HIR distance (10.3 ± 15.6) measured during the match play displayed similar variability. It is recommended that players wear the same GPS unit for each exercise session to reduce measurement error. The level of between-unit measurement error should be considered when comparing results from players wearing different GPS units.

  2. Short-term adaptations following Complex Training in team-sports: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Tomás T; Martinez-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Calleja-González, Julio; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the short-term adaptations on sprint and vertical jump (VJ) performance following Complex Training (CT) in team-sports. CT is a resistance training method aimed at developing both strength and power, which has a direct effect on sprint and VJ. It consists on alternating heavy resistance training exercises with plyometric/power ones, set for set, on the same workout. A search of electronic databases up to July 2016 (PubMed-MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Knowledge) was conducted. Inclusion criteria: 1) at least one CT intervention group; 2) training protocols ≥4-wks; 3) sample of team-sport players; 4) sprint or VJ as an outcome variable. Effect sizes (ES) of each intervention were calculated and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 9 studies (13 CT groups) met the inclusion criteria. Medium effect sizes (ES) (ES = 0.73) were obtained for pre-post improvements in sprint, and small (ES = 0.41) in VJ, following CT. Experimental-groups presented better post-intervention sprint (ES = 1.01) and VJ (ES = 0.63) performance than control-groups. large ESs were exhibited in younger athletes (training programs >12 total sessions (ES = 0.74). Large ESs in programs with >12 total sessions (ES = 0.81). Medium ESs obtained for under-Division I individuals (ES = 0.56); protocols with intracomplex rest intervals ≥2 min (ES = 0.55); conditioning activities with intensities ≤85% 1RM (ES = 0.64); basketball/volleyball players (ES = 0.55). Small ESs were found for younger athletes (ES = 0.42); interventions ≥6 weeks (ES = 0.45). CT interventions have positive medium effects on sprint performance and small effects on VJ in team-sport athletes. This training method is a suitable option to include in the season planning.

  3. Carbohydrate feedings during team sport exercise preserve physical and CNS function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, Jason J; Davis, J Mark; Welsh, Ralph S; Carmichael, Martin D; Murphy, E Angela; Blackmon, Jill A

    2005-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) feedings on physical and central nervous system (CNS) function during intermittent high-intensity exercise with physical demands similar to those of team sports such as basketball. Twenty active men (N = 10) and women (N = 10), with experience competing in team sports, performed three practice sessions before two experimental trials during which they were fed either a 6% CHO solution or a flavored placebo (PBO). Experimental trials consisted of four 15-min quarters of shuttle running with variable intensities ranging from walking (30% VO(2max)), to running (120% VO(2max)), to maximal sprinting, and 40 jumps at a target hanging at 80% of their maximum vertical jump height. Subjects received 5 mL.kg(-1) of fluid before exercise and 3 mL.kg(-1) after exercise, in addition to 3 mL.kg(-1) over a 5-min span after the first and third quarters, and 8 mL.kg(-1) during a 20-min halftime. During each break, the subjects performed a battery of tests measuring peripheral and CNS function, including 20-m sprints, a 60-s maximal jumping test, internal and external mood evaluation, cognitive function, force sensation, tests of motor skills, and target-jumping accuracy. Compared with PBO, CHO feedings during exercise resulted in faster 20-m sprint times and higher average jump height in the fourth quarter (P intermittent high-intensity exercise similar to that of team sports benefited both peripheral and CNS function late in exercise compared with a flavored placebo.

  4. Aerobic and anaerobic determinants of repeated sprint ability in team sports athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Gharbi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 ± 8.3 kg; height, 178 ± 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2 kg · m -2 ; estimated VO 2 max, 54.16 ± 3.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1. Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8, basketball (n = 5, and handball (n = 3. They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT, the 30-s Wingate test (WingT, the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT, and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180° change of direction with 30 s passive recovery in between. Pearson’s product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT and fatigue index (FI (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively. No significant relationship between VO 2 max and RSA peak sprint time (PT and total sprint time (TT was found. Nevertheless, VO 2 max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05. In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA.

  5. Aerobic and anaerobic determinants of repeated sprint ability in team sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Z; Dardouri, W; Haj-Sassi, R; Chamari, K; Souissi, N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA) indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 ± 8.3 kg; height, 178 ± 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2 kg · m(-2); estimated VO2max, 54.16 ± 3.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)). Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8), basketball (n = 5), and handball (n = 3). They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), the 30-s Wingate test (WingT), the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT), and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180° change of direction) with 30 s passive recovery in between). Pearson's product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT) and fatigue index (FI) (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). No significant relationship between VO2max and RSA peak sprint time (PT) and total sprint time (TT) was found. Nevertheless, VO2max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA.

  6. Mental Training with Youth Sport Teams: Developmental Considerations & Best Practice Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visek, Amanda J; Harris, Brandonn; Blom, Lindsey C

    2013-01-01

    Working with youth athletes requires knowledge of the inherent variability in child and adolescent development that will impact the implementation of a mental training program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of developmental considerations that should be noted when doing mental training, particularly for athletes participating in sport at mid-childhood, early adolescence, and mid-adolescence. Gender differences at these stages of development are also highlighted. Additionally, we forward best practice recommendations and learning-activities that have been tailored for each developmental stage that can be used in the provision of a mental training program in a team setting.

  7. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Hamish R; Quinlan, John F; Allison, Garry T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footba...

  8. Preliminary investigation into sport and exercise psychology consultants' views and experiences of an interprofessional care team approach to sport injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Sport injury rehabilitation has moved from predominately physical treatment to a more holistic care. However, limited research has explored the views and experiences of those involved in such an approach. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily investigate sport psychology consultants' (SPCs') views and experiences of an interprofessional team approach to sport injury rehabilitation. A cross-sectional online survey previously used with athletic trainers was distributed via a US-based sport/exercise psychology list-serve (N = 1245). A total of 62 (27 men, 35 women, M age 38.2 years, age range: 22-73 years) participants with 10.6 (SD = 9.8) years of experience as an SPC were included in the final analyses. On average, SPCs felt that it was very important (M = 6.6; SD = 0.6) for athletes to have access to an interprofessional care team. Of the sample, 64.5% (n = 40) typically worked as part of an interprofessional care team 44.7% of the time. The SPCs (n = 28; 45.2%) also indicated that the primary treatment providers (e.g., athletic trainer, physical therapist) were typically serving as the primary point person for such teams. Since gaining entry to sport medicine can be an area SPCs struggle with, building effective working relationships with treatment providers can help promote and increase SPCs involvement in providing holistic, interprofessional care to athletes with injuries. To ensure athletes' successful biopsychosocial return to sport, different individuals and professionals should work together for the benefit of the athlete by adopting holistic care during sports injury rehabilitation.

  9. Wartime rugby and football: sports elites, French military teams and international meets during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waquet, Arnaud; Vincent, Joris

    2011-01-01

    The First World War is traditionally considered in history as a temporary halt for cultural and sporting activities. If the Olympic Games and the Tour de France were actually cancelled, football and rugby were in fact stimulated by the circumstances of war. Indeed, the gathering of allied nations behind the Western Front emerged as the main factor in the development of these two sports. Reading the sporting press and military archives shows that international sporting exchanges were stimulated during the Great War. To be specific, France benefited from the golden opportunity provided by the presence of the masters of the game to strengthen its practices and affirm its status as a sporting nation. Inter-allied sporting exchanges were primarily characterised by informal encounters between military selections. Then, following the recognition of these sports by the military authorities, the number of exchanges increased. At the end of 1917, the official status acquired by sport within the military forces created the conditions for the structuring of the French sporting elite. From that point, we can witness the birth of the first French military rugby and football teams, as they demonstrate, through their good performances during the demobilisation period, the progressive build-up of the international dimension of French sport during the war years.

  10. Team sport athletes' perceptions and use of recovery strategies: a mixed-methods survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Fiona; Sealey, Rebecca; Crowe, Melissa; Edwards, Andrew; Halson, Shona

    2017-01-01

    A variety of recovery strategies are used by athletes, although there is currently no research that investigates perceptions and usage of recovery by different competition levels of team sport athletes. The recovery techniques used by team sport athletes of different competition levels was investigated by survey. Specifically this study investigated if, when, why and how the following recovery strategies were used: active land-based recovery (ALB), active water-based recovery (AWB), stretching (STR), cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT). Three hundred and thirty-one athletes were surveyed. Fifty-seven percent were found to utilise one or more recovery strategies. Stretching was rated the most effective recovery strategy (4.4/5) with ALB considered the least effective by its users (3.6/5). The water immersion strategies were considered effective/ineffective mainly due to psychological reasons; in contrast STR and ALB were considered to be effective/ineffective mainly due to physical reasons. This study demonstrates that athletes may not be aware of the specific effects that a recovery strategy has upon their physical recovery and thus athlete and coach recovery education is encouraged. This study also provides new information on the prevalence of different recovery strategies and contextual information that may be useful to inform best practice among coaches and athletes.

  11. Management of Sport Injuries with Korean Medicine: A Survey of Korean National Volleyball Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsop Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%, low back (13.3%, elbow, and ankle (8.4% injuries were most common. Joint (41.6% and muscle (30.7% were major injured tissues. KM team medical doctors utilized acupuncture (40.4%, chuna manual therapy (16.0%, physical therapy (15.2%, taping (9.0%, and cupping (7.8% to treat volleyball injuries. Any types of medications were used infrequently. Additional physical and exercise therapy were preferred after receiving acupuncture (both 46.9%. This study presented the preliminary injury profile of Korean elite volleyball players. Injury and treatment parameters could be useful to build advanced KM model in sport medicine.

  12. Greater Effect of East versus West Travel on Jet Lag, Sleep, and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Knez, Wade; Crowcroft, Stephen; Mendham, Amy E; Miller, Joanna; Sargent, Charlie; Halson, Shona; Duffield, Rob

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the recovery timeline of sleep, subjective jet lag and fatigue, and team sport physical performance after east and west long-haul travel. Ten physically trained men underwent testing at 0900 h and 1700 h local time on four consecutive days 2 wk before outbound travel (BASE), and the first 4 d after 21 h of outbound (WEST) and return (EAST) air travel across eight time zones between Australia and Qatar. Data collection included performance (countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 [YYIR1] test) and perceptual (jet lag, motivation, perceived exertion, and physical feeling) measures. In addition, sleep was measured via wrist activity monitors and self-report diaries throughout the aforementioned data collection periods. Compared with the corresponding day at BASE, the reduction in YYIR1 distance after EAST was significantly different from the increase in WEST on day 1 after travel (P travel can impede team sport physical performance. Specifically, east travel has a greater detrimental effect on sleep, subjective jet lag, fatigue, and motivation. Consequently, maximal and intermittent sprint performance is also reduced after east travel, particularly within 72 h after arrival.

  13. "Live High-Train Low and High" Hypoxic Training Improves Team-Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P; Hauser, Anna; Steiner, Thomas; Rysman, Julien; Wehrlin, Jon P; Girard, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate physical performance and hematological changes in 32 elite male team-sport players after 14 d of "live high-train low" (LHTL) training in normobaric hypoxia (≥14 h·d at 2800-3000 m) combined with repeated-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5-s sprints with 25 s of passive recovery) either in normobaric hypoxia at 3000 m (LHTL + RSH, namely, LHTLH; n = 11) or in normoxia (LHTL + RSN, namely, LHTL; n = 12) compared with controlled "live low-train low" (LLTL; n = 9) training. Before (Pre), immediately after (Post-1), and 3 wk after (Post-2) the intervention, hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured in duplicate [optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method], and vertical jump, repeated-sprint (8 × 20 m-20 s recovery), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (YYIR2) performances were tested. Both hypoxic groups similarly increased their Hbmass at Post-1 and Post-2 in reference to Pre (LHTLH: +4.0%, P team-sport players, with benefits lasting for at least 3 wk postintervention.

  14. The Poisson model limits in NBA basketball: Complexity in team sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Juan Manuel; de Saá Guerra, Yves; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Arriaza, Enrique; Valverde-Estévez, Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Team sports are frequently studied by researchers. There is presumption that scoring in basketball is a random process and that can be described using the Poisson Model. Basketball is a collaboration-opposition sport, where the non-linear local interactions among players are reflected in the evolution of the score that ultimately determines the winner. In the NBA, the outcomes of close games are often decided in the last minute, where fouls play a main role. We examined 6130 NBA games in order to analyze the time intervals between baskets and scoring dynamics. Most numbers of baskets (n) over a time interval (ΔT) follow a Poisson distribution, but some (e.g., ΔT = 10 s, n > 3) behave as a Power Law. The Poisson distribution includes most baskets in any game, in most game situations, but in close games in the last minute, the numbers of events are distributed following a Power Law. The number of events can be adjusted by a mixture of two distributions. In close games, both teams try to maintain their advantage solely in order to reach the last minute: a completely different game. For this reason, we propose to use the Poisson model as a reference. The complex dynamics will emerge from the limits of this model.

  15. The validity and reliability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport specific running patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Denise; Cormack, Stuart; Coutts, Aaron J; Boyd, Luke; Aughey, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    To assess the validity and reliability of distance data measured by global positioning system (GPS) units sampling at 1 and 5 Hz during movement patterns common to team sports. Twenty elite Australian Football players each wearing two GPS devices (MinimaxX, Catapult, Australia) completed straight line movements (10, 20, 40 m) at various speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and a team sport running simulation circuit. Position and speed data were collected by the GPS devices at 1 and 5 Hz. Distance validity was assessed using the standard error of the estimate (±90% confidence intervals [CI]). Reliability was estimated using typical error (TE) ± 90% CI (expressed as coefficient of variation [CV]). Measurement accuracy decreased as speed of locomotion increased in both straight line and the COD courses. Difference between criterion and GPS measured distance ranged from 9.0% to 32.4%. A higher sampling rate improved validity regardless of distance and locomotion in the straight line, COD and simulated running circuit trials. The reliability improved as distance traveled increased but decreased as speed increased. Total distance over the simulated running circuit exhibited the lowest variation (CV 3.6%) while sprinting over 10 m demonstrated the highest (CV 77.2% at 1 Hz). Current GPS systems maybe limited for assessment of short, high speed straight line running and efforts involving change of direction. An increased sample rate improves validity and reliability of GPS devices.

  16. The influence of caffeine ingestion on strength and power performance in female team-sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ajmol; O'Donnell, Jemma; Foskett, Andrew; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of caffeine supplementation on knee flexor and knee extensor strength before, during and after intermittent running exercise in female team-sport players taking oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Ten healthy females (24 ± 4 years; 59.7 ± 3.5 kg; undertaking 2-6 training sessions per week) taking low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives of the same hormonal composition took part in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover-design trial. Sixty minutes following the ingestion of a capsule containing 6 mg∙kg -1 body mass anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo), participants completed a 90-min intermittent treadmill-running protocol. Isometric strength performance and eccentric and concentric strength and power of the knee flexors and knee extensors (using isokinetic dynamometer), as well as countermovement jump (CMJ), was measured before, during and after the exercise protocol, as well as ~12 h post-exercise. Blood samples were taken before, during and post-exercise to measure glucose, insulin and free fatty acids (FFA). Caffeine supplementation significantly increased eccentric strength of the knee flexors ( P  performance. FFA was elevated with caffeine supplementation over time ( P  caffeine intake. Caffeine supplementation increased eccentric strength and power in female team-sport players taking OCS both during an intermittent running protocol and the following morning.

  17. Hypnosis, the brain, and sports: Salient Findings July 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael R

    2002-07-01

    Three particularly noteworthy articles addressing hypnosis have been published during the early portion of 2002. All, to a degree, address biological aspects of hypnotic response. One of these articles is a thoughtful summary and synthesis of neuroscience/hypnosis research to date, describing how neuroimaging techniques offer new opportunities to use hypnosis as a manipulation and to provide a means of studying hypnosis itself. A second article focuses on the physiology of sports and the usefulness of hypnosis in the practice of sport and exercise psychology. Finally, the third article describes a study of brain activation during actual and imagined handgrip during hypnosis.

  18. Finding Triggers for Innovation Within eSports

    OpenAIRE

    Liljeqvist, Erik; Kallin, Ludvig; Cambrand, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Since the creation of the internet there has been a development towards a globalized community of people. With the potential for connectivity between people all over the world subcultures are inevitably created. One such subculture is eSports. Over the past decade eSports has seen a steady increase in popularity. Recently, partly as a result of the streaming revolution, this increase has intensified and traditional media look to the internet for inspiration and help on what to do to evolve th...

  19. Position statement—altitude training for improving team-sport players’ performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-01-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213

  20. Position statement--altitude training for improving team-sport players' performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-12-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.

  1. A comparison of muscle damage, soreness and performance following a simulated contact and non-contact team sport activity circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarveen K R; Guelfi, Kym J; Landers, Grant; Dawson, Brian; Bishop, David

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of a simulated team sport activity circuit (reflective of the activity demands of Australian football) either with or without body 'contact' on muscle soreness, damage, and performance when the circuit was repeated 48 h later. Eleven male, team-sport athletes completed a 'non-contact' (NCON) and a 'contact' (CON) version of the team sport activity circuit in a crossover design with at least 1 week between trials. The effect of CON and NCON on repeated 15m sprint and vertical jump performance was assessed by completing the same version of the circuit 48 h after the initial trial. The effect on perceived soreness and blood markers of muscle damage and inflammation was also determined. Subsequent performance was affected to a greater extent by CON, with both best and mean sprint times significantly slower 48h following CON (psoreness and pressure sensitivity were elevated following both NCON and CON (psoreness was greater with CON (p=0.012). Both CON and NCON resulted in elevated serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase, while c-reactive protein increased following CON but not NCON. In conclusion, Greater perceived soreness and decrements in performance of the simulated team sport activity circuit when repeated 48 h later were observed following CON. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of service quality and sport-team identification on the repurchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Oman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades, the role of the service sector in the overall economic activities has become more significant in many countries, particularly the most developed ones. This has provoked increased scholars' interest so they have begun researching many service markets more extensively. Their interest has been further stimulated by growing competition, development of new technologies and changes in consumer behaviour. These market changes have forced sport clubs' management to focus on providing higher service quality and strengthening team identification among consumers. The research presented in this paper was conducted on the fans of the Croatian football club Hajduk Split and it examines the relationship between service quality and team identification on the one hand and service quality and repurchase intention on the other as well as the intermediary role of word-of-mouth communication in the relationship between service quality and repurchase intentions. The results show that there is an indirect positive influence of service quality on repurchase intention through word-of-mouth communication, as well as a direct positive link between team identification and repurchase intention.

  3. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Morrison, Chris McLellan, Clare Minahan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444 in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH. Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45, set 2 (p = 0.26, or set 3 (p = 0.23 between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01. Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02. Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %, post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 % and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01. In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140 conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution.

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and skills regarding sports medicine among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Killowe, C; Mkandawire, NC

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine. One hundred football players and thirteen team doctors were involved in the study. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data in an interview format. Among the players 37% had completed tertiary education and 60% had finished secondary school education. Most players had poor knowledge on prevention of injur...

  5. Beyond Interdisciplinary Teaming: Findings and Implications of the NASSP National Middle Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Donald G.; Petzko, Vicki N.; Valentine, Jerry W.; Clark, Donald C.; Nori, John R.; Lucas, Stephen E.

    2002-01-01

    Reports trends and implications of interdisciplinary teaming practices in middle schools, based on findings from a national survey. Noting that nearly 80 percent of schools currently implement teaming, challenges principals and teachers to move beyond simple formation of teams to the creation of an infrastructure that supports high-performing…

  6. Differences in the bioenergetic potential of athletes participating in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacko, Julijan; Doder, Dragan; Djurdjević, Slavisa; Savić, Biljana; Doder, Radoslava

    2013-07-01

    In modern training technology, assessment of aerobic bioenergetic potential in athletes is commonly performed by standard laboratory procedures to determine basic or specific functional abilities for specific sport activity or discipline. The aim of study was to assess the aerobic bioenergetic potential of athletes participating in basketball, football and handball. The study included 87 athletes (29 basketball players, 29 football players, and 29 handball players) aged 21-24. Evaluation of the aerobic bioenergetic potential of athletes participating in basketball, football and handball was performed followed by both univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (MANOVA) statistical methods to determine differences among the athletes in relative (VO2 mL/kg/min) and absolute oxygen consumption (VO2 L/min). Statistically significant differences between absolute and relative oxygen consumption were found in basketball players (Mb), football players (Mf), and handball players (Mh) (MANOVA, p = 0.00). ANOVA also revealed significant differences in relative oxygen consumption (VO2 mL/kg/min) (p = 0.00). The football players (55.32 mL/kg/min) had the highest relative oxygen consumption, followed by the handball players (51.84 mL/kg/min) and basketball players (47.00 mL/kg/min). The highest absolute oxygen consumption was recorded in the basketball players (4.47 L/min), followed by the handball players (4.40 L/min) and footballers (4.16 L/min). Statistically significant differences in the aerobic bioenergetic potential, expressed by the relative oxygen consumption were found among atletes participating in different team sports. It can be assumed that the player from the sports in which it is necessary to cross greater distance in total during the match have a greater need for aerobic capacity.

  7. Investigation of Relationships in the Children's Team in the Process of Sports Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila N. Voloshina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the children's readiness (in the age of 5-7 years old to interact with peers and adults in the elementary sports and gaming activities. The study was carried out within the framework of the pilot program of the Russian Academy of Education, based on the pre-school educational institutions in the city of Belgorod. To study the relationship in the children's team we used observation, sociometric technique, and diagnostic game situation. The analysis of results obtained showed the presence of problems of readiness to interact with peers and the formation of a communicative component of social experience in children in the age of 5-7 years old. Namely: insufficient level of children's independence, limited ideas about the possibility of using the sports and gaming activities in their own experience, low level of social and normative behavior. The results of the study confirmed the data previously presented in the publications on the growth in the number of preschool children not capable to interpersonal interaction.

  8. Validity and reliability of GPS devices for measuring movement demands of team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information regarding the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) devices for measuring movement during team sports. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and intra-model reliability of different GPS devices for quantifying high-intensity, intermittent exercise performance. Two moderately trained males each completed eight bouts of a standard circuit that consisted of six laps around a 128.5-m course involving intermittent exercise. Distance and speed were collected concurrently at 1-Hz using six GPS devices (2 SPI-10, 2 SPI Elite and 2 WiSPI, GPSports, Canberra, Australia). Performance measures were: (1) total distance covered for each bout and each lap; (2) high-intensity running distance (>14.4 km h(-1), HIR); very high-intensity running distance (>20 km h(-1), VHIR) during each bout. Peak speed was also measured during a 20-m sprint at the start of each lap of the circuit (N=192). Actual distance was measured using a measuring tape. Mean (+/-SD) circuit total distance was significantly different between each of the GPS devices (PGPS devices. These results show that the GPS devices have an acceptable level of accuracy and reliability for total distance and peak speeds during high-intensity, intermittent exercise, but may not be provide reliable measures for higher intensity activities. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Cold Water Immersion and Contrast Water Therapy for Recovery From Team Sport: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor R; Greene, David A; Baker, Michael K

    2017-05-01

    Higgins, TR, Greene, DA, Baker, MK. Effects of cold water immersion and contrast water therapy for recovery from team sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1443-1460, 2017-To enhance recovery from sport, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) have become common practice within high level team sport. Initially, athletes relied solely on anecdotal support. As there has been an increase in the volume of research into recovery including a number of general reviews, an opportunity existed to narrow the focus specifically examining the use of hydrotherapy for recovery in team sport. A Boolean logic [AND] keyword search of databases was conducted: SPORTDiscus; AMED; CINAHL; MEDLINE. Data were extracted and the standardized mean differences were calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI). The analysis of pooled data was conducted using a random-effect model, with heterogeneity assessed using I. Twenty-three peer reviewed articles (n = 606) met the criteria. Meta-analyses results indicated CWI was beneficial for recovery at 24 hours (countermovement jump: p = 0.05, CI: -0.004 to 0.578; All-out sprint: p = 0.02, -0.056 to 0.801) following team sport. The CWI was beneficial for recovery at 72 hours (fatigue: p = 0.03, CI: 0.061-1.418) and CWT was beneficial for recovery at 48 hours (fatigue: p = 0.04, CI: 0.013-0.942) following team sport. The CWI was beneficial for neuromuscular recovery 24 hours following team sport, whereas CWT was not beneficial for recovery following team sport. In addition, when evaluating accumulated sprinting, CWI was not beneficial for recovery following team sports. In evaluating subjective measures, both CWI (72 hours) and CWT (24 hours) were beneficial for recovery of perceptions of fatigue, following team sport. However neither CWI nor CWT was beneficial for recovery, of perceptions of muscle soreness, following team sport.

  10. Estimation of the players maximum heart rate in real game situations in team sports: a practical propose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cuadrado Reyes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   This  research developed a logarithms  for calculating the maximum heart rate (max. HR for players in team sports in  game situations. The sample was made of  thirteen players (aged 24 ± 3   to a  Division Two Handball team. HR was initially measured by Course Navette test.  Later, twenty one training sessions were conducted  in which HR and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE, were  continuously monitored, in each task. A lineal regression analysis was done  to help find a max. HR prediction equation from the max. HR of the three highest intensity sessions. Results from  this equation correlate significantly with data obtained in the Course Navette test and with those obtained by other indirect methods. The conclusion of this research is that this equation provides a very useful and easy way to measure the max. HR in real game situations, avoiding non-specific analytical tests and, therefore laboratory testing..   Key words: workout control, functional evaluation, prediction equation.

  11. Effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function and markers of health in older untrained adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    2017-01-01

    group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training...

  12. Cooperative Learning and Dyadic Interactions: Two Modes of Knowledge Construction in Socio-Constructivist Settings for Team-Sport Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnis, Florence; Lafont, Lucile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within a socio-constructivist perspective, this study is situated at the crossroads of three theoretical approaches. First, it is based upon team sport and the tactical act model in games teaching. Second, it took place in dyadic or small group learning conditions with verbal interaction. Furthermore, these interventions were based on…

  13. High School Students' Experiences in a Sport Education Unit: The Importance of Team Autonomy and Problem-Solving Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Katelyn; Xihe Zhu,

    2011-01-01

    This study examined high school students' experiences in a Sport Education unit being implemented with smaller teams and fewer roles. The participants included one physical education teacher and her 70 ninth-grade students. Each week, we conducted two to three observations and four to six informal interviews with the participants for over eight…

  14. Physical Activity and Sports Team Participation: Associations with Academic Outcomes in Middle School and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudia K.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found that higher physical activity levels are associated with greater academic achievement among students. However, it remains unclear whether associations are due to the physical activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose…

  15. Gold Standard or Fool's Gold? The Efficacy of Displacement Variables as Indicators of Energy Expenditure in Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; Peeling, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, the use of player tracking technology to monitor physical work output has become established practice in many team sports. Early tracking systems were manual in nature, relying on subjective assessments and arbitrary classifications of movement intensity. Poor spatial and temporal resolution meant that only gross displacement measures could be used to infer energy demands. However, the advent and evolution of automated systems, with higher sampling rates and improved accuracy, have enabled data collection to occur on a mass scale, and served as a catalyst for extensive research into the demands of team sport activity, including comparisons between different groups of athletes, and the effects of various interventions on performance. The inherent assumption with this research is that, based on steady-state models where energy cost is independent of speed, total distance and average speed are indicative of the amount and rate of work done, respectively. This assumption could be justified if the activity was performed at a constant speed in a straight line. However, team sport movement involves continual changes in both speed and direction, both of which increase energy cost. Accordingly, new models have emerged that incorporate both speed and acceleration to determine metabolic power. This provides a more complete measure of energy expenditure in intermittent activity, and is potentially more suitable than displacement variables for research into the demands of team sports.

  16. Effect of Interventions on Potential, Modifiable Risk Factors for Knee Injury in Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Stege, Marloes H. P.; Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in team ball sports, and prevention is crucial because of health and economic implications. To set up effective prevention programs, these programs must be designed to target potential, modifiable risk factors. In addition, it is

  17. Quantifying session ratings of perceived exertion for field-based speed training methods in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Scott, Brendan R; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-10-01

    Session ratings of perceived exertion (session RPE) are commonly used to assess global training intensity for team sports. However, there is little research quantifying the intensity of field-based training protocols for speed development. The study's aim was to determine the session RPE of popular training protocols (free sprint [FST], resisted sprint [RST], and plyometrics [PT]) designed to improve sprint acceleration over 10 m in team sport athletes. Twenty-seven men (age = 23.3 ± 4.7 years; mass = 84.5 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m) were divided into 3 groups according to 10-m velocity. Training consisted of an incremental program featuring two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 weeks. Subjects recorded session RPE 30 minutes post training using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale. Repeated measures analysis of variance found significant (p sports conditioning program.

  18. Psychophysiological and stress responses to competition in team sport coaches: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J; Davison, G; Robinson, P

    2013-10-01

    Examinations of stress in coaches have mainly been qualitative and focused on chronic stressors. This exploratory study examined stress responses in coaches during competition, including psychological and physiological indices. Using reversal theory, we examined metamotivational state profiles during competition. Ten male team sport coaches (mean age 39.8 ± 13.12 years) reported levels of subjective stress, pleasant and unpleasant emotions, metamotivational state, and provided saliva samples, on a competition day: 15 min prior to the pre-match team talk; start of the match; end of the first half; start of the second half, and end of the match, then at equivalent times on a noncompetition day. Saliva samples were assayed for alpha-amylase activity. On competition day, alpha-amylase activity was significantly higher, as were subjective stress, arousal, and unpleasant emotions. Prior to and during active play, participants were mainly in the conformist, alloic (other-oriented), and mastery states, and at the end of the match, in the telic and sympathy states. Only 22 metamotivational state reversals were observed, mostly at the start and end of the match. The elevated levels of subjective stress, alpha-amylase activity, and unpleasant emotions suggest that educational programs may be useful for some coaches to manage psychological states during competition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of electrostimulation therapy on recovery from acute team-sport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finberg, Matthew; Braham, Rebecca; Goodman, Carmel; Gregory, Peter; Peeling, Peter

    2013-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of a 1-off electrostimulation treatment as a recovery modality from acute team-sport exercise, directly comparing the benefits to contrast water therapy. Ten moderately trained male athletes completed a simulated team-game circuit (STGC). At the conclusion of exercise, participants then completed a 30-min recovery modality of either electrostimulation therapy (EST), contrast water therapy (CWT), or a passive resting control condition (CON). Twenty-four hours later, participants were required to complete a modified STGC as a measure of next-day performance. Venous blood samples were collected preexercise and 3 and 24 h postexercise. Blood samples were analyzed for circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The EST trial resulted in significantly faster sprint times during the 24-h postrecovery than with CON (P .05). There were no differences in IL-6 or CRP across all trials. Finally, the perception of recovery was significantly greater in the EST trial than in the CWT and CON (P < .05). These results suggest that a 1-off treatment with EST may be beneficial to perceptual recovery, which may enhance next-day performance.

  20. Jump Landing Characteristics Predict Lower Extremity Injuries in Indoor Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H T D; Brink, M S; Benjaminse, A; Visscher, C; Lemmink, K A P M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing stability after a single-leg jump landing and landing technique during a repeated counter movement jump by detailed 3-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. During the season 11 acute ankle injuries were reported along with 6 acute and 7 overuse knee injuries by the teams' physical therapist. Logistic regression analysis showed less landing stability in the forward and diagonal jump direction (OR 1.01-1.10, p≤0.05) in players who sustained an acute ankle injury. Furthermore landing technique with a greater ankle dorsiflexion moment increased the risk for acute ankle injury (OR 2.16, p≤0.05). A smaller knee flexion moment and greater vertical ground reaction force increased the risk of an overuse knee injury (OR 0.29 and 1.13 respectively, p≤0.05). Less one-legged landing stability and suboptimal landing technique were shown in players sustaining an acute ankle and overuse knee injury compared to healthy players. Determining both landing stability and technique may further guide injury prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Mechanisms of team-sport-related brain injuries in children 5 to 19 years old: opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael D; Cho, Newton; Amin, Khizer; Shirazi, Mariam; McFaull, Steven R; Do, Minh T; Wong, Matthew C; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports. We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football), basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed. There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP). Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%), followed by soccer (19.0%) and football (12.9%). In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post) among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females). Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.

  2. Mechanisms of team-sport-related brain injuries in children 5 to 19 years old: opportunities for prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Cusimano

    Full Text Available There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports.We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football, basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed.There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP. Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%, followed by soccer (19.0% and football (12.9%. In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females.Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.

  3. Illness monitoring in team sports using a Web-based training diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Brian; Griffiths, Hywel; Proctor, Wayne; Jones, Ken P; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce

    2009-11-01

    Use of Web-based data recording systems has received little attention in sport. An "online" training diary could provide a valuable alternative to pen-paper methods in the regular assessment of physical activity and illness occurrence in athletes. The objective of this study was to design and implement a user-friendly and efficient system to monitor incidences of illness in team sport athletes. Prospective monitoring study over a 48-week rugby season. Players were asked to register presence/absence of weekly illness symptoms with medical staff and also use an online training diary. Submitted self-reported diary illness data were compared with illness complaint data recorded by medical staff. Diary response rates were calculated from the number of completed diary entries against the number of available/required entries over the season. Web-based training diary. Thirty professional rugby union players. Comparison of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory illnesses (URIs) reported by players using an online diary and to medical staff. Incidences of URIs. The diary response rate in the reporting of weekly illnesses was 79% over the study period. Discrepancy existed between the number of self-reported URIs by players using the diary (118 URI incidences) compared with those reported to medical staff (23 URI incidences). Totaling all URI episodes (those self-reported + those registered by medical staff) revealed that players reported just 19% of URI episodes to medical staff. Players tend to underreport incidences of banal infections. Closer monitoring of self-reported illnesses using a similar system in the present study may provide a better alternative to previous methods in nonclinical illness assessment.

  4. Software thresholds alter the bias of actigraphy for monitoring sleep in team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kate L; Juliff, Laura; Gore, Christopher J; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Halson, Shona L

    2017-08-01

    Actical ® actigraphy is commonly used to monitor athlete sleep. The proprietary software, called Actiware ® , processes data with three different sleep-wake thresholds (Low, Medium or High), but there is no standardisation regarding their use. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and bias of the sleep-wake thresholds for processing Actical ® sleep data in team sport athletes. Validation study comparing actigraph against accepted gold standard polysomnography (PSG). Sixty seven nights of sleep were recorded simultaneously with polysomnography and Actical ® devices. Individual night data was compared across five sleep measures for each sleep-wake threshold using Actiware ® software. Accuracy of each sleep-wake threshold compared with PSG was evaluated from mean bias with 95% confidence limits, Pearson moment-product correlation and associated standard error of estimate. The Medium threshold generated the smallest mean bias compared with polysomnography for total sleep time (8.5min), sleep efficiency (1.8%) and wake after sleep onset (-4.1min); whereas the Low threshold had the smallest bias (7.5min) for wake bouts. Bias in sleep onset latency was the same across thresholds (-9.5min). The standard error of the estimate was similar across all thresholds; total sleep time ∼25min, sleep efficiency ∼4.5%, wake after sleep onset ∼21min, and wake bouts ∼8 counts. Sleep parameters measured by the Actical ® device are greatly influenced by the sleep-wake threshold applied. In the present study the Medium threshold produced the smallest bias for most parameters compared with PSG. Given the magnitude of measurement variability, confidence limits should be employed when interpreting changes in sleep parameters. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  5. Body image, perceived and actual physical abilities in normal-weight and overweight boys involved in individual and team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Capranica, Laura

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while individuals' perceptions of strength, speed, and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Fitness tests of the standing long jump, 20 m sprint, and 10 × 5 m shuttle-run were also administered. Overweight boys showed greater body dissatisfaction and lower actual physical abilities than normal-weight peers. Participants involved in team sports reported lower body dissatisfaction and better performances in the shuttle-run compared with those involved in individual sports. For boys participating in team sports, body dissatisfaction was a significant mediator of the effect of body mass index on perceived physical ability. Results may influence intervention efforts, suggesting that targeting personal, psychological, and physical factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations and weight groups.

  6. Monitoring neuromuscular fatigue in team-sport athletes using a cycle-ergometer test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, George; Gabett, Tim J; Dwyer, Dan; McLellan, Christopher; Coad, Sam

    2015-04-01

    To compare a novel sprint test on a cycle ergometer with a countermovement-jump (CMJ) test for monitoring neuromuscular fatigue after Australian rules football match play. Twelve elite under-18 Australian rules football players (mean ± SD age 17.5 ± 0.6 y, stature 184.7 ± 8.8 cm, body mass 75.3 ± 7.8 kg) from an Australian Football League club's Academy program performed a short sprint test on a cycle ergometer along with a single CMJ test 1 h prematch and 1, 24, and 48 h postmatch. The cycle-ergometer sprint test involved a standardized warm-up, a maximal 6-s sprint, a 1-min active recovery, and a 2nd maximal 6-s sprint, with the highest power output of the 2 sprints recorded as peak power (PP). There were small to moderate differences between postmatch changes in cycle-ergometer PP and CMJ PP at 1 (ES = 0.49), 24 (ES = -0.85), and 48 h postmatch (ES = 0.44). There was a substantial reduction in cycle-ergometer PP at 24 h postmatch (ES = -0.40) compared with 1 h prematch. The cycle-ergometer sprint test described in this study offers a novel method of neuromuscular-fatigue monitoring in team-sport athletes and specifically quantifies the concentric component of the fatigue-induced decrement of force production in muscle, which may be overlooked by a CMJ test.

  7. Specific features of team kinds of sports sportsmen’s individual characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Liashenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study individual characteristics of personalities of team kinds of sports sportsmen, specializing in football. Material: in the research football players (n=28, age 18 - 20 years participated. Psycho-diagnostic testing by methodic 16PF of Kattel was used. Results: we found high correlation between factors, which were conditioned by caution in choosing partners for communication and active contacts. Such sportsmen express their emotions expressively. It facilitates improvement of relations in conditions of co-operation in little group. It was also found that one of personality’s leading characteristics in sportsmen is their activity in social contacts. The higher is courage the more active is communication. It promotes discussion of common interests and targets for the given group of people. Conclusions: Sportsmen, who have many emotional interests and are ready to risk (or having bent to adventures have to face non understanding of other players. In such case conflict can be inevitable. Especially it manifests, if opposite side has the same indicators in this factor. Just courage, risk and adventurism push them to conflict solution of problem situations.

  8. Pedagogia do Esporte: livro didático aplicado aos Jogos Esportivos Coletivos Sport Pedagogy: text books applied to team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rafaela Galatti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo trata das possibilidades pedagógicas do livro didático (LD como recurso nas aulas de Educação Física, tendo por conteúdo o esporte e, em específico, os jogos esportivos coletivos (JECs. Foi desenvolvida uma revisão bibliográfica dos termos citados e, a partir desta, o estudo avança para a proposição de um livro didático em educação física na temática dos JECs, considerando dois referenciais: um técnico-tático e outro sócio-educativo. Para tal, recorremos a métodos provenientes da área da lingüística, com o desenvolvimento de uma Seqüência Didática que permitiu a seleção e distribuição dos conteúdos a serem apresentados no LD de forma ordenada e criteriosa. O foco nos JECs se justifica pela sua inserção sócio-cultural e pela necessidade de transformar estudos mais recentes em novos procedimentos pedagógicos para a prática dessas modalidades. O livro didático, bem como a preparação adequada dos profissionais que o utilizarão, é apontado como facilitador no processo de ensino, vivência e aprendizagem dos jogos esportivos coletivos.The study deals with the pedagogical possibilities of text books as a resource for Physical Education (PE classes based on sports, specifically team sports. It started from a bibliographical review on the cited terms and after that we advanced our studies in order to propose a didactic text book on Team Sports for PE classes considering two benchmarks: one technical-tactic and the other social-educational. In order to do so, we used methods from linguistics, and the development of a Didactic Sequence allowed the selection and distribution of the contents to be presented in the book in an orderly and judicious way. The focus in Team Sports is justified by its social-cultural insertion and by the need to transform recent studies into new pedagogical procedures for practicing them. The didactic text book, as well as the adequate preparation of the professionals who will use

  9. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.

  10. Quantification of physiological, movement, and technical outputs during a novel small-sided game in young team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the physiological responses, time-motion characteristics, and technical executions associated with a novel non-sport-specific small-sided game (SSG) in young team sport players. On 6 separate occasions, 12 young male team sport athletes (mean ± SD: age, 13.0 ± 0.3 years; height, 157.4 ± 4.9 cm; body mass, 47.0 ± 5.0 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 55.1 ± 4.6 ml·kg·min) completed various "bucketball" SSG formats (i.e., 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4, and 6 vs. 6) twice each. Heart rate (HR) was measured during each SSG at 5-second intervals. Time-motion characteristics were measured using global positioning systems. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded immediately after the SSGs using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Technical skill executions were measured using a high-speed digital video camera. Analysis revealed a tendency for the 3 vs. 3 games to elicit higher HRs (88.3 ± 4.3) than either 4 vs. 4 (85.9 ± 4.9) or 6 vs. 6 formats (85.9 ± 3.2). Total distance traveled at 13-17.9 km·h was more during 6 vs. 6 than 3 vs. 3 games (very likely substantial true difference, 97%), and total possessions and number of catches, passes, and shots were all higher in 3 vs. 3 compared with 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 games. There was no difference in RPE between the game formats. The results of this study indicate that 3 vs. 3 non-sport-specific SSGs provide higher stimulus for aerobic fitness adaptation and technical improvement than 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 formats, and their use for training young team sport athletes is recommended.

  11. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jacob Vorup

    2016-01-01

    levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...

  12. Alterations to the orientation of the ground reaction force vector affect sprint acceleration performance in team sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezodis, Neil E; North, Jamie S; Razavet, Jane L

    2017-09-01

    A more horizontally oriented ground reaction force vector is related to higher levels of sprint acceleration performance across a range of athletes. However, the effects of acute experimental alterations to the force vector orientation within athletes are unknown. Fifteen male team sports athletes completed maximal effort 10-m accelerations in three conditions following different verbal instructions intended to manipulate the force vector orientation. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) were collected from the step nearest 5-m and stance leg kinematics at touchdown were also analysed to understand specific kinematic features of touchdown technique which may influence the consequent force vector orientation. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare findings between conditions. There was a likely more horizontally oriented ground reaction force vector and a likely lower peak vertical force in the control condition compared with the experimental conditions. 10-m sprint time was very likely quickest in the control condition which confirmed the importance of force vector orientation for acceleration performance on a within-athlete basis. The stance leg kinematics revealed that a more horizontally oriented force vector during stance was preceded at touchdown by a likely more dorsiflexed ankle, a likely more flexed knee, and a possibly or likely greater hip extension velocity.

  13. The validity and reliability of 5-Hz global positioning system units to measure team sport movement demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W; Murphy, Aron J; Pruyn, Elizabeth C

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the validity and the reliability of 5-Hz MinimaxX global positioning system (GPS) units measuring athlete movement demands. A team sport simulation circuit (files collected from each unit = 12) and flying 50-m sprints (files collected from each unit = 34) were undertaken, during which the total distance covered; peak speed; player load; the distance covered; time spent and number of efforts performed walking, jogging, running, high-speed running, and sprinting were examined. Movement demands were also separately categorized into low-intensity activity, high-intensity running, and very high-intensity running. The results revealed that GPS was a valid and reliable measure of total distance covered (p > 0.05, percentage typical error of measurement [%TEM] 0.05, %TEM 5-10%). Further, GPS was found to be a reliable measure of player load (%TEM 4.9%) and the distance covered, time spent, and number of efforts performed at certain velocity zones (%TEM 10%). The level of GPS error was found to increase along with the velocity of exercise. The findings demonstrated that GPS is capable of measuring movement demands performed at velocities GPS velocities >20 km·h(-1).

  14. The effect of milk on recovery from repeat-sprint cycling in female team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Paula; Lawlor, Michael J; Hills, Frank A; Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma J; Cockburn, Emma

    2018-02-01

    The consumption of milk following eccentric exercise attenuates the effects of muscle damage in team-sport athletes. However, participation in team sport involves both concentric-eccentric loading and metabolic stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postexercise milk consumption on recovery from a cycling protocol designed to simulate the metabolic demands of team sport. Ten female team-sport athletes participated in a randomised crossover investigation. Upon completion of the protocol participants consumed 500 mL of milk (MILK) or 500 mL of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) drink. Muscle function (peak torque, rate of force development, countermovement jump, 20-m sprint), muscle soreness and tiredness, serum creatine kinase, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and measures of oxidative stress (protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio) were determined at pre-exercise and 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h postexercise. MILK had a possible beneficial effect in attenuating losses in peak torque (180°/s) from baseline to 24 h (3.2% ± 7.8% vs. -6.2% ± 7.5%, MILK vs. CHO) and a possible beneficial effect in minimising soreness (baseline-48 h; baseline-72 h) and tiredness (baseline-24 h; baseline-72 h). There was no change in oxidative stress following the exercise protocol, though a likely benefit of milk was observed for GSH/GSSG ratio at baseline-24 h (0.369 ×/÷ 1.89, 1.103 ×/÷ 3.96, MILK vs. CHO). MILK had an unclear effect on all other variables. Consumption of 500 mL of milk after repeat sprint cycling had little to no benefit in minimising losses in peak torque or minimising increases in soreness and tiredness and had no effect on serum markers of muscle damage and inflammation.

  15. The Research Doesn't Always Apply: Practical Solutions to Evidence-Based Training-Load Monitoring in Elite Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Darren J

    2017-04-01

    Research describing load-monitoring techniques for team sport is plentiful. Much of this research is conducted retrospectively and typically involves recreational or semielite teams. Load-monitoring research conducted on professional team sports is largely observational. Challenges exist for the practitioner in implementing peer-reviewed research into the applied setting. These challenges include match scheduling, player adherence, manager/coach buy-in, sport traditions, and staff availability. External-load monitoring often attracts questions surrounding technology reliability and validity, while internal-load monitoring makes some assumptions about player adherence, as well as having some uncertainty around the impact these measures have on player performance This commentary outlines examples of load-monitoring research, discusses the issues associated with the application of this research in an elite team-sport setting, and suggests practical adjustments to the existing research where necessary.

  16. Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan H. Lazarus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers.Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks. Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences.Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders; 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards. Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear.Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.

  17. Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Brendan H; Stewart, Andrew M; White, Kevin M; Rowell, Amber E; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G; Aughey, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.

  18. Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Brendan H.; Stewart, Andrew M.; White, Kevin M.; Rowell, Amber E.; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G.; Aughey, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription. PMID:29209229

  19. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, M T; Vorup, J; Nistrup, A; Wikman, J M; Alstrøm, J M; Melcher, P S; Pfister, G U; Bangsbo, J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited. Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm curls within 30 seconds (Ptraining led to higher (Pquestionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants more by intrinsic factors than resistance training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The reproducibility of 10 and 20km time trial cycling performance in recreational cyclists, runners and team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, David N; Osborne, John O; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T; Sims, Jesse N L; Minett, Geoffrey M

    2018-01-26

    This study aimed to determine the reliability of 10 and 20km cycling time trial (TT) performance on the Velotron Pro in recreational cyclists, runners and intermittent-sprint based team sport athletes, with and without a familiarisation. Thirty-one male, recreationally active athletes completed four 10 or 20km cycling TTs on different days. During cycling, power output, speed and cadence were recorded at 23Hz, and heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every km. Multiple statistical methods were used to ensure a comprehensive assessment of reliability. Intraclass correlations, standard error of the measurement, minimum difference required for a worthwhile change and coefficient of variation were determined for completion time and mean trial variables (power output, speed, cadence, heart rate, RPE, session RPE). A meaningful change in performance for cyclists, runners, team sport athletes would be represented by 7.5, 3.6 and 12.9% improvement for 10km and a 4.9, 4.0 and 5.6% for 20km completion time. After a familiarisation, a 4.0, 3.7 and 6.4% improvement for 10km and a 4.1, 3.0 and 4.4% would be required for 20km. Data from this study suggest not all athletic subgroups require a familiarisation to produce substantially reliable 10 and 20km cycling performance. However, a familiarisation considerably improves the reliability of pacing strategy adopted by recreational runners and team sport athletes across these distances. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. TEAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…

  2. Achievement motivation across training and competition in individual and team sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Training and competition are two important contexts within the sport domain. In this study, we examined: (a) consistency and differences in goal orientations across the training and competition contexts and whether these are moderated by sport type; and (b) whether goal orientations predict effort,

  3. Age and education in moral judgment of participants in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proios, Miltiadis; Doganis, George

    2006-02-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effect of age and education on the moral reasoning of the same 535 individuals in sports for whom nature of sport experience was reported. All 535 participants (M age = 24.9 yr., SD = 8.3) were involved in sports at the time of the study as athletes (n = 342), referees (n = 145), or coaches (n = 48), and had a wide range of education. Analysis of variance of scores on the Defining Issues Test of Rest showed moral judgment in sports differs significantly amongst different age groups (F5.510 = 5.37, p education (F4.511 = 6.24, p education, higher moral judgment can be expected. It is apparent that moral development in sport is related to age and education, as also holds for a wider social setting.

  4. Sports and exercise cardiology in the United States: cardiovascular specialists as members of the athlete healthcare team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Christine E; Olshansky, Brian; Washington, Reginald L; Baggish, Aaron L; Daniels, Curt J; Lawrence, Silvana M; Sullivan, Renee M; Kovacs, Richard J; Bove, Alfred A

    2014-04-22

    In recent years, athletic participation has more than doubled in all major demographic groups, while simultaneously, children and adults with established heart disease desire participation in sports and exercise. Despite conferring favorable long-term effects on well-being and survival, exercise can be associated with risk of adverse events in the short term. Complex individual cardiovascular (CV) demands and adaptations imposed by exercise present distinct challenges to the cardiologist asked to evaluate athletes. Here, we describe the evolution of sports and exercise cardiology as a unique discipline within the continuum of CV specialties, provide the rationale for tailoring of CV care to athletes and exercising individuals, define the role of the CV specialist within the athlete care team, and lay the foundation for the development of Sports and Exercise Cardiology in the United States. In 2011, the American College of Cardiology launched the Section of Sports and Exercise Cardiology. Membership has grown from 150 to over 4,000 members in just 2 short years, indicating marked interest from the CV community to advance the integration of sports and exercise cardiology into mainstream CV care. Although the current athlete CV care model has distinct limitations, here, we have outlined a new paradigm of care for the American athlete and exercising individual. By practicing and promoting this new paradigm, we believe we will enhance the CV care of athletes of all ages, and serve the greater athletic community and our nation as a whole, by allowing safest participation in sports and physical activity for all individuals who seek this lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on recovery after intensive, muscle damaging, maximal speed training in professional team sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-05-01

    During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Greater chance of high core temperatures with modified pacing strategy during team sport in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J; Goodman, Craig A; McKenna, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    To measure the activity profile, hydration status and core temperature of elite team sport athletes during matches in hot and cool conditions. Thirty-five professional Australian footballers (age 25.9 ± 3.5 yrs; height 188.4 ± 7.8 cm; body mass 90.6 ± 8.8 kg), gave informed consent to participate in this study. Core temperature (T(c)), hydration and running performance were compared in eight hot and eight cool matches classified via a rating of the risk of heat illness from the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). Core temperature was measured via an ingestible sensor before matches and after each quarter and player movement was recorded by 5 Hz GPS and expressed per period of the match (rotation), for distance; high-intensity running (HIR, 4.17-10.00 m s(-1)), sprinting (>4.17 m s(-1)) and maximal accelerations (2.78-10.00 m s(-2)). All data was compared for hot and cool matches and the magnitude of effects was analysed with the effect size (ES) statistic. Core temperature was elevated from rest at all time-points during matches (37.3-39.4 °C), with small additional elevations after the first and third quarters in hot matches (ES: 0.39 ± 0.40 and 0.37 ± 0.42 respectively). In hot matches 12 players had T(c)>40 °C but only one in cool matches. Total distance was reduced in the latter parts of each half (-6.5%, -0.49 ± 0.58; and -6.7%, -0.57 ± 0.59), yet the high intensity tasks of sprinting and accelerating were preserved. Players tolerated core temperatures up to 40.5 °C during hot matches but reduced the volume of running undertaken, thus preserving the ability to undertake high intensity activities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Allocation algorithm for athletes group to form tactical tasks in game team sports using the methods of multivariate analysis (illustrated women Ukrainian team basketball with hearing impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally allocation algorithm athletes in groups to form a tactical tasks in team sports game using methods of multivariate analysis. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Analyzed the results of testing and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : An algorithm for distribution by groups of athletes for the formation of tactical tasks. The algorithm consists of the following steps: 1 - testing of athletes; 2 - A hierarchical cluster analysis performance testing; 3 - Distribution of sportsmen groups, analysis of the characteristics of athletes, the formation of tactical tasks. Found higher rates of reaction rate at the offensive players. We pivot revealed a higher level of absolute strength. The defenders found a higher frequency of movement and jumping. Conclusions : The algorithm is the basis for determining the best options mutual combination players in the development and implementation of tactical combinations, the selection of partners when working in pairs and triples in training.

  8. The Relationship Between Whole-Body External Loading and Body-Worn Accelerometry During Team-Sport Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedergaard, Niels J; Robinson, Mark A; Eusterwiemann, Elena; Drust, Barry; Lisboa, Paulo J; Vanrenterghem, Jos

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between whole-body accelerations and body-worn accelerometry during team-sport movements. Twenty male team-sport players performed forward running and anticipated 45° and 90° side-cuts at approach speeds of 2, 3, 4, and 5 m/s. Whole-body center-of-mass (CoM) accelerations were determined from ground-reaction forces collected from 1 foot-ground contact, and segmental accelerations were measured from a commercial GPS accelerometer unit on the upper trunk. Three higher-specification accelerometers were also positioned on the GPS unit, the dorsal aspect of the pelvis, and the shaft of the tibia. Associations between mechanical load variables (peak acceleration, loading rate, and impulse) calculated from both CoM accelerations and segmental accelerations were explored using regression analysis. In addition, 1-dimensional statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to explore the relationships between peak segmental accelerations and CoM-acceleration profiles during the whole foot-ground contact. A weak relationship was observed for the investigated mechanical load variables regardless of accelerometer location and task (R 2 values across accelerometer locations and tasks: peak acceleration .08-.55, loading rate .27-.59, and impulse .02-.59). Segmental accelerations generally overestimated whole-body mechanical load. SPM analysis showed that peak segmental accelerations were mostly related to CoM accelerations during the first 40-50% of contact phase. While body-worn accelerometry correlates to whole-body loading in team-sport movements and can reveal useful estimates concerning loading, these correlations are not strong. Body-worn accelerometry should therefore be used with caution to monitor whole-body mechanical loading in the field.

  9. Acute Ingestion of Caffeinated Chewing Gum Improves Repeated Sprint Performance of Team Sports Athletes With Low Habitual Caffeine Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Tierney, Peter; Gray, Nicola; Hawe, Greg; Macken, Maria; Egan, Brendan

    2017-11-01

    The effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on short-duration high intensity performance are equivocal, while studies of novel modes of delivery and the efficacy of low doses of caffeine are warranted. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum on repeated sprint performance (RSP) in team sport athletes, and whether habitual caffeine consumption alters the ergogenic effect, if any, on RSP. Eighteen male team sports athletes undertook four RSP trials using a 40 m maximum shuttle run test (MST), which incorporates 10x40 m sprints with 30 s between the start of each sprint. Each participant completed two familiarization sessions, followed by caffeine (CAF; caffeinated chewing gum; 200 mg caffeine) and placebo (PLA; non-caffeinated chewing gum) trials in a randomized, double-blind manner. RSP, assessed by sprint performance decrement (S dec ;%), did not differ (p=0.209, ES=0.16; n=18) between CAF (5.00±2.84%) and PLA (5.43±2.68%). Secondary analysis revealed that low habitual caffeine consumers (caffeine consumers (>130 mg/day, n=6) (3.98±2.57% vs. 3.80±1.79%, respectively; p=0.684, ES=0.08). The data suggest that a low dose of caffeine in the form of caffeinated chewing gum attenuates the sprint performance decrement during RSP by team sport athletes with low, but not moderate-to-high, habitual consumption of caffeine.

  10. The Relationship Among Fans’ Involvement, Psychological Commitment, and Loyalty in Professional Team Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Stavros Tachis; George Tzetzis

    2015-01-01

    Research on consumer behavior in leisure settings has proposed the relationship among involvement, psychological commitment and loyalty. Nonetheless, very little attention has been given to the conceptualization of the relationship among these constructs in a sport spectator context. The present study examined the relationship among involvement, psychological commitment, and two dimensions of loyalty, namely the attitudinal and behavioral loyalty of sport fans. The participants of this study ...

  11. Roles Distribution and Group Identification in Sport Teams with Joint-Consistent Interaction Mode

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Kolosov; S.M. Voutenko

    2012-01-01

    The article presents comparative analysis of differentiated space choice, presenting subjectively perceived ground of concrete athlete personal activity within Ukrainian National Fencing Team (13 women and 12 men). The received data gives reasons to believe that role repertoire of the team depends on team identification, but at the same time it has impact on activity redistribution inside the group, significant for competition actions regulation and optimal formation determination.

  12. Roles Distribution and Group Identification in Sport Teams with Joint-Consistent Interaction Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Kolosov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents comparative analysis of differentiated space choice, presenting subjectively perceived ground of concrete athlete personal activity within Ukrainian National Fencing Team (13 women and 12 men. The received data gives reasons to believe that role repertoire of the team depends on team identification, but at the same time it has impact on activity redistribution inside the group, significant for competition actions regulation and optimal formation determination.

  13. Reasons for dropout in youth soccer: a comparison with other team sports Motivos de abandono en el fútbol juvenil: comparación con otros deportes colectivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Molinero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of our study was to identify the main reasons for dropout in young soccer players and to compare withdrawal motives to those rated important by participants in other team sports. Dropouts (150 males and 159 females, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years were administered the Questionnaire of Reasons for Attrition by Gould, Feltz, Horn and Weiss (1982. Represented were youth who participated in the sport of soccer (n=127, basketball (n=122, and volleyball (n=60. The most important reasons for attrition from the different team sports were having other things to do, dislike of the coach, and lack of team spirit. Reasons related to the team work were also given high ratings. Less important reasons concerned old age, rewards and competition. Although discriminant analysis revealed some differences between sports, the finding remains that both conflict of interests and aspects of the sports environment are major motives for withdrawal from team sports.
    Key Words: Dropout, team sport, soccer.

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar las razones para el abandono en jóvenes jugadores de fútbol y comparar los motivos de abandono con los descritos en practicantes de otros deportes colectivos. Los sujetos (150 varones y 159 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 18 años respondieron la versión española del Questionnaire of Reasons for Attrition de Gould, Feltz, Horn y Weiss (1982. La muestra estaba constituida por practicantes de fútbol (n=127, baloncesto (n=122, y voleibol (n=60. Las razones consideradas como más importantes para el abandono fueron el tener otras cosas que hacer, las malas relaciones con el entrenador y la falta de espíritu de equipo. También alcanzaron puntuaciones elevadas los motivos relacionados con el trabajo de equipo. Las razones a las que se otorgaba menos importancia se relacionaban con edad excesiva, recompensas y

  14. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Jeffrey E; Wooding, Denise J; Kato, Hiroyuki; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 protein), seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O 2 ⋅kg -1 ⋅min -1 ; mean ± SD) performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min). Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2-2.6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ) and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ). Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1- 13 C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake) was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13 CO 2 excretion (F 13 CO 2 ) were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F 13 CO 2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake ( P  = 0.45). Bi-phase linear regression ( R 2  = 0.64) of F 13 CO 2 resulted

  15. Applying the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model to Older Sport Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary

    2011-01-01

    According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…

  16. Validity of the Catapult ClearSky T6 Local Positioning System for Team Sports Specific Drills, in Indoor Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live S. Luteberget

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the validity of position, distance traveled and instantaneous speed of team sport players as measured by a commercially available local positioning system (LPS during indoor use. In addition, the study investigated how the placement of the field of play relative to the anchor nodes and walls of the building affected the validity of the system.Method: The LPS (Catapult ClearSky T6, Catapult Sports, Australia and the reference system [Qualisys Oqus, Qualisys AB, Sweden, (infra-red camera system] were installed around the field of play to capture the athletes' motion. Athletes completed five tasks, all designed to imitate team-sports movements. The same protocol was completed in two sessions, one with an assumed optimal geometrical setup of the LPS (optimal condition, and once with a sub-optimal geometrical setup of the LPS (sub-optimal condition. Raw two-dimensional position data were extracted from both the LPS and the reference system for accuracy assessment. Position, distance and speed were compared.Results: The mean difference between the LPS and reference system for all position estimations was 0.21 ± 0.13 m (n = 30,166 in the optimal setup, and 1.79 ± 7.61 m (n = 22,799 in the sub-optimal setup. The average difference in distance was below 2% for all tasks in the optimal condition, while it was below 30% in the sub-optimal condition. Instantaneous speed showed the largest differences between the LPS and reference system of all variables, both in the optimal (≥35% and sub-optimal condition (≥74%. The differences between the LPS and reference system in instantaneous speed were speed dependent, showing increased differences with increasing speed.Discussion: Measures of position, distance, and average speed from the LPS show low errors, and can be used confidently in time-motion analyses for indoor team sports. The calculation of instantaneous speed from LPS raw data is not valid. To

  17. Is being a regular player with fewer teammates associated with musculoskeletal pain in youth team sports? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takafumi; Kamada, Masamitsu; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Okada, Shinpei; Mutoh, Yoshiteru; Uchio, Yuji

    2017-03-14

    Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a commonly reported symptom in youth sports players. Some sports-related risk factors have been reported, but previous studies on extrinsic risk factors did not focus on management of team members (e.g., regular or non-regular players, number of players) for reducing sports-related MSP. This study aimed to examine the association of playing status (regular or non-regular players) and team status (fewer or more teammates) with MSP in youth team sports. A total of 632 team sports players (age: 12-18 years) in public schools in Unnan, Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire to determine MSP (overall, upper limbs, lower back, and lower limbs) and playing status (regular or non-regular players). Team status was calculated as follows: teammate quantity index (TQI) = [number of teammates in their grade]/[required number of players for the sport]. Associations between the prevalence of pain and joint categories of playing and team status were examined by multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression. A total of 272 (44.3%) participants had MSP at least several times a week in at least one part of the body. When divided by playing or team status, 140 (47.0%) regular and 130 (41.7%) non-regular players had MSP, whereas 142 (47.0%) players with fewer teammates (lower TQI) and 127 (41.8%) players with more teammates (higher TQI) had MSP. When analyzed jointly, regular players with fewer teammates had a higher prevalence of lower back pain compared with non-regular players with more teammates (21.3% vs 8.3%; prevalence ratio = 2.08 [95% confidence interval 1.07-4.02]). The prevalence of MSP was highest in regular players with fewer teammates for all other pain outcomes, but this was not significant. Regular players with fewer teammates have a higher risk of lower back pain. Future longitudinal investigations are required.

  18. Injury Risk Is Increased by Changes in Perceived Recovery of Team Sport Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Henrike Teunisje Dorothe; Brink, Michel Sanne; Otter, Ruby Tina Ardi; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen Alfons Plechelmus Marie

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if changes in perceived stress and recovery over the course of a season are risk factors for acute and overuse injuries. Design: A prospective nonexperimental cohort design. Setting: Data were gathered at the SportsFieldLab Groningen and at the

  19. "It Just Makes You Feel Invincible": A Foucauldian Analysis of Children's Experiences of Organised Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Simon R.; Payne, Deborah; Schluter, Philip J.; Thomson, Rex W.

    2015-01-01

    The childhood years are highlighted as a crucial time when ongoing participation in physical activity can be nurtured and maintained. The nurturing of a child's proclivity to participate in organised sport normally falls into the domain of adults. While both parents and coaches have been identified as key influences on children's enjoyment of…

  20. Sustainable Sport Scheduling Approach Considering Team Equity for the Korean Professional Baseball League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Dae Ko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Korea Baseball League (KBL had nine teams, an odd number, in the 2013 season, one team was unable to compete at certain times in the rotation while the other eight teams played games. Therefore, it was necessary to consider several elements to generate an annual match schedule in terms of team equity. However, the annual match schedule created by the conventional method could not fully reflect the elements regarding team equity, and there were a great many complaints from teams and fans. As a result, applying an optimization technique was decided upon to derive an efficient annual match schedule for the 2014 season. All the required conditions for scheduling are formulated as one or more equations and several parameter values concerning team equity are calculated with the related equations. Due to the complicated scheduling conditions, a sequential solution approach is applied by dividing the overall planning horizon in three parts. The derived annual match schedule was used for the 2014 season after some modifications, and the staff of the KBL was satisfied with the performance of the proposed scheduling methodology. Currently, this sustainable scheduling methodology is still in use to generate an efficient annual match schedule for the KBL.

  1. The Influence of Physical Fitness and Playing Standard on Pacing Strategies During a Team-Sport Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G

    2015-11-01

    To assess the influence of playing standard and physical fitness on pacing strategies during a junior team-sport tournament. A between-groups, repeated-measures design was used. Twenty-eight junior team-sport players (age 16.6 ± 0.5 y, body mass 79.9 ± 12.0 kg) from a high-standard and low-standard team participated in a junior rugby league tournament, competing in 5 games over 4 d (4 × 40-min and 1 × 50-min game). Players wore global positioning system (GPS) microtechnology during each game to provide information on match activity profiles. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (level 1) was used to assess physical fitness before the competition. High-standard players had an initially higher pacing strategy than the low-standard players, covering greater distances at high (ES = 1.32) and moderate speed (ES = 1.41) in game 1 and moderate speed (ES = 1.55) in game 2. However, low-standard players increased their playing intensity across the competition (ES = 0.57-2.04). High-standard/high-fitness players maintained a similar playing intensity, whereas high-standard/low-fitness players reduced their playing intensities across the competition. Well-developed physical fitness allows for a higher-intensity pacing strategy that can be maintained throughout a tournament. High-standard/low-fitness players reduce playing intensity, most likely due to increased levels of fatigue as the competition progresses. Low-standard players adopt a pacing strategy that allows them to conserve energy to produce an "end spurt" in the latter games. Maximizing endurance fitness across an entire playing group will maximize playing intensity and minimize performance reductions during the latter stages of a tournament.

  2. BIG PLAY. Hospitals team up with biggest names in pro sports to score brand awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeznieks, Andis

    2016-07-01

    Partnering with major league baseball, basketball, hockey, football and even lacrosse teams isn't just about building brand recognition. It's also a way to promote health and fitness in the community.

  3. Home field advantage: new stadium construction and team performance in professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jack C; Krantz, Andrew J

    2003-12-01

    To identify the relations between new stadiums and home team performance and attendance for professional baseball (MLB) (n=14), basketball (NBA) (n=13), and football (NFL) (n=25) teams in the USA since 1950 dependent t tests assessed significance of increases in attendance in both MLB and the NBA and a significantly improved home winning percentage in MLB following the building of new stadiums. Implications include a better understanding of the rationales used by owners, fans, and players for building new stadiums.

  4. The implementation of musculoskeletal injury-prevention exercise programmes in team ball sports: a systematic review employing the RE-AIM framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, James; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-09-01

    Team ball sports such as soccer, basketball and volleyball have high participation levels worldwide. Musculoskeletal injuries are common in team ball sports and are associated with significant treatment costs, participation loss and long-term negative side effects. The results of recent randomized controlled trials provide support for the protective effect of injury-prevention exercise programmes (IPEPs) in team ball sports, but also highlight that achieving adequate compliance can be challenging. A key process in enhancing the ultimate impact of team ball sport IPEPs is identifying the specific implementation components that influence the adoption, execution and maintenance of these interventions. Despite this, no systematic review focussing on the specific implementation components of team ball sport IPEPs has been conducted. Our objective was to assess the reporting of specific implementation components in the published literature on team ball sport IPEPs using the Reach Efficacy Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Six electronic databases were systematically searched from inception to December 2012 for papers reporting team ball sport IPEP trials. All eligible papers were independently evaluated by two raters before reaching consensus on the reporting of individual RE-AIM items, using the RE-AIM Model Dimension Items Checklist (RE-AIM MDIC). A total of 60 papers, reporting 52 unique intervention trials, met eligibility criteria. Before consensus, the level of agreement across all trials between reviewers using the RE-AIM MDIC ranged from 81 to 91%. The RE-AIM MDIC dimension of 'efficacy' had the highest level of reporting, with the five individual items in this dimension reported in 19-100% of eligible trials (mean 58%). The RE-AIM MDIC dimension 'maintenance-setting level' had the lowest level of reporting, with none of the four individual items in this dimension reported. For other dimensions, the mean level of reporting and range across

  5. Mental Training with Youth Sport Teams: Developmental Considerations & Best Practice Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Visek, Amanda J.; Harris, Brandonn; Blom, Lindsey C.

    2013-01-01

    Working with youth athletes requires knowledge of the inherent variability in child and adolescent development that will impact the implementation of a mental training program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of developmental considerations that should be noted when doing mental training, particularly for athletes participating in sport at mid-childhood, early adolescence, and mid-adolescence. Gender differences at these stages of development are also highlighted. Addition...

  6. Validity and reliability of GPS and LPS for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Matthias W; Baumgart, Christian; Polglaze, Ted; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of global (GPS) and local (LPS) positioning systems for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports. Here, we evaluated two recently released 18 Hz GPS and 20 Hz LPS technologies together with one established 10 Hz GPS technology. Six male athletes (age: 27±2 years; VO2max: 48.8±4.7 ml/min/kg) performed outdoors on 10 trials of a team sport-specific circuit that was equipped with double-light timing gates. The circuit included various walking, jogging, and sprinting sections that were performed either in straight-lines or with changes of direction. During the circuit, athletes wore two devices of each positioning system. From the reported and filtered velocity data, the distances covered and sprint mechanical properties (i.e., the theoretical maximal horizontal velocity, force, and power output) were computed. The sprint mechanical properties were modeled via an inverse dynamic approach applied to the center of mass. The validity was determined by comparing the measured and criterion data via the typical error of estimate (TEE), whereas the reliability was examined by comparing the two devices of each technology (i.e., the between-device reliability) via the coefficient of variation (CV). Outliers due to measurement errors were statistically identified and excluded from validity and reliability analyses. The 18 Hz GPS showed better validity and reliability for determining the distances covered (TEE: 1.6-8.0%; CV: 1.1-5.1%) and sprint mechanical properties (TEE: 4.5-14.3%; CV: 3.1-7.5%) than the 10 Hz GPS (TEE: 3.0-12.9%; CV: 2.5-13.0% and TEE: 4.1-23.1%; CV: 3.3-20.0%). However, the 20 Hz LPS demonstrated superior validity and reliability overall (TEE: 1.0-6.0%; CV: 0.7-5.0% and TEE: 2.1-9.2%; CV: 1.6-7.3%). For the 10 Hz GPS, 18 Hz GPS, and 20 Hz LPS, the relative loss of data sets due to measurement errors was 10.0%, 20.0%, and 15.8%, respectively. This study shows that

  7. The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes' psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Louise; Appleby, Ralph; Davis, Paul; Wetherell, Mark; Gustafsson, Henrik

    2018-01-23

    The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experimental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach-athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

  8. Assessment of the prevailing motivation within the sports teams from the city of Iasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana RUSU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seen as a psycho-social products, motivation, attitudes and the view of life depends on the education, socio-cultural environment etc. The individual’s personality marks his activities, motivations and interests, as it ensures the direction and dynamics of the participation to it. Within the group, the individual seeks to satisfy personal needs, in agreement with the achievement of the organizational goals. The level of motivation of the individual is determined by the action of several factors, and the contribution of each member of the group's performance is different. We aim to assess the level of motivation of the members of sports groups. The research sample was composed of athletes (N=158, 55 females, 103 males from the sports groups within the city of Iasi, part of the first and second sports divisions (basketball, football, handball, rugby, and volleyball. The respondents answered to a adapted to the Romanian population 32-item questionnaire; the items were grouped into four factors: leadership (power needs, expertise / performance (achievement needs, bonding (affiliation needs, subsistence (existence needs. The homogeneity instrument was assessed for the entire scale, as well as independently for each factor. The lack of variance homogeneity made it impossible to get outcomes for the interaction of the independent variables such as the type of club and the status. No gender-based differences were found regarding the power needs. If the type of club does not influence the expert/performance factor, have identified a partial influences of this variable over the bonding factor. Professional athletes are more motivated to achieve the performance than semi professional athletes.

  9. A systematic review of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew; Iverson, Grant L; Stanwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Traditional structural neuroimaging techniques are normal in athletes who sustain sport-related concussions and are only considered to be clinically helpful in ruling out a more serious brain injury. There is a clinical need for more sophisticated, non-invasive imaging techniques capable of detecting changes in neurophysiology after injury. Concussion is associated with neurometabolic changes including neuronal depolarization, release of excitatory neurotransmitters, ionic shifts, changes in glucose metabolism, altered cerebral blood flow, and impaired axonal function. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS, or simply MRS) is capable of measuring brain biochemistry and has the potential to identify and quantify physiologic changes after concussion. The focus of the current review is to provide an overview of research findings using MRS in sport-related concussion. A systematic review of articles published in the English language, up to February 2013, was conducted. Articles were retrieved via the databases: PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, and Informit using key terms: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, neurospectroscopy, spectroscopy, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, correlation spectroscopy, J-spectroscopy, exchange spectroscopy, nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy, NMR, MRS, COSY, EXSY, NOESY, 2D NMR, craniocerebral trauma, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, brain concussion, concussion, brain damage, sport, athletic, and athlete. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies were all included in the current review. The review identified 11 publications that met criteria for inclusion, comprised of data on 200 athletes and 116 controls. Nine of 11 studies reported a MRS abnormality consistent with an alteration in neurochemistry. The results support the use of MRS as a research tool for identifying

  10. A Brand Loyalty Model Utilizing Team Identification and Customer Satisfaction in the Licensed Sports Product Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soonhwan; Shin, Hongbum; Park, Jung-Jun; Kwon, Oh-Ryun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the attitudinal brand loyalty variables (i.e., cognitive, affective, and conative components), team identification, and customer satisfaction by developing a structural equation model, based on Oliver's (1997) attitudinal brand loyalty model. The results of this study confirmed…

  11. Eccentric-Overload Training in Team-Sport Functional Performance: Constant Bilateral Vertical Versus Variable Unilateral Multidirectional Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Valero-Campo, Carlos; Berzosa, César; Bataller, Ana Vanessa; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Moras, Gerard; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the effects of 2 different eccentric-overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical pulley, on functional performance in team-sport players. A traditional movement paradigm (ie, squat) including several sets of 1 bilateral and vertical movement was compared with a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multi-directional movements. Forty-eight amateur or semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral vertical (CBV, n = 24) movement (squat) or different unilateral multidirectional (VUMD, n = 24) movements. Training programs consisted of 6 sets of 1 exercise (CBV) or 1 set of 6 exercises (VUMD) × 6-10 repetitions with 3 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, biweekly for 8 wk. Functional-performance assessment included several change-of-direction (COD) tests, a 25-m linear-sprint test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (ie, lateral, horizontal, and vertical), and a bilateral vertical-jump test. Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in all tests in both groups, with VUMD showing more robust adaptations in pooled COD tests and lateral/horizontal jumping, whereas the opposite occurred in CBV respecting linear sprinting and vertical jumping. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in lateral jumps (ES = 0.21), left-leg horizontal jump (ES = 0.35), and 10-m COD with right leg (ES = 0.42) in VUMD than in CBV. In contrast, left-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.26) was possibly better in CBV than in VUMD. Eight weeks of EOT induced substantial improvements in functional-performance tests, although the force-vector application may play a key role to develop different and specific functional adaptations.

  12. Accuracy and reliability of SPI ProX global positioning system devices for measuring movement demands of team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köklü, Y; Arslan, Y; Alemdaroğlu, U; Duffield, R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of SPI ProX global positioning system (GPS) devices for measuring movement at various speeds and movement patterns as evident in team sport demands. Eleven amateur soccer players performed a 40 m straight sprint test (with 10-20-30 m split times), a zigzag test, 30 m walking, jogging and moderate intensity runs. Results indicated that the SPI ProX GPS measurements showed acceptable accuracy for all movement patterns for distance (coefficient of variation [CV]=0.14% to 3.73%; 95% ratio limits of agreement [95% ratio LOA]=0.97 x / ÷ 1.09 to 1.00 x / ÷ 1.05) and speed (CV=4.22% to 9.52%; 95%LOA=-0.17 ± 1.70 km h-1 to 2.30 ± 1.17 km h-1) compared with the measured distance and speed determined from timing gates, respectively. Furthermore, acceptable reliability of SPI ProX GPS measures for distance (CV=0.34% to 3.81%; 95%LOA=-0.09 ± 0.23 m to -0.34 ± 2.31 m) and speed (CV=3.19% to 6.95%; 95%LOA=-0.05 ± 3.90 km h-1 to 0.42 ± 3.68 km h-1) were also evident. Whilst SPI ProX GPS devices were within acceptable ranges of reliability, they remained significantly different to criterion measures of team sport movement demands.

  13. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  14. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

    2014-01-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  15. Sports physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...

  16. Training Load Monitoring in Team Sports: A Novel Framework Separating Physiological and Biomechanical Load-Adaptation Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrenterghem, Jos; Nedergaard, Niels Jensby; Robinson, Mark A; Drust, Barry

    2017-11-01

    There have been considerable advances in monitoring training load in running-based team sports in recent years. Novel technologies nowadays offer ample opportunities to continuously monitor the activities of a player. These activities lead to internal biochemical stresses on the various physiological subsystems; however, they also cause internal mechanical stresses on the various musculoskeletal tissues. Based on the amount and periodization of these stresses, the subsystems and tissues adapt. Therefore, by monitoring external loads, one hopes to estimate internal loads to predict adaptation, through understanding the load-adaptation pathways. We propose a new theoretical framework in which physiological and biomechanical load-adaptation pathways are considered separately, shedding new light on some of the previously published evidence. We hope that it can help the various practitioners in this field (trainers, coaches, medical staff, sport scientists) to align their thoughts when considering the value of monitoring load, and that it can help researchers design experiments that can better rationalize training-load monitoring for improving performance while preventing injury.

  17. Writing for publication in Physical education and sport pedagogy: reflections and advice from an editorial team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kirk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to the process of writing for publication in Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, where three issues in particular are analyzed. The first one explains how to write an article for an international scientific publication, drawing the attention that it must be in accordance to the aims and the scope of the journal and that instructions regarding structure should be followed, as well as articles must be clear in regard to theory, method, results, conclusions, summary and key words. The second issue is a step-by-step guide to the review process, which involves the editor´s first decision, the decision to return the submission to the author or select two reviewers to revise the article; the feedback given by the reviewers to the editor, which decides and communicates the author; and, if the author must re-submission the article, the way how it happens. Last issue explains how Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy acts in regard to articles written in English as a foreign language.

  18. Athletic pubalgia and "sports hernia": optimal MR imaging technique and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Imran M; Zoga, Adam C; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Koulouris, George; Bergin, Diane; Gopez, Angela G; Morrison, William B; Meyers, William C

    2008-01-01

    Groin injuries are common in athletes who participate in sports that require twisting at the waist, sudden and sharp changes in direction, and side-to-side ambulation. Such injuries frequently lead to debilitating pain and lost playing time, and they may be difficult to diagnose. Diagnostic confusion often arises from the complex anatomy and biomechanics of the pubic symphysis region, the large number of potential sources of groin pain, and the similarity of symptoms in athletes with different types or sites of injury. Many athletes with a diagnosis of "sports hernia" or "athletic pubalgia" have a spectrum of related pathologic conditions resulting from musculotendinous injuries and subsequent instability of the pubic symphysis without any finding of inguinal hernia at physical examination. The actual causal mechanisms of athletic pubalgia are poorly understood, and imaging studies have been deemed inadequate or unhelpful for clarification. However, a large-field-of-view magnetic resonance (MR) imaging survey of the pelvis, combined with high-resolution MR imaging of the pubic symphysis, is an excellent means of assessing various causes of athletic pubalgia, providing information about the location of injury, and delineating the severity of disease. Familiarity with the pubic anatomy and with MR imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and in other confounding causes of groin pain allows accurate imaging-based diagnoses and helps in planning treatment that targets specific pathologic conditions. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  19. The impact of identification on adherence to group norms in team sports: Who is going the extra mile? : Who Is Going the Extra Mile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Täuber, Susanne; Sassenberg, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates the applicability of the Normative Conflict Model of Dissent (NCMD; Packer, 2008) in the context of team sports. The core assumption of the NCDM is that strongly identified group members adhere to group norms less (i.e., deviate more) when these norms are

  20. Real-time versus post-game GPS data in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J; Falloon, Cameron

    2010-05-01

    Real-time (RT) GPS is used to monitor performance during Australian Football matches. Typically athlete targets monitored in RT are set from post-game (PG) data. The validity of RT compared to PG data is not yet known. This study compared RT data for key parameters to those obtained PG, using MinimaxX GPS. RT was different to PG for jog 4.2-5.0, run 5.0-6.9, sprint 6.9-10.0 m s(-1), and total distance (CV=6.4-19.6%). The signal to noise ratio was low for jog and run distance. For sprint noise exceeded the signal, with the opposite true for total distance. Caution must be applied if using RT data to monitor performance, especially if targets are set for players using PG data. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inertial sensors to estimate the energy expenditure of team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emily J; McAinch, Andrew J; Sweeting, Alice; Aughey, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    To quantify the energy expenditure of Australian Football training and matches and the total daily energy expenditure of Australian Football players using tri-axial accelerometers. Cross sectional observation study. An algorithm was developed for the MiniMax 4.0 (Catapult Innovations, Scoresby Australia) using measured oxygen uptake and accelerometer data to estimate energy expenditure of 18 Australian Football players during training and matches. The algorithm was used to validate a metabolic power calculation used by Catapult Innovations (Scoresby Australia) in their proprietary GPS software. The SenseWear™ (Model MF-SW, Bodymedia, Pittsburgh, PA) armband was used to determine non-exercise activity thermogenesis and was worn for 7 days leading into a match. Training, match and non-exercise activity thermogenesis data was summed for total daily energy expenditure. Energy expenditure for field training was estimated to be 2719±666kJ and for matches to be 5745±1468kJ. The estimated energy expenditure in the current study showed a large correlation (r=0.57, 90% CI 0.06-0.84) with the metabolic power calculation. The mean total daily energy expenditure for an in-season main training day was approximately 18,504kJ and match day approximately 19,160kJ with non-exercise activity thermogenesis contributing approximately 85% and 69% on training and match days, respectively. The MiniMax 4.0 and SenseWear™ armband accelerometers provide a practical, non-invasive and an effective method to successfully measure training and match energy expenditure, and non-exercise activity thermogenesis in field sport athletes. Taking methodological limitations into consideration, measuring energy expenditure allows for individualised nutrition programming to enhance performance and achieve body composition goals. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dismantling the School Sport Partnership Infrastructure: Findings from a Survey of Physical Education and School Sport Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the perceptions of education practitioners to the proposed changes to the school sport partnership (SSP) programme in England and in particular its implications for primary school physical education. It aims to explore insights into the dismantling of this partnership programme. The SSP system developed club links, increased…

  3. Methodological Considerations When Quantifying High-Intensity Efforts in Team Sport Using Global Positioning System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Matthew C; Jaspers, Arne; Helsen, Werner F; Malone, James J

    2017-09-01

    Sprints and accelerations are popular performance indicators in applied sport. The methods used to define these efforts using athlete-tracking technology could affect the number of efforts reported. This study aimed to determine the influence of different techniques and settings for detecting high-intensity efforts using global positioning system (GPS) data. Velocity and acceleration data from a professional soccer match were recorded via 10-Hz GPS. Velocity data were filtered using either a median or an exponential filter. Acceleration data were derived from velocity data over a 0.2-s time interval (with and without an exponential filter applied) and a 0.3-second time interval. High-speed-running (≥4.17 m/s 2 ), sprint (≥7.00 m/s 2 ), and acceleration (≥2.78 m/s 2 ) efforts were then identified using minimum-effort durations (0.1-0.9 s) to assess differences in the total number of efforts reported. Different velocity-filtering methods resulted in small to moderate differences (effect size [ES] 0.28-1.09) in the number of high-speed-running and sprint efforts detected when minimum duration was GPS. Changes to how high-intensity efforts are defined affect reported data. Therefore, consistency in data processing is advised.

  4. Sports injuries profile of a first division Brazilian soccer team: a descriptive cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme F. Reis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective:To establish the injury profile of soccer players from a first division Brazilian soccer team. In addition, we investigated the association between the characteristics of the injuries and the player's age and position.Method: Forty-eight players from a Brazilian first division soccer team were followed during one season. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the injury profile. Spearman's tests were used to verify the association between the number and severity of injuries and the player's age. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between type of injury and player's position. Fisher's exact test was used to verify the association between the severity of injuries and player's position.Results: The incidence of injuries was 42.84/1000 hours in matches and 2.40/1000 hours in training. The injury severity was 19.5±34.4 days off competition or training. Lower limb was the most common location of injury and most injuries were muscular/tendinous, overuse, non-recurrent, and non-contact injuries. Player's age correlated with the amount and severity of muscle and tendon injuries. Defenders had more minimal injuries (1-3 days lost, while forwards had more moderate (8-28 days lost and severe injuries (>28 days lost. Furthermore, wingbacks had more muscle and tendon injuries, while midfielders had more joint and ligament injuries.Conclusion: The injury profile of the Brazilian players investigated in this study reflected regional differences in soccer practices. Results confirm the influence of the player's age and position on the soccer injuries profile.

  5. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Hamish R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ≥ 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N to 202 N (p Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications.

  6. Effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function and markers of health in older untrained adults: A randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Alstrøm, Joachim Meno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower (0.7±0.3 s, P = 0.03) and number of arm curl repetitions increased (3.5±1.2, P = 0.01), whereas in TS-LP only number of repetitions in sit-to-stand was higher (1.6±0.6, P = 0.01). In TS-LP, reductions were observed in total and abdominal fat mass (1.2±0.5 and 0.4±0.2 kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively), heart rate at rest (9±3 bpm, P = 0.002) and plasma C-reactive protein (1.8±0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.03), with no effects in TS-HP. Thus, team sport training improves functional capacity of untrained older adults and increases leg muscle mass only when ingesting proteins after training. Furthermore, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143 PMID:29016675

  7. Effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function and markers of health in older untrained adults: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Alstrøm, Joachim Meno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower (0.7±0.3 s, P = 0.03) and number of arm curl repetitions increased (3.5±1.2, P = 0.01), whereas in TS-LP only number of repetitions in sit-to-stand was higher (1.6±0.6, P = 0.01). In TS-LP, reductions were observed in total and abdominal fat mass (1.2±0.5 and 0.4±0.2 kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively), heart rate at rest (9±3 bpm, P = 0.002) and plasma C-reactive protein (1.8±0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.03), with no effects in TS-HP. Thus, team sport training improves functional capacity of untrained older adults and increases leg muscle mass only when ingesting proteins after training. Furthermore, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143.

  8. Does training with 3D videos improve decision-making in team invasion sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Tanja; Obelöer, Hilke; Schlapkohl, Nele; Raab, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of video-based decision training in national youth handball teams. Extending previous research, we tested in Study 1 whether a three-dimensional (3D) video training group would outperform a two-dimensional (2D) group. In Study 2, a 3D training group was compared to a control group and a group trained with a traditional tactic board. In both studies, training duration was 6 weeks. Performance was measured in a pre- to post-retention design. The tests consisted of a decision-making task measuring quality of decisions (first and best option) and decision time (time for first and best option). The results of Study 1 showed learning effects and revealed that the 3D video group made faster first-option choices than the 2D group, but differences in the quality of options were not pronounced. The results of Study 2 revealed learning effects for both training groups compared to the control group, and faster choices in the 3D group compared to both other groups. Together, the results show that 3D video training is the most useful tool for improving choices in handball, but only in reference to decision time and not decision quality. We discuss the usefulness of a 3D video tool for training of decision-making skills outside the laboratory or gym.

  9. Achievement motivation, competitiveness and sports performance in a team of sportsmen soccer players between 14 and 24 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo García-Naveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify to what extent competitiveness trait is related to sport performance in soccer, and to what extent the age and sport category can influence these variables, a descriptive cross-sectional study has been developed. The variables age, sport category, sport performance, achievement motivation (Me, motivation to avoid the failure (Mef and competitiveness trait have been assessed in 151 men soccer players (between 14 and 24 y.o. of a Spanish sport club. The results indicated that the sport performance ascends with age. Consequently, a direct relationship between the sport category and the performance has been observed. Me, Mef and competitiveness trait have been associated with the performance and has varied based on the sport category. No correlation between Me, Mef, competitiveness and age of the sportsmen has been found

  10. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  11. Reliability of a Cycle Ergometer Peak Power Test in Running-based Team Sport Athletes: A Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, George M; Gabbett, Tim J; Hartwig, Timothy B; Mclellan, Christopher P

    2015-07-01

    Given the importance of ensuring athletes train and compete in a nonfatigued state, reliable tests are required to regularly monitor fatigue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a cycle ergometer to measure peak power during short maximal sprint cycle efforts in running-based team sport athletes. Fourteen professional male Australian rules footballers performed a sprint cycle protocol during 3 separate trials, with each trial separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of a standardized warm-up, a maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort, a 1-minute active recovery, and a second maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort. Peak power was recorded as the highest power output of the 2 sprint cycle efforts. Absolute peak power (mean ± SD) was 1502 ± 202, 1498 ± 191, and 1495 ± 210 W for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean coefficient of variation, intraclass correlation coefficient, and SE of measurement for peak power between trials was 3.0% (90% confidence intervals [CIs] = 2.5-3.8%), 0.96 (90% CIs = 0.91-0.98), and 39 W, respectively. The smallest worthwhile change for relative peak power was 6.0%, which equated to 1.03 W·kg⁻¹. The cycle ergometer sprint test protocol described in this study is highly reliable in elite Australian rules footballers and can be used to track meaningful changes in performance over time, making it a potentially useful fatigue-monitoring tool.

  12. The Relationships Between Internal and External Measures of Training Load and Intensity in Team Sports: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Shaun J; Macpherson, Tom W; Coutts, Aaron J; Hurst, Christopher; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    The associations between internal and external measures of training load and intensity are important in understanding the training process and the validity of specific internal measures. We aimed to provide meta-analytic estimates of the relationships, as determined by a correlation coefficient, between internal and external measures of load and intensity during team-sport training and competition. A further aim was to examine the moderating effects of training mode on these relationships. We searched six electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL) for original research articles published up to September 2017. A Boolean search phrase was created to include search terms relevant to team-sport athletes (population; 37 keywords), internal load (dependent variable; 35 keywords), and external load (independent variable; 81 keywords). Articles were considered for meta-analysis when a correlation coefficient describing the association between at least one internal and one external measure of session load or intensity, measured in the time or frequency domain, was obtained from team-sport athletes during normal training or match-play (i.e., unstructured observational study). The final data sample included 122 estimates from 13 independent studies describing 15 unique relationships between three internal and nine external measures of load and intensity. This sample included 295 athletes and 10,418 individual session observations. Internal measures were session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), sRPE training load (sRPE-TL), and heart-rate-derived training impulse (TRIMP). External measures were total distance (TD), the distance covered at high and very high speeds (HSRD ≥ 13.1-15.0 km h -1 and VHSRD ≥ 16.9-19.8 km h -1 , respectively), accelerometer load (AL), and the number of sustained impacts (Impacts > 2-5 G). Distinct training modes were identified as either mixed (reference condition), skills, metabolic, or

  13. Finding the key to a better code: code team restructure to improve performance and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Cynthia R; Hines, Elizabeth J; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J

    2014-09-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient's status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team's resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital's code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role's position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. © 2014 Marshfield Clinic.

  14. A Self-Paced Intermittent Protocol on a Non-Motorised Treadmill: A Reliable Alternative to Assessing Team-Sport Running Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Tofari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the reliability of a ‘self-paced’ 30-min, team-sport running protocol on a Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorised treadmill (NMT. Ten male team-sport athletes (20.3 ± 1.2 y, 74.4 ± 9.7 kg, VO2peak 57.1 ± 4.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 attended five sessions (VO2peak testing + familiarisation; four reliability trials. The 30-min protocol consisted of three identical 10-min activity blocks, with visual and audible commands directing locomotor activity; however, actual speeds were self-selected by participants. Reliability of variables was estimated using typical error ± 90% confidence limits expressed as a percentage [coefficient of variation (CV] and intraclass correlation coefficient. The smallest worthwhile change (SWC was calculated as 0.2 × between participant standard deviation. Peak/mean speed and distance variables assessed across the 30-min protocol exhibited a CV < 5%, and < 6% for each 10-min activity block. All power variables exhibited a CV < 7.5%, except walking (CV 8.3-10.1%. The most reliable variables were maximum and mean sprint speed (CV < 2%. All variables produced a CV% greater than the SWC. A self-paced, team-sport running protocol performed on a NMT produces reliable speed/distance and power data. Importantly, a single familiarisation session allowed for adequate test-retest reliability. The self-paced design provides an ecologically-valid alternative to externally-paced team-sport running simulations.

  15. Toward a multidimensional model of athletes' commitment to coach-athlete relationships and interdependent sport teams: a substantive-methodological synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Dimmock, James A

    2014-02-01

    Drawing from a three-factor model of organizational commitment, we sought to provide validity evidence for a multidimensional conceptualization designed to capture adolescent athletes' commitment to their coach-athlete relationship or their team. In Study 1, 335 individual-sport athletes (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.38) completed instruments assessing affective, normative, and continuance commitment to their relationship with their coach, and in Study 2, contextually modified instruments were administered to assess interdependent-sport athletes' (N = 286, Mage = 16.31, SD = 1.33) commitment to their team. Bayesian structural equation modeling revealed support for a three-factor (in comparison with a single-factor) model, along with relations between commitment dimensions and relevant correlates (e.g., satisfaction, return intentions, cohesion) that were largely consistent with theory. Guided by recent advancements in Bayesian modeling, these studies provide a new commitment instrument with the potential for use and refinement in team- and relationship-based settings and offer preliminary support for a conceptual framework that may help advance our understanding of the factors underpinning individuals' engagement in sport.

  16. A Self-Paced Intermittent Protocol on a Non-Motorised Treadmill: A Reliable Alternative to Assessing Team-Sport Running Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofari, Paul J.; McLean, Blake D.; Kemp, Justin; Cormack, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the reliability of a ‘self-paced’ 30-min, team-sport running protocol on a Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorised treadmill (NMT). Ten male team-sport athletes (20.3 ± 1.2 y, 74.4 ± 9.7 kg, VO2peak 57.1 ± 4.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) attended five sessions (VO2peak testing + familiarisation; four reliability trials). The 30-min protocol consisted of three identical 10-min activity blocks, with visual and audible commands directing locomotor activity; however, actual speeds were self-selected by participants. Reliability of variables was estimated using typical error ± 90% confidence limits expressed as a percentage [coefficient of variation (CV)] and intraclass correlation coefficient. The smallest worthwhile change (SWC) was calculated as 0.2 × between participant standard deviation. Peak/mean speed and distance variables assessed across the 30-min protocol exhibited a CV simulations. Key points Self-paced team-sport running protocols on a curved NMT that closely match the locomotor demands of competition deliver reliable test-retest measures of speed, distance and power. Such protocols may be sensitive to changes in running profile following an intervention that may not be detectable during externally-paced protocols. One familiarisation session is adequate to ensure test-retest reliability. PMID:25729291

  17. Internet health information seeking is a team sport: analysis of the Pew Internet Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Kinney, Rebecca L; Lemon, Stephenie C; Shimada, Stephanie L; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies examining characteristics of Internet health information seekers do not distinguish between those who only seek for themselves, and surrogate seekers who look for health information for family or friends. Identifying the unique characteristics of surrogate seekers would help in developing Internet interventions that better support these information seekers. To assess differences between self seekers versus those that act also as surrogate seekers. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional Pew Internet and American Life Project November/December 2008 health survey. Our dependent variable was self-report of type of health information seeking (surrogate versus self seeking). Independent variables included demographics, health status, and caregiving. After bivariate comparisons, we then developed multivariable models using logistic regression to assess characteristics associated with surrogate seeking. Out of 1250 respondents who reported seeking health information online, 56% (N=705) reported being surrogate seekers. In multivariable models, compared with those who sought information for themselves only, surrogate seekers were more likely both married and a parent (OR=1.57, CI=1.08, 2.28), having good (OR=2.05, CI=1.34, 3.12) or excellent (OR=2.72, CI=1.70, 4.33) health status, being caregiver of an adult relative (OR=1.76, CI=1.34, 2.30), having someone close with a serious medical condition (OR=1.62, CI=1.21, 2.17) and having someone close to them facing a chronic illness (OR=1.55, CI=1.17, 2.04). Our findings provide evidence that information needs of surrogate seekers are not being met, specifically of caregivers. Additional research is needed to develop new functions that support surrogate seekers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological and performance responses to a preseason altitude-training camp in elite team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Blake D; Buttifant, David; Gore, Christopher J; White, Kevin; Liess, Carsten; Kemp, Justin

    2013-07-01

    Little research has been done on the physiological and performance effects of altitude training on team-sport athletes. Therefore, this study examined changes in 2000-m time-trial running performance (TT), hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), and intramuscular carnosine content of elite Australian Football (AF) players after a preseason altitude camp. Thirty elite AF players completed 19 days of living and training at either moderate altitude (~2130 m; ALT, n = 21) or sea level (CON, n = 9). TT performance and Hbmass were assessed preintervention (PRE) and postintervention (POST1) in both groups and at 4 wk after returning to sea level (POST2) in ALT only. Improvement in TT performance after altitude was likely 1.5% (± 4.8-90%CL) greater in ALT than in CON, with an individual responsiveness of 0.8%. Improvements in TT were maintained at POST2 in ALT. Hbmass after altitude was very likely increased in ALT compared with CON (2.8% ± 3.5%), with an individual responsiveness of 1.3%. Hbmass returned to baseline at POST2. Intramuscular carnosine did not change in either gastrocnemius or soleus from PRE to POST1. A preseason altitude camp improved TT performance and Hbmass in elite AF players to a magnitude similar to that demonstrated by elite endurance athletes undertaking altitude training. The individual responsiveness of both TT and Hbmass was approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. The maintenance of running performance for 4 wk, despite Hbmass returning to baseline, suggests that altitude training is a valuable preparation for AF players leading into the competitive season.

  19. Exploring the Notion of Space in Virtual Collaborations : Finding Prerequisites for Success in Virtual Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Hamrin, Per; Persson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Virtual Teams are becoming an increasingly common work form. The ability to connect people with required sets of skills, regardless of their location in the world has been enabled by advances in information technology over the past 20 years. However, as researchers and practitioners have discovered, this new kind of team brings with it number of challenges. This thesis aims to examine the challenges and the opportunities that technology brings to the environment of the Virtual Team and to giv...

  20. Informal roles within eSport teams : a content analysis of the game 'Counter-Strike: Global Offensive

    OpenAIRE

    Drenthe, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Informal roles are roles that are not formally prescribed by a group or organization and are being established through group interaction that takes place among group members. Previous literature has identified twelve roles within traditional sport, however to date limited research has been done within the field of role development within competitive computer gaming (eSports). The purpose of the present study was to explore the informal roles within the eSport setting and i...

  1. Improvisational Theater Games: Performatory Team-Building Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Joan S.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes five improvisational theater games for building "teams" in the classroom and on the sports field. Particular attention is given to understanding how teams must challenge the hyper-individuality of modern culture. Improvisational theater games for team building are designed to help participants find a balance…

  2. Interplay of task and outcome interdependence in generating work team members' affective responses : Some new findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, B J M; Van der Vegt, G S; Van de Vliert, E; Vartiainen, M; Avallone, F; Anderson, N

    2000-01-01

    Two distinct, basic dimensions of a work team's internal structure are outcome interdependence and task interdependence. Task interdependence is a characteristic of team members' jobs. It is defined as their interconnectedness with jobs of co-members. Outcome interdependence is a characteristic of

  3. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  4. Adolescent male hazardous drinking and participation in organised activities: involvement in team sports is associated with less hazardous drinking in young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallingberg, Britt; Moore, Simon; Morgan, Joanne; Bowen, Katharine; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2015-02-01

    There is a lack of research investigating organised activity participation and associated alcohol use in vulnerable groups. The purpose of this research was to test and compare associations between participation in organised activities and indicators of hazardous drinking between young offenders and young non-offenders. Two groups of 13-18 year-old males were recruited in Cardiff, UK: 93 young offenders and 53 non-offenders from secondary schools matched on estimated IQ, sex and socioeconomic status. Indicators of hazardous drinking were measured using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). Organised activity participation and externalising behaviour was measured by the Youth Self Report. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence was also administered. Young offenders participated in fewer organised activities and had higher FAST scores than non-offenders. Young offenders and non-offenders significantly differed on mean FAST scores if they participated in no organised activities but not if they participated in at least one team sport. Externalising behaviour problems were unrelated to participation in organised activities. Although young offenders were less likely to have participated in organised activities, for them, participation in a team sport was associated with less hazardous drinking. Vulnerable youths who might benefit most from sporting activities actually access them the least. Future research should identify the different barriers to participation that they face. © 2014 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. What are the barriers which discourage 15-16 year-old girls from participating in team sports and how can we overcome them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetton, Abigail R; Radley, Rebecca; Jones, Angela R; Pearce, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health), exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires (n = 60) and semistructured interviews (n = 6) to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers' attitudes and shifting the media's focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation's female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport.

  6. What Are the Barriers Which Discourage 15-16 Year-Old Girls from Participating in Team Sports and How Can We Overcome Them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R. Wetton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health, exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires ( and semistructured interviews ( to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers’ attitudes and shifting the media’s focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation’s female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport.

  7. Street Soccer USA Cup: Preliminary Findings of a Sport-for-Homeless Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peachey, Jon Welty; Lyras, Alexis; Borland, John; Cohen, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the emerging field of sport-for-development (SFD) has advanced global efforts of related and applied scholarship and programming. While most of the existing SFD body of knowledge addresses social challenges of the "global south", today's economic global recession spreads challenges beyond these regions.…

  8. Does small-sided games training improve physical-fitness and specific skills for team sports? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Amri; Gabbett, Tim J; Slimani, Maamer; Bouhlel, Ezdine

    2017-10-24

    This paper aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the training effects of small-sided games (SSG) on physical fitness and specific skills related to team sport according to the level of play and the period of the season. The search covered the following electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect). The publications' search period ranged from 2000 to 2016. The terms (small- sided game, training, skill-based game, aerobic fitness, sprint, agility, jump and team sports) were used either singularly or combined in a systematic sequence. Appraisal of 16 articles (15 were meta-analysed) was performed after the application of exclusion criteria and quality assurance processes and the standardized mean effects were measured using random effects. The results revealed that SSG training had a large beneficial effect on maximal oxygen uptake VO2max (effect size 1.94; 95 % CL 0.15, 3.74; I2 = 94 %), agility (-1.49; 95% CL -2.27, -0.71; I2 = 80%), and repeated sprint ability (-1.19; 95% CL - 2.17, -0.21; I2= 53%).There was a moderate beneficial effect on 10- and 20-m sprint performance (-0.89; 95 % CL -1.7, -0.07; I2 =88%), jump height (0.68; 95% CL 0.03, 1.33; I2= 79%), and intermittent endurance (0.61; 95% CL 0.17, 1.05; I2= 0%). The results also showed greater positive effects on specific skills (specific endurance and agility tests and techniques) after SSG when compared with generic or agility training. Small-sided games may represent an effective strategy of multicomponent training that can induce greater positive effects on specific skills tasks when compared with interval or agility training and moderate to large improvements in team sport-related physical fitness.

  9. The Department of Energy Tiger Teams; analysis of findings and plans for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Since mid-1989, the Department of Energy (DOE) has used 'Tiger Teams' to provide independent oversight and assessments of the compliance and management of environment, safety, and health programs in DOE facilities. These assessments have provided the Secretary of Energy with not only the current compliance status of each facility together with the associated vulnerabilities, but also have identified root causes for noncompliance. By mid-1992, Tiger Team assessments will be completed for all major DOE facilities (production, research, and testing facilities) as well as a number of smaller or less complex sites. (author)

  10. Sport Biomechanist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…

  11. Japanese Teenager's Perceptions of Gender and the Relationship with Sport Activities : Findings from a Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    羽田野, 慶子

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to make clear the plural structures of femininity and of masculinity, and to investigate how sport activities influence the ways in which Japanese teenagers perceive gender, based on a questionnaire survey in junior high schools in Tokyo. By factor analysis of eight items of gender perceptions, these items were divided into three factors. Boys'gender perceptions consist of 'sturdiness', 'discontent with one's own sex', and 'male's superiority on intellectuality'. ...

  12. Effects of experience on the dimensions of intensity, direction and frequency of the competitive anxiety and self-confidence: A study in athletes of individual and team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the following objectives: i to examine the inter-scale correlations between the three dimensions of responses (intensity, direction and frequency of the CSAI-2R and its relationship with competitive experience, and ii evaluate the effect of competitive experience anxiety (cognitive and somatic and self-confidence in the total sample and for different types of modalities (individual vs. team. The sample consisted of 267 athletes (196 male and 71 female, of different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M = 24.30, SD = 5.62. Athletes completed the Brazilian version of the CSAI-2, which included the addition of the dimensions of direction and frequency response. Spearman test and Manova were used for the data analysis. Overall, it was found that the competitive experience has a high multivariate and significant effect on the dimensions of competitive anxiety. Both individual and team athletes with low competitive experience showed a trend to report lower levels of self-confidence intensity, compared to counterparts with high competitive experience. These results were discussed in view of the theoretic framework and practical implications planning Sport Psychology intervention programs in local athletes with different backgrounds.

  13. Influence of closed skill and open skill warm-ups on the performance of speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and reactive agility in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Pritchard-Peschek, Kellie R; Leveritt, Michael D; Aldred, Murry J

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two different dynamic warm-up conditions, one that was inclusive of open skills (i.e., reactive movements) and one that included only preplanned dynamic activities (i.e., closed skills) on the performance of speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and reactive agility in team sport athletes. Fourteen (six male, eight female) junior (mean +/- SD age, 16.3 +/- 0.7 year) basketball players participated in this study. Testing was conducted on 2 separate days using a within-subjects cross-over study design. Each athlete performed a standardized 7-minute warm-up consisting of general dynamic movements and stretching. After the general warm-up, athletes were randomly allocated into one of two groups that performed a dynamic 15-minute warm-up consisting entirely of open or closed skills. Each of the warm-up conditions consisted of five activities of 3 minute duration. At the completion of the warm-up protocol, players completed assessments of reactive agility, speed (5-, 10-, and 20-m sprints), change of direction speed (T-test), and vertical jump. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected among warm-up conditions for speed, vertical jump, change of direction speed, and reactive agility performances. The results of this study demonstrate that either open skill or closed skill warm-ups can be used effectively for team sport athletes without compromising performance on open skill and closed skill tasks.

  14. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  15. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566–2985 kcal and 1997–2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg−1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%–80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg−1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 min per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg−1. However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation. PMID:28208581

  16. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-10

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg -1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg -1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg -1 . However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

  17. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Monajati

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  18. Improving Cybersecurity Incident Response Team (CSIRT) Skills, Dynamics and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    form its architecture, but institutions of higher education have responded by producing human talent that is adept at using the latest technologies...managed, skilled and efficient Cybersecurity Incident Response Team (CSIRT). For CSIRT managers, finding the right mixture of talent and creating the...members join. Managers should have regular team social activities (e.g., team lunches, sports activities), especially if the team is not new. Engaging

  19. Big-Time Teams Will Fight Cuts in Football; Income Must Pay for Other Sports, They Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Charles S.

    1987-01-01

    The members of the College Football Association are determined that college football not be "held hostage" to correct the economic imbalance of college sports. Self-determination for Division I-A football, academic standards, and TV coverage are discussed. (MLW)

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Homosexuality and Sport among the Teammates of a Small, Midwestern Catholic College Soccer Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adi; Anderson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Despite decreasing homophobia, openly gay male athletes are still rare in organized, competitive teamsports. In this action research, we explore two aspects of homosexuality and sport: (1) the effect of a gay male soccer player coming out to his teammates; and (2) the effect of having an openly gay researcher in the field. This is, therefore, the…

  1. Epidemiology of Injuries in Women Playing Competitive Team Bat-or-Stick Sports: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagodage Perera, Nirmala Kanthi; Joseph, Corey; Kemp, Joanne Lyn; Finch, Caroline Frances

    2018-03-01

    Team bat-or-stick sports, including cricket, softball and hockey, are popular among women. However, little is known about the injury profile in this population. The aim was to describe the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries in bat-or-stick sports played by women in a competitive league. This review was prospectively registered (PROSPERO CRD42015026715). CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus were systematically searched from January 2000 to September 2016, inclusive. Peer-reviewed original research articles reporting the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries sustained by women aged 18 + years in competitive bat-or-stick sports were included. Two meta-analyses based on injury incidence proportions (injury IP) and injury rates per 1000 person-days of athletic exposure (AE) were performed. A total of 37 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, and five had low risk of bias. The weighted injury IP was 0.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.45]. The weighted injury rate was 6.12 (95% CI 6.05-6.18) overall, and greater in games [15.79 (95% CI 15.65-15.93)] than in practice [3.07 (95% CI 2.99-3.15)]. The ankle was the most commonly injured anatomical location, followed by the hand (including wrist and fingers), knee and head. Soft tissue and ligament injuries were most common types of injuries. Injury prevention in women's sports is a novel and emerging field of research interest. This review highlights that injury incidence is high among female bat-or-stick players, but little information is known about direct causal mechanisms. This review clearly establishes the need for enhancements to injury data collection. Without this information, it will not be possible to develop evidence-based injury prevention interventions.

  2. SPORTS WATCHING CULTURE AMONG MALAYSIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunathevan Elumalai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondents from 30 million Malaysian population. Respondents were selected from urban (50% and rural areas (50%. Ethnically 56% were Malays, Sarawak and Sabah natives were 11%, Chinese 25% and finally Indians 7%. The respondents age categories were 12 to 19 years (30%, 20 to 25 years (50%, 56 and above (20%. A questionnaire developed by the research team was used to collect data. The quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21.0 for windows. Results: The findings indicate that from 5864 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full, a total of 4553 people or 77.6% watch sporting events, while a total of 1311 people or 22.4% have stated not watching any sports activities. Comparison by gender showed that 85.2% of the 2482 males watch sports events while among the female 70.2% of the 2071 watch sports events. In the category of those who do not watch, the female are higher at 29.8% than the males at 14.8%. In terms of ethnicity the Malays 80.2%. Chinese 64.6%, Indians 81.9%, natives of Sabah 94.0%, natives of Sarawak 77.6% like to watch sports events. Residential locations showed no significant differences as 78.7% of urban respondents watch sports events compared to 76.8% of rural communities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that majority of Malaysians having fun in watching sports activities. Gender still plays a role in the involvement and enjoyment of sports events either as a player or supporter. Ethnicity

  3. Accuracy and reliability of GPS devices for measurement of sports-specific movement patterns related to cricket, tennis, and field-based team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, William M; Dascombe, Ben J; Baker, John D; Higham, Dean G; Spratford, Wayne A; Duffield, Rob

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of 5, 10, and 15 Hz global positioning system (GPS) devices. Two male subjects (mean ± SD; age, 25.5 ± 0.7 years; height, 1.75 ± 0.01 m; body mass, 74 ± 5.7 kg) completed 10 repetitions of drills replicating movements typical of tennis, cricket, and field-based (football) sports. All movements were completed wearing two 5 and 10 Hz MinimaxX and 2 GPS-Sports 15 Hz GPS devices in a specially designed harness. Criterion movement data for distance and speed were provided from a 22-camera VICON system sampling at 100 Hz. Accuracy was determined using 1-way analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc tests. Interunit reliability was determined using intraclass correlation (ICC), and typical error was estimated as coefficient of variation (CV). Overall, for the majority of distance and speed measures, as measured using the 5, 10, and 15 Hz GPS devices, were not significantly different (p > 0.05) to the VICON data. Additionally, no improvements in the accuracy or reliability of GPS devices were observed with an increase in the sampling rate. However, the CV for the 5 and 15 Hz devices for distance and speed measures ranged between 3 and 33%, with increasing variability evident in higher speed zones. The majority of ICC measures possessed a low level of interunit reliability (r = -0.35 to 0.39). Based on these results, practitioners of these devices should be aware that measurements of distance and speed may be consistently underestimated, regardless of the movements performed.

  4. Sport Specialization, Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  5. Use of Relative Speed Zones Increases the High-Speed Running Performed in Team Sport Match Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the activity profiles of junior rugby league players competing in 3 distinct age groups (Under 13, 14, and 15), and 2 distinct playing standards (division 1 and 4). In addition, we reported global positioning system (GPS) data using predefined absolute speed thresholds and speed thresholds expressed relative to a players' individual peak velocity. Ninety male junior rugby league players, representing 1 of 6 teams competing in the Brisbane junior rugby league competition, underwent measurements of peak velocity (through a 40-m sprint) and GPS analysis during competitive matches. Data were described as both absolute speed zones and relative to the individual player's peak velocity. Absolute measures of moderate-, high-, and very high-speed running distances increased with age with the differences among groups typically small to moderate (effect size = 0.24-0.68) in magnitude. However, when data were expressed relative to a players' capacity, younger players and those from lower playing divisions exhibited higher playing intensities and performed greater amounts of high-intensity activity. Moderate and negative relationships (r = -0.43 to -0.46) were found between peak velocity and the amount of relative high-speed running performed. These findings suggest that individualization of velocity bands increases the high-speed running attributed to slower players and decreases the high-speed running attributed to faster players. From a practical perspective, consideration should be given to both the absolute and relative demands of competition to provide insight into training prescription and the recovery requirements of individual players.

  6. Relationship between sport commitment and sport consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberta Elisa Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.

  7. MARKETING IN AMATEUR SPORTS: HOW TO MARKET A FLOORBALL CLUB WITH LIMITED RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Ville

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify the differences that appear in sports marketing in comparison to the more traditional fields of marketing, as well as the differences between marketing in amateur sports and professional sports. A Swedish amateur floorball team was consulted in order to gather information and to provide a practical example and development suggestions for the team’s marketing communications. The findings implicate that there are vast differences between sports marketin...

  8. Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    "Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

  9. Exploring the relationship between homosexuality and sport among the teammates of a small, Midwestern Catholic college soccer team.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Adi; Anderson, E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite decreasing homophobia, openly gay male athletes are still rare in organized, competitive teamsports. In this action research, we explore two aspects of homosexuality and sport: (1) the effect of a gay male soccer player coming out to his teammates; and (2) the effect of having an openly gay researcher in the field. This is, therefore, the first-ever first-hand account of an athlete's coming-out process with researchers in the field. Even though this is action research and, therefore, ...

  10. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10-year-old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.

  11. The Effect of Natural or Simulated Altitude Training on High-Intensity Intermittent Running Performance in Team-Sport Athletes: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Lizamore, Catherine A; Hopkins, Will G

    2018-02-01

    While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model. The modifying effects of study characteristics (type and dose of hypoxic exposure, training duration, post-altitude duration) were estimated with fixed effects, random effects allowed for repeated measurement within studies and residual real differences between studies, and the standard-error weighting factors were derived or imputed via standard deviations of change scores. Effects and their uncertainty were assessed with magnitude-based inference, with a smallest important improvement of 4% estimated via between-athlete standard deviations of performance at baseline. Ten studies qualified for inclusion, but two were excluded owing to small sample size and risk of publication bias. Hypoxic interventions occurred over a period of 7-28 days, and the range of total hypoxic exposure (in effective altitude-hours) was 4.5-33 km h in the intermittent-hypoxia studies and 180-710 km h in the live-high studies. There were 11 control and 15 experimental study-estimates in the final meta-analysis. Training effects were moderate and very likely beneficial in the control groups at 1 week (20 ± 14%, percent estimate, ± 90% confidence limits) and 4-week post-intervention (25 ± 23%). The intermittent and live-high hypoxic groups experienced additional likely beneficial gains at 1 week (13 ± 16%; 13 ± 15%) and 4-week post

  12. Sports medicine in New Zealand.

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, C J

    1992-01-01

    Sports medicine in New Zealand is characterized by a team approach. Experienced professionals work together to the benefit of athletes, be they elite performers or those in sport for purely recreational purposes. A no-fault accident compensation scheme is used to provide speedy access to treatment services for those injured in sport and also for advice on accident prevention. Recent initiatives include a task force on drugs in sport and the creation of regional sports foundations. Sports medi...

  13. The association between sport participation and dietary behaviors among fourth graders in the school physical activity and nutrition survey, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Katherine Skala; Gay, Jennifer; Springer, Andrew; Kohl, Harold W; Sharma, Shreela; Saxton, Debra; Wilson, Kim; Hoelscher, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    To determine the association between youth sport team participation and dietary behaviors among elementary school-aged children. Cross-sectional survey. Public schools in Texas during 2009-2010. A total of 5035 ethnically diverse fourth graders. Participation in organized sports teams, consumption of select food items (fruits, vegetables, beverages, sweets/snacks). Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between each food item (eaten at least once on the previous day) and number of sports teams as the independent class variable (0, 1 ,2, ≥3), adjusting for body mass index physical activity, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Significant dose-response associations were observed between number of sports teams and consumption of fruits and vegetables. For boys, the likelihood of eating fruit and fruit-flavored drinks was significantly higher and the odds of drinking soda were lower with the number of teams. For girls, the likelihood of consuming green vegetables increased as sports teams participation increased, and participation was positively associated with diet soda consumption. A positive association was observed between the number of sports teams and scores on the Healthy Food Index for boys and girls. The findings that sports participation is associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables and lower consumption of soda suggest that efforts should be focused on supporting youth team sports to promote healthier food choices. Since sports are available to all ages, sports may be an important venue for promoting healthier dietary behaviors.

  14. Conflicts of Interest in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Andrew M

    2016-04-01

    Conflict of interest is common in the practice of medicine, and likely more so in the practice of sports medicine at the highest levels of competition. Two areas where conflict of interest frequently manifest in sports medicine are confidentiality and clinical decision making. Confidentiality can be challenging by the team physician's dual responsibilities to the player-patient and the team. Clinical decision making, traditionally associated with a patient's long term health interests, can be complicated by short term interests rooted in pursuit of winning. These issues are reviewed, hopefully to increase awareness in clinicians who find themselves in these unique situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing Your Dream Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Kenda

    2005-01-01

    Almost anyone has held various roles on a team, be it a family unit, sports team, or a project-oriented team. As an educator, one must make a conscious decision to build and invest in a team. Gathering the best team possible will help one achieve one's goals. This article explores some of the key reasons why it is important to focus on the team…

  16. Bullying Victimization and Perpetration Among Adolescent Sport Teammates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Blair; Adler, Ashley; Macdonald, Dany; Côté, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Bullying is a specific pattern of repeated victimization explored with great frequency in school-based literature, but receiving little attention within sport. The current study explored the prevalence of bullying in sport, and examined whether bullying experiences were associated with perceptions about relationships with peers and coaches. Adolescent sport team members (n = 359, 64% female) with an average age of 14.47 years (SD = 1.34) completed a pen-and-paper or online questionnaire assessing how frequently they perpetrated or were victimized by bullying during school and sport generally, as well as recent experiences with 16 bullying behaviors on their sport team. Participants also reported on relationships with their coach and teammates. Bullying was less prevalent in sport compared with school, and occurred at a relatively low frequency overall. However, by identifying participants who reported experiencing one or more act of bullying on their team recently, results revealed that those victimized through bullying reported weaker connections with peers, whereas those perpetrating bullying only reported weaker coach relationships. With the underlying message that bullying may occur in adolescent sport through negative teammate interactions, sport researchers should build upon these findings to develop approaches to mitigate peer victimization in sport.

  17. Learning design to facilitate interactive behaviours in Team Sports. [Diseños de aprendizaje para favorecer las interacciones en los deportes de equipo].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Passos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This opinion piece aims to describe the process of learning in team sports, with a rationale in ecological dynamics sustained on the interactive nature of performance in that context. The first part of this article focuses on the information variables that discriminate affordances (invitations for action, supporting the emergence of anticipatory behaviours. Here we note that affordances emerge at different time scales of performance, with clear implications for planning and designing practice sessions. Acquiring interactive skills in team sports and perceiving information variables of relevance during performance is strictly connected to the concept of representative task design. In the applied section of this paper we show how the constraints-based approach is a suitable tool to create representative learning environments that produce changes in players' interactive behaviours over short and long time scales. Resumen Este artículo de opinión tiene como objetivo describir el proceso de aprendizaje en los deportes de equipo fundamentado en una dinámica ecológica, sustentada en la naturaleza interactiva del rendimiento en ese contexto. La primera parte de este artículo se centra en las variables informativas que discriminan las affordances (invitaciones para la acción que permiten la aparición de conductas anticipatorias. Observamos que las affordances emergen en diferentes escalas temporales del rendimiento, con claras implicaciones para la planificación y el diseño de sesiones de práctica. La adquisición de habilidades interactivas en los deportes de equipo así como la percepción de las variables informativas relevantes durante la acción está estrechamente vinculada con el concepto de diseño de las tareas representativas. En la sección aplicada de este trabajo se muestra cómo el enfoque basado en las restricciones es una herramienta adecuada para crear ambientes de aprendizaje representativos que producen cambios en los

  18. The use of mixed-method, part-body pre-cooling procedures for team-sport athletes training in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Steinbacher, Geoff; Fairchild, Timothy J

    2009-12-01

    The current study investigated the effects of a pre-cooling intervention on physiological and performance responses to team-sport training in the heat. Seven male lacrosse players performed a familiarization session and 2 randomized, counterbalanced sessions consisting of a 30-minute intermittent-sprint conditioning session. Prior to the sessions, players performed a 20-minute mixed-method, part-body cooling intervention (consisting of cooling vests, cold towels to the neck, and ice packs to the quadriceps) or no cooling intervention. Performance was determined from collection of 1 Hz global positioning system (GPS) data and analyzed for distance and speed. Prior to, during, and following the sessions, core temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal sensation scale (TSS) were measured; additionally, a venous blood sample was collected before and after each session for measurement of interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein3 (IGF-BP3). Results indicated that a greater distance was covered during the pre-cooling condition (3.35 +/- 0.20 vs. 3.11 +/- 0.13 km; p = 0.05). Further, most of this improvement was evident from a greater distance covered during moderate intensities of 7 to 14 km/h (2.28 +/- 0.18 vs. 2.00 +/- 0.24 km; p = 0.05). Peak speeds and very-high-intensity efforts (20 km/h +/-) were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). The increase in core temperature was blunted following cooling, with a lower core temperature throughout the cooling session (38.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 39.3 +/- 0.4 degrees C; p 0.05). Accordingly, the use of a mixed-method, part-body cooling intervention prior to an intermittent-sprint training session in the heat can assist in reducing thermoregulatory load and improve aspects of training performance for team sports.

  19. Effect of flavor and awareness of kilojoule content of drinks on preference and fluid balance in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minehan, Michelle R; Riley, Malcolm D; Burke, Louise M

    2002-03-01

    A palatable flavor is known to enhance fluid intake during exercise; however, a fear of excessive kilojoule intake may deter female athletes from consuming a sports drink during training sessions. In order to examine this issue, we monitored fluid balance during 9 separate training sessions undertaken by junior elite female netball players (n = 9), female basketball players (n = 7), and male basketball players (n = 8). The beverages tested were water, a regular carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (6.8% CHO, 18.7 mmol/L Na, 3.0 mmol/L K, 1,130 kJ/L), and an identical tasting, low kilojoule electrolyte beverage (1% CHO, 18.7 mmol/L Na, 3.0 mmoI/L K, 170 kJ/L). Each subject received each of the 3 drinks at 3 separate training sessions, in a randomized, balanced order. Subjects were aware of the beverage provided. Change in body mass over the training session was used to estimate body fluid change, while voluntary fluid intake was determined from the change in weight of drink bottles used in each session. The overall fluid balance on drinks classified as regular, low kilojoule, and water was -11.3 ml/h (95%CI -99.6 to 77.0), -29.5 ml/h (95%CI -101.4 to 42.5) and-156.4 ml/h (95%CI-215.1 to-97.6), respectively. Theresults indicate that, overall, better fluid balance was achieved using either of the flavored drinks compared to water. These data confirm that flavored drinks enhance fluid balance in a field situation, and suggest that the energy content of the drink is relatively unimportant in determining voluntary fluid intake.

  20. Review of MRI Technique and imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and the “sports hernia”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullens, Frank E.; Zoga, Adam C.; Morrison, William B.; Meyers, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of athletic pubalgia has prematurely ended many promising athletic careers, has made many active, fitness conscious adults more sedentary, and has served as a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum for innumerable trainers and physicians worldwide for decades. This diagnosis actually arises from one or more lesions within a spectrum of musculoskeletal and visceral injuries. In recent years, MRI has helped define many of these syndromes, and has proven to be both sensitive and specific for numerous potential causes of athletic pubalgia. This text will provide a comprehensive, up to date review of expected and sometimes unexpected MRI findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, and will delineate an imaging algorithm and MRI protocol to help guide radiologists and other clinicians dealing with refractory, activity related groin pain in an otherwise young, healthy patient. There is still more to be learned about prevention and treatment plans for athletic pubalgia lesions, but accurate diagnosis should be much less nebulous and difficult with the use of MRI as a primary imaging modality.

  1. Review of MRI Technique and imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and the “sports hernia”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullens, Frank E. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zoga, Adam C., E-mail: Adam.zoga@jefferson.edu [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Morrison, William B. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Meyers, William C. [Chairman of Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The clinical syndrome of athletic pubalgia has prematurely ended many promising athletic careers, has made many active, fitness conscious adults more sedentary, and has served as a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum for innumerable trainers and physicians worldwide for decades. This diagnosis actually arises from one or more lesions within a spectrum of musculoskeletal and visceral injuries. In recent years, MRI has helped define many of these syndromes, and has proven to be both sensitive and specific for numerous potential causes of athletic pubalgia. This text will provide a comprehensive, up to date review of expected and sometimes unexpected MRI findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, and will delineate an imaging algorithm and MRI protocol to help guide radiologists and other clinicians dealing with refractory, activity related groin pain in an otherwise young, healthy patient. There is still more to be learned about prevention and treatment plans for athletic pubalgia lesions, but accurate diagnosis should be much less nebulous and difficult with the use of MRI as a primary imaging modality.

  2. Review of MRI technique and imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and the "sports hernia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Frank E; Zoga, Adam C; Morrison, William B; Meyers, William C

    2012-12-01

    The clinical syndrome of athletic pubalgia has prematurely ended many promising athletic careers, has made many active, fitness conscious adults more sedentary, and has served as a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum for innumerable trainers and physicians worldwide for decades. This diagnosis actually arises from one or more lesions within a spectrum of musculoskeletal and visceral injuries. In recent years, MRI has helped define many of these syndromes, and has proven to be both sensitive and specific for numerous potential causes of athletic pubalgia. This text will provide a comprehensive, up to date review of expected and sometimes unexpected MRI findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, and will delineate an imaging algorithm and MRI protocol to help guide radiologists and other clinicians dealing with refractory, activity related groin pain in an otherwise young, healthy patient. There is still more to be learned about prevention and treatment plans for athletic pubalgia lesions, but accurate diagnosis should be much less nebulous and difficult with the use of MRI as a primary imaging modality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sport's offer as an instrument of sports marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking logical postulate that a product is all what can be offered on the market in order to satisfy needs, demands or wants of customer, regarding the core of sport's offer (product, marketing experts must give answers to three key questions: What can sports companies, teams or individuals offer to consumer? What needs can sports companies, teams or individuals satisfy? What instruments (techniques and methods should use marketing experts in sports organizations in order to satisfy identified customer needs? .

  4. Validity and usefulness of members reports of implementation progress in a quality improvement initiative: findings from the Team Check-up Tool (TCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsteller Jill A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Team-based interventions are effective for improving safety and quality of healthcare. However, contextual factors, such as team functioning, leadership, and organizational support, can vary significantly across teams and affect the level of implementation success. Yet, the science for measuring context is immature. The goal of this study is to validate measures from a short instrument tailored to track dynamic context and progress for a team-based quality improvement (QI intervention. Methods Design: Secondary cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of data from a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT of a team-based quality improvement intervention to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI rates in intensive care units (ICUs. Setting: Forty-six ICUs located within 35 faith-based, not-for-profit community hospitals across 12 states in the U.S. Population: Team members participating in an ICU-based QI intervention. Measures: The primary measure is the Team Check-up Tool (TCT, an original instrument that assesses context and progress of a team-based QI intervention. The TCT is administered monthly. Validation measures include CLABSI rate, Team Functioning Survey (TFS and Practice Environment Scale (PES from the Nursing Work Index. Analysis: Temporal stability, responsiveness and validity of the TCT. Results We found evidence supporting the temporal stability, construct validity, and responsiveness of TCT measures of intervention activities, perceived group-level behaviors, and barriers to team progress. Conclusions The TCT demonstrates good measurement reliability, validity, and responsiveness. By having more validated measures on implementation context, researchers can more readily conduct rigorous studies to identify contextual variables linked to key intervention and patient outcomes and strengthen the evidence base on successful spread of efficacious team-based interventions. QI teams

  5. Executive function deficits in team sport athletes with a history of concussion revealed by a visual-auditory dual task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Anthony; Gonzalez, Dave; Roy, Eric; Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine executive functions in team sport athletes with and without a history of concussion. Executive functions comprise many cognitive processes including, working memory, attention and multi-tasking. Past research has shown that concussions cause difficulties in vestibular-visual and vestibular-auditory dual-tasking, however, visual-auditory tasks have been examined rarely. Twenty-nine intercollegiate varsity ice hockey athletes (age = 19.13, SD = 1.56; 15 females) performed an experimental dual-task paradigm that required simultaneously processing visual and auditory information. A brief interview, event description and self-report questionnaires were used to assign participants to each group (concussion, no-concussion). Eighteen athletes had a history of concussion and 11 had no concussion history. The two tests involved visuospatial working memory (i.e., Corsi block test) and auditory tone discrimination. Participants completed both tasks individually, then simultaneously. Two outcome variables were measured, Corsi block memory span and auditory tone discrimination accuracy. No differences were shown when each task was performed alone; however, athletes with a history of concussion had a significantly worse performance on the tone discrimination task in the dual-task condition. In conclusion, long-term deficits in executive functions were associated with a prior history of concussion when cognitive resources were stressed. Evaluations of executive functions and divided attention appear to be helpful in discriminating participants with and without a history concussion.

  6. Repeated maximal-intensity hypoxic exercise superimposed to hypoxic residence boosts skeletal muscle transcriptional responses in elite team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocherie, F; Millet, G P; D'Hulst, G; Van Thienen, R; Deldicque, L; Girard, O

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether repeated maximal-intensity hypoxic exercise induces larger beneficial adaptations on the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway and its target genes than similar normoxic exercise, when combined with chronic hypoxic exposure. Lowland elite male team-sport athletes underwent 14 days of passive normobaric hypoxic exposure [≥14 h·day -1 at inspired oxygen fraction (F i O 2 ) 14.5-14.2%] with the addition of six maximal-intensity exercise sessions either in normobaric hypoxia (F i O 2 ~14.2%; LHTLH; n = 9) or in normoxia (F i O 2 20.9%; LHTL; n = 11). A group living in normoxia with no additional maximal-intensity exercise (LLTL; n = 10) served as control. Before (Pre), immediately after (Post-1) and 3 weeks after (Post-2) the intervention, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α subunit, vascular endothelial growth factor, myoglobin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-α and mitochondrial transcription factor A mRNA levels increased at Post-1 (all P ≤ 0.05) in LHTLH, but not in LHTL or LLTL, and returned near baseline levels at Post-2. The protein expression of citrate synthase increased in LHTLH (P benefits already absent 3 weeks post-intervention. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rapid Development of Sport and Sport Management at the Beginning of the Third Millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Durdová

    2012-01-01

    Most people know through experience and intuition what the word „sport“ means. Sport includes a combination of these configurations when it involves team competitions, tournaments, or matches in dual sports or individual sports. Sport management - it is an area of professional endeavor in which a variety of sport-related managerial careers exist and it is also an area of academic professional preparation. Exists three unique aspects of sport management: sport marketing, sport enterprise finan...

  8. Research on the development of high-level martial-art teams of universities in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MING Lei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five Universities with high level martial art sport teams in Shanghai have been chosen for research to initiate a comprehensive investigation and analysis for following aspects during establishment and development of the martial-art teams: status of athletes and coachers, status of learning and training of martial-art teams, martial-art team stimulating system and logistic support by using documentary, questionnaire survey, interview and mathematic survey, so as to find existing disadvantages and their relevant solutions.

  9. Teaming up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Questions we care about (Objectives): When students have to work on challenging tasks, as it is often the case in entrepreneurship classrooms that leverage experiential learning, team success becomes central to the students learning. Yet, the formation of teams is often left up to the students...... or pre-arranged at random. Therefore we investigate the importance of team formation in the entrepreneurial classroom and ask: (i) What are the underlying factors that influence outcomes of teamwork in student groups? (ii) How does team formation influence student perception of learning?, and (iii) Do...... functioning entrepreneurial student teams as most teams lack personal chemistry which makes them anchor their work too much in a pre-defined project. In contrast, we find that students that can form their own teams aim for less diverse teams than what is achieved by random assignment. However, the homophily...

  10. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10 year old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome...... enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found...... in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which...

  11. Are all sport activities equal? A systematic review of how youth psychosocial experiences vary across differing sport activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Allan, Veronica; Erickson, Karl; Martin, Luc J; Budziszewski, Ross; Côté, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Models of sport development often support the assumption that young athletes' psychosocial experiences differ as a result of seemingly minor variations in how their sport activities are designed (eg, participating in team or individual sport; sampling many sports or specialising at an early age). This review was conducted to systematically search sport literature and explore how the design of sport activities relates to psychosocial outcomes. Systematic search, followed by data extraction and synthesis. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were applied and a coding sheet was used to extract article information and code for risk of bias. Academic databases and manual search of peer-reviewed journals. Search criteria determined eligibility primarily based on the sample (eg, ages 7 through 17 years) and study design (eg, measured psychosocial constructs). 35 studies were located and were classified within three categories: (1) sport types, (2) sport settings, and (3) individual patterns of sport involvement. These studies represented a wide range of scores when assessed for risk of bias and involved an array of psychosocial constructs, with the most prevalent investigations predicting outcomes such as youth development, self-esteem and depression by comparing (1) team or individual sport participants and (2) youth with varying amounts of sport involvement. As variations in sport activities impact youth sport experiences, it is vital for researchers to carefully describe and study these factors, while practitioners may use the current findings when designing youth sport programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. OXFORD DICTIONARY OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine provides reliable definitions of sports science and medicine terms. It provides an invaluable reference book for anyone interested in the captivating subject of sport. PURPOSE This dictionary aims to include almost every sports science, anatomy, physiology, biomechanical, injuries description, and psychological term as related to sports medicine and science and support the explanations by illustrations wherever necessary. AUDIENCE As a comprehensive dictionary of sports science and medicine, it will be of particular help to medical specialists and general practitioners, as well as students of PE, coaches, and athletes who need to understand the anatomical structures and physiological processes which affect athletic performance. Any member of public interested in health and fitness; exercise and sport or wants to understand what the obscure terms mean, like jogger's nipple, social loafing, and Zatopek phenomenon will also benefit from this book. FEATURES The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine features terms in A to Z fashion at all the major areas of sports science and medicine including: anatomy, physiology/exercise physiology, biomechanics, training principles and techniques, nutrition, sports psychology and sociology, sports injuries and rehabilitation. A team of prominent contributors and advisers put together this dictionary in the first edition. The third edition includes around 8000 cross-referenced terms which have been updated or added since the first edition. There are plenty of illustrations wherever appropriate to make the terms easily understandable. ASSESSMENT A must-have dictionary for all medics practising in sports and exercise medicine, as well as students of medicine, physical education, nursing and physiotherapy. Even coaches, trainers, biomechanical experts; in fact anyone who has a special interest in this area will find this dictionary useful.

  13. Sports context of the original families of three generations of national football team players [Sportovní kontext původních rodin tří generací fotbalových reprezentantů

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Válková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family context is considered to be an important phenomenon influencing life-span sports careers. In spite of this fact,the role of family as related to different historical changes is rarely investigated. The research concept of the study is based on the "theory of transition" (early sports socialization and on the principle of "generation transfer" (parent-child interaction within various micro (family and macro (socio-economic contexts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the presented study is to find out the relationship between family context and early sports socialization in families of national football team players in the Czech Republic in three different socio-economic periods. METHODS: Three generations of national football team players were investigated. The research sample P (n = 69 was made up of subsamples: P1 (n = 23 - the current generation of national football team players from the year 1991, P2 (n = 23 - the generation playing in the years 1981-2001 and P3 (n = 23 - the generation playing in the years 1965-1987. Data were gained by means of semistructured interview oriented to family background in the period of the players' early sports socialization. Responses were analysed and classified on a categorical scale (5 domains per 4 categories, then processed using descriptive statistics. Comparisons of selected categories were processed using the non-parametric Chi-Square test at a significance level of p RESULTS: The equal role of fathers was found in all three generations in equal categories (type of education, involvement in football, the motivation approach. The role of mothers became different related to the progress in women's emancipation, but was supportive for sports career development of the children. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasized the importance of early sports socialization in the family, the importance of generation transfer, the function of the father, mother and siblings as motivators, regardless of participation

  14. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  15. EFFECT OF PRE-COOLING ON REPEAT-SPRINT PERFORMANCE IN SEASONALLY ACCLIMATISED MALES DURING AN OUTDOOR SIMULATED TEAM-SPORT PROTOCOL IN WARM CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly J. Brade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether precooling is beneficial for exercise performance in warm climates when heat acclimatised is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10. They performed two trials, one with precooling (PC; ice slushy and cooling jacket and another without (CONT. Trials began with a 30-min baseline/cooling period followed by an 80 min repeat-sprint protocol, comprising 4 x 20-min quarters, with 2 x 5-min quarter breaks and a 10-min half-time recovery/cooling period. A clear and substantial (negative; PC slower effect was recorded for first quarter circuit time. Clear and trivial effects were recorded for overall circuit time, third and fourth quarter sprint times and fourth quarter best sprint time, otherwise unclear and trivial effects were recorded for remaining performance variables. Core temperature was moderately lower (Cohen's d=0.67; 90% CL=-1.27, 0.23 in PC at the end of the precooling period and quarter 1. No differences were found for mean skin temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, or rating of perceived exertion, however, moderate Cohen's d effect sizes suggested a greater sweat loss in PC compared with CONT. In conclusion, repeat- sprint performance was neither clearly nor substantially improved in seasonally acclimatised players by using a combination of internal and external cooling methods prior to and during exercise performed in the field in warm, dry conditions. Of practical importance, precooling appears unnecessary for repeat-sprint performance if athletes are seasonally acclimatised or artificially acclimated to heat, as it provides no additional benefit

  16. Sports: Ice -Doping Time

    OpenAIRE

    Barys Tasman

    2013-01-01

    In 2013 the systematic degradation of Belarusian sports continued, which was most vivid in the mass and most popular kinds of sports – soccer, hockey, track and field athletics, and also in the traditional Olympic disciplines – cycling, boxing, weight-lifting. The national ice hockey team lost the qualification tournament and failed to get to the Olympic Games in Sochi. The football national team took the last place in the qualifying group tournament at the 2014 World Cup. At the World Forum ...

  17. Christianity and sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojković Goran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will demonstrate, relying on theology, that Christianity, i.e. ascetic experience of the Church and sport are two sides of the same coin which is reflected in community or, rather, communion (When Christianity is concerned, or team work towards the goal when it comes to sport.

  18. Effect of heavy training in contact sports on MRI findings in the pubic region of asymptomatic competitive athletes compared with non-athlete controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paajanen, Hannu; Hermunen, Heikki; Karonen, Jari

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n=10), ice hockey (n=10), bandy (n=10) and female floor-ball players (n=10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training.

  19. Effect of heavy training in contact sports on MRI findings in the pubic region of asymptomatic competitive athletes compared with non-athlete controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paajanen, Hannu; Hermunen, Heikki; Karonen, Jari

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n = 10), ice hockey (n = 10), bandy (n = 10) and female floor-ball players (n = 10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training. (orig.)

  20. Effect of heavy training in contact sports on MRI findings in the pubic region of asymptomatic competitive athletes compared with non-athlete controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paajanen, Hannu [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Kuopio (Finland); Hermunen, Heikki; Karonen, Jari [Central Hospital of Mikkeli, Department of Radiology, Mikkeli (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n = 10), ice hockey (n = 10), bandy (n = 10) and female floor-ball players (n = 10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training. (orig.)

  1. Sociodemographic profile of an Olympic team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D W

    2017-07-01

    To document the distribution of sociodemographic markers (race and relative access to wealth) in athletes participating at the summer and Winter Olympic Games (OGs). Cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study. Sociodemographic data were collected from publically available resources for all athletes representing four countries (Canada, United States of America, Great Britain and Australia) at the 2014 Sochi Winter OGs and 2016 Rio Summer OGs. The prevalence of white and privately educated athletes were identified for each sport, country, and team with consideration and comparison to the general population. Access indices (i.e. the combined race socio-economic access index [CAI]) were developed to describe the relative distribution of white and privately educated athletes representing each sport, country and team compared to the respective general population. A total of 568 winter and 1643 summer athletes were included in this study. Privately educated athletes constituted 30.3% and 32.7% of winter and summer athletes, respectively; while 94.9% of winter and 81.7% of summer athletes were white. The CAIs of the Canadian, American, British and Australian winter Olympic teams were 0.52, 0.42, 0.61 and 0.45, respectively. The CAIs, for the Canadian, American, British and Australian summer Olympic teams were 0.89, 1.13, 0.82 and 0.83, respectively. Summer and winter sports with the greatest and least racial and socio-economic biases were identified. Racial and socio-economic biases were identified in both summer and winter Olympic sports; predominantly favouring white and privately educated Olympic athletes. These findings prompt further inquiry into barriers for sport-specific participation and advancement, in addition to the practice of providing substantial public resources in support for Olympic sports and athletes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  3. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT.22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2 max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL · min · kg(-1 participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery, countermovement jump (CMJ height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ, 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK, c-reactive protein (CRP and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery.Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05 in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60 and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63 after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05 in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers.Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis.

  4. Team-Sport Athletes' Improvement of Performance on the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2, but Not of Time-Trial Performance, With Intermittent Hypoxic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inness M, W H; Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    To determine the time course for physical-capacity adaptations to intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) in team-sport athletes and the time course for benefits remaining after IHT. A pre-post parallel-groups design was employed, with 21 Australian footballers assigned to IHT (n = 10) or control (CON; n = 11) matched for training load. IHT performed eleven 40-min bike sessions at 2500-m altitude over 4 wk. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) was performed before; after 3, 6, and 11 IHT sessions; and 30 and 44 d after IHT. Repeated time trials (2- and 1-km TTs, with 5 min rest) were performed before, after, and 3 wk after IHT. Hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) was measured in IHT before and after 3, 6, 9, and 11 sessions. Baseline Yo-Yo IR2 was similar between groups. After 6 sessions, the change in Yo-Yo IR2 in IHT was very likely higher than CON (27% greater change, effect size 0.77, 90% confidence limits 0.20;1.33) and likely higher 1 d after IHT (23%, 0.68, 0.05;1.30). The IHT group's change remained likely higher than CON 30 d after IHT (24%, 0.72, 0.12;1.33) but was not meaningfully different 44 d after (12%, 0.36, -0.24;0.97). The change in 2-km TT performance between groups was not different throughout. For 1-km TT, CON improved more after IHT, but IHT maintained performance better after 3 wk. Hb(mass) was higher after IHT (2.7%, 0.40, -0.40;1.19). Short-duration IHT increased Yo-Yo IR2 compared with training-load-matched controls in 2 wk. An additional 2 wk of IHT provided no further benefit. These changes remained until at least 30 d posttraining. IHT also protected improvement in 1-km TT.

  5. Short-term heat acclimation training improves physical performance: a systematic review, and exploration of physiological adaptations and application for team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Samuel; Esterman, Adrian; Eston, Roger; Bowering, K Jane; Norton, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    met the inclusion criteria of the review. STHA training can be applied in the team-sport environment during a range of instances within the competitive season. A mixed high-intensity protocol may only require five sessions with a duration of 60 min to potentially improve aerobic-based performance in trained athletes.

  6. Media Use, Sports Participation, and Well-Being in Adolescence: Cross-Sectional Findings From the UK Household Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Cara L; Skew, Alexandra J; Kelly, Yvonne J; Sacker, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the relationship between selected types of screen-based media (SBM) use, total SBM use, sports participation, and markers of well-being. Methods. Data came from the youth panel (n = 4899) of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study, conducted in 2009. Well-being was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and markers of happiness in different life domains. Results. The majority of young people used multiple types of SBM for at least 1 hour per day; only 30% participated in sports every day. Overall, young people with heavy SBM use were less happy than moderate users and more likely to have socioemotional difficulties. Chatting on social networking Web sites and game console use were associated with higher odds of socioemotional problems. Higher total SBM use was associated with lower odds of happiness and higher odds of socioemotional difficulties. Greater participation in sports was associated with higher odds of happiness and lower odds of socioemotional difficulties. Conclusions. Further longitudinal research could inform future interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and encourage healthy lifestyles among young people.

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Team Cohesion and Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presentational concerns in sports, explaining 4% of variance, which means higher perceptions of cohesion, are associated with low self-presentational concerns. Keywords: Team cohesion, Self-presentation, Competitive anxiety, Team sports, ...

  8. Zarządzanie talentami na przykładzie Wojskowych Zespołów Sportowych oraz Wojskowych Centrach Szkolenia Sportowego / The talent management based on the example of Military Sports Teams and Military Sports Training Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowski, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Streszczenie Artykuł dotyczy problematyki pozyskiwania talentów dla Wojskowych Centrów Szkolenia Sportowego wraz z opisaniem wsparcia finansowego udzielanego przez Ministerstwo Sportu i Turystyki i ich działania oraz funkcjonowania w Polsce Wojskowych Zespołów Sportowych i ich osiągnięć. Słowa kluczowe: wojsko, sport, szkolenie, talent Abstract The article concerns the problems of sourcing talent for Military Sports Tr...

  9. MARKETING STRATEGY IN SPORTS SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y

  10. More than Play: Three Careers in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilorio, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Sports are more than fun and games; they also provide work for many people. Sports workers earn wages in leagues across the nation. Organized sports include a variety of individual and team events, which require the efforts of many workers in different occupations. Many people are particularly attracted to the sports occupations that are closest…

  11. Sports officials and officiating : Science and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacMahon, Clare; Mascarenhas, Duncan; Plessner, Henning; Pizzera, Alexandra; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Sports officials (umpires, referees, judges) play a vital role in every sport, and sports governing bodies, fans, and players now expect officials to maintain higher professional standards than ever before. In this ground-breaking book, a team of leading international sport scientists and top level

  12. The role of nursing team continuity in the treatment of very-low-birth-weight infants: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedaner, Felix; Allendorf, Antje; Kuntz, Ludwig; Woopen, Christiane; Roth, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    To assess the association between nursing team continuity and quality of care. Research on nurse staffing and its effect on quality of care is investigated to different degrees. However, very few studies have observed whether the continuous deployment of nursing staff is associated with quality of care. This study was conducted in two university neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We matched nurse schedule data for the NICUs with nursing-sensitive patient outcomes and quality of care, as perceived by parents. We used analysis of variance to analyse differences in nursing team continuity between NICUs and regression analyses to identify associations with the outcome measures. There were considerable differences between units in terms of team continuity of nursing staff. Positive associations were found between team continuity and a higher rate of non-invasive respiratory support as well as parents' perceptions of how well they knew their nurse. The findings show remarkable differences in staff assignment in the different NICUs. In addition to appropriate staffing levels, scheduling nursing teams continuously would appear to play a role in influencing treatment quality. This paper emphasises the importance of carefully considered staff scheduling decisions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Demographic differences in sport performers' experiences of organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K

    2016-03-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Heart transplant centers with multidisciplinary team show a higher level of chronic illness management - Findings from the International BRIGHT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Baumgartner, Eva; Berben, Lut; Denhaerynck, Kris; Helmy, Remon; Schönfeld, Sandra; Berger, Gabriele; Vetter, Christine; Dobbels, Fabienne; Russell, Cynthia L; De Geest, Sabina

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) explore the proportion of HTx centers that have a multidisciplinary team and (2) assess the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of chronic illness management (CIM). The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recommends a multidisciplinary approach in heart transplant (HTx) follow-up care but little is known regarding the proportion of HTx centers that meet this recommendation and the impact on patient care. HTx centers with a multidisciplinary team may offer higher levels of CIM, a care model that has the potential to improve outcomes after HTx. We conducted a secondary analysis of the BRIGHT study, a cross-sectional study in 11 countries. Multidisciplinarity in the 36 HTx centers was assessed through HTx director reports and was defined as having a team that was composed of physician(s), nurse(s), and another healthcare professional (either a social worker, psychiatrist, psychologist, pharmacist, dietician, physical therapist, or occupational therapist). CIM was assessed with the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of CIM. Twenty-nine (80.6%) of the HTx centers had a multidisciplinary team. Furthermore, multidisciplinarity was significantly associated with higher levels of CIM (β = 5.2, P = 0.042). Majority of the HTx centers follows the ISHLT recommendation for a multidisciplinary approach. Multidisciplinarity was associated with CIM and point toward a structural factor that needs to be in place for moving toward CIM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing learners' life skills through sport: Perceptions of coaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was further noted that perceived negative social challenges actually render positive results in developing life skills, while, what are being perceived as positive attributes, may result in unintended negative consequences to learners and teams. Based on the findings of the research, it is recommended that sport coaches ...

  16. American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newspapers. Our G.R.E.A.T. Team! Sports Medicine & Footwear Info Dr. Blakes Healing Sole Girls on the Run Joint Commission on Sports Medicine & Science Medical Fitness Association IRRA Runblogger Running Product ...

  17. Sports e-guide: Lillehammer 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This sports e-guide contains the most up-to-date information about the sports events, venues and services that have been prepared to support all NOC team officials during Games time at Lillehammer 2016.

  18. Bidirectional Associations between Sport Involvement and Mental Health in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian; Allen, Mark S; Schweickle, Matthew J; Magee, Christopher A

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential bidirectional relationships between sport participation and mental health during early adolescence. Data were taken from wave 5 (2012) and wave 6 (2014) of the K cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. In total, there were 4023 participants (mean age = 12.41 yr, SD = 0.49 yr, at baseline), and this sample was followed up 24 months later. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine bidirectional relationships between sport participation (hours per week for team, individual, and total sport participation) and mental health (total psychological difficulties, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems) as measured by the parent-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Bidirectional relationships were evident between time involved in sport and overall mental health (Sport12→SDQ14: β = -0.048; SDQ12→Sport14: β = -0.062). Bidirectional relationships were also evident between time involved in sport participation and internalizing (social and emotional) problems (Sport12→SDQ14: β = -0.068; SDQ12→Sport14: β = -0.067). The relationship between time in organized sport and externalizing problems (conduct problems and inattention/hyperactivity problems) was not bidirectional. Externalizing problems predicted later sports participation (β = -0.039), but not vice versa. Findings demonstrate bidirectional relationships between sport participation and adolescent mental health. The design and implementation of youth sport programs should maximize mental health benefits, and programs should be designed, implemented, and marketed to be attractive to participants with poor psychosocial health.

  19. NANOTECHNOLOGY AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.

  20. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  1. Is sport participation an investment in human capital or a consumption of leasure time?

    OpenAIRE

    Smrčková, Hana Marie

    2012-01-01

    Students who participated in athletics are estimated to receive 20% better grades than their non-athletes colleagues. These findings suggest that athletic participation may enhance the development of motivation, competitive spirit, confidence, discipline and team spirit. Sport participation seems to be a form of human capital investments. We can see stronger effect of individual than collective sport participation. Based on these findings we can assume that wage premium for athletes, as previ...

  2. Ethical Climate and Sports Personship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BASILIKI EFREMIDOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moral behavior in sports is one of the most important issues that concern sportspersons. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the ethical work climate that prevails in non profit sport teams is related to moral behaviours (sports personship. Two hundred and fourteen students of three sport schools (n=126males, n=88females, aged between 12-18 years, from ten different sports (both individual and team have been used in this study. The students filled in the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ; Victor &Cullen, 1987, 1988 and the Multidimensional Sportsperson-ship Orientation Scale (Vallerand, Briere, Blanchard, & Provencher, 1997. The results revealed the presence of a caring climate in non profit sport teams. Moreover, it was found that the individual climate is positively related to the four dimensions of sportsperson ship, while the machiavelianism climate is negatively related to the dimension respect for rules and officials.

  3. Transferring an Analytical Technique from Ecology to the Sport Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Robertson, Sam; Collier, Neil French; Swinbourne, Anne L; Leicht, Anthony S

    2018-03-01

    Learning transfer is defined as an individual's capability to apply prior learnt perceptual, motor, or conceptual skills to a novel task or performance environment. In the sport sciences, learning transfers have been investigated from an athlete-specific perspective. However, sport scientists should also consider the benefits of cross-disciplinary learning to aid critical thinking and metacognitive skill gained through the interaction with similar quantitative scientific disciplines. Using team sports performance analysis as an example, this study aimed to demonstrate the utility of a common analytical technique in ecology in the sports sciences, namely, nonmetric multidimensional scaling. To achieve this aim, three novel research examples using this technique are presented, each of which enables the analysis and visualization of athlete (organism), team (aggregation of organisms), and competition (ecosystem) behaviors. The first example reveals the technical behaviors of Australian Football League Brownlow medalists from the 2001 to 2016 seasons. The second example delineates dissimilarity in higher and lower ranked National Rugby League teams within the 2016 season. Lastly, the third example shows the evolution of game play in the basketball tournaments between the 2004 and 2016 Olympic Games. In addition to the novel findings of each example, the collective results demonstrate that, by embracing cross-disciplinary learning and drawing upon an analytical technique common to ecology, novel solutions to pertinent research questions within sports performance analysis could be addressed in a practically meaningful way. Cross-disciplinary learning may subsequently assist sport scientists in the analysis and visualization of multivariate datasets.

  4. Reaction Control System Thruster Cracking Consultation: NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Materials Super Problem Resolution Team (SPRT) Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Shah, Sandeep R.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    The shuttle orbiter s reaction control system (RCS) primary thruster serial number 120 was found to contain cracks in the counter bores and relief radius after a chamber repair and rejuvenation was performed in April 2004. Relief radius cracking had been observed in the 1970s and 1980s in seven thrusters prior to flight; however, counter bore cracking had never been seen previously in RCS thrusters. Members of the Materials Super Problem Resolution Team (SPRT) of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conducted a detailed review of the relevant literature and of the documentation from the previous RCS thruster failure analyses. It was concluded that the previous failure analyses lacked sufficient documentation to support the conclusions that stress corrosion cracking or hot-salt cracking was the root cause of the thruster cracking and lacked reliable inspection controls to prevent cracked thrusters from entering the fleet. The NESC team identified and performed new materials characterization and mechanical tests. It was determined that the thruster intergranular cracking was due to hydrogen embrittlement and that the cracking was produced during manufacturing as a result of processing the thrusters with fluoride-containing acids. Testing and characterization demonstrated that appreciable environmental crack propagation does not occur after manufacturing.

  5. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  6. Fluctuations of the experience of togetherness within the team over time: task-cohesion and shared understanding throughout a sporting regular season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbousson, Jérôme; Fortes-Bourbousson, Marina

    2017-06-01

    Based on a diagnosis action research design, the present study assessed the fluctuations of the team experience of togetherness. Reported experiences of 12 basketball team members playing in the under-18 years old national championship were studied during a four-month training and competitive period. Time series analysis (Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average procedures) served to describe temporal properties of the way in which the fluctuations of task-cohesion and shared understanding were step-by-step experienced over time, respectively. Correlations, running-correlations and cross-lagged correlations were used to describe the temporal links that governed the relationships between both phenomena. The results indicated that the task-cohesion dimensions differed mainly for shared understanding dynamics in that their time fluctuations were not embedded in external events, and that the variations in shared understanding tend to precede 'individual attractions to the task' variations with seven team practical sessions. This study argues for further investigation of how 'togetherness' is experienced alternatively as a feeling of cohesion or shared understanding. Practitioner Summary: The present action research study investigated the experience that the team members have to share information during practice, and the subsequent benefices on team cohesion. Results call for specific interventions that make team members accept the fluctuating nature of team phenomena, to help them maintaining their daily efforts.

  7. Underreporting of Musculoskeletal Injuries in the US Army: Findings From an Infantry Brigade Combat Team Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurel; Westrick, Richard; Sauers, Sarah; Cooper, Adam; Scofield, Dennis; Claro, Pedro; Warr, Bradley

    2016-11-01

    Musculoskeletal injury is a significant threat to readiness in the US Army. Current injury surveillance methods are constrained by accurate injury reporting. Input into electronic medical records or databases therefore may not accurately reflect injury incidence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate injury reporting among active-duty US Army soldiers to explore potential limitations of surveillance approaches. A significant number of injuries go unreported to medical personnel. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. Surveys were completed by soldiers assigned to an Army Infantry Brigade Combat Team. Survey questions inquired about injuries sustained in the previous 12 months, injury onset, and whether injuries were reported to a medical provider. Participants were asked to rank reasons for accurately reporting, underreporting, and/or exaggerating injuries. Chi-square analyses were used to compare differences among underreported injuries in terms of injury onset (gradual vs acute) and sex. A total of 1388 soldiers reported 3202 injuries that had occurred in the previous 12-month period, including 1636 (51%) that were reported and 1566 (49%) that were identified as not reported to medical personnel. More than 49% of reported injuries were described as acute and 51% were described as chronic. Injury exaggeration was reported by 6% of soldiers. The most common reasons for not reporting injuries were fear that an injury might affect future career opportunities and avoidance of military "profiles" (mandated physical restrictions). Approximately half of musculoskeletal injuries in a Brigade Combat Team were not reported. Unreported and untreated injuries can lead to reinjury, chronic pain, performance decrements, and increased costs associated with disability benefits. Additionally, unreported injuries can undermine injury surveillance efforts aimed at reducing the musculoskeletal injury problem in the military. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. How stressors are dynamically appraised within a team during a game: An exploratory study in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, J; Bourbousson, J

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about how team sport athletes individually and collectively experience sources of stress during competitive sport encounters. This study aimed to examine the nature of the stressors team sport athletes appraised during games at individual and team levels, as well as their degree of synchronization during an unfolding game. Through individual self-confrontation interviews, the activities of nine basketball players of the same team were examined in detail. The results revealed that 12 categories of stressors were reported, and categorized into two larger units reflecting stressors perceived as affecting (a) "the team functioning as a whole" and (b) "a player's own functioning". Thus, the nature and degree of similarity of the game-specific stressors experienced by basketball players within a single team were identified during a game. In addition, the findings showed six different patterns of synchronizations of team members' stressors, as well as their changes over the course of the game. They provided support for the synchronized appraisal and experience of stressors within a team during a game. By adopting an interpersonal perspective and examining the temporal interplay in team members' activities, this study shed light on stress within teams. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellapandian Ponnusamy, J. Robert Grove

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217. The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures.

  10. THE SPORTS GOODS MARKET IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Štrbac

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of ways to divide this market sector, but broadly speaking the sports market essentially relates to products used in the pursuit of active team or individual sports. This would include team sports, equipment for fitness, gym, snow sports, equipment for water sports, golf, tennis and skating. There is also the „outdoor“ market. This would include camping goods, fishing and horse sports. There are a number of inter- related trends, which impact on the future development of this market sector

  11. Electrocardiograms of Children and Adolescents Practicing Non-competitive Sports: Normal Limits and Abnormal Findings in a Large European Cohort Evaluated by Telecardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Biasco, Luigi; Squarcia, Sandro; Cristoforetti, Yvonne; Bennicelli, Riccardo; Del Vecchio, Cecilia; Viacava, Cecilia; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to derive normal electrocardiographic values and to report the abnormal findings in a large contemporary European cohort of physically active children and young adolescents. In a 3-month period, data derived from subjects aged between 3 and 14 years and referred to the Telecardiology Centre (Genoa, Italy) for electrocardiogram (ECG) evaluation as pre-participation screening for non-competitive sports were analyzed. A total of 2060 ECGs were recorded. Of those, 1962 did not show any morphological abnormality and were used to derive normality ranges for heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, corrected QT interval, and voltage of R wave as measured in V1 according to age and sex. Findings and clinical implications of the 98 ECGs with abnormal findings were also reported. Abnormal ECG findings were not as uncommon as expected in this population, being manifest in about 5 % of subjects. However, major ECG anomalies (diffuse negative T-waves, pre-excitation) were present in just ten subjects (0.5 %). Lower mean heart rate values (from 90-100 bpm at 3 years of age to 80-85 bpm at 14 years of age) and lower rates of the prevalence of negative T-waves in the V3 lead (from 55-60 % at 3 years of age to 8-10 % at 14 years of age) were observed with increasing age. This is the first work reporting derived normal limits and abnormal ECG findings in a large contemporary European cohort of children and adolescents aged 3-14 years practicing non-competitive sports. Clear pathological alterations are extremely uncommon, deserving, when encountered, additional examinations. Even in a physically active population, the common features of an adult athlete's ECG are absent.

  12. Implicit Communication in Novice and Expert Teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swain, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    ... (military, sporting or business teams). This suggests that expert teams may be utilising shared mental models of both the roles of their teammates and how they should be working together in a group situation...

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOAL-ORIENTATIONS AND SPORT COMMITMENT AMONG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Benar.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was exploring of relationship between goal-orientations and sport commitment among athletes and comparison of goal-orientations and sport commitment and their constructs based on gender and type of sports. Participants were 108 Iranian athlete (40 female and 68 male, who responded to Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (T.E.O.S.Q and Sport Commitment Model (SCM questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, Independent-Samples t-test, and One-way ANOVA at P=0.05. The findings indicated that there were positively and significantly association between constructs, including sport enjoyment, personal investment, social constraints, involvement opportunities, and social support, whereas, involvement alternatives and task-orientation had negatively and significantly association with sport commitment. Also, team and open-skilled sport athletes had sport commitment and ego-orientation more than individual and closed-skilled sport athletes. As well as, female's athletes had sport enjoyment and social support more than male's athletes. It is possible that task-oriented players are elite and expert athletes, because extend and develop their fundamental skills in one's sport by their task-orientate characteristic, and probably these players with these characteristics tendency to turnover until experience more situations. Thus, these players had a less sport commitment than amateur athletes. Also, gender and type of sport differences can be results of individual differences and nature of sports skills. Implications for goal-orientations and sport commitment and their impacts on athletes as well as future research directions are further discussed.

  14. Team building: conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; McEwan, Desmond; Waldhauser, Katrina J

    2017-08-01

    Team building has been identified as an important method of improving the psychological climate in which teams operate, as well as overall team functioning. Within the context of sports, team building interventions have consistently been found to result in improvements in team effectiveness. In this paper we review the extant literature on team building in sport, and address a range of conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations that have the potential to advance theory, research, and applied intervention initiatives within the field. This involves expanding the scope of team building strategies that have, to date, primarily focused on developing group cohesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on team evaluation. Team process model for team evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou Kunihide; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Ayako

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have been done to evaluate or improve team performance in nuclear and aviation industries. Crew resource management is the typical example. In addition, team evaluation recently gathers interests in other teams of lawyers, medical staff, accountants, psychiatrics, executive, etc. However, the most evaluation methods focus on the results of team behavior that can be observed through training or actual business situations. What is expected team is not only resolving problems but also training younger members being destined to lead the next generation. Therefore, the authors set the final goal of this study establishing a series of methods to evaluate and improve teams inclusively such as decision making, motivation, staffing, etc. As the first step, this study develops team process model describing viewpoints for the evaluation. The team process is defined as some kinds of power that activate or inactivate competency of individuals that is the components of team's competency. To find the team process, the authors discussed the merits of team behavior with the experienced training instructors and shift supervisors of nuclear/thermal power plants. The discussion finds four team merits and many components to realize those team merits. Classifying those components into eight groups of team processes such as 'Orientation', 'Decision Making', 'Power and Responsibility', 'Workload Management', 'Professional Trust', 'Motivation', 'Training' and 'staffing', the authors propose Team Process Model with two to four sub processes in each team process. In the future, the authors will develop methods to evaluate some of the team processes for nuclear/thermal power plant operation teams. (author)

  16. From Surveillance to Intervention: Overview and Baseline Findings for the Active City of Liverpool Active Schools and SportsLinx (A-CLASS Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola McWhannell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the implementation of a programme of work that started with the development of a population-level children’s health, fitness and lifestyle study in 1996 (SportsLinx leading to selected interventions one of which is described in detail: the Active City of Liverpool, Active Schools and SportsLinx (A-CLASS Project. The A-CLASS Project aimed to quantify the effectiveness of structured and unstructured physical activity (PA programmes on children’s PA, fitness, body composition, bone health, cardiac and vascular structures, fundamental movement skills, physical self-perception and self-esteem. The study was a four-arm parallel-group school-based cluster randomised controlled trial (clinical trials no. NCT02963805, and compared different exposure groups: a high intensity PA (HIPA group, a fundamental movement skill (FMS group, a PA signposting (PASS group and a control group, in a two-schools-per-condition design. Baseline findings indicate that children’s fundamental movement skill competence levels are low-to-moderate, yet these skills are inversely associated with percentage body fat. Outcomes of this project will make an important contribution to the design and implementation of children’s PA promotion initiatives.

  17. Dialogue in team formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F; Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R; Dignum, F; Chaib-Draa, B; Weigand, H

    1999-01-01

    The process of cooperative problem solving can be divided into four stages. First, finding potential team members, then forming a team followed by constructing a plan for that team. Finally, the plan is executed by the team. Traditionally, very simple protocols like the Contract Net protocol are

  18. Brand management strategy for Korean professional football teams: A model for understanding the relationships between team brand identity, fans’ identification with football teams, and team brand loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Ja Joon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This research recommends a new approach to brand strategy for Korean professional football teams, focusing on the relationships between team brand identity as the basic element of sports team branding, team brand loyalty as the most desirable goal, and identification between fans and teams as the mediator between identity and loyalty. Nowadays, professional football teams are no longer mer...

  19. School sport and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John; Keane, Francis; Crawford, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) is an integral part of the school curriculum in Ireland. Historically the "Healthy Body, Healthy Mind" philosophy has promoted the inclusion of PESS alongside more cognitive school subjects. Research suggests that PESS can promote cognitive function and provide educational benefits. However, there is little research on how the choice of school sport influences academic achievement. This study investigated how participation in school sport influences the Leaving Certificate points score in an Irish secondary school. In particular, the study will investigate how the particular sport chosen by students participating in school sport during their Leaving Certificate years influences their Leaving Certificate results. We recorded the Leaving Certificate scores and sports participation from 402 boys graduating from a secondary school in the Ireland during 2008-2011. Sports participation was assigned 1 of 4 categories: rugby, rowing, soccer, and no sport. Participation in sports during the Leaving Certificate years conferred a 25.4-point benefit to the final Leaving Certificate score. However, participation in rowing, the only individual sport available in the study, resulted in significantly higher Leaving Certificate scores than rugby, soccer and no sport (p benefit over the next highest group, rugby. Promoting participation in school sport and providing access to a range of team and individual sports throughout the secondary school years may be a beneficial way to improve students' Leaving Certificate results. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  20. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according

  1. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  2. Intention to use sport concussion guidelines among community-level coaches and sports trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Joshua D; White, Peta E; Ewing, Michael T; Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin A; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Seward, Hugh; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-09-01

    Sporting bodies have developed guidelines for managing community-level players with suspected concussion in response to international consensus statements on concussion in sport. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence the intended use of concussion guidelines among community-level coaches and sports trainers from two popular football codes in Australia: Australian football and rugby league. Cross-sectional survey. The survey, based on an extended theory of planned behaviour model, was completed by 183 Australian football coaches, 121 Australian football sports trainers, 171 rugby league coaches, and 142 rugby league sports trainers. Personal norms and self-efficacy were significant predictors of intention to use concussion guidelines, although the relationship between self-efficacy and intention was stronger among Australian football coaches than rugby league coaches. Analysis of the salient beliefs that underpin self-efficacy found that coaches, irrespective of football code, felt less familiar (χ(2)=25.70, psports trainers in using the concussion guidelines. At the same time, Australian football personnel, irrespective of their team role, felt that they had insufficient time (χ(2)=8.04, psport concussion guidelines should focus on enhancing self-efficacy and leveraging personal norms. Increasing coaches' familiarity and experience in using the concussion guidelines would also be warranted, as would finding ways to overcome the perceived time and resource constraints identified among Australian football personnel. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alcohol Consumption, Athlete Identity, and Happiness Among Student Sportspeople as a Function of Sport-Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Heim, Derek; O'Brien, Kerry

    2015-09-01

    To examine the differences in alcohol consumption and psychosocial antecedents between team and individual sportspeople via secondary data analysis. Questionnaires measured alcohol consumption, athlete identity and subjective happiness from a sample of UK university sportspeople (N = 1785; male = 1048, 58.7%), involved in team (77.9%) and individual sports. Team sports players were more likely to be categorized as hazardous drinkers, and reported significantly greater rates of alcohol consumption, stronger athlete identity and higher levels of happiness than individual sports players. Athlete identity was a significant predictor for alcohol consumption, however there was no significant relationship found between happiness and consumption. Further regression analyses revealed interactions between sport-type and athlete identity on alcohol consumption. For individual sport players, as athlete identity increased alcohol consumption significantly reduced; however, there was a positive association between identity and consumption for team sport players. Our findings implicate the role of identity as an important factor to consider when addressing the issue of hazardous drinking among sportspeople. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct catastrophic injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P

    2005-11-01

    Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.

  5. Sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Schwartzhoffová

    2010-01-01

    Sport tourism is one specific type of travel and tourism. The goal of this article is to introduce the definition and importance of sport tourism to academic and sports professionals. At present, sport tourism is a diverse social, economic and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique interaction of activity, people and place. The second part of this article reports about sports events as an important part of sport tourism.

  6. Athletes and sports teams as complex adaptive system: A review of implications for learning design. [Atletas y equipos deportivos como sistemas adaptativos complejos: Una revision de las Implicaciones para el diseño del aprendizaje].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Davids

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological dynamics is a systems-oriented theoretical framework which conceptualises sport performers as complex adaptive systems. It seeks to understand the adaptive relations that emerge during coordination of interactions between each performer and a specific performance environment. This approach has identified the individual-environment relationship as the relevant scale of analysis for explaining how processes of perception, cognition and action underpin expert performance in sport. This theoretical overview elucidates key ideas from previous work identifying functional characteristics of complex adaptive systems, such as co-adaptation, emergent coordination tendencies and capacity to utilise affordances, which underlie performance and learning in team and individual sports. The review of research focuses on how key principles of ecological dynamics inform our understanding of learning and transfer, and their impact on practice task design in sport development programmes. To support this analysis, data from research on performance of elite and developmental athletes in individual and team sports are presented to highlight important principles of learning design from an ecological dynamics perspective. Resumen La dinámica ecológica es un marco teórico orientado a los sistemas que conceptualiza a los athletas como sistemas complejos adaptativos. Con el objeto de comprender las relaciones adaptativas que surgen durante la coordinación de las interacciones entre cada uno de los athletas y un medio/ambiente de actuación específico. Este enfoque ha identificado la relación individuo-ambiente como la escala de análisis relevante para explicar cómo los procesos de la percepción, la cognición y la acción respaldan el rendimiento de expertos en el deporte. Este documento de posición teórica aclara características funcionales esenciales de los sistemas adaptativos complejos, tales como co-adaptación, tendencias emergentes de

  7. Referral Patterns for Chronic Groin Pain and Athletic Pubalgia/Sports Hernia: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings, Treatment, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoland, Mark P; Maeder, Matthew E; Iraci, Joseph C; Klein, Devon A

    Chronic groin pain is a common problem and has been well-described in high-performance athletes. Its presentation in the recreational athlete has been less frequently described. We present the experience of a tertiary group of physicians specializing in groin pain and athletic pubalgia. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol was employed. Surgery was performed in patients failing non-surgical management. A retrospective review was performed. Of 117 mostly non-professional athletes, there were 79 MRI-positive cases of athletic pubalgia (68%). Other common findings were acetabular labral tear (57%) and inguinal hernia (35%). Employment of a dynamic MRI protocol increased sensitivity for certain pathologies. Of positive athletic pubalgia cases, 49% went on to have surgical repair. The satisfaction rate in the surgical group was 90% at follow up. Advances in MRI have increased our ability to characterize and diagnose specific injuries causing groin pain. We present our diagnostic algorithm, including an MRI protocol that not only evaluates the groin, but has increased sensitivity for additional findings such as inguinal hernia and abdominal wall deficiencies. A targeted work-up and subsequent surgical treatment in the appropriate patient, even in the recreational athletic population, has yielded a 90% satisfaction rate.

  8. ABC of Sports Medicine*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overuse injuries, osteoporosis and exercise, infections, the overtraining syndrome, sudden death, assessment of physical performance, nutritional aids, drug use, and team medical care. Included in the section on general topics are chapters on the benefits of exercise, sports for older persons and those with disabilities, ...

  9. Home Field Advantage Calculation for Physical Education and Sport Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Tugbay

    2018-01-01

    It is a well-established fact that playing at home field is an advantageous condition for professional sport teams. For this reason, the home field advantage in team sports is an important issue to be explored. It is also one of the different topics that physical education and sports students can use when they want to perform performance analysis…

  10. Knowledge, attitude and skills regarding sports medicine among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, attitude and skills regarding sports medicine among football players and team doctors in the footbal super league in Malawi. ... Most team \\'doctors\\' were aware of the impact of HIV/AIDS on sports but few had good knowledge of the role of nutrition in sports and the effect of performance enhancing drugs in ...

  11. Towards a cooperation between the arts, space science research and the European Space Agency - Preliminary findings of the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Sarah Jane; Imhof, Anna Barbara; Waldvogel, Christian; Kotler, J. Michelle; Peljhan, Marko

    2014-12-01

    The arts offer alternative insights into reality, which are explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency [4] and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS) held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop initiatives between the arts, sciences and ESA. The aim was to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication that aims to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space-related channels. The consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration. Potential ways to provide a sustainable cooperation within and between the various groups were discussed. We present the preliminary findings including a number of measures and mechanisms to initiate and conduct such an initiative. Plausible organisational measures, procedures and consequences, as well as a proposition on how to proceed are also discussed. Overall, the involvement and cooperation between the arts, space science research and ESA will enhance in the citizens of the ESA member states the sense of public ownership of ESA results, and participation in ESA's research.

  12. “More Than a Game”: The Impact of Sport-Based Youth Mentoring Schemes on Developing Resilience toward Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Johns

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon the findings of an evaluation of “More than a Game”, a sport-focused youth mentoring program in Melbourne, Australia that aimed to develop a community-based resilience model using team-based sports to address issues of identity, belonging, and cultural isolation amongst young Muslim men in order to counter forms of violent extremism. In this essay we focus specifically on whether the intense embodied encounters and emotions experienced in team sports can help break down barriers of cultural and religious difference between young people and facilitate experiences of resilience, mutual respect, trust, social inclusion and belonging. Whilst the project findings are directly relevant to the domain of countering violent extremism, they also contribute to a growing body of literature which considers the relationship between team-based sport, cross-cultural engagement and the development of social resilience, inclusion and belonging in other domains of youth engagement and community-building.

  13. SPORT MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.

  14. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooft, Edwin A J; Van Mierlo, Heleen

    2018-01-01

    Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team's life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams' composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams' motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy) predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members' stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams' collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination.

  15. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  16. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  17. Determinants of labour migration of elite sport coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Johannes; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Previous research examining labour migration in sport focused on athletes in professional team sports. The purpose of this study is to analyse the factors influencing the migration probability of elite sport coaches in Germany (i.e. national coaches, state coaches, and coaches at Olympic training bases). From a theoretical perspective, labour migration of athletes is affected by economic, social, political, competitive, geographic and cultural factors. This study examines whether these factors can be applied to coaches. Primary data were collected using an online survey of elite sport coaches in Germany. Applying a conjoint design, respondents were presented with 10 migration scenarios leading to a sample size of n = 1860 for the empirical analysis. In the scenarios, the coaching position openings abroad differed in terms of income level, contract length, weekly workload, responsibility for personnel, reputation of coaching job, career perspectives, sporting performance of athletes, distance from Germany, and predominant job language. Coaches were asked for their migration probability contingent on the specific scenario. On average, migration probability was 24.2%. The results of regression analysis showed that higher income, contracts of longer duration, responsibility for personnel and speaking the respective language significantly increased the migration probability, while distances of nine flight hours and more, lower reputation and career perspectives reduced it. The findings have implications for policy-makers: they indicate in what areas the situation of coaches needs improvement to increase the likelihood of retaining elite sport coaches in the German sport system.

  18. Japanese University Athletes’ Dilemma: Study, Sport Performance, or Both

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Yamamoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes’ dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year and 3rd year students. A total of 216 responses were collected. All participants of this study belonged to university sport clubs and they majored in sport and health science at a private university in Japan. The data were both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. The results of questionnaires found university athletes in this study showed two dilemmas. They were busy with their sport club activities and felt pressure to seriously participate in their club activities because they came to their university with a sport recommendation. In order to support university athletes, this study discusses three suggestions such as ensuring enough financial support for university athletes, promoting peer learning to university athletes, and collaborative work between university lecturers and sport club team coaches.

  19. Physical activity and sport preferences of West Bohemian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Valach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity is the crucial factor in treating lifestyle diseases. The age of adolescence is considered as the important period of person's life for creation and further maintaining healthy lifestyle habits. We assume that the level of physical activities of young people could be influenced by the possibilities to perform the preferred sporting activities. Objective: The aim of the presented study was to estimate the total amount of performed physical activity and the structure of sport preferences in West Bohemian adolescents. Further to find out the existence of relationships between preferred sport branches and composition of weekly physical activities of girls and boys. Methods: The research was conducted at five selected secondary schools of the Pilsen region, under the total participation of 382 boys and 529 girls. The level of physical activity (PA and sporting preferences was assessed by means of the IPAQ questionnaire and questionnaire of sports preferences, with the use of the internet system INDARES. For the statistical processing of the gained data, the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test, crosstabulation tables, and Spearman correlation analysis were used. Results: The results showed that the preference of fitness activities is associated with a higher level of PA in spare time of boys (p = .006, and with intensive PA of boys (p = .014 and girls (p = .044, compared to those, who do not prefer these activities. In addition, in case of boys, we have found statistically significant correlations (p = .022 between the preference of team sports and PA at school. 51.8% of boys and 37.7% of girls, who prefer fitness activities, comply with the recommendation of at least 3 × 20 minutes of intensive PA during one week (out of those, who do not prefer, only 30.5% of boys and 18.1% of girls. Individual sports (swimming, cycling, and downhill skiing are the main physical activities preferred by

  20. The generalized sports competition problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Walter; Paulusma, Daniël

    2002-01-01

    Consider a sports competition among various teams playing against each other in pairs (matches) according to a previously determined schedule. At some stage of the competition one may ask whether a particular team still has a (theoretical) chance to win the competition. The computational complexity

  1. Moving Young Children from Foster Care to Permanent Homes: Evaluation Findings for the ZERO TO THREE Safe Babies Court Teams Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs-Thornton, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Safe Babies Court Teams Project. The study compared children in the Court Teams Project at the four initial sites (n = 298) with a nationally representative sample of young child welfare participants (n = 511) from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW). The Court Teams Project…

  2. Mathematics and Sports

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nal stereotype of a mathematician is a highly nonathletic, myopic individual with his head buried in books. Reality, of course, is other- wise. One finds many who are proficient in both mathematics and sports, but even so, rarely there's someone who combines the two. Mathematics in sports? Certainly. Tendulkar does not ...

  3. Sports Dentistry In Nigeria | Sede | Annals of Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Anecdotal evidence suggests that Sports dentistry has not been adequately focused on in Nigeria. While dental and facial injuries occur in sports, limited knowledge of the role the dentist can play in the treatment of these injuries has precluded his inclusion in sports medical teams. Some sports related dental and ...

  4. Altitud y deportes de equipo: métodos tradicionales desafiados por un entrenamiento innovador y específico en hipoxia. [Altitude and team sports: traditional methods challenged by innovative sport-specific training in hypoxia].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Brocherie

    2016-10-01

    level but train under hypoxic conditions, has gained unprecedented popularity. A thorough analysis of studies including IHT, however, leads to strikingly poor benefits for sea-level performance improvement, compared to the same training method performed in normoxia. Despite positive molecular adaptations observed after various IHT modalities, the characteristics of optimal training stimulus in hypoxia are still unclear and their functional translation in term of whole-body performance enhancement is minimal. To overcome some of the inherent limitations of IHT (lower workload due to hypoxia, recent studies have successfully investigated a new training method based on the repetition of short sprints with incomplete recoveries in hypoxia; named RSH. Additionally, the growing scientific interest on the practical application of hypoxic training legitimizes the development of innovative technologies serving athletes in a sport-specific setting. The aims of the present review are therefore threefold. First, to critically analyze the results of the studies involving high-intensity exercises performed in hypoxia for sea-level performance enhancement by differentiating IHT and RSH. Second, to discuss the potential mechanisms underpinning their effectiveness and their inherent limitations. Third, to present the potentials benefits of using new technological innovation (i.e., the mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic system which will undoubtedly contribute to the understanding advancement of hypoxia-induced physiological adaptations by conducting relevant research in the most sport-specific ecological test setting.

  5. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  6. Sport Toekomstverkenning

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker

    2017-01-01

    Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen staan centraal in deze toekomstverkenning over sport die werd uitgevoerd door het RIVM en het SCP, op verzoek van het ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport (VWS). In de Sport Toekomstverken...

  7. Understanding team resilience in the world's best athletes: A case study of a rugby union World Cup winning team

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Paul; Fletcher, David; Sarkar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although team resilience research has identified the characteristics of elite sport teams that positively adapt to adversity, further research is required to understand how resilient teams function. The objective of this study, therefore, was to explore the psychosocial processes underpinning team resilience in elite sport.\\ud Design and Method: Narrative inquiry was employed to better understand team resilience. The sample consisted of eight members of the 2003 England rugby union...

  8. Sports Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozalova Marina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.

  9. Cheap Talk: “Team Factors and Management Practices Influence on Team Trust”

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Padmini Selvaratnam; Aini Aman; Muhamad Maziz Mahyuddin Bin Kamaludin; Gary Lynn; Richard Reilly

    2016-01-01

    Team trust has been cited as a contributing factor towards team performance. This paper looks at the antecedents of team trust and to what extent they influence team trust. The antecedents of team trust are team factors like team autonomy, team stability and team member experience; and the management practices are top management involvement and management support. The results demonstrated that team factors and management practices influence team trust individually. The key find...

  10. Similar head impact acceleration measured using instrumented ear patches in a junior rugby union team during matches in comparison with other sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor N

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Direct impact with the head and the inertial loading of the head have been postulated as major mechanisms of head-related injuries, such as concussion. METHODS This descriptive observational study was conducted to quantify the head impact acceleration characteristics in under-9-year-old junior rugby union players in New Zealand. The impact magnitude, frequency, and location were collected with a wireless head impact sensor that was worn by 14 junior rugby players who participated in 4 matches. RESULTS A total of 721 impacts > 10g were recorded. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) number of impacts per player was 46 (IQR 37-58), resulting in 10 (IQR 4-18) impacts to the head per player per match. The median impact magnitudes recorded were 15g (IQR 12g-21g) for linear acceleration and 2296 rad/sec(2) (IQR 1352-4152 rad/sec(2)) for rotational acceleration. CONCLUSIONS There were 121 impacts (16.8%) above the rotational injury risk limit and 1 (0.1%) impact above the linear injury risk limit. The acceleration magnitude and number of head impacts in junior rugby union players were higher than those previously reported in similar age-group sports participants. The median linear acceleration for the under-9-year-old rugby players were similar to 7- to 8-year-old American football players, but lower than 9- to 12-year-old youth American football players. The median rotational accelerations measured were higher than the median and 95th percentiles in youth, high school, and collegiate American football players.

  11. Children's implicit recall of junk food, alcohol and gambling sponsorship in Australian sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestman, Amy; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2015-10-05

    In Australia, sport is saturated by the promotion of junk food, alcohol and gambling products. This is particularly evident on player jerseys. The effect of this advertising on children, who are exposed to these messages while watching sport, has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this research study was to investigate: (1) the extent to which children implicitly recalled shirt sponsors with the correct sporting team; (2) whether children associated some types of sponsors with certain sporting codes more than others; and (3) whether age of the children influenced the correct recall of sponsoring brands and teams. This experimental study conducted in New South Wales, Australia used projective techniques to measure the implicit recall of team sponsorship relationships of 85 children aged 5-12 years. Participants were asked to arrange two sets of magnets - one which contained sporting teams and one which contained brand logos - in the manner deemed most appropriate by them. Children were not given any prompts relating to sporting sponsorship relationships. Three quarters (77 %) of the children were able to identify at least one correct shirt sponsor. Children associated alcohol and gambling brands more highly with the more popular sporting code, the National Rugby League compared to the Australian Football League sporting code. Results showed that age had an effect on number of shirt sponsors correctly recalled with 9-12 year olds being significantly more likely than 5-8 year olds to correctly identify team sponsors. Given children's ability to implicitly recall shirt sponsors in a sporting context, Australian sporting codes should examine their current sponsorship relationships to reduce the number of unhealthy commodity shirt sponsors. While there is some regulation that protects children from the marketing of unhealthy commodity products, these findings suggest that children are still exposed to and recall these sponsorship relationships. Results suggest

  12. Are real teams healthy teams?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buljac, M.; van Woerkom, M.; van Wijngaarden, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of real-team--as opposed to a team in name only--characteristics (i.e., team boundaries, stability of membership, and task interdependence) on team processes (i.e., team learning and emotional support) and team effectiveness in the long-term care sector. We employed a

  13. The Sport League's Dilemma: Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win.

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic Palomino and Luca Rigotti.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it. Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either to maximize the demand for the sport or to maximize the teams' joint profits. Demand depends positively on symmetry among teams (competitive balance) and how aggressively teams try to win (incentiv...

  14. The Sport League's Dilemma: Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it. Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either to maximize the demand for the sport or to maximize the teams' joint profits. Demand depends positively on symmetry among teams (competitive balance) and how aggressively teams try to win (incenti...

  15. An Investigation of the Attitudes of the National Teams’ Coaches Towards the Role and Importance of Information Technology in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Salehi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the attitude of elite coaches of the team and individual sports towards the role and importance of information technology in sport, 132 coaches were chosen as a sample and answered to the questionnaire of the role of information technology in sport organised by Liebermann and Katz that consisted of 3 different sections: A General attitude of the coaches towards computer and technology; B The importance of science and technology in achieving coaching experience; C Understanding science and technology in sport. Descriptive and inferential statistics (CFA and independent t - test were used in order to analyse the data. The findings demonstrated that elite coaches selected two aims as their chief ones: 1 - Winning medals in competitions; 2- Having a good relationship with the athletes. There was not any significant relationship between the attitudes of the men and women and the coaches of the individual and team sports on science and technology. It seems that elite coaches are aware on the general importance of sport sciences and have a positive attitude towards the use of sport technologies. But they do not practically transfer this positive attitude to competitive sport environments even when they use information technology for other purposes. Eventually it can be stated that the attitude of the coaches towards technology is very positive and consequently it is a must to find strategies in order to encourage them to use current technology and science practically.

  16. Sport Engagement by Accelerometry under Field Conditions in German Adolescents: Results from GINIPlus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maia; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Sporting activities differ in their ability to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). To assess adolescents' engagement in sport under field conditions we used accelerometers to measure their MVPA levels during sport. We pay special attention to differences between team and individual sport and between common sports. Diary data and 7-day accelerometry from 1054 Germans ages 15-17 were combined to measure physical activity. 1373 diaried episodes of more than 40 common sports were identified from 626 participants and grouped into team and individual sport. We modeled the effect of team and individual sport, and described levels of MVPA and episodes of no MVPA for all recorded sports. German boys and girls averaged 43 (SD 21) and 37 (SD 24) minutes MVPA per day. Boys got 2.2 times as much MVPA per minute during team compared to individual sport (psport ranged from 6% for weight training to 74% for jogging, with individual sports averaging 10-30% and team sports 30-50%. 11% of sport episodes had no MVPA: half of episodes of cycling, 5% of jogging, and none for tennis or badminton. An episode of individual sport was 17 times more likely to have no MVPA than an episode of team sport (psporting time. As measured by accelerometry, individual sport often produced no MVPA. Characteristics of the sport, such as team vs. individual, were more predictive of MVPA than were characteristics of the participant, such as background activity levels.

  17. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Youth Sports Coaches Regarding Sport Volume Recommendations and Sport Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R

    2018-02-22

    Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.

  18. Individual Team Productivity - A Conceptual Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Müller (Julia); T. Upmann (Thorsten); J. Prinz (Joachim)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Teams, in both firms and in sports, jointly produce a product. While a fixed task is assigned to each member of a team, the individual team productivity of a worker or player is difficult to conceptualize. This is particularly true, if this concept is aimed to be

  19. Interprofessional management of concussion in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Patrick S; Oliveira, Leonardo; Tucker, Jennifer; Beato, Morris; Gual, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high incidence of sports concussion, various health and medical providers are likely to encounter athletes who have sustained such an injury. Management of concussion necessitates coordinated care by the members of the sports medicine team due to its pathophysiology and complexity of management during recovery. All members of the sports medicine team must possess contemporary knowledge of concussion management as well as strong interprofessional communication skills to ensure effective care and safe return to sports participation. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript is to review the current best practices in interdisciplinary management of sports concussion with a special emphasis on the required interprofessional communication among the sports medicine team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Academic characteristics of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with high school, collegiate, and professional teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study to determine the academic involvement and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians at high school, college, and professional levels of sport. Through Internet and telephone queries, we identified 1054 team physicians from 362 institutions, including 120 randomly selected high schools and colleges and 122 professional teams (baseball, basketball, football, hockey). For all physicians included in the study, we performed a comprehensive search of the Internet and of a citation database to determine academic affiliations, number of publications, and h-index values. Of the 1054 physicians, 678 (64%) were orthopedic surgeons. Percentage of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with an academic medical center was highest in professional sports (64%; 173/270) followed by collegiate sports (36%; 98/275) and high school sports (20%; 27/133). Median number of publications per orthopedic team physician was significantly higher in professional sports (30.6) than in collegiate sports (10.7) or high school sports (6). Median number of publications by orthopedic physicians also varied by sport, with the highest number in Major League Baseball (37.9; range, 0-225) followed by the National Basketball Association (32.0; range, 0-227) and the National Football League (30.4; range, 0-460), with the lowest number within the National Hockey League (20.7; range, 0-144). Academic affiliation and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians vary by competition level and professional sporting league.

  1. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J Robert

    2014-09-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key pointsConsultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services.Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values.Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach.Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year.

  2. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

  3. Tornando o "Jogo Possível": Reflexões sobre a Pedagogia do Esporte, os fundamentos dos jogos desportivos coletivos e a aprendizagem Making the “Possible Game”: Reflections on Sport Pedagogy, Fundamentals of Team Sports and Sport Learning Haciendo el "juego posible": reflexiones sobre la Pedagogía del deporte, los fundamentos de los juegos deportivos colectivos y el aprender deportivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho surge da necessidade de discussões sobre o papel educacional do profissional de educação física na aprendizagem esportiva e Pedagogia do Esporte. Relacionamos correntes teóricas da Pedagogia do Esporte com o ensino dos jogos desportivos coletivos. Para tanto, utilizamos como instrumento o jogo, ferramenta fundamental de ensino e oportunidade social, através de suas características lúdicas. O jogo pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento de valores éticos, sociais e morais, assim como para a construção de metáforas que estabeleçam relações entre o esporte e a vida, fazendo uso da ludicidade e do ensino reflexivo. Ambos fundamentam nosso embasamento teórico para a atuação em Pedagogia do Esporte, trazendo mais oportunidades, opções de escolha e reflexões sobre nossa atuação profissional. This research work derives from the need to discuss the educational role of the physical education professional in sport learning and sport pedagogy. We have related sport pedagogy theories with the teaching of team sports. We have used the game as an instrument which is a fundamental teaching tool as well as a social opportunity, through its playful characteristics. Games can contribute to the development of ethical, social, and moral values, and to the building of metaphors that can establish relations between sport and life, making use of playfulness and reflexive teaching. Both concepts are fundamental to our theoretical foundation and bring more opportunities, choice, and reflections to our professional work.
    Keywords: sport pedagogy – sport initiation – game – reflexive teaching Este trabajo aparece de la necesidad de discusiones a respecto del papel educativo del profesional de educación física en la enseñanza deportiva y Pedagogía del deporte. Relacionamos las corrientes teóricas de la pedagogía del deporte con la enseñanza de los juegos colectivos. Para eso, utilizamos como instrumento el juego, la

  4. Ties That Bond: Youth Sport as a Vehicle for Social Identity and Positive Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W; Balish, Shea M; Forrest, Christopher; Brown, Sarah; Webber, Kristine; Gray, Emily; McGuckin, Matthew; Keats, Melanie R; Rehman, Laurene; Shields, Christopher A

    2017-06-01

    An emerging area of research has focused on understanding how the group dynamics of a sport team influence positive youth development (PYD). The identities that youth form through their membership in sport teams (i.e., social identities) have been found to influence teammate behavior and team performance. Yet, minimal work exists on social identity and PYD in youth sport. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social identity and PYD in sport. Youth engaged in recreational sport (N = 219; M age  = 11.61 years, SD = 1.39 years) completed measures of social identity and PYD in sport. The social identity measure assessed 3 dimensions including ingroup ties (IGT; perceptions of similarity, bonding, belongingness), cognitive centrality (importance of being a team member), and ingroup affect (IGA; feelings associated with group membership). A regression analysis was performed separately for 4 PYD outcomes (personal and social skills, goal setting, initiative, negative experiences) with the 3 dimensions of social identity entered as predictors. Regression analyses revealed that IGT and IGA were positively associated with personal and social skills (R 2 Adj. = .29). Further, IGT predicted initiative (R 2 Adj. = .16), whereas IGA was positively associated with goal setting (R 2 Adj. = .17) and negatively associated with negative experiences (R 2 Adj. = .08). The findings extend previous research highlighting the benefits of social identity on teammate behavior and team performance and demonstrate how social identity may contribute to PYD through sport.

  5. [Sport injuries during duty sport--a risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammito, S

    2011-03-01

    Daily physical activity ist a predictive factor for cardio-vascular disease and for obesity. In military, police and firefighter service duty sport is used to increase and to keep a work specifical physical fitness. Till today no study data with direct data acquisition exists for a risk assessment of the injury rates in duty sport. In this one-year study in a German Armed Forces armoured brigade with 22 companies, every sport-related injury on duty and the following sick days were recorded. Apart from the sport type, the duration of the athletic activity and the number of soldiers that took part in it were monitored. 275 sport injuries were recorded. Soccer was the sport with the highest risk of injuries. Team sports proved to be more dangerous than individual physical activity. The author has demonstrated a reduction of the total injury rate by 39 %, of sick days by 50 %, and of the days with partial unfitness for duty by 42 % when team sports are reduced in favour to other physical activities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. J. Van Hooft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team’s life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams’ composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams’ motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members’ stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams’ collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination.

  7. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Van Mierlo, Heleen

    2018-01-01

    Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team’s life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams’ composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams’ motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy) predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members’ stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams’ collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination. PMID:29674991

  8. SPORT FACILITIES - SPORT ACTIVITIES HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realisation of sport activities always demanded certain conditions. Among those, sports facilities are certainly necessary. Since there were important changes in the process of training itself and successful performance, as well as, the results achieved by the sportsmen; there is a need for adequate sports facilities, that include whole variety of systems,equipment and necessities. Nowadays, Sport facilities are not only “the place of event”, but also a condition/necessity in achieving best sport results. It is demanded that these facilities are comfortable, absolutely secure and that they can accommodate transmissions: an opening, the course of sports activities and the announcement of the winner. The kind of sport activity, age, sex; so the “sports level” of the competitors is emphasising the specific demands to wards sports facilities.

  9. An Effective System of Sports Competition Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Szostek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovatory system of managing sports competitions has been presented. Its advantages with regard to other currently used systems are discussed. A theorem connected with such a system has been presented in the last section of the paper. Sports competitions aim to establish a ranking of the participating teams. This consists of sorting teams according to a quality which can be thought of as the ability to win matches. Direct measurement of this quality is not possible, since the ability to win matches depends on a great variety of factors being difficult to determine. Nevertheless, it is possible to compare any two teams if they play a match. These matches are played under normal rules. In turn, all the rules valid during sports competitions, outside the matches, make a system of sport competition. Sorting sports teams differs from typical problems of sorting. The result of a comparison of teams is sometimes misleading. It happens that a team with a greater ability to win matches loses a match to a team with a smaller ability to win matches. Thus, the problem of sorting teams is a probabilistic problem. Due to this reason, traditional sorting methods are ineffective in terms of managing sports competitions. (original abstract

  10. Queen of Fights: Lesbians in Tunisian Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Nassim; Lachheb, Monia; Anderson, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Sport within the Muslim context, including in the location of this study, Tunisia, remains an institution designed for the promotion of a heterosexual form of masculinity and the degradation of both femininity and women's athleticism. Unlike recent advancements in the West, homosexuality remains viewed almost entirely negatively by the political, religious, and social debates in Muslim cultures. This overt hostility has almost entirely erased any visible gay culture within Muslim sports. It is within this context that this study finds importance. It represents the first-ever examination into the lives of lesbian Muslim athletes, in either a Muslim majority or non-majority state. Conducted on three lesbian athletes living in the Islamic country of Tunisia, we show that each is out of the closet to varying degrees but that homophobia within their sports-even on majority lesbian teams-remains rife. We discuss the coping strategies these athletes invoke to negotiate their sexual orientation in this highly homophobic nation and homohysteric sporting culture.

  11. Analysis of Self-Esteem Levels of Students in Physical Education and Sports High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    çakoyun, Fahri Ak

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the self-esteem levels of the students at Balikesir University Physical Education and Sports High School according to the variables such; gender, age, body-mass index (BMI), education department, class, sporting situation and sport branch (individual sport-team sport). While the universe of the study has…

  12. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  13. Sports Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...

  14. Leadership, cohesion and satisfaction in sporting teams: a study with Portuguese football and futsal athletes / Liderança, coesão e satisfação em equipas desportivas: um estudo com atletas Portugueses de futebol e futsal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rui Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was done with 200 athletes from 2 types of sports (soccer and futsal in several competitive levels and it analyzed coaches' leadership styles and athletes' cohesion and satisfaction levels. Evaluation instruments on leadership (Multidimensional Leadership Scale in Sports which assesses six different dimensions, cohesion (Group Environment Questionnaire which assesses four different dimensions and satisfaction (Satisfaction Scale which assesses three different dimensions were applied and received good validity and reliability levels. The results showed that men and women evaluated and preferred different coaches' behaviors, and female athletes assumed higher levels of social cohesion. Likewise, variations were found concerning athletes' age on the perceptions of coach leadership; the youngest group presented lower cohesion levels. Two main conclusions must be stated. On one hand, the significant impact of coaches' behaviors in athletes' sport experience and, on the other hand, the need of coaches' leadership adaptation concerning athletes' gender and age in order to enhance their efficacy while working with the teams.

  15. Transforming Virtual Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    Investigating virtual team collaboration in industry using grounded theory this paper presents the in-dept analysis of empirical work conducted in a global organization of 100.000 employees where a global virtual team with participants from Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada, and North America were...... studied. The research question investigated is how collaboration is negotiated within virtual teams? This paper presents findings concerning how collaboration is negotiated within a virtual team and elaborate the difficulties due to invisible articulation work and managing multiple communities...... in transforming the virtual team into a community. It is argued that translucence in communication structures within the virtual team and between team and management is essential for engaging in a positive transformation process of trustworthiness supporting the team becoming a community, managing the immanent...

  16. SPORT MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  17. Youth sport experiences of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Homan; Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Holt, Nicholas L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore youth sport experiences of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 6 males (mean age=22.7 yr) with ADHD who had played 3 or more seasons in team sports during adolescence. Following interpretive phenomenological analysis methodology, each participant completed 2 semistructured interviews. Findings showed that symptoms of ADHD hampered participants' experiences and led to negative interpersonal and performance-related consequences. On the other hand, participants reported social and stress/energy-release benefits arising from their experiences in sport. Their experiences were therefore complex, and some findings relating to social interactions appeared contradictory (e.g., negative interpersonal experiences vs. social benefits). Supportive coaches, understanding teammates, and personal coping strategies were key factors that enabled participants to realize benefits and, to some degree, mitigate negative consequences associated with their participation in sport.

  18. oh sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-03-01

    Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.

  19. Caffeine and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M

    2008-12-01

    Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.

  20. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.

  1. Relative Age Effects Across and Within Female Sport Contexts: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristy L; Weir, Patricia L; Till, Kevin; Romann, Michael; Cobley, Stephen

    2018-03-13

    Subtle differences in chronological age within sport (bi-) annual-age groupings can contribute to immediate participation and long-term attainment discrepancies; known as the relative age effect. Voluminous studies have examined relative age effects in male sport; however, their prevalence and context-specific magnitude in female sport remain undetermined. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and magnitude of relative age effects in female sport via examination of published data spanning 1984-2016. Registered with PROSPERO (No. 42016053497) and using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis systematic search guidelines, 57 studies were identified, containing 308 independent samples across 25 sports. Distribution data were synthesised using odds ratio meta-analyses, applying an invariance random-effects model. Follow-up subgroup category analyses examined whether relative age effect magnitudes were moderated by age group, competition level, sport type, sport context and study quality. When comparing the relatively oldest (quartile 1) vs. youngest (quartile 4) individuals across all female sport contexts, the overall pooled estimate identified a significant but small relative age effect (odds ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.30; p = 0.01; odds ratio adjusted = 1.21). Subgroup analyses revealed the relative age effect magnitude was higher in pre-adolescent (≤ 11 years) and adolescent (12-14 years) age groups and at higher competition levels. Relative age effect magnitudes were higher in team-based and individual sport contexts associated with high physiological demands. The findings highlight relative age effects are prevalent across the female sport contexts examined. Relative age effect magnitude is moderated by interactions between developmental stages, competition level and sport context demands. Modifications to sport policy, organisational and athlete development system structure, as

  2. Findings of the U.S. Department of Defense Technology Assessment Team on Japanese High-Temperature Composites February 1989 Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Courtaulds - Morpite Rolls Royce 1968 -- a -- Otani Patent 1969 -- so Nippon Carbon 1970 Kureha Chemical (Pitch) -- so an 1971 -- so Tors 1972... Kureha Chemical Koa Oil Mitsubishi Chemical _ Kashima Oil 1 Nippon Carbon Sumitomo Chemical _ Yokohama Rubber Arisawa Aerospace Mfrs _ Sporting Goods

  3. Sport Specialization, Part I: Does Early Sports Specialization Increase Negative Outcomes and Reduce the Opportunity for Success in Young Athletes?

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  4. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Leonie V.; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psycholo...

  5. TOURISMOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF SPORTING EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Bjeljac

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporting events are programs, which are dominated by creative and complex facilities, primarily sports, but also recreation and entertainment. As such, they achieve tourism effects and goals and have a socio-economic importance for the city, region or state. Depending on the size and importance of sports event, sport has a different role in the context of promoting tourist destination, as well as different values. Each sport discipline has its own criteria by which athletes are ranked individually or as team. The subject of the research is to determine the criteria for the categorization of sporting events, in order to determine the importance of sporting events as an element of the tourist offer (individually or as part of a tourist destination. Also, this paper’s results present a comparative analysis of similar methodologies for the categorization of sporting events. Based on the research presented in the paper, there are four groups of criteria: economic, media, social and environmental. Together with this, paper gives the classification of traditional sporting events in the case of Serbia, dividing them in four groups.

  6. Creatine serum is not as effective as creatine powder for improving cycle sprint performance in competitive male team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Nicholas D; Hall, Rowan D; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2004-05-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation with either creatine monohydrate powder in solution (CP) or a widely available creatine serum (CS) on performance in a repeated maximal sprint cycling test (10 x 6 seconds, 24-second passive rest between sprints). Using a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 competitive male athletes supplemented with creatine in 2 forms according to the manufacturer's recommendations on 2 separate occasions. The 2 supplementation protocols were (a) 20 g.day(-1) x 6 days of creatine powder in solution plus a placebo serum (CP) or (b) 5 ml.day(-1) x 6 days of creatine serum plus a placebo powder (CS). Subjects completed 2 familiarization trials before the 6-day supplementation period. A repeated maximal sprint cycling test was performed prior to and immediately postsupplementation. A 7-week washout period separated the 2 supplementation protocols. Subjects' total work (9.6%) and peak power (3.4%) in the cycle sprint improved significantly (p supplementation but indicate that supplementation with CS does not affect sprint cycling performance. Although the levels of creatine in each formulation were not determined, a substantial conversion of creatine into creatinine has been reported in many formulations and may explain the present findings.

  7. Contemporary Research in Sports Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume comprises scientific contributions in the context of the 5th annual conference of the European Association of Sports Economics (ESEA), which took place in September 2013 in Esbjerg, Denmark. It contains five articles on UEFA’s financial fair play regulation in European football, written...... by internationally renowned sports economists like Stefan Szymanski, Joel Maxcy and Sean Hamil. Moreover, a further three chapters deal with football topics like the dismissal of coaches or competitive balance. Furthermore, the economics of sports events – the Olympics as well as local events – are analyzed by well......-known scholars like Wladimir Andreff and Plácido Rodríguez. Next to team sports, new developments of the economics of individual sports like cycling, ski-jumping and motor-racing are explored....

  8. Corporate social responsibility and governance in sport: “Oh, the things you can find, if you don’t stay behind!"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitbarth, Tim; Walzel, Stefan; Anagnostopoulos, Christos; van Eekeren, F.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide practical and future research implications for the field of governance and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in sports to strengthen the depth of knowledge in this area. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews parts of the existing

  9. Management Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Belbin, R Meredith Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Meredith Belbin's work on teams has become part of everyday language in organizations all over the world. All kinds of teams and team behaviours are covered. At the end of the book is a self-perception inventory so that readers can match their own personalities to particular team roles. Management Teams is required reading for managers concerned with achieving results by getting the best from their key personnel.

  10. Team Effectiveness and Leadership Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Duygulu, Ethem; Ciraklar, Nurcan

    2008-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the patterns of leadership roles for team effectiveness in non economic organizations compared to economic organizations. For this purpose, we studied three successful organization types, i.e the amateur sports clubs (football, basketball), theater companies and, regional folk groups. Our basic hypothesis is that the relationship between the type of organization (specially teams) and the role of leadership is not random. Therefore, we believe that a...

  11. The Influence of the Social Environment Context in Stress and Coping in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdijk, Carlijn; van der Kamp, John; Polman, Remco

    2016-01-01

    Lazarus (1999) model of stress and coping is based on the reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. The aim of this study therefore was to examine whether the social environment (significant others) are of influence on the stress and coping of team athletes. The study consisted of two separate studies in which a total of 12 team athletes participated. First, six field hockey players (two males, four females) aged 18-29 years (M = 23.0 years) participated in a diary study. Second, six team athletes of different sports (two males, four females) aged 24-29 years (M = 25.8 years) were interviewed. The results showed that in particular teammates are important for the appraisal of stress and coping in team sports. For over half (i.e., 51.5%) of the reported stressors in the diary study the participants felt that others were of influence on their coping. Team athletes experienced the highest stress intensity during competition, or when they appraised the situation as a threat. When others were of influence the team athletes were most likely to appraise the situation as a challenge and use problem- or emotion-focused coping strategies. These finding might provide a new portal for intervention to enhance coping with stress in sport and enhance performance and satisfaction.

  12. [Sports injuries in German club sports, Aspects of epidemiology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, T; Luig, P; Schulz, D

    2014-06-01

    Almost one of four Germans is registered in a sports club. Nowadays, sport is acknowledged as an integral component of a healthy lifestyle. Numerous studies provide evidence of the benefits of sports on health. However, about 2 million sports injuries per year diminish the health benefits of sport. (a) Description of the epidemiology of sports injuries in German sports club between 1987 and 2012 and (b) identification of focal areas for the development and implementation of prevention measures. Continuous questionnaire-based injury monitoring of club sports injuries that have been reported to the respective sports insurance. Full survey among selected federal sports associations. Since 1987, a sample of 200,884 sports injuries has been established. About two thirds of the injuries are reported in soccer, handball, basketball, and volleyball, although only one third of all sports club members are registered in these team sports. The number of women's soccer injuries has risen from 7.5 to 15.6 %. Ankle injuries have decreased from 28.7 to 16.9 %. By contrast, the rate of knee injuries has increased from 18.4 to 20.3 %. Days of disability have dropped steadily since the 1990s. Inpatient hospital days have decreased from 10 to 5 days, whereas the share of injuries that needed surgery increased from 30 to 40 %. Team ball sports are still a clear focal area for injury prevention, as participation and injury risk are highest in this group. While the prevention of ankle injuries seems to be headed in the right direction, knee injuries are increasing. As team ball sports become more popular among women, who are more prone to severe knee injuries, prevention programs should be tailored toward the specific situation and needs of the targeted sports participants.

  13. Team Roles of the Pupils Team of FK Motorlet Praha

    OpenAIRE

    Krištofek, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    ANOTATION Diploma thesis name: Team roles in the youth team at the FK Motorlet Praha, s.r.o. football club. . Objectives: First goal of the thesis is to find within the youth team at the FK Motorlet Praha, s.r.o. football club particular team roles and assess their importance for the team and find out which role holds each player. Second goal is to examine common relations between particular team members and on the basis of such an examination to find out if there is any way how to increase a...

  14. Greening Sports through Sustainable Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across the country, teams, fans, event planners and college campuses are saving energy, cutting waste and cleaning up at sporting events to show their commitment to the environment -- a goal that has many SMM benefits.

  15. Who Wants to Play? Sport Motivation Trajectories, Sport Participation, and the Development of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Amemiya, Jamie

    2017-09-01

    Although sport involvement has the potential to enhance psychological wellbeing, studies have suggested that motivation to participate in sports activities declines across childhood and adolescence. This study incorporated expectancy-value theory to model children's sport ability self-concept and subjective task values trajectories from first to twelfth grade. Additionally, it examined if sport motivation trajectories predicted individual and team-based sport participation and whether sport participation in turn reduced the development of depressive symptoms. Data were drawn from the Childhood and Beyond Study, a cross-sequential longitudinal study comprised of three cohorts (N = 1065; 49% male; 92% European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave were 6.42, 7.39, and 9.36 years, respectively). Results revealed four trajectories of students' co-development of sport self-concept and task values: congruent stable high, incongruent stable high, middle school decreasing, and decreasing. Trajectory membership predicted individual and team-based sports participation, but only team-based sport participation predicted faster declines in depressive symptoms. The use of a person-centered approach enabled us to identify heterogeneity in trajectories of sport motivation that can aid in the development of nuanced strategies to increase students' motivation to participate in sports.

  16. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Pohan, Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani; Ancok, Djamaludin

    2010-01-01

    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  17. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani Pohan; Djamaludin Ancok

    2015-01-01

    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  18. Use of Sports Science Knowledge by Turkish Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Koray; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    The purpose of this study is to examine the following research questions in Turkish coaching context: a) What are coaches' perceptions on the application of sport science research to their coaching methods? b) What sources do coaches utilize to obtain the knowledge they need? c) What barriers do coaches encounter when trying to access and apply the knowledge they need for their sport? In addition, differences in research questions responses were examined based on gender, years of coaching experience, academic educational level, coaching certificate level, coaching team or individual sports, and being paid or unpaid for coaching. The participants were 321 coaches (255 men, 66 women) from diverse sports and coaching levels working in Ankara. The questionnaire "New Ideas for Coaches" by Reade, Rodgers and Hall (2008) was translated, adapted into Turkish, and validated for the current study. According to our findings among Turkish coaches, there is a high prevalence of beliefs that sport science contributes to sport (79.8%);however, there are gaps between what coaches are looking for and the research that is being conducted. Coaches are most likely to attend seminars or consult other coaches to get new information. Scientific publications were ranked very low by the coaches in getting current information. The barriers to coaches' access to sport science research are finding out the sources of information, being able to implement the sport science knowledge into the field of coaching, lack of monetary support in acquiring knowledge, and language barriers. Also, differences in perceptions and preferences for obtaining new information were identified based on coaches' gender, coaching contexts (i.e., professional-amateur), coaching settings (i.e., team/individual), and their other demographic characteristics (i.e., coaching experience, coaching educational level, and coaching certificate level). Future coach education programs should emphasize the development of coaches

  19. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  20. Illogical it may seem: Do team attachment, match outcomes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport fans acknowledge that through centuries there is the belief and interplay that superstition will add that extra touch of luck to game outcomes. Superstitions play an integral part in the psyche of sport fans in modern sports. The study examines whether team attachment, match outcomes and superior performance of ...