Malisoux, Laurent; Gette, Paul; Urhausen, Axel; Bomfim, Joao; Theisen, Daniel
We aim to determine the influence of sports floorings and sports shoes on impact mechanics and performance during standardised jump tasks. Twenty-one male volunteers performed ankle jumps (four consecutive maximal bounds with very dynamic ankle movements) and multi-jumps (two consecutive maximal counter-movement jumps) on force plates using minimalist and cushioned shoes under 5 sports flooring (SF) conditions. The shock absorption properties of the SF, defined as the proportion of peak impact force absorbed by the tested flooring when compared with a concrete hard surface, were: SF0 = 0% (no flooring), SF1 = 19%, SF2 = 26%, SF3 = 37% and SF4 = 45%. Shoe and flooring effects were compared using 2x5 repeated-measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni-corrected comparisons. A significant interaction between SF and shoe conditions was found for VILR only (p = 0.003). In minimalist shoes, SF influenced Vertical Instantaneous Loading Rate (VILR) during ankle jumps (p = 0.006) and multi-jumps (pflooring. VILR is the variable that was the most affected.
Full Text Available We aim to determine the influence of sports floorings and sports shoes on impact mechanics and performance during standardised jump tasks. Twenty-one male volunteers performed ankle jumps (four consecutive maximal bounds with very dynamic ankle movements and multi-jumps (two consecutive maximal counter-movement jumps on force plates using minimalist and cushioned shoes under 5 sports flooring (SF conditions. The shock absorption properties of the SF, defined as the proportion of peak impact force absorbed by the tested flooring when compared with a concrete hard surface, were: SF0 = 0% (no flooring, SF1 = 19%, SF2 = 26%, SF3 = 37% and SF4 = 45%. Shoe and flooring effects were compared using 2x5 repeated-measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni-corrected comparisons. A significant interaction between SF and shoe conditions was found for VILR only (p = 0.003. In minimalist shoes, SF influenced Vertical Instantaneous Loading Rate (VILR during ankle jumps (p = 0.006 and multi-jumps (p<0.001, in accordance with shock absorption properties. However, in cushioned shoes, SF influenced VILR during ankle jumps only (p<0.001. Contact Time was the only additional variable affected by SF, but only during multi-jumps in minimalist shoes (p = 0.037. Cushioned shoes induced lower VILR (p<0.001 and lower Contact Time (p≤0.002 during ankle jumps and multi-jumps compared to minimalist shoes. During ankle jumps, cushioned shoes induced greater Peak Vertical Ground Reaction Force (PVGRF, p = 0.002, greater Vertical Average Loading Rate (p<0.001, and lower eccentric (p = 0.008 and concentric (p = 0.004 work. During multi-jumps, PVGRF was lower (p<0.001 and jump height was higher (p<0.001 in cushioned compared to minimalist shoes. In conclusion, cushioning influenced impact forces during standardised jump tasks, whether it was provided by the shoes or the sports flooring. VILR is the variable that was the most affected.
Purnama, Ayu Sri; Herieningsih, Sri Widowati; Pradekso, Tandiyo; Rakhmad, Wiwid Noor
Sport shoes merupakan salah satu jenis sepatu yang di minati oleh masyarakat saat ini, Selain itu akhir-akhir ini salah satu jenis sport shoes yakni running shoes menjadi fashion baru dikalangan remaja di Indonesia. Namun salah satu produsen sports shoes yaitu adidas saat ini kurang diminati bila dibandingkan dengan kompetitornya hasil survey mengenai sport shoes yang digunakan dan diminati oleh remaja wanita di Indonesia menunjukkan bahwa Adidas menempati urutan ke- tiga setelah nike dan con...
Even-Tzur, Nurit; Weisz, Ety; Hirsch-Falk, Yifat; Gefen, Amit
Modern sport shoes are designed to attenuate mechanical stress waves, mainly through deformation of the viscoelastic midsole which is typically made of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam. Shock absorption is obtained by flow of air through interconnected air cells in the EVA during shoe deformation under body-weight. However, when the shoe is overused and air cells collapse or thickness of the EVA is reduced, shock absorption capacity may be affected, and this may contribute to running injuries. Using lumped system and finite element models, we studied heel pad stresses and strains during heel-strike in running, considering the viscoelastic constitutive behavior of both the heel pad and EVA midsole. In particular, we simulated wear cases of the EVA, manifested in the modeling by reduced foam thickness, increased elastic stiffness, and shorter stress relaxation with respect to new shoe conditions. Simulations showed that heel pad stresses and strains were sensitive to viscous damping of the EVA. Wear of the EVA consistently increased heel pad stresses, and reduced EVA thickness was the most influential factor, e.g., for a 50% reduction in thickness, peak heel pad stress increased by 19%. We conclude that modeling of the heel-shoe interaction should consider the viscoelastic properties of the tissue and shoe components, and the age of the studied shoe.
Michel, F I; Kälin, X; Metzger, A; Westphal, K; Schweizer, F; Campe, S; Segesser, B
Within the sport shoe area torsion is described as the twisting and decoupling of the rear-, mid- and forefoot along the longitudinal axis of the foot. Studies have shown that running shoes restrict the torsion of the foot and thus they increase the pronation of the foot. Based on the findings, it is recommended to design running shoes, which allow the natural freedom of movement of the foot. The market introduction of the first torsion concept through adidas(R) took place in 1989. Independently of the first market introduction, only one epidemiological study was conducted in the running shoe area. The study should investigate the occurrence of Achilles tendon problems of the athletes running in the new "adidas Torsion(R) shoes". However, further studies quantifying the optimal region of torsionability concerning the reduction of injury incidence are still missing. Newer studies reveal that the criterion torsion only plays a secondary roll regarding the buying decision. Moreover, athletes are not able to perceive torsionability as a discrete functional parameter. It is to register, that several workgroups are dealing intensively with the detailed analysis of the foot movement based on kinematic multi-segment-models. However, scientific as well as popular scientific contributions display that the original idea of the torsion concept is still not completely understood. Hence, the "inverse" characteristic is postulated. The present literature review leads to the deduction that the functional characteristics of the torsion concept are not fully implemented within the running shoe area. This implies the necessity of scientific studies, which investigate the relevance of a functional torsion concept regarding injury prevention based on basic and applied research. Besides, biomechanical studies should analyse systematically the mechanism and the effects of torsion relevant technologies and systems.
Dessing, O.; Jansen, A.J.; Leihitu, C.; Overhage, D.
As indoor sports shoes are intensively used in a warm and sweaty environment for periods of up to three consecutive hours, the built-up heat inside is insufficiently released causing warm and perspiring feet. This results in an increased chance of blisters and skin irritations. Experimental research
Mohr, Maurice; Trudeau, Matthieu B; Nigg, Sandro R; Nigg, Benno M
To determine the effect of shoe mass on performance in basketball-specific movements and how this affects changes if an athlete is aware or not of the shoe's mass relative to other shoes. In an experimental design, 22 male participants were assigned to 2 groups. In the "aware" group, differences in the mass of the shoes were disclosed, while participants in the other group were blinded to the mass of shoes. For both groups lateral shuffle-cut and vertical-jump performances were quantified in 3 different basketball-shoe conditions (light, 352 ± 18.4 g; medium, 510 ± 17 g; heavy, 637 ± 17.7 g). A mixed ANOVA compared mean shuffle-cut and vertical-jump performances across shoes and groups. For blinded participants, perceived shoe-weight ratings were collected and compared across shoe conditions using a Friedman 2-way ANOVA. In the aware group, performance in the light shoes was significantly increased by 2% (vertical jump 2%, P vertical-jump and shuffle-cut performance across shoes. Differences in performance of the aware participants were most likely due to psychological effects such as positive and negative expectancies toward the light and heavy shoes, respectively. These results underline the importance for coaches and shoe manufacturers to communicate the performance-enhancing benefits of products or other interventions to athletes to optimize their performance outcome.
Saputra, Denny; Waluyo, Handoyo Djoko; Listyorini, Sari
Complex consumer needs all critical and followed increasingly competitive market competition lead to Nike Sports Shoes must to compete and also maintain their market consumer seized from its competitors. Consumers who take the decision to choose Nike Sports Shoes will consider various things before buying it. Consideration to make a decision consist of influenced the quality of the product, promotion, and brand image of Nike Sport Shoes. The problem in this research is Sports Shoes Nike fluct...
Laluyan, Wanda Nadya; Pangemanan, Sifrid S; Worang, Frederik G
Sports as needs, which is read by the companies manufacturers who produce a sport shoes product. In Indonesia, the competition in footwear industry is getting tight and variety. It makes so much many shoes retail opened and developing. With that situation, the companies are trying to create a variety shoes and trying to adding new value on their product to keep their customer and getting new consumers and of course to make them still survive in the market. The aims of this study are to analyz...
Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B
Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.
Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A.; Coughlin, Michael J.; Anderson, Robert B.
Background: Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Conclusion: Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces. PMID:28151702
GOH PIN SIANG
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of volleyball players’ purchase intention toward sport shoes by investigating the relationship between the independent variables (endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth and purchase intention. Descriptive research and causal research will be used as the research design, thus questionnaire and experimentation will be used to obtain data. Primary data in this study is attained by distributing the questionnaire to the Malaysian volleyball players throughout several volleyball tournament venues in Malaysia. The experiment will be conducted by comparing two groups of respondents, including volleyball players and non-volleyball players. This study is limited to several independent variables such as endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth. This study is significant for marketers for solving the challenges faced in the sport industry. It also helps to identify consumers’ purchase preferences for sport shoes. The marketer would understand more about their targeted customers’ intentions to purchase, thus the sport industry related with sport marketing in Malaysia might gain more profit.
Ballal, Moez S; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Molloy, Andy; La Barbera, Luigi; Villa, Tomaso; Banfi, Giuseppe
Sports people always strive to avoid injury. Sports shoe designs in many sports have been shown to affect traction and injury rates. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the differing stiffness and torque in rugby boots that are designed for the same effect. Five different types of rugby shoes commonly worn by scrum forwards were laboratory tested for rotational stiffness and peak torque on a natural playing surface generating force patterns that would be consistent with a rugby scrum. The overall internal rotation peak torque was 57.75±6.26 Nm while that of external rotation was 56.55±4.36 Nm. The Peak internal and external rotational stiffness were 0.696±0.1 and 0.708±0.06 Nm/deg respectively. Our results, when compared to rotational stiffness and peak torques of football shoes published in the literature, show that shoes worn by rugby players exert higher rotational and peak torque stiffness compared to football shoes when tested on the same natural surfaces. There was significant difference between the tested rugby shoes brands. In our opinion, to maximize potential performance and lower the potential of non-contact injury, care should be taken in choosing boots with stiffness appropriate to the players main playing role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goto, Kanako; Abe, Kaoru
Although workers in Japan are required to wear safety footwear, there is concern about occupational accidents that occur when wearing safety shoes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of wearing hardsoled safety shoes on both spatiotemporal gait characteristics and the muscle activity in the lower extremities. Seventeen young women participated in this study. A 5-m gait trial and a surface electromyography trial were conducted while the women walked in either safety shoes or sports shoes. Paired t-tests were performed to analyze the differences in gait characteristics when walking in the two different pairs of shoes. Walking in safety shoes was associated with a significant increase in vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and tibialis anterior activity. This increased muscle activity in the lower extremities is likely compensating for the lower flexibility of the safety shoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
GOH PIN SIANG; ZURAIDAH SULAIMAN
The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of volleyball players’ purchase intention toward sport shoes by investigating the relationship between the independent variables (endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth) and purchase intention. Descriptive research and causal research will be used as the research design, thus questionnaire and experimentation will be used to obtain data. Primary data in this study is attained by distributing the questionnaire to...
Walther, M; Volkering, C; Röser, A
From the technical point of view different groups must be distinguished in the provision of orthopedic shoes for athletes. The one group encompasses athletes who are provided with insoles in the hope of improved comfort or better performance. The other group includes athletes with diseases or injuries of the lower limbs for whom the provision of appropriate shoes and insoles makes it possible for them to participate again actively in their chosen sport. In such cases one has to differentiate between the purely physical disorder of the foot and biomechanical disorders. For the first group the correct fitting of the shoe is the most important factor whereas in the second group attempts are made to correct and/or compensate for the deficit by means of insoles and wedges as well as supporting or bedding elements. The particular challenge for all such measures is to achieve an as small as possible impairment on the sport activity or, in the ideal cases, even to support it. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Herbaut, Alexis; Chavet, Pascale; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Barbier, Franck; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie
Athletic children are prone to overuse injuries, especially at the heel and knee. Since footwear is an extrinsic factor of lower limb injury risk, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics. Fourteen children active in sports participated in a laboratory biomechanical evaluation. A new pair of shoes was provided to each participant at an inclusion visit. Four months later, the participants performed a running task and their kinematics and kinetics were assessed both with their used shoes and with a new pair of shoes identical to the first. Furthermore, mechanical cushioning properties of shoes were evaluated before and after in-vivo aging. After 4months of use, the sole stiffness increased by 16% and the energy loss capacity decreased by 18% (pknee kinematic adjustment was found at foot strike in used shoes but changes were observed later during stance. Running with used shoes produced a higher loading rate of the vertical ground reaction force (+23%, p=0.016), suggesting higher compressive forces under the heel and placing children at risk to experience impact-related injuries. Nevertheless, the decreased peak ankle and knee power absorption in used shoes (-11%, p=0.010 and -12%, p=0.029, respectively) suggests a lower ankle and knee joints loading during the absorption phase that may be beneficial regarding stretch-related injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lake, M J
To reduce the risk of injury associated with foot-ground interaction during sporting activities, there is a need for adequate assessment of the protective function of sports footwear. The present objectives are to review the typical biomechanical approaches used to identify protection offered by sports footwear during dynamic activities and to outline some of the recent methodological approaches aimed at improving this characterization. Attention is focused on biomechanical techniques that have been shown to best differentiate safety features of footwear. It was determined that subject tests would be used in combination with standard mechanical techniques to evaluate footwear protection. Impact attenuation characteristics of footwear during sporting activities were most distinguished by analysis of tibial shock signals in the frequency and joint time-frequency domains. It has been argued that lateral stability and traction properties of footwear are better assessed using game-like manoeuvres of subjects on the actual sporting surface. Furthermore, the ability of such tests to discriminate between shoes has been improved through methods aimed at reducing or accounting for variability in individual execution of dynamic manoeuvres. Advances in tools allowing measurement of dynamic foot function inside the shoe also aid our assessment of shoe protective performance. In combination, these newer approaches should provide more information for the design of safer sports footwear.
Fong Yan, Alycia; Smith, Richard M; Hiller, Claire E; Sinclair, Peter J
To quantify the impact attenuation properties of the jazz shoes, and to investigate the in-vivo effect of four jazz shoe designs on lower limb joint stiffness during a dance-specific jump. Repeated measures. A custom-built mechanical shoe tester similar to that used by athletic shoe companies was used to vertically impact the forefoot and heel region of four different jazz shoe designs. Additionally, dancers performed eight sautés in second position in bare feet and the shoe conditions. Force platforms and 3D-motion capture were used to analyse the joint stiffness of the midfoot, ankle, knee and hip during the jump landings. Mechanical testing of the jazz shoes revealed significant differences in impact attenuation characteristics among each of the jazz shoe designs. Gross knee and midfoot joint stiffness were significantly affected by the jazz shoe designs in the dancers' jump landings. The tested jazz shoe designs altered the impact attenuating capacity of jump landing technique in dancers. The cushioned jazz shoes are recommended particularly for injured dancers to reduce impact on the lower limb. Jazz shoe design should consider the impact attenuation properties of the forefoot region, due to the toe-strike landing technique in dance movement. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teymouri, Meghdad; Halabchi, Farzin; Mirshahi, Maryam; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mousavi Ahranjani, Ali; Sadeghi, Amir
Analysis of in-shoe pressure distribution during sport-specific movements may provide a clue to improve shoe design and prevent injuries. This study compared the mean and the peak pressures over the whole foot and ten separate areas of the foot, wearing different shoes during specific movements. Nine male adult recreational futsal players performed three trials of three sport-specific movements (shuffle, sprint and penalty kick), while they were wearing three brands of futsal shoes (Adidas, Lotto and Tiger). Plantar pressures on dominant feet were collected using the F-SCAN system. Peak and mean pressures for whole foot and each separate area were extracted. For statistical analysis, the mean differences in outcome variables between different shoes and movements were estimated using random-effects regression model using STATA ver.10. In the average calculation of the three movements, the peak pressure on the whole foot in Adidas shoe was less than Lotto [8.8% (CI95%: 4.1-13.6%)] and Tiger shoes [11.8% (CI95%:7-16.7%)], (P<0.001). Also, the recorded peak pressure on the whole foot in penalty kick was 61.1% (CI95%: 56.3-65.9%) and 57.6% (CI95%: 52.8-62.3%) less than Shuffle and Sprint tests, respectively (P<0.001). Areas with the highest peak pressure during all 3 movements were not different between all shoes. This area was medial forefoot in cases of shuffle and sprint movements and medial heel in case of penalty kick.
Full Text Available Analysis of in-shoe pressure distribution during sport-specific movements may provide a clue to improve shoe design and prevent injuries. This study compared the mean and the peak pressures over the whole foot and ten separate areas of the foot, wearing different shoes during specific movements.Nine male adult recreational futsal players performed three trials of three sport-specific movements (shuffle, sprint and penalty kick, while they were wearing three brands of futsal shoes (Adidas, Lotto and Tiger. Plantar pressures on dominant feet were collected using the F-SCAN system. Peak and mean pressures for whole foot and each separate area were extracted. For statistical analysis, the mean differences in outcome variables between different shoes and movements were estimated using random-effects regression model using STATA ver.10.In the average calculation of the three movements, the peak pressure on the whole foot in Adidas shoe was less than Lotto [8.8% (CI95%: 4.1-13.6%] and Tiger shoes [11.8% (CI95%:7-16.7%], (P<0.001. Also, the recorded peak pressure on the whole foot in penalty kick was 61.1% (CI95%: 56.3-65.9% and 57.6% (CI95%: 52.8-62.3% less than Shuffle and Sprint tests, respectively (P<0.001.Areas with the highest peak pressure during all 3 movements were not different between all shoes. This area was medial forefoot in cases of shuffle and sprint movements and medial heel in case of penalty kick.
Full Text Available Roughing and cementing are very essential to the process of bonding shoe uppers and the corresponding soles; however, for shoes with complicated design, such as sport shoes, roughing and cementing greatly relied on manual operation. Recently, shoe industry is progressing to 3D design, thus 3D model of the shoe upper and sole will be created before launching into mass production. Taking advantage of the 3D model, this study developed a plug-in program on Rhino 3D CAD platform, which realized the complicated roughing and cementing route planning to be performed by the plug-in program, integrated with real-time 3D scanning information to compensate the planned route, and then converted to working trajectory of robot arm to implement roughing and cementing. The proposed 3D CAD-based intelligent robot arm system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing is realized and proved to be feasible.
Full Text Available Objective(s: The effect of silica nanoparticles (SNPs in sport shoes outsoles on the parameters related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL Injury has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes outsole containing a composite of thermoplastic elastomer based on styrene-butadiene and silica nanoparticles (TPEN shoe on Knee Valgus Angle (KVA as a risk factor of ACL injuries during landing Materials and Methods: Fourteen active healthy women without knee injuries and disorders performed bilateral drop jump (DJ and single leg drop landing (SLL tasks in barefoot, wearing shoes fabricated with polyvinyl chloride outsole (PVC shoe and TPEN shoes conditions , randomly. The knee valgus angle values of right and left legs were calculated in the landing conditions. Two factors repeated measures ANOVA were used to investigate the effect of landing and footwear conditions on KVA of right and left legs. Results: For both left and right limbs, the KVA was at maximum and minimum values during landing with barefoot and TPEN shoes, respectively. PVC shoe significantly reduced the knee valgus by 3.84% in left and 4.18% in right knee (P
Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...
Ramstrand, Nerrolyn; Thuesen, Anna Helena; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg
BACKGROUND: Shoes with an unstable sole construction are commonly used as a therapeutic tool by physiotherapists and are widely available from shoe and sporting goods retailers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using an unstable shoe (Masai Barefoot Technology) on standing ....... INTERPRETATION: Results from the present study suggest that, for this group of individuals, use of unstable footwear may improve certain aspects of balance....
Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man
Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance.
Theisen, Daniel; Malisoux, Laurent; Genin, Joakim; Delattre, Nicolas; Seil, Romain; Urhausen, Axel
In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, we tested if leisure-time runners using shoes with less compliant midsoles have a higher running-related injury (RRI) risk. We provided 247 runners with standard running shoes having either a soft study shoes (soft-SS) or a hard study shoes (hard-SS) midsole and followed them prospectively for 5 months regarding RRI. All information about sports practice and injuries was uploaded on a dedicated internet platform and checked for consistency and completeness. RRI was defined as any first-time pain sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding normal running activity for at least 1 day. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to identify RRI risk factors. The type of study shoes used for running was not associated with RRIs (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.48). The hard-SS had a 15% greater overall stiffness in the heel region. The two study groups were similar regarding personal and sports participation characteristics, except for years of running experience, which was higher (prunning. No between-group differences were found regarding injury location, type, severity or category. Nevertheless, the adjusted regression model revealed positive associations with RRI risk for body mass index (HR=1.126; 95% CI 1.033 to 1.227), previous injury (HR=1.735; 95% CI 1.037 to 2.902) and mean session intensity (HR=1.396; 95% CI 1.040 to 1.874). Protective factors were previous regular running activity (HR=0.422; 95% CI 0.228 to 0.779) and weekly volume of other sports activities (HR=0.702; 95% CI 0.561 to 0.879). Midsole hardness of modern cushioned running shoes does not seem to influence RRI risk.
Full Text Available Product cues have been identified as a major factor and are used by customers when they evaluate a product before deciding to buy. Customers evaluate products based on the product manual cues; generally, they use the brand, design and price, and produce quality perception and ceases on purchase intentions. This process also occurs in the prospective buyer's sport shoes X that have the largest sales in Indonesia. Therefore, the researchers are interested to test whether there is a relationship between the product cues on the quality perception and purchase intention for sports footwear products. This research was done by using a survey for the data collection, by distributing the questionnaires to 161 respondents. The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling with Lisrel analysis tool. The result showed that the product cues have an influence mediated by the quality perception on purchase intentions. This study suggests that the perception of quality is as a full mediating variable between products cues and purchase intention.
Nigg, B M; Baltich, J; Hoerzer, S; Enders, H
In the past 100 years, running shoes experienced dramatic changes. The question then arises whether or not running shoes (or sport shoes in general) influence the frequency of running injuries at all. This paper addresses five aspects related to running injuries and shoe selection, including (1) the changes in running injuries over the past 40 years, (2) the relationship between sport shoes, sport inserts and running injuries, (3) previously researched mechanisms of injury related to footwear and two new paradigms for injury prevention including (4) the 'preferred movement path' and (5) the 'comfort filter'. Specifically, the data regarding the relationship between impact characteristics and ankle pronation to the risk of developing a running-related injury is reviewed. Based on the lack of conclusive evidence for these two variables, which were once thought to be the prime predictors of running injuries, two new paradigms are suggested to elucidate the association between footwear and injury. These two paradigms, 'the preferred movement path' and 'the comfort filter', suggest that a runner intuitively selects a comfortable product using their own comfort filter that allows them to remain in the preferred movement path. This may automatically reduce the injury risk and may explain why there does not seem to be a secular trend in running injury rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas
Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and
Full Text Available Analysis of foot movement is essential in the treatment and prevention of foot-related disorders. Measuring the in-shoe foot movement during everyday activities, such as sports, has the potential to become an important diagnostic tool in clinical practice. The current paper describes the development of a thin, flexible and robust capacitive strain sensor for the in-shoe measurement of the navicular drop. The navicular drop is a well-recognized measure of foot movement. The position of the strain sensor on the foot was analyzed to determine the optimal points of attachment. The sensor was evaluated against a state-of-the-art video-based system that tracks reflective markers on the bare foot. Preliminary experimental results show that the developed strain sensor is able to measure navicular drop on the bare foot with an accuracy on par with the video-based system and with a high reproducibility. Temporal comparison of video-based, barefoot and in-shoe measurements indicate that the developed sensor measures the navicular drop accurately in shoes and can be used without any discomfort for the user.
Malisoux, L; Ramesh, J; Mann, R; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Theisen, D
The aim of this study was to determine if runners who use concomitantly different pairs of running shoes are at a lower risk of running-related injury (RRI). Recreational runners (n = 264) participated in this 22-week prospective follow-up and reported all information about their running session characteristics, other sport participation and injuries on a dedicated Internet platform. A RRI was defined as a physical pain or complaint located at the lower limbs or lower back region, sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding planned running activity for at least 1 day. One-third of the participants (n = 87) experienced at least one RRI during the observation period. The adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that the parallel use of more than one pair of running shoes was a protective factor [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.614; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.389-0.969], while previous injury was a risk factor (HR = 1.722; 95%CI = 1.114-2.661). Additionally, increased mean session distance (km; HR = 0.795; 95%CI = 0.725-0.872) and increased weekly volume of other sports (h/week; HR = 0.848; 95%CI = 0.732-0.982) were associated with lower RRI risk. Multiple shoe use and participation in other sports are strategies potentially leading to a variation of the load applied to the musculoskeletal system. They could be advised to recreational runners to prevent RRI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.
It is essential to purchase suitable shoes that fit the size of users' feet in order to prevent foot injuries in daily life. Although shoe fitting significantly affects the performance of shoes, there are few studies that have either investigated the factors that control shoe fitting or established a method to evaluate shoe fitting. While, the shape of each foot and shoe was measured to estimate shoe fitting in previous studies, the deformation of feet when wearing shoes had not been taken in...
Bonacci, Jason; Hall, Michelle; Fox, Aaron; Saunders, Natalie; Shipsides, Tristan; Vicenzino, Bill
To determine the effect of a combination of a minimalist shoe and increased cadence on measures of patellofemoral joint loading during running in individuals with patellofemoral pain. Within-participant repeated measures with four conditions presented in random order: (1) control shoe at preferred cadence; (2) control shoe with +10% cadence; (3) minimalist shoe at preferred cadence; (4) minimalist shoe with +10% cadence. Fifteen recreational runners with patellofemoral pain ran on an instrumented treadmill while three-dimensional motion capture data were acquired. Peak patellofemoral joint stress, joint reaction force, knee extensor moment and knee joint angle during the stance phase of running were calculated. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the control condition (1) to the three experimental conditions (2-4). Running in a minimalist shoe at an increased cadence reduced patellofemoral stress and joint reaction force on average by approximately 29% (ppatellofemoral joint stress by 15% and joint reaction force by 17% (ppatellofemoral joint stress and joint reaction force by 16% and 19% (ppatellofemoral pain, running in a minimalist shoe at an increased cadence had the greatest reduction in patellofemoral joint loading compared to a control shoe at preferred cadence. This may be an effective intervention to modulate biomechanical factors related to patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; Indushekar, K R; Amith, H V; Sharma, Shefali Li
When the primary second molar is prematurely lost, mesial movement and migration of the permanent first molar often occurs. This is one of the most difficult problems of the developing dentition confronted by pediatric dentists. Use of a space maintainer that will guide the permanent first molar into its normal position is indicated. In cases with bilateral premature loss of primary molars, the conventional design of distal shoe poses a variety of problems and, therefore, necessitates a customized design for the eruption guidance of permanent first molars. The purpose of this case report is to discuss an innovative design of a distal shoe appliance, which was used with good clinical results.
... Too How Do I Know When It Is Time To Replace My Athletic Shoes? What Is "Turf Toe" ... serves to advance the understanding, prevention and management of lower extremity sports and fitness injuries.Â ...
Shultz, Rebecca; Jenkyn, Thomas
Measuring individual foot joint motions requires a multi-segment foot model, even when the subject is wearing a shoe. Each foot segment must be tracked with at least three skin-mounted markers, but for these markers to be visible to an optical motion capture system holes or 'windows' must be cut into the structure of the shoe. The holes must be sufficiently large avoiding interfering with the markers, but small enough that they do not compromise the shoe's structural integrity. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum size of hole that could be cut into a running shoe upper without significantly compromising its structural integrity or changing the kinematics of the foot within the shoe. Three shoe designs were tested: (1) neutral cushioning, (2) motion control and (3) stability shoes. Holes were cut progressively larger, with four sizes tested in all. Foot joint motions were measured: (1) hindfoot with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (2) forefoot twist with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (3) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch and (4) the hallux angle with respect to first metatarsal in the sagittal plane. A single subject performed level walking at her preferred pace in each of the three shoes with ten repetitions for each hole size. The largest hole that did not disrupt shoe integrity was an oval of 1.7cm×2.5cm. The smallest shoe deformations were seen with the motion control shoe. The least change in foot joint motion was forefoot twist in both the neutral shoe and stability shoe for any size hole. This study demonstrates that for a hole smaller than this size, optical motion capture with a cluster-based multi-segment foot model is feasible for measure foot in shoe kinematics in vivo. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D
Introduction The outcome of the effects of transitioning to minimalist running shoes is a topic of interest for runners and scientists. However, few studies have investigated the longer term effects of running in minimalist shoes. The purpose of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate the effects of a 26 week transition to minimalist shoes on running performance and injury risk in trained runners unaccustomed to minimalist footwear. Methods and analysis A randomised parallel intervention design will be used. Seventy-six trained male runners will be recruited. To be eligible, runners must be aged 18–40 years, run with a habitual rearfoot footfall pattern, train with conventional shoes and have no prior experience with minimalist shoes. Runners will complete a standardised transition to either minimalist or control shoes and undergo assessments at baseline, 6 and 26 weeks. 5 km time-trial performance (5TT), running economy, running biomechanics, triceps surae muscle strength and lower limb bone mineral density will be assessed at each time point. Pain and injury will be recorded weekly. Training will be standardised during the first 6 weeks. Primary statistical analysis will compare 5TT between shoe groups at the 6-week time point and injury incidence across the entire 26-week study period. Ethics and dissemination This RCT has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of South Australia. Participants will be required to provide their written informed consent prior to participation in the study. Study findings will be disseminated in the form of journal publications and conference presentations after completion of planned data analysis. Trial registration number This RCT has been registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613000642785). PMID:26297368
Full Text Available Kento Nakagawa, Takashi Obu, Kazuyuki KanosueFaculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan Purpose: To investigate the potential benefit of post-race wearing of unstable shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology [MBT] on recovery from marathon race–induced fatigue.Patients and methods: Forty-five runners who participated in a full marathon race were divided into three groups: 1 MBT shoes, 2 trail running shoes, and 3 control (CON. Participants ran a full marathon with their own running shoes, and then put on the assigned shoes immediately after the race. They continued to wear the assigned shoes for the ensuing 3 days. The CON group wore their usual shoes. Estimates of post-race fatigue were made by the participants on questionnaires that utilized a visual analog scale. Estimates were made just after the race, as well as for the next 3 days.Results: The subjective fatigue of the MBT group was lower than that of the CON (P<0.05 or trail running shoe groups (P<0.05 on day 3.Conclusion: MBT shoe intervention can promote recovery from the fatigue induced by running a full marathon.Keywords: footwear, VAS, full marathon
Full Text Available Objective: Unstable shoes have been recommended to osteoarthritis patients in order to reduce walking injuries. The aim of this study was to test the effect of unstable shoe on biomechanical selected variables related to injury during stanse phase of running. Materials & Methods: Twenty five healthy young male students available men (21±2.27years participated in this study. Subjects were asked to ran on the force plate in barefoot, with unstable and control shoe conditions. Active and passive joint power, peak anterior-posterior forces, active and passive vertical force, loading rate and impulse of posterior and passive vertical forces variables were recorded using synchronizing force plate and video camera and calculated in MATLAB software. A repeated measure of ANOVA used to test the hypothesis in SPSS software (version 20, p<0.05. Results: negative power at Ankle joint decreased significantly by 49%, 35% using unstable shoe compared to contol shoe and barefoot conditions respectively (P=0.02,P<0.05. Furthemore, unstable shoe decreased significantly the active ankle power compared to barefoot condition by 23% (P=0.01. Loading rate and peak of passive vertical force, impulse and peak of posterior force increased significantly in unstable shoe compared to control shoe (P<0.05. Conclusion: Unstable shoe increased some of running related injuries risk factors such as Loading rate and peak of passive vertical force, impulse and peak of posterior force. Furthemore, this shoe could decrease absorption potential shank muscles and ankle active stability compared to control shoe. However, with increase of ankle active power compared to barefoot and lower anterior force, Unstable shoe could improve the ankle joint force generation and propulsion potential.
No one has ever been able to create a running shoe that can make one run faster, but in other sports the design of equipment has the potential to offer considerable enhancement. Judgement has to be made as to whether such advantage becomes unfair. This article indicates many possible sports in which the equipment plays an important part in the…
Cornelia Ionescu Luca; Cristina Secan
Athletics is the sport discipline that has 3 simple event types and 2 multiple events competitions. The simple events are: running, jumps, and throws and the multiple events competitions are: decathlon and heptathlon. The running events are 100 m, 200 m and 400 m dash and 800 m, 1500 m, 5000 m and 10000 m; 100m, 400 m and 3000 m hurdles; marathon, 20 km and 50 km march and cross-country. Different athletics events will require different types of sport shoes, designed for the specific events....
Burke, Louise M
Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.
Fatma Ebru KOKU
Full Text Available As participation in both amateur and professional sports increases, so does the importance of sports performance and the factors influencing it. Determinants of success in sports can be classified as training, genetic, epigenetic, dietary, motivational, equipment and other environmental factors. The effect of genetics on sports performance and skill has been examined for many years. Autosomal genes, mitochondrial DNA and various genes located in the Y chromosome have all been associated with sports performance. It is not possible to link physical performance to a single genetic polymorphism. Genes that have been most extensively studied in their relation to performance include ACE, ACTN3, ADRA2A, ADRB2, PPARA, PPARGC1A, AMPD1, HIF1A, NOS3, BDKRB2, VEGFR2 and VEGFA. For the time being, genetic screening tests may be useful in determining the weaknesses and strengths of a sportsperson, but not in predicting athletic success.
Hayakawa, Y; Kawanaka, S; Doi, S; Kanezaki, K
The number of accidental falls has been increasing among the elderly as society has aged. The main factor is a deteriorating center of balance due to declining physical performance. Another major factor is that the elderly tend to have bowlegged walking and their center of gravity position of the body tend to swing from side to side during walking. To find ways to counteract falls among the elderly, we developed walking training system to treat the gap in the center of balance. We also designed High-Performance Shoes that showed the status of a person's balance while walking. We also produced walk assistance from the insole in which insole stiffness corresponded to human sole distribution could be changed to correct the person's walking status. We constructed our High- Performances Shoes to detect pressure distribution during walking. Comparing normal sole distribution patterns and corrected ones, we confirmed that our assistance system helped change the user's posture, thereby reducing falls among the elderly. (paper)
Dinato, Roberto C; Ribeiro, Ana P; Butugan, Marco K; Pereira, Ivye L R; Onodera, Andrea N; Sacco, Isabel C N
To investigate the relationships between the perception of comfort and biomechanical parameters (plantar pressure and ground reaction force) during running with four different types of cushioning technology in running shoes. Randomized repeated measures. Twenty-two men, recreational runners (18-45 years) ran 12km/h with running shoes with four different cushioning systems. Outcome measures included nine items related to perception of comfort and 12 biomechanical measures related to the ground reaction forces and plantar pressures. Repeated measure ANOVAs, Pearson correlation coefficients, and step-wise multiple regression analyses were employed (p≤0.05). No significant correlations were found between the perception of comfort and the biomechanical parameters for the four types of investigated shoes. Regression analysis revealed that 56% of the perceived general comfort can be explained by the variables push-off rate and pressure integral over the forefoot (p=0.015) and that 33% of the perception of comfort over the forefoot can be explained by second peak force and push-off rate (p=0.016). The results did not demonstrate significant relationships between the perception of comfort and the biomechanical parameters for the three types of shoes investigated (Gel, Air, and ethylene-vinyl acetate). Only the shoe with Adiprene+ technology had its general comfort and cushioning perception predicted by the loads over the forefoot. Thus, in general, one cannot predict the perception of comfort of a running shoe through impact and plantar pressure received. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malisoux, Laurent; Delattre, Nicolas; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel
Repetitive loading of the musculoskeletal system is suggested to be involved in the underlying mechanism of the majority of running-related injuries (RRIs). Accordingly, heavier runners are assumed to be at a higher risk of RRI. The cushioning system of modern running shoes is expected to protect runners again high impact forces, and therefore, RRI. However, the role of shoe cushioning in injury prevention remains unclear. The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of shoe cushioning and body mass on RRI risk, while exploring simultaneously the association between running technique and RRI risk. This double-blinded randomised controlled trial will involve about 800 healthy leisure-time runners. They will randomly receive one of two running shoe models that will differ in their cushioning properties (ie, stiffness) by ~35%. The participants will perform a running test on an instrumented treadmill at their preferred running speed at baseline. Then they will be followed up prospectively over a 6-month period, during which they will self-report all their sports activities as well as any injury in an internet-based database TIPPS (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports). Cox regression analyses will be used to compare injury risk between the study groups and to investigate the association among training, biomechanical and anatomical risk factors, and injury risk. The study was approved by the National Ethics Committee for Research (Ref: 201701/02 v1.1). Outcomes will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals, presentations at international conferences, as well as articles in popular magazines and on specialised websites. NCT03115437, Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.
Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike
In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.
Perkins, Kyle P.; Hanney, William J.; Rothschild, Carey E.
Context: The popularity of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes has recently increased because of claims of injury prevention, enhanced running efficiency, and improved performance compared with running in shoes. Potential risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes have yet to be clearly defined. Objective: To determine the methodological quality and level of evidence pertaining to the risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes. Data Sources: In Septem...
Lyle, John W. B.
Conceptualizes excellence in sports performance and suggests that there is a failure to distinguish between community recreation and performance sports as well as lack of knowledge about talent identification. Proposes a structure for management and investment in education and training in the field. (SK)
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book covers the various sport science assessment procedures for sports such as soccer, rugby, field hockey and lacrosse. It provides detailed and clear information about laboratory and field-based methods that can be used to assess and improve both individual and team performance. PURPOSE The book aims to provide a contemporary reference tool for selection of appropriate testing procedures for sports across a range of scientific disciplines. FEATURES The text begins with a chapter on the rationales for performance assessments, the use of technology and the necessity for procedures to conform to scientific rigor, explaining the importance of test criteria. This chapter ends by emphasizing the importance of the feedback process and vital considerations for the practitioner when interpreting the data, selecting which information is most important and how to deliver this back to the athlete or coach in order to deliver a positive performance outcome. The next two chapters focus on psychological assessments with respect to skill acquisition, retention and execution providing a variety of qualitative and quantitative options, underpinned with scientific theory and contextualized in order to improve the understanding of the application of these methods to improve anticipation and decision-making to enhance game intelligence.Chapter 4 provides coverage of match analysis techniques in order to make assessments of technical, tactical and physical performances. Readers learn about a series of methodologies ranging from simplistic pen and paper options through to sophisticated technological systems with some exemplar data also provided. Chapters 5 through 7 cover the physiological based assessments, including aerobic, anaerobic and anthropometric procedures. Each chapter delivers a theoretical opening section before progressing to various assessment options and the authors make great efforts to relate to sport-specific settings. The final
Li, Ryan T; Kling, Scott R; Salata, Michael J; Cupp, Sean A; Sheehan, Joseph; Voos, James E
Wearable performance devices and sensors are becoming more readily available to the general population and athletic teams. Advances in technology have allowed individual endurance athletes, sports teams, and physicians to monitor functional movements, workloads, and biometric markers to maximize performance and minimize injury. Movement sensors include pedometers, accelerometers/gyroscopes, and global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Physiologic sensors include heart rate monitors, sleep monitors, temperature sensors, and integrated sensors. The purpose of this review is to familiarize health care professionals and team physicians with the various available types of wearable sensors, discuss their current utilization, and present future applications in sports medicine. Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database. Included studies searched development, outcomes, and validation of wearable performance devices such as GPS, accelerometers, and physiologic monitors in sports. Clinical review. Level 4. Wearable sensors provide a method of monitoring real-time physiologic and movement parameters during training and competitive sports. These parameters can be used to detect position-specific patterns in movement, design more efficient sports-specific training programs for performance optimization, and screen for potential causes of injury. More recent advances in movement sensors have improved accuracy in detecting high-acceleration movements during competitive sports. Wearable devices are valuable instruments for the improvement of sports performance. Evidence for use of these devices in professional sports is still limited. Future developments are needed to establish training protocols using data from wearable devices. © 2015 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming shoes. The question of why medieval military footwear shows no purposed development is addressed.
Fong Yan, Alycia; Smith, Richard; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Hiller, Claire
There has been little scientific investigation of the impact of dance shoes on foot motion or dance injuries. The pointed (plantar-flexed) foot is a fundamental component of both the technical requirements and the traditional aesthetic of ballet and jazz dancing. The aims of this study were to quantify the externally observed angle of plantar flexion in various jazz shoes compared with barefoot and to compare the sagittal plane bending stiffness of the various jazz shoes. Sixteen female recreational child dancers were recruited for 3D motion analysis of active plantar flexion. The jazz shoes tested were a split-sole jazz shoe, full-sole jazz shoe, and jazz sneaker. A shoe dynamometer measured the stiffness of the jazz shoes. The shoes had a significant effect on ankle plantar flexion. All jazz shoes significantly restricted the midfoot plantar flexion angle compared with the barefoot condition. The split-sole jazz shoe demonstrated the least restriction, whereas the full-sole jazz shoe the most midfoot restriction. A small restriction in metartarsophalangeal plantar flexion and a greater restriction at the midfoot joint were demonstrated when wearing stiff jazz shoes. These restrictions will decrease the aesthetic of the pointed foot, may encourage incorrect muscle activation, and have an impact on dance performance.
Several factors from literature such as comfort, advertising, brand, price, style and quality have ... A sample (N=120) of University of Botswana sport marketing students ... purchasing preferences in order to develop better marketing strategies.
Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming sh...
Haake, Steve J
To assess the effect of technology on sport, the performance statistics for four disciplines were analysed: the 100-m sprint, pole vault, javelin, and cycling. The concept of a performance improvement index was developed to allow comparison between athletes and between sports with a higher index indicating a greater improvement in the sport. The following performance improvement indices were found: 100-m sprint, 24% over 108 years; pole vault, 86% over 94 years; javelin, 95% over 76 years; 4-km individual pursuit, 35% over 32 years; one-hour cycling record, 221% over 111 years. Around 4% of the index for the sprint was attributed to tighter, aerodynamic clothing, suggesting that general athletic improvement in sprint-type events has been around 20%. Technological developments in simple equipment such as the pole vault or javelin were seen to affect the index by around 30%, while the index associated with aerodynamic improvements in the one-hour record was around 100%. It is concluded that the performance improvement index could be extended to amateur as well as elite sport where distance or time is used as a measure of performance.
Glazier, Paul S
Sports performance is generally considered to be governed by a range of interacting physiological, biomechanical, and psychological variables, amongst others. Despite sports performance being multi-factorial, however, the majority of performance-oriented sports science research has predominantly been monodisciplinary in nature, presumably due, at least in part, to the lack of a unifying theoretical framework required to integrate the various subdisciplines of sports science. In this target article, I propose a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) of sports performance-and, by elaboration, sports science-based around the constraints framework introduced originally by Newell (1986). A central tenet of this GUT is that, at both the intra- and inter-individual levels of analysis, patterns of coordination and control, which directly determine the performance outcome, emerge from the confluence of interacting organismic, environmental, and task constraints via the formation and self-organisation of coordinative structures. It is suggested that this GUT could be used to: foster interdisciplinary research collaborations; break down the silos that have developed in sports science and restore greater disciplinary balance to the field; promote a more holistic understanding of sports performance across all levels of analysis; increase explanatory power of applied research work; provide stronger rationale for data collection and variable selection; and direct the development of integrated performance monitoring technologies. This GUT could also provide a scientifically rigorous basis for integrating the subdisciplines of sports science in applied sports science support programmes adopted by high-performance agencies and national governing bodies for various individual and team sports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements
Penney, Dawn; McMahon, Jenny
Background: Research in sport coaching and sport pedagogy including studies published in this special issue bring to the fore the relationship between learning and culture in contexts of high-performance sport. This paper acknowledged that how learning, culture and their relationship are conceptualised is a crucial issue for researchers and…
Full Text Available A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological. This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.
Nagami, Soichiro; Tsuji, Keita
To demonstrate the effectiveness of university libraries, we investigated the relationship between university students' sports performances and their libraries collections of sports. By examining approximately 20 university libraries' collections and their sports ranks, as indicated by Waseda Sports 2008, we demonstrated their positive…
Meier, Margrit R; Tucker, Kerice A; Hansen, Andrew H
The large majority of prosthetic feet are aimed at low-heeled shoes, with a few models allowing a heel height of up to 5 cm. However, a survey by the American Podiatric Medical Association indicates that most women wear heels over 5 cm; thus, current prosthetic feet limit most female prosthesis users in their choice. Some prosthetic foot components are heel-height adjustable; however, their plantar surface shapes do not change to match the insole shapes of the shoes with different heel heights. The aims of the study were therefore (1) to develop a model that allows prediction of insole shape for various heel height shoes in combination with different shoe sizes and (2) to develop and field-test low-cost prototypes of prosthetic feet whose insole shapes were based on the new model. An equation was developed to calculate insole shapes independent of shoe size. Field testing of prototype prosthetic feet fabricated based on the equation was successful and demonstrated the utility of the equation.
Armand, Stéphane; Tavcar, Ziva; Turcot, Katia; Allet, Lara; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Genevay, Stéphane
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of unstable shoes in reducing low back pain in health professionals. Of a volunteer sample of 144 participants, 40 with nonspecific chronic low back pain were eligible and enrolled in this study. Participants were randomized to an intervention group, who wore unstable shoes (model MBT Fora), or a control group, who wore conventional sports shoes (model Adidas Bigroar). The participants had to wear the study shoes during their work hours, and at least 6 hours per workday, over a period of 6 weeks. The primary outcome was low back pain assessed on a Visual Analog Scale. The secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction, disability evaluated using Roland-Morris questionnaire and quality of life evaluated using EQ-VAS. The intervention group showed a significant decrease in pain scores compared to the control group. The rate of satisfaction was higher in the intervention group (79%) compared to the control group (25%). There was no significant difference for the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire score and the EQ-VAS scale. The results of this clinical trial suggest that wearing unstable shoes for 6 weeks significantly decreases low back pain in patients suffering from chronic low back pain but had no significant effect on quality of life and disability scores. Copyright © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Carl, Hans-Dieter; Pfander, David; Swoboda, Bernd
After reconstructive forefoot surgery, patients require complete or partial forefoot relief, which can be obtained with a variety of shoe designs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two different types of forefoot-relief shoes frequently used after surgery, especially their safety against unintentional forefoot load. Ten healthy volunteers were asked to perform five trials on a treadmill at self-selected speeds. In the first trial, mean peak pressure values in mass-produced shoes and insoles were evaluated and considered as 100%. Two different shoe designs (short heel-short sole, ii: short heel-complete sole) were compared in two trials each with appropriate and inappropriate use (attempting to put weight on the forefoot) gait pattern. Plantar pressure values were obtained using the Pedar cable system (Novel Inc., Munich, Germany). For analysis, pedobarographic pictures were subdivided into midfoot (31% to 60% of the total insole length) and forefoot (61% to 100% of the total insole length). ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, and p values less than 0.01 were considered significant. With the short-soled shoe, forefoot and midfoot relief was 100% in both compliant and in noncompliant use. With wearing a complete sole, compliant use led to a significant reduction (p shoe produced mean peak pressure values significantly higher (p shoes under the forefoot, but not under the midfoot. Forefoot-relief shoes are effective in reducing both mean and peak plantar pressures. Shoes with a nonsupported midfoot and forefoot may be safer with inappropriate use than shoes with a complete sole. The kind of forefoot shoe should be carefully chosen to regulate weightbearing after reconstructive forefoot surgery.
Full Text Available Sports are a widespread phenomenon, capable of raising human energies and mobilize financial and material resources that can be difficult compared with those in other areas of social life. Management of sports organizations is influenced and determined by the compliance and requirements arising from the documents issued by international organizations with authority in the field. Organizational development is considered essentially as a strategy to increase organizational effectiveness by determining changes that consider both human resources and organizations. On the whole society, it is accelerated by an industry evolving sport with distinctive features. Its development is conditional on macroeconomics and technology. The complexity of the activities of sports organizations performance, the main laboratory performance national and international sports, requiring a more thorough investigation to enable knowledge of the complex mechanisms of their management and simultaneously identify some optimization solutions throughout the economic-financial and human resources.
People with disabilities often depend on assistive devices to enable activities of daily living as well as to compete in sport. Technological developments in sport can be controversial. To review, identify and describe current technological developments in assistive devices used in the summer Paralympic Games; and to prepare for the London 2012 Games, the future challenges and the role of technology are debated. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature and personal observations of technological developments at the Athens (2004) and Beijing (2008) Paralympic Games was conducted. Standard assistive devices can inhibit the Paralympians' abilities to perform the strenuous activities of their sports. Although many Paralympic sports only require technology similar to their Olympic counterparts, several unique technological modifications have been made in prosthetic and wheelchair devices. Technology is essential for the Paralympic athlete, and the potential technological advantage for a Paralympian, when competing against an Olympian, is unclear. Technology must match the individual requirements of the athlete with the sport in order for Paralympians to safely maximise their performance. Within the 'performance enhancement or essential for performance?' debate, any potential increase in mechanical performance from an assistive device must be considered holistically with the compensatory consequences the disability creates. To avoid potential technology controversies at the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games, the role of technology in sport must be clarified.
Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison
Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.
Full Text Available The paper presents experimental thermal analysis of sports footwear in order to identify areas that provide the best ventilation of the foot for comfort in running. For analysis, using thermographic cameras, infrared, five athletes have been tested, running shoes Nike, Killtec type and Lotto. Thermographic recordings were made at three different times, which after a workout, then two minutes after your workout, and 10 minutes after the workout. Using a specialized software, the images have been processed, the resulting temperature variations over the entire shoe. They were identified as the most comfortable pair of shoes, which have secured the release of heat in the feet the highest rate. Was able to determine the extent of aeration provided by each type of footwear under review, as evidenced by the aeration temperature on flow shoes can lose over a period of time. Through such analysis experimental Thermodynamics can be personalized, elect the type of footwear the best an athlete, based on specific physiological parameters. In addition, aeration and incălţămintea thermal protection role when necessary. By using thermography related can be determined types of footwear suitable for the purpose, in particular for heat a situation or another.
Montse C. Ruiz
Full Text Available This report presents a summary of the I Symposium of Elite Performance in Combat Sports held in Madrid, May 27, 2017. The symposium, organized by the Faculty of Sport Sciences-INEF of the Polytechnic University of Madrid, aimed to bring science closer to practice. A panel of highly successful athletes involved in karate, fencing, and taekwondo shared their experiences. The speakers presented crucial topics for an optimal preparation and high level performance such as strength training, sport psychology, brain maturation, sports nutrition, competition planning, sport injuries, and perceptual-decision making training.
Ohuruogu, Ben; Jonathan, Ugwuanyi I.; Ikechukwu, Ugwu Jude
This paper attempts to make an overview of various techniques, sport psychologist adopt in psychological preparation of athletes for peak performance. To attain peak performance in sports competitions, coaches and athletes should not base their prospect on physical training on sport skills alone rather should integrate both the mental and physical…
Ivancevic, Tijana; Greenberg, Ronald
This book is designed to help athletes and individuals interested in high sports performance in their journey towards the perfection of human sports abilities and achievements. It has two main goals: accelerating the acquisition of motor skills and preparing and vigilantly reducing the recovery time after training and competition. The Diamond Sports Protocol (DSP) presents state-of-the-art techniques for current sport and health technologies, particularly neuromuscular electrical stimulation (Sports Wave), oxygen infusion (Oxy Sports), infrared (Sports Infrared Dome) and lactic acid cleaning (Turbo Sports). The book suggest DSP as an essential part of every future athlete's training, competition and health maintenance. The book is for everyone interested in superior sports performance, fast and effective rehabilitation from training and competition and sports injury prevention.
Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E
Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game
Poole, Janet L; Sadek, Joseph; Haaland, Kathleen Y
Poole JL, Sadek J, Haaland KY. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke. To examine 1-handed shoe tying performance and whether cognitive deficits more associated with left or right hemisphere damage differentially affect it after unilateral stroke. Observational cohort comparing ipsilesional shoe tying, spatial and language skills, and limb praxis. Primary care Veterans Affairs and private medical center. Not applicable. Volunteer right-handed sample of adults with left or right hemisphere damage and healthy demographically matched adults. The number of correct trials and the total time to complete 10 trials tying a shoe using the 1-handed method. Both stroke groups had fewer correct trials and were significantly slower tying the shoe than the control group. Spatial skills predicted accuracy and speed after right hemisphere damage. After left hemisphere damage, accuracy was predicted by spatial skills and limb praxis, while speed was predicted by limb praxis only. Ipsilesional shoe tying is similarly impaired after left or right hemisphere damage, but for different reasons. Spatial deficits had a greater influence after right hemisphere damage, and limb apraxia had a greater influence after left hemisphere damage. Language deficits did not affect performance, indicating that aphasia does not preclude using this therapy approach. These results suggest that rehabilitation professionals should consider assessment of limb apraxia and ipsilesional skill training in the performance of everyday tasks.
Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K
Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yang, Yang; Fang, Ying; Zhang, Xini; He, Junliang; Fu, Weijie
The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively) performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF) maneuver, drop jumps (DJs), and lay-up jumps (LJs). Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041) was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028) and power (p = 0.022) were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion–extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane. Key points An increased shoe collar height effectively reduced ankle joint ROM in the sagittal plane in weight-bearing dorsiflexion maneuver. Shoe collar height did not affect sagittal plane ankle kinematics and had no effect on performance during realistic jumping. Shoe collar height can affect the ankle plantarflexion torque and peak power during the push-off phase in lay-up jump. PMID:29238255
Knapik, Joseph J; Orr, Robin; Pope, Rodney; Grier, Tyson
This article defines minimalist running shoes and examines physiological, biomechanical, and injury rate differences when running in conventional versus minimalist running shoes. A minimalist shoe is one that provides "minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot, because of its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices." Most studies indicate that running in minimalist shoes results in a lower physiological energy cost than running in conventional shoes, likely because of the lower weight of the minimalist shoe. Most individuals running in conventional shoes impact the ground heel first (rearfoot strike pattern), whereas most people running in minimalist shoes tend to strike with the front of the foot (forefoot strike pattern). The rate at which force is developed on ground impact (i.e., the loading rate) is generally higher when running in conventional versus minimalist shoes. Findings from studies that have looked at associations between injuries and foot strike patterns or injuries and loading rates are conflicting, so it is not clear if these factors influence injury rates; more research is needed. Better-designed prospective studies indicate that bone stress injuries and the overall injury incidence are higher in minimalist shoes during the early weeks (10-12 weeks) of transition to this type of footwear. Longer-term studies are needed to define injury rates once runners are fully transitioned to minimalist shoes. At least one longer-term minimalist-shoe investigation is ongoing and, hopefully, will be published soon. 2016.
Full Text Available Some vehicles use brake shoe made from semi-metallic materials. Semi-metallic brake shoes are made from a combination of metallic and non-metallic materials. Metallic particles are added in the formulation of brake shoe material to improve composites characteristics. In this paper, friction behaviors of brake shoe material using metallic filler were investigated. Machining chips of cast iron and copper wire of electric motor used were incorporated in composite as metallic fillers with amount 0, 2, and 4 vol. %. Friction testing was performed to measure coefficient of friction by pressing surface specimen against the surface of rotating disc. The results show that cast iron chip and Cu short wire have effect on increasing coefficient of friction of brake shoe material. They form contact plateau at contact surface. At contact surface, the Cu short wires which have parallel orientation to the sliding contact were susceptible to detach from the matrix.
Su, Pei-Fang; Chung, Chia-Hua; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Chang, Chih-Han
Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects’ gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87–30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds. PMID:28046009
Full Text Available Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects' gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87-30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds.
Foster, Carl; Cortis, Cristina; Fusco, Andrea; Bok, Daniel; Boullosa, Daniel A.; Capranica, Laura; de Koning, Jos J.; Haugen, Thomas; Olivera-Silva, Iranse; Periara, Julien; Porcari, John P.; Pyne, David Bruce; Sandbakk, Oyvind
Exercise relative to health/fitness and sports performance has displayed an evolutionary role over time. Large scale, overriding, factors are present which are likely to help us understand the likely future evolutionary path of health/fitness and sports performance. These factors include: 1) the
It is 40 years ago that a very popular X-ray device disappeared in German shoe shops: the shoe-fitting fluoroscope or Pedoskop. Since the 1930s, these X-ray machines were an integral part of any good shoe business. Following the entry into force X-Ray Regulation (RoeV 1973) the use of these devices was prohibited in Germany.
Lindsay B. Baker
Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before
Major, Matthew J; Scham, Joel; Orendurff, Michael
Prosthetic feet are prescribed based on their mechanical function and user functional level. Subtle changes to the stiffness and hysteresis of heel, midfoot, and forefoot regions can influence the dynamics and economy of gait in prosthesis users. However, the user's choice of shoes may alter the prosthetic foot-shoe system mechanical characteristics, compromising carefully prescribed and rigorously engineered performance of feet. Observe the effects of footwear on the mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system including commonly prescribed prosthetic feet. Repeated-measures, Mechanical characterization. The stiffness and energy return was measured using a hydraulic-driven materials test machine across combinations of five prosthetic feet and four common shoes as well as a barefoot condition. Heel energy return decreased by an average 4%-9% across feet in all shoes compared to barefoot, with a cushioned trainer displaying the greatest effect. Foot designs that may improve perceived stability by providing low heel stiffness and rapid foot-flat were compromised by the addition of shoes. Shoes altered prosthesis mechanical characteristics in the sagittal and frontal planes, suggesting that shoe type should be controlled or reported in research comparing prostheses. Understanding of how different shoes could alter certain gait-related characteristics of prostheses may aid decisions on footwear made by clinicians and prosthesis users. Clinical relevance Shoes can alter function of the prosthetic foot-shoe system in unexpected and sometimes undesirable ways, often causing similar behavior across setups despite differences in foot design, and prescribing clinicians should carefully consider these effects on prosthesis performance.
Hilderbrand, Richard L
The prohibition on use of cannabinoids in sporting competitions has been widely debated and continues to be a contentious issue. Information continues to accumulate on the adverse health effects of smoked marijuana and the decrement of performance caused by the use of cannabinoids. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of cannabinoids and cannabimimetics that directly or indirectly impact sport, the rules of sport, and performance of the athlete. This article reviews some of the history of marijuana in Olympic and Collegiate sport, summarizes the guidelines by which a substance is added to the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, and updates information on the pharmacologic effects of cannabinoids and their mechanism of action. The recently marketed cannabimimetics Spice and K2 are included in the discussion as they activate the same receptors as are activated by THC. The article also provides a view as to why the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits cannabinoid or cannabimimetic use incompetition and should continue to do so.
Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.
Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport. PMID:22997498
Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J
Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.
Full Text Available Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.
Lu, Shengfang; Liu, Zhen; Nan, Guo; Zhang, Guangjun
With the rapid development of high-speed railway, the automated fault inspection is necessary to ensure train's operation safety. Visual technology is paid more attention in trouble detection and maintenance. For a linear CCD camera, Image alignment is the first step in fault detection. To increase the speed of image processing, an improved scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method is presented. The image is divided into multiple levels of different resolution. Then, we do not stop to extract the feature from the lowest resolution to the highest level until we get sufficient SIFT key points. At that level, the image is registered and aligned quickly. In the stage of inspection, we devote our efforts to finding the trouble of brake shoe, which is one of the key components in brake system on electrical multiple units train (EMU). Its pre-warning on wear limitation is very important in fault detection. In this paper, we propose an automatic inspection approach to detect the fault of brake shoe. Firstly, we use multi-resolution pyramid template matching technology to fast locate the brake shoe. Then, we employ Hough transform to detect the circles of bolts in brake region. Due to the rigid characteristic of structure, we can identify whether the brake shoe has a fault. The experiments demonstrate that the way we propose has a good performance, and can meet the need of practical applications.
Tomé-Lourido, David; Arce, Constantino; Vales-Vázquez, Ángel; Ponte, Dolores
The evaluation of psychological skills by athletes and their relationship with sports performance and satisfaction has been of great interest in recent decades. Likewise, there has been an emergent tendency to focus on developing specific psychological skills for each sport. The principal aim of this study was to determine the frequency with which athletes deploy psychological skills whilst competing and whether their frequency varies in accordance with the technical, tactical and physical characteristics of the sport in question. A further objective was to establish the connection between the frequency of use of psychological skills and athletes' degree of satisfaction with their performance. The study comprised 1003 athletes practising 43 different sports, grouped into 7 categories based on the similarities between them. Frequency of use of the psychological skills was measured with the Test of Performance Strategies 3. The data analyses allowed the following conclusions to be drawn: the degree to which psychological skills are used is dependent on the technical, tactical and physical characteristics of each sport; and the higher the frequency of the use of psychological skills, the greater the athletes' degree of satisfaction with their performance. These results allow athletes and coaches to increase levels of sports performance by working on the use of psychological skills, adapted to the technical, tactical or physical requirements of the category in which their sport is included. In addition, working on different psychological skills will improve their satisfaction with sports performance.
Atkinson, G; Reilly, T
Chronobiology is the science concerned with investigations of time-dependent changes in physiological variables. Circadian rhythms refer to variations that recur every 24 hours. Many physiological circadian rhythms at rest are endogenously controlled, and persist when an individual is isolated from environmental fluctuations. Unlike physiological variables, human performance cannot be monitored continuously in order to describe circadian rhythmicity. Experimental studies of the effect of circadian rhythms on performance need to be carefully designed in order to control for serial fatigue effects and to minimise disturbances in sleep. The detection of rhythmicity in performance variables is also highly influenced by the degree of test-retest repeatability of the measuring equipment. The majority of components of sports performance, e.g. flexibility, muscle strength, short term high power output, vary with time of day in a sinusoidal manner and peak in the early evening close to the daily maximum in body temperature. Psychological tests of short term memory, heart rate-based tests of physical fitness, and prolonged submaximal exercise performance carried out in hot conditions show peak times in the morning. Heart rate-based tests of work capacity appear to peak in the morning because the heart rate responses to exercise are minimal at this time of day. Post-lunch declines are evident with performance variables such as muscle strength, especially if measured frequently enough and sequentially within a 24-hour period to cause fatigue in individuals. More research work is needed to ascertain whether performance in tasks demanding fine motor control varies with time of day. Metabolic and respiratory rhythms are flattened when exercise becomes strenuous whilst the body temperature rhythm persists during maximal exercise. Higher work-rates are selected spontaneously in the early evening. At present, it is not known whether time of day influences the responses of a set
Looney, Marilyn A
Many sports, such as, gymnastics, diving, ski jumping, and figure skating, use judges' scores to determine the winner of a competition. These judges use some type of rating scale when judging performances (e.g., figure skating: 0.0 - 6.0). Sport governing bodies have the responsibility of setting and enforcing quality control parameters for judge performance. Given the judging scandals in figure skating at the 1998 and 2002 Olympics, judge performance in sport is receiving greater scrutiny. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how results from Rasch analyses can be used to provide in-depth feedback to judges about their scoring patterns. Nine judges' scores for 20 pairs of figure skaters who competed at the 2002 Winter Olympics were analyzed using a four-faceted (skater pair ability, skating aspect difficulty, program difficulty, and judge severity) Rasch rating scale model that was not common to all judges. Fit statistics, the logical ordering of skating aspects, skating programs, and separation indices all indicated a good fit of the data to the model. The type of feedback that can be given to judges about their scoring pattern was illustrated for one judge (USA) whose performance was flagged as being unpredictable. Feedback included a detailed description of how the rating scale was used; for example, 10% of all marks given by the American judge were unexpected by the model (Z > |2|). Three figures illustrated differences between the judge's observed and expected marks arranged according to the pairs' skating order and final placement in the competition. Scores which may represent "nationalistic bias" or a skating order influence were flagged by looking at these figures. If sport governing bodies wish to improve the performance of their judges, they need to employ methods that monitor the internal consistency of each judge as a many-facet Rasch analysis does.
Schuttelaar, Marie L; Meijer, Joost M; Engfeldt, Malin; Lapeere, Hilde; Goossens, An; Bruze, Magnus; Persson, Christina; Bergendorff, Ola
During rubber vulcanization, new compounds can be formed. To report a case of allergic shoe dermatitis in which the search for the allergen ultimately led to the identification of dimethylthiocarbamylbenzothiazole sulfide (DMTBS). A female presented with eczema on her feet after wearing Sperry Top Sider® canvas sneakers. Patch testing was performed with the European baseline series, additional series, shoe materials, and extracts of shoe materials. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was performed for additional patch testing, and high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectometry were used for chemical analysis. Positive reactions were found to thiuram mix (+), tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (TMTM) (+), shoe material (+), and shoe extracts in eth. (++) and acetone (+). The extracts did not contain TMTM or other components of thiuram mix. TLC strips yielded a positive reaction (+) to one spot, whereas chemical analysis gave a negative result. Thereafter, a similar sneaker from another patient with shoe dermatitis was analysed, and DMBTS was identified. New extracts of the shoe of our first patient were then also shown to contain DMTBS. DMTBS as culprit allergen was confirmed by positive patch testing with a dilution series with DMTBS. DMBTS was identified as the culprit allergen in shoe dermatitis, giving rise to compound allergy. The positive reaction to TMTM was considered to represent cross-reactivity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The aim was to determine the rotational torque occurring at the shoe-natural grass interface during golf swing performance with different clubs, and to determine the influence of handicap and golf shoe design. Twenty-four golfers (8 low 0-7; 8 medium 8-14; and 8 high 15+ performed 5 shots with a driver, 3-iron and 7-iron when 3 shoes were worn: a modern 8 mm metal 7-spike shoe, an alternative 7-spike shoe and a flat soled shoe. Torque was measured at the front and back foot by grass covered force platforms in an outdoor field. Torque at the shoe- natural turf interface was similar at the front foot when using a driver, 3-iron and 7-iron with maximum mean torque (Tzmax 17-19 Nm and torque generation in the entire backswing and downswing approximately 40 Nm. At the back foot, torque was less than at the front foot when using the driver, 3-iron and 7-iron. At the back foot Tzmax was 6-7 Nm, and torque generation was 10-16 Nm, with a trend for greater torque generation when using the driver rather than the irons. The metal spike shoe allowed significantly more back foot torque generation when using a driver than a flat- soled shoe (p 0.05, although back foot mean torques generated tended to be greater for the metal spike shoe. The golf shot outcomes were similar for low, medium and high handicappers in both metal and alternative spike shoes (metal: 87%; 76%; 54%; alternative: 85%; 74%; 54% respectively. The better, low handicap golfers generated significantly more back foot torque (metal spike: 18.2 Nm; alternative: 15.8 Nm; p < 0.05 when using a driver. Further research should consider back foot shoe-grass interface demands during driver usage by low handicap and lighter body-weight golfers
Madden, Elizabeth G; Kean, Crystal O; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; Hinman, Rana S
This study evaluated the immediate effects of rocker-soled shoes on parameters of the knee adduction moment (KAM) and pain in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 30 individuals (mean (SD): age, 61 (7) yr; 15 (50%) male) with radiographic and symptomatic knee OA under three walking conditions in a randomized order: i) wearing rocker-soled shoes (Skechers Shape-ups), ii) wearing non-rocker-soled shoes (ASICS walking shoes), and iii) barefoot. Peak KAM and KAM angular impulse were measured as primary indicators of knee load distribution. Secondary measures included the knee flexion moment (KFM) and knee pain during walking. Peak KAM was significantly lower when wearing the rocker-soled shoes compared with that when wearing the non-rocker-soled shoes (mean difference (95% confidence interval), -0.27 (-0.42 to -0.12) N·m/BW × Ht%; P < 0.001). Post hoc tests revealed no significant difference in KAM impulse between rocker-soled and non-rocker-soled shoe conditions (P = 0.13). Both peak KAM and KAM impulse were significantly higher during both shoe conditions compared with those during the barefoot condition (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in KFM (P = 0.36) or knee pain (P = 0.89) between conditions. Rocker-soled shoes significantly reduced peak KAM when compared with non-rocker-soled shoes, without a concomitant change in KFM, and thus may potentially reduce medial knee joint loading. However, KAM parameters in the rocker-soled shoes remained significantly higher than those during barefoot walking. Wearing rocker-soled shoes did not have a significant immediate effect on walking pain. Further research is required to evaluate whether rocker-soled shoes can influence symptoms and progression of knee OA with prolonged wear.
Lam, Wing-Kai; Ryue, Jaejin; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Park, Sang-Kyoon; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Ryu, Jiseon
Lunge is one frequently executed movement in badminton and involves a unique sagittal footstrike angle of more than 40 degrees at initial ground contact compared with other manoeuvres. This study examined if the shoe heel curvature design of a badminton shoe would influence shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments during lunge. Eleven elite and fifteen intermediate players performed five left-forward maximum lunge trials with Rounded Heel Shoe (RHS), Flattened Heel Shoe (FHS), and Standard Heel Shoes (SHS). Shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments were measured by using synchronized force platform and motion analysis system. A 2 (Group) x 3 (Shoe) ANOVA with repeated measures was performed to determine the effects of different shoes and different playing levels, as well as the interaction of two factors on all variables. Shoe effect indicated that players demonstrated lower maximum vertical loading rate in RHS than the other two shoes (P badminton lunge. The differences in impact loads and knee moments between elite and intermediate players may be useful in optimizing footwear design and training strategy to minimize the potential risks for impact related injuries in badminton.
Levy, A R; Perry, J; Nicholls, A R; Larkin, D; Davies, J
This study explored the mediating role of sport confidence upon (1) sources of sport confidence-performance relationship and (2) imagery-performance relationship. Participants were 157 competitive athletes who completed state measures of confidence level/sources, imagery type and performance within one hour after competition. Among the current sample, confirmatory factor analysis revealed appropriate support for the nine-factor SSCQ and the five-factor SIQ. Mediational analysis revealed that sport confidence had a mediating influence upon the achievement source of confidence-performance relationship. In addition, both cognitive and motivational imagery types were found to be important sources of confidence, as sport confidence mediated imagery type- performance relationship. Findings indicated that athletes who construed confidence from their own achievements and report multiple images on a more frequent basis are likely to benefit from enhanced levels of state sport confidence and subsequent performance.
Malisoux, Laurent; Gette, Paul; Chambon, Nicolas; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel
While several cross-sectional studies have investigated the acute effects of shoe drop on running biomechanics, the long-term consequences are currently unknown. This study aimed to investigate if the drop of standard cushioned shoes induces specific adaptations in running technique over a six-month period in leisure-time runners. Double-blinded randomised controlled trial. The participants (n=59) received a pair of shoes with a heel-to-toe drop of 10mm (D10), 6mm (D6) or 0mm (D0) and were followed-up regarding running training over 6 months or 500km, whichever came first. Spatio-temporal variables and kinematics (foot/ground, ankle and knee joint angles) were investigated while running at preferred speed on a treadmill before and after the follow-up. The participants ran 332±178km in the study shoes between pre- and post-tests. There was no shoe version by time interaction for any of the spatio-temporal variables nor for lower limb angles at initial ground contact. A small but significant shoe drop effect was found for knee abduction at mid-stance (p=0.032), as it decreased for the D0 version (-0.3±3.1 vs. -1.3±2.6°) while it increased for the D6 (0.3±2.7 vs. 1.3±3.1°) and D10 version (-0.2±3.2 vs. 0.5±3.1°). However, none of the pairwise comparisons was significant in the post-hoc analysis. Apart from knee abduction at mid-stance, no specific adaptation in spatio-temporal variables and kinematics was found between the three shoe versions during this 6-month follow-up. Thus, shoe drop of standard cushioned shoes does not seem to influence running biomechanics in the long term. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The boy was 1.7 meters tall when he just started his third year at primary school. As his feet had outgrown even Father's shoes,his parents had to look up and down the streets for size-46 shoes. At 16,he shot to a height of 2.2 meters,and no store or market in the whole of China had stock of size-53 shoes for his big feet. The parents watched rather alarmingly their son shooting up wildly like a sapling.
Brill, Warren A
The chairside-fabricated distal shoe appliance, with a stainless steel crown as the retainer, is an efficacious and cost-effective appliance for guiding the unerupted permanent first molar into position after premature loss or extraction of the second primary molar. The fabrication technique is illustrated in this case report and data is presented on the success rate of the appliance.
Park, Joanne L; Fairweather, Malcolm M; Donaldson, David I
In the high stakes world of International sport even the smallest change in performance can make the difference between success and failure, leading sports professionals to become increasingly interested in the potential benefits of neuroimaging. Here we describe evidence from EEG studies that either identify neural signals associated with expertise in sport, or employ neurofeedback to improve performance. Evidence for the validity of neurofeedback as a technique for enhancing sports performance remains limited. By contrast, progress in characterizing the neural correlates of sporting behavior is clear: frequency domain studies link expert performance to changes in alpha rhythms, whilst time-domain studies link expertise in response evaluation and motor output with modulations of P300 effects and readiness potentials. Despite early promise, however, findings have had relatively little impact for sports professionals, at least in part because there has been a mismatch between lab tasks and real sporting activity. After selectively reviewing existing findings and outlining limitations, we highlight developments in mobile EEG technology that offer new opportunities for sports neuroscience. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sinclair, J; Mcgrath, R; Brook, O; Taylor, P J; Dillon, S
Running economy is a reflection of the amount of inspired oxygen required to maintain a given velocity and is considered a determining factor for running performance. Athletic footwear has been advocated as a mechanism by which running economy can be enhanced. New commercially available footwear has been developed in order to increase energy return, although their efficacy has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effects of energy return footwear on running economy in relation to conventional running shoes. Twelve male runners completed 6-min steady-state runs in conventional and energy return footwear. Overall, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, shoe comfort and rating of perceived exertion were assessed. Moreover, participants subjectively indicated which shoe condition they preferred for running. Differences in shoe comfort and physiological parameters were examined using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, whilst shoe preferences were tested using a chi-square analysis. The results showed that VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly lower, and shoe comfort was significantly greater, in the energy return footwear. Given the relationship between running economy and running performance, these observations indicate that the energy return footwear may be associated with enhanced running performance in comparison to conventional shoes.
Yang Yang, Ying Fang, Xini Zhang, Junliang He, Weijie Fu
Full Text Available The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF maneuver, drop jumps (DJs, and lay-up jumps (LJs. Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041 was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028 and power (p = 0.022 were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion–extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane.
Yang, Yang; Fang, Ying; Zhang, Xini; He, Junliang; Fu, Weijie
The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively) performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF) maneuver, drop jumps (DJs), and lay-up jumps (LJs). Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041) was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028) and power (p = 0.022) were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion-extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane.
Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J
Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.
Lunde, Carolina; Gattario, Kristina Holmqvist
The aim of this qualitative study was to examine young female sport participants' experiences and thoughts in terms of sport, their bodies, and social appearance norms. Six focus groups with female sport participants (N=25) from Sweden were conducted. Participants raised many positive experiences in relation to their sport participation, but they also witnessed a conflict in the intersection between the culture within their sport (emphasizing physical performance) and the culture outside their sport (emphasizing physical appearance). Through thematic analysis, four themes illustrating the balancing act between these two cultures were formed: (a) the performing body versus the objectified body, (b) food as fuel versus source of shame, (c) appreciation of body type diversity versus appearance prejudice, and (d) empowerment and agency versus disempowerment and restraints. The findings of this study indicate that young women who engage in sport have to face complex, ambiguous, and restricting norms and notions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selenia di Fronso
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last 20 years, there was a growing interest in the study of the theoretical and applied issues surrounding psychophysiological processes underlying performance. The psychophysiological monitoring, which enables the study of these processes, consists of the assessment of the activation and functioning level of the organism using a multidimensional approach. In sport, it can be used to attain a better understanding of the processes underlying athletic performance and to improve it. The most frequently used ecological techniques include electromyography (EMG, electrocardiography (ECG, electroencephalography (EEG, and the assessment of electrodermal activity and breathing rhythm. The purpose of this paper is to offer an overview of the use of these techniques in applied interventions in sport and physical exercise and to give athletes, coaches and sport psychology experts new insights for performance improvement.
Full Text Available In an effort to reduce golf turf damage the traditional metal spike golf shoe has been redesigned, but shoe-ground biomechanical evaluations have utilised artificial grass surfaces. Twenty-four golfers wore three different golf shoe traction designs (traditional metal spikes, alternative spikes, and a flat-soled shoe with no additional traction when performing shots with a driver, 3 iron and 7 iron. Ground action forces were measured beneath the feet by two natural grass covered force platforms. The maximum vertical force recorded at the back foot with the 3 iron and 7 iron was 0.82 BW (body weight and at the front foot 1.1 BW approximately in both the metal spike and alternative spike golf shoe designs. When using the driver these maximal vertical values were 0.49 BW at the back foot and 0.84 BW at the front foot. Furthermore, as performance of the backswing and then downswing necessitates a change in movement direction the range of force generated during the complete swing was calculated. In the metal spike shoe the vertical force generated at the back foot with both irons was 0.67 BW and at the front foot 0.96 BW with the 3 iron and 0.92 BW with the 7 iron. The back foot vertical force generated with the driver was 0.33 BW and at the front foot 0.83 BW wearing the metal spike shoe. Results indicated the greater force generation with the irons. When using the driver the more horizontal swing plane associated with the longer club reduced vertical forces at the back and front foot. However, the mediolateral force generated across each foot in the metal and alternative spike shoes when using the driver was greater than when the irons were used. The coefficient of friction was 0. 62 at the back and front foot whichever shoe was worn or club used
Schoder, D; Schmalwieser, A; Szakmary-Brändle, K; Stessl, B; Wagner, M
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in urban public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in a European capital city. More than 91% of all municipal public lavatories in Vienna close to public hubs were included in this study. Overall, 373 swab samples of public lavatories and shoes of facility patrons were enriched, according to ISO 11290-1. Listeria monocytogenes isolates were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 24 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 6.4% (24/373). Listeria monocytogenes was found in 2.1% (8/373) of all samples. Swabs from lavatories in parks, container lavatories and lavatories at markets had the highest prevalences of 20.7% (6/29), 20% (2/10) and 12.5% (1/8) Listeria spp., respectively. These detection rates were statistically significantly higher than those associated with lavatories in shopping centres (P = 0.003, P = 0.002, P = 0.02) and at public transport locations (P = 0.0004, P = 0.005, P = 0.02). Shoes sampled at Christmas markets showed the highest Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes prevalences of 80% (4/5) and 40% (2/5), respectively. With regard to shoe type, Listeria spp. detection rates were 14.3% (3/21; winter boots), 13.3% (2/15; hiking boots), sport shoes (5.9%; 2/34) and brogues (5.1%; 4/79). No Listeria spp. were found on shoe soles that had smooth treads (0/76), while Listeria spp. were detected on 19.5% (8/41) of medium depth tread shoe types and on 9.4% (3/32) of deep tread shoes. These data suggest that soil environment is still one of the most important reservoirs for the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Chaabene, Helmi; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Capranica, Laura; Franchini, Emerson; Prieske, Olaf; Hbacha, Hamdi; Granacher, Urs
The regular monitoring of physical fitness and sport-specific performance is important in elite sports to increase the likelihood of success in competition. This study aimed to systematically review and to critically appraise the methodological quality, validation data, and feasibility of the sport-specific performance assessment in Olympic combat sports like amateur boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, and wrestling. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science-Direct up to October 2017. Studies in combat sports were included that reported validation data (e.g., reliability, validity, sensitivity) of sport-specific tests. Overall, 39 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The majority of studies (74%) contained sample sizes sport-specific tests (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43-1.00). Content validity was addressed in all included studies, criterion validity (only the concurrent aspect of it) in approximately half of the studies with correlation coefficients ranging from r = -0.41 to 0.90. Construct validity was reported in 31% of the included studies and predictive validity in only one. Test sensitivity was addressed in 13% of the included studies. The majority of studies (64%) ignored and/or provided incomplete information on test feasibility and methodological limitations of the sport-specific test. In 28% of the included studies, insufficient information or a complete lack of information was provided in the respective field of the test application. Several methodological gaps exist in studies that used sport-specific performance tests in Olympic combat sports. Additional research should adopt more rigorous validation procedures in the application and description of sport-specific performance tests in Olympic combat sports.
Coevorden, A.M. van; Coenraads, P.J.; Pas, H.H.; Valk, P.G.M. van der
Some patients with relapsing foot eczema and a shoe leather allergy, who fail to show positive results with standard series and shoe wear screening tray patch testing, do not respond to the use of hypoallergenic shoe leather. We assume that relevant allergens are present in hypoallergenic shoe
van Coevorden, AM; Coenraads, PJ; Pas, HH; van der Valk, PGM
Some patients with relapsing foot eczema and a shoe leather allergy, who fail to show positive results with standard series and shoe wear screening tray patch testing, do not respond to the use of hypoallergenic shoe leather. We assume that relevant allergens are present in hypoallergenic shoe
Ishii, Hideyuki; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Takeo
New soccer shoes have been developed by considering various concepts related to kicking, such as curving a soccer ball. However, the effects of shoes on ball behaviour remain unclear. In this study, by using a finite element simulation, we investigated the factors that affect ball behaviour immediately after impact in a curve kick. Five experienced male university soccer players performed one curve kick. We developed a finite element model of the foot and ball and evaluated the validity of the model by comparing the finite element results for the ball behaviour immediately after impact with the experimental results. The launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation in the finite element analysis were all in general agreement with the experimental results. Using the validated finite element model, we simulated the ball behaviour. The simulation results indicated that the larger the foot velocity immediately before impact, the larger the ball velocity and ball rotation. Furthermore, the Young's modulus of the shoe upper and the coefficient of friction between the shoe upper and the ball had little effect on the launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation. The results of this study suggest that the shoe upper does not significantly influence ball behaviour.
Heidt, R S; Dormer, S G; Cawley, P W; Scranton, P E; Losse, G; Howard, M
This study evaluated the shoe-surface interaction of 15 football shoes made by 3 manufacturers in both anterior translation and rotation using a specially designed pneumatic testing system. The shoes included traditional cleated football shoes, "court" shoes (basketball-style shoes), molded-cleat shoes, and turf shoes. Under an 11.35-kg (25-pound) axial load, all shoes were tested on synthetic turf under wet and dry conditions and on natural stadium grass. Test-retest reliability, as calculated using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation test, was 0.85 for force of translation and 0.55 for the moment of rotation. The wet versus dry surface values on translation were significantly different for rotation about the tibial axis. Spatting, which is protective taping of the ankle and heel applied on the outside of the shoe, resulted in a reduction of forces generated in both translation and rotation. No overall difference between shoes on grass versus AstroTurf was noted. However, there were significant differences for cleated and turf shoes. Shoes tested in conditions for which they were not designed exhibited reproducible excessive or extreme minimal friction characteristics that may have safety implications. On the basis of this study, we urge shoe manufacturers to display suggested indications and playing surface conditions for which their shoes are recommended.
Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian
The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.
Newman, Hannah J H; Howells, Karen L; Fletcher, David
The general and sport psychology research converge to point to a complex relationship between depressive experiences and human performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the depressive experiences of top level athletes and the relationship of such experiences with sport performance. Twelve autobiographies of elite athletes representing eight sports were analyzed. The autobiographical analysis was informed by narrative tradition, using three types of narrative analysis: categorical content, categorical form, and holistic content. The analysis revealed a temporal aspect to the depressive experiences that the athletes reported. Initially, sport represented a form of escape from the depressive symptoms which had been exacerbated by both external stressors (e.g., experiencing bereavement) and internal stressors (e.g., low self-esteem). However, in time, the athletes typically reached a stage when the demands of their sport shifted from being facilitative to being debilitative in nature with an intensification of their depressive symptoms. This was accompanied by deliberations about continuing their engagement in sport and an acceptance that they could no longer escape from their symptoms, with or without sport. The findings extend the extant literature by suggesting a reciprocal relationship between depressive experiences and sport performance, and they support the general psychology literature relating to the negative impact of depression on performance. The applied implications of these findings are discussed emphasizing the importance of early identification of depressive symptoms and the adoption of a proactive approach in the prevention and management of symptoms.
Perkins, Kyle P; Hanney, William J; Rothschild, Carey E
The popularity of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes has recently increased because of claims of injury prevention, enhanced running efficiency, and improved performance compared with running in shoes. Potential risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes have yet to be clearly defined. To determine the methodological quality and level of evidence pertaining to the risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes. In September 2013, a comprehensive search of the Ovid MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was performed by 2 independent reviewers. Included articles were obtained from peer-reviewed journals in the English language with no limit for year of publication. Final inclusion criteria required at least 1 of the following outcome variables: pain, injury rate, running economy, joint forces, running velocity, electromyography, muscle performance, or edema. Systematic review. Level 3. Two reviewers appraised each article using the Downs and Black checklist and appraised each for level of evidence. Twenty-three articles met the criteria for this review. Of 27 possible points on the Downs and Black checklist, articles scored between 13 and 19 points, indicating a range of evidence from very limited to moderate. Moderate evidence supports the following biomechanical differences when running barefoot versus in shoes: overall less maximum vertical ground reaction forces, less extension moment and power absorption at the knee, less foot and ankle dorsiflexion at ground contact, less ground contact time, shorter stride length, increased stride frequency, and increased knee flexion at ground contact. Because of lack of high-quality evidence, no definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding specific risks or benefits to running barefoot, shod, or in minimalist shoes.
Willy, Richard W; Davis, Irene S
The purpose of this study was to determine whether running in a minimalist shoe results in a reduction in ground reaction forces and alters kinematics over standard shoe running. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine whether within-session accommodation to a novel minimalist shoe occurs. Subjects were 14 male, rearfoot striking runners who had never run in a minimalist shoe. Subjects were tested while running 3.35 m·s(-1) for 10 min on an instrumented treadmill in a minimalist and a standard shoe as three-dimensional lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were evaluated. Data were collected at minute 1 and then again after 10 min of running in both shoe conditions to evaluate accommodation to the shoe conditions. Shoe-time interactions were not found for any of the variables of interest. Minimalist shoe running resulted in no changes in step length (P = 0.967) or in step rate (P = 0.230). At footstrike, greater knee flexion (P = 0.001) and greater dorsiflexion angle (P = 0.025) were noted in the minimalist shoe. Vertical impact peak (P = 0.017) and average vertical loading rate (P < 0.000) were greater during minimalist shoe running. There were main effects of time as dorsiflexion angle decreased (P = 0.035), foot inclination at footstrike decreased (P = 0.048), and knee flexion at footstrike increased (P = 0.002), yet the vertical impact peak (P = 0.002) and average vertical loading rate (P < 0.000) increased. Running in a minimalist shoe appears to, at least in the short term, increase loading of the lower extremity over standard shoe running. The accommodation period resulted in less favorable landing mechanics in both shoes. These findings bring into question whether minimal shoes will provide enough feedback to induce an alteration that is similar to barefoot running.
Barefoot running is not a new concept, but relatively few people choose to engage in barefoot running on a regular basis. Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, as many as 79% of runners are injured every year. Although benefits of barefoot running have been proposed, there are also potential risks associated with it. To review the evidence-based literature concerning barefoot/minimal footwear running and the implications for the practicing physician. Multiple publications were reviewed using an electronic search of databases such as Medline, Cinahl, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Database from inception until August 30, 2013 using the search terms barefoot running, barefoot running biomechanics, and shoe vs. barefoot running. Ninety-six relevant articles were found. Most were reviews of biomechanical and kinematic studies. There are notable differences in gait and other parameters between barefoot running and shoe running. Based on these findings and much anecdotal evidence, one could conclude that barefoot runners should have fewer injuries, better performance, or both. Several athletic shoe companies have designed running shoes that attempt to mimic the barefoot condition, and thus garner the purported benefits of barefoot running. Although there is no evidence that confirms or refutes improved performance and reduced injuries in barefoot runners, many of the claimed disadvantages to barefoot running are not supported by the literature. Nonetheless, it seems that barefoot running may be an acceptable training method for athletes and coaches, as it may minimize the risks of injury.
Full Text Available Lunge is one frequently executed movement in badminton and involves a unique sagittal footstrike angle of more than 40 degrees at initial ground contact compared with other manoeuvres. This study examined if the shoe heel curvature design of a badminton shoe would influence shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments during lunge.Eleven elite and fifteen intermediate players performed five left-forward maximum lunge trials with Rounded Heel Shoe (RHS, Flattened Heel Shoe (FHS, and Standard Heel Shoes (SHS. Shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments were measured by using synchronized force platform and motion analysis system. A 2 (Group x 3 (Shoe ANOVA with repeated measures was performed to determine the effects of different shoes and different playing levels, as well as the interaction of two factors on all variables.Shoe effect indicated that players demonstrated lower maximum vertical loading rate in RHS than the other two shoes (P < 0.05. Group effect revealed that elite players exhibited larger footstrike angle, faster approaching speed, lower peak horizontal force and horizontal loading rates but higher vertical loading rates and larger peak knee flexion and extension moments (P < 0.05. Analysis of Interactions of Group x Shoe for maximum and mean vertical loading rates (P < 0.05 indicated that elite players exhibited lower left maximum and mean vertical loading rates in RHS compared to FHS (P < 0.01, while the intermediate group did not show any Shoe effect on vertical loading rates.These findings indicate that shoe heel curvature would play some role in altering ground reaction force impact during badminton lunge. The differences in impact loads and knee moments between elite and intermediate players may be useful in optimizing footwear design and training strategy to minimize the potential risks for impact related injuries in badminton.
Elite-adapted sports performance has considerably improved over the last decades and winning or losing races at Paralympic Games is often a matter of a split second. In other words, every single detail counts, which underlines the necessity of optimizing training interventions and equipment for athletes in order to achieve top-class performance. However, to date, studies which include Paralympic elite athletes are scarce. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify potential strategies and interventions in order to optimize elite-adapted wheelchair sports performance, whereas the focus lay on respiratory muscle training (RMT), cooling (CI) and nutritional interventions (NI) as well as on individual equipment adaptations (IEA). The total number of studies identified for the final analysis was six for RMT, two for CI, three for NI and seven for IEA, respectively. Results point predominantly towards performance enhancing benefits for CI and IEA, whereas NI and RMT provided inhomogenous findings. In comparison to the able-bodied population, research in the field of Paralympic elite sport is scarce. CI and IEA seem to have significant performance enhancing benefits, whereas NI and RMT revealed controversial findings. However, due to the limited number of elite athletes with a spinal cord injury available to participate in scientific studies, general conclusions are difficult to make at this stage and in daily practice recommendations are still given mainly on an individual basis or based on personal experiences of coaches, athletes and scientists. Implications for Rehabilitaton Based on the knowledge gained in elite sports, wheelchair equipment could be optimized also for daily use. Elite sports performance could inspire wheelchair users to achieve their personal fitness goals.
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Drust, B; Waterhouse, J; Atkinson, G; Edwards, B; Reilly, T
We discuss current knowledge on the description, impact, and underlying causes of circadian rhythmicity in sports performance. We argue that there is a wealth of information from both applied and experimental work, which, when considered together, suggests that sports performance is affected by time of day in normal entrained conditions and that the variation has at least some input from endogenous mechanisms. Nevertheless, precise information on the relative importance of endogenous and exogenous factors is lacking. No single study can answer both the applied and basic research questions that are relevant to this topic, but an appropriate mixture of real-world research on rhythm disturbances and tightly controlled experiments involving forced desynchronization protocols is needed. Important issues, which should be considered by any chronobiologist interested in sports and exercise, include how representative the study sample and the selected performance tests are, test-retest reliability, as well as overall design of the experiment.
Kim, Jae Yeol; Park, Chang Sun; Oh, Ki Jang; Ma, Sang Dong; Kim, Bong Jae [Chosun Univesity, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong Jo [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)
Diagnosis or measurements using Infrared thermo-image hasn't been available. A quick diagnosis and thermal analysis can be possible when that kind of system is introduced to the investigation of each part. In this study, Infrared Camera, Thermo-vision 900 of AGEMA Company was used in order to investigate. Infrared Camera usually detects only Infrared wave from the light in order to illustrate the temperature distribution. Infrared diagnosis system can be applied to various field. But the defect discrimination can be automatic or mechanization on the special shoes total inspection system. Also, it is more effective to development and composition on the shoes total inspection system. In this study, it is introduction method of special shoes nondestructive total inspection. Performance of the proposed method are shown by through thermo-Image.
Margrit R. Meier, PhD; Kerice A. Tucker, BSc; Andrew H. Hansen, PhD
The large majority of prosthetic feet are aimed at low-heeled shoes, with a few models allowing a heel height of up to 5 cm. However, a survey by the American Podiatric Medical Association indicates that most women wear heels over 5 cm; thus, current prosthetic feet limit most female prosthesis users in their choice. Some prosthetic foot components are heel-height adjustable; however, their plantar surface shapes do not change to match the insole shapes of the shoes with different heel height...
Capranica, Laura; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Halson, Shona; Myburgh, Kathryn H; Ogasawara, Etsuko; Millard-Stafford, Mindy
Sport is recognized as playing a relevant societal role to promote education, health, intercultural dialogue, and the individual development, regardless of an individual's gender, race, age, ability, religion, political affiliation, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic background. Yet, it was not until the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London that every country's delegation included a female competitor. The gender gap in sport, although closing, remains, due to biological differences affecting performance, but it is also influenced by reduced opportunity and sociopolitical factors that influence full female participation across a range of sports around the world. Until the cultural environment is equitable, scientific discussion related to physiological differences using methods that examine progression in male and female world-record performances is limited. This commentary is intended to provide a forum to discuss issues underlying gender differences in sport performance from a global perspective and acknowledge the influence of cultural and sociopolitical factors that continue to ultimately affect female performance.
Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.
Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is
Smirmaul, Bruno P
Pre-task music is a very common strategy among sports competitors. However, as opposed to in-task music, the scientific evidence to support its ergogenic effects on either sports or exercise performance is limited. This brief review critically addresses the existing literature investigating the effects of pre-task music on sports and exercise performance, focusing on the methods and results of experimental studies, and offers basic and practical recommendations. In July 2015, a comprehensive literature search was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar using the following key words in combination: "pre-task music," "pre-test music," "pre-exercise music," "exercise performance," "sports performance." The literature search was further expanded by both hand searching review articles on the topic and by searching the reference lists from the articles retrieved for any relevant references. Overall, a total of 15 studies in 14 articles were included. Pre-task music research has been unsystematic, methodologically limited and infrequent. Using this review as a starting point to overcome previous methodological limitations when designing future experiments may contribute to the development of pre-task music research, which is still in its infancy. Currently, there is no sufficient evidence to support the overall ergogenic effects of pre-task music on sports or exercise performance. Nonetheless, pre-task music has showed a likely ergogenic effect on shorter and predominantly anaerobic tasks such as grip strength, Wingate test, and short-duration sports or sports-like tasks, in contrast to longer and predominantly aerobic tasks.
Anderson, S.E.; Weber, M.; Steinbach, L.S.; Ballmer, F.T.
To review MR imaging of figure skaters and snowboarders presenting with painful soft-tissue swelling of the lateral supramalleolar region with a clinical provisional diagnosis of soft-tissue tumor. MR imaging was prospectively reviewed by two sub-specialized musculoskeletal radiologists. The findings were correlated with a second clinical review and examination of the shoe wear. The patients were four female athletes undergoing heavy training regimes, ranging in age between 16 and 25 years. Two patients were elite figure skaters, and two were professional snowboarders. Three patients had unilateral masses with pain, and one patient presented with bilateral clinical findings. MR imaging showed subcutaneous, focal soft-tissue masses of the supramalleolar region in five ankles at the same level above the ankle joint. MR imaging prompted a second clinical review and correlation with the shoe wear. The MR imaging findings correlated to the level of the shoe rim or shoe buckle in all patients, confirming the suspected MR imaging diagnosis of an impingement syndrome. All four sportswomen were training excessively, ignoring safety advice regarding training duration, timing of breaks, and shoe wear rotation. (orig.)
Philipsen, A B; Ellitsgaard, N; Krogsgaard, M R
Orthopaedic shoes are individually handmade after a prescription from an orthopaedic surgeon, hence relatively expensive. Bad compliance is mentioned in the literature but not investigated. In order to evaluate patient compliance and the effect of orthopaedic shoes, 85 patients who were prescribed...
Full Text Available Background: Data on agility skills in different populations using pre-planned, change of direction speed tests have previously been reported. However, there are no available data on the agility times of athletes specializing in different sports obtained from Reactive agility tests. Objective: The study compares agility time in groups of athletes of different sports where agility is one of the limiting factors of performance. Methods: Altogether 282 athletes of 14 sport specializations performed the Agility test. Their task was to touch, as fast as possible, with either the left or the right foot, one of four mats located outside each of the four corners of a 0.8 m square. The mats had to be touched in accordance with the location of a stimulus in one of the corners of a screen. The test consisted of 60 visual stimuli with random generation of their location on the screen and a time of generation of 500 to 2,500 ms. The result was a sum of the 32 best agility times. Results: The Agility test has been found to be sensitive in distinguishing groups of athletes of different sport specializations. Table tennis players, badminton players, fencers, tae-kwon-do competitors and karate competitors showed the best agility times (< 350 ms, followed by ice-hockey, tennis, soccer, volleyball, basketball, and hockeyball players (350-400 ms, then aikidoists (400-450 ms, and finally judoists and wrestlers (450-500 ms. Conclusions: The best agility times are in athletes of racquet sports, followed by competitors of combat sports with reactions to visual stimuli, then players of ball sports, and finally competitors of combat sports with reactions to tactile stimuli. Since this is the first study testing agility skills using the Reactive agility test in athletes of different sport specializations, data obtained can be used for comparison of athletes within particular sports.
Talaty, Mukul; Patel, Sona; Esquenazi, Alberto
Rocker bottom shoes have recently gained considerable popularity, likely in part because of the many purported benefits, including reducing joint loading and toning muscles. Scientific inquiry about these benefits has not kept pace with the increased usage of this shoe type. A fundamental premise of rocker bottom shoes is that they transform hard, flat, level surfaces into more uneven ones. Published studies have described a variety of such shoes-all having a somewhat rounded bottom and a cut heel region or a cut forefoot region, or both (double rocker). Despite the fundamentally similar shoe geometries, the reported effects of rocker bottom shoes on gait biomechanics have varied considerably. Ten healthy subjects agreed to participate in the present study and were given appropriately sized Masai Barefoot Technology (St. Louis, MO), Skechers(™) (Manhattan Beach, CA), and New Balance (Boston, MA) conventional walking shoes. After a 12-day accommodation period, the subjects walked wearing each shoe while 3-dimensional motion and force data were collected in the gait laboratory. The key findings included (1) increased trunk flexion, decreased ankle plantarflexion range, and reduced plantarflexion moment in the early stance; (2) increased ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexor moment in the midstance; (3) decreased peak ankle plantarflexion in the late stance; and (4) decreased ankle plantarflexion and decreased hip flexor and knee extensor moments in the pre-swing and into swing phase. The walking speed was unconstrained and was maintained across all shoe types. A biomechanical explanation is suggested for the observed changes. Suggestions for cautions are provided for using rocker bottom shoes in patients with neuromuscular insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear
Full Text Available The advanced sciences are based on the most recent huge increasing of technology and on interdisciplinary commencement of great interest topics, as top sport is considering. The main problem in top sport seems to be the obtaining high sport’s performance in as short as possible time, having great efficiency and minimum risks.The cell-engineering domain, in which the author of this paper has a modest contribution, is a means of genetic control for human performance, including sport, gene expression, molecular interactions within the cell, intracellular signalling, cell mechanics and motility etc.The domain of Psyche, of controlling feelings and manifestations, is also, on the focus of top sport interest, especially for the reason that, from inside of this domain, is feasible to accede at the biological reserves unavoidable in normal conditions, but avoidable in emergency or surviving situations. The new knowledge about energetic metabolism, about the rotation of ATP molecules, or coming out from scientifically experiments of association of nutrients or of reconsidering the recovery stimulants after effort, are providing, also, very useful information for top sport practitioners.It is not to disregard the contribution of the new information about the human physical limits, biomechanics, tactics of doing and controls the physical effort by means of sensorial biofeedback or theperformance’s advantages coming from new high-minded techniques and materials of sport accessories
Jagos, Harald; Pils, Katharina; Haller, Michael; Wassermann, Claudia; Chhatwal, Christa; Rafolt, Dietmar; Rattay, Frank
Clinical gait analysis contributes massively to rehabilitation support and improvement of in-patient care. The research project eSHOE aspires to be a useful addition to the rich variety of gait analysis systems. It was designed to fill the gap of affordable, reasonably accurate and highly mobile measurement devices. With the overall goal of enabling individual home-based monitoring and training for people suffering from chronic diseases, affecting the locomotor system. Motion and pressure sensors gather movement data directly on the (users) feet, store them locally and/or transmit them wirelessly to a PC. A combination of pattern recognition and feature extraction algorithms translates the motion data into standard gait parameters. Accuracy of eSHOE were evaluated against the reference system GAITRite in a clinical pilot study. Eleven hip fracture patients (78.4 ± 7.7 years) and twelve healthy subjects (40.8 ± 9.1 years) were included in these trials. All subjects performed three measurements at a comfortable walking speed over 8 m, including the 6-m long GAITRite mat. Six standard gait parameters were extracted from a total of 347 gait cycles. Agreement was analysed via scatterplots, histograms and Bland-Altman plots. In the patient group, the average differences between eSHOE and GAITRite range from -0.046 to 0.045 s and in the healthy group from -0.029 to 0.029 s. Therefore, it can be concluded that eSHOE delivers adequately accurate results. Especially with the prospect as an at home supplement or follow-up to clinical gait analysis and compared to other state of the art wearable motion analysis systems.
Full Text Available Environmental conditions affect outdoor sports performance. This is particularly true in some sports, especially in the sport of sailing, where environmental parameters are extremely influential as they interact directly with strategic analysis of the race area and then with strategic analysis of the performance itself. For these reasons, this research presents an innovative methodology for the strategic analysis of the race course that is based on the integrated assessment of meteorological data measured on the ground, meteorological data measured at sea during the training activities and the results of the CALMET model in hindcasting over a limited scale. The results obtained by the above analysis are then integrated into a graphical representation that provides to coaches and athletes the main strategic directions of the race course in a simple and easy-to-use way. The authors believe that the innovative methodology that has been adopted in the present research may represent a new approach to the integrated analysis of meteorological data on coastal environments. On the other hand, the results of this analysis, if presented with an appropriate technique of meta‑communication adapted to the sport sectors, can be used effectively for the improvement of athletes’ performances.
Kellmann, Michael; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bosquet, Laurent; Brink, Michel; Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Halson, Shona L; Hecksteden, Anne; Heidari, Jahan; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Meeusen, Romain; Mujika, Iñigo; Robazza, Claudio; Skorski, Sabrina; Venter, Ranel; Beckmann, Jürgen
The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sport science for many years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative developments such as underrecovery, nonfunctional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses. Due to the inter- and intraindividual variability of responses to training, competition, and recovery strategies, a diverse set of expertise is required to address the multifaceted phenomena of recovery, performance, and their interactions to transfer knowledge from sport science to sport practice. For this purpose, a symposium on Recovery and Performance was organized at the Technical University Munich Science and Study Center Raitenhaslach (Germany) in September 2016. Various international experts from many disciplines and research areas gathered to discuss and share their knowledge of recovery for performance enhancement in a variety of settings. The results of this meeting are outlined in this consensus statement that provides central definitions, theoretical frameworks, and practical implications as a synopsis of the current knowledge of recovery and performance. While our understanding of the complex relationship between recovery and performance has significantly increased through research, some important issues for future investigations are also elaborated.
Full Text Available Impaired walking increases injury risk during locomotion, including falls-related acute injuries and overuse damage to lower limb joints. Gait impairments seriously restrict voluntary, habitual engagement in injury prevention activities, such as recreational walking and exercise. There is, therefore, an urgent need for technology-based interventions for gait disorders that are cost effective, willingly taken-up, and provide immediate positive effects on walking. Gait control using shoe-insoles has potential as an effective population-based intervention, and new sensor technologies will enhance the effectiveness of these devices. Shoe-insole modifications include: (i ankle joint support for falls prevention; (ii shock absorption by utilising lower-resilience materials at the heel; (iii improving reaction speed by stimulating cutaneous receptors; and (iv preserving dynamic balance via foot centre of pressure control. Using sensor technology, such as in-shoe pressure measurement and motion capture systems, gait can be precisely monitored, allowing us to visualise how shoe-insoles change walking patterns. In addition, in-shoe systems, such as pressure monitoring and inertial sensors, can be incorporated into the insole to monitor gait in real-time. Inertial sensors coupled with in-shoe foot pressure sensors and global positioning systems (GPS could be used to monitor spatiotemporal parameters in real-time. Real-time, online data management will enable ‘big-data’ applications to everyday gait control characteristics.
Full Text Available The regular monitoring of physical fitness and sport-specific performance is important in elite sports to increase the likelihood of success in competition. This study aimed to systematically review and to critically appraise the methodological quality, validation data, and feasibility of the sport-specific performance assessment in Olympic combat sports like amateur boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, and wrestling. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science-Direct up to October 2017. Studies in combat sports were included that reported validation data (e.g., reliability, validity, sensitivity of sport-specific tests. Overall, 39 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The majority of studies (74% contained sample sizes <30 subjects. Nearly, 1/3 of the reviewed studies lacked a sufficient description (e.g., anthropometrics, age, expertise level of the included participants. Seventy-two percent of studies did not sufficiently report inclusion/exclusion criteria of their participants. In 62% of the included studies, the description and/or inclusion of a familiarization session (s was either incomplete or not existent. Sixty-percent of studies did not report any details about the stability of testing conditions. Approximately half of the studies examined reliability measures of the included sport-specific tests (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43–1.00. Content validity was addressed in all included studies, criterion validity (only the concurrent aspect of it in approximately half of the studies with correlation coefficients ranging from r = −0.41 to 0.90. Construct validity was reported in 31% of the included studies and predictive validity in only one. Test sensitivity was addressed in 13% of the included studies. The majority of studies (64% ignored and/or provided incomplete information on test feasibility and methodological limitations of the sport
Assairi, Bandar; Holmes, Violeta
This paper presents the development of an iShoes system for blind and visually impaired people. The iShoes system utilizes a microcontroller with sound output interfaced with ultrasonic sensors. The prototype system is designed to be specifically mounted on/in the shoes to aid navigation in urban routes. The ultrasonic transducers determine the range from an obstacle and then play an audio message to reflect the distance from the target. This system will assist blind and visually impaired peo...
Cheron, Guy; Petit, Géraldine; Cheron, Julian; Leroy, Axelle; Cebolla, Anita; Cevallos, Carlos; Petieau, Mathieu; Hoellinger, Thomas; Zarka, David; Clarinval, Anne-Marie; Dan, Bernard
Brain dynamics is at the basis of top performance accomplishment in sports. The search for neural biomarkers of performance remains a challenge in movement science and sport psychology. The non-invasive nature of high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recording has made it a most promising avenue for providing quantitative feedback to practitioners and coaches. Here, we review the current relevance of the main types of EEG oscillations in order to trace a perspective for future practical applications of EEG and event-related potentials (ERP) in sport. In this context, the hypotheses of unified brain rhythms and continuity between wake and sleep states should provide a functional template for EEG biomarkers in sport. The oscillations in the thalamo-cortical and hippocampal circuitry including the physiology of the place cells and the grid cells provide a frame of reference for the analysis of delta, theta, beta, alpha (incl.mu), and gamma oscillations recorded in the space field of human performance. Based on recent neuronal models facilitating the distinction between the different dynamic regimes (selective gating and binding) in these different oscillations we suggest an integrated approach articulating together the classical biomechanical factors (3D movements and EMG) and the high-density EEG and ERP signals to allow finer mathematical analysis to optimize sport performance, such as microstates, coherency/directionality analysis and neural generators.
Full Text Available Brain dynamics is at the basis of top performance accomplishment in sports. The search for neural biomarkers of performance remains a challenge in movement science and sport psychology. The noninvasive nature of high-density electroencephalography (EEG recording has made it a most promising avenue for providing quantitative feedback to practitioners and coaches. Here, we review the current relevance of the main types of EEG oscillations in order to trace a perspective for future practical applications of EEG and event-related potentials (ERP in sport. In this context, the hypotheses of unified brain rhythms and continuity between wake and sleep states should provide a functional template for EEG biomarkers in sport. The oscillations in the thalamo-cortical and hippocampal circuitry including the physiology of the place cells and the grid cells provide a frame of reference for the analysis of delta, theta, beta, alpha (incl.mu and gamma oscillations recorded in the space field of human performance. Based on recent neuronal models facilitating the distinction between the different dynamic regimes (selective gating and binding in these different oscillations we suggest an integrated approach articulating together the classical biomechanical factors (3D movements and EMG and the high-density EEG and ERP signals to allow finer mathematical analysis to optimize sport performance, such as microstates, coherency/directionality analysis and neural generators.
Cheron, Guy; Petit, Géraldine; Cheron, Julian; Leroy, Axelle; Cebolla, Anita; Cevallos, Carlos; Petieau, Mathieu; Hoellinger, Thomas; Zarka, David; Clarinval, Anne-Marie; Dan, Bernard
Brain dynamics is at the basis of top performance accomplishment in sports. The search for neural biomarkers of performance remains a challenge in movement science and sport psychology. The non-invasive nature of high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recording has made it a most promising avenue for providing quantitative feedback to practitioners and coaches. Here, we review the current relevance of the main types of EEG oscillations in order to trace a perspective for future practical applications of EEG and event-related potentials (ERP) in sport. In this context, the hypotheses of unified brain rhythms and continuity between wake and sleep states should provide a functional template for EEG biomarkers in sport. The oscillations in the thalamo-cortical and hippocampal circuitry including the physiology of the place cells and the grid cells provide a frame of reference for the analysis of delta, theta, beta, alpha (incl.mu), and gamma oscillations recorded in the space field of human performance. Based on recent neuronal models facilitating the distinction between the different dynamic regimes (selective gating and binding) in these different oscillations we suggest an integrated approach articulating together the classical biomechanical factors (3D movements and EMG) and the high-density EEG and ERP signals to allow finer mathematical analysis to optimize sport performance, such as microstates, coherency/directionality analysis and neural generators. PMID:26955362
Fitri, M.; Sultoni, K.; Salamuddin, N.; Taib Harun, Mohd
Participation in sports activities was also influenced by sociological factors. This indirectly allows individuals more adaptable in high performance sports compared with individuals who did not engage in sports activities. This study aims to identify high performance sports athletes Muslim women in Indonesia and Malaysia in the sport. The quantitative approach was carried out by the study population consisted of Muslim women athletes Malaysia and Indonesia, which joined The 3rd Islamic Solidarity Games. The study sample consisted of 58 Malaysia and 57 Indonesia. Descriptive analysis also shows that sports activities like Muslim women athletes in the ranking of badminton (Malaysia 46.5% and Indonesia 38.6%), swimming (Malaysia 33.3% and Indonesia 57.9%), sports (Malaysia 27.5% and Indonesia at 22.8%), and balls volleyball (Malaysia and Indonesia 17.2%, 29.8%). The results of this study can serve as a guide for the government to make sports facilities more attractive community of Muslim women.
Park, Sang-Kyoon; Lam, Wing-Kai; Yoon, Sukhoon; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Ryu, Jiseon
This study investigated whether an increase in the forefoot bending stiffness of a badminton shoe would positively affect agility, comfort and biomechanical variables during badminton-specific movements. Three shoe conditions with identical shoe upper and sole designs with different bending stiffness (Flexible, Regular and Stiff) were used. Elite male badminton players completed an agility test on a standard badminton court involving consecutive lunges in six directions, a comfort test performed by a pair of participants conducting a game-like practice trial and a biomechanics test involving a random assignment of consecutive right forward lunges. No significant differences were found in agility time and biomechanical variables among the three shoes. The players wearing the shoe with a flexible forefoot outsole demonstrated a decreased perception of comfort in the forefoot cushion compared to regular and stiffer conditions during the comfort test (p badminton-specific tasks. It was concluded that an optimisation of forefoot structure and materials in badminton shoes should consider the individual's perception to maximise footwear comfort in performance.
Jack, Robert A; Evans, David C; Echo, Anthony; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Varner, Kevin E; Harris, Joshua D
Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of athletic pubalgia (AP), also known as sports hernia, once underrecognized and undertreated in professional football, are becoming more common. Surgery as the final treatment for sports hernia when nonsurgical treatment fails remains controversial. Given the money involved and popularity of the National Football League (NFL), it is important to understand surgical outcomes in this patient population. After AP surgery, players would: (1) return to sport (RTS) at a greater than 90% rate, (2) play fewer games for fewer years than matched controls, (3) have no difference in performance compared with before AP surgery, and (4) have no difference in performance versus matched controls. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Internet-based injury reports identified players who underwent AP surgery from January 1996 to August 2015. Demographic and performance data were collected for each player. A 1:1 matched control group and an index year analog were identified. Control and case performance scores were calculated using a standardized scoring system. Groups were compared using paired Student t tests. Fifty-six NFL players (57 AP surgeries) were analyzed (mean age, 28.2 ± 3.1 years; mean years in NFL at surgery, 5.4 ± 3.2). Fifty-three players were able to RTS. Controls were in the NFL longer ( P .05) difference in pre- versus post-AP surgery performance scores and no significant ( P > .05) difference in postoperative performance scores versus controls post-index. There was a high RTS rate after AP surgery without a significant difference in postoperative performance, though career length and games per season after AP surgery were significantly less than that of matched controls.
Moghaddam, Seyed Reza M; Acharya, Arjun; Redfern, Mark S; Beschorner, Kurt E
Understanding the frictional interactions between the shoe and floor during walking is critical to prevention of slips and falls, particularly when contaminants are present. A multiscale finite element model of shoe-floor-contaminant friction was developed that takes into account the surface and material characteristics of the shoe and flooring in microscopic and macroscopic scales. The model calculates shoe-floor coefficient of friction (COF) in boundary lubrication regime where effects of adhesion friction and hydrodynamic pressures are negligible. The validity of model outputs was assessed by comparing model predictions to the experimental results from mechanical COF testing. The multiscale model estimates were linearly related to the experimental results (p < 0.0001). The model predicted 73% of variability in experimentally-measured shoe-floor-contaminant COF. The results demonstrate the potential of multiscale finite element modeling in aiding slip-resistant shoe and flooring design and reducing slip and fall injuries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the relationship between an endurance paddle-sport athlete’s total functional movement screening (FMS score and individual race performance. Fifty elite level endurance canoeists and kayakers completed the seven-stage FMS protocol prior to the 2016 United States Canoe and Kayak Association National Championship race. Time taken to finish the race was then associated to overall FMS score and respective sub-scores. Total FMS score and various sub-scores were significantly related to race performance. Female and male athletes differed in which sub-scores were shown to be significantly correlated to finishing time. Outcomes from this study indicate that limitations in functional movement are related to endurance paddle-sport race performance.
Sobhani, Sobhan; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Bredeweg, Steven; Kluitenberg, Bas; Postema, Klaas; Hijmans, Juha M.; Dekker, Rienk
Rocker profile shoes (rocker shoes) are one of the treatment options of metatarsalgia and forefoot stress fractures. The efficacy of rocker shoes in unloading the forefoot pressure has been shown in walking. In running, however, the effect of rocker shoes on forefoot pressure is unknown. Eighteen
De Vries, Astrid J; Koolhaas, Wendy; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ron L; Nieuwenhuis, Kari; Van Der Worp, Henk; Brouwer, Sandra; Van Den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Greater insight into sports and work performance of athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT) will help establish the severity of this common overuse injury. Primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PT on sports and work performance. Seventy seven active athletes with PT (50 males; age 28.1 ± 8.2 years; Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment Patella 56.4 ± 12.3) participated in this survey. Sports performance, work ability and work productivity were assessed using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center overuse injury questionnaire, the single-item Work Ability Index and the Quantity and Quality questionnaire, respectively. Reduced sports performance was reported by 55% of the participants; 16% reported reduced work ability and 36% decreased work productivity, with 23% and 58%, respectively, for physically demanding work. This study shows that the impact of PT on sports and work performance is substantial and stresses the importance of developing preventive measures.
Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Luc H; Ribbers, Gerard M
To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Clinical experimental study. University Medical Centre. Nineteen stroke patients (12 males; mean age 55 years (standard deviation (SD) 10 years); mean time post onset 3.6 months (SD 1.4 months)) with a spastic paresis of the lower extremity. Functional mobility was assessed with the timed up and go test, walking speed and gait characteristics were measured with clinical gait analysis and performed with and without a verbal dual task. Patient satisfaction was determined with a questionnaire. Walking with the high orthopaedic shoe resulted in improved functional mobility (22%; pshoes. The dual task interfered with functional mobility during walking. The interference was equally big for normal shoes as for the orthopaedic shoe. Patients evaluated walking with the high orthopaedic shoe as an improvement (psafety, walking distance and walking speed. In the early recovery phase after stroke, when regaining walking ability, a temporary high orthopaedic shoe can improve hemiplegic gait, even with dual task interference. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Massage is a popular treatment choice of athletes, coaches, and sports physical therapists. Despite its purported benefits and frequent use, evidence demonstrating its efficacy is scarce. To identify current literature relating to sports massage and its role in effecting an athlete's psychological readiness, in enhancing sports performance, in recovery from exercise and competition, and in the treatment of sports related musculoskeletal injuries. Electronic databases were used to identify papers relevant to this review. The following keywords were searched: massage, sports injuries, athletic injuries, physical therapy, rehabilitation, delayed onset muscle soreness, sports psychology, sports performance, sports massage, sports recovery, soft tissue mobilization, deep transverse friction massage, pre-event, and post exercise. RESEARCH STUDIES PERTAINING TO THE FOLLOWING GENERAL CATEGORIES WERE IDENTIFIED AND REVIEWED: pre-event (physiological and psychological variables), sports performance, recovery, and rehabilitation. Despite the fact clinical research has been performed, a poor appreciation exists for the appropriate clinical use of sports massage. Additional studies examining the physiological and psychological effects of sports massage are necessary in order to assist the sports physical therapist in developing and implementing clinically significant evidence based programs or treatments.
Gardner, Frank L; Moore, Zella E
Since mindfulness-based and acceptance-based practice models were first conceptualized and applied in sport in an attempt to enhance performance and overall well-being of athletes and performers, these state-of-the-art theoretical and practice models have substantially broadened our knowledge base and have been successfully incorporated into sport and performance practice domains worldwide. Evolving from a sound empirical foundation, mindfulness-based and acceptance-based models in sport psychology have accumulated a strong basic and applied empirical foundation. In the nearly 20 years since their incorporation in the context of sport, empirical findings have demonstrated efficacious outcomes associated with performance and personal well-being, as well as supported their theorized mechanisms of change. Particularly as sport and performance environments increasingly call upon practitioners to provide more comprehensive care to clientele, including a range of care from performance enhancement and maintenance, to general personal well-being, to subclinical and clinical issues, mindfulness-based and acceptance-based practitioners have the tools to offer robust, empirically informed interventions that can enhance skills and quality of life, and/or ameliorate personal struggles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lilley, Kim; Stiles, Vicky; Dixon, Sharon
This study compared the running gait of mature and young females, and investigated the effect of a motion control shoe. First, it was hypothesised that in a neutral shoe, mature females would display significantly greater rearfoot eversion, knee internal rotation and external adductor moments when compared to a younger group. Secondly, the motion control shoe would reduce rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation in both groups. Thirdly it was hypothesised that the motion control shoe would increase knee external adductor moment, through an increase in knee varus and moment arm. 15 mature (40-60 years) and 15 young (18-25 years) females performed 10 running trials at 3.5ms(-1)±5% over a force platform. Two shoes were tested, the Adidas Supernova Glide (neutral), and the Adidas Supernova Sequence (motion control). Ankle and knee joint dynamics were analysed for the right leg, and the mean of ten trials was calculated. Joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the neutral condition, mature females presented greater peak rearfoot eversion, knee internal rotation, and external adductor moments than young females (p<0.05). A motion control shoe significantly reduced peak rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation among both groups (p<0.05). No between shoe differences in knee external adductor moment were observed. A motion control shoe is recommended to reduce risk of injury associated with rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation in mature females. However since the knee external adductor moment is a variable commonly associated with medial knee loading it is suggested that alternative design features are required to influence this moment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dib, Mansour Y; Smith, Jay; Bernhardt, Kathie A; Kaufman, Kenton R; Miles, Kevin A
To determine the effect of temperature changes on the shock attenuation of 4 running shoe shock absorption systems. Prospective. Motion analysis laboratory. The shock attenuation of 4 different running shoes representing common shock absorption systems (Nike Air Triax, Asics Gel Nimbus IV, Adidas a3 cushioning, Adidas Supernova cushion) was measured at ambient temperatures of -20 degrees C, -10 degrees C, 0 degrees C, +10 degrees C, +20 degrees C, +30 degrees C, +40 degrees C, and +50 degrees C. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to determine differences between shoes. Shock attenuation as indicated by peak deceleration (g) measured by a mechanical impactor following ASTM Standard F1614-99. Shock attenuation decreased significantly with reduced temperature for each shoe tested. The Adidas a3 shoe exhibited significantly higher peak decelerations (lower shock attenuation) at cold temperatures compared with the other shoes. Cold ambient temperatures significantly reduce the shock attenuation of commonly used running shoes. These findings have important clinical implications for individuals training in extreme weather environments, particularly those with a history of lower limb overuse injuries.
Button, Keith D; Braman, Jerrod E; Davison, Mark A; Wei, Feng; Schaeffer, Maureen C; Haut, Roger C
While previous studies have investigated the effect of shoe-surface interaction on injury risk, few studies have examined the effect of rotational stiffness of the shoe. The hypothesis of the current study was that ankles externally rotated to failure in shoes with low rotational stiffness would allow more talus eversion than those in shoes with a higher rotational stiffness, resulting in less severe injury. Twelve (six pairs) cadaver lower extremities were externally rotated to gross failure while positioned in 20 deg of pre-eversion and 20 deg of predorsiflexion by fixing the distal end of the foot, axially loading the proximal tibia, and internally rotating the tibia. One ankle in each pair was constrained by an American football shoe with a stiff upper, while the other was constrained by an American football shoe with a flexible upper. Experimental bone motions were input into specimen-specific computational models to examine levels of ligament elongation to help understand mechanisms of ankle joint failure. Ankles in flexible shoes allowed 6.7±2.4 deg of talus eversion during rotation, significantly greater than the 1.7±1.0 deg for ankles in stiff shoes (p = 0.01). The significantly greater eversion in flexible shoes was potentially due to a more natural response of the ankle during rotation, possibly affecting the injuries that were produced. All ankles failed by either medial ankle injury or syndesmotic injury, or a combination of both. Complex (more than one ligament or bone) injuries were noted in 4 of 6 ankles in stiff shoes and 1 of 6 ankles in flexible shoes. Ligament elongations from the computational model validated the experimental injury data. The current study suggested flexibility (or rotational stiffness) of the shoe may play an important role in both the severity of ankle injuries for athletes.
Young, Warren B
The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.
Fuller, Joel T; Buckley, Jonathan D; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Thewlis, Dominic
Minimalist shoes have been suggested as a way to alter running biomechanics to improve running performance and reduce injuries. However, to date, researchers have only considered the effect of minimalist shoes at slow running speeds. To determine if runners change foot-strike pattern and alter the distribution of mechanical work at the knee and ankle joints when running at a fast speed in minimalist shoes compared with conventional running shoes. Crossover study. Research laboratory. Twenty-six trained runners (age = 30.0 ± 7.9 years [age range, 18-40 years], height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass = 75.3 ± 8.2 kg, weekly training distance = 27 ± 15 km) who ran with a habitual rearfoot foot-strike pattern and had no experience running in minimalist shoes. Participants completed overground running trials at 18 km/h in minimalist and conventional shoes. Sagittal-plane kinematics and joint work at the knee and ankle joints were computed using 3-dimensional kinematic and ground reaction force data. Foot-strike pattern was classified as rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot strike based on strike index and ankle angle at initial contact. We observed no difference in foot-strike classification between shoes (χ 2 1 = 2.29, P = .13). Ankle angle at initial contact was less (2.46° versus 7.43°; t 25 = 3.34, P = .003) and strike index was greater (35.97% versus 29.04%; t 25 = 2.38, P = .03) when running in minimalist shoes compared with conventional shoes. We observed greater negative (52.87 J versus 42.46 J; t 24 = 2.29, P = .03) and positive work (68.91 J versus 59.08 J; t 24 = 2.65, P = .01) at the ankle but less negative (59.01 J versus 67.02 J; t 24 = 2.25, P = .03) and positive work (40.37 J versus 47.09 J; t 24 = 2.11, P = .046) at the knee with minimalist shoes compared with conventional shoes. Running in minimalist shoes at a fast speed caused a redistribution of work from the knee to the ankle joint. This finding suggests that runners changing from conventional to minimalist
Clara Maria Silvestre Monteiro de Freitas
Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to discuss the psychosocial factors that inhibit or stimulate performance, presenting training suggestions that include interventions to enhance performance. In addition, sports performance was discussed from the perspective of quality of life. A descriptive quantitative-cum-qualitative field method was employed. A total of 103 athletes engaged in team sports from five institutions in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, participated in the study. The WHOQOL, FISSB and FISS-J questionnaires were used. The following results were obtained: “team spirit is extremely important for winning” (98.0% and “satisfaction in working as a team” (95.0%. With respect to situations that inhibit performance, the most representative findings were “poor refereeing” (81.4% and “losing a game practically already won” (75.7%. From the quality of life perspective, the main indicators were “my life is meaningful” (92.2% and “a good quality of life rating” (89.2%. These analytical categories indicate the need for sports training to be carried out from a humanistic standpoint in which the training technology interacts with sociopsychological needs, thus potentiating the physical, technical and tactical qualities of the athletes.
Guy eCheron; Guy eCheron; Geraldine ePetit; Julian eCheron; Axelle eLeroy; Axelle eLeroy; Ana Maria Cebolla; Carlos eCevallos; Mathieu ePetieau; David eZarka; Thomas eHoellinger; Anne-Marie eClarinval; Bernard eDan; Bernard eDan
Brain dynamics is at the basis of top performance accomplishment in sports. The search for neural biomarkers of performance remains a challenge in movement science and sport psychology. The noninvasive nature of high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recording has made it a most promising avenue for providing quantitative feedback to practitioners and coaches. Here, we review the current relevance of the main types of EEG oscillations in order to trace a perspective for future practical ap...
Full Text Available Objective: analysis of static-dynamic performance of the musculoskeletal system of athletes of winter sports. Materials and Methods. The evaluation of static-dynamic characteristics of the musculoskeletal system. Results. The highest percentage of load-balancing the body while maintaining a static position was observed in the group of athletes of speed and power of the sport and made up, the lowest — in athletes clearing difficult sport. Significant shift in the distribution of body load were detected in athletes clearing difficult sport in the speed and power sport, none of the athletes of the deviations were found. Conclusion. The survey revealed the features of the coordination ability and load balancing body in athletes of different sports: cycling, hard-house and speed-power.
Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.
Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.
Davis, Irene S
The running shoe has gone through significant changes since its inception. The purpose of this paper is to review these changes, the majority of which have occurred over the past 50 years. Running footwear began as very minimal, then evolved to become highly cushioned and supportive. However, over the past 5 years, there has been a reversal of this trend, with runners seeking more minimal shoes that allow their feet more natural motion. This abrupt shift toward footwear without cushioning and support has led to reports of injuries associated with minimal footwear. In response to this, the running footwear industry shifted again toward the development of lightweight, partial minimal shoes that offer some support and cushioning. In this paper, studies comparing the mechanics between running in minimal, partial minimal, and traditional shoes are reviewed. The implications for injuries in all 3 conditions are examined. The use of minimal footwear in other populations besides runners is discussed. Finally, areas for future research into minimal footwear are suggested.
De Vries, Astrid J; Koolhaas, Wendy; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ron L.; Nieuwenhuis, Kari; Van Der Worp, Henk; Brouwer, Sandra; Van Den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Greater insight into sports and work performance of athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT) will help establish the severity of this common overuse injury. Primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PT on sports and work performance. Seventy seven active athletes with PT (50 males; age 28.1 +/- 8.2years; Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment Patella 56.4 +/- 12.3) participated in this survey. Sports performance, work ability and work productivity were assessed using the Osl...
Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.
Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes i...
Cheron, Guy; Petit, Géraldine; Cheron, Julian; Leroy, Axelle; Cebolla, Anita; Cevallos, Carlos; Petieau, Mathieu; Hoellinger, Thomas; Zarka, David; Clarinval, Anne-Marie; Dan, Bernard
Brain dynamics is at the basis of top performance accomplishment in sports. The search for neural biomarkers of performance remains a challenge in movement science and sport psychology. The non-invasive nature of high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recording has made it a most promising avenue for providing quantitative feedback to practitioners and coaches. Here, we review the current relevance of the main types of EEG oscillations in order to trace a perspective for future practical a...
Full Text Available Floor storage systems are used in the shoe industry to store fashion products of seasonal collections of low quantity and high variety. Since space is valuable and order picking must be sped up, stacking of shoeboxes should be optimized. The problem is modelled based on shoe features (model, type, colour, and size and with the goal of forcing similar boxes into locations close to each other in order to improve workers’ ability to retrieve orders fast. The model is encoded in Constraint Logic Programming and solved comparing different strategies, also using Large Neighbourhood Search. Simulation experiments are run to evaluate how the stacking model affects picking performance.
Choking research in sport has suggested that an athlete's tendency to choke, versus give a better than usual (i.e., "clutch") performance depends on his or her personality, as well as on situational influences, such as a reliance on explicit (versus implicit) knowledge when pressured. The current study integrated these hypotheses and tested a structural equation model (SEM) to predict sport performance under pressure. Two hundred and one participants attempted two sets of 15 basketball free throws, and were videotaped during their second set of shots as a manipulation of pressure. Results of the model suggest that "reinvesting" attention in the task leads to greater anxiety (cognitive and somatic), which then predicts a higher level of self-focus; self-focus, then, did not lead to improved performance under pressure, whereas feelings of self-reported "perceived control" did help performance. Implications for measurement of these constructs, and their relationships with performance, are discussed.
Zhan, Huijing; Shi, Boxin; Kot, Alex C
Cross-domain shoe image retrieval is a challenging problem, because the query photo from the street domain (daily life scenario) and the reference photo in the online domain (online shop images) have significant visual differences due to the viewpoint and scale variation, self-occlusion, and cluttered background. This paper proposes the Semantic Hierarchy Of attributE Convolutional Neural Network (SHOE-CNN) with a three-level feature representation for discriminative shoe feature expression and efficient retrieval. The SHOE-CNN with its newly designed loss function systematically merges semantic attributes of closer visual appearances to prevent shoe images with the obvious visual differences being confused with each other; the features extracted from image, region, and part levels effectively match the shoe images across different domains. We collect a large-scale shoe dataset composed of 14341 street domain and 12652 corresponding online domain images with fine-grained attributes to train our network and evaluate our system. The top-20 retrieval accuracy improves significantly over the solution with the pre-trained CNN features.
Gebauer, D; Cziuk, N
Biomechanical loading of total knee and hip replacement is one of the essential factors which limit the longterm-function of the implant components. A simple and cheap safety provision to avoid mechanical overload seems to be wearing of shock-absorbing shoes. The performed study analyzes the effect of that type of shoe. For judgement the parameters: energy absorption while slow shock, damping while hard shock and safety against sliding were taken. The experiments showed the shock-absorbing shoe is an easy, inexpensive, but very efficient protection measure to improve the longterm-stability of endoprosthesis of the lower extremity.
Popa, E.; Pascu, L.; Socalici, A.; Lascufoni, A.
Brake shoes wear appears as a normal exploitation process and depends both on the braking force and on the material the shoe is made of. Brake shoes are made of molded sulfurous cast iron. The industrial research and experiments aim at determining the specific characteristics of the phosphorous cast iron (chemical and structural homogeneity, hardness) and their optimization in view of improving the quality of the brake shoes meant for the rolling stock
Verma, Santosh K; Courtney, Theodore K; Corns, Helen L; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J
Slips and falls are a leading cause of injury at work. Several studies have indicated that slip-resistant shoes can reduce the risk of occupational slips and falls. Few studies, however, have examined the determinants of slip-resistant shoe use. This study examined the individual and workplace factors associated with slip-resistant shoe use. 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in the USA participated in a study of workplace slipping. Demographic and job characteristic information about each participant was collected. Restaurant managers provided information on whether slip-resistant shoes were provided and paid for by the employer and whether any guidance was given regarding slip-resistant shoe use when they were not provided. Kitchen floor coefficient of friction was measured. Slip-resistant status of the shoes was determined by noting the presence of a 'slip-resistant' marking on the sole. Poisson regression with robust SE was used to calculate prevalence ratios. 320 participants wore slip-resistant shoes (67%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lowest in 15-19-year age group. Women were more likely to wear slip-resistant shoes (prevalence ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31). The prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lower when no guidance regarding slip-resistant shoes was given as compared to when they were provided by the employer (prevalence ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79). Education level, job tenure and the mean coefficient of friction had no significant effects on the use of slip-resistant shoes. Provision of slip-resistant shoes was the strongest predictor of their use. Given their effectiveness and low cost, employers should consider providing slip-resistant shoes at work.
Mikołajec, Kazimierz; Maszczyk, Adam; Zając, Tomasz
The main goal of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best determine sports level in the National Basketball Association (NBA) league. The research material consisted of all NBA game statistics at the turn of eight seasons (2003-11) and included 52 performance variables. Through detailed analysis the variables with high influence on game effectiveness were selected for final procedures. It has been proven that a limited number of factors, mostly offensive, determines sports performance in the NBA. The most critical indicators are: Win%, Offensive EFF, 3rd Quarter PPG, Win% CG, Avg Fauls and Avg Steals. In practical applications these results connected with top teams and elite players may help coaches to design better training programs.
Marwan El Ghoch
Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of
El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo
Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on
Curtis, Claudia K; Laudner, Kevin G; McLoda, Todd A; McCaw, Steven T
Context: Much of the recent focus in shoe design and engineering has been on improving athletic performance. Currently, this improvement has been in the form of “cushioned column systems,” which are spring-like in design and located under the heel of the shoe in place of a conventional heel counter. Concerns have been raised about whether this design alteration has increased the incidence of ankle sprains. Objective: To examine the incidence of lateral ankle sprains in collegiate basketball players with regard to shoe design. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Certified athletic trainers at 1014 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-affiliated schools sponsoring basketball during the 2005–2006 regular season were notified of an online questionnaire. Athletic trainers at 22 of the 1014 schools participated. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 230 basketball players (141 males, 89 females; age = 20.2 ± 1.5 years) from NCAA Division I–III basketball programs sustained lateral ankle sprains. Main Outcome Measure(s): Ankle sprain information and type of shoe worn (cushioned column or noncushioned column) were collected via online survey. The incidence of lateral ankle sprains and type of shoes worn were compared using a chi-square analysis. Results: No difference was noted in ankle sprain incidence between groups (χ2 = 2.44, P = .20, relative risk = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.32, 6.86). The incidence of ankle sprains was 1.33 per 1000 exposures in the cushioned column group (95% CI = 0.62, 3.51) and 1.96 per 1000 exposures in the noncushioned column group (95% CI = 0.51, 4.22). Conclusions: No increased incidence of ankle sprains was associated with shoe design. PMID:18523571
Mohtadi, Nicholas G; Chan, Denise S
Physicians counseling athletes on the prognosis of sport-specific performance outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) depend on the published literature. However, critical appraisal of the validity and biases in these studies is required to understand how ACLR affects an athlete's ability to return to sport, the athlete's sport-specific performance, and his or her ability to achieve preinjury levels of performance. This review identifies the published prognostic studies evaluating sport-specific performance outcomes after ACLR. A risk of bias assessment and summaries of return to sport and career longevity results are provided for each included study. Systematic review. Electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PUBMED) were searched via a defined search strategy with no limits, to identify relevant studies for inclusion in the review. A priori defined eligibility criteria included studies measuring sport-specific performance within an athlete's sport, before and after primary ACLR. Reference lists of eligible studies were hand-searched for additional relevant studies. Data extraction was performed by use of a standardized spreadsheet. Each included study was assessed by use of 6 bias domains of the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool to critically appraise study participation, study attrition, prognostic factors, outcome measurement, confounders, and statistical analysis and reporting. Two authors independently performed each stage of the review and reached consensus through discussion. Fifteen pertinent prognostic studies evaluated sport-specific performance outcomes and/or return to play after ACLR for athletes participating in competitive soccer, football, ice hockey, basketball, Alpine ski, X-Games ski and snowboarding, and baseball. Twelve of these studies were considered to have a high level of bias. This review demonstrated that most high-performance
Thompson, Trevor; Steffert, Tony; Ros, Tomas; Leach, Joseph; Gruzelier, John
One approach to understanding processes that underlie skilled performing has been to study electrical brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG). A notorious problem with EEG is that genuine cerebral data is often contaminated by artifacts of non-cerebral origin. Unfortunately, such artifacts tend to be exacerbated when the subject is in motion, meaning that obtaining reliable data during exercise is inherently problematic. These problems may explain the limited number of studies using EEG as a methodological tool in the sports sciences. This paper discusses how empirical studies have generally tackled the problem of movement artifact by adopting alternative paradigms which avoid recording during actual physical exertion. Moreover, the specific challenges that motion presents to obtaining reliable EEG data are discussed along with practical and computational techniques to confront these challenges. Finally, as EEG recording in sports is often underpinned by a desire to optimise performance, a brief review of EEG-biofeedback and peak performance studies is also presented. A knowledge of practical aspects of EEG recording along with the advent of new technology and increasingly sophisticated processing models offer a promising approach to minimising, if perhaps not entirely circumventing, the problem of obtaining reliable EEG data during motion.
Bishop, Chris; Turner, Anthony; Read, Paul
The prevalence of inter-limb asymmetries has been reported in numerous studies across a wide range of sports and physical qualities; however, few have analysed their effects on physical and sports performance. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the Medline and SPORT Discus databases, with all articles required to meet a specified criteria based on a quality review. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria, relating participant asymmetry scores to physical and sports performance measures. The findings of this systematic review indicate that inter-limb differences in strength may be detrimental to jumping, kicking and cycling performance. When inter-limb asymmetries are quantified during jumping based exercises, they have been primarily used to examine their association with change of direction speed with mixed findings. Inter-limb asymmetries have also been quantified in anthropometry, sprinting, dynamic balance and sport-specific actions, again with inconsistent findings. However, all results have been reported using associative analysis with physical or sport performance metrics with no randomised controlled trials included. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanisms that underpin inter-limb differences and the magnitude of performance changes that can be accounted for by these asymmetries.
The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes' dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year, and 3rd year students). A…
Full Text Available Summary Introduction: The use of an improper shoe size is common in older people and is believed to have a detrimental effect on the quality of life related to foot health. The objective is to describe and compare, in a sample of participants, the impact of shoes that fit properly or improperly, as well as analyze the scores related to foot health and health overall. Method: A sample of 64 participants, with a mean age of 75.3±7.9 years, attended an outpatient center where self-report data was recorded, the measurements of the size of the feet and footwear were determined and the scores compared between the group that wears the correct size of shoes and another group of individuals who do not wear the correct size of shoes, using the Spanish version of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire. Results: The group wearing an improper shoe size showed poorer quality of life regarding overall health and specifically foot health. Differences between groups were evaluated using a t-test for independent samples resulting statistically significant (p<0.05 for the dimension of pain, function, footwear, overall foot health, and social function. Conclusion: Inadequate shoe size has a significant negative impact on quality of life related to foot health. The degree of negative impact seems to be associated with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI.
Full Text Available The present paper describes a case of shoe contact dermatitis from DMF identified by the Poison Control Centre of Milan (PCCM, Italy, in 2009. A 35 year old woman was affected by irritant reactions while wearing shoes contaminated with DMF. Exposure to these shoes was limited to a 8 hour period and was not repeated. In the following days the patient suffered feet blistering and swelling limited to the area in contact with shoe vamp. Topical application of cortisone did not prevent development of bullous eczema. After 20 days from exposure, the lesions were healed but the skin remained red, dry and very sensitive. Chemical analyses of shoes quantified an average concentration of DMF of 383 mg/kg. The patient refused to be patch tested. The observation here reported confirm that DMF should be considered a possible causal agent in shoe contact dermatitis. Documentation of cases exposed to this chemical provide a relevant support to characterize clinical manifestations and to identifying contaminated articles.
Herbaut, Alexis; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie; Barbier, Franck; Gillet, Christophe; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Chavet, Pascale
Compared to traditional tennis shoes, using 0-drop shoes was shown to induce an immediate switch from rear- to forefoot strike pattern to perform an open stance tennis forehand for 30% of children tennis players. The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term effects of a gradual reduction in the shoe drop on the biomechanics of children tennis players performing open stance forehands. Thirty children tennis players participated in 2 laboratory biomechanical test sessions (intermediate: +4 months and final: +8 months) after an inclusion visit where they were randomly assigned to control (CON) or experimental (EXP) group. CON received 12-mm-drop shoes twice, whereas EXP received 8 mm then 4-mm-drop shoes. Strike index indicated that all CON were rearfoot strikers in intermediate and final test sessions. All EXP were rearfoot strikers in intermediate test session, but half the group switched towards a forefoot strike pattern in final test session. This switch resulted in a decreased loading rate of the ground reaction force (-73%, p = .005) but increased peak ankle plantarflexors moment (+47%, p = .050) and peak ankle power absorption (+107%, p = .005) for these participants compared with CON. Biomechanical changes associated with the long-term use of partial minimalist shoes suggest a reduction in heel compressive forces but an increase in Achilles tendon tensile forces.
Dick, Randall W; Berning, Jacqueline R; Dawson, William; Ginsburg, Richard D; Miller, Clay; Shybut, George T
Performing artists are athletes. Like athletes, performing artists practice and/or perform most days with little off season, play through pain, "compete" in challenging environments, and risk career-threatening injury. Athletes and the Arts is a multiorganizational initiative linking the sport athlete and musician/performing artist communities. Performing artists of all ages and genre are an underserved population related to medical coverage, care, injury prevention, performance enhancement, and wellness. Sports medicine professionals are a valuable resource for filling this gap by applying existing knowledge of treating sport athletes (nutrition, injury prevention) while gaining a better understanding of performers' unique needs (hearing loss, focal dystonia) and environment. These applications can occur in the clinical setting and through developing organizational policies. By better understanding the needs of the performing arts population and applying existing concepts and knowledge, sports medicine professionals can expand their impact to a new patient base that desperately needs support.
Esculier, Jean-Francois; Dubois, Blaise; Dionne, Clermont E; Leblond, Jean; Roy, Jean-Sébastien
While minimalist running shoes may have an influence on running biomechanics and on the incidence of overuse injuries, the term "minimalist" is currently used without standardisation. The objectives of this study were to reach a consensus on a standard definition of minimalist running shoes, and to develop and validate a rating scale that could be used to determine the degree of minimalism of running shoes, the Minimalist Index (MI). For this modified Delphi study, 42 experts from 11 countries completed four electronic questionnaires on an optimal definition of minimalist shoes and on elements to include within the MI. Once MI was developed following consensus, 85 participants subjectively ranked randomly assigned footwear models from the most to the least minimalist and rated their degree of minimalism using visual analog scales (VAS), before evaluating the same footwear models using MI. A subsample of thirty participants reassessed the same shoes on another occasion. Construct validity and inter- and intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]; Gwet's AC1) of MI were evaluated. The following definition of minimalist shoes was agreed upon by 95 % of participants: "Footwear providing minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot due to its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices". Characteristics to be included in MI were weight, flexibility, heel to toe drop, stack height and motion control/stability devices, each subscale carrying equal weighing (20 %) on final score. Total MI score was highly correlated with VAS (r = 0.91). A significant rank effect (p minimalism, and may help to decrease injuries related to footwear transition.
Swann, Christian; Crust, Lee; Jackman, Patricia; Vella, Stewart A; Allen, Mark S; Keegan, Richard
Clutch performance is improved performance under pressure. However, little research has examined the psychological state experienced by athletes in these situations. Therefore, this study qualitatively examined the subjective experience underlying clutch performance across a range of sports (e.g., team, individual) and standards (Olympic to recreational athletes). Sixteen athletes (M age = 27.08 years; SD = 6.48) took part in in-depth, semi-structured interviews primarily after an exceptional performance (M = 4.38 days later; SD = 3.14). Data were analysed inductively and thematically. Clutch states involved 12 characteristics, including heightened and deliberate concentration, intense effort, and heightened awareness, which distinguished the experience of clutch from other optimal psychological states such as flow. Other characteristics, such as perceptions of control, were also reported and supported previous experimental research on clutch. These findings present in-depth qualitative insights into the psychological state underlying clutch performance, and are discussed in relation to the existing literature on optimal psychological states in sport.
Full Text Available Background Tibial stress fracture (TSF is a common injury in basketball players. This condition has been associated with high tibial shock and impact loading, which can be affected by running speed, footwear condition, and footstrike pattern. However, these relationships were established in runners but not in basketball players, with very little research done on impact loading and speed. Hence, this study compared tibial shock, impact loading, and foot strike pattern in basketball players running at different speeds with different shoe cushioning properties/performances. Methods Eighteen male collegiate basketball players performed straight running trials with different shoe cushioning (regular-, better-, and best-cushioning and running speed conditions (3.0 m/s vs. 6.0 m/s on a flat instrumented runway. Tri-axial accelerometer, force plate and motion capture system were used to determine tibial accelerations, vertical ground reaction forces and footstrike patterns in each condition, respectively. Comfort perception was indicated on a 150 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A 2 (speed × 3 (footwear repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the main effects of shoe cushioning and running speeds. Results Greater tibial shock (P 0.14; η2 = 0.13. Discussion There may be an optimal band of shoe cushioning for better protection against TSF. These findings may provide insights to formulate rehabilitation protocols for basketball players who are recovering from TSF.
Lord, M; Foulston, J; Smith, P J
Computer aided design is now employed routinely in the volume shoe trade. New styles are developed on a three-dimensional image of the last followed by automated pattern generation and engineering. It is suggested that such systems could be useful in the orthopaedic footwear industry although the different requirements for these bespoke products need careful consideration. A clinical trial has been conducted on the Shoemaster (Clarks Shoes) upper design system both to assess its technical capabilities and to consider its role in improvement of service and cosmetic appearance. This particular system works throughout on a three-dimensional representation of the shoe last, which offers particular advantages for integration with shape capture and reproduction. The report concentrates on the technical evaluation to assess (a) its ability to work with unusual last shapes dictated by medical requirements and (b) its potential for integration into a complete computer system for design of both shoe lasts and shoe uppers. The trial indicates that this particular system is promising in both respects.
Bishop, Chris; Hillier, Susan; Thewlis, Dominic
Understanding the biomechanics of the foot is essential for many areas of research and clinical practice such as orthotic interventions and footwear development. Despite the widespread attention paid to the biomechanics of the foot during gait, what largely remains unknown is how the foot moves inside the shoe. This study investigated the reliability of the Adelaide In-Shoe Foot Model, which was designed to quantify in-shoe foot kinematics and kinetics during walking. Intra-rater reliability was assessed in 30 participants over five walking trials whilst wearing shoes during two data collection sessions, separated by one week. Sufficient reliability for use was interpreted as a coefficient of multiple correlation and intra-class correlation coefficient of >0.61. Inter-rater reliability was investigated separately in a second sample of 10 adults by two researchers with experience in applying markers for the purpose of motion analysis. The results indicated good consistency in waveform estimation for most kinematic and kinetic data, as well as good inter-and intra-rater reliability. The exception is the peak medial ground reaction force, the minimum abduction angle and the peak abduction/adduction external hindfoot joint moments which resulted in less than acceptable repeatability. Based on our results, the Adelaide in-shoe foot model can be used with confidence for 24 commonly measured biomechanical variables during shod walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sherwin, Ian; Campbell, Mark J; Macintyre, Tadhg Eoghan
Coaches are central to the development of the expert performer and similarly to continued lifelong participation in sport. Coaches are uniquely positioned to deliver specific technical and tactical instruction and mentoring programmes that support the psychological and social development of athletes in a challenging, goal-oriented and motivational environment. The current study aimed to qualitatively investigate current coach learning sources and coaches' educational backgrounds in team sports in Ireland. Coaches from five team sports in Ireland were asked to complete an online questionnaire. Subsequently male coaches (n = 19) from five team sports who completed the questionnaire and met the inclusion criteria were invited to attend a follow-up semi-structured interview. Inclusion criteria for coaches were that they possess at least 10 years' experience coaching their sport and were coaching more than 4 hours per week. Formal coach education does not meet the needs of high performance coaches who rely more on self-directed learning and coaching experience as their main sources of CPD. Although prior playing experience at a high level is both valuable and desirable, there are concerns about fast-tracking of ex-players into high performance coaching roles. Preferred sources of education and the best learning environment for coaches of team sports in Ireland are more informal than formal. Further research is needed to examine how this learning is applied in a practical manner by examining coaching behaviours and the impact it has on the athlete development process.
Lago, Débora C F; Coutinho, Cláudia A; Kochi, Cristiane; Longui, Carlos A
To describe population reference values for shoes size, and to identify possible disproportional foot growth during GH therapy. Construction of percentile chart based on 3,651 controls (male: 1,838; female: 1,813). The GH treated group included 13 children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and 50 children with normal height, but with height prediction below their target height; male: 26 and female: 37 mean ± SD age 13.3 ± 1.9 and 12.9 ± 1.5 years, respectively. GH (0.05 mg/kg/day) was used for 3.2 ± 1.6 years, ranging from 1.0-10.3 years. Height expressed as SDS, target height (TH) SDS, self-reported shoes size and target shoes size (TSS) SDS were recorded. Reference values were established showed as a foot SDS calculator available online at www.clinicalcaselearning.com/v2. Definitive shoes size was attained in controls at mean age of 13y in girls and 14y in boys (average values 37 and 40, respectively). In the study group, shoes size was -0.15 ± 0.9 and -0.02 ± 1.3 SDS, with target feet of 0.08 ± 0.8 and -0.27 ± 0.7 SDS in males and females, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between shoes size and familial TSS, between shoes size and height and between TSS and TH. There was no correlation between duration of GH treatment and shoes size. Our data suggest that during long-term treatment with GH, patients maintain proportional growth in shoes size and height, and the expected correlation with the familial target. We conclude that there is no excessive increase in the size of foot as estimated by the size of shoes in individuals under long term GH therapy.
Williams Melvin H
Full Text Available Abstract Sports success is dependent primarily on genetic endowment in athletes with morphologic, psychologic, physiologic and metabolic traits specific to performance characteristics vital to their sport. Such genetically-endowed athletes must also receive optimal training to increase physical power, enhance mental strength, and provide a mechanical advantage. However, athletes often attempt to go beyond training and use substances and techniques, often referred to as ergogenics, in attempts to gain a competitive advantage. Pharmacological agents, such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines, have been used in the past, but such practices by athletes have led to the establishment of anti-doping legislation and effective testing protocols to help deter their use. Thus, many athletes have turned to various dietary strategies, including the use of various dietary supplements (sports supplements, which they presume to be effective, safe and legal.
Magiera, Artur; Roczniok, Robert; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Kantyka, Joanna; Kurek, Piotr
This study is a contribution to the discussion about the structure of performance of sport rock climbers. Because of the complex and multifaceted nature of this sport, multivariate statistics were applied in the study. The subjects included thirty experienced sport climbers. Forty three variables were scrutinised, namely somatic characteristics, specific physical fitness, coordination abilities, aerobic and anaerobic power, technical and tactical skills, mental characteristics, as well as 2 variables describing the climber’s performance in the OS (Max OS) and RP style (Max RP). The results show that for training effectiveness of advanced climbers to be thoroughly analysed and examined, tests assessing their physical, technical and mental characteristics are necessary. The three sets of variables used in this study explained the structure of performance similarly, but not identically (in 38, 33 and 25%, respectively). They were also complementary to around 30% of the variance. The overall performance capacity of a sport rock climber (Max OS and Max RP) was also evaluated in the study. The canonical weights of the dominant first canonical root were 0.554 and 0.512 for Max OS and Max RP, respectively. Despite the differences between the two styles of climbing, seven variables – the maximal relative strength of the fingers (canonical weight = 0.490), mental endurance (one of scales : The Formal Characteristics of Behaviour–Temperament Inventory (FCB–TI; Strelau and Zawadzki, 1995)) (−0.410), climbing technique (0.370), isometric endurance of the fingers (0.340), the number of errors in the complex reaction time test (−0.319), the ape index (−0.319) and oxygen uptake during arm work at the anaerobic threshold (0.254) were found to explain 77% of performance capacity common to the two styles. PMID:23717360
Ruth, Erin; Shah, Binisa; Fales, Willliam
The goals of this study were to evaluate whether the increased use of skate shoes may lead to an increase in injuries for children and adolescents aged 5 to 14 years in the United States and to describe the types of injuries reported by emergency departments as a result of skate shoe use. Retrospective analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2006 for injuries resulting from footwear in children and adolescents aged 5 to 14 years. Injuries resulting from skate shoe use were identified by manual review of the data. For the 5-year period, an estimated 3525 patients between 5 and 14 years of age were treated in United States emergency departments for injuries resulting from skate shoe use. The percentage of injuries resulting from skate shoes of total footwear-related injuries varied by year, however, with 1.0%, 1.0%, 0.8%, and 1.9% occurring in 2002 to 2005, respectively, and 11.8% occurring in 2006. This substantial increase in 2006 accounts for 73.6% of skate shoe-related injuries and is statistically significant (chi, P = skate shoe sales, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9982.Most of the injured children and adolescents were white, and there was a slight, nonsignificant predominance of boys. Most injuries in all 5-year-olds were fractures (46.7%), followed by contusions (17.9%) and sprains (17.2%). The most frequent site of fracture was the forearm (38.4%), followed by the wrist (35.1%) and the leg (14.9%). Other injuries included lacerations (7.3%), concussions (6.6%), internal organ injuries (0.9%), hematomas (0.2%), dislocations (0.2%), and injuries not otherwise specified (3.1%). Based on national estimates, 104 (0.01%) patients required admission to the hospital. No injuries recorded in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database resulted in death. As the first study analyzing injury rates as a result of skate shoe use in the United States, this study demonstrated a recent
Mawa, Maria; Tumbuan, Willem J.F.Alfa; Tielung, Maria V.J
This research is to analyzing what are the factors that drive customer loyalty of shoe laundry Quickcares Manado. Shoe Laundry is the services that offer to clean and taking care shoe, Customer Loyalty is the result of consistently positive emotional experience, physical attribute-based satisfaction and perceived value of an experience, which includes the product or services. It is important to know factors that drive customer Loyalty in business, in order to guarantee business continuity and...
This review examines the question of whether performance-enhancing drugs should be permitted in sport under the control of physicians, and evaluates the expected outcomes of such a scenario. Such a change in regulation would need to be tightly controlled because of the risks involved. The results of legalizing performance-enhancing drugs in competitive sport would be either unhelpful or negative, and the unwanted aspects of doping control would not disappear. Athletes, including children and adolescents who wanted to pursue competitive sports, would be forced to take additional, avoidable health risks. The 'natural lottery' of athletic talents would be compensated for only partially by use of performance-enhancing agents. It would also be complemented by another 'natural lottery' of variable responses to doping measures, combined with the inventiveness of doping doctors. There would be no gain in 'justice' (i.e. fairer results that reflected efforts made) for athletes as a result of legalizing doping. Legalization would not reduce restrictions on athletes' freedom; the control effort would remain the same, if not increased. Extremely complicated international regulations would have to be adopted. The game of the 'tortoise and the hare' between doping athletes and inspectors would remain because prohibited but not identifiable practices could still provide additional benefits from use of permissible drugs. Audience mistrust, particularly toward athletes who achieved outstanding feats, would remain because it would still be possible that these athletes were reliant on illegal doping practices. Doping entails exposing the athletes to avoidable risks that do not need to be taken to increase the appeal of a sport. Most importantly, the function of sport as a role model would definitely be damaged. It is not necessary to clarify the question of what constitutes the 'spirit of sport' and whether this may be changed. From a practical point of view, a legalization of
Parker, Donald S.
The NASA Crawler/Transporters (CT-1 and CT-2) used to transport the Space Shuffles are one of the largest tracked vehicles in existence today. Two of these machines have been used to move space flight vehicles at Kennedy Space Center since the Apollo missions of the 1960's and relatively few modifications have been made to keep them operational. In September of 2003 during normal Crawler/Transporter operations cracks were observed along the roller pad surfaces of several tread belt shoes. Further examination showed 20 cracked shoes on CT-1 and 40 cracked shoes on CT-2 and a formal failure analysis investigation was undertaken while the cracked shoes were replaced. Six shoes were cross-sectioned with the fracture surfaces exposed and it was determined that the cracks were due to fatigue that initiated on the internal casting web channels at pre-existing casting defects and propagated through thickness both transgranularly and intergranularly between internal shrinkage cavities, porosity, and along austenitic and ferritic grain boundaries. The original shoes were cast during the 1960's using a modified 861330 steel with slightly higher levels of chromium, nickel and molybdenum followed by heat treatment to achieve a minimum tensile strength of 11 Oksi. Subsequent metallurgical analysis of the tread belt shoes after multiple failures showed excessive internal defects, alloy segregation, a nonuniform ferritic/ bainitic/martensitic microstructure, and low average tensile properties indicative of poor casting and poor heat-treatment. As a result, NASA funded an initiative to replace all of the tread belt shoes on both crawler/transporters along with a redesign of the alloy, manufacturing, and heat-treatment to create a homogeneous cast structure with uniform mechanical and metallurgical properties. ME Global, a wholly owned subsidiary of ME Elecmetal based in Minneapolis, MN was selected as manufacturing and design partner to develop the new shoes and this paper
Herbaut, Alexis; Chavet, Pascale; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Gillet, Christophe; Barbier, Franck; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie
This study investigated the immediate effects of reducing the shoe drop (i.e. the difference between the heel and the forefoot height) on the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremities of children tennis players performing a tennis-specific movement. Thirteen children tennis players performed a series of simulated open stance forehands wearing 3 pairs of shoes differing only in the drop: 0 (D0), 6 (D6) and the control condition of 12 mm (D12). Two embedded forceplates and a motion capture system were used to analyse the ground reaction forces and ankle and knee joint angles and moments of the leading lower limb. In D6 compared with D12, the peak impact force was reduced by 24% (p = .004) and the ankle was less dorsiflexed at foot strike (p = .037). In D0 compared with D12, the peak impact force was reduced by 17% (p = .049), the ankle was less dorsiflexed at foot strike (p = .045) and the knee was more flexed at foot strike (p = .007). In addition, 4 out of 13 participants (31%) presented a forefoot strike pattern for some of the trials in D0. No difference was observed across shoe conditions for the peak knee extensor moment (p = .658) or the peak ankle plantarflexor moment (p = .071). The results provide preliminary data supporting the hypothesis that for children tennis players, using a 6-mm lower shoe drop might reduce heel impact forces and thus limit potentially impact-related injuries.
Beedie, Christopher J; Foad, Abigail J
The placebo effect, with its central role in clinical trials, is acknowledged as a factor in sports medicine, although until recently little has been known about the likely magnitude and extent of the effect in any specific research setting. Even less is known about the prevalence of the effect in competitive sport. The present paper reviews 12 intervention studies in sports performance. All examine placebo effects associated with the administration of an inert substance believed by subjects to be an ergogenic aid. Placebo effects of varying magnitudes are reported in studies addressing sports from weightlifting to endurance cycling. Findings suggest that psychological variables such as motivation, expectancy and conditioning, and the interaction of these variables with physiological variables, might be significant factors in driving both positive and negative outcomes. Programmatic research involving the triangulation of data, and investigation of contextual and personality factors in the mediation of placebo responses may help to advance knowledge in this area.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is formation of a comprehensive hypothetical dynamic interactional process model structured by assumed constructs, i.e. processes or mechanisms that obtain real features and influences on athlete's performance and athletic achievement. Thus there are formed and assumed reciprocal relations between high training and competition - based stress as the input variable, cognitive appraisal and interpretation as the mediator, and mood state as the moderator based on the development of the dynamic systems theory. Also, proposed model uses basic assumptions of the Action-Theory approach and it is in accordance with the contemporary socialcognitive view of team functioning in sports. Within the process model, the output variables are measures of efficacy evident through athlete's individual and team performance and athletic achievement. The situation, the team and athlete attributes, the performance and the athletic achievement are joined variables, and the individual and the collective efficacy are the consequence of their reciprocal interaction. Therefore, there are complex and reciprocal interactive processes in real sports and explorative situations amongst the attributes of athlete and team and the behaviour and situation that determine performance and athletic achievement. This is probably the result of an integrated network of reciprocal multi-causal activity of a set of stated assumed constructs from different theories. Thus the hypothetical model is an effort to describe elaborate correlations and/or interdependencies between internal and external determinants which presumably affect athlete's performance and athletic achievement.
Kennedy, Michael C
To review the evidence relating to the effect of cannabis on exercise performance. A systematic review of published literature METHODS: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. A search was conducted using PUB med, Medline and Embase searching for cannabis, marijuana, cannabinoids and THC, in sport and exercise; the contents of sports medicine journals for the last 10 years; as well as cross references from journals and a personal collection of reprints. Only English language literature was reviewed and only articles that specified the details of a formal exercise program or protocol. Individuals in rehabilitation or health screening programs involving exercise were included as the study may have identified adverse reactions in the marijuana group. Review articles, opinion pieces, policy statements by sporting bodies and regulatory agencies were excluded. Only 15 published studies have investigated the effects of THC in association with exercise protocols. Of these studies, none showed any improvement in aerobic performance. Exercise induced asthma was shown to be inhibited. In terms of detrimental effects, two studies found that marijuana precipitated angina at a lower work-load (100% of subjects) and strength is probably reduced. Some subjects could not complete an exercise protocol because adverse reactions caused by cannabis. An important finding relevant to drug testing was that aerobic exercise was shown to cause only very small rises (<1ng/mL) in THC concentrations. THC does not enhance aerobic exercise or strength. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raquel M. Albernaz
Full Text Available Corrective shoeing is a method commonly used to alter the locomotion pattern in animals or as therapy for various disorders of the locomotive system of horses. However, to date, there have been no scientific studies discussing the period during which animals adapt to this type of intervention. The goal of this study was to evaluate the horseshoe adaptation period with the toe or heel elevated by six degrees at 0, 48, and 96 hours after each type of shoeing. For this analysis, the horses were recorded while walking on a treadmill. Stride length and gait qualitative analyzes were performed using Dvideow software. The level of significance adopted was 5%. In the present study, there was no significant difference between the evaluation times; elevating the toe or heel by six degrees do not generates discomfort during locomotion, therefore, horses are able to return to a regular exercise or training routine immediately after shoeing.
Mullen, Scott; Toby, E Bruce
The modern running shoe typically features a large cushioned heel intended to dissipate the energy at heel strike to the knees and hips. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect that shoes have upon the running biomechanics among competitive adolescent runners. We wish to answer the question of whether running style is altered in these athletes because of footwear. Twelve competitive adolescent athletes were recruited from local track teams. Each ran on a treadmill in large heel trainers, track flats, and barefoot. Four different speeds were used to test each athlete. The biomechanics were assessed with a motion capture system. Stride length, heel height during posterior swing phase, and foot/ground contact were recorded. Shoe type markedly altered the running biomechanics. The foot/ground contact point showed differences in terms of footwear (Ptrainers, the athletes landed on their heels 69.79% of the time at all speeds (Ptrainers promote a heel strike pattern, whereas track flats and barefoot promote a forefoot or midfoot strike pattern. Training in heavily cushioned trainers by the competitive runner has not been clearly shown to be detrimental to performance, but it does change the gait pattern. It is not known whether the altered biomechanics of the heavily heeled cushioned trainer may be detrimental to the adolescent runner who is still developing a running style.
Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: The position of The Society regarding caffeine supplementation and sport performance is summarized by the following seven points: 1. Caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg and overall does not result in further enhancement in performance when consumed in higher dosages (≥ 9 mg/kg. 2. Caffeine exerts a greater ergogenic effect when consumed in an anhydrous state as compared to coffee. 3. It has been shown that caffeine can enhance vigilance during bouts of extended exhaustive exercise, as well as periods of sustained sleep deprivation. 4. Caffeine is ergogenic for sustained maximal endurance exercise, and has been shown to be highly effective for time-trial performance. 5. Caffeine supplementation is beneficial for high-intensity exercise, including team sports such as soccer and rugby, both of which are categorized by intermittent activity within a period of prolonged duration. 6. The literature is equivocal when considering the effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance, and additional research in this area is warranted. 7. The scientific literature does not support caffeine-induced diuresis during exercise, or any harmful change in fluid balance that would negatively affect performance.
Blaauw, Frank; Emerencia, Armando Celino; den Hartigh, Jan Rudolf; Milovanović, Marko; Stoter, Inge; de Jonge, Peter
In sport science, a major aim is to unravel the variables and parameters that influence sports performance. A key requirement for investigating these parameters is the availability of high quality data. More specifically, data that contains the variables of interest, and data that could be analyzed
Brown, Daniel J; Arnold, Rachel; Standage, Martyn; Fletcher, David
Although considerable research exists on performers' responses to sporting encounters, little is known about thriving in sport contexts. The current study examined if distinct response patterns existed between sport performers who thrived in competitive encounters compared with those who did not. Participants were 535 sport performers (134 women; M age = 23.60 years, SD age = 8.08; M competing = 11.84 years, SD competing = 7.11). Results of factor mixture analysis supported a four-profile solution comprising a thriving group (n = 146), a low-functioning group (n = 38), and two groups characterized by scores marginally above (n = 131) and below (n = 209) the sample mean. Profile membership was found to be predicted by personal enablers (viz., personal resilient qualities, psychological skills use) and process variables (viz., basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration, challenge appraisal). This examination of thriving in sport performers offers significant implications for research and practice.
Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance...... with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase...... expression of muscle Na(+) , K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect...
Adel Hamed Elbaih
Full Text Available Inroduction: regular physical activity is essential for the prevention of various diseases and reduces the risk of premature mortality in general and coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus in particular. Aim of this study was to assess the most common sports causing injuries and to assess the types and mechanisms of these injuries. Patients and methods: The researcher examined 250 patients attending emergency departmentl. Results: The study showed that the most common type of sports involved in injury was football .The ankle was the most common affected part in the whole body . Chest contusion and back contusion were the most common types of sports injuries in head, neck and trunk. Fracture scaphoid and fissure radius were the most common sport injuries. Ankle sprain was the most common injury. The study showed that (62.7% of the studied patients who were playing football had injuries in the lower limbs. Ankle sprain was the most common sport injury that was associated with wearing football shoes . Conclusion: Ankle sprain was the most common sport injury associated with artificial grass court . Wrist sprain was the common sport injury in the upper limbs associated with artificial grass court .
João Paulo Limongi França GUILHERME
Full Text Available In recent years there has been a great progress in molecular biology techniques, which has facilitated the researches on influence of genetics on human performance. There are specific regions of DNA that can vary between individuals. Such variations (i.e., polymorphisms may, in part, explain why some individuals have differentiated responses to certain stimuli, including the responses to sports training. In a particular sport, the presence of specific polymorphisms may contribute to high levels of performance. Since 1998, several polymorphisms have been associated with athletic phenotypes; however the accumulation of information generated over these 15 years shows that the influence of genetics to sport is extremely complex. In this review, we will summarise the current status of the field, discussing the implications of available knowledge for the practice of professionals involved with the sport and suggesting future directions for research. We also discuss topics related to the importance of polygenic profile characterization of athletes, methods for the identification of new polymorphisms associated with physical performance, the use of genetic testing for predicting competitive success, and how crucial is the genetic profile for the success athletes in competition.
Title: Research on the perception of Skechers brand product design viewed by generation Y Goals: The main goal of the bachelor thesis is to find how generation Y perceives the sports shoes design of Skechers brand. To determine, which design factors are the most important during the selection of a sports shoes. An integral part of the thesis is to choose the most popular types of sports shoes, in the eyes of generation Y and also to find out how they perceive stoles of those shoes and their t...
Stiffler, Mikel R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Brooks, M Alison; Heiderscheit, Bryan C
Cross-sectional. To describe performance and asymmetry on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) by sex and sport, and to determine if differences exist within a collegiate athlete population. Performance on the SEBT may differ between sexes and levels of competition, though the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. Investigation of performance and asymmetry differences between sports is limited. Sex- and sport-specific reference values likely need to be determined to best assess SEBT performance. Performance on the SEBT was retrospectively reviewed in 393 healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from 8 sports. Means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all variables. Normalized reach distance (percent limb length) and asymmetry between limbs were compared for the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions and for the composite (COMP) score using a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of sex by sport, and a 1-way ANOVA to separately compare sports within each sex. Average normalized reach distance ranged from 62% to 69%, 84% to 97%, and 99% to 113% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively, and from 82% to 92% in the COMP score. Normalized asymmetry ranged from 3% to 4%, 5% to 8%, and 5% to 6% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively. A significant sex-by-sport interaction (P = .039) was observed in the ANT direction, with a sex effect for soccer players (Psport.
In this paper three separate approaches to recording use data are encompassed in a single shoe sole prototype. A shoe sole with electronic and nonelectronic sensors is crafted using 3D printing of flexible materials from programed g-Code. The sole is inserted into a laser cut, 3D printing reinforced
Kelly, Luke A.; Lichtwark, Glen A.; Farris, Dominic J.; Cresswell, Andrew
The capacity to store and return energy in legs and feet that behave like springs is crucial to human running economy. Recent comparisons of shod and barefoot running have led to suggestions that modern running shoes may actually impede leg and foot-spring function by reducing the contributions from the leg and foot musculature. Here we examined the effect of running shoes on foot longitudinal arch (LA) motion and activation of the intrinsic foot muscles. Participants ran on a force-instrumented treadmill with and without running shoes. We recorded foot kinematics and muscle activation of the intrinsic foot muscles using intramuscular electromyography. In contrast to previous assertions, we observed an increase in both the peak (flexor digitorum brevis +60%) and total stance muscle activation (flexor digitorum brevis +70% and abductor hallucis +53%) of the intrinsic foot muscles when running with shoes. Increased intrinsic muscle activation corresponded with a reduction in LA compression (−25%). We confirm that running shoes do indeed influence the mechanical function of the foot. However, our findings suggest that these mechanical adjustments are likely to have occurred as a result of increased neuromuscular output, rather than impaired control as previously speculated. We propose a theoretical model for foot–shoe interaction to explain these novel findings. PMID:27307512
Paton, Carl D
Aerobic economy is an important factor that affects the performance of competitive cyclists. It has been suggested that placing the foot more anteriorly on the bicycle pedals may improve economy over the traditional foot position by improving pedaling efficiency. The current study examines the effects of changing the anterior-posterior pedal foot position on the physiology and performance of well-trained cyclists. In a crossover study, 10 competitive cyclists completed two maximal incremental and two submaximal tests in either their preferred (control) or a forward (arch) foot position. Maximum oxygen consumption and peak power output were determined from the incremental tests for both foot positions. On two further occasions, cyclists also completed a two-part 60-min submaximal test that required them to maintain a constant power output (equivalent to 60% of their incremental peak power) for 30 min, during which respiratory and blood lactate samples were taken at predetermined intervals. Thereafter, subjects completed a 30-min self-paced maximal effort time trial. Relative to the control, the mean changes (+/-90% confidence limits) in the arch condition were as follows: maximum oxygen consumption, -0.5% (+/-2.0%); incremental peak power output, -0.8% (+/-1.3%); steady-state oxygen consumption at 60%, -2.4% (+/-1.1%); steady-state heart rate 60%, 0.4% (+/-1.7%); lactate concentration 60%, 8.7% (+/-14.4%); and mean time trial power, -1.5% (+/-2.9%). We conclude that there was no substantial physiological or performance advantage in this group using an arch-cleat shoe position in comparison with a cyclist's normal preferred condition.
Momaya, Amit; Fawal, Marc; Estes, Reed
Performance-enhancing substances (PESs) have unfortunately become ubiquitous in numerous sports, often tarnishing the spirit of competition. Reported rates of PES use among athletes are variable and range from 5 to 31%. More importantly, some of these substances pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of athletes. Common PESs include anabolic-androgenic steroids, human growth hormone, creatine, erythropoietin and blood doping, amphetamines and stimulants, and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. With recent advances in technology, gene doping is also becoming more conceivable. Sports medicine physicians are often unfamiliar with these substances and thus do not routinely broach the topic of PESs with their patients. However, to effect positive change in the sports community, physicians must educate themselves about the physiology, performance benefits, adverse effects, and testing methods. In turn, physicians can then educate athletes at all levels and prevent the use of potentially dangerous PESs.
Amitrano, Fernando N; Gutierrez-Nibeyro, Santiago D; Schaeffer, David J
OBJECTIVE To determine and compare the effect of hoof boots (HBs) and shoes with a toe extension on stance duration, ground reaction force, and sole length in contact with the ground in nonlame horses during walking. ANIMALS 6 nonlame Standardbreds. PROCEDURES Force plate gait analyses of the forelimbs were performed while the horses were walking barefoot before manipulation of feet (baseline), while the horses were walking fitted with HBs, while the horses were walking shod with toe-extension shoes, and while the horses were walking barefoot after shoe removal. Horses underwent radiography of both forelimb feet to determine the sole length in contact with the ground when barefoot, wearing HBs, and shod with toe-extension shoes. Stance duration, ground reaction force, and sole length were compared among the various walking sessions. RESULTS Compared with baseline findings, stance duration increased significantly when horses were fitted with HBs (7%) or toe-extension shoes (5%). Peak forelimb ground reaction force was similar among walking sessions; however, time of braking force peak was significantly greater during the stance phase only when horses wore HBs. Also, the sole length in contact with the ground was significantly longer in horses fitted with HBs (14.3 cm) or shod with the toe-extension shoes (17.6 cm), compared with that for one of the barefoot hooves (12.7 cm). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In nonlame horses, use of HBs prolonged the stance time and time of braking force peak, which is indicative of a slower deceleration phase during limb impact with the ground. Also, the use of HBs prolonged the deceleration phase of the stride and increased the sole length in contact with the ground.
Kobayashi, Toshiki; Gao, Fan; LeCursi, Nicholas; Foreman, K Bo; Orendurff, Michael S
Understanding the mechanical properties of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) is important to maximize their benefit for those with movement disorders during gait. Though mechanical properties such as stiffness and/or energy efficiency of AFOs have been extensively studied, it remains unknown how and to what extent shoes influence their properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes on stiffness and energy efficiency of an AFO using a custom mechanical testing device. Stiffness and energy efficiency of the AFO were measured in the plantar flexion and dorsiflexion range, respectively, under AFO-alone and AFO-Shoe combination conditions. The results of this study demonstrated that the stiffness of the AFO-Shoe combination was significantly decreased compared to the AFO-alone condition, but no significant differences were found in energy efficiency. From the results, we recommend that shoes used with AFOs should be carefully selected not only based on their effect on alignment of the lower limb, but also their effects on overall mechanical properties of the AFO-Shoe combination. Further study is needed to clarify the effects of differences in shoe designs on AFO-Shoe combination mechanical properties.
José Alfredo Balderrama-Ruedas
Full Text Available This descriptive research is under the quantitative approach, the method analysis statistic is used, to show up the results obtained by the students from the Escuela Normal Rural Ricardo Flores Magón (ENRRFM, whose performed work out and sports among the four years in the bachelor´s degree in education, so on the entry test to the teaching service and analyze the relationship between work out and the sports with academic performance. The results found were the following: from the 96 students analyzed, an average of 21.87% performed work out and sport; this group got a higher average in the final results in comparison to the ones who did not and they got a qualified higher average in the entry test to the professional teaching service, however the difference did not show to mean significant according to the statistic used to analyze the data.
De Vries, Astrid J; Koolhaas, Wendy; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ron L.; Nieuwenhuis, Kari; Van Der Worp, Henk; Brouwer, Sandra; Van Den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Greater insight into sports and work performance of athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT) will help establish the severity of this common overuse injury. Primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PT on sports and work performance. Seventy seven active athletes with PT (50 males;
Camomilla, Valentina; Bergamini, Elena; Fantozzi, Silvia; Vannozzi, Giuseppe
Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017) were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure) resulted in 2040 papers. Papers and reference list screening led to the selection of 286 studies and 23 reviews. Information on sport, motor-tasks, participants, device characteristics, sensor position and fixing, experimental setting and performance indicators was extracted. The selected papers dealt with motor capacity assessment (51 papers), technique analysis (163), activity classification (19), and physical demands assessment (61). Focus was placed mainly on elite and sub-elite athletes (59%) performing their sport in-field during training (62%) and competition (7%). Measuring movement outdoors created opportunities in winter sports (8%), water sports (16%), team sports (25%), and other outdoor activities (27%). Indications on the reliability of sensor-based performance indicators are provided, together with critical considerations and future trends.
Wu Caixuan; Deng Zhiqun; Yu Qin; Zeng Daonan; Deng Guili
Leather products occupy an important place in the national economy. In order to prevent from mildewing of leather products in storage, transportation and sale, the packed shoes were irradiated with 60 Co γ ray. Test materials are cattle, sheep and pig leather shoes. The results shows that: 1. There are 11 types of molds which make leather shoes mildewed: Oospora sp, Rhizopus oryzae Went and Grrelings, Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus terreus thom, Monilia sp, Botrytis sp, Aspergillus niger V. Tiegh, Penicillum Lividum Westling, Penicillum Corylophilum Dieckx, Penicillum Cyaneum (B. and S.) Biourge and Penicillum Verrulosum Peeyrone. 2. The three types of shoes packed with polyethylene film can be prevented from mildewing after irradiation at level of 12 kGy. 3. The irradiation at 30 kGy does not change the physical properties of the shoes. 4. The irradiated shoes packed with polyethylene film can prevent mildewing, but unpacked ones would be mildewed again
Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M
Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.
Ochsmann, Elke; Noll, Ulrike; Ellegast, Rolf; Hermanns, Ingo; Kraus, Thomas
Working conditions, such as walking and standing on hard surfaces, can increase the development of musculoskeletal complaints. At the interface between flooring and musculoskeletal system, safety shoes may play an important role in the well-being of employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure distributions on industrial flooring. Twenty automotive workers were individually fitted out with three different pairs of safety shoes ( "normal" shoes, cushioned shoes, and midfoot bearing shoes). They walked at a given speed of 1.5 m/s. The CUELA measuring system and shoe insoles were used for gait analysis and plantar pressure measurements, respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by ANOVA analysis for repeated measures. Walking with cushioned safety shoes or a midfoot bearing safety shoe led to a significant decrease of the average trunk inclination (pshoes as well as midfoot bearing shoes (pshoes. As expected, plantar pressure distributions varied significantly between cushioned or midfoot bearing shoes and shoes without ergonomic components. The overall function of safety shoes is the avoidance of injury in case of an industrial accident, but in addition, safety shoes could be a long-term preventive instrument for maintaining health of the employees' musculoskeletal system, as they are able to affect gait parameters. Further research needs to focus on safety shoes in working situations.
Full Text Available Introduction: This paper explores the possibilities of interconnection between the concepts of quality management systems and the concepts of the performance in sports organizations so to achieve the greater effectiveness and efficiency in terms of their operations. Therefore the paper provides an overview of the quality management systems and principles which are applicable in sports organizations and special attention is also paid to the analysis of the Balanced Scorecard principles in the sport context. Via the chosen methodology the author analyses the potential of this performance measurement tool for the integration into quality management system in sports organizations. Methods: In the paper the author used different methods of scientific research namely systematic observation, desk research, descriptive and causal method as well as the inductive and deductive method. The methods of analysis and synthesis of the existing perspectives were exploited in order to analyse and describe the interrelatedness between the different concepts. Results: The profound analysis and synthesis of the existing theoretical and practical tools applied in the quality of sport and performance of sport has proved the rightfulness of the assumptions that these two concepts can be based on their logic integrated in the managerial practice in one framework. Discussion: Implementing the integrated concept of the quality management and performance management in the sport organizations can be very efficient, considering the characteristics of the quality management systems and performance measurement. This approach can improve the realisation and results of the core processes in sport organizations and enhance their accountability towards the stakeholders´ requirements and expectations. References: Hoye R at al. (2012. Sport Management - principles and applications. Third edition. Routledge NY. Kaplan RE, Norton DP (1992. Harvard Business Review, 71-9. Nová J (2013
Full Text Available Harvesting mechanical energy from human motion is an attractive approach for obtaining clean and sustainable electric energy to power wearable sensors, which are widely used for health monitoring, activity recognition, gait analysis and so on. This paper studies a piezoelectric energy harvester for the parasitic mechanical energy in shoes originated from human motion. The harvester is based on a specially designed sandwich structure with a thin thickness, which makes it readily compatible with a shoe. Besides, consideration is given to both high performance and excellent durability. The harvester provides an average output power of 1 mW during a walk at a frequency of roughly 1 Hz. Furthermore, a direct current (DC power supply is built through integrating the harvester with a power management circuit. The DC power supply is tested by driving a simulated wireless transmitter, which can be activated once every 2–3 steps with an active period lasting 5 ms and a mean power of 50 mW. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying piezoelectric energy harvesters to power wearable sensors.
Full Text Available Electric shovels are used in surface mining operations to achieve economic production capacities. The capital investments and operating costs associated with the shovels deployed in the Athabasca oil sands formation are high due to the abrasive conditions. The shovel crawler shoes interact with sharp and abrasive sand particles, and, thus, are subjected to high transient dynamic stresses. These high stresses cause wear and tear leading to crack initiation, propagation and premature fatigue failure. The objective of this paper is to develop a model to characterize the crawler stresses and deformation for the P&H 4100C BOSS during propel and loading using rigid-flexible multi-body dynamic theory. A 3-D virtual prototype model of the rigid-flexible crawler track assembly and its interactions with oil sand formation is simulated to capture the model dynamics within multibody dynamics software MSC ADAMS. The modal and stress shapes and modal loads due to machine weight for each flexible crawler shoes are generated from finite element analysis (FEA. The modal coordinates from the simulation are combined with mode and stress shapes using modal superposition method to calculate real-time stresses and deformation of flexible crawler shoes. The results show a maximum von Mises stress value of 170 MPa occurring in the driving crawler shoe during the propel motion. This study provides a foundation for the subsequent fatigue life analysis of crawler shoes for extending crawler service life.
A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes) whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that fig...
Full Text Available Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017 were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure resulted in 2040 papers. Papers and reference list screening led to the selection of 286 studies and 23 reviews. Information on sport, motor-tasks, participants, device characteristics, sensor position and fixing, experimental setting and performance indicators was extracted. The selected papers dealt with motor capacity assessment (51 papers, technique analysis (163, activity classification (19, and physical demands assessment (61. Focus was placed mainly on elite and sub-elite athletes (59% performing their sport in-field during training (62% and competition (7%. Measuring movement outdoors created opportunities in winter sports (8%, water sports (16%, team sports (25%, and other outdoor activities (27%. Indications on the reliability of sensor-based performance indicators are provided, together with critical considerations and future trends.
Full Text Available In order to identify to what extent competitiveness trait is related to sport performance in soccer, and to what extent the age and sport category can influence these variables, a descriptive cross-sectional study has been developed. The variables age, sport category, sport performance, achievement motivation (Me, motivation to avoid the failure (Mef and competitiveness trait have been assessed in 151 men soccer players (between 14 and 24 y.o. of a Spanish sport club. The results indicated that the sport performance ascends with age. Consequently, a direct relationship between the sport category and the performance has been observed. Me, Mef and competitiveness trait have been associated with the performance and has varied based on the sport category. No correlation between Me, Mef, competitiveness and age of the sportsmen has been found
Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin
Rommers, G M; Diepstraten, H J M; Bakker, E; Lindeman, E
In The Netherlands, about 50% of all amputations of the lower limb are toes and forefoot amputations. Traumata of toes and mid-foot are rare. Preservation of the foot is the primary goal for treatment. Crush injuries of the foot may be associated with prolonged morbidity. This case study presents an insole solution for the solitary first phalangeal bone after amputation of the phalangeal bones II - V. The normal adaptation for forefoot amputations is stiffening of the sole of the shoe and a rocker bar to improve the toe off phase with load reduction of the forefoot. Because the patient had to do excessive stair climbing during work another solution was chosen. As a foot orthosis, a metal soleplate was made in order to have free movement during loading and toe-off during walking. The soleplate gives safety and provides self-adjusting properties after toe off. This enables the shoe technician to make a shoe without a rocker bar or an extra stiff insole. The 0.5 mm custom-made spring-steel plate is also used as a protective in industrial safety shoes. To improve shoe adaptation more research and case reports have to be published in order to inform doctors and shoe technicians about everyday solutions to partial foot amputations.
van der Does, Hendrike
Next to physical load and recovery as a result of training, psychosocial stress and recovery affect performance and injury risk of team sport players. This can be concluded based on a series of studies that focus on the relation between jumping technique, training load, training recovery,
Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu
We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Kim, Tae Beom; Kim, Khae Hawn
Second to fourth digit ratio is the ratio of second to fourth digit length. It has been known that digit ratio is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that males tend to have lower digit ratio (longer fourth digits relative to second digits) than females. Digit ratio is thought to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (FT) and fetal estrogen (FE) in a relatively narrow developmental window at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. On the contrary, the relationships between digit ratio and levels of sex steroids in adults are not clear. Most correlational studies between digit ratio and adult sex steroids have revealed that this association is statistically not significant. However, for many years, a lot of researches showed negative relationships between digit ratio and sports performance such as rugby, surfing, rowing, sprinting, endurance, and hand grip strength. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms about the relationships between digit ratio and sports performance.
Viker, Tomas; Richardson, Matt X
Research with cyclists suggests a decreased load on the lower limbs by placing the shoe cleat more posteriorly, which may benefit subsequent running in a triathlon. This study investigated the effect of shoe cleat position during cycling on subsequent running. Following bike-run training sessions with both aft and traditional cleat positions, 13 well-trained triathletes completed a 30 min simulated draft-legal triathlon cycling leg, followed by a maximal 5 km run on two occasions, once with aft-placed and once with traditionally placed cleats. Oxygen consumption, breath frequency, heart rate, cadence and power output were measured during cycling, while heart rate, contact time, 200 m lap time and total time were measured during running. Cardiovascular measures did not differ between aft and traditional cleat placement during the cycling protocol. The 5 km run time was similar for aft and traditional cleat placement, at 1084 ± 80 s and 1072 ± 64 s, respectively, as was contact time during km 1 and 5, and heart rate and running speed for km 5 for the two cleat positions. Running speed during km 1 was 2.1% ± 1.8 faster (P beneficial effects of an aft cleat position on subsequent running in a short distance triathlon.
Full Text Available This study addresses sport in higher education in rel ation to its organization structure, quality and sports performance. We have studied documents, normative acts and the way in which certain decisional factors involved in higher education sports activities are organized. The lack of a concrete strategy inthis respect, renders the information sources to be relatively limited. Particularly, our research was based on scientific documentation, historical method and document analysis. There is a small number of legitimated athletes related to the number of higher education students. Higher education sport is a non-functional system, it cannot generate a representative number of participants in the National University Championships, and the international representation is not a natural consequence of the internal competition. Therefore, it is imperative for higher education sports to be the foundation of performance sports. This involves changing both the approach to this phenomenon and its organizational structure. Also, the development of human resources and sports infrastructure are essential conditions for the development ofsports activity.
Williams, A Mark; Ericsson, K Anders
The number of researchers studying perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport is increasing. The intention in this paper is to review the currently accepted framework for studying expert performance and to consider implications for undertaking research work in the area of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport. The expert performance approach presents a descriptive and inductive approach for the systematic study of expert performance. The nature of expert performance is initially captured in the laboratory using representative tasks that identify reliably superior performance. Process-tracing measures are employed to determine the mechanisms that mediate expert performance on the task. Finally, the specific types of activities that lead to the acquisition and development of these mediating mechanisms are identified. General principles and mechanisms may be discovered and then validated by more traditional experimental designs. The relevance of this approach to the study of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport is discussed and suggestions for future work highlighted.
Under operating conditions the wear of brake shoe was tested by a measuring method based on the principle of radioisotopic thickness measurement. It is characteristic to the sensitivity of the method that the wear caused by the fast braking of a train (speed: 100 km/h) as well as the uneven wear distribution were determinable. Surface activating methods assuring the periodic and continuous evaluation were also developed. A test was performed with galvanic surface activation under operating conditions to determine the rim wearing effect of the brake shoe. Apart from the operational tests a new method based on activated wear measurement was also developed. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of footwear on the gait of children is poorly understood. This systematic review synthesises the evidence of the biomechanical effects of shoes on children during walking and running. Methods Study inclusion criteria were: barefoot and shod conditions; healthy children aged ≤ 16 years; sample size of n > 1. Novelty footwear was excluded. Studies were located by online database-searching, hand-searching and contact with experts. Two authors selected studies and assessed study methodology using the Quality Index. Meta-analysis of continuous variables for homogeneous studies was undertaken using the inverse variance approach. Significance level was set at P 2. Where I2 > 25%, a random-effects model analysis was used and where I2 Results Eleven studies were included. Sample size ranged from 4-898. Median Quality Index was 20/32 (range 11-27. Five studies randomised shoe order, six studies standardised footwear. Shod walking increased: velocity, step length, step time, base of support, double-support time, stance time, time to toe-off, sagittal tibia-rearfoot range of motion (ROM, sagittal tibia-foot ROM, ankle max-plantarflexion, Ankle ROM, foot lift to max-plantarflexion, 'subtalar' rotation ROM, knee sagittal ROM and tibialis anterior activity. Shod walking decreased: cadence, single-support time, ankle max-dorsiflexion, ankle at foot-lift, hallux ROM, arch length change, foot torsion, forefoot supination, forefoot width and midfoot ROM in all planes. Shod running decreased: long axis maximum tibial-acceleration, shock-wave transmission as a ratio of maximum tibial-acceleration, ankle plantarflexion at foot strike, knee angular velocity and tibial swing velocity. No variables increased during shod running. Conclusions Shoes affect the gait of children. With shoes, children walk faster by taking longer steps with greater ankle and knee motion and increased tibialis anterior activity. Shoes reduce foot motion and
Fragmentation Protective Body Armor, had a filler made of ballistic nylon, which was sealed in a waterproof , vinyl envelope. As the name indicates...toe-off and peak braking and propulsive forces. GRF is a distributed force that acts over the entire surface of the foot or the shoe that is in...Catlin, M. J., & Dressendorfer, R. H. (1979). The effect of shoe weight on the energy cost of running [Abstract]. Medicine and Science in Sports
Broeder, Peter; Rutten, Jessika
Visualization is important in online shopping. This study investigates the effect of visual product reviews in web shops, with a special interest for cultural differences between online consumers in India and the Netherlands. Two web shops were designed with the same sport shoes. One web shop showed the sport shoes with a visual review. The other web shop showed the same sport shoes with no visual review. 160 consumers from the Netherlands, and 183 consumers from India (mean age 23.4 yrs.) ev...
Constantinou, Vaso; Ioannou, Andri
The article addresses ICT in Education by describing an empirical investigation of technology-enhanced sports education. The study examines the use of clickers by 162 Judo athletes during seminars on the rules and regulations of the sport. Results are based on quantitative data collected on athletes' performances and attitudes and qualitative data…
Hulstaert, Eva; Bergendorff, Ola; Persson, Christina; Goossens, An; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Engfeldt, Malin; Bruze, Magnus; Schuttelaar, Marie L.; Meijer, Joost M; Lapeere, Hilde
Background. In 2015 and 2016, female patients in Flanders consulted a dermatologist because they developed skin lesions after wearing a specific brand of canvas shoes. Objectives. To identify the culprit allergen in the shoes. Methods. Eighteen young females aged 14-22 years presented with itching
Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Dexheimer, Jennifer M; Duarte, Manuel; Freels, Sally
To investigate the efficacy of shoe orthotics with and without chiropractic treatment for chronic low back pain compared with no treatment. Randomized controlled trial. Integrative medicine teaching clinic at a university. Adult subjects (N=225) with symptomatic low back pain of ≥3 months were recruited from a volunteer sample. Subjects were randomized into 1 of 3 treatment groups (shoe orthotic, plus, and waitlist groups). The shoe orthotic group received custom-made shoe orthotics. The plus group received custom-made orthotics plus chiropractic manipulation, hot or cold packs, and manual soft tissue massage. The waitlist group received no care. The primary outcome measures were change in perceived back pain (numerical pain rating scale) and functional health status (Oswestry Disability Index) after 6 weeks of study participation. Outcomes were also assessed after 12 weeks and then after an additional 3, 6, and 12 months. After 6 weeks, all 3 groups demonstrated significant within-group improvement in average back pain, but only the shoe orthotic and plus groups had significant within-group improvement in function. When compared with the waitlist group, the shoe orthotic group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in pain (Ppain (P=.3431). Group differences at 12 weeks and later were not significant. Six weeks of prescription shoe orthotics significantly improved back pain and dysfunction compared with no treatment. The addition of chiropractic care led to higher improvements in function. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Onifade, Ademola; Keinde, Idou; Kehinde, Eunice
The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction levels of sports officers and sports performance of secondary schools in Lagos State. Data were collected from 200 subjects across 10 Local Education Districts. Job Descriptive Index was used to determine job satisfaction while performance in the Principals' Soccer…
Albu, A. V.; Anghel Drugarin, C. V.; Barla, E. M.; Porav, V.
The paper presents research results into getting a virtual model of shoe last and anthropometric parameters change. The most important change occurs in the fingers region. Alternatives CAD-CAM technology for next generation is based on DELCAM software for the CAM procedure and simulation of MATLAB software. This research has led to the virtual changes of the last, anthropometric parameter - the width of the fingers (ld) and shoe last length - (Lp) and images have been achieved with the representation in section of the shoe last changed from the original shoe lasts by FEM method (Finite element method) in MATLAB environment. The results are applied in the textile industry and in the elaboration of linings consumption or in the development of leather substitutes on fabric, knitted or woven material type.
A. Camuffo; A. Furlan; P. Romano; A. Vinelli
This paper tells the story of Geox, an Italian footwear manufacturer that, in less than a decade, has become one of the world's largest shoe manufacturers. Applying the related notions of complementarity and performance landscape to study strategic positioning in the footwear industry, we show that, though grounded on product innovation (the original Geox breathes® patented system which allows ventilation in waterproof rubber sole), Geox's competitive advantage has not grown out of operationa...
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shoe, latch. 236.801 Section 236.801 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.801...
Shor, Yaron; Wiesner, Sarena; Tsach, Tsadok; Gurel, Ron; Yekutieli, Yoram
Shoeprints left at crime scenes are seldom perfect. Many prints are distorted or contaminated by various materials. Noisy background often contributes to vagueness on the shoeprints as well. Test impressions made from the suspect's shoes in the laboratory are considered a genuine replication of the shoe-sole. This naïve attitude is far from being correct. Consecutive test impressions made in the laboratory under strict similar conditions revealed differences among the exemplars of the same sole. Some of them are minor, but some are major, and can mislead the less experienced practitioners during the comparison process. This article focuses on the inherent within source variability between controlled shoeprints made from the same shoe, as it appears on the RACs. To describe and analyze this variability, repeated test impressions were prepared, and datasets were created. Several RACs were marked on each test impression, using an expert assisting software tool (developed in the authors' lab). The variance in repeated test impressions is demonstrated and possible sources are discussed. This variance should be considered when trying to establish the degree of matching between individual characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
McInnes Alistair D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Amongst the many identified mechanisms leading to diabetic foot ulceration, ill-fitting footwear is one. There is anecdotal evidence that people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy wear shoes that are too small in order to increase the sensation of fit. The aim of this study was to determine whether people with diabetic sensory neuropathy wear appropriate length footwear. Methods A case–control design was used to compare internal shoe length and foot length differences between a group of people with diabetes and peripheral sensory neuropathy and a group of people without diabetes and no peripheral sensory neuropathy. Shoe and foot length measurements were taken using a calibrated Internal Shoe Size Gauge® and a Brannock Device®, respectively. Results Data was collected from 85 participants with diabetes and 118 participants without diabetes. The mean difference between shoe and foot length was not significantly different between the two groups. However, a significant number of participants within both groups had a shoe to foot length difference that lay outside a previously suggested 10 to 15 mm range. From the diabetic and non-diabetic groups 82% (70/85 and 66% (78/118, respectively had a foot to shoe length difference outside this same range. Conclusions This study shows that although there is no significant difference in shoe-length fit between participants with and without neuropathy, a significant proportion of these populations wear shoes that are either too long or too short for their foot length according to the 10 to 15 mm value used for comparison. The study has highlighted the need for standardised approaches when considering the allowance required between foot and internal shoe length and for the measurement and comparison of foot and shoe dimensions.
den Hartigh, Ruud; van Geert, Paul
Introduction The study of expertise and exceptional performance covers a range from “beginner” to world-class performance. While developing sport expertise a variety of interacting internal and external performance factors are involved, which may differ between athletes (Phillips et al., 2010). The
Barker-Ruchti, Natalie; Schubring, Astrid
Background: High-performance sport has been described as a formative environment through which athletes learn sporting skills but also develop athletic selves. Within this process, career movements related to selection for and de-selection from representative teams constitute critical moments. Further, retirement from sport can be problematic as…
Miko?ajec, Kazimierz; Maszczyk, Adam; Zaj?c, Tomasz
The main goal of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best determine sports level in the National Basketball Association (NBA) league. The research material consisted of all NBA game statistics at the turn of eight seasons (2003?11) and included 52 performance variables. Through detailed analysis the variables with high influence on game effectiveness were selected for final procedures. It has been proven that a limited number of factors, mostly offen...
Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M
Diet can significantly influence athletic performance, but recent research developments have substantially changed our understanding of sport and exercise nutrition. Athletes adopt various nutritional strategies in training and competition in the pursuit of success. The aim of training is to promote changes in the structure and function of muscle and other tissues by selective modulation of protein synthesis and breakdown in response to the training stimulus. This process is affected by the availability of essential amino acids in the post-exercise period. Athletes have been encouraged to eat diets high in carbohydrate, but low-carbohydrate diets up-regulate the capacity of muscle for fat oxidation, potentially sparing the limited carbohydrate stores. Such diets, however, do not enhance endurance performance. It is not yet known whether the increased capacity for fat oxidation that results from training in a carbohydrate-deficient state can promote loss of body fat. Preventing excessive fluid deficits will maintain exercise capacity, and ensuring adequate hydration status can also reduce subjective perception of effort. This latter effect may be important in encouraging exercise participation and promoting adherence to exercise programmes. Dietary supplement use is popular in sport, and a few supplements may improve performance in specific exercise tasks. Athletes must be cautious, however, not to contravene the doping regulations. There is an increasing recognition of the role of the brain in determining exercise performance: various nutritional strategies have been proposed, but with limited success. Nutrition strategies developed for use by athletes can also be used to achieve functional benefits in other populations.
Hu, Zhongxu; Bicker, Robert; Taylor, Paul; Marshall, Chris
This paper describes a structured light computer vision system applied to the measurement of the 3D profile of shoe uppers. The trajectory obtained is used to guide an industrial robot for automatic edge roughing around the contour of the shoe upper so that the bonding strength can be improved. Due to the specific contour and unevenness of the shoe upper, even if the 3D profile is obtained using computer vision, it is still difficult to reliably define the roughing path around the shape. However, the shape of the corresponding shoe sole is better defined, and it is much easier to measure the edge using computer vision. Therefore, a feasible strategy is to measure both the upper and sole profiles, and then align and fit the sole contour to the upper, in order to obtain the best fit. The trajectory of the edge of the desired roughing path is calculated and is then smoothed and interpolated using NURBS curves to guide an industrial robot for shoe upper surface removal; experiments show robust and consistent results. An outline description of the structured light vision system is given here, along with the calibration techniques used.
Full Text Available A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that figure skating may count as art yet only in non-competitive contexts. Their burden is thus to explain why a routine (e.g., Torvill and Dean’s ‘Bolero’ may count as art in a showcase but not at the Olympics. The debate is also inevitably framed in terms of whether sport counts as art, neglecting the equally viable question of whether art in some form (e.g., competitive dance may also count as sport. I conclude in favour of an appropriately qualified sport-as-art thesis.
Furuta, Etsuko; Yokota, Shigeaki; Aburai, Tamaru; Yoshizawa, Yukio
Six shoe-deodorants on the market were analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy and radionuclide imaging techniques. The results reveal that at least three deodorants were 'radioactive consumer products' containing radionuclides of thorium (Th) series, uranium series, and potassium-40 that were added intentionally. Equivalent dose rates and effective dose rates were calculated using the activities in these deodorants. There were no samples breaking the nuclear reactor and fuel regulation law. Radioactive concentration of the deodorant for a shoe-shelf is higher than other deodorants, and the total concentrations of daughter nuclides of Th which are radioactive equilibrium with 224 Ra exceeded 90 Bq·g -1 . The effective dose rate at one meter from the shoe-shelf-deodorant is 8.6x10 -4 μSv·h -1 . Another type of shoe-deodorants is an insole that causes the surface dose of plantar skin. The equivalent dose was calculated as 1.9 μSv·h -1 at one millimeter from the insole. This study suggested that it needs to watch severely over the deodorants because many kinds of deodorants are used in home and some deodorants are radioactive consumer products. (author)
Deros, Baba Md; Rahman, Mohd Iezalman Ab; Baba, Nurul Huda; Yusof, Ahmed Rithauddeen
This study investigates ergonomicproblems faced by manufacturing employees due to wearing inappropriate safetyshoes. A total of 30 survey respondents was recruited based on the shoes theywear. Pedar-X was used in the experiment to measure the pressure that acts onthe wearer’ feet. Survey results showed the wearer’ experienced the highestpain with the frequency of 80% for right and 83.33% for the left heel forwearing safety shoes two to three times a week. Meanwhile, Pedar-X recordedaverage pe...
Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance. Specifically how intensified training, i.e., increasing the amount of aerobic high-intensity and speed endurance training, affects physiological adaptations and performance of trained subjects. Periods of speed endurance training do improve performance in events lasting 30 s-4 min, and when combined with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase expression of muscle Na(+), K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect of other types of training. It is not, however, clear how various training modalities are affecting each other, and this issue should be addressed in future studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…
Lapole, Thomas; Ahmaidi, Said; Gaillien, Benjamin; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie
Dorsiflexion shoes could be useful to increase jumping performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of wearing shoes inducing moderate dorsiflexion (2°) on neuromuscular fatigue induced by volleyball exercises involving multiple stretch-shortening cycles. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, and plantar flexors isometric voluntary and evoked contractile properties were assessed in 10 unfamiliarized trained volleyball players before and after a 10-minute intensive combined tapping-jumping volleyball exercise performed, in blinded randomized conditions, with neutral (0°) or moderate dorsiflexion (2°). No significant difference was observed on SJ performance in neutral and moderate dorsiflexion conditions. However, CMJ height was initially lower with 2° dorsiflexion compared with 0° (p volleyball exercise also induced a significant decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (p volleyball players.
Nigg, Benno M; Vienneau, Jordyn; Smith, Aimée C; Trudeau, Matthieu B; Mohr, Maurice; Nigg, Sandro R
(A) To quantify differences in lower extremity joint kinematics for groups of runners subjected to different running footwear conditions, and (B) to quantify differences in lower extremity joint kinematics on an individual basis for runners subjected to different running footwear conditions. Three-dimensional ankle and knee joint kinematics were collected for 35 heel-toe runners when wearing three different running shoes and when running barefoot. Absolute mean differences in ankle and knee joint kinematics were computed between running shoe conditions. The percentage of individual runners who displayed differences below a 2°, 3°, and 5° threshold were also calculated. The results indicate that the mean kinematics of the ankle and knee joints were similar between running shoe conditions. Aside from ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion, the percentage of runners maintaining their movement path between running shoes (i.e., less than 3°) was in the order of magnitude of about 80% to 100%. Many runners showed ankle and knee joint kinematics that differed between a conventional running shoe and barefoot by more than 3°, especially for ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion. Many runners stay in the same movement path (the preferred movement path) when running in various different footwear conditions. The percentage of runners maintaining their preferred movement path depends on the magnitude of the change introduced by the footwear condition.
Bishop, David; Burnett, Angus; Farrow, Damian; Gabbett, Tim; Newton, Robert
As sports scientists, we claim to make a significant contribution to the body of knowledge that influences athletic practice and performance. Is this the reality? At the inaugural congress of the Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science, a panel of well-credentialed academic experts with experience in the applied environment debated the question, Does sports-science research influence practice? The first task was to define "sports-science research," and it was generally agreed that it is concerned with providing evidence that improves sports performance. When practices are equally effective, sports scientists also have a role in identifying practices that are safer, more time efficient, and more enjoyable. There were varying views on the need for sports-science research to be immediately relevant to coaches or athletes. Most agreed on the importance of communicating the results of sports-science research, not only to the academic community but also to coaches and athletes, and the need to encourage both short- and long-term research. The panelists then listed examples of sports-science research that they believe have influenced practice, as well as strategies to ensure that sports-science research better influences practice.
Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Masashi; Takagi, Yui; Goto, Yusuke; Otsuka, Naoki; Koyama, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ichihashi, Noriaki
Footwear modification can beneficially alter knee loading in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluated the effect of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes on reductions in external knee moments in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to examine the effect of Masai Barefoot Technology versus control shoes on the knee adduction and flexion moments in 17 women (mean age, 63.6 years) with radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis. The lateral and anterior trunk lean values, knee flexion and adduction angles, and ground reaction force were also evaluated. The influence of the original walking pattern on the changes in knee moments with Masai Barefoot Technology shoes was evaluated. The knee flexion moment in early stance was significantly reduced while walking with the Masai Barefoot Technology shoes (0.25±0.14Nm/kgm) as compared with walking with control shoes (0.30±0.19 Nm/kgm); whereas the knee adduction moment showed no changes. Masai Barefoot Technology shoes did not increase compensatory lateral and anterior trunk lean. The degree of knee flexion moment in the original walking pattern with control shoes was correlated directly with its reduction when wearing Masai Barefoot Technology shoes by multiple linear regression analysis (adjusted R2=0.44, Pknee flexion moment during walking without increasing the compensatory trunk lean and may therefore reduce external knee loading in women with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pion, Johan; Segers, Veerle; Fransen, Job; Debuyck, Gijs; Deprez, Dieter; Haerens, Leen; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lenoir, Matthieu
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Flemish Sports Compass (FSC), a non-sport-specific generic testing battery. It was hypothesised that a set of 22 tests would have sufficient discriminant power to allocate athletes to their own sport based on a unique combination of test scores. First, discriminant analyses were applied to the 22 tests of anthropometry, physical fitness and motor coordination in 141 boys under age 18 (16.1 ± 0.8 years) and post age at peak height velocity (maturity offset = 2.674 ± 0.926) from Flemish Top Sport Academies for badminton, basketball, gymnastics, handball, judo, soccer, table tennis, triathlon and volleyball. Second, nine sequential discriminant analyses were used to assess the ability of a set of relevant performance characteristics classifying participants and non-participants for the respective sports. Discriminant analyses resulted in a 96.4% correct classification of all participants for the nine different sports. When focusing on relevant performance characteristics, 80.1% to 97.2% of the total test sample was classified correctly within their respective disciplines. The discriminating characteristics were briefly the following: flexibility in gymnastics, explosive lower-limb strength in badminton and volleyball, speed and agility in badminton, judo, soccer and volleyball, upper-body strength in badminton, basketball and gymnastics, cardiorespiratory endurance in triathletes, dribbling skills in handball, basketball and soccer and overhead-throwing skills in badminton and volleyball. The generic talent characteristics of the FSC enable the distinction of adolescent boys according to their particular sport. Implications for talent programmes are discussed.
Jarl, Gustav; Tranberg, Roy
Background : Non-removable knee-high devices are the gold standard to treat diabetic foot ulcers located on the plantar forefoot, but they immobilize the ankle, which restricts daily life activities and has negative effects on joint functioning. Objective : To investigate the feasibility of sealing a therapeutic shoe to off-load and heal diabetic forefoot ulcers. Design : A case series of seven men with type 2 diabetes and a metatarsal head ulcer were prescribed therapeutic shoes and custom-made insoles. The shoe was sealed with a plastic band. Off-loading was assessed with the F-scan pressure measurement system. Adherence to wearing the shoe was assessed with a temperature sensor and by documenting the status of the seal. Results : The off-loading was effective and all ulcers healed. Median time to healing was 56 days (range 8-160). Complications were secondary ulcer ( n = 1) and plantar hematoma ( n = 1). Five of seven participants did not disturb the seal. Conclusions : Sealing a therapeutic shoe is a feasible way to off-load and heal forefoot ulcers. A controlled trial is needed to compare the effectiveness and safety of a sealed shoe to other non-removable devices.
Branthwaite, Helen; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Pandyan, Anand; Khatri, Gaurav
Unstable shoes, which have recently become popular, claim to provide additional physiological and biomechanical advantages to people who wear them. Alterations in postural stability have been shown when using the shoe after training. However, the immediate effect on muscle activity when walking in unstable shoes for the first time has not been investigated. To evaluate muscle activity and temporal parameters of gait when wearing Masai Barefoot Technology shoes(®) for the first time compared to the subject's own regular trainer shoes. A pilot repeated-measures quasi control trial. Electromyographic measurements of lower leg muscles (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and gluteus medius) were measured in 15 healthy participants using Masai Barefoot Technology shoes and trainer shoes over a 10-m walkway. Muscle activity of the third and sixth steps was used to study the difference in behaviour of the muscles under the two shoe conditions. Temporal parameters were captured with footswitches to highlight heel strike, heel lift and toe off. Paired samples t-test was completed to compare mean muscle activity for Masai Barefoot Technology and trainer shoes. Indicated that the use of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes increased the intensity of the magnitude of muscle activity. While this increase in the activity was not significant across the subjects, there were inter-individual differences in muscle activity. This variance between the participants demonstrates that some subjects do alter muscle behaviour while wearing such shoes. A more rigorous and specific assessment is required when advising patients to purchase the Masai Barefoot Technology shoe. Not all subjects respond positively to using unstable shoes, and the point in time when muscle behaviour can change is variable. Use of Masai Barefoot Technology shoe in patient management should be monitored closely as the individual muscle
Kiss, I.; Cioată, V. G.; Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.
The braking system is one of the most important and complex subsystems of railway vehicles, especially when it comes for safety. Therefore, installing efficient safe brakes on the modern railway vehicles is essential. Nowadays is devoted attention to solving problems connected with using high performance brake materials and its impact on thermal and mechanical loading of railway wheels. The main factor that influences the selection of a friction material for railway applications is the performance criterion, due to the interaction between the brake block and the wheel produce complex thermos-mechanical phenomena. In this work, the investigated subjects are the cast-iron brake shoes, which are still widely used on freight wagons. Therefore, the cast-iron brake shoes - with lamellar graphite and with a high content of phosphorus (0.8-1.1%) - need a special investigation. In order to establish the optimal condition for the cast-iron brake shoes we proposed a mathematical modelling study by using the statistical analysis and multiple regression equations. Multivariate research is important in areas of cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing, because many variables interact with each other simultaneously. Multivariate visualization comes to the fore when researchers have difficulties in comprehending many dimensions at one time. Technological data (hardness and chemical composition) obtained from cast-iron brake shoes were used for this purpose. In order to settle the multiple correlation between the hardness of the cast-iron brake shoes, and the chemical compositions elements several model of regression equation types has been proposed. Because a three-dimensional surface with variables on three axes is a common way to illustrate multivariate data, in which the maximum and minimum values are easily highlighted, we plotted graphical representation of the regression equations in order to explain interaction of the variables and locate the optimal level of each variable for
Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B
Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions. Significant hypohydration (mean body mass loss (BML) >2%) has been reported most consistently in soccer. Although American Football, rugby, basketball, tennis, and ice hockey have reported high sweating rates, fluid balance disturbances have generally been mild (mean BML sport performance has been studied mostly in soccer, basketball, cricket, and baseball, with mixed results. Hypohydration typically impaired performance at higher levels of BML (3-4%) and when the method of dehydration involved heat stress. Increased subjective ratings of fatigue and perceived exertion consistently accompanied hypohydration and could explain, in part, the performance impairments reported in some studies. More research is needed to develop valid, reliable, and sensitive sport-specific protocols and should be used in future studies to determine the effects of hypohydration and modifying factors (e.g., age, sex, athlete caliber) on team sport performance.
Bishop, Chris; Arnold, John B; Fraysse, Francois; Thewlis, Dominic
To investigate in-shoe foot kinematics, holes are often cut in the shoe upper to allow markers to be placed on the skin surface. However, there is currently a lack of understanding as to what is an appropriate size. This study aimed to demonstrate a method to assess whether different diameter holes were large enough to allow free motion of marker wands mounted on the skin surface during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Eighteen participants underwent an analysis of foot kinematics whilst walking barefoot and wearing shoes with different size holes (15 mm, 20mm and 25 mm). The analysis was conducted in two parts; firstly the trajectory of the individual skin-mounted markers were analysed in a 2D ellipse to investigate total displacement of each marker during stance. Secondly, a geometrical analysis was conducted to assess cluster deformation of the hindfoot and midfoot-forefoot segments. Where movement of the markers in the 15 and 20mm conditions were restricted, the marker movement in the 25 mm condition did not exceed the radius at any anatomical location. Despite significant differences in the isotropy index of the medial and lateral calcaneus markers between the 25 mm and barefoot conditions, the differences were due to the effect of footwear on the foot and not a result of the marker wands hitting the shoe upper. In conclusion, the method proposed and results can be used to increase confidence in the representativeness of joint kinematics with respect to in-shoe multi-segment foot motion during walking. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jiménez Morgan, Sergio; Molina Mora, José Arturo
Aim is to determine if the training with heart rate variability biofeedback allows to improve performance in athletes of different disciplines. Methods such as database search on Web of Science, SpringerLink, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, Pubmed/Medline, and PROQUEST Academic Research Library, as well as manual reference registration. The eligibility criteria were: (a) published scientific articles; (b) experimental studies, quasi-experimental, or case reports; (c) use of HRV BFB as main treatment; (d) sport performance as dependent variable; (e) studies published until October 2016; (f) studies published in English, Spanish, French or Portuguese. The guidelines of the PRISMA statement were followed. Out of the 451 records found, seven items were included. All studies had a small sample size (range from 1 to 30 participants). In 85.71% of the studies (n = 6) the athletes enhanced psychophysiological variables that allowed them to improve their sport performance thanks to training with heart rate variability biofeedback. Despite the limited amount of experimental studies in the field to date, the findings suggest that heart rate variability biofeedback is an effective, safe, and easy-to-learn and apply method for both athletes and coaches in order to improve sport performance.
Markus Klein; Michael Fröhlich; Eike Emrich
The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female) in school years 7 (12.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 (15.8 ± 0.6 years) to measure the extent of a relationship between physical self-concept (self-developed short scale) and sporting activity, measured motor performance (Germa...
Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Buckley, Jonathan D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Hamill, Joseph; Tsiros, Margarita D
Minimalist shoes have been popularized as a safe alternative to conventional running shoes. However, a paucity of research is available investigating the longer-term safety of minimalist shoes. To compare running-related pain and injury between minimalist and conventional shoes in trained runners and to investigate interactions between shoe type, body mass, and weekly training distance. Randomized clinical trial; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-one trained, habitual rearfoot footfall runners (mean ± SD: body mass, 74.6 ± 9.3 kg; weekly training distance, 25 ± 14 km) were randomly allocated to either minimalist or conventional shoes. Runners gradually increased the time spent running in their allocated shoes over 26 weeks. Running-related pain intensity was measured weekly by use of 100-mm visual analog scales. Time to first running-related injury was also assessed. Interactions were found between shoe type and weekly training distance for weekly running-related pain; greater pain was experienced with minimalist shoes ( P 10 mm) were noted when the weekly training distance was more than 35 km/wk. Eleven of 30 runners sustained an injury in conventional shoes compared with 16 of 31 runners in minimalist shoes (hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-4.27; P = .31). A shoe × body mass interaction was found for time to first running-related injury ( P = .01). For runners using minimalist shoes, relative to runners using conventional shoes, the risk of sustaining an injury became more likely with increasing body mass above 71.4 kg, and the risk was moderately increased (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.66; P = .02) for runners using minimalist shoes who had a body mass of 85.7 kg. Runners should limit weekly training distance in minimalist shoes to avoid running-related pain. Heavier runners are at greater risk of injury when running in minimalist shoes. Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613000642785).
Lobo da Costa, Paula H; Azevedo Nora, Fernanda G S; Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Bosch, Kerstin; Rosenbaum, Dieter
The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of lower limb positioning and shoe conditions on stability levels of selected single leg ballet poses performed in demi-pointe position. Fourteen female non-professional ballet dancers (mean age of 18.4±2.8 years and mean body mass index of 21.5±2.8kg/m(2)) who had practiced ballet for at least seven years, without any musculoskeletal impairment volunteered to participate in this study. A capacitive pressure platform allowed for the assessment of center of pressure variables related to the execution of three single leg ballet poses in demi pointé position: attitude devant, attitude derriére, and attitude a la second. Peak pressures, contact areas, COP oscillation areas, anterior-posterior and medio-lateral COP oscillations and velocities were compared between two shoe conditions (barefoot versus slippers) and among the different poses. Barefoot performances produced more stable poses with significantly higher plantar contact areas, smaller COP oscillation areas and smaller anterior-posterior COP oscillations. COP oscillation areas, anterior-posterior COP oscillations and medio-lateral COP velocities indicated that attitude a la second is the least challenging and attitude derriére the most challenging pose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mai, Harry T; Chun, Danielle S; Schneider, Andrew D; Erickson, Brandon J; Freshman, Ryan D; Kester, Benjamin; Verma, Nikhil N; Hsu, Wellington K
Excellent outcomes have been reported for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in professional athletes in a number of different sports. However, no study has directly compared these outcomes between sports. To determine if differences in performance-based outcomes exist after ACLR between professional athletes of each sport. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB) athletes undergoing primary ACLR for an acute rupture were identified through an established protocol of injury reports and public archives. Sport-specific performance statistics were collected before and after surgery for each athlete. Return to play (RTP) was defined as a successful return to the active roster for at least 1 regular-season game after ACLR. Of 344 professional athletes who met the inclusion criteria, a total of 298 (86.6%) returned to play. NHL players had a significantly higher rate of RTP (95.8% vs 83.4%, respectively; P = .04) and a shorter recovery time (258 ± 110 days vs 367 ± 268 days, respectively; P NBA and NFL players showed decreased performance at season 1 after ACLR ( P ≤ .001). NFL players continued to have lower performance at seasons 2 and 3 ( P = .002), while NBA players recovered to baseline performance. The data indicate that NFL athletes fare the worst after ACLR with the lowest survival rate, shortest postoperative career length, and sustained decreases in performance. NHL athletes fare the best with the highest rates of RTP, highest survival rates, longest postoperative career lengths, and no significant changes in performance. The unique physical demand that each sport requires is likely one of the explanations for these differences in outcomes.
Full Text Available Excessive heat at the foot-shoe sole interface negatively affects a human’s thermal comfort. An understanding of the thermal behavior at this interface is important for alleviating this discomfort. During gait motion, a human’s body weight cyclically compresses a shoe sole (commonly constructed of viscoelastic materials, generating heat during loading. To evaluate the thermal effects of this internal heat generation on foot comfort, we developed and empirically validated a thermal analysis model during gait motion. A simple, one-dimensional prediction model for heat conduction with heat generation during compressive loading was used. Heat generation was estimated as a function of the shoe sole’s material properties (e.g., elastic modulus and various gait parameters. When compared with experimental results, the proposed model proved effective in predicting thermal behavior at the foot-shoe sole interface under various conditions and shows potential for improving a human’s thermal comfort during gait motion through informed footwear design.
Lerche, Ian; Maubeuge, Frédéric
This paper shows that it is possible to roughly estimate some ocean properties using simple time-dependent statistical models of ocean fluctuations. Based on a real incident, the loss by a vessel of a Nike shoes container in the North Pacific Ocean, a statistical model was tested on data sets consisting of the Nike shoes found by beachcombers a few months later. This statistical treatment of the shoes' motion allows one to infer velocity trends of the Pacific Ocean, together with their fluctuation strengths. The idea is to suppose that there is a mean bulk flow speed that can depend on location on the ocean surface and time. The fluctuations of the surface flow speed are then treated as statistically random. The distribution of shoes is described in space and time using Markov probability processes related to the mean and fluctuating ocean properties. The aim of the exercise is to provide some of the properties of the Pacific Ocean that are otherwise calculated using a sophisticated numerical model, OSCURS, where numerous data are needed. Relevant quantities are sharply estimated, which can be useful to (1) constrain output results from OSCURS computations, and (2) elucidate the behavior patterns of ocean flow characteristics on long time scales.
Maughan, Ronald J; Zerguini, Yacine; Chalabi, Hakim; Dvorak, Jiri
Muslim athletes should fast from sunrise to sunset each day throughout the 30 days of Ramadan. Most athletes will continue to train throughout Ramadan, and they may also be required to compete at this time, but they will also engage in the religious, cultural, and social activities that Ramadan represents. The available evidence indicates that high-level athletes can maintain performance during Ramadan if physical training, food and fluid intake, and sleep are appropriate and well controlled. Individualized monitoring of athletes may help to prevent fatigue and overtraining and to reduce the risk of consequent illness and injury. The timing and intensity of training may require adjustment to optimize the training response, and training close to or after sunset may have advantages, but this will vary between individual and team sports and between environments that are predominantly Muslim and those that are predominantly non-Muslim. Training late in the day allows nutrition interventions after training to promote adaptations to the training stimulus, to promote recovery, and might help to reduce muscle damage. Sleep deficits have a number of adverse effects on well-being and performance, and athletes should ensure adequate sleep throughout Ramadan. In non-Muslim majority environments, especially in team sports, coaches and athletes should be sensitive to the needs of their team-mates who may be fasting. Event organizers should take account of the needs of Muslim athletes when scheduling the dates and timings of sports competitions.
Douglas, K; Carless, D
Despite its potential to illuminate psychological processes within socio-cultural contexts, examples of narrative research are rare in sport psychology. In this study, we employed an analysis of narrative to explore two women's stories of living in, and withdrawing from, professional tournament golf gathered through life history interviews conducted over 6 years. Our findings suggest that immersion in elite sport culture shaped these women's identities around performance values of single-mind...
Nigg, B M; Stefanyshyn, D; Cole, G; Stergiou, P; Miller, J
The purposes of this study were (a) to determine group and individual differences in oxygen consumption during heel-toe running and (b) to quantify the differences in EMG activity for selected muscle groups of the lower extremities when running in shoes with different mechanical heel characteristics. Twenty male runners performed heel-toe running using two shoe conditions, one with a mainly elastic and a visco-elastic heel. Oxygen consumption was quantified during steady state runs of 6 min duration, running slightly above the aerobic threshold providing four pairs of oxygen consumption results for comparison. Muscle activity was quantified using bipolar surface EMG measurements from the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, vastus medialis and the hamstrings muscle groups. EMG data were sampled for 5 s every minute for the 6 min providing 30 trials. EMG data were compared for the different conditions using an ANOVA (alpha=0.05). The findings of this study showed that changes in the heel material characteristics of running shoes were associated with (a) subject specific changes in oxygen consumption and (b) subject and muscle specific changes in the intensities of muscle activation before heel strike in the lower extremities. It is suggested that further study of these phenomena will help understand many aspects of human locomotion, including work, performance, fatigue and possible injuries.
Baumfeld, Daniel; Raduan, Fernando C; Macedo, Benjamim; Silva, Thiago Alexandre Alves; Baumfeld, Tiago; Favato, Danilo Fabrino; de Andrade, Marco Antonio Percope; Nery, Caio
Excessive shoe heel abrasion is of concern to patients and shoe manufacturers, but little scientific information is available about this feature and its possible causes. The purpose of this study was to relate this phenomenon with biomechanical factors that could predispose to shoe heel abrasion. Ninety-seven recruits (median age 25) were enrolled in this study. Shoe abrasion was assessed manually with a metric plastic tape on the posterior part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground. The number of sprains, foot alignment, and calf muscle shortening (Silfverskiold test) was also assessed in order to relate it with shoe heel abrasion. After using our exclusion criteria, 86 recruits and 172 were considered for this study. The most common abrasion site was the lateral portion of the heel surface (50 %). Forty-four percent of the participants had neutral hind-foot alignment and 39 % had valgus alignment. Twenty-six (30 %) patients have had previous ankle or foot sprains. Neutral foot was related with less calf muscle shortening. On the other hand, valgus hind-foot alignment was more associated with Achilles shortening (p study was able to correlate shoe heel abrasion with biomechanical causes (neutral alignment-uniform abrasion/varus alignment-central and lateral abrasion). More effort has to be done to continue evaluating outsole abrasion with its possible biomechanical cause in order to predict and treat possible associated injuries.
Full Text Available Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety. Keywords: anxiety, sport, performance, injury, sport medicine professional, sport psychology, mental health
... the leg, which can result in a fracture. Stress fractures outside of sport situations are more common in people who have: ... shoes. Choose the appropriate shoe for your favorite sports or activities. And ... can prevent stress fractures. Rotate running with swimming or biking. If ...
Patrícia Aparecida Gaion
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p73 This study’s objective was to verify the association between Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS and perceived impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes. A total of 112 athletes were enrolled, with ages varying from 18 to 31years old, and who participated in the Brazilian Clubs Cup in 2007. The instruments used were: a self-reported sheet based on criteria from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (2000 for the diagnosis of PMS and a sport performance impact perception sheet, organized in a Likert scale with values ranging from 0 (“not affected” to 3 (“extremely affected”. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson’s chi-square and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of PMS was 47.32% and the perceived impact on sport performance for those with PMSwas RP 1.71 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.38. The symptoms associated with sport performance impact were depression, irritability, breast tenderness, difficulty concentrating, back pain and tiredness. The intensity with which the athletes with PMS feel their performance affected during the premenstrual phase was significant in the “lowly affected “(RP 2.1 95%CI 1.26 to 3.55 and “extremely affected” (RP 3.5 95%CI 2.23 to 5.62 categories. Athletes with 6 to 9 symptoms presented higher risk (RP 3.20 95%CI 1.53 to 6.71 than athletes with 4 to 5 symptoms (RP 2.82 95%CI 1.32 to 6.05 or with 2 to 3 symptoms (RP 2.57 95%CI 1.25 to 5.30. In conclusion, the presence of PMS, the number and the kind of symptoms all exhibited associations with the sport performance impact perceived by Brazilian indoor soccer athletes.
Jolk, Christoph; Dalgas, Ulrik; Osada, Nani
Background/Aims: The potential benefits of sports climbing for many diseases have not been investigated. The aim of this case series was to examine whether sports climbing is feasible and whether it can influence isometric muscle performance and balance in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Met...
Squadrone, Roberto; Rodano, Renato; Hamill, Joseph; Preatoni, Ezio
Despite the growing interest in minimalist shoes, no studies have compared the efficacy of different types of minimalist shoe models in reproducing barefoot running patterns and in eliciting biomechanical changes that make them differ from standard cushioned running shoes. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of different footwear models, marketed as "minimalist" by their manufacturer, on running biomechanics. Six running shoes marketed as barefoot/minimalist models, a standard cushioned shoe and the barefoot condition were tested. Foot-/shoe-ground pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were measured in experienced rearfoot strike runners while they were running at 3.33 m · s⁻¹ on an instrumented treadmill. Physical and mechanical characteristics of shoes (mass, heel and forefoot sole thickness, shock absorption and flexibility) were measured with laboratory tests. There were significant changes in foot strike pattern (described by the strike index and foot contact angle) and spatio-temporal stride characteristics, whereas only some among the other selected kinematic parameters (i.e. knee angles and hip vertical displacement) changed accordingly. Different types of minimalist footwear models induced different changes. It appears that minimalist footwear with lower heel heights and minimal shock absorption is more effective in replicating barefoot running.
Miguel Angel Gómez-Ruano
Full Text Available Performance analysis in sport is considered a research area that has grown rapidly in the last two decades (O’Donoghue, 2014. One of the most important reasons of this fact is the interest of sport stakeholders (i.e., coaches, players, managers, fans and performance analysist regarding to improve the training processes and the management and control of competition (O’Donoghue, 2014; O’Donoghue, Holmes, & Robinson, 2017. Accordingly, performance analysis has evolved including different topics and issues to be studied such as: critical moments and perturbations in sport, coaches’ behaviours, performance indicators in sport, injuries incidence and physical analysis, movement analysis during competitions, reliability and validity of sport behaviours, analysis of technique and tactics in sport, normative profilings, analysis of effectiveness of performance analysis or the analysis of referees’ performance (O’Donoghue, 2014.
Neptune, Richard R; McGowan, Craig P; Fiandt, John M
Muscle mechanical output such as force and power are governed by highly nonlinear intrinsic muscle properties associated with different muscle fiber types and are influenced by training and age. Many of the interactions between these properties pose trade-offs such that an individual's anthropometrics and muscle morphology may allow an athlete to excel in one sport but not in others. Advanced modeling and simulation techniques are powerful tools to gain insight into performance limits, optimal equipment designs, and mechanisms that may lead to injury. Recent technological innovations have produced faster running tracks, bicycles, speed skates, and swimming pools. This review discusses the influence of intrinsic muscle properties in sports and how advanced technology can be used to extend the limits of human performance.
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...
Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner
The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... threaten the internal logic of sport. If as an example very efficient hail cartridges were allowed for use in double trap shooting it would reduce the skills required to excel at that discipline reducing its value for participants and spectators alike. The use of forbidden performance enhancing substances...
Bühlmayer, Lucia; Birrer, Daniel; Röthlin, Philipp; Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars
Mindfulness as a present-oriented form of mental training affects cognitive processes and is increasingly considered meaningful for sport psychological training approaches. However, few intervention studies have examined the effects of mindfulness practice on physiological and psychological performance surrogates or on performance outcomes in sports. The aim of the present meta-analytical review was to examine the effects of mindfulness practice or mindfulness-based interventions on physiological and psychological performance surrogates and on performance outcomes in sports in athletes over 15 years of age. A structured literature search was conducted in six electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus). The following search terms were used with Boolean conjunction: (mindful* OR meditat* OR yoga) AND (sport* OR train* OR exercis* OR intervent* OR perform* OR capacity OR skill*) AND (health* OR adult* OR athlete*). Randomized and non-randomized controlled studies that compared mindfulness practice techniques as an intervention with an inactive control or a control that followed another psychological training program in healthy sportive participants were screened for eligibility. Eligibility and study quality [Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro)] scales were independently assessed by two researchers. A third independent researcher was consulted to achieve final consensus in case of disagreement between both researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated as weighted Hedges' g and served as the main outcomes in comparing mindfulness practice versus control. Statistical analyses were conducted using a random-effects inverse-variance model. Nine trials of fair study quality (mean PEDro score 5.4, standard deviation 1.1) with 290 healthy sportive participants (athletics, cyclists, dart throwers, hammer throwers, hockey players, hurdlers, judo fighters, rugby players, middle-distance runners, long
Dixon, S J; Batt, M E; Collop, A C
In this paper, current knowledge of artificial playing surfaces is reviewed. Research status in the fields of sports medicine, engineering and biomechanics is described. A multidisciplinary approach to the study of artificial sports surface properties is recommended. The development of modelling techniques to characterise fundamental material properties is described as the most appropriate method for the unique specification of material properties such as stiffness and damping characteristics. It is suggested that the systematic manipulation of fundamental surface material properties in biomechanics research will allow the identification of subject responses to clearly defined surface variation. It is suggested that subjects should be grouped according to characteristic behaviour on specific sports surfaces. It is speculated that future biomechanics research will identify subject criterion related to differing group responses. The literature evidence of interactions between sports shoes and sports surfaces leads to the suggestion that sports shoe and sports surface companies should work together in the development of ideal shoe - surface combinations for particular groups of subjects.
Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...
The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals.
Full Text Available Appied research rubber sole for canvas shoes sport of industry have observed of properties abrasion resistance and hardness with perform research on the process to shape sole in industry with variation time of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 minutes and pressure of 145, 150, 155 kg/cm2 on temperature 150’C on the result 15 variation soles, until of result properties abrasion resistance = 0.1410 mm3/kgm and hardness = 70 shore A to shape with variation pressure 150 kg/cm2, time 6 minute and temperature 150’C ti fill means SNI 0171-1987 A : Canvas Shoes with Rubber Sole for Sport.
Ghosh, Amit; Mahajan, Preetam B
In last two decades, there has been an evolution in sports medicine. Several researchers have worked on different domains of sports medicine, like strength, endurance, sports injury, and psychology. Besides this, several groups have explored the changes at cellular and molecular levels during exercise, which has led to the development of the new domain in sports science known as genetic medicine. Genetic medicine deals with the genotypic basis of sports phenotype. In this article, we try to provide an up-to-date review on genetic determinants of sports performance, which will be like a journey from the nostalgic past towards the traditional present and the romantic future of sports medicine. Endurance and power performance are two important domains of athletes. They vary in individuals, even among trained athletes. Researches indicate that the genetic makeup of sportsmen play a vital role in their performance. Several genetic factors are reported to be responsible for endurance, power, susceptibility to injury, and even psychology of the individual. Besides this, proper training, nutrition, and environment are also important in shaping their potential. The aim of this discussion is to understand the influence of the environment and the genetic makeup on the performance of the athletes. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that genotype determines the sports phenotype in an athlete. Choosing the right sports activity based on genetic endowment is the key for achieving excellence in sports.
Full Text Available The resource-based view (RBV explores the role of key resources identified as tangible, personnel-based, and intangible resources in creating superior organizational performance. The RBV posits that an organization’s success is mainly driven by resources that possess Barney’s VRIO (valuable, rare, inimitable, and organized framework. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the relationship between the three categories of resources and organizational performance. The data was analyzed with a two-stage structural equation modelling approach. The sample included Portuguese sports management staff from non-profit clubs which composed of 375 men and 102 women. The results of the structural model demonstrated that, intangible resources can significantly influence organizational performance while, personnel-based resources influence tangible and intangible resources. The results show that “staff competence”, “reputation”, and “financial capital” were the most essential resources, and that is core for non-profit clubs and their strategy to recognize, develop, and leverage VRIO resources. These findings also have considerable implications for sport managers, and suggestions for possible future research were given.
Patrícia Aparecida Gaion
Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify the association between Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS and perceived impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes. A total of 112 athletes were enrolled, with ages varying from 18 to 31years old, and who participated in the Brazilian Clubs Cup in 2007. The instruments used were: a self-reported sheet based on criteria from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (2000 for the diagnosis of PMS and a sport performance impact perception sheet, organized in a Likert scale with values ranging from 0 (“notaffected” to 3 (“extremely affected”. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson’s chi-square and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of PMS was 47.32% and the perceived impact on sport performance for those with PMS was RP 1.71 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.38. The symptoms associated with sport performanceimpact were depression, irritability, breast tenderness, difficulty concentrating, back pain and tiredness. The intensity with which the athletes with PMS feel their performance affected during the premenstrual phase was significant in the “lowly affected “(RP 2.195%CI 1.26 to 3.55 and “extremely affected” (RP 3.5 95%CI 2.23 to 5.62 categories. Athletes with 6 to 9 symptoms presented higher risk (RP 3.20 95%CI 1.53 to 6.71 than athletes with 4 to 5 symptoms (RP 2.82 95%CI 1.32 to 6.05 or with 2 to 3 symptoms (RP 2.57 95%CI 1.25 to 5.30. In conclusion, the presence of PMS, the number and thekind of symptoms all exhibited associations with the sport performance impact perceived by Brazilian indoor soccer athletes.
Roy, Jean-Pierre R; Stefanyshyn, Darren J
It has been shown that mechanical energy is dissipated at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint during running and jumping. Furthermore, increasing the longitudinal bending stiffness of the midsole significantly reduced the energy dissipated at the MTP joint and increased jump performance. It was hypothesized that increasing midsole longitudinal bending stiffness would also lead to improvements in running economy. This study investigated the influence of midsole longitudinal bending stiffness on running economy (performance variable) and evaluated the local effects on joint energetics and muscular activity. Carbon fiber plates were inserted into running shoe midsoles and running economy, joint energy, and electromyographic (EMG) data were collected on 13 subjects. Approximately a 1% metabolic energy savings was observed when subjects ran in a stiff midsole relative to the control midsole. Subjects with a greater body mass had a greater decrease in oxygen consumption rates in the stiff midsole relative to the control midsole condition. The stiffer midsoles showed no significant differences in energy absorption at the MTP joint compared with the control shoe. Finally, no significant changes were observed in muscular activation. Increasing midsole longitudinal bending stiffness led to improvements in running economy, yet the underlying mechanisms that can be attributed to this improvement are still not fully understood.
tension of the plantar fascia have been implicated by several authors as a cause of plan tar fasciitis which results in symptomatic heel pain and...Pressure distribution Relationship Between Foot Sensitivity and Plantar Pressure RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The shoe and insert factors Factor Sl...sensitivity of the plantar surface of the foot). For activities which are typical for army personal the choice of an appropriate shoe is essential
Andrey Yu. Aksenov
Full Text Available Background. The effect of different footwear profiles on knee adduction moment have not been fully studied. Methods. Fifteen healthy volunteer subjects, age 25.3 (±2.73, undertook a series of gait laboratory trials with adapted shoes. Kinematic and kinetic data were collect using 16 Oqus 3+ cameras and the walking speed was controlled using timing gates. High street shoes were adapted to include five different heel heights (varying from a 1.5 cm to 5.5 cm heels, two heel profile conditions (curved and semi-curved heels, three varying apex angles (10, 15, and 20 degrees, and barefoot and 3CR footwear conditions. The baseline shoe had no heel curve, a heel height of 3.5cm, an apex position of 62.5% of the shoe length, an apex angle of 15 deg, and a rigid forepart of the shoe. Results. The shoe with 5.5 cm heel height significantly increased the mean knee adduction moment during 50%–100% of the stance phase compared to the 1.5 cm heel (p = 0.008. The high heel shoe also significantly increased knee adduction impulse (area under the curve versus the 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 cm heels, and the 10° toe angle and barefoot condition. Ten degrees of toe angle reduced mean knee adduction moment during 0%–50% of the stance phase versus 20° and significantly reduced mean knee adduction moment during the late stance phase versus 15° and 20° toe angle footwear conditions. Walking with the curved heel for the healthy subjects increased mean knee adduction moment during 0%–50% of the stance phase compared to the heel without curvature (p < 0.0009. Conclusion. Further study is required to investigate those changes in patients with high risk of knee osteoarthritis.
Jesslyn Wijaya, Athalia; Trusaji, Wildan; Akbar, Muhammad; Ma’ruf, Anas; Irianto, Dradjad
A manufacture in Bandung produce kind of rubber-based product i.e. trim, rice rollers, shoe soles, etc. After penetrating the shoe soles market, the manufacture has met customer with tight quality control. Based on the past data, defect level of this product was 18.08% that caused the manufacture’s loss of time and money. Quality improvement effort was done using six sigma method that included phases of define, measure, analyse, improve, and control (DMAIC). In the design phase, the object’s problem and definition were defined. Delphi method was also used in this phase to identify critical factors. In the measure phase, the existing process stability and sigma quality level were measured. Fishbone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were used in the next phase to analyse the root cause and determine the priority issues. Improve phase was done by designing alternative improvement strategy using 5W1H method. Some improvement efforts were identified, i.e. (i) modifying design of the hanging rack, (ii) create pantone colour book and check sheet, (iii) provide pedestrian line at compound department, (iv) buying stop watch, and (v) modifying shoe soles dies. Some control strategies for continuous improvement were proposed such as SOP or reward and punishment system.
Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine
Black Swan : A ballet dancer wins the lead in "Swan Lake" and is perfect for the role of the delicate White Swan - Princess Odette - but slowly loses her mind as she becomes more and more like Odile, the Black Swan. The Red Shoes : A young ballet dancer is torn between the man she loves and her pursuit to become a prima ballerina.
Farndon, Lisa; Robinson, Victoria; Nicholls, Emily; Vernon, Wesley
A previous study highlighted the importance of footwear to individuals' sense of their identity, demonstrating that shoes must 'fit' someone socially, as well as functionally. However, unhealthy shoes can have a detrimental effect on both foot health and mobility. This project utilises qualitative social science methods to enable podiatrists to understand the broader contribution of footwear to patients' sense of themselves and from this an online toolkit was developed to aid footwear education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six podiatrists/shoe-fitters and 13 people with foot pathologies, some of whom also completed shoe diaries. These were supplemented with some follow-up interviews and photographs of participants' own shoes were taken to allow in-depth discussions. Four areas related to 'fit' were identified; practicalities, personal, purpose and pressures, all of which need to be considered when discussing changes in footwear. These were incorporated into an online toolkit which was further validated by service users and practitioners in a focus group. This toolkit can support podiatrists in partnership with patients to identify and address possible barriers to changing footwear towards a more suitable shoe. Enabling patients to make healthier shoe choices will help contribute to improvements in their foot health and mobility.
Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.
Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213
Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.
The increasing number of patients with developing osteoarthritis is accompanied by a growing scientific interest in non-operative early treatment strategies. It is generally believed that laterally wedged insoles can change the distribution of the knee loading, but the importance of footwear design...... shoe were revealed. Conclusion: Lateral wedging is effective regardless of shoe design. Differences between the four neutral walking conditions underline the importance of footwear choice in individuals. It is safe to apply lateral wedges without jeopardizing muscular control during walking regardless...
Zimmer, Adam; Piecora, Kyle; Schuster, Danielle; Webbe, Frank
With the advent of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) mandating the presence and practice of concussion-management plans in collegiate athletic programs, institutions will consider potential approaches for concussion management, including both baseline and normative comparison approaches. To examine sport and team differences in baseline performance on a computer-based neurocognitive measure and 2 standard sideline measures of cognition and balance and to determine the potential effect of premorbid factors sex and height on baseline performance. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. A total of 437 NCAA Division II student-athletes (males = 273, females = 164; age = 19.61 ± 1.64 years, height = 69.89 ± 4.04 inches [177.52 ± 10.26 cm]) were recruited during mandatory preseason testing conducted in a concussion-management program. The computerized Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (Form A; SAC), and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Players on the men's basketball team tended to perform worse on the baseline measures, whereas soccer players tended to perform better. We found a difference in total BESS scores between these sports (P = .002). We saw a difference between sports on the hard-surface portion of the BESS (F6,347 = 3.33, P = .003, ηp(2) = 0.05). No sport, team, or sex differences were found with SAC scores (P > .05). We noted differences between sports and teams in the CRI indices, with basketball, particularly the men's team, performing worse than soccer (P sport differences, height was a covariate for the team (F1,385 = 5.109, P = .02, ηp(2) = 0.013) and sport (F1,326 = 11.212, P = .001, ηp(2) = 0.033) analyses, but the interaction of sex and sport on CRI indices was not significant in any test (P > .05). Given that differences in neurocognitive functioning and performance among sports and teams exist, the comparison of posttraumatic and baseline assessment may lead to more
Ulrich S Tran
Full Text Available Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300 associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062, Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592 showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.
Febriana, Sri Awalia; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan
Purpose Shoe manufacturing workers are exposed daily to an extensive range of potential physical and chemical occupational hazards. Shoe manufacturing in Indonesia is one of the industrial sectors that has shown sustained growth amongst the newly industrialized countries (NICs). In this study, we
Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Silvestre, Juan Francisco; Mercader, Pedro; De la Cuadra, Jesus; Ballester, Isabel; Gallardo, Fernando; Pujol, Ramón M; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus
The methyl ester form of fumaric acid named dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective mould-growth inhibitor. Its irritating and sensitizing properties were demonstrated in animal models. Recently, DMF has been identified as responsible for furniture contact dermatitis in Europe. To describe the clinical manifestations, patch test results, shoe chemical analysis, and source of exposure to DMF-induced shoe contact dermatitis. Patients with suspected shoe contact dermatitis were studied in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patch test results obtained with their own shoe and the European baseline series, acrylates and fumaric acid esters (FAE), were recorded according to international guidelines. The content of DMF in shoes was analysed with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Acute, immediate irritant contact dermatitis and non-immunological contact urticaria were observed in eight adults and two children, respectively. All the adult patients studied developed a delayed sensitization demonstrated by a positive patch testing to DMF Global preventive measures for avoiding contact with DMF are necessary.
This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.
Nouri, M R; Kennedy, D B
Premature loss of a primary second molar may lead to space loss in the dental arch. This space loss tends to be more severe in unfavourable malocclusions. The distal shoe space maintainer (DSSM) may be beneficial in controlling the path of eruption of an unerupted permanent first molar from the primary into the early mixed dentition. This article describes the technique for achieving optimal fit of a chairside-fabricated band and DSSM in a single visit by contouring the distal shoe blade, and by extending it to the mesial surface of the permanent first molar. Upon the eruption of the permanent first molar DSSM may be modified to a reverse band-and-loop, or replaced by a lingual holding arch.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the importance of the English Thoroughbred in sport horse breeding in the Czech Republic. Basic data were taken from the survey of sport horses in the Czech Republic in the years 2005–2008 which contains sport competition results of horses. The sport performance is expressed by the PPB value. We used the GLM method for statistical elaboration. Using the method of multiple comparisons by Tukey-B we defined the differences between the breeds, gender, age, sport seasons and the number of starts in competitions. Statistically highly significant effect was discovered of all the studied effects on the jumping sports performance of the horses. Basing on statistical evaluations we found out that the highest PPB value (3.356 was reached by group 5 (sport horses without a significant share of the English Thoroughbred. Group 5 was also the most numerous one. The best values according to the gender were reached by stallions (4168 and the most numerous group included mares (4766. We also discovered that the highest values were reached by the horses that compete at the age of 12 years (3.5414 and the highest average values were achieved in the 2008 season (3.999. The highest PPB value was achieved by horses with a high number of starts.
Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith
An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals toward different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.
Full Text Available An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals towards different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.
Robinson, Leah E; Rudisill, Mary E; Weimar, Wendi H; Breslin, Casey M; Shroyer, Justin F; Morera, Maria
The effect of footwear on locomotor skill performance was examined. 12 children (4 boys, 8 girls; M age = 56.3 mo., SD = 3.3) served as participants. Participants were randomly assigned to perform the locomotor subscale of Ulrich's Test of Gross Motor Development in two shoe conditions (Condition 1: Stride Rite athletic shoes, and Condition 2: flip flop sandals). Children scored significantly higher when wearing athletic shoes than flip-flop sandals. This finding is relevant for motor performance and safety in physical education and movement programs.
Bood, R.J.; Nijssen, M; van der Kamp, J.; Roerdink, M.
Acoustic stimuli, like music and metronomes, are often used in sports. Adjusting movement tempo to acoustic stimuli (i.e., auditory-motor synchronization) may be beneficial for sports performance. However, music also possesses motivational qualities that may further enhance performance. Our
... in sport, the effect of motivation in sport on academic performance, the fundamental cause of anxiety in sport, the fact that female athletes are likely to be relatively more comfortable with male authority figures as coaches, etcetera. The empirical research revealed that discrepancies exist between the perceptions of teacher ...
Bhat, Prasanna Kumar; K, Navin H; Idris, Mohammed; Christopher, Pradeep; Rai, Niharika
Preservation of the primary dentition until the normal time of exfoliation is one of the most important factor involved in preventive and interceptive dentistry. The premature loss of second primary molar before the eruption of permanent first molar can create a significant arch space/tooth size discrepancy. Distal shoe space maintainer is a valuable part of the Paediatric Dentist's armamentarium in those cases where the second primary molar is prematurely lost and it helps to guide the first permanent molar into place. Conventional design poses various limitations in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. Thus, it is required to modify the conventional designs according to the needs of the patient. This case report describes an innovative modification of distal shoe appliance in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. In the present case, modification of distal shoe space maintainer was advocated because of inadequate abutments caused due to multiple loss of deciduous molars. Bilateral design of distal shoe was planned for unilateral loss of deciduous molars.
Socalici, A; Pascu, L; Popa, E; Hepuţ, T
An important characteristic with a high impact upon the exploitation durability of the brake shoes is hardness. The paper introduces the influence of the phosphorous cast iron structure upon the hardness of the brake shoes meant for the tractive and trailing rolling stock. The results presented show the variation of hardness on the surface and the cross section of the braking shoe (paper)
Cockburn, Emma; Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) leads to increases in intramuscular proteins observed in the blood stream and delayed onset of muscle soreness, but crucial for athletes are the decrements in muscle performance observed. Previous research has demonstrated that carbohydrate-protein supplements limit these decrements; however, they have primarily used isokinetic dynamometry, which has limited applicability to dynamic sport settings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a carbohydrate-protein milk supplement consumed after muscle-damaging exercise on performance tests specific to field-based team sports. Two independent groups of seven males consumed either 500 mL of milk or a control immediately after muscle-damaging exercise. Passive and active delayed onset of muscle soreness, creatine kinase, myoglobin, countermovement jump height, reactive strength index, 15-m sprint, and agility time were assessed before and 24, 48, and 72 h after EIMD. The Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test was also performed before and 48 h after EIMD. At 48 h, milk had a possible benefit for limiting increases in 10-m sprint time and a likely benefit of attenuating increases in mean 15-m sprint time during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. At 72 h, milk had a possible benefit for limiting increases in 15-m sprint time and a likely benefit for the attenuation of increases in agility time. All other effects for measured variables were unclear. The consumption of milk limits decrements in one-off sprinting and agility performance and the ability to perform repeated sprints during the physiological simulation of field-based team sports.
Spasic, Miodrag; Krolo, Ante; Zenic, Natasa; Delextrat, Anne; Sekulic, Damir
There is no current study that examined sport-specific tests of reactive-agility and change-of-direction-speed (CODS) to replicate real-sport environment in handball (team-handball). This investigation evaluated the reliability and validity of two novel tests designed to assess reactive-agility and CODS of handball players. Participants were female (25.14 ± 3.71 years of age; 1.77 ± 0.09 m and 74.1 ± 6.1 kg) and male handball players (26.9 ± 4.1 years of age; 1.90 ± 0.09 m and 93.90±4.6 kg). Variables included body height, body mass, body mass index, broad jump, 5-m sprint, CODS and reactive-agility tests. Results showed satisfactory reliability for reactive-agility-test and CODS-test (ICC of 0.85-0.93, and CV of 2.4-4.8%). The reactive-agility and CODS shared less than 20% of the common variance. The calculated index of perceptual and reactive capacity (P&RC; ratio between reactive-agility- and CODS-performance) is found to be valid measure in defining true-game reactive-agility performance in handball in both genders. Therefore, the handball athletes' P&RC should be used in the evaluation of real-game reactive-agility performance. Future studies should explore other sport-specific reactive-agility tests and factors associated to such performance in sports involving agile maneuvers. Key pointsReactive agility and change-of-direction-speed should be observed as independent qualities, even when tested over the same course and similar movement templateThe reactive-agility-performance of the handball athletes involved in defensive duties is closer to their non-reactive-agility-score than in their peers who are not involved in defensive dutiesThe handball specific "true-game" reactive-agility-performance should be evaluated as the ratio between reactive-agility and corresponding CODS performance.
Steinberg, Nili; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Karin, Janet; Tirosh, Oren
Impaired ankle inversion movement discrimination (AIMD) can lead to ankle sprain injuries. The aim of this study was to explore whether wearing textured insoles improved AIMD compared with barefoot, ballet shoes and smooth insoles, among dancers. Forty-four adolescent male and female dancers, aged 13-19, from The Australian Ballet School were tested for AIMD while barefoot, wearing ballet shoes, smooth insoles, and textured insoles. No interaction was found between the four different footwear conditions, the two genders, or the two levels of dancers in AIMD (p > .05). An interaction was found between the four different footwear conditions and the three tertiles when tested in ballet shoes (p = .006). Although significant differences were found between the upper tertiles and the lower tertiles when tested with ballet shoes, barefoot and with smooth insoles (p < .001; p < .001; p = .047, respectively), when testing with textured insoles dancers in the lower tertile obtained similar scores to those obtained by dancers in the upper tertile (p = .911). Textured insoles improved the discrimination scores of dancers with low AIMD, suggesting that textured insoles may trigger the cutaneous receptors in the plantar surface, increasing the awareness of ankle positioning, which in turn might decrease the chance of ankle injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trkov, Mitja; Yi, Jingang; Liu, Tao; Li, Kang
Shoe-floor interactions play a crucial role in determining the possibility of potential slip and fall during human walking. Biomechanical and tribological parameters influence the friction characteristics between the shoe sole and the floor and the existing work mainly focus on experimental studies. In this paper, we present modeling, analysis, and experiments to understand slip and force distributions between the shoe sole and floor surface during human walking. We present results for both soft and hard sole material. The computational approaches for slip and friction force distributions are presented using a spring-beam networks model. The model predictions match the experimentally observed sole deformations with large soft sole deformation at the beginning and the end stages of the stance, which indicates the increased risk for slip. The experiments confirm that both the previously reported required coefficient of friction (RCOF) and the deformation measurements in this study can be used to predict slip occurrence. Moreover, the deformation and force distribution results reported in this study provide further understanding and knowledge of slip initiation and termination under various biomechanical conditions.
Jakoi, Andre; O'Neill, Craig; Damsgaard, Christopher; Fehring, Keith; Tom, James
. Players who undergo sports hernia surgeries return to play and often perform similar to their presurgery level. Players with over 7 full seasons return but with significant decreases in their overall performance levels. Less veteran players were able to return to play without any statistical decrease in performance and are likely the best candidates for repair once incurring injury.
Full Text Available Gait analysis and more specifically ambulatory monitoring of temporal and spatial gait parameters may open relevant fields of applications in activity tracking, sports and also in the assessment and treatment of specific diseases. Wearable technology can boost this scenario by spreading the adoption of monitoring systems to a wide set of healthy users or patients. In this context, we assessed a recently developed commercial smart shoe—the FootMoov—for automatic gait phase detection in level walking. FootMoov has built-in force sensors and a triaxial accelerometer and is able to transmit the sensor data to the smartphone through a wireless connection. We developed a dedicated gait phase detection algorithm relying both on force and inertial information. We tested the smart shoe on ten healthy subjects in free level walking conditions and in a laboratory setting in comparison with an optical motion capture system. Results confirmed a reliable detection of the gait phases. The maximum error committed, on the order of 44.7 ms, is comparable with previous studies. Our results confirmed the possibility to exploit consumer wearable devices to extract relevant parameters to improve the subject health or to better manage his/her progressions.
Sanhueza, Jorge A.; Zambrano, Tomás; Bahamondes-Avila, Carlos; Salazar, Luis A.
Different factors affecting athletic performance are well established: intensity and type of training, anthropometric characteristics as well as an important psychological component. However, the contribution of the genetic background has been less investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms within genes associated with stress and anxiety (5HTT, CRH2R, ACE, NK1R, 5HT1AR and CRF-BP) on the physical capability and sports performance in triathletes. One hundred and ninety two (192) unrelated Chilean triathletes who participated in the 2014 70.3 Pucón city triathlon were divided into opposite subgroups of sports performance according to their time results. We identified significant associations for five polymorphisms (5HTT 5-HTTLPR, ACE I/D, NK1R rs6715729, 5HT1AR -1019C>G and CRF-BP CRF-BPs11) with athletic performance. Our results indicate that these polymorphisms are associated with differential sports performance in Chilean triathletes, establishing an initial background for better understanding the relationship between physical performance, genetics and anxiety disorders. Key points Genetic factors influencing sports performance in the Chilean population are unknown. Differential outcomes from athletes who completed a triathlon competition were associated with five polymorphisms (5HTT 5-HTTLPR, ACE I/D, NK1R rs6715729, 5HT1AR -1019C>G and CRF-BP CRF-BPs11). We show that genetic variants within stress- and anxiety-related genes affect athletic performance. PMID:27928199
Mark E. Kasmer
Conclusion: More runners adopted a more posterior initial contact area after the 50-km run in the traditional shoe type than in the minimalist shoe type. The runners who adopted a more posterior initial contact area were more closely associated with an increased median frequency of the medial gastrocnemius, which suggests there may be a change in motor unit recruitment pattern during long-distance, sustained velocity running. The increased peak pressures observed in the medial forefoot in the minimalist shoe type may predispose to metatarsal stress fractures in the setting of improper training.
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Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.
Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.
McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A
To assess the impact energy attenuation performance of a range of headguards for combat sports. Seven headguards worn during combat sport training or competition, including two Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur (AIBA)-approved boxing models, were tested using drop tests. An International Organization for Standardization (ISO) rigid headform was used with a 5.6 kg drop assembly mass. Tests were conducted against a flat rigid anvil both with and without a boxing glove section. The centre forehead and lateral headguard areas were tested. Peak headform acceleration was measured. Tests from a selection of drop heights and repeated tests on the same headguard were conducted. Headguard performance varied by test condition. For the 0.4 m rigid anvil tests, the best model headguard was the thickest producing an average peak headform acceleration over 5 tests of 48 g compared with 456 g for the worst model. The mean peak acceleration for the 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 frontal and lateral rigid anvil impact tests was between 32% and 40% lower for the Top Ten boxing model compared with the Adidas boxing model. The headguard performance deterioration observed with repeat impact against the flat anvil was reduced for impacts against the glove section. The overall reduction in acceleration for the combination of glove and headguard in comparison to the headguard condition was in the range of 72-93% for 0.6 and 0.8 m drop tests. The impact tests show the benefits of performance testing in identifying differences between headguard models. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Sport practice at an early age is a problem of high actuality, this being debated intensely by specialists,the solving of the problem in cause being appreciated as a highly important factor in the general conception ofthe complex process of sport practice, in this process a very important role being held by the physical training.The present paper approaches the complex problem of the connection between the physical training andthe sport performances at children through an experiment realized on 6 speed skaters, 4 boys and 2 girls, withages of 8-9, experiment that had as purpose the demonstration of the importance of the multilateral physical training at skaters of an early age, of course without excluding the importance of the other factors necessary for superior results.Through the obtained results we proved that there is a direct connection between the physical training and the sport performances at children, knowing that the superior results in speed skating, on a long period, depend also by the training quality at an early age
Fluke, C. J.; Parrington, L.; Hegarty, S.; MacMahon, C.; Morgan, S.; Hassan, A. H.; Kilborn, V. A.
In this data-rich era of astronomy, there is a growing reliance on automated techniques to discover new knowledge. The role of the astronomer may change from being a discoverer to being a confirmer. But what do astronomers actually look at when they distinguish between “sources” and “noise?” What are the differences between novice and expert astronomers when it comes to visual-based discovery? Can we identify elite talent or coach astronomers to maximize their potential for discovery? By looking to the field of sports performance analysis, we consider an established, domain-wide approach, where the expertise of the viewer (i.e., a member of the coaching team) plays a crucial role in identifying and determining the subtle features of gameplay that provide a winning advantage. As an initial case study, we investigate whether the SportsCode performance analysis software can be used to understand and document how an experienced Hi astronomer makes discoveries in spectral data cubes. We find that the process of timeline-based coding can be applied to spectral cube data by mapping spectral channels to frames within a movie. SportsCode provides a range of easy to use methods for annotation, including feature-based codes and labels, text annotations associated with codes, and image-based drawing. The outputs, including instance movies that are uniquely associated with coded events, provide the basis for a training program or team-based analysis that could be used in unison with discipline specific analysis software. In this coordinated approach to visualization and analysis, SportsCode can act as a visual notebook, recording the insight and decisions in partnership with established analysis methods. Alternatively, in situ annotation and coding of features would be a valuable addition to existing and future visualization and analysis packages.
Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle
In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…
Bergstra, S. A.; Kluitenberg, B.; Dekker, R.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Postema, K.; Van den Heuvel, E. R.; Hijmans, J. M.; Sobhani, S.
OBJECTIVES: Minimalist running shoes have been proposed as an alternative to barefoot running. However, several studies have reported cases of forefoot stress fractures after switching from standard to minimalist shoes. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the differences in
Sanhueza, Jorge A; Zambrano, Tomás; Bahamondes-Avila, Carlos; Salazar, Luis A
Different factors affecting athletic performance are well established: intensity and type of training, anthropometric characteristics as well as an important psychological component. However, the contribution of the genetic background has been less investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms within genes associated with stress and anxiety ( 5HTT , CRH2R , ACE , NK1R , 5HT1AR and CRF-BP ) on the physical capability and sports performance in triathletes. One hundred and ninety two (192) unrelated Chilean triathletes who participated in the 2014 70.3 Pucón city triathlon were divided into opposite subgroups of sports performance according to their time results. We identified significant associations for five polymorphisms ( 5HTT 5-HTTLPR, ACE I/D, NK1R rs6715729, 5HT1AR -1019C>G and CRF-BP CRF-BPs11) with athletic performance. Our results indicate that these polymorphisms are associated with differential sports performance in Chilean triathletes, establishing an initial background for better understanding the relationship between physical performance, genetics and anxiety disorders.
Jorge A. Sanhueza, Tomás Zambrano, Carlos Bahamondes-Avila, Luis A. Salazar
Full Text Available Different factors affecting athletic performance are well established: intensity and type of training, anthropometric characteristics as well as an important psychological component. However, the contribution of the genetic background has been less investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms within genes associated with stress and anxiety (5HTT, CRH2R, ACE, NK1R, 5HT1AR and CRF-BP on the physical capability and sports performance in triathletes. One hundred and ninety two (192 unrelated Chilean triathletes who participated in the 2014 70.3 Pucón city triathlon were divided into opposite subgroups of sports performance according to their time results. We identified significant associations for five polymorphisms (5HTT 5-HTTLPR, ACE I/D, NK1R rs6715729, 5HT1AR -1019C>G and CRF-BP CRF-BPs11 with athletic performance. Our results indicate that these polymorphisms are associated with differential sports performance in Chilean triathletes, establishing an initial background for better understanding the relationship between physical performance, genetics and anxiety disorders.
Ferraresi, Cleber; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared (NIR) light to stimulate, heal, and regenerate damaged tissue. Both preconditioning (light delivered to muscles before exercise) and PBM applied after exercise can increase sports performance in athletes. This review covers the effects of PBM on human muscle tissue in clinical trials in volunteers related to sports performance and in athletes. The parameters used were categorized into those with positive effects or no effects on muscle performance and recovery. Randomized controlled trials and case-control studies in both healthy trained and untrained participants, and elite athletes were retrieved from MEDLINE up to 2016. Performance metrics included fatigue, number of repetitions, torque, hypertrophy; measures of muscle damage and recovery such as creatine kinase and delayed onset muscle soreness. Searches retrieved 533 studies, of which 46 were included in the review (n = 1045 participants). Studies used single laser probes, cluster of laser diodes, LED clusters, mixed clusters (lasers and LEDs), and flexible LED arrays. Both red, NIR, and red/NIR mixtures were used. PBM can increase muscle mass gained after training, and decrease inflammation and oxidative stress in muscle biopsies. We raise the question of whether PBM should be permitted in athletic competition by international regulatory authorities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Verma, Santosh K; Zhao, Zhe; Courtney, Theodore K; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Lombardi, David A; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J
Several studies have indicated that slip-resistant shoes may have a positive effect on reducing the risk of slips and falls, a leading cause of injury at work. Few studies, however, have examined how duration of shoe usage affects their slip-resistance properties. This study examined the association between the duration of slip-resistant shoes usage and the self-reported rate of slipping in limited-service restaurant workers. A total of 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in the USA were recruited to participate in a 12-week prospective study of workplace slipping. Of the 475 participants, 83 reported changing to a new pair of shoes at least once during the 12-week follow-up. The results show that slip-resistant shoes worn for less than six months were moderately more effective than those worn for more than six months. Changing to a new pair of shoes among those wearing slip-resistant shoes at baseline was associated with a 55% reduction in the rate of slipping (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.23-0.89). Further research is needed to develop criteria for the replacement of slip-resistant shoes.
Fruit juice in retail packs 8. Waters, including mineral waters and aerated waters containing added sugar or sweetening matter or flavored, ice snow... leather and plastics [but excluding safety shoes used in oil industries, hospitals, fire fighting and factories, sports shoes, canvass shoes all
Keogh, Justin W L
The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. The overall purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that the field of sports biomechanics specifically (and sports science in general) may play in improving performance in various summer Paralympic sports through research and consultancy. To achieve this broad aim, this review provides some history and background on the Summer Paralympic Games, discusses the eligibility and classification rules, describes the potential for the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to inform practice and research in this area, and reviews selected studies examining the biomechanics of the primary forms of Paralympic locomotion. Some recommendations on how sports biomechanics can help facilitate improvements in Paralympic athletic performance through applied research and consultancy are provided, along with commentary on what may be some of the most important issues addressing Paralympic sport.
Lee, Xuan-Hao; Yang, Jin-Tsung; Chien, Wei-Ting; Chang, Jung-Hsuan; Lo, Yi-Chien; Lin, Che-Chu; Sun, Ching-Cherng
In this paper, we present a luminaire design with anti-glare and energy-saving effects for sports hall. Compared with traditional lamps using in a badminton court, the average illuminance on the ground of the proposed LED luminaire is enhanced about 300%. Besides, the uniformity is obviously enhanced and improved. The switch-on speed of lighting in sports hall is greatly reduced from 5-10 minutes to 1 second. The simulation analysis and the corresponding experiment results are demonstrated.
Close, G L; Hamilton, D L; Philp, A; Burke, L M; Morton, J P
Despite over 50 years of research, the field of sports nutrition continues to grow at a rapid rate. Whilst the traditional research focus was one that centred on strategies to maximise competition performance, emerging data in the last decade has demonstrated how both macronutrient and micronutrient availability can play a prominent role in regulating those cell signalling pathways that modulate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and resistance training. Nonetheless, in the context of exercise performance, it is clear that carbohydrate (but not fat) still remains king and that carefully chosen ergogenic aids (e.g. caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, nitrates) can all promote performance in the correct exercise setting. In relation to exercise training, however, it is now thought that strategic periods of reduced carbohydrate and elevated dietary protein intake may enhance training adaptations whereas high carbohydrate availability and antioxidant supplementation may actually attenuate training adaptation. Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin D may play a regulatory role in muscle regeneration and subsequent hypertrophy following damaging forms of exercise. Finally, novel compounds (albeit largely examined in rodent models) such as epicatechins, nicotinamide riboside, resveratrol, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, phosphatidic acid and ursolic acid may also promote or attenuate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and strength training. When taken together, it is clear that sports nutrition is very much at the heart of the Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius (faster, higher, stronger). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Knapik, Joseph J; Trone, Daniel W; Tchandja, Juste; Jones, Bruce H
Secondary analysis of 3 randomized controlled trials. Objective Analysis of studies that examined whether prescribing running shoes on the basis of foot arch height influenced injury risk during military basic training. Prior to 2007, running magazines and running-shoe companies suggested that imprints of the bottom of the feet (plantar shape) could be used as an indication of foot arch height and that this could be used to select individually appropriate types of running shoes. Similar studies were conducted in US Army (2168 men, 951 women), Air Force (1955 men, 718 women), and Marine Corps (840 men, 571 women) basic training. After foot examinations, recruits were randomized to either an experimental or a control group. Recruits in the experimental group selected or were assigned motion-control, stability, or cushioned shoes to match their plantar shape, which represented a low, medium, or high foot arch, respectively. The control group received a stability shoe regardless of plantar shape. Injuries during basic training were assessed from outpatient medical records. Meta-analyses that pooled results of the 3 investigations showed little difference between the experimental and control groups in the injury rate (injuries per 1000 person-days) for either men (summary rate ratio = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 1.06) or women (summary rate ratio = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.08). When injury rates for specific types of running shoes were compared, there were no differences. Selecting running shoes based on arch height had little influence on injury risk in military basic training. Prevention, level 1b.
Nilesh Manohar Ingle
Full Text Available Background: Sport science studies applications of scientific principles and techniques with the aim of improving sports performance. Objective: Present research work was carried out with the aim to enhance the sport performance of children. Materials and Methods: Randomized double blind placebo controlled study was conducted in children involved in sports to assess the efficacy of trial drug "Vidarikandadi Yog". Total of 72 healthy students were selected for the study after screening 412 students. Out of them, 60 students completed the study. The students were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (Vidarikandadi Yog comprising of 38 and Group B (placebo of 34 students. The trial drug "Vidarikandadi Yog" was given in the dose of 200 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for 2 months with milk and follow up was conducted fortnightly. Results: The study revealed the statistically significant results for weight and chest circumference, whereas highly significant results were obtained for muscular strength and endurance assessment parameters (Push-up Test, Sit-up Test, and Hand Grip Strength Test. Change in Ruler Drop Test was not significant. Results were significant for cardio-respiratory parameters (Resting Heart Rate, Resting Respiratory Rate, and Harvard Step Test. Conclusion: Vidarikandadi Yog is a potential drug for enhancing the sport performance due to its Brinhaneeya effect.
Full Text Available A mathematical method of decision-making in which a competitive or cooperative situation is analyzed to determine the optimal course of action for an interested “player” is often called game theory. Game theory has very broad application in different sciences. Team sports tactical performance is considered from the aspects of data processing theory and the phenomenon of selective attention, as well as from the game theory. Team sports tactical performance is an asymmetric, sequential (of imperfect information, non-zero-sum game. In decision making, predictability in team sports is in fact bargaining, and the player has to use a mixed strategy for choosing option with highest expected utility. Player could choose a trembling hand equilibrium, to eliminate imperfect equilibrium. Strategic dominance conceipt can explain that a player could choose strategy which dominates between other possible strategies, and/or could be led by “team reasoning”, too. In this article, the level of predictability of the most frequent tactical performance of one player in a team sport game is considered, reflecting outcomes both for the same team’s tactical performance (co-players in one player’s team, as well as for the opponent team’s tactical performance. Four different possible situations during team sport competition could lead to considering utilities of one player’s specific decisions.
Mason, Barry S; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L
Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has focused on the role of the wheelchair and the wheelchair-user combination. This article aims to review relevant scientific literature that has investigated the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance from an ergonomics perspective. Optimizing performance from an ergonomics perspective requires a multidisciplinary approach. This has resulted in laboratory-based investigations incorporating a combination of physiological and biomechanical analyses to assess the efficiency, health/safety and comfort of various wheelchair configurations. To a lesser extent, field-based testing has also been incorporated to determine the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance specific to the wheelchair court sports. The available literature has demonstrated that areas of seat positioning, rear wheel camber, wheel size and hand-rim configurations can all influence the ergonomics of wheelchair performance. Certain configurations have been found to elevate the physiological demand of wheelchair propulsion, others have been associated with an increased risk of injury and some have demonstrated favourable performance on court. A consideration of all these factors is required to identify optimal wheelchair configurations. Unfortunately, a wide variety of different methodologies have immerged between studies, many of which are accompanied by limitations, thus making the identification of optimal configurations problematic. When investigating an area of wheelchair configuration, many studies have failed to adequately standardize other areas, which has prevented reliable cause and effect relationships being established. In addition, a large
Full Text Available Horse racing is a multi-billion-dollar industry that has raised welfare concerns due to injured and euthanized animals. Whilst the cause of musculoskeletal injuries that lead to horse morbidity and mortality is multifactorial, pre-existing pathologies, increased speeds and substrate of the racecourse are likely contributors to foot disease. Horse hooves have the ability to naturally deform during locomotion and dissipate locomotor stresses, yet farriery approaches are utilised to increase performance and protect hooves from wear. Previous studies have assessed the effect of different shoe designs on locomotor performance; however, no biomechanical study has hitherto measured the effect of horseshoes on the stresses of the foot skeleton in vivo. This preliminary study introduces a novel methodology combining three-dimensional data from biplanar radiography with inverse dynamics methods and finite element analysis (FEA to evaluate the effect of a stainless steel shoe on the function of a Thoroughbred horse’s forefoot during walking. Our preliminary results suggest that the stainless steel shoe shifts craniocaudal, mediolateral and vertical GRFs at mid-stance. We document a similar pattern of flexion-extension in the PIP (pastern and DIP (coffin joints between the unshod and shod conditions, with slight variation in rotation angles throughout the stance phase. For both conditions, the PIP and DIP joints begin in a flexed posture and extend over the entire stance phase. At mid-stance, small differences in joint angle are observed in the PIP joint, with the shod condition being more extended than the unshod horse, whereas the DIP joint is extended more in the unshod than the shod condition. We also document that the DIP joint extends more than the PIP after mid-stance and until the end of the stance in both conditions. Our FEA analysis, conducted solely on the bones, shows increased von Mises and Maximum principal stresses on the forefoot phalanges
Rixe, Jeffrey A; Gallo, Robert A; Silvis, Matthew L
Running has evolved throughout history from a necessary form of locomotion to an athletic and recreational pursuit. During this transition, our barefoot ancestors developed footwear. By the late 1970s, running popularity surged, and footwear manufacturers developed the running shoe. Despite new shoe technology and expert advice, runners still face high injury rates, which have yet to decline. Recently, "minimalist" running, marked by a soft forefoot strike and shorter, quicker strides, has become increasingly popular within the running community. Biomechanical studies have suggested that these features of barefoot-style running may lead to a reduction in injury rates. After conducting more outcomes-based research, minimalist footwear and gait retraining may serve as new methods to reduce injuries within the running population.
Seyede Zeynab Hoseini
Full Text Available Objective: Increased vertical ground reaction force loading rates and lack of comfort footwear in the early stance phase can increase the risk of overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Five-finger shoes on vertical ground reaction force loading rate and perceived comfort during the stance phase of running. Methods: 15 male students (aged 24 ± 5/24 years, weight 75/8 ± 4/61 kg, height 178/6 ± 6/64 cm were selected. Subjects were asked to run over a force plate, in control shoe, five finger shoe and barefoot conditions. Loading rate using the slope of the vertical reaction force and perceived comfort were determined using a visual analogue scale. One factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the loading rate hypothesis and Paired t-tests was used to test the meaningfulness of perceived comfort (P<0/05. Results: The effect of shoes on loading rate was found to be not significant (P=0.1. However, comfort of control shoes increased by 10. 92% as compared to that of five-finger shoes (P=0.001. Conclusion: The loading rate of five-finger shoes is the same as that of barefoot during running; however, as subjects did not perceive them as comfortable as regular shoes are five-finger shoes cannot be advised as a desirable choice in exercises.
Derlatka, Marcin; Bogdan, Mariusz
Biometrics is currently an area that is both very interesting as well as rapidly growing. Among various types of biometrics the human gait recognition seems to be one of the most intriguing. However, one of the greatest problems within this field of biometrics is the change in gait caused by footwear. A change of shoes results in a significant lowering of accuracy in recognition of people. The following work presents a method which uses data gathered by two sensors: force plates and Microsoft Kinect v2 to reduce this problem. Microsoft Kinect is utilized to measure the body height of a person which allows the reduction of the set of recognized people only to those whose height is similar to that which has been measured. The entire process is preceded by identifying the type of footwear which the person is wearing. The research was conducted on data obtained from 99 people (more than 3400 strides) and the proposed method allowed us to reach a Correct Classification Rate (CCR) greater than 88% which, in comparison to earlier methods reaching CCR’s of <80%, is a significant improvement. The work presents advantages as well as limitations of the proposed method.
The previous literature has not devoted enough space to “motivation for training” issues, especially for amateur sports. Generally, is possible imagine some factors which influence motivation for training in professional sports like an high remuneration, fame, etc. However is more difficult find these motivation factors it in the amatorial context, because an amatorial player already has not a substantial remuneration, has a job beyond sports, etc. The main result of this paper is that a larg...
Kawamori, Naoki; Nosaka, Kazunori; Newton, Robert U
Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a standing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration performance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background performed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) analysis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = -0.52) and propulsive impulse (r = -0.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant correlations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results suggest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longitudinal training studies.
Studer, Ginny L., Ed.; And Others
The chief objective of sport art is to capture that actual fleeting moment of excellent performance in a sporting event. In a series of articles, the significance of sport art is shown in its importance in recording historic contests and games, emphasizing social achievement and personal performance goals, and attempting to symbolize the depth of…
Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Boyd, Jennifer; Yoder, Jordan C.; Abbey, Alicia N.; Nunley, James A.; Queen, Robin M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in plantar loading between two different running shoe types. We hypothesized that a higher maximum force, peak pressure, and contact area would exist beneath the entire foot while running in a racing flat when compared to a training shoe. 37
Acheson, E. D.; Cowdell, R. H.; Jolles, B.
A survey of the incidence of nasal cancer in Northamptonshire during the period 1953 to 1967 is reported. Of the 46 patients with nasal cancer ascertained during the 15-year period 21 (19 males and 2 females) had been employed at some time in the boot and shoe industry. Five other cases diagnosed either before 1953 or after 1967 in persons who had worked in the boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire were ascertained from various sources. The incidence of nasal cancer (all histological types considered together) was significantly higher in male boot and shoe operatives in Northamptonshire than in males of all occupational classes in the Cancer Register areas selected for comparison and in males working in other occupations in Northamptonshire. The excess incidence has recently given rise to the occurrence of between 1 and 2 new cases per annum in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry. The cases within the Northamptonshire industry occurred almost entirely in the relatively small number of workers who are exposed to the dust of the materials used in the manufacture of footwear. Possibly there are two carcinogenic factors in the industry—one related to the production of nasal adenocarcinoma, and the other to squamous and possibly other types of carcinoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses. This requires further study. Our best estimate of the latent period for the adenocarcinoma cases was 54·6 years, which is substantially longer than for the patients with squamous, transitional, and anaplastic tumours (41·7 years). We have no evidence to answer the question whether the facts are still present in the industrial environment, though undoubtedly the standards of hygiene in the industry has improved substantially since these men were first exposed. There is probably an increased risk of nasal adenocarcinoma in the footwear repairing industry, but this requires further study. Our evidence suggests that snuff taking should be considered as a possible contributory
Full Text Available As a practical and causal-comparative study, the present study was aimed at comparing the mental rotation performance in team and individual sports among students. The statistical population included all of the female and male athletes (N=1500 from different districts of Shiraz, Iran who participated in the sport clubs. The participants of this study included 240 students between 12-14 years old (120 girls and 120 boys who were selected randomly from four sport fields (Volleyball, Basketball, Karate, and Gymnastics. Finally, 30 athletes were selected from each field. The Mentrat Program, a kind of software for the Mental Rotation Test was used as an evaluation tool. Analyses of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures were conducted to analysis of data. The results indicated that the impact of the rotational angle was significant in both team and individual groups (p0.05. It was also observed that there was a significant difference between the mental rotation scores of the males in the individual groups contrary to the ones in the team groups (p<0.05. As a whole, it seems that as the rotational angle increases, the ability of the mental rotation in the individual fields of sport (males will be higher compared to the team groups. Keywords: Mental Rotation, Rotational Angle, Team and Individual Sports, Students
Full Text Available A gait experiment was conducted under two shoe sole and three floor conditions. The shoe soles and floors were characterized by the tread and groove designs on the surface. The coefficients of friction (COF on the floor in the target area were measured. The subjects were required to walk on a walkway and stepping on a target area covered with glycerol. The motions of the feet of the subjects were captured. Gait parameters were calculated based on the motion data. Among the 240 trials, there were 37 no-slips, 81 microslips, 45 slides, and 77 slips. It was found that the condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves perpendicular to the walking direction had the highest COF, the shortest slip distance, and the lowest percentages of slide and slip. The condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves parallel to the walking direction had the lowest COF and the longest slip distance among all experimental conditions. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between slip distance and slip velocity, time to foot flat, foot angle, and compensatory step length were 0.82 (p<0.0001, 0.33 (p<0.0001, -0.54 (p<0.0001, and -0.51 (p<0.0001, respectively.
Ferreira, Rosana Rodrigues Alves; Saggin, Ana Claudia; Miura, Marcio Nakayama; Ribeiro, Ivano
The market related to the street races presents strong growth in Brazilian sports retail. In this market, running shoes stand out as one of the main products for this practice, being directly related health and runner performance. As creation of value for the consumer is an important measure to obtain competitive advantage, the aim of this study is empirically evaluate the Customer Perceived Value - CVP about running shoes. The research that has a quantitative approach, with application of an...
Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
Injuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.
Erik Chih-Hung Chang
Conclusion: These findings indicate that the mode of sport training, which results in either high cardiovascular or high motor fitness, bears no relationship to measures of general cognition in elite athletes. The present findings suggest that coaches and athletic trainers should be encouraged to monitor athletes' stress levels during training in order to maximize the beneficial effects of such training on general cognitive performance.
Farias, Cláudio; Valério, Carla; Mesquita, Isabel
The teaching and learning of games and sport-based activities has historically been the dominant form of the physical education curricula. With an interest in providing to students meaningful and culturally situated sporting experiences, Sport Education is probably the most implemented and researched pedagogical model worldwide. However, although there is considerable evidence that the model as a curriculum approach can benefit the development of social goals and healthy sport behaviors, not a single study as to date examined students' game-play development beyond participation in single and isolated teaching units. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine students' development of Game Performance and Game Involvement during participation in three consecutive Sport Education seasons of invasion games. The participants were an experienced physical education teacher and one seventh-grade class totaling 26 students (10 girls and 16 boys). Using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (Oslin et al., 1998), pre-test to post-tests measures of students' Game Performance and Game Involvement were collected during their participation in basketball (20 lessons), handball (16 lessons), and football (18 lessons) units. Inter-group differences and pre-test to post-test improvements within each season were analyzed through 2 (time) x group (sport) repeated measures ANOVA tests. There were found significant pre-test to post-test improvements in Game Performance and Game Involvement in the second (handball) and third (football) seasons, but not in the first season (basketball). Students' Game Performance and Involvement scores of handball and football were significantly higher than their scores while playing basketball. The opportunity for an extended engagement in game-play activities and prolonged membership of students in the same teams throughout three consecutive seasons of Sport Education were key to the outcomes found. The specific configurations of the game
Han, Jia; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Liu, Yu
Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception, the most generalizable findings arise from methods that are ecologically valid, allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated with general vision in the central nervous system, and reflect the signal-in-noise nature of central processing. Ankle proprioceptive intervention concepts driven by such a central processing theory are further proposed and discussed for the improvement of balance control in sport.
Robertson, Kamasha; Pion, Johan; Mostaert, Mireille; Norjali Wazir, Mohd Rozilee Wazir; Kramer, Tamara; Faber, Irene Renate; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu
Differences and similarities between table tennis and other racquet sports exist, but are not well documented in the literature, in spite of the relevance for talent identification. In this study we aimed at identifying the key characteristics of table tennis in comparison with tennis and badminton based upon a survey in coaches. A total of 177 licensed coaches from all across the world and with diverse professional backgrounds completed a survey on anthropometric measures, physical performance, and motor coordination skills. On a scale from 1 to 10, coaches indicated to what extent a talent characteristic was important for their sport. MANOVA identified key differences as well as similarities between all three racquet sports and a subsequent discriminant analysis allocated coaches correctly for table tennis, tennis, and badminton 81.01%, 55.6%, and 71.4% respectively. Our results show that table tennis and other racquet sport coaches are well aware of differences between the racquet sports and also the importance and value of testing and assortment of skill components. These findings can assist coaches in future talent orientation and transfer in racquet sports.
Robertson, Sam; Kremer, Peter; Aisbett, Brad; Tran, Jacqueline; Cerin, Ester
Performance tests are used for multiple purposes in exercise and sport science. Ensuring that a test displays an appropriate level of measurement properties for use within a population is important to ensure confidence in test findings. The aim of this study was to obtain subject matter expert consensus on the measurement and feasibility properties that should be considered for performance tests used in the exercise and sport sciences and how these should be defined. This information was used to develop a checklist for broader dissemination. A two-round Delphi study was undertaken including 33 exercise scientists, academics and sport scientists. Participants were asked to rate the importance of a range of measurement properties relevant to performance tests in exercise and sport science. Responses were obtained in binary and Likert-scale formats, with consensus defined as achieving 67% agreement on each question. Consensus was reached on definitions and terminology for all items. Ten level 1 items (those that achieved consensus on all four questions) and nine level 2 items (those achieving consensus on ≥2 questions) were included. Both levels were included in the final checklist. The checklist developed from this study can be used to inform decision-making and test selection for practitioners and researchers in the exercise and sport sciences. This can facilitate knowledge sharing and performance comparisons across sub-disciplines, thereby improving existing field practice and research methodological quality.
Beschorner, Kurt E.; Albert, Devon L.; Chambers, April J.; Redfern, Mark S.
Previous research on slip and fall accidents has suggested that pressurized fluid between the shoe and floor is responsible for initiating slips yet this effect has not been verified experimentally. This study aimed to 1) measure hydrodynamic pressures during slipping for treaded and untreaded conditions; 2) determine the effects of fluid pressure on slip severity; and 3) quantify how fluid pressures vary with instantaneous resultant slipping speed, position on the shoe surface, and throughout the progression of the slip. Eighteen subjects walked on known dry and unexpected slippery floors, while wearing treaded and untreaded shoes. Fluid pressure sensors, embedded in the floor, recorded hydrodynamic pressures during slipping. The maximum fluid pressures (mean+/−standard deviation) were significantly higher for the untreaded conditions (124 +/−75 kPa) than the treaded conditions (1.1 +/−0.29 kPa). Maximum fluid pressures were positively correlated with peak slipping speed (r = 0.87), suggesting that higher fluid pressures, which are associated with untreaded conditions, resulted in more severe slips. Instantaneous resultant slipping speed and position of sensor relative to the shoe sole and walking direction explained 41% of the fluid pressure variability. Fluid pressures were primarily observed for untreaded conditions. This study confirms that fluid pressures are relevant to slipping events, consistent with fluid dynamics theory (i.e. the Reynolds equation), and can be modified with shoe tread design. The results suggest that the occurrence and severity of unexpected slips can be reduced by designing shoes/floors that reduce underfoot fluid pressures. PMID:24267270
Russell, Mark; West, Daniel J; Harper, Liam D; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P
A number of intermittent team sports require that two consecutive periods of play (lasting for ~30-45 min) are separated by a 10-20 min half-time break. The half-time practices employed by team-sports players generally include returning to the changing rooms, temporarily relaxing from the cognitive and physical demands of the first half, rehydration and re-fuelling strategies, addressing injury or equipment concerns, and receiving tactical instruction and coach feedback. However, the typically passive nature of these actions has been associated with physiological changes that impair performance during the second half. Both physical and cognitive performances have been found to decline in the initial stages of subsequent exercise that follows half-time. An increased risk of injury has also been observed during this period. Therefore, half-time provides sports scientists and strength and conditioning coaches with an opportunity to optimise second-half performance. An overview of strategies thought to benefit team-sports athletes is presented; specifically, the efficacy of heat maintenance strategies (including passive and active methods), post-activation potentiation, hormonal priming, and modified hydro-nutritional practices are discussed. A theoretical model of applying these strategies in a manner that compliments current practice is also offered.
Oh, Keonyoung; Park, Sukyung
A local minimum for running energetics has been reported for a specific bending stiffness, implying that shoe stiffness assists in running propulsion. However, the determinant of the metabolic optimum remains unknown. Highly stiff shoes significantly increase the moment arm of the ground reaction force (GRF) and reduce the leverage effect of joint torque at ground push-off. Inspired by previous findings, we hypothesized that the restriction of the natural metatarsophalangeal (MTP) flexion caused by stiffened shoes and the corresponding joint torque changes may reduce the benefit of shoe bending stiffness to running energetics. We proposed the critical stiffness, k cr , which is defined as the ratio of the MTP joint (MTPJ) torque to the maximal MTPJ flexion angle, as a possible threshold of the elastic benefit of shoe stiffness. 19 subjects participated in a running test while wearing insoles with five different bending stiffness levels. Joint angles, GRFs, and metabolic costs were measured and analyzed as functions of the shoe stiffness. No significant changes were found in the take-off velocity of the center of mass (CoM), but the horizontal ground push-offs were significantly reduced at different shoe stiffness levels, indicating that complementary changes in the lower-limb joint torques were introduced to maintain steady running. Slight increases in the ankle, knee, and hip joint angular impulses were observed at stiffness levels exceeding the critical stiffness, whereas the angular impulse at the MTPJ was significantly reduced. These results indicate that the shoe bending stiffness is beneficial to running energetics if it does not disturb the natural MTPJ flexion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Macnamara, Brooke N; Hambrick, David Z; Oswald, Frederick L
More than 20 years ago, researchers proposed that individual differences in performance in such domains as music, sports, and games largely reflect individual differences in amount of deliberate practice, which was defined as engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain. This view is a frequent topic of popular-science writing-but is it supported by empirical evidence? To answer this question, we conducted a meta-analysis covering all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated. We found that deliberate practice explained 26% of the variance in performance for games, 21% for music, 18% for sports, 4% for education, and less than 1% for professions. We conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued. © The Author(s) 2014.
Schallmo, Michael S; Singh, Sameer K; Barth, Kathryn A; Freshman, Ryan D; Mai, Harry T; Hsu, Wellington K
The purpose of this study was to compare performance-based outcomes among professional athletes in four major North American sports following microfracture to treat symptomatic chondral defects of the knee. Major League Baseball (MLB), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), and National Hockey League (NHL) athletes who underwent primary unilateral microfracture of the knee were identified through a previously reported protocol based on public sources. Successful return-to-play was defined as returning for at least one professional regular season game after surgery. Regular season player statistics and sport-specific performance scores were compiled for each player. Each player served as his own control, with the season prior to surgery defined as baseline. Comparisons across sports were enabled by adjusting for expected season and career length differences between sports and by calculating percent changes in performance. One hundred thirty one professional athletes who underwent microfracture were included. One hundred three athletes (78.6%) successfully returned to play. The ratio of games started-to-games played before surgery was found to be a significant positive independent predictor of returning (p = 0.002). Compared with their preoperative season, basketball and baseball players demonstrated significantly decreased performance one season after surgery (-14.8%, p = 0.029 and -12.9%, p = 0.002, respectively) that was recoverable to baseline by postoperative seasons 2-3 for baseball players but not for basketball players (-9.7%, p = 0.024). Knee microfracture surgery is associated with a high rate of return to the professional level. However, the impact of this procedure on postoperative performance varied significantly depending on sport. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Alexandre Igor Araripe Medeiros
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n6p698 The present article aimed to perform a systematic review of the available literature in relation to the analysis of sports performance in beach volleyball from match analysis. Web of Science, SportDiscus®, PubMed, Scopus and Academic Search Complete databases were used to identify peer-reviewed published articles. The authors conducted a content analysis according to goals, variables of analysis and methods used in studies. In general, three research lines were determined: analysis of the functional dependence of the game actions and their relation with success, performance according to gender, and the effect of changing the rules on the game performance. In relation to methodology, an evolution from descriptive studies to studies of comparative nature can be seen and, more recently, there has been a focus on predictive nature. This new trend breaks with the research based on simple cause and effect relations, and focuses on the analysis of the game events, namely related to tactical-technical performance indicators, in a non-linear and interactive way, considering the game as a complex and dynamic system. The limitations of the studies analyzed show the need for further studies to investigate the identification of game patterns for the different game levels; integration of situational variables in the study of the performance of teams (such as match status and the quality of opposition.
Research to date has primarily investigated the formation and the ideological construction of the body in sport. In contrast, the pivotal question here is how media technologies address the body in modern sports in order to make performance comparable and verifiable, i.e. accountable. In the first
Full Text Available The emergences of global markets have increased competition worldwide. For the Sports Goods Manufacturing Industry which is considered to be an intensive supplier base industry with limited resources to sustain in what is already a very competitive market there is a need for the entire supply chain viz. raw material and machinery suppliers and manufacturers to measure their supplier's performance to reduce business risks and revenue losses. How to design & execute a simple, cost effective & result oriented Framework for Supplier Performance Measurement for sports goods manufacturing small - medium enterprises is the main aim of this research paper.
Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris
This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…
Lam, Wing-Kai; Lee, Winson Chiu-Chun; Lee, Wei Min; Ma, Christina Zong-Hao; Kong, Pui Wah
This study examined the effects of shoes' segmented forefoot stiffness on athletic performance and ankle and metatarsophalangeal joint kinematics and kinetics in basketball movements. Seventeen university basketball players performed running vertical jumps and 5-m sprints at maximum effort with 3 basketball shoes of various forefoot plate conditions (medial plate, medial + lateral plates, and no-plate control). One-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to examine the differences in athletic performance, joint kinematics, and joint kinetics among the 3 footwear conditions (α = .05). Results indicated that participants wearing medial + lateral plates shoes demonstrated 2.9% higher jump height than those wearing control shoes (P = .02), but there was no significant differences between medial plate and control shoes (P > .05). Medial plate shoes produced greater maximum plantar flexion velocity than the medial + lateral plates shoes (P jumping, but not sprinting performances. The use of a medial plate alone, although induced greater plantar flexion velocity at the metatarsophalangeal joint during sprinting, was not effective in improving jump heights or sprint times.
Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.
Oct 24, 2011 ... ... for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Institute of Life Sciences, Sichuan ... treated insole against yeasts and molds from children's shoes were evaluated by the ... was produced by a conventional process in factory.
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.
Forand Steven P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have indicated an excess of leukaemia in Broome County, New York, particularly in the Town of Union. Surveillance of cancer incidence data indicates that a large proportion of these cases occurred among males ages 65 and older. Shoe and boot manufacturing has been the largest single industry in this area throughout much of the past century. Occupational studies from Europe suggest a link between leukaemia and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry. However, researchers have not found a positive association between leukaemia and employment in the shoe industry among workers in the United States. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between leukaemia incidence among males 65 and older and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry. Thirty-six cases of leukaemia occurring between 1981–1990; among males age 65 and older; residing in the town of Union met the study case criteria. Death certificates were obtained for each of the cases. These were matched to death certificates of 144 controls on date of death and date of birth +/- 1 year. Death certificates were then examined to determine the employer and occupation of each study subject. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risk of leukaemia among those working in the industry. Results The risk of both leukaemia (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 0.70, 3.09 and acute myeloid leukaemia (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.33, 4.28 were elevated among those employed in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry, however neither was statistically significant. Conclusion The results, though suggestive of an association between leukaemia and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry, were not statistically conclusive due mainly to limited study power. Several additional limitations may also have prevented the observance of more conclusive findings. Better exposure assessment, information on
McGrath, J C; Cowan, D A
This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology has been compiled and edited by Ian McGrath, Regius Professor of Physiology at University of Glasgow and David Cowan, Director of the Drug Control Centre at King's College London. It contains 11 articles covering the mechanisms of action of the major groups of drugs used illicitly in sport. The articles, written by experts in how drugs work, set out where drugs can or cannot affect sporting performance, how this relates to their legitimate medicinal use, their other detrimental effects and how they can be detected. Publication coincides with Olympic year, when sport is highlighted in the public mind and much speculation is made concerning the use of drugs. The articles provide a framework of expert, accurate knowledge to inform and facilitate these debates and to help to overcome the ill-informed and dangerous anecdotal information by which sports men and women are persuaded to misuse drugs in the mistaken belief that this will improve their performance without present or future ill effects. A unique article is included by the Spedding brothers, Mike with a long career in drug discovery and Charlie, the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Marathon Bronze Medallist and still the English National Marathon record holder. From their unique experience, they describe the insidious and unfair way that drug-assisted performance undermines the ethos of sport and endangers the vital place of sport in maintaining the health of the population.
Han, Jia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Liu, Yu
Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception, the most generalizable findings arise from methods that are ecologically valid, allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated with general vision in the central nervous system, and reflect the signal-in-noise nature of central processing. Ankle proprioceptive intervention concepts driven by such a central processing theory are further proposed and discussed for the improvement of balance control in sport. PMID:26583139
Bae, Hyunjoo; Chung, Moonho; Yang, Wonho
It is suspected that persons who work in indoor environments near busy roadways are exposed to elevated levels of air pollutants during working hours. This study evaluated the potential exposure and source contribution associated with traffic-related air pollution for workers (polishers and repairmen) in shoe stalls from each of 32 districts during working hours in Seoul, Korea. The shoe stalls have been located at very close distances to the busy roadways. In this study, shoe stall workers could be exposed to high levels of respirable suspended particulate (RSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from outdoor sources such as traffic exhaust, as well as indoor sources in the shoe stalls such as dust on the shoes, portable gas ranges, organic solvents, adhesives and shoe polish. Compounds of particular note included indoor mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene were 0.732, 6.777, 4.080 and 1.302 mg/m 3 , respectively, in all shoe stalls. Mean indoor/outdoor ratios for toluene and m/p-xylene concentrations were 54.52 and 20.84, respectively. The contribution of vehicle exhaust emissions to indoor air quality of shoe stalls was identified by means of correlating the relationships between simultaneously measured air pollutant concentrations indoors and outdoors. Unlike RSP and NO 2 , indoor VOCs concentrations of shoe stalls mainly originated from indoor sources vs. outdoor sources
In Ghana, the shoe-shine business is one of the informal sector businesses that ... and methods, results and discussion, conclusions and recommendations. .... that in both Kumasi and Accra, some female migrants are engaged in the kaya yei.
Full Text Available In recent years, shoes having rounded soles in the anterior- posterior direction have been commercially introduced, which are commonly known as unstable shoes (US. However, physiological responses during walking in US, particularly at various speeds, have not been extensively studied to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wearing unstable shoes while walking at low to high speeds on the rate of perceived exertion (RPE, muscle activation, oxygen consumption (VO2, and optimum speed. Healthy male adults wore US or normal walking shoes (WS, and walked at various speeds on a treadmill with no inclination. In experiment 1, subjects walked at 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 km·h-1 (duration, 3 min for all speeds and were recorded on video from the right sagittal plane to calculate the step length and cadence. Simultaneously, electromyogram (EMG was recorded from six different thigh and calf muscles, and the integrated EMG (iEMG was calculated. In experiment 2, RPE, heart rate and VO2 were measured with the walking speed being increased from 3.6 to 7.2 km·h-1 incrementally by 0.9 km·h-1 every 6 min. The optimum speed, defined by the least oxygen cost, was calculated from the fitted quadratic relationship between walking speed and oxygen cost. Wearing US resulted in significantly longer step length and lower cadence compared with WS condition at any given speed. For all speeds, iEMG in the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, heart rate, and VO2 were significantly higher in US than WS. However, RPE and optimum speed (US, 4.75 ± 0.32 km·h-1; WS, 4. 79 ± 0.18 km·h-1 did not differ significantly between the two conditions. These results suggest that unstable shoes can increase muscle activity of lower legs and energy cost without influencing RPE and optimum speed during walking at various speeds
Full Text Available Although a handsfree man-machine interface is useful when the user’s hands are not free, existing handsfree input devices are not the type of device that are normally worn by people. We have focused on a shoe as an input device because people normally wear it when they go out, and proposed a shoe-embedded interface. The input device is a sensor shoe. Weight sensors have been attached at three positions on a sole: the first metatarsal, the fifth metatarsal, and the calcaneal tuberosity. These positions have been selected based on the characteristics of the human foot skeleton. Two types of foot operation have been used: tap and push. By combining these operations, 10 commands have been defined. To make it possible to use web applications with a limited number of commands, we have proposed a method of supplementing the user’s service requirements using collaborative filtering. The sensor shoe houses an insole with hetero-core optical fiber sensor elements attached to it. These elements are sensitive to weight. We have built an experimental system that runs on a smartphone and provides the shoe-embedded interface, and conducted experiments with three test subjects to evaluate the system. The average rate of successful command identification was 89 %. We have also evaluated this service requirements supplementation method theoretically, and confirmed that the proposed service recommendation function can be applied to smartphone systems.
Menz, Hylton B; Roddy, Edward; Marshall, Michelle; Thomas, Martin J; Rathod, Trishna; Peat, George M; Croft, Peter R
Foot problems are prevalent in older women and are thought to be associated with footwear. This study examined women's shoe wearing patterns over time and evaluated associations between footwear characteristics and foot pain and hallux valgus. Women aged 50-89 years (n = 2,627) completed a survey that included drawings of four toe-box shapes and four heel heights. For each life decade, participants indicated which footwear style they wore most of the time. Foot pain in the past 12 months and hallux valgus were documented by self-report. Logistic regression examined associations between heel height, toe-box shape, foot pain and hallux valgus. Wearing shoes with a high heel and very narrow toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 was common, but decreased to less than 10% by the age of 40. Compared with women who had worn shoes with a very wide toe box, the likelihood of hallux valgus increased in those who had worn shoes with a wide (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% CI 1.03-3.71), narrow (2.39, 1.29-4.42) and very narrow (2.70, 1.46-5.00) toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 and those who wore shoes with a very narrow toe box (1.93, 1.10-3.39) between the ages of 30 and 39. Women wear shoes with a lower heel and broader toe box as they age. Wearing constrictive footwear between the ages of 20 and 39 may be critical for developing hallux valgus in later life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.
Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J
The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load.
Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J
The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load. PMID:24255910
Full Text Available Biometrics is currently an area that is both very interesting as well as rapidly growing. Among various types of biometrics the human gait recognition seems to be one of the most intriguing. However, one of the greatest problems within this field of biometrics is the change in gait caused by footwear. A change of shoes results in a significant lowering of accuracy in recognition of people. The following work presents a method which uses data gathered by two sensors: force plates and Microsoft Kinect v2 to reduce this problem. Microsoft Kinect is utilized to measure the body height of a person which allows the reduction of the set of recognized people only to those whose height is similar to that which has been measured. The entire process is preceded by identifying the type of footwear which the person is wearing. The research was conducted on data obtained from 99 people (more than 3400 strides and the proposed method allowed us to reach a Correct Classification Rate (CCR greater than 88% which, in comparison to earlier methods reaching CCR’s of <80%, is a significant improvement. The work presents advantages as well as limitations of the proposed method.
Berryman, Nicolas; Mujika, Inigo; Bosquet, Laurent
The classical work by Robert C. Hickson showed in 1980 that the addition of a resistance training protocol to a predominantly aerobic program could lead to impaired leg strength adaptations in comparison to a resistance-only training regimen. This interference phenomenon was later highlighted in many reports, including a meta-analysis. However, it seems that the interference effect has not been consistently reported, probably because of the complex interactions between training variables and methodological issues. On the other side of the medal, Dr Hickson and colleagues subsequently (1986) reported that a strength training mesocycle could be beneficial for endurance performance in running and cycling. In recent meta-analyses and review articles, it was demonstrated that such a training strategy could improve middle- and long-distance performance in many disciplines (running, cycling, cross-country skiing and swimming). Interestingly, it appears that improvements in the energy cost of locomotion could be associated with these performance enhancements. Despite these benefits, it was also reported that strength training could represent a detrimental stimulus for endurance performance if an inappropriate training plan has been prepared. Taken together, these observations suggest that coaches and athletes should be careful when concurrent training seems imperative in order to meet the complex physiological requirements of their sport. Therefore, this brief review will present a practical appraisal of concurrent training for sports performance. In addition, recommendations will be provided so that practitioners could adapt their interventions based on the training objectives.
Full Text Available Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball. The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. This inventory was distributed among the subjects about 30 minutes before the first competition. Finally by one-way ANOVA data was analyzed. Results: The results indicated that the mean score of somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety among individual sport athletes was significantly higher than that of team sport athletes (p0.05. Conclusion: It seems the being part of a team alleviates some of the pressure experienced by those who compete alone. It seems the individual sport athletes may be more exposed to evaluation and more engaged in their own skills and abilities than team sport athletes given that responsibility for performance is not distributed across several performers.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID
Concetta De Meo
Full Text Available Background: The consumption of dietary supplements has increased in recent years.Despite their widespread use, there is confusion about effects on sport performances.The aim of this study was to investigate association between use of supplements and enhance of athletes’ sports performance.Methods: A review and a meta-analysis of studies conducted on Dietary Supplements and Sports between 2003 and 2013 were performed. Enhancement on sport performances was considered as outcome. The following aspects related to enhancement were considered: ergogenic effect (EE, time to exhaustion (TTE, muscular endurance (ME, post-exercise recovery (PER and body mass (BM. With respect to meta-analysis, data on level of post Exercise Glucose (GpE [mg/dL] and level of post exercise Lactate (LpE [mmol/L] were considered as indicators of TTE, PER and EE. Similarly, Change in Body Mass (CBM [kg] was used as indicator of BM.Results: The most investigated dietary supplements were: Creatine, Carbohydrates, Beta-alanine, Proteins. The qualitative analysis evaluating the effect of supplements on sports listed by the International Olympic Committee has achieved interesting results: supplements didn’t show statistically significant effects when compared to placebo in more than 48% of papers.For the quantitative analysis, 15 studies were considered. The meta-analysis showed that there was no significant effect of Beta-alanine, Creatine and Carbohydrates on LpE and GpE. Furthermore, a non-significant increase in BM was observed in athletes undergoing Creatine compared to placebo.Conclusion: Considering the increasing attention to this topic, it would be interesting to investigate the existing awareness about effectiveness and possible risks of supplements.
Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's, and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American College of Sports Medicine, and Dietitians of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination are good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination.
Myer, Gregory D; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kiefer, Adam W; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J
Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Clinical review. Level 4. Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. B. © 2015 The Author(s).
Horras, Stephan; Reimann, Peter; Schuetze, Andreas; Gaiotto, Alessandra; Mayer, Maria
Evaluation of strength and quality of smell is today still primarily done with human sensory panels. For a range of applications, technical systems for an objective smell assessment would provide a great benefit in R and D and also day-to-day application. The project presented here specifically addresses the problem of assessing the strength and unpleasantness of smell caused by sweat in shoes and socks by an E-nose system. The ultimate goal is to provide a tool for developing improved shoe/sock systems with optimized materials.The main approach to achieve this goal is to find a correlation between the assessment of a human sensory panel and the complex sensor response patterns of an E-Nose system to appraise the smell of sweat in shoes and socks. Therefore a range of test persons wear shoes and socks under defined ambient conditions in a controlled test environment as well as during everyday use. Afterwards the smell of the shoes and socks is both measured with the E-Nose system and assessed by a human sensory panel. We report here the results of the first larger test series and the identified correlation between the E-Nose system and the human assessment of the smell of sweat.
The major racket sports include badminton, squash, table tennis and tennis. The growth of sports science and the commercialization of racket sports in recent years have focused attention on improved performance and this has led to a more detailed study and understanding of all aspects of racket sports. The aim here, therefore, is to review recent developments of the application of science to racket sports. The scientific disciplines of sports physiology and nutrition, notational analysis, sports biomechanics, sports medicine, sports engineering, sports psychology and motor skills are briefly considered in turn. It is evident from these reviews that a great deal of scientific endeavour has been applied to racket sports, but this is variable across both the racket sports and the scientific disciplines. A scientific approach has helped to: implement training programmes to improve players' fitness; guide players in nutritional and psychological preparation for play; inform players of the strategy and tactics used by themselves and their opponents; provide insight into the technical performance of skills; understand the effect of equipment on play; and accelerate the recovery from racket-arm injuries. Racket sports have also posed a unique challenge to scientists and have provided vehicles for developing scientific methodology. Racket sports provide a good model for investigating the interplay between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and the effect of nutrition, heat and fatigue on performance. They have driven the development of mathematical solutions for multi-segment interactions within the racket arm during the performance of shots, which have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms of both performance and injury. They have provided a unique challenge to sports engineers in relation to equipment performance and interaction with the player. Racket sports have encouraged developments in notational analysis both in terms of analytical procedures and the
TANAKA, Kousuke; HIRAGA, Atsushi; TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; KUWANO, Atsutoshi; MORRISON, Scott Edward
ABSTRACT We applied aluminum hinged shoes (AHSs) to the club foot-associated contracted feet of 11 Thoroughbred yearlings to examine the effects of the shoes on the shape of the hoof and third phalanx (P III). After 3 months of AHS use, the size of the affected hooves increased significantly, reaching the approximate size of the healthy contralateral hooves with respect to the maximum lateral width of the foot, the mean ratio of the bearing border width to the coronary band width, and the mea...
Hjerrild, Mette; Videbaek, Solvej; Theisen, Daniel; Malisoux, Laurent; Oestergaard Nielsen, Rasmus
To discuss the interpretability of non-causal associations to sports injury development exemplified via the relationship between navicular drop (ND) and running-related injury (RRI) in novice runners using neutral shoes. 1-year prospective cohort study. Denmark. 926 novice runners, representing 1852 feet, were included. The outcome was "a musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back caused by running, which restricted the amount of running for at least a week". Fewer feet with small ND than those feet with a reference ND sustained injuries at 50 (risk difference (RD) = -4.1% [95%CI = -7.9%;-0.4%]) and 100 km (RD = -5.3% [95%CI = -9.9%;-0.7%]). Similarly, fewer feet with a large ND sustained injuries than the feet with a reference drop at 250 (RD = -7.6% [95%CI = -14.9%;-0.3%]) and 500 km (RD = -9.8% [95%CI = -19.1%;-0.4%]). Non-causal associations can help to identify sub-groups of athletes at an increased or decreased risk of sports injury. Based on the current results, those with a small or large navicular drop sustain fewer injuries than those with a reference drop. Importantly, navicular drop does not cause RRIs, but influences the relationship between training load and RRI. This illustrates that non-causal associations are unsuitable to respond to the question: Why do sports injury develop? Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pène, Pierre; Touitou, Yvan
The report of the National Academy of Medicine named "Sport and Health" underlines the medical, social and educational dimensions of sporting activities. Various kinds of sporting practices are described: they concern the approximately 7,000 high level athletes, around 8,000 professional (licensed) sportsmen, and sporting club members (approximately 15 millions people). A large number of amateurs do not practice in any structure and therefore are neither managed in their activities nor medically followed. Some characteristics of sporting practice at various stages of life have been documented. Around 50% of the teenagers from 12 to 17 years have a sporting practice out-of-school besides the weekly three hours applied at school or college; however, the withdrawal of sporting practice by a high number of teenagers results in a sedentary lifestyle with overweight and obesity, major risks factors for health. Elderly people take a profit from a regular and medically controlled physical activity. Functional capacities are thus improved, cardiovascular risks factors among other, which results in better quality of life of the aged and delays their dependence. The benefit upon public health of sporting practice has been pointed out in the primary prevention of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, and mood disturbances. It is currently well acknowledged that sporting practice is an important component of public health in both primary and secondary prevention of many diseases. Deleterious effects of which the most serious is the sudden death related to a cardiovascular anomaly, which generally occurs during an important physical effort. An important sport drift is the practice of doping to improve performances through the use of hormones, anabolics, EPO, transfusions, ... When a person exceeds his/her capacities of adaptation, because of a badly adapted or a too intense drive, this overtraining results in a
Full Text Available Background : Rocker shoes are the most commonly prescribed external therapeutic shoe modification and are used for treatment of the ankle and midfoot problems. The aim of this study was to assesse the effects of the heel- to-toe rocker shoes on temporal-spatial and ankle joint moments in sagital and frontal plane. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-exprimental study, three-dimentional gait analysis was carried out on 20 healthy university female students with normal normal gait pattern selected by convenience sampling method. A Vicon 470 system(Oxford Metrix, U.K. consisting of 6 cameras operating at 60Hz and kistler forceplate (A9286 was used.The paired samples T test was used to statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that there is no significant change in temporal-spatial parameters while wearing this modified shoe ,but the ankle moments while wearing rocker shoes in sagittal plane was significantly less than that while wearing traditional shoes(p=0.002 but in frontal plane significantly increased(p=0.007. Conclusion: Based on the current findings the major benefits of this modified shoe appear to be significantly restricted sagital plane moments with maintenance of walking speed so the loads on ankle joint and achilles tendon reduced, but increases frontal plain moments which leads to increase of mediolateral instability of ankle joint.
Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.
Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has
Shephard Roy J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE, free school physical activity (PA and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007, PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007, SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA, and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.
Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P
Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective
Andrea N. Onodera
Full Text Available Background Resilience of midsole material and the upper structure of the shoe are conceptual characteristics that can interfere in running biomechanics patterns. Artificial intelligence techniques can capture features from the entire waveform, adding new perspective for biomechanical analysis. This study tested the influence of shoe midsole resilience and upper structure on running kinematics and kinetics of non-professional runners by using feature selection, information gain, and artificial neural network analysis. Methods Twenty-seven experienced male runners (63 ± 44 km/week run ran in four-shoe design that combined two resilience-cushioning materials (low and high and two uppers (minimalist and structured. Kinematic data was acquired by six infrared cameras at 300 Hz, and ground reaction forces were acquired by two force plates at 1,200 Hz. We conducted a Machine Learning analysis to identify features from the complete kinematic and kinetic time series and from 42 discrete variables that had better discriminate the four shoes studied. For that analysis, we built an input data matrix of dimensions 1,080 (10 trials × 4 shoes × 27 subjects × 1,254 (3 joints × 3 planes of movement × 101 data points + 3 vectors forces × 101 data points + 42 discrete calculated kinetic and kinematic features. Results The applied feature selection by information gain and artificial neural networks successfully differentiated the two resilience materials using 200(16% biomechanical variables with an accuracy of 84.8% by detecting alterations of running biomechanics, and the two upper structures with an accuracy of 93.9%. Discussion The discrimination of midsole resilience resulted in lower accuracy levels than did the discrimination of the shoe uppers. In both cases, the ground reaction forces were among the 25 most relevant features. The resilience of the cushioning material caused significant effects on initial heel impact, while the effects
Onodera, Andrea N; Gavião Neto, Wilson P; Roveri, Maria Isabel; Oliveira, Wagner R; Sacco, Isabel Cn
Resilience of midsole material and the upper structure of the shoe are conceptual characteristics that can interfere in running biomechanics patterns. Artificial intelligence techniques can capture features from the entire waveform, adding new perspective for biomechanical analysis. This study tested the influence of shoe midsole resilience and upper structure on running kinematics and kinetics of non-professional runners by using feature selection, information gain, and artificial neural network analysis. Twenty-seven experienced male runners (63 ± 44 km/week run) ran in four-shoe design that combined two resilience-cushioning materials (low and high) and two uppers (minimalist and structured). Kinematic data was acquired by six infrared cameras at 300 Hz, and ground reaction forces were acquired by two force plates at 1,200 Hz. We conducted a Machine Learning analysis to identify features from the complete kinematic and kinetic time series and from 42 discrete variables that had better discriminate the four shoes studied. For that analysis, we built an input data matrix of dimensions 1,080 (10 trials × 4 shoes × 27 subjects) × 1,254 (3 joints × 3 planes of movement × 101 data points + 3 vectors forces × 101 data points + 42 discrete calculated kinetic and kinematic features). The applied feature selection by information gain and artificial neural networks successfully differentiated the two resilience materials using 200(16%) biomechanical variables with an accuracy of 84.8% by detecting alterations of running biomechanics, and the two upper structures with an accuracy of 93.9%. The discrimination of midsole resilience resulted in lower accuracy levels than did the discrimination of the shoe uppers. In both cases, the ground reaction forces were among the 25 most relevant features. The resilience of the cushioning material caused significant effects on initial heel impact, while the effects of different uppers were distributed along the
Mi Bao; Zhao Xiaoliang; Qian Tao; Stevenson, Mark; Kwan, Chiman; Owens, Steven E.; Royer, Roger L. Jr.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Raju, Basavaraju B.
Cast aluminum track shoes reinforced with metal matrix composite (MMC) inserts at heavy loading areas such as center splines and sprocket windows are light in weight, and can resist high temperature and wear. Various defects such as disbonds at the insert-substrate interface, cracks and porosity in the MMC layer, etc. can be introduced during the manufacturing process and/or in service. This paper presents a portable ultrasonic system to automatically inspect tank track shoes for disbond. Ultrasonic pulse/echo inspection has shown good reliability for disbond detection. A prototype sensor array fixture has been designed and fabricated to prove the feasibility. Good agreements between the sensor fixture results and ultrasonic C-scan images were obtained
Kimel-Scott, Dorothy R; Gulledge, Elisha N; Bolena, Ryan E; Albright, Bruce C
Shoes with rocker bottom soles are utilized by persons with diabetic peripheral neuropathy to reduce plantar pressures during gait. The risk of falls increases with age and is compounded by diabetic neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to analyze how rocker bottom shoes affect posture control of older adults (50-75 years old) and younger adults (20-35 years old) in response to posterior slide perturbations. The postural response to a posterior platform translation was normalized among subjects by applying the below threshold stepping velocity (BTSV) for each subject. The BTSV was the fastest velocity of platform translation that did not cause a stepping response while wearing the rocker bottom shoes. Joint excursion, time to first response, response time, and variability of mean peak joint angles were analyzed at the ankle, knee, hip, trunk, and head in the sagittal plane. The statistical analysis was a 2-factor mixed repeated measures design to determine interactions between and within shoe types and age groups. While wearing rocker bottom shoes, both age groups exhibited increased joint excursion, differences in time to initial response, and longer response time. The older group demonstrated decreased joint excursion and increased time to initial response compared to the younger group, as well as a significantly slower mean BTSV. These findings support the conclusion that in healthy older adults and in populations at risk for falls, the use of rocker bottom or other unstable shoes may increase the potential of falls when confronted with a standing perturbation such as a forceful slip or trip. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Turrin, M.; Yang, D.; D'Aquilio, A.; Šileryte, R.; Sun, Y
The design of sport buildings has great impact on top-sport as well as on recreational sport-activities. It implies challenging tasks in meeting the performance-requirements. This includes the control of factors like daylight/lighting, air flow, thermal conditions, just to name a few. Such factors
A hand and shoe radiation monitor is provided which includes a probe support body defining a plurality of cells, within each cell there being an ionization probe. The support body provides structural strength for protecting the ionization probes from force applied to the support body during a radiation monitoring event. There is also provided a fast response time amplifier circuit for the output from the ionization probes
Full Text Available At present, the sports dance has entered every stage of the people’s life, has become the public’s favorite sport. Sports dance has been well developed. This article mainly uses the literature material law to carry on the detailed analysis to the sports dance constitution, elaborated in detail the sports dance artistic expression. The composition of sports dance elements; sports dance is a form of dance art show; sports dance through the dance art can be divided into three aspects, namely, form, music, shape of the expressive force. In this paper, the study will be more in-depth excavation of the cultural connotation of sports dance, and promote the development of sports dance can be more comprehensive. In 20s of last century, Chinese Sports Dance Association officially joined the International Sports Dance Association, which also makes our country’s sports dance and international exchange more frequent. However, due to China’s sports dance sports dance learning time is not long, while learning is influenced by Chinese traditional culture, the sports dance movements are too conservative, there is a very large gap and international enthusiasm, bold and unrestrained, the pursuit of individual sports dance in the dance style, music and performance hand. Sports dance originated from abroad, it is produced in the daily life of people in foreign countries. China’s domestic sports dance players in learning dance at the same time, the production and the connotation of dance is not very understanding, therefore, it is difficult to better reflect the emotional expression of sports dance. Although the sports dance is a kind of similar to the competitive projects, but it is also a kind of dance culture, and to constitute a force from the dance art show a detailed study, detailed mining playing officer of sports dance performance further, reducing China’s sports dance and international sports dance gap.
The purpose of the present study is to examine the ability of certain psychological attributes to predict performance in six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate sports. Eighty-four athletes from the varsity sports teams of cross country running, alpine and nordic skiing, tennis, basketball, and track and field at the University of Colorado completed a questionnaire adapted from Martens (1977; Martens et al., 1983) that measured their trait levels of self-confidence (Bandura, 1977), somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety (Martens, 1977; Martens et al., 1983). In addition, at three to six competitions during the season, the members of the cross country running and tennis teams filled out a state measure (Martens et al., 1983) of the three attributes from one to two hours prior to the competition. Following each competition, subjective and objective ratings of performance were obtained, and, for all sports, coaches' ratings of performance and an overall seasonal team ranking were determined as seasonal performance measures. The sports were dichotomized along motor and physiological dimensions. Results indicate that all three psychological attributes were significant predictors of performance in both fine motor, anaerobic sports and gross motor, aerobic sports. Further, clear differences in these relationships emerged as a function of the dichotomization. In addition, unexpected sex differences emerged. The findings are discussed relative to prior research and their implications for future research.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the structure of morpho-functional models that determine the level of sports performance in three consecutive stages of training of young badminton players. In the course of the study, 3 groups of young badminton players were examined: 40 preadolescents aged 11–13, 32 adolescents aged 14–16, and 24 adolescents aged 17–19. The scope of the study involved basic anthropometric measurements, computer tests analysing motor coordination abilities, motor skills encompassing speed, muscular power and strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Results of the study indicate that the structure of morpho-functional models varies at different stages of sports training. Sets of variables determining sports performance create characteristic complexes of variables that do not constitute permanent models. The dominance of somatic features and coordination abilities in the early stages of badminton training changes for the benefit of speed and strength abilities.
Jaworski, Janusz; Żak, Michał
The aim of the study was to determine the structure of morpho-functional models that determine the level of sports performance in three consecutive stages of training of young badminton players. In the course of the study, 3 groups of young badminton players were examined: 40 preadolescents aged 11–13, 32 adolescents aged 14–16, and 24 adolescents aged 17–19. The scope of the study involved basic anthropometric measurements, computer tests analysing motor coordination abilities, motor skills encompassing speed, muscular power and strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Results of the study indicate that the structure of morpho-functional models varies at different stages of sports training. Sets of variables determining sports performance create characteristic complexes of variables that do not constitute permanent models. The dominance of somatic features and coordination abilities in the early stages of badminton training changes for the benefit of speed and strength abilities. PMID:26557205
David R. Mottram
undergraduates and researchers in sports science. ASSESSMENT This book is almost a compulsory reading for anyone interested in drug in sport, performance in sport, drug treatment in sport injuries, actions of drugs, nutritional supplements in sport, doping control and rules, social/political viewpoint of drug usage, sports medicine and for those wishing to run comprehensive research in this and relevant areas. The fact that the contributors are leading international researchers in this field makes this book more welcome.
Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann
Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.
Luz, Fernanda Reinher da; Loro, Marli Maria; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner; Kolankiewicz, Adriane Cristina Bernat; Rosanelli, Cleci Schmidt Piovesan
This is a qualitative and descriptive study, which aimed to identify the occupational risks of a shoe industry, as well as the preventive measures taken against those risks, from the workers' perspective. The sample consisted of fifteen workers. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed according to content analysis. The ethical aspects were respected and the research was approved by the Committee of Ethics in Research of the Northwest Regional University of Rio Grande do Sul. The results showed that the workers are aware of the risks of their work process, made use of safety measures for personal protection, and the company offers safety devices, informing and performing periodical visits to the sectors, aiming to develop educational actions.
Blaser, Mark; Larsen, Jamie
Presents five interactive, computer-based activities that mimic scientific tests used by sport researchers to help companies design high-performance athletic shoes, including impact tests, flexion tests, friction tests, video analysis, and computer modeling. Provides a platform for teachers to build connections between chemistry (polymer science),…
Birrer, D; Morgan, G
The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Viklund, Å; Furre, S; Eriksson, S; Vangen, O; Philipsson, J
Breeding programmes for warmblood sport horses are similar in the Nordic countries Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway, and stallions of same origin are used. The aim was to investigate whether a joint Nordic genetic evaluation based on lifetime competition performance is feasible and beneficial for breeding competitive sport horses in the Nordic countries. Results for almost 45,000 horses in show jumping and 30,000 horses in dressage were available. The larger populations in Sweden and Denmark contributed with 85% of the results. Heritabilities and genetic correlations between performances in the different countries were estimated, and comparisons of accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBVs) and number of stallions with EBVs based on national or joint data were studied. The heritabilities ranged between 0.25 and 0.42 for show jumping and between 0.14 and 0.55 for dressage. The genetic correlations between competition performances in the Nordic countries were estimated to 0.63-1.00. EBVs based on joint data increased accuracies for EBVs for stallions by 38-81% and increased the number of available stallions with EBVs by 40-288%, compared to EBVs based on national data only. A joint Nordic genetic evaluation for sport horses is recommended. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Kersting, Uwe G.
and second peak knee adduction moments. However, the variability of this moment between shoe designs was of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for gastrocnemius when walking with the wedged Oxford shoe were revealed. Conclusion: Lateral...
Israel, C W
Sport activity is an important issue in many patients with a pacemaker either because they performed sport activities before pacemaker implantation to reduce the cardiovascular risk or to improve the course of an underlying cardiovascular disease (e.g. coronary artery disease, heart failure) by sports. Compared to patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) the risks from underlying cardiovascular disease (e.g. ischemia, heart failure), arrhythmia, lead dysfunction or inappropriate therapy are less important or absent. Sport is contraindicated in dyspnea at rest, acute heart failure, new complex arrhythmia, acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction, valvular disease with indications for intervention and surgery and comorbidities which prevent physical activity. Patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (including hypertension) should preferably perform types and levels of physical activity that are aerobic (with dynamic exercise) such as running, swimming, cycling instead of sport with high anaerobic demands and high muscular workload. In heart failure, studies demonstrated advantages of isometric sport that increases the amount of muscle, thereby preventing cardiac cachexia. Sport with a risk of blows to the chest or physical contact (e.g. boxing, rugby, martial arts) should be avoided. Implantation, programming and follow-up should respect specific precautions to allow optimal physical activity with a pacemaker including implantation of bipolar leads on the side contralateral to the dominant hand, individual programming of the upper sensor and tracking rate and regular exercise testing.
Sobhani, Sobhan; Hijmans, Juha; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Zwerver, Johannes; Dekker, Rienk; Postema, Klaas
Evidence suggests a link between the loading of the Achilles tendon and the magnitude of the ankle internal plantar flexion moment during late stance of gait, which is clinically relevant in the management of Achilles tendinopathy. Some studies showed that rocker shoes can reduce the ankle internal
Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the research was to investigate the utilization of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC as filler in producing sport shoe rubber soles. PCC is a white filler needed for production of nonblack colour rubber products. There are four types of PCC that have been used including two local PCC from Wonosari and East Java, and two imported PCC from Japan and Taiwan. The amount of PCC added into the sport shoe sole rubber compound was varied in 30,45,60,75 and 90 per hundred rubber (phr. The compounding was carried-out by using two roll mills machine, and the compound was subsequently measured their optimum vulcanization time by using rheometer. The produced compound was then subjected to vulcanistion process by using hydrolic press at temperature 1500C and pressure 150 kg/ cm2. The quality of shoes sole vulcanisates were compare to standard quality of SNI. 12-7075-2005 about cemented system sport shoes. The results indicated that the best formula of rubber compound for sport shoes sole were made by using NR 80 phr, NBR 20 phr, paraffinic oil 10 phr, aluminium silicate 30 phr, ZnO 5 phr, TiO2 10 phr, stearic acid 1 phr, vulkanox SP 1 phr, paraffin wax 1 phr, TMTD 0,5 phr, CBS 2 phr, sulphur 1,2 phr with the amount of PCC Actifort 700 of 45 phr. The best formula meet the requirement SNI 12-7075-2005 and they were characterized by tensile sterength 16,79 N/mm2, elongation at break 529,92% tear resistance 9,06 N/mm2, specific gravity 1,28 g/cm3, hardness 55 shore A, Grasselli absrassion resistancing filler. The local PCC from Wonosari can be used for substitution of the imported PCC as the white filler for the production of rubber compound sport shoes sole. However, particle size reduction and coating or surface treatment of local PCC were needed for improving the quality and the role of reinforcing filler.
Moreau, William J; Nabhan, Dustin C; Walden, Taylor
The purpose of this study is to describe the knowledge base and clinical practices regarding concussion by sports-certified doctors of chiropractic. A 21-item survey was distributed to the 312 attendees of the 2014 American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians Sports Sciences Symposium. Results were measured by frequency analysis and descriptive statistics for all surveys completed by sports-certified chiropractors. Seventy-six surveys were returned by sports-certified doctors of chiropractic. All (N = 76) 100% of respondents believe that the evaluation of concussion should be performed by a health care provider with training in concussion. The respondents actively assess and manage concussion in adults (96%), adolescents (95%), and children (75%). A majority (79%) of respondents believe that the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool-3 represents a current standard of care for the sideline evaluation of the athlete who possibly has sustained a sport concussion. Most respondents agreed or strongly agreed that manual therapies may be appropriate in certain circumstances in adults (80%) and minors (80%). This cross section of certified sports chiropractors strongly believes that the evaluation of concussion should be performed by a health care provider with specific training in concussion. A high percentage of the sports-certified chiropractors who responded assess and manage sport concussion in their practice, and many of them endorse the use of the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool-3 as a sideline assessment tool.
The application of beta-blocking agents in endurance sports leads to deterioration of physical capacity because of negative influence of hemodynamics and metabolism. In sports with modest dynamic but high psychological strain it leads to an increase of physical capacity and decrease of stress caused by competition. The present paper summarizes changes in ski jumping, flying, motor car racing, parachute jumping, bob running and shooting. Significant decreases of heart rate, modest decreases in blood pressure as well as a reduction of occasionally appearing extrasystoles are found. Levels of glucose and lactate as well as cholesterol and triglycerides remain unchanged during beta-blockade, as do free fatty acids and free glycerol with placebo under beta-adrenolyse. Whereas ski and parachute jumpers display psychologic stress, bob runners and sport shooters were positively influenced. As a possible reason for an increased physical capacity after sympathicolysis, changes of cardiovascular parameters as well as central influences are conceivable. The application of beta-blocking agents should be regarded as "doping" because of the increases of physical capacity and should be avoided in healthy sportsmen.
Farias, Cláudio; Valério, Carla; Mesquita, Isabel
The teaching and learning of games and sport-based activities has historically been the dominant form of the physical education curricula. With an interest in providing to students meaningful and culturally situated sporting experiences, Sport Education is probably the most implemented and researched pedagogical model worldwide. However, although there is considerable evidence that the model as a curriculum approach can benefit the development of social goals and healthy sport behaviors, not a single study as to date examined students’ game-play development beyond participation in single and isolated teaching units. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine students’ development of Game Performance and Game Involvement during participation in three consecutive Sport Education seasons of invasion games. The participants were an experienced physical education teacher and one seventh-grade class totaling 26 students (10 girls and 16 boys). Using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (Oslin et al., 1998), pre-test to post-tests measures of students’ Game Performance and Game Involvement were collected during their participation in basketball (20 lessons), handball (16 lessons), and football (18 lessons) units. Inter-group differences and pre-test to post-test improvements within each season were analyzed through 2 (time) x group (sport) repeated measures ANOVA tests. There were found significant pre-test to post-test improvements in Game Performance and Game Involvement in the second (handball) and third (football) seasons, but not in the first season (basketball). Students’ Game Performance and Involvement scores of handball and football were significantly higher than their scores while playing basketball. The opportunity for an extended engagement in game-play activities and prolonged membership of students in the same teams throughout three consecutive seasons of Sport Education were key to the outcomes found. The specific configurations of
Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, P J; Atkins, S
Military recruits are known to be susceptible to Achilles tendon pathology. The British Army have introduced footwear models, the PT-03 (cross-trainer) and PT1000 (running shoes), in an attempt to reduce the incidence of injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the Achilles tendon forces of the cross-trainer and running shoe in relation to conventional army boots. Ten male participants ran at 4.0 m/s in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon forces were obtained throughout the stance phase of running and compared using repeated-measures ANOVAs. The results showed that the time to peak Achilles tendon force was significantly shorter when running in conventional army boots (0.12 s) in comparison with the cross-trainer (0.13 s) and running shoe (0.13 s). Achilles tendon loading rate was shown to be significantly greater in conventional army boots (38.73 BW/s) in comparison with the cross-trainer (35.14 BW/s) and running shoe (33.57 BW/s). The results of this study suggest that the running shoes and cross-trainer footwear are associated with reductions in Achilles tendon parameters that have been linked to the aetiology of injury, and thus it can be hypothesised that these footwear could be beneficial for military recruits undertaking running exercises. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E
Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research.
Malisoux, Laurent; Chambon, Nicolas; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel
Modern running shoes are available in a wide range of heel-to-toe drops (ie, the height difference between the forward and rear parts of the inside of the shoe). While shoe drop has been shown to influence strike pattern, its effect on injury risk has never been investigated. Therefore, the reasons for such variety in this parameter are unclear. The first aim of this study was to determine whether the drop of standard cushioned running shoes influences running injury risk. The secondary aim was to investigate whether recent running regularity modifies the relationship between shoe drop and injury risk. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Leisure-time runners (N = 553) were observed for 6 months after having received a pair of shoes with a heel-to-toe drop of 10 mm (D10), 6 mm (D6), or 0 mm (D0). All participants reported their running activities and injuries (time-loss definition, at least 1 day) in an electronic system. Cox regression analyses were used to compare injury risk between the 3 groups based on hazard rate ratios (HRs) and their 95% CIs. A stratified analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of shoe drop in occasional runners (running regularity, low-drop shoes (D6 and D0) were found to be associated with a lower injury risk in occasional runners (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.98), whereas these shoes were associated with a higher injury risk in regular runners (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.07-2.62). Overall, injury risk was not modified by the drop of standard cushioned running shoes. However, low-drop shoes could be more hazardous for regular runners, while these shoes seem to be preferable for occasional runners to limit injury risk. © 2016 The Author(s).
Onodera, Andrea N.; Gavi?o Neto, Wilson P.; Roveri, Maria Isabel; Oliveira, Wagner R.; Sacco, Isabel CN
Background Resilience of midsole material and the upper structure of the shoe are conceptual characteristics that can interfere in running biomechanics patterns. Artificial intelligence techniques can capture features from the entire waveform, adding new perspective for biomechanical analysis. This study tested the influence of shoe midsole resilience and upper structure on running kinematics and kinetics of non-professional runners by using feature selection, information gain, and artificial...
resulted in excessive pronation, creating a torsional force that repeatedly overstretched the plantar fascia leading to the fasciitis. However, the...Defense Safety Oversight Council, this study examined whether prescribing running shoes based on the shape of the plantar surface influenced injury risk...prescribed motion control, stability, or cushioned shoes for plantar shapes indicative of low, medium, or high arches, respectively. A control group (C, n
Queen, Robin M.; Abbey, Alicia N.; Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Yoder, Jordan C.; Nunley, James A.
Despite the differences in materials, racing flats have begun to be used not only for racing, but also for daily training. As there are data suggesting a gender difference in overuse injuries in runners, shoe choice may affect loading patterns during running. The purpose was to determine differences
Caravaggi, C; Faglia, E; De Giglio, R; Mantero, M; Quarantiello, A; Sommariva, E; Gino, M; Pritelli, C; Morabito, A
To evaluate and compare the rate of reduction of the surface area of neuropathic plantar ulcers in diabetic patients treated with nonremovable rigidity-differentiated fiberglass off-bearing casts or a cloth shoe with a rigid sole with unloading alkaform insoles. The secondary aim was to evaluate the side effects and degree of patient acceptance of treatment. Fifty diabetic patients with neuropathic plantar ulcers were consecutively enrolled and randomized to one of two treatment groups. Of the 50 patients, 24 were treated with a specialized cloth shoe with a rigid sole and an unloading alkaform insole (shoe group), and 26 patients were treated with a nonremovable off-bearing fiberglass cast (cast group). All patients in both study groups returned to the clinic for weekly control visits. Their ulcers were treated with a standard dressing. Tracings of the ulcer area using a transparent dressing were performed on the day of entry to the study and after 30 days of treatment. The presence of new ulcerations caused by the use of the pressure-relief apparatus was recorded. Patient acceptance of the treatment was measured using a visual analog scale. At the end of the treatment period, an 8.3% increase of the ulcer area was observed in two patients in the shoe group, whereas in the cast group, no patient presented an increase. The reduction of the ulcer area was statistically more rapid in the cast group (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.0004). Furthermore, the number of ulcers completely healed at the 30-day time point was 13 (50%) in the cast group and 5 (20.8%) in the shoe group (P = 0.03). In both groups, no side effects were recorded. The average score +/- SD of patient acceptance was 91.15 +/- 9.9 in the shoe group and 88.33 +/- 17.3 (NS) in the cast group. Our study has shown a significant difference in the speed of the reduction of neuropathic plantar ulcers treated with a fiberglass cast compared with a specialized cloth shoe. The use of fiberglass material with variable
Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M
Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.
Leser, Roland; Baca, Arnold; Ogris, Georg
Position data of players and athletes are widely used in sports performance analysis for measuring the amounts of physical activities as well as for tactical assessments in game sports. However, positioning sensing systems are applied in sports as tools to gain objective information of sports behavior rather than as components of intelligent spaces (IS). The paper outlines the idea of IS for the sports context with special focus to game sports and how intelligent sports feedback systems can benefit from IS. Henceforth, the most common location sensing techniques used in sports and their practical application are reviewed, as location is among the most important enabling techniques for IS. Furthermore, the article exemplifies the idea of IS in sports on two applications. PMID:22163725
Eerdekens, Maarten; Staes, Filip; Pilkington, Thomas; Deschamps, Kevin
Application of in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses currently faces a number of challenges, including: (i) the difficulty to apply regular markers onto the skin, (ii) the necessity for an adequate shoe which fits various foot morphologies and (iii) the need for adequate repeatability throughout a repeated measure condition. The aim of this study therefore was to design novel magnet based 3D printed markers for repeated in-shoe measurements while using accordingly adapted modified shoes for a specific multi-segment foot model. Multi-segment foot kinematics of ten participants were recorded and kinematics of hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot were calculated. Dynamic trials were conducted to check for intra and inter-session repeatability when combining novel markers and modified shoes in a repeated measures design. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine reliability. Both repeatability and reliability were proven to be good to excellent with maximum joint angle deviations of 1.11° for intra-session variability and 1.29° for same-day inter-session variability respectively and ICC values of >0.91. The novel markers can be reliably used in future research settings using in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses with multiple shod conditions.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the different standpoints and different approaches in regard to the sport performance preparation and achievement prediction. Sports researchers are concerned more directly with learning about scientific sports prediction. Their involvement in the sport sciences focuses on understanding how sports organized and how changes in that organization might influence sports experiences for both athletes and coaches. The goal of these scholars is often to improve sport experiences and performance prediction for current participants and make sport participation more attractive and accessible for those who do not currently play sports, prospective athletes. They also may want to help athletes improve their performance, help coaches work effectively with athletes and win more games. Sports researchers intention is also to assist and help sport organizations grow and operate more efficiently and profitably, and improve sport achievement prediction.
Alvis-Gómez, Martina K; Neira-Tolosa, Nury A
Identifying and quantitatively analysing social determinants affecting disabled teenagers' inclusion/exclusion in high-performance sports. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 19 12- to 19-year-old athletes suffering physical and sensory disability and 17 staff from the District Institute of Recreation and Sport. Likert-type rating scales were used, based on four analysis categories, i.e. social structure, socio-economic, educational and living condition determinants. Social inequity pervades the national paralympic sports' system. This is because 74 % of individuals only become recognised as sportspeople when they have obtained meritorious results in set competition without appropriate conditions having been previously provided by such paralympic sports institution to enable them to overcome structural and intermediate barriers. The social structure imposed on district-based paralympic sport stigmatises individuals regarding their individual abilities, affects their empowerment and freedom due to the discrimination experienced by disabled teenagers regarding their competitive achievements.
Tijssen, M.P.W.; Cingel, R.E. van; Visser, E de; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.
OBJECTIVES: To describe data of short- and midterm results of hip arthroscopy patients based on patient-reported hip function, hip functional performance and return to sports activities. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Sports medical center. PARTICIPANTS: 37 recreational athletes (21
den Hartigh, Jan Rudolf; Niessen, Anna; Frencken, Wouter; Meijer, Rob R.
The selection of athletes has been a central topic in sports sciences for decades. Yet, little consideration has been given to the theoretical underpinnings and predictive validity of the procedures. In this paper, we evaluate current selection procedures in sports given what we know from the
Lumpkin, Angela; Stokowski, Sarah
While interscholastic sports help young athletes enhance sport skills, physical fitness, self-discipline, sportsmanship, teamwork, time-management skills, self-confidence, and mental toughness, their benefits actually surpass even these. Interscholastic sports also promote life skills and lessons and enhance academic performance. The National…
Knapik, Joseph J; Brosch, Lorie C; Venuto, Margaret; Swedler, David I; Bullock, Steven H; Gaines, Lorraine S; Murphy, Ryan J; Tchandja, Juste; Jones, Bruce H
This study examined whether assigning running shoes based on the shape of the bottom of the foot (plantar surface) influenced injury risk in Air Force Basic Military Training (BMT) and examined risk factors for injury in BMT. Data were collected from BMT recruits during 2007; analysis took place during 2008. After foot examinations, recruits were randomly consigned to either an experimental group (E, n=1042 men, 375 women) or a control group (C, n=913 men, 346 women). Experimental group recruits were assigned motion control, stability, or cushioned shoes for plantar shapes indicative of low, medium, or high arches, respectively. Control group recruits received a stability shoe regardless of plantar shape. Injuries during BMT were determined from outpatient visits provided from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Other injury risk factors (fitness, smoking, physical activity, prior injury, menstrual history, and demographics) were obtained from a questionnaire, existing databases, or BMT units. Multivariate Cox regression controlling for other risk factors showed little difference in injury risk between the groups among men (hazard ratio [E/C]=1.11, 95% CI=0.89-1.38) or women (hazard ratio [E/C]=1.20, 95% CI= 0.90-1.60). Independent injury risk factors among both men and women included low aerobic fitness and cigarette smoking. This prospective study demonstrated that assigning running shoes based on the shape of the plantar surface had little influence on injury risk in BMT even after controlling for other injury risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Sport organizations exist to perform tasks that can only be executed through cooperative effort, and sport management is responsible for the performance and success of these organizations. The main of the paper is to analyze several issues of management sports organizations in order to asses their quality management. In this respect a questionnaire has been desingned for performing a survey analysis through a statistical approach. Investigation was conducted over a period of 3 months, and have been questioned a number of managers and coaches of football, all while pursuing an activity in football clubs in the counties of Timis and Arad, the level of training for children and juniors. The results suggest that there is a significant interest for the improvement of management across teams of children and under 21 clubs, emphasis on players' participation and rewarding performance. Furthermore, we can state that in the sports clubs there is established a vision and a mission as well as the objectives of the club's general refers to both sporting performance, and financial performance.
Rana Zain Ul Abidin
Full Text Available The Sports industry has played a vital role in the economy of Pakistan. The recent high failure rate of small and medium businesses in the sports sector has necessitated the need to identify strategies that will help to improve their performance. The primary objective of this study is to establish the level of entrepreneurial orientation of small and medium enterprises in the sports sector of Pakistan. Simple random sampling method was used to gather 153 usable questionnaires from small and medium businesses in Sialkot, Pakistan. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the validity of the measuring instrument. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were calculated to assess the reliability of the measuring instrument. Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the hypothesized relationships. The results of this study have shown that the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation (i.e., pro-activeness, innovativeness, and competitive aggressiveness have a significant positive influence on the success of the business, whereas the dimensions (i.e., autonomy and risk-taking have no influence. The study has implications for both researchers and small and medium business owners.
Phillips, Elissa; Davids, Keith; Renshaw, Ian; Portus, Marc
Research on expertise, talent identification and development has tended to be mono-disciplinary, typically adopting genocentric or environmentalist positions, with an overriding focus on operational issues. In this paper, the validity of dualist positions on sport expertise is evaluated. It is argued that, to advance understanding of expertise and talent development, a shift towards a multidisciplinary and integrative science focus is necessary, along with the development of a comprehensive multidisciplinary theoretical rationale. Here we elucidate dynamical systems theory as a multidisciplinary theoretical rationale for capturing how multiple interacting constraints can shape the development of expert performers. This approach suggests that talent development programmes should eschew the notion of common optimal performance models, emphasize the individual nature of pathways to expertise, and identify the range of interacting constraints that impinge on performance potential of individual athletes, rather than evaluating current performance on physical tests referenced to group norms.
Nike's advertising slogans--"Bo Knows," "Just Do It," and "There Is No Finish Line"--have moved beyond advertising into popular expression. Its athletic footwear and clothing have become a piece of Americana. Its brand name is as well known around the world as IBM and Coke. Behind the slogans and the flashy TV commercials is the vision of its founder, chairman, and CEO, Phil Knight. Since forming the company in 1962, Knight has taken Nike from a small-time distributor of Japanese track shoes to the top of the athletic shoe and apparel market. But not without a stumble. Along the way, Knight discovered that technological innovation alone could not continue to drive growth. When sales stagnated in the mid-1980s, Knight and Nike learned several hard lessons on how to build brands and understand consumers, and they transformed their technology company into a marketing company whose product is its most important marketing tool. "Ultimately," says Knight, "we wanted Nike to be the world's best sports and fitness company. Once you say that, you have a focus. You don't end up making wing tips or sponsoring the next Rolling Stones world tour." To keep the company growing, Nike began splitting its brands into sub-brands. In tennis, Nike divided its shoes into Challenge Court--for younger, more active players--and Supreme Court--for older, more mature players. That approach brought the company to a broader range of consumers while preserving the customer base. And to create an emotional tie with the consumer, Nike started advertising on TV. "Sports is at the heart of American culture," Knight says. "You can't explain much in 60 seconds, but when you show Michael Jordan, you don't have to. It's that simple."
Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave; Minten, Sue
Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director-led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.
Full Text Available Recently, the influence of genetics on sports performance has received increased attention from many researchers. In combat sports, some investigations have also been conducted. This article’s main objective was to review the representation of specific gene polymorphisms in combat sports athletes compared to controls. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science and SportDiscus. The terms used in this search involved combat sports (boxing, karate, judo, mixed martial arts, taekwondo and wrestling, genes, genetics and candidate genes. Articles published until November 2013 were included if combat sports athletes were considered as a single group (i.e., not mixed with athletes of other sports. Seven studies were found, with two presenting no difference between combat sports athletes and controls, two presenting higher frequencies of candidate genes related to a more endurance-related profile compared to controls, and three where a more power-related gene overrepresentation was found in comparison to controls. Taken together, the initial studies about the genetic characteristics of combat sports athletes are controversial, which is probably due to the mixed (aerobic and anaerobic characteristic and to the multifactorial performance determinants of these sports.
Vlahovich, Nicole; Fricker, Peter A; Brown, Matthew A; Hughes, David
As Australia's peak high-performance sport agency, the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed this position statement to address the implications of recent advances in the field of genetics and the ramifications for the health and well-being of athletes. Genetic testing has proven of value in the practice of clinical medicine. There are, however, currently no scientific grounds for the use of genetic testing for athletic performance improvement, sport selection or talent identifica...
Items 751 - 800 of 1125 ... 2011: September Supplement, Public opinion regarding decriminalisation of sex work in South ... Vol 21, No 2 (2015), Purchasing preferences for sports shoes: An ... of an online exchange in the United States about rights to the road ... Social Contract, Anxiety, Performance, Workload and Intention to ...
Christopher Moufawad el Achkar
Full Text Available Activity level and gait parameters during daily life are important indicators for clinicians because they can provide critical insights into modifications of mobility and function over time. Wearable activity monitoring has been gaining momentum in daily life health assessment. Consequently, this study seeks to validate an algorithm for the classification of daily life activities and to provide a detailed gait analysis in older adults. A system consisting of an inertial sensor combined with a pressure sensing insole has been developed. Using an algorithm that we previously validated during a semi structured protocol, activities in 10 healthy elderly participants were recorded and compared to a wearable reference system over a 4 h recording period at home. Detailed gait parameters were calculated from inertial sensors. Dynamics of physical behavior were characterized using barcodes that express the measure of behavioral complexity. Activity classification based on the algorithm led to a 93% accuracy in classifying basic activities of daily life, i.e., sitting, standing, and walking. Gait analysis emphasizes the importance of metrics such as foot clearance in daily life assessment. Results also underline that measures of physical behavior and gait performance are complementary, especially since gait parameters were not correlated to complexity. Participants gave positive feedback regarding the use of the instrumented shoes. These results extend previous observations in showing the concurrent validity of the instrumented shoes compared to a body-worn reference system for daily-life physical behavior monitoring in older adults.
Santilli, O L; Nardelli, N; Santilli, H A; Tripoloni, D E
Chronic pain of the inguino-crural region or "pubalgia" explains the 0.5-6.2% of the consultations by athletes. Recently, areas of weakness in the posterior wall called "sports hernias," have been identified in some of these patients, capable of producing long-standing pain. Several authors use different image methods (CT, MRI, ultrasound) to identify the lesion and various techniques of repair, by open or laparoscopic approaches, have been proposed but there is no evidence about the superiority of one over others due to the difficulty for randomizing these patients. In our experience, diagnosis was based on clinical and ultrasound findings followed by laparoscopic exploration to confirm and repair the injury. The present study aims to assess the performance of our diagnostic and therapeutic management in a series of athletes affected by "pubalgia". 1450 athletes coming from the orthopedic office of a sport medicine center were evaluated. In 590 of them (414 amateur and 176 professionals) sports hernias were diagnosed through physical examination and ultrasound. We performed laparoscopic "TAPP" repair and, thirty days after, an assessment was performed to determine the evolution of pain and the degree of physical activity as a sign of the functional outcome. We used the U Mann-Whitney test for continuous scale variables and the chi-square test for dichotomous variables with p pubalgia". "Sports hernias" are often associated with adductor muscle strains and other injuries of the groin allowing speculate that these respond to a common mechanism of production. We believe that, considering the difficulty to design randomized trials, only a high coincidence among the diagnostic and therapeutic instances can ensure a rational health care.
Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew
Based on the tradition, history and lore of the American West, as well as the individualistic nature and lifestyle of the sport of rodeo, the rodeo athlete has achieved iconic status in sport, literature, art and entertainment. For over half a century, rodeo has become a staple of organized sport programmes in high schools, universities and international competitions. The origins of rodeo grew from ranch work dating back to the Spanish vaqueros in the 1700s. The sport was officially organized in 1929 and, by the 1930s, championships were determined and the sport of rodeo surpassed baseball and auto racing in spectator attendance. Since then, sponsorship has grown, resulting in extensive worldwide popularity through major media outlets. Despite growing popularity, few investigations exist regarding the scientific aspects of the sport. Rodeo competition is an activity that is basically intermittent in nature, with short periods of highly intense activity. When considering that experience and, thus, improvement in rodeo is achieved solely through constant and punishing practices involving actual and repetitive, human versus livestock competition, the practices closely imitate a sport-specific form of interval training. Studies, which address the anthropometric and performance characteristics of rodeo competitors, reveal that they are comparable to athletes in more traditional sports. The psychological constructs conducive to performance in rodeo have been varied and limited, with most research efforts focused on personality characteristics, sensation seeking and competitive anxiety. Nevertheless, when evaluated relative to higher levels of traditional sport performance, rodeo participants closely resemble their mainstream counterparts. Although efforts to quantify this non-traditional sport are still in the initial stages, information concerning what the optimal fitness level of rodeo athletes should be for maximal performance levels, in a basically anaerobic sport
Domazet, Sidsel L; Tarp, Jakob; Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten; Bugge, Anna
To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive performance.
Sidsel L Domazet
Full Text Available To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents.The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer.Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance.Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive
Bus, Sicco A.; Haspels, Rob; Busch-Westbroek, Tessa E.
OBJECTIVE Therapeutic footwear for diabetic foot patients aims to reduce the risk of ulceration by relieving mechanical pressure on the foot. However, footwear efficacy is generally not assessed in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of in-shoe plantar pressure analysis to evaluate and optimize the pressure-reducing effects of diabetic therapeutic footwear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Dynamic in-shoe plantar pressure distribution was measured in 23 neuropathic diabetic foot patients wearing fully customized footwear. Regions of interest (with peak pressure >200 kPa) were selected and targeted for pressure optimization by modifying the shoe or insole. After each of a maximum of three rounds of modifications, the effect on in-shoe plantar pressure was measured. Successful optimization was achieved with a peak pressure reduction of >25% (criterion A) or below an absolute level of 200 kPa (criterion B). RESULTS In 35 defined regions, mean peak pressure was significantly reduced from 303 (SD 77) to 208 (46) kPa after an average 1.6 rounds of footwear modifications (P diabetic foot. This result provides an objective approach to instantly improve footwear quality, which should reduce the risk for pressure-related plantar foot ulcers. PMID:21610125
Arnold, R; Ponnusamy, V; Zhang, C-Q; Gucciardi, D F
Organizational stressors are a universal phenomenon which can be particularly prevalent and problematic for sport performers. In view of their global existence, it is surprising that no studies have examined cross-cultural differences in organizational stressors. One explanation for this is that the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold, Fletcher, & Daniels, 2013), which can comprehensively measure the organizational pressures that sport performers have encountered, has not yet been translated from English into any other languages nor scrutinized cross-culturally. The first purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the cross-cultural validity of the OSI-SP. In addition, the study aimed to test the equivalence of the OSI-SP's factor structure across cultures. British (n = 379), Chinese (n = 335), and Malaysian (n = 444) sport performers completed the OSI-SP. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the cross-cultural validity of the factorial model for the British and Malaysian samples; however, the overall model fit for the Chinese data did not meet all guideline values. Support was provided for the equality of factor loadings, variances, and covariances on the OSI-SP across the British and Malaysian cultures. These findings advance knowledge and understanding on the cross-cultural existence, conceptualization, and operationalization of organizational stressors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hertsenberg, S.; Brouwer, D.; Lurvink, M.; Rubingh, C.; Rijnders, E.; Tielemans, E.
Self-assessment of exposure (SAE) refers to any exposure assessment methodology wherein the worker takes an active role in establishing his or her exposure status. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of SAE approaches among shoe repair workers collecting
Dammerer, Dietmar; Braito, Matthias; Biedermann, Rainer; Ban, Michael; Giesinger, Johannes; Haid, Christian; Liebensteiner, Michael C; Kaufmann, Gerhard
The aim of this study is to assess patients' driving ability when wearing surgical shoes following right-sided first metatarsal osteotomy. From August 2013 to August 2015, 42 consecutive patients (mean age 54.5 years) with right-sided hallux valgus deformity underwent first metatarsal osteotomy. Patients were tested for brake response time (BRT) 1 day preoperatively (control run) and at 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively. Two different types of foot orthosis were investigated. BRT was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator. Preoperative BRT was 712 msec (standard deviation (SD), 221 msec). BRT was significantly slower at all tested postoperative times than preoperatively (p shoes. Mean global American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) outcome score and AOFAS pain and alignment subscores increased postoperatively (p shoe after bunionectomy. However, patients should have sufficient recovery, exercise, and training before resuming driving a car, because safety is always a priority. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02354066.
Tanaka, Kousuke; Hiraga, Atsushi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Morrison, Scott Edward
We applied aluminum hinged shoes (AHSs) to the club foot-associated contracted feet of 11 Thoroughbred yearlings to examine the effects of the shoes on the shape of the hoof and third phalanx (P III). After 3 months of AHS use, the size of the affected hooves increased significantly, reaching the approximate size of the healthy contralateral hooves with respect to the maximum lateral width of the foot, the mean ratio of the bearing border width to the coronary band width, and the mean ratio of the solar surface width to the articular surface width. These results suggest that the AHSs corrected the contracted feet in these yearling horses.
Ian M. Franks; Mike Hughes
This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition
Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction Footwear is no longer just an accessory but also a protection for the musculoskeletal system, and its most important characteristic is comfort.Objectives This study aims to identify and to analyze the vertical ground reaction force in barefoot women and women with unstable shoes.Methodology Five women aged 25 ± 4 years old and mass of 50 ± 7 kg participated in this study. An AMTI force plate was used for data acquisition. The 10 trials for each situation were considered valid where the subject approached the platform with the right foot and at the speed of 4 km/h ± 5%. The instable shoe of this study is used in the practice of physical activity.Results The results showed that the first peak force was higher for the footwear situation, about 5% and significant differences between the barefoot and footwear situation. This significant difference was in the first and second peaks force and in the time of the second peak.Conclusion The values showed that the footwear absorbs approximately 45% of the impact during gait.
Full Text Available Background: Stroke subjects face reduced tolerance to activity and sedentary lifestyle due to various impairments, such as muscle weakness, pain, spasticity, and poor balance. Thus, loss of independent ambulation especially outdoors is generally observed in them. Methods: Chronic stroke patients (> 6 months with Functional Ambulation Category score > 2 and able to walk at least 10 meters of distance with and without assistance from a tertiary healthcare centre were selected and treated. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups control group (n=14 and experimental group (n=13. Each group received Motor Relearning Programme for 60 minutes, 6 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group received an additional shoe-raise of 1 cm on the unaffected side along with while ambulating during therapy as well as at home. Pre and post treatment the patients were assessed for spatio-temporal parameters using foot print analysis method and Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment (RVGA Score using RVGA scale. Results: There was significant improvement seen in almost all the spatio-temporal gait parameters and RVGA score in within group analysis. Whereas on between group the results from between group comparison suggests that subjects in MRP with shoe-raise group showed better results in spatio-temporal parameters of gait than subjects receiving MRPalone. But there was no additional benefit of shoe-raise seen on RGVA score and angle of toe-out parameter. Conclusion: Additional use of shoe-raise helps to improve spatio-temporal gait parameters. However, there was no additional change seen in RVGA score.
Febriana, Sri Awalia; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan
Shoe manufacturing workers are exposed daily to an extensive range of potential physical and chemical occupational hazards. Shoe manufacturing in Indonesia is one of the industrial sectors that has shown sustained growth amongst the newly industrialized countries (NICs). In this study, we investigated the possible potential exposure of the workers to physical and occupational hazards and determined the prevalence of occupational skin diseases at a shoe manufacturing factory in Indonesia. A cross-sectional study on the observation of the working process and an inventory and risk assessment of exposure to the chemicals used. Classification of chemicals as potential sensitizers/irritants and qualitative assessments of these chemicals were done. Workers were examined and interviewed using the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire-2002/LONG. The risk of Occupational skin diseases (OSD) at the shoe factory was mainly related to the exposure of the workers' skin to potential physical and chemical hazards in hot and humid environmental conditions. From a total of 514 workers, 8.5 % reported current OSD and 4.8 % reported a history of OSD. Occupational skin diseases were diagnosed in 29 % of the workers by dermatologists and 7.6 % had an occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Of the 39 workers with contact dermatitis, 33 consented to being patch tested, 14 (3 %) workers showed a positive results and considered as having an occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and 25 (4.9 %) had an occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD). We observed a repeated and prolonged exposure of the workers to numerous physical and chemical skin hazards at this factory.
Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grazyna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena
Owing to a diversified technological process and a great variety of products and materials used in shoe manufacture, workers may be exposed to dusts that contain different chemicals and particles of various shapes and sizes. The aim of this study was to assess the dust exposure, taking account of concentration of particular size fractions according to the European Standard Norm, and to analyze particle size distribution in inhalable dust at selected workplaces in a modern shoe manufacture plant and in a small shoe repair workshop in comparison with other industrial branches. In these two workplaces, the concentrations of dust, representing the inhalable, thoracic, and respirable fractions, were measured with the GRIMM 1.105 laser dust monitor. The particle size distribution in inhaled dust in the most characteristic workposts was analyzed. In the shoe manufacture plant, the concentrations ranged from 124 microg/m3 (leather cutting out) to 724 microg/m3 (scouring and milling of soles); concentrations of the thoracic and respirable fractions in the same workposts ranged from 74 microg/m3 to 412 microg/m3 and from 24 microg/m3 to 120 microg/m3, respectively. In the shoe repair workshop, the recorded concentrations were higher: the values ranged from 521 microg/m3 (gluing of shoes and soles, zipper exchange and heel abrasion) to 916 microg/m3 (uppers sewing and heel scouring) for the inhaled fraction; from 335 microg/m3 to 499 microg/m3 for the thoracic fraction; and from 88 microg/m3 to 120 microg/m3 for the respirable fraction. The mass median aerodynamic diameters of inhalable dust particles fell within the limits of 6.2-25.0 mm. Dust with the smallest particles (MMAD = 6.2 mm) was observed in shoe brushing and polishing, and with the largest particles (MMAD = 25.0 mm) in uppers sewing. The modern process of shoe manufacture is characterized by very low concentrations of inhalable dust and its fractions, they are considerably lower than occupational exposure limits
Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ... should provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may ...
Full Text Available Purpose: identification of the main structural components and content of sports volunteer activities. Material & Methods: used analysis of literature and documents, organizational analysis. Result: basic structural components of sports volunteer activity are defined. The content of sports volunteer activity is disclosed. Conclusion: sports volunteer activity includes the following structural components: subject, object, purpose, motivation, means, actions; subject is a sports volunteer, the object is a sports competition, the goal is to provide gratuitous assistance for a quality competition, the means are the special knowledge, skills, communication abilities of sports volunteers, actions should be understood as types of volunteer activities and functions that volunteers perform during the preparation and conduct of competitions. Main types of sports volunteer activity are: 1 organizational; 2 judiciary; 3 coaching; 4 legal; 5 medical. Functions that volunteers perform in the competition system are general and special. Content of the functions of sports volunteering depends on the specifics of the sports, the rank of the competition, the specifics of the competition for people with special needs.
Wanke, Eileen M; Exner-Grave, Elisabeth
Training with pointe shoes is an integral part of professional dance education and ambitious hobby dancing. Pointe shoes - developed more than hundred years ago and almost unaltered since then - are highly specific and strike a balance between aesthetics, function, protection, and health care. Therefore, pointe readiness should be tested prior to all dance training or career training. Medical specialists are often confronted with this issue. Specific anatomical dance technique-orientated general conditional and coordinative preconditions as well as dance-technical prerequisites must be met by pointe readiness tests in order to keep traumatic injuries or long-term damage at a minimum. In addition to a (training) history, medical counselling sessions have come to include various tests that enable a reliable decision for or against pointe work. This article suggests adequate testing procedures (STT TEST), taking account of professional dancing as well as hobby dancing. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mohammad Fayiz Abumoh'd
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of caffeine contained in sports drink on hormones producing energy and sprint test performance in male soccer players. Twelve participants (25.97 ± 2.70 y performed the test under thre e conditions (one week apart: caffeine with sports drink (SD-CAF, sports drink (SD, and placebo (PLA. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover protocol, participants performed SD-CAF trial (5 mg/kg of caffeine contained in 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test (7 × 30 m, SD trial (solely 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test, or placebo. Blood analysis indicated significantly higher level of free thyroxine in SD-CAF (21.450 ± 3.048 compared to SD (18.742 ± 1.151 and PLA (16.983 ± 1.783. Similar findings existed regarding insulin (P 0.05. No significant differences were observed between trials in first–fourth repetitions (P > 0.05. Time of fifth-seventh repetitions were significantly lower in SD-CAF compared to SD and PLA (P < 0.05, and were significantly lower in SD than that in PLA (P < 0.05. The time of 7th repetition was (4.331 ± 0.210, 4.610 ± 0.197, 4.81 6 ± 0.171 s for SD-CAF, SD, and PLA, respectively; P < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine interferes hormones that are responsible for producing energy which in turn have a positive effect on repeated sprint bouts.
Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen
While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651
Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier
Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:21985215
Strafford, Ben William; van der Steen, Pawel; Davids, Keith; Stone, Joseph Antony
Analyses of talent development in sport have identified that skill can be enhanced through early and continued involvement in donor sports which share affordances (opportunities for action) with a performer's main target sport. Aligning key ideas of the Athletic Skills Model and ecological dynamics theory, we propose how the sport of parkour could provide a representative and adaptive platform for developing athletic skill (e.g. coordination, timing, balance, agility, spatial awareness and muscular strength). We discuss how youth sport development programmes could be (re) designed to include parkour-style activities, in order to develop general athletic skills in affordance-rich environments. It is proposed that team sports development programmes could particularly benefit from parkour-style training since it is exploratory and adaptive nature shapes utilisation of affordances for innovative and autonomous performance by athletes. Early introduction to varied, relevant activities for development of athleticism and skill, in a diversified training programme, would provide impetus for a fundamental shift away from the early specialisation approach favoured by traditional theories of skill acquisition and expertise in sport.
Hoffman, Martin D
Participation in ultraendurance sports has been increasing in recent years. This participation growth has been associated with an increase in research focused on such events. While the total amount of research related to these sports remains relatively small compared with other sports, the research growth is encouraging. New sources for research funding for ultraendurance sports should advance the science. In addition to continued opportunities with observational studies, promising areas of investigation remain for experimental studies and research that uses ultraendurance-sport environments as models for studies relevant to wider populations. Insight into the breadth of research opportunities in ultraendurance sports can be gained by reviewing the abstracts published online in the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance from the annual Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports Conference that took place this year in Chamonix, France.
Ian M. Franks
Full Text Available This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition