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Sample records for sports nutrition issn

  1. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1. The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2. How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3. How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4. General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5. An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  2. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  3. ISSN Exercise & Sport Nutrition Review: Research & Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1. how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2. general nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 3. our current understanding of the available science behind weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement supplements. Our hope is that ISSN members find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  4. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  5. Sports Nutrition: What the Future may Bring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bill

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The field of sports nutrition is a dynamic one. Core competencies in exercise physiology, psychology, integrated metabolism and biochemistry are the initial parameters for a successful career in sports nutrition. In addition to the academic fundamentals, it is imperative that the sports nutritionist understand the sport in which our client participates. This sport specific understanding should manifest itself in fuel utilization, mechanics of movement, as well as psychological processes that motivate the participant to perform optimally. Sports nutrition as a field has grown substantially over the past 50 years, from glycogen loading to today's scientifically validated ergogenic aids. The last ten years has seen the largest advancement of sports nutrition, with the following areas driving much of the research: the effects of exercise on protein utilization, meal timing to maximize the anabolic response, the potential for ribose to benefit those engaged in high-energy repetitive sports, and creatine and its uses within athletics and medicine. The future of sports nutrition will dictate that we 1 collectively strive for a higher standard of care and education for counseling athletes and 2 integrate different disciplines. We are in an era of unprecedented growth and the new knowledge is constantly evolving. The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN will contribute to this exciting field in many ways, and we ask for your contribution by sharing your passion, stories, research, and life experiences with us.

  6. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  7. Nutrition in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Nutrition in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kh Dzgoeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the fundamental factors that influence the effectiveness of physical activity, increase efficiency and replenishment of muscle mass, balances the ratio of energy consumed and restored. The diet of an athlete can and should be built on common foods available and prepared in accordance with generally accepted principles of healthy eating. The need for major macronutrients and micronutrients is determined by the need for energy, the intensity of sweating and the goals for building muscle mass. Depending on the intensity of the proposed load including competition, there are individual nutritional needs and, if necessary, various food supplements may be used. The basic principles of sport nutrition are described in this article

  9. Nutrition and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherhood, J R

    1984-01-01

    During the past 20 years there have been great developments in the scientific understanding of the role of nutrition in health and physical performance. Epidemiological and physiological studies have provided evidence that certain forms of dietary behaviour may be linked with an increased risk of developing disorders such as high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and some cancers. This has resulted in dietary recommendations that are intended to reduce the incidence of these disorders in the community. The science of nutrition in relation to sports performance has progressed from empirical studies investigating the effects of dietary manipulations, such as restriction and supplementation, to the direct investigation of the physiological basis of the specific nutritional demands of hard physical exercise. This review is based on the premise that it is "what comes out' rather than "what goes in', which provides the clues to ideal nutrition for athletic performance. Various aspects of the physical demands of athletic exercise are viewed as stresses that induce specific biochemical, and hence nutritional, strains in the athlete. Training is the predominant demand in the athletic lifestyle. This is characterised by acute bouts of high power output. During one hour of hard training an athlete may expend 30% of his or her total 24-hour energy output. These high power outputs have important implications for energy substrate and water requirements. Carbohydrate, specifically muscle glycogen, is an obligatory fuel for the high power outputs demanded by athletic sports. Muscle glycogen is a limiting factor in hard exercise because it is held in limited amounts, utilised rapidly by intense exercise, and fatigue occurs when it is depleted to low levels in the active muscles. Liver glycogen may also be exhausted by hard exercise and low blood glucose contributes to fatigue. High sweat rates are demanded during severe exercise and large water deficits commensurate with

  10. SPORT NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE OF COACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vasiljević; Danilo Bojanić; Jovica Petković; Aldijana Muratović

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sport performance. Nutrition is one of the most important factors in achieving top performance athletes. According to most studies conducted in the world's top athletes receive information from their coaches when it comes to sports nutrition, especially of the coaches involved in fitness training. (Burns, Schiller, Merrick & Wolf, 2004).The aim...

  11. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  12. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  13. SPORT NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE OF COACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vasiljević

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sport performance. Nutrition is one of the most important factors in achieving top performance athletes. According to most studies conducted in the world's top athletes receive information from their coaches when it comes to sports nutrition, especially of the coaches involved in fitness training. (Burns, Schiller, Merrick & Wolf, 2004.The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge of sports nutrition in sports coaching. Mthods: The sample was composed of 30 licensed coaches from Montenegro (football, handball, basketball, volleyball, athletics and tennis. Knowledge of sports nutrition was tested by means of a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to determine the knowledge manager on sports nutrition, the ingredients that are necessary in order to provide a sufficient amount of energy to training and competition, the dietary supplements, meal prior to the competition as well as dehydration and rehydration during training and competition. The survey was anonymous. The data were analyzed by statistical methods, using the statistical software STATISTICA for WINDOWS. Results: According to the results as a whole, it can be concluded that the trainer's knowledge of sports nutrition at a satisfactory level. Out of 600 responses was achieved 469 correct answers, or 78.1%. However, when looking at individual responses then satisfaction with the relative high percentage loss since the observed large gaps on very important issues related to sports nutrition. Discussion: By analyzing and comparing research results (Matkovic, Prince & Cigrovski, 2006 that in a sample of 56 coaches basketball and skiing, received 77.8% of correct answers and insight into the results of our study, it is clear that the results of the approximate value of both work, which is an indicator of quality

  14. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  15. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  16. International society of sports nutrition position stand: nutrient timing

    OpenAIRE

    Kerksick, Chad M.; Arent, Shawn; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin D.; Taylor, Lem; Kalman, Doug; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Kreider, Richard B.; Willoughby, Darryn; Arciero, Paul J.; VanDusseldorp, Trisha A.; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Wildman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Position statement The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN: Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy inta...

  17. Pediatric sports nutrition: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2009-05-01

    There is a growing interest in the field of pediatric sports nutrition because of the will to lead the child athlete to high achievements, with minimal impairment of growth and development. In this article, we review some of the new data concerning the possible short-term and long-term effects of nutrition on children's performance, current and future health. Growing children engaged in strenuous exercise have several physiologic and metabolic characteristics that distinguish them from adults and require specific nutritional considerations. There is currently not enough evidence to support either carbohydrate loading or increased protein intake in the diet of the child athlete. Creatine use, although common among youth, is not recommended. Adequate hydration is essential to optimal performance. Consumption of iron-rich foods should be encouraged, as depleted iron stores are common in young athletes. In female athletes, nutritional deficiencies could lead to athletic amenorrhea and bone loss, and the resolution of energy deficits can restore normal bone formation and the return of menses. In the highly competitive world of the child athlete, proper nutrition is of essence. Unfortunately, most of the knowledge in this field is based on adult literature. Age-specific research would lead to a better understanding of what constitutes 'a healthy diet' in the context of the growing athlete and may be a first step toward achieving these necessary insights.

  18. Sport and Nutrition Education Interaction on Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Mehmet Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine sport and nutrition education interaction on stress. Three groups were selected for the study: control, single treatment and social treatment under nutrition treatment, too. The groups that were under nutrition treatments should have information about the nutrition resources. This experiment was done for two…

  19. ATHLETES’ KNOWLEDGE OF REDUCED SPORTS NUTRITION

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Bojanić; Ivan Vasiljević; Jovica Petković; Aldijana Muratović

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the¬re is also the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sports per¬for¬man¬ce. Optimal diet can reduce fatigue, and allow athletes who train longer and compete to recovering faster (Lin and Lee, 2005). Nutritional status has a direct impact on the level of physical effect. In other words, the physical condition of pre¬paration much depends on the nutritional status of persons engaged in sport (Beal...

  20. Sport-specific nutrition: practical strategies for team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs.

  1. Immunological aspects of sport nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Prolonged bouts of exercise and heavy training regimens are associated with depression of immune system functions that can increase the risk of picking up opportunistic infections such as the common cold and influenza. Some common sport nutrition practices including high-carbohydrate diets and carbohydrate ingestion during exercise, training with low-glycogen stores, intentional dieting for weight loss, ingestion of high-dose antioxidant supplements and protein ingestion post exercise may influence immune system status in athletes. In order to maintain robust immunity, athletes need to consume a well-balanced diet that is sufficient to meet their requirements for energy, carbohydrate, protein and micronutrients. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients are well known to be potential causes of immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of some essential minerals including iron and zinc and the vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 are important to maintain a healthy immune function. Vitamin D may be a particular concern as recent studies have emphasised its importance in limiting infection episode incidence and duration in both the general population and in athletes and many individuals exhibit inadequate vitamin D status during the winter months. There is only limited evidence that individual amino acids, β-glucans, herbal extracts and zinc are capable of boosting immunity or reducing infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotics, vitamin D3, bovine colostrum and plant polyphenol containing supplements or foodstuffs currently offer the best chance of success, particularly for those individuals who are prone to illness.

  2. [Nutrition recommendations for children who practice sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Valverde Visus, F; Moráis López, A; Ibáñez, J; Dalmau Serra, J

    2014-08-01

    Several health benefits have been attributed to sports practice, and an adequate nutrition status helps to maintain an optimal performance. Children most frequently practice non-competitive and non-endurance activities in a school setting. The dietary intake of children who practice sports should be similar to the general population, properly meeting their energy and nutrient requirements. During the activity performance, correct hydration should be aimed for, with water appearing to be an adequate source in most cases. General calorie and micronutrient supplementation should not be commonly recommended in children. Paediatricians must control nutritional status and dietary habits of children who practice sports, especially in those cases when weight-loss is aimed for, as well as take into account the psychological implications of competitive sports practice. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Sport nutrition: A review of the latest guidelines for exercise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport nutrition: A review of the latest guidelines for exercise and sport nutrition from the American College of Sport Nutrition, the International Olympic Committee and the International Society for Sports Nutrition.

  4. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  5. 75 FR 37281 - President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Part VI The President Executive Order 13545--President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition... Order 13545 of June 22, 2010 President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition By the authority... recognize that good nutrition goes hand in hand with fitness and sports participation, Executive Order 13265...

  6. ATHLETES’ KNOWLEDGE OF REDUCED SPORTS NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Bojanić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the¬re is also the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sports per¬for¬man¬ce. Optimal diet can reduce fatigue, and allow athletes who train longer and compete to recovering faster (Lin and Lee, 2005. Nutritional status has a direct impact on the level of physical effect. In other words, the physical condition of pre¬paration much depends on the nutritional status of persons engaged in sport (Beals and Manore, 1998. Methods: The sample was composed of 60 professional athletes from Montenegro (football, basketball and judo. Knowledge of reduced sports nu¬tri¬tion was tested by means of a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to determine the knowledge of sports nutrition, the ingredients that are nece¬ssa¬ry in order to provide a sufficient amount of energy for training and compe¬tition, the dietary supplements, a meal prior to the competition as well as dehydration and re¬hy¬dration during training and competition. Results: According to the results as a who¬le, it can be concluded that the professional athletes’ knowledge of sports nutrition is at a satisfactory level. Out of 1200 responses 787 correct answers were achieved, or 65.5%. However, when looking at the individual responses then the satisfaction with the relative high percentage is not equal since we observed large gaps on very import¬ant issues related to sports nutrition. Discussion: By analyzing and comparing re¬se¬arch results (Matkovic, Prince & Cigrovski, 2006,in a sample of 56 basketball and ski¬ing coaches, 77.8% of correct answers were received. From a survey (Vasiljevic, Bo¬ja¬nic, Petkovic & Muratovic, 2014 of 30 licensed coaches from Mon¬tenegro (foot¬ball, handball, basketball, volleyball, athletics and tennis 78.,1% of correct answers were received. By looking into the results of our study, it is clear that the results indicate that

  7. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  8. Sports nutrition. Approaching the nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1989-08-01

    A sophisticated appreciation of the role of nutrition in athletic performance has been made possible by increasing knowledge of the physiology of exercise. The nutritional issues of training are of primary importance, since this occupies most of the athlete's effort. The nutritional support of an intense daily training programme includes an appropriately high energy intake, predominantly in the form of carbohydrate in order to continually replenish muscle glycogen stores. Recent review of the protein needs of athletes indicates that requirements may be substantially above those of sedentary subjects, to account for the oxidation of amino acids during exercise as well as the retention of nitrogen during periods of muscle building. However, these increased requirements are likely to be met by the generous protein intakes anticipated in a high energy diet. The same would seem to hold true for micronutrient considerations, although there is no evidence that vitamin requirements are considerably increased by exercise. Nevertheless, a high energy diet chosen from a sufficiently varied range of foods should allow micronutrient intakes well in excess of population recommended dietary intake levels. Current interest is focused on the mineral status of athletes, particularly that of iron and calcium. In the case of iron, there is a possibility that the increased level of loss by some endurance athletes will not be met by their usual dietary patterns. Screening for early signs of iron deficiency, and appropriate supplementation and dietary counselling seem warranted in high risk groups. Competition poses the challenge of identifying possible factors limiting performance, and taking steps to delay or reduce these. Of paramount importance is body temperature regulation through the maintenance of hydration levels. This issue has long been recognised, but recent studies of gastric emptying and the benefits of carbohydrate supplementation during exercise have caused an update of

  9. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, Alan A.; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Wildman, Robert; Kleiner, Susan; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Taylor, Lem; Earnest, Conrad P.; Arciero, Paul J.; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Willoughby, Darryn S.; Campbell, Bill; Arent, Shawn M.; Bannock, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limi...

  10. A Lifetime Pursuit of a Sports Nutrition Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-09-01

    Sports nutrition in Canada has significantly evolved over the years from providing fundamental training dietary advice to applied precise assessment of nutritional status in a variety of settings, especially with the establishment of Canadian Sport Institutes and Centres across Canada. This progression has enhanced the level of dietary support to manage athletes' nutrition in a holistic perspective. Athletes are now educated about food fundamentals (acquiring foods, menu planning, preparing, food safety), personal accountability of hydration and energy monitoring (urinary and body weight assessments), individualized supplementation protocols, and customized nutrition for variable daily training environments according to their Yearly Training Plan. Sport dietitians are an important member of Integrated Sport Teams where collaboration exists amongst professionals who coordinate the athletes' personalized training and performance programming. Dietitians in sport are encouraged to continue to lobby for nutrition programming at the elite, varsity, provincial, and club levels to ensure that athletes receive accurate guidance from nutrition experts.

  11. Nutrition for sports performance: issues and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2012-02-01

    Diet can significantly influence athletic performance, but recent research developments have substantially changed our understanding of sport and exercise nutrition. Athletes adopt various nutritional strategies in training and competition in the pursuit of success. The aim of training is to promote changes in the structure and function of muscle and other tissues by selective modulation of protein synthesis and breakdown in response to the training stimulus. This process is affected by the availability of essential amino acids in the post-exercise period. Athletes have been encouraged to eat diets high in carbohydrate, but low-carbohydrate diets up-regulate the capacity of muscle for fat oxidation, potentially sparing the limited carbohydrate stores. Such diets, however, do not enhance endurance performance. It is not yet known whether the increased capacity for fat oxidation that results from training in a carbohydrate-deficient state can promote loss of body fat. Preventing excessive fluid deficits will maintain exercise capacity, and ensuring adequate hydration status can also reduce subjective perception of effort. This latter effect may be important in encouraging exercise participation and promoting adherence to exercise programmes. Dietary supplement use is popular in sport, and a few supplements may improve performance in specific exercise tasks. Athletes must be cautious, however, not to contravene the doping regulations. There is an increasing recognition of the role of the brain in determining exercise performance: various nutritional strategies have been proposed, but with limited success. Nutrition strategies developed for use by athletes can also be used to achieve functional benefits in other populations.

  12. Interactive Distance Learning Effectively Provides Winning Sports Nutrition Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jennifer; Hoelscher-Day, Sharon; Begeman, Gale; Houtkooper, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Interactive distance-education (n=226) and face-to-face (n=129) continuing education workshops for health care and education professionals on sports nutrition were evaluated immediately and after 6 months. The well-designed distance-education format was as effective and acceptable as face to face and increased sports nutrition knowledge. (SK)

  13. Sports Nutrition Knowledge Assessment of Physical Educators and Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkle, M. Terence; Tishler, Anne G.

    This study assessed the sports nutrition knowledge of current and prospective physical educators/coaches (HPEs) to determine the need for improved education in this area and to compare the nutrition knowledge of HPEs with that of foods and nutrition students (FNSs) and general college students (GENs). A researcher-developed 4-point Likert-type…

  14. Nutritional knowledge and status of coaches in various sporting codes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coaches have an important responsibility in the lives of athletes since athletes often use them as a source of advice for various performance-related issues, such as the nutritional regime. This descriptive study set out to identify the nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of coaches from various sport codes, as well as ...

  15. Sport Nutrition Drinks Based on Octopus Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Riyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSport nutrition drinks are well-known in escalating athlete’s performance and endurance. These product developed from whey protein hydrolysates and soybean protein hydrolysates have already been recognized, however expansion from marine product is comparatively rare. Octopus (Octopus cyanea widely acknowledged containing taurine and rich in amino acids is potential to be developed as ingredient for sport nutrition drink. The aims of this study were to create and characterize sport nutrition drinks based on marine peptides through Octopus protein hydrolyzate. Octopus protein hydrolysate has 77.78±2.69% degree of hydrolysis and 751.02±10.63 mg / 100g taurine. Sports nutrition drinks with the addition of 4% Octopus protein hydrolyzate was acceptable sensory panelists, and the serving size of 600 ml contained taurine 726.06±0.82 mg and detected 17 types of amino acids.

  16. Future Trends: Nutritional Supplements in Sports and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Marie; Antonio, Jose

    The field of sports nutrition is defined not only by dietary recommendations for various athletes, research and new supplements that are on store shelves but also by the direction of the industry itself. Consumer spending, media coverage, professional athlete endorsement of various supplements, lawsuits, regulations in governing bodies and clinical research all have an impact on the direction and growth of the sports nutrition industry. To date, no supplement has affected sports nutrition as much as creatine and the company that both funded most of the research supporting the ergogenic benefits of creatine and capitalized on such research. There is no current leader in the sports nutrition market. Instead, companies are vying among steady competition for space on store shelves and overall product sales.

  17. Evaluation of Iranian college athletes' sport nutrition knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Jessri, Maryam; RashidKhani, Bahram; Zinn, Caryn

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (+/- 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (+/- 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (+/- 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p nutrition information from reputable sources (p = .03). The coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education.

  18. Development of NutriSportEx TM -interactive sport nutrition based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of NutriSportExTM-interactive sport nutrition based mobile application software. B.S. Pushpa, N.S. Safii, S.H. Hamzah, N Fauzi, W.K. Yeo, P.B. Koon, C.Y. Tsin, M.I. Mohamad, A.H.A. Rahman, C.L. Ming, R.A. Talib, M.R. Shahril ...

  19. 78 FR 24422 - Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Nutrition; Correction AGENCY: Office of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, Office of..., Sports, and Nutrition that will be held on May 7, 2013, from 10:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., at the Department... Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition. Phone: (240) 276-9866 or (240) 276-9567. Correction In the...

  20. 78 FR 21606 - Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Nutrition AGENCY: Office of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, Office of the.... Shellie Pfohl, Executive Director, President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, 1101 Wootton...; federal, state, and local physical activity; fitness, sports participation, and nutrition initiatives; and...

  1. 76 FR 25694 - Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Nutrition; Correction AGENCY: Office of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, Office of..., Sports, and Nutrition that will be held on May 10, 2011, from 11 a.m. to 2:30 p.m., in the U.S. Capitol... Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, Phone: (240) 276-9866 or (240) 276-9567. Correction In the Federal...

  2. Do current sports nutrition guidelines conflict with good oral health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, Elizabeth M; Rye, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    For optimal athletic performance, an athlete requires good oral health to reduce the risk of oral pain, inflammation, and infection and thereby minimize the use of analgesics and antimicrobial agents. Increased intake, frequency, and dental contact time of carbohydrate-rich foods, sports nutrition products, and acidic carbohydrate-containing sports and energy drinks may contribute to risks of dental erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal conditions in the athlete, especially when he or she also exhibits dehydration and poor oral hygiene habits. Examining the athlete before he or she begins participating in a sport allows the dental care provider to determine the patient's existing oral health, hygiene, and susceptibility to risk factors for erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal disease. This oral profile, in conjunction with the individual athlete's dietary needs, can be used to establish a treatment and preventive program, including oral health education. Good oral hygiene practices and application of topical fluoride, especially via fluoridated toothpastes and topical fluoride varnishes, must be available to the athlete. Rinsing with water or a neutral beverage after exposure to carbohydrates or acidic sports nutrition products may reduce carbohydrate contact time and bring oral pH levels back to neutral more quickly, reducing the risk of caries and erosion. Finally, the dentist should encourage the athlete to consult with an experienced sports dietitian to ensure that principles of sports nutrition are being appropriately applied for the type, frequency, and duration of exercise in consideration of the individual's oral health needs.

  3. Should nutritional supplements and sports drinks companies sponsor sport? A short review of the ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Simon M; Stewart, Bob

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes that the sponsorship of sport by nutritional supplements and sport drinks companies should be re-examined in the light of ethical concerns about the closeness of this relationship. A short overview is provided of the sponsorship of sport, arguing that ethical concerns about its appropriateness remain despite the imposition of severe restrictions on tobacco sponsorship. Further, the paper examines the main concerns about supplement use and sports drinks with respect to efficacy, health and the risks of doping. Particular consideration is given to the health implications of these concerns. It is suggested that they, of themselves, do not warrant the restriction of sponsorship by companies producing supplements and sports drinks. Nevertheless, it is argued that sports sponsorship does warrant further ethical examination--above and beyond that afforded to other sponsors of sport--as sport sponsorship is integral to the perceived need for such products. In conclusion, it is argued that sport may have found itself lending unwarranted credibility to products which would otherwise not necessarily be seen as beneficial for participation in sports and exercise or as inherently healthy products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Research on the Development Route of Internationalization Brand of Sports Nutrition Food

    OpenAIRE

    Haifang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it takes the interpretation of internationalization brand of sports nutrition food as the cutting point, by means of explaining the difficulties that Chinese sports nutrition food brand encountered at the present stage to explore the route of realizing the internationalization brand of sports nutrition food. With the rapid development of Chinese economic growth, the brand of Chinese sports nutrition food is also facing the fierce global market competition.

  5. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  6. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) Conference and Expo

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaswamy, Lalitha; Velraja, Supriya; Escalante, Guillermo; Harvey, Phil; Alencar, Michelle; Haddock, Bryan; Harvey, Phil; Escalante, Guillermo; Alencar, Michelle; Haddock, Bryan; Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Jeszka, Jan; Zawieja, Bogna; Podg?rski, Tomasz; Trussardi Fayh, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents P1 Impact of antioxidant-enriched nutrient bar supplementation on the serum antioxidant markers and physical fitness components of track and field athletes Lalitha Ramaswamy, Supriya Velraja P2 The effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on fitness levels in resistance trained women Guillermo Escalante, Phil Harvey, Michelle Alencar, Bryan Haddock P3 The effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in resistance trained men Phil Harvey, Gu...

  7. Sport nutrition: A review of the latest guidelines for exercise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport nutrition: A review of the latest guidelines for exercise and sport nutrition from the American College of Sport Nutrition, the International Olympic Committee ... Habitual carbohydrate intake is essential for physically active individuals and should be timed according to training sessions to ensure optimal pre-, during, and ...

  8. 77 FR 71003 - Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition AGENCY: President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, Office of the Assistant Secretary... Director, President's Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition. [FR Doc. 2012-28781 Filed 11-27-12; 8:45 am...

  9. 77 FR 24495 - Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition. The meeting was scheduled to be held at 200 Independence Avenue... CONTACT: Ms. Shellie Pfohl, Executive Director, President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition... 16, 2012. Shellie Y. Pfohl, Executive Director, President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition...

  10. 77 FR 22321 - Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Secretary for Health, Office of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition. ACTION: Notice of..., Executive Director, President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, Tower Building, 1101 Wootton... President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports to be expanded to recognize that good nutrition goes hand...

  11. 76 FR 22397 - Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Secretary for Health, Office of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition. ACTION: Notice of... Pfohl, Executive Director, President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, Tower Building, 1101... nutrition goes hand in hand with fitness and sports participation. Executive Order 13545 gives authority for...

  12. Nutrition, Illness, and Injury in Aquatic Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyne, D.B.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Mountjoy, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of

  13. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  14. Effect of Government Regulation on the Evolution of Sports Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rick; Kalman, Douglas

    The sports nutrition segment of the dietary supplement industry enjoyed nearly a decade of unfettered growth under federal legislation passed in 1994. A series of breakthroughs in the dietary supplement field led to the development and marketing of innovative products designed to enhance performance, build muscle, or lose excess fat. As the popularity of these products soared and evolved into a multi-billion dollar industry, the sports nutrition supplement market drew the attention of federal and state regulatory bodies and sports antidoping authorities. Growing concerns over potential health risks and unfair athletic advantages have spurred government regulators and legislators to heighten the scrutiny of this market, leading to recent legislative amendments and increased government enforcement action.

  15. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9

  16. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED or energy shots (ES. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and

  17. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin; La Bounty, Paul; Taylor, Lem; Nelson, Mike T; Greenwood, Mike; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Schmitz, Stephen; Collins, Rick; Kalman, Doug S; Antonio, Jose; Kreider, Richard B

    2013-01-03

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9

  18. Food for Sport. Berkeley Series in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Knowledge in nutrition and exercise physiology has reached a level where dietary recommendations can be made for particular needs of particular athletes. This book is written for active people of any age, male or female, casual participant, amateur or professional, and for those dealing with athletes--dieticians, coaches, trainers, and parents.…

  19. International society of sports nutrition position stand: nutrient timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerksick, Chad M; Arent, Shawn; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Stout, Jeffrey R; Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem; Kalman, Doug; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Kreider, Richard B; Willoughby, Darryn; Arciero, Paul J; VanDusseldorp, Trisha A; Ormsbee, Michael J; Wildman, Robert; Greenwood, Mike; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Aragon, Alan A; Antonio, Jose

    2017-01-01

    The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise.Endogenous glycogen stores are maximized by following a high-carbohydrate diet (8-12 g of carbohydrate/kg/day [g/kg/day]); moreover, these stores are depleted most by high volume exercise.If rapid restoration of glycogen is required ( 70) glycemic indexthe addition of caffeine (3-8 mg/kg)combining carbohydrates (0.8 g/kg/h) with protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h) Extended (> 60 min) bouts of high intensity (> 70% VO 2 max) exercise challenge fuel supply and fluid regulation, thus carbohydrate should be consumed at a rate of ~30-60 g of carbohydrate/h in a 6-8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (6-12 fluid ounces) every 10-15 min throughout the entire exercise bout, particularly in those exercise bouts that span beyond 70 min. When carbohydrate delivery is inadequate, adding protein may help increase performance, ameliorate muscle damage, promote euglycemia and facilitate glycogen re-synthesis.Carbohydrate ingestion throughout resistance exercise (e.g., 3-6 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum [RM] using multiple exercises targeting all major muscle groups) has been shown to promote euglycemia and higher glycogen stores. Consuming carbohydrate solely or in combination with protein during resistance exercise increases muscle glycogen stores, ameliorates muscle damage, and facilitates greater acute and

  20. Sports Nutrition Knowledge among Mid-Major Division I University Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ashley; Boyd, Joni M.; Bowers, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes' sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males) from baseball, softball, men's soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%). The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes' inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors. PMID:27872757

  1. Sports Nutrition Knowledge among Mid-Major Division I University Student-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Andrews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes’ sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males from baseball, softball, men’s soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%. The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%. Only 12 student-athletes achieved adequate sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes’ inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors.

  2. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo

    2014-08-01

    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

  3. 78 FR 26370 - Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition on May 7, 2013, from 10:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., at the Department of Health... Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition; Phone: (240) 276-9866 or (240) 276-9567. Correction In the Federal... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and...

  4. Need for and Interest in a Sports Nutrition Mobile Device Application Among Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Krystle E; Downey, Darcy L; McCluskey, Ryan; Rivers, Carley

    2017-02-01

    The majority of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) programs do not have a sports nutritionist, leaving athletes to gather information from resources that vary in reputability. The objective of this study was to identify a need for the development of accessible and reputable resources of nutrition information by assessing the current use of nutrition information resources, dietary habits, and sports nutrition knowledge among Division I collegiate athletes. Seventy-two athletes across eight sports completed questionnaires concerning nutrition resources used, dietary habits, and sports nutrition knowledge. In addition, interest levels in a mobile device application for delivery of nutrition information and tools were assessed. Primary sources for nutrition information included parents and family, athletic trainers (AT), and the internet/media, and athletes felt most comfortable discussing nutrition with parents and family, ATs, and strength and conditioning specialists. Performance on a sports nutrition knowledge questionnaire indicated a general lack of nutrition knowledge, and the high frequency of "unsure" responses suggested a lack of confidence in nutrition knowledge. Athletes conveyed a high likelihood that they would use a mobile device application as a nutrition resource, but were more interested in access to nutrition topics than tools such as a food log. We found that college athletes possess minimal sports nutrition knowledge, obtain nutrition information from nonprofessional resources, and were interested in utilizing a mobile device application as a resource. Further research is needed to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of alternative resources, such as a mobile device application, to deliver nutrition information and improve nutrition knowledge.

  5. Ramadan fasting and the goals of sports nutrition around exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; King, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Ramadan fasting, involving abstinence from fluid and food from sunrise to sundown, results in prolonged periods without nutrient intake and inflexibility with the timing of eating and drinking over the day. Dietary choices may also change due to special eating rituals. Although nutrition guidelines are specific to the sport, to the periodized training and competition calendar, and to the individual, many promote the consumption of carbohydrate and fluid before and during exercise, and consumption of protein, carbohydrate, and fluids soon after the session is completed. Failing to meet overall nutritional needs, or to provide specific nutritional support to a session of exercise, is likely to impair acute performance and reduce the effectiveness of training or recovery. Muslim athletes who fast during Ramadan should use overnight opportunities to consume foods and drinks that can supply the nutrients needed to promote performance, adaptation, and recovery in their sports. Because of the benefits of being able to consume at least some of these nutrients before, during or after an exercise session, the schedule of exercise should be shifted where possible to the beginning or end of the day, or during the evening when some nutritional support can be provided.

  6. Evaluation of Sports Nutrition Knowledge and Recommendations Among High School Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Steven; Lamarche, Benoit; Morissette, Eliane; Provencher, Veronique; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Drapeau, Vicky

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate high school coaches' knowledge in sports nutrition and the nutritional practices they recommend to their athletes. Forty-seven high school coaches in "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports from the greater region of Quebec (women = 44.7%) completed a questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and practices. "Leanness sports" were defined as sports where leanness or/and low bodyweight were considered important (e.g., cheerleading, swimming and gymnastics), and "non-leanness sports" were defined as sports where these factors are less important (e.g., football). Participants obtained a total mean score of 68.4% for the nutrition knowledge part of the questionnaire. More specifically, less than 30% of the coaches could answer correctly some general nutrition questions regarding carbohydrates and lipids. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge was observed between coaches from "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports or between men and women. Respondents with a university education scored higher than the others (73.3% vs. 63.3%, p nutrition used by coaches was the Internet at 55%. The two most popular nutrition practices that coaches recommended to improve athlete performance were hydration and consumption of protein-rich foods. Recommendation for nutritional supplements use was extremely rare and was suggested only by football coaches, a nonleanness sport. Findings from this study indicate that coaches need sports nutrition education and specific training.

  7. The mainstreaming of sports nutrition consumption in the Norwegian food culture

    OpenAIRE

    Skuland, Silje Elisabeth; Ånestad, Siv Elin

    2013-01-01

    In modern Norwegian food culture eating to achieve physical performance and muscular strength is a growing phenomenon. The market for sports nutrition products has increased and a range of new market actors and sales channels have appeared. In this article we will discuss why consumption of such products has become normalised and mainstream. To explore this question we investigate consumer motives and purposes of consuming sports nutrition products. Sport nutrition consumption has become legi...

  8. Nutrition considerations in special environments for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Pyne, David B; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Elite athletes who compete in aquatic sports face the constant challenge of arduous training and competition schedules in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The huge range of water temperatures to which swimmers and other aquatic athletes are often exposed (16-31 °C for open-water swimming), coupled with altered aquatic thermoregulatory responses as compared with terrestrial athletes, can challenge the health, safety, and performance of these athletes. Other environmental concerns include air and water pollution, altitude, and jetlag and travel fatigue. However, these challenging environments provide the potential for several nutritional interventions that can mitigate the negative effects and enhance adaptation and performance. These interventions include providing adequate hydration and carbohydrate and iron intake while at altitude; optimizing body composition and fluid and carbohydrate intake when training or competing in varying water temperatures; and maximizing fluid and food hygiene when traveling. There is also emerging information on nutritional interventions to manage jetlag and travel fatigue, such as the timing of food intake and the strategic use of caffeine or melatonin. Aquatic athletes often undertake their major global competitions where accommodations feature cafeteria-style buffet eating. These environments can often lead to inappropriate choices in the type and quantity of food intake, which is of particular concern to divers and synchronized swimmers who compete in physique-specific sports, as well as swimmers who have a vastly reduced energy expenditure during their taper. Taken together, planned nutrition and hydration interventions can have a favorable impact on aquatic athletes facing varying environmental challenges.

  9. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Richard B; Kalman, Douglas S; Antonio, Jose; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Wildman, Robert; Collins, Rick; Candow, Darren G; Kleiner, Susan M; Almada, Anthony L; Lopez, Hector L

    2017-01-01

    Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection. Additionally, a number of clinical applications of creatine supplementation have been studied involving neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., muscular dystrophy, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease), diabetes, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, aging, brain and heart ischemia, adolescent depression, and pregnancy. These studies provide a large body of evidence that creatine can not only improve exercise performance, but can play a role in preventing and/or reducing the severity of injury, enhancing rehabilitation from injuries, and helping athletes tolerate heavy training loads. Additionally, researchers have identified a number of potentially beneficial clinical uses of creatine supplementation. These studies show that short and long-term supplementation (up to 30 g/day for 5 years) is safe and well-tolerated in healthy individuals and in a number of patient populations ranging from infants to the elderly. Moreover, significant health benefits may be provided by ensuring habitual low dietary creatine ingestion (e.g., 3 g/day) throughout the lifespan. The purpose of this review is to provide an update to the current literature regarding the role and safety of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine and to update the position stand of International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN).

  10. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies.

  11. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Ralf; Kerksick, Chad M; Campbell, Bill I; Cribb, Paul J; Wells, Shawn D; Skwiat, Tim M; Purpura, Martin; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Ferrando, Arny A; Arent, Shawn M; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Stout, Jeffrey R; Arciero, Paul J; Ormsbee, Michael J; Taylor, Lem W; Wilborn, Colin D; Kalman, Doug S; Kreider, Richard B; Willoughby, Darryn S; Hoffman, Jay R; Krzykowski, Jamie L; Antonio, Jose

    2017-01-01

    The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1.4-2.0 g protein/kg body weight/day (g/kg/d) is sufficient for most exercising individuals, a value that falls in line within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range published by the Institute of Medicine for protein.Higher protein intakes (2.3-3.1 g/kg/d) may be needed to maximize the retention of lean body mass in resistance-trained subjects during hypocaloric periods.There is novel evidence that suggests higher protein intakes (>3.0 g/kg/d) may have positive effects on body composition in resistance-trained individuals (i.e., promote loss of fat mass).Recommendations regarding the optimal protein intake per serving for athletes to maximize MPS are mixed and are dependent upon age and recent resistance exercise stimuli. General recommendations are 0.25 g of a high-quality protein per kg of body weight, or an absolute dose of 20-40 g.Acute protein doses should strive to contain 700-3000 mg of leucine and/or a higher relative leucine content, in addition to a balanced array of the essential amino acids (EAAs).These protein doses should ideally be evenly distributed, every 3-4 h, across the day.The optimal time period during which to ingest protein is likely a matter of individual tolerance, since benefits are derived from pre- or post-workout ingestion; however, the anabolic effect of exercise is long-lasting (at least 24 h), but likely

  12. Sport nutrition: A review of the latest guidelines for exercise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... Sport nutrition has been well documented as being an invaluable tool to be used in any athlete's training and competition programme. It is the single most complementary factor to any physically active individual or elite athlete. The task of reviewing sport nutrition guidelines has been simplified by the recent ...

  13. 78 FR 56233 - National Foundation on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition Establishment Act; Delegation of Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary National Foundation on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition Establishment Act; Delegation of Authority; Office of the Assistant Secretary for... Section 5 of the National Foundation on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition Establishment Act, Public Law 111...

  14. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Andrew Landreth, Stacey Beam, Taylor Jones, Layne Norton, Jason Michael Cholewa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal, carbohydrate (CHO, protein (PRO, fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg. FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec. Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.

  15. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.

  16. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  17. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2011-01-01

    Endurance sports are increasing in popularity and athletes at all levels are looking for ways to optimize their performance by training and nutrition. For endurance exercise lasting 30 min or more, the most likely contributors to fatigue are dehydration and carbohydrate depletion, whereas gastrointestinal problems, hyperthermia, and hyponatraemia can reduce endurance exercise performance and are potentially health threatening, especially in longer events (>4 h). Although high muscle glycogen concentrations at the start may be beneficial for endurance exercise, this does not necessarily have to be achieved by the traditional supercompensation protocol. An individualized nutritional strategy can be developed that aims to deliver carbohydrate to the working muscle at a rate that is dependent on the absolute exercise intensity as well as the duration of the event. Endurance athletes should attempt to minimize dehydration and limit body mass losses through sweating to 2-3% of body mass. Gastrointestinal problems occur frequently, especially in long-distance races. Problems seem to be highly individual and perhaps genetically determined but may also be related to the intake of highly concentrated carbohydrate solutions, hyperosmotic drinks, as well as the intake of fibre, fat, and protein. Hyponatraemia has occasionally been reported, especially among slower competitors with very high intakes of water or other low sodium drinks. Here I provide a comprehensive overview of recent research findings and suggest several new guidelines for the endurance athlete on the basis of this. These guidelines are more detailed and allow a more individualized approach.

  19. A nutritional evaluation of dietary behaviour in various professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilis, Karol; Michalski, Cezary; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna; Jelonek, Jakub; Kaczmarzyk, Agata; Pilis, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    The types of physical exertion undertaken by weightlifters and race walkers markedly differ. This difference should also be reflected in their respective diets. The aim of the study was to investigate and assess the diets of professional weightlifters and race walkers, along with a comparison to the diets of those students studying physical education (PE). Materials and Methods. Subjects were respectively 12 weightlifters, 12 race walkers and 12 physical education students whose body composition and nutrition were determined by weighing the foods that were both eaten and drunk. The study groups showed body differences, which may have arisen through dietary differences. Higher calorie diets were observed for race walkers according to body mass whilst weightlifters showed no difference with the other groups. Dietary intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrates were however inappropriate for all groups. Vitamin and mineral intakes in weightlifters and students were within tolerable limits, but the rather aggressive taking of supplements by race walkers resulted in standard/recommended consumption levels being greatly exceeded in some cases. The diets of the study groups of weightlifters and race walkers need to be corrected. nutrition in sport, weightlifting, race walking, food supplementation.

  20. Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors and Beliefs of High School Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M; Patton-Lopez, Megan M; Meng, Yu; Wong, Siew Sun

    2017-04-01

    For adolescent athletes (14-18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players ( n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos ( p Breakfast consumption was 57%; females ate breakfast less (50%) than males (60%; p breakfast less (47%) than non-NSLP (62%; p performance.

  1. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jacob M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB as a nutritional supplement. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. HMB can be used to enhance recovery by attenuating exercise induced skeletal muscle damage in trained and untrained populations. 2. If consuming HMB, an athlete will benefit from consuming the supplement in close proximity to their workout. 3. HMB appears to be most effective when consumed for 2 weeks prior to an exercise bout. 4. Thirty-eight mg·kg·BM-1 daily of HMB has been demonstrated to enhance skeletal muscle hypertrophy, strength, and power in untrained and trained populations when the appropriate exercise prescription is utilized. 5. Currently, two forms of HMB have been used: Calcium HMB (HMB-Ca and a free acid form of HMB (HMB-FA. HMB-FA may increase plasma absorption and retention of HMB to a greater extent than HMB-CA. However, research with HMB-FA is in its infancy, and there is not enough research to support whether one form is superior. 6. HMB has been demonstrated to increase LBM and functionality in elderly, sedentary populations. 7. HMB ingestion in conjunction with a structured exercise program may result in greater declines in fat mass (FM. 8. HMB’s mechanisms of action include an inhibition and increase of proteolysis and protein synthesis, respectively. 9. Chronic consumption of HMB is safe in both young and old populations.

  2. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) as a nutritional supplement. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. HMB can be used to enhance recovery by attenuating exercise induced skeletal muscle damage in trained and untrained populations. 2. If consuming HMB, an athlete will benefit from consuming the supplement in close proximity to their workout. 3. HMB appears to be most effective when consumed for 2 weeks prior to an exercise bout. 4. Thirty-eight mg·kg·BM-1 daily of HMB has been demonstrated to enhance skeletal muscle hypertrophy, strength, and power in untrained and trained populations when the appropriate exercise prescription is utilized. 5. Currently, two forms of HMB have been used: Calcium HMB (HMB-Ca) and a free acid form of HMB (HMB-FA). HMB-FA may increase plasma absorption and retention of HMB to a greater extent than HMB-CA. However, research with HMB-FA is in its infancy, and there is not enough research to support whether one form is superior. 6. HMB has been demonstrated to increase LBM and functionality in elderly, sedentary populations. 7. HMB ingestion in conjunction with a structured exercise program may result in greater declines in fat mass (FM). 8. HMB’s mechanisms of action include an inhibition and increase of proteolysis and protein synthesis, respectively. 9. Chronic consumption of HMB is safe in both young and old populations. PMID:23374455

  3. Advances in sports nutrition, exercise and medicine: Olympic issues, the legacy and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Carmont, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the run up to the London 2012 Olympics, this editorial introduces the cross-journal article collection Advances in Sports Nutrition, Exercise and Medicine http://www.biomedcentral.com/series/asnem

  4. Creatine and creatine forms intended for sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Susanne; Ziegenhagen, Rainer; Trefflich, Iris; Pevny, Sophie; Schultrich, Katharina; Braun, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen Ildico; Schäfer, Bernd; Lampen, Alfonso

    2017-06-01

    Creatine is a popular ergogenic supplement in sports nutrition. Yet, supplementation of creatine occasionally caused adverse effects such as gastrointestinal complaints, muscle cramps and an increase in body weight. Creatine monohydrate has already been evaluated by different competent authorities and several have come to the conclusion that a daily intake of 3 g creatine per person is unlikely to pose safety concerns, focusing on healthy adults with exclusion of pregnant and breastfeeding women. Possible vulnerable subgroups were also discussed in relation to the safety of creatine. The present review provides an up-to-date overview of the relevant information with special focus on human studies regarding the safety of creatine monohydrate and other marketed creatine forms, in particular creatine pyruvate, creatine citrate, creatine malate, creatine taurinate, creatine phosphate, creatine orotate, creatine ethyl ester, creatine pyroglutamate, creatine gluconate, and magnesium creatine chelate. Limited data are available with regard to the safety of the latter creatine forms. Considering an acceptable creatine intake of 3 g per day, most of the evaluated creatine forms are unlikely to pose safety concerns, however some safety concerns regarding a supplementary intake of creatine orotate, creatine phosphate, and magnesium creatine chelate are discussed here. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Beyond sports nutrition: the diverse role of dietitians at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, S J; Pelly, F E

    2014-12-01

    Although registered sports dietitians commonly assist athletes with training and competition nutrition advice, an emerging area of practice is focused around food provision and nutrition support provided at major competition events. The present study aimed, first, to identify the dietetic skills and scope of practice that dietitians may require to work in this environment as determined by the occasions of service provided by dietitians at a nutrition kiosk located in the dining hall at a major competition event and, second, to investigate athletes' opinion and usage of the nutrition services and the association with their type of sport and previous source of nutrition information. Dietitians based at a nutrition kiosk recorded all enquiries (n = 383) and consultations (n = 60) from 23 September to 14 October 2010. A questionnaire was also distributed to athletes in the main dining hall over this period to investigate their opinion and use of nutrition support, as well as their previous source of nutrition information. Although athletes from Western regions made up the majority of the enquiries regarding food provision and special/therapeutic dietary requirements (predominately food allergy and intolerance), athletes from non-Western regions, and those in weight category sports, had more sports nutrition enquiries and were more likely to request a consultation. A number of athletes (32%) reported no previous or one source of nutrition information, whereas only eight of 52 athletes who requested a consultation had prior nutrition assistance. In addition to sport nutrition knowledge and experience, dietitians working in this environment are likely to require an understanding of cultural eating styles, food beliefs and customs, large-scale food service operation, and local food availability. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Sports Nutrition: A Modern Approach to Teaching Foods in High School Home Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Sheryl

    1991-01-01

    In a program designed to couple the awareness of the relationship between nutrition and physical activity, the principles of nutrition were tailored to individual athletes, and students were encouraged to develop a diet that adheres to U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines as modified for body type, activity level, and sport. (JOW)

  7. Sports nutrition knowledge among collegiate athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and strength and conditioning specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Pritchett, Kelly L; Zippel, Deborah; Minton, Dawn M; Cellamare, Adam; Sibilia, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Coaches, athletic trainers (ATs), strength and conditioning specialists (SCSs), and registered dietitians are common nutrition resources for athletes, but coaches, ATs, and SCSs might offer only limited nutrition information. Little research exists about sports nutrition knowledge and current available resources for nutrition information for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. To identify resources of nutrition information that athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs use; to examine nutrition knowledge among athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs; and to determine confidence levels in the correctness of nutrition knowledge questions within all groups. Cross-sectional study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions across the United States. The 579 participants consisted of athletes (n = 185), coaches (n = 131), ATs (n = 192), and SCSs (n = 71). Participants answered questions about nutrition resources and domains regarding basic nutrition, supplements and performance, weight management, and hydration. Adequate sports nutrition knowledge was defined as an overall score of 75% in all domains (highest achievable score was 100%). Participants averaged 68.5% in all domains. The ATs (77.8%) and SCSs (81.6%) had the highest average scores. Adequate knowledge was found in 35.9% of coaches, 71.4% of ATs, 83.1% of SCSs, and only 9% of athletes. The most used nutrition resources for coaches, ATs, and SCSs were registered dietitians. Overall, we demonstrated that ATs and SCSs have adequate sports nutrition knowledge, whereas most coaches and athletes have inadequate knowledge. Athletes have frequent contact with ATs and SCSs; therefore, proper nutrition education among these staff members is critical. We suggest that proper nutrition programming should be provided for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. However, a separate nutrition program should be integrated for ATs and SCSs. This integrative approach is beneficial for the continuity of care, as both

  8. Exploring General and Sports Nutrition and Food Knowledge in Elite Male Australian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4 ± 10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9 ± 3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and teammates as second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes, respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood; however, gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement.

  9. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Erica R; Ziegenfuss, Tim; Kalman, Doug; Kreider, Richard; Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin; Taylor, Lem; Willoughby, Darryn; Stout, Jeff; Graves, B Sue; Wildman, Robert; Ivy, John L; Spano, Marie; Smith, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Position Statement: The position of The Society regarding caffeine supplementation and sport performance is summarized by the following seven points: 1.) Caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg) and overall does not result in further enhancement in performance when consumed in higher dosages (≥ 9 mg/kg). 2.) Caffeine exerts a greater ergogenic effect when consumed in an anhydrous state as compared ...

  10. Dietary Intake, Body Composition, and Nutrition Knowledge of Australian Football and Soccer Players: Implications for Sports Nutrition Professionals in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hr recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and subelite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, subelite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and subelite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > .05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r 2 = .051, p = .039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.

  11. Sports Nutrition and Doping Factors in Synchronized Swimming: Parallel Analysis among Athletes and Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Furjan Mandic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although nutrition and doping are important factors in sports, neither is often investigated in synchronized swimming (Synchro.This study aimed to define and compare Synchro athletes and their coaches on their knowledge of sports nutrition (KSNand knowledge of doping (KD; and to study factors related to KSN and KD in each of these groups. Additionally, the KSNand KD questionnaires were evaluated for their reliability and validity. Altogether, 82 athletes (17.2 ± 1.92 years of age and 28 coaches (30.8 ± 5.26 years of age from Croatia and Serbia were included in the study, with a 99% response rate. The testand retest correlations were 0.94 and 0.90 for the KD and KSN,respectively. Subjects responded equally to 91% queries of the KD and 89% queries of the KSN. Although most of the coache sare highly educated, they declared self-education as the primary source of information about doping and sport-nutrition. Coaches scored higher than their athletes on both questionnaires which defined appropriate discriminative validity of the questionnaires. Variables such as age, sports experience and formal education are positively correlated to KSN and KD scores among athletes. The athletes who scored better on the KD are less prone to doping behavior in the future. These data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. Special attention should be placed on younger athletes.

  12. SPORT NUTRITION AND DOPING IN TENNIS: AN ANALYSIS OF ATHLETES' ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Kondric

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition and doping issues are rarely studied in the sport of tennis. The aims of this investigation were to determine knowledge on doping (KD and knowledge on sport nutrition (KSN, and corresponding socio-demographic-, sport-, and sport-nutrition- and doping-factors among an international sample of high-level tennis players of both sexes (43 females; 22 years old on average. In the first phase of the investigation, the KSN and KD questionnaires were studied for their reliability and validity. The consumption of NS is found to be very high, with almost of all the females and 80% of the males using NS at least occasionally. The athletes showed a low tendency regarding future doping usage, although most of them are convinced that doping does exist in tennis. Since athletes declared that their coaches are their main source of information about NS and doping, future studies should investigate what coaches actually know about such problems. KSN has been found to be protective against potential doping behavior in the future. Males are found to be more prone to doping than females. Therefore, in order to prevent doping behavior in tennis we strongly suggest intensive educational programs on sports nutrition and doping-related problems

  13. Sports Nutrition Knowledge, Perceptions, Resources, and Advice Given by Certified CrossFit Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie Maxwell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale. Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer’s self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p < 0.01. Conclusion: Nutrition education modules for Level 1 and 2 CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended.

  14. [Diet supplements in nutrition of sport mastery school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Teresa; Sobczak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In Polish society, for some time now, a growing interest in supplementation of the diet has been observed. This problem addresses particularly to sportsmen and physically active persons. It is often due to belief that customary diet does not supply organism with necessary food ingredients. There are also some threats connected with supplementation of the diet. Problems addressed to supplementation of the diet are particularly important for young sportsmen, including students of sport mastery schools. The aim of the study was the evaluation of the diet supplementation used by the students of sport mastery school in Western Pomeranian district. The study was carried out in the group of 76 students, aged 15 to 19, practicing walleyball (girls n = 39) and football (boys n = 37) at the sport mastery school in Police (western Pomeranian district). The interview method has been applied. A significance of differences, for the analysed factor, due to a sport discipline practiced was calculated based on Chi2 (Statistica 9). The results of the study confirmed the students of sport mastery school to supplement their diets. The diet supplementation being more frequent for boys (67.6%) with magnesium (57-64%) noted as the most frequently used supplement, followed with vitamin-mineral agents and L-carnitine. Essential differences were noted for reasons of diet supplementation and sources of information used on supplements between the sport disciplines practiced. It can be stated, based on the obtained results, that for supplementation of the diet among students of sport mastery school in Police is popular, even though there was no previous recognition of its necessity. The most frequent supplements users were football players with magnesium being the most frequently chosen supplement. Based on the above a regular training of sportsmen, including also coaches training young people, on the rational feeding habits would be advisable.

  15. Sports Nutrition Knowledge, Perceptions, Resources, and Advice Given by Certified CrossFit Trainers

    OpenAIRE

    Cassie Maxwell; Kyle Ruth; Carol Friesen

    2017-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete sur...

  16. Nutritional Strategies for Women Participating in Competitive/Recreational Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Inza L.; Di Brezzo, Ro

    The preponderance of articles and research on nutrition can be confusing. The active woman over 30 can enhance performance and health with a high-quality diet. Specific nutritional concerns for women after the college years, such as nutrient content, iron, calcium, vitamin supplementation, and caffeine are discussed. Evidence that processed foods…

  17. Evaluation of a Theory-Based Intervention Aimed at Improving Coaches' Recommendations on Sports Nutrition to Their Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Raphaëlle; Lamarche, Benoît; Provencher, Véronique; Laramée, Catherine; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Drapeau, Vicky

    2016-08-01

    Coaches are a major source of nutrition information and influence for young athletes. Yet, most coaches do not have training in nutrition to properly guide their athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at improving the accuracy of coaches' recommendations on sports nutrition. This was a quasi-experimental study with a comparison group and an intervention group. Measurements were made at baseline, post-intervention, and after a 2-month follow-up period. Coaches' recommendations on sports nutrition during the follow-up period were recorded in a diary. High school coaches from various sports (n=41) were randomly assigned to a comparison group or an intervention group. Both groups attended two 90-minute sessions of a theory-based intervention targeting determinants of coaches' intention to provide recommendations on sports nutrition. The intervention group further received an algorithm that summarizes sports nutrition guidelines to help promote decision making on sports nutrition recommendations. Nutrition knowledge and accuracy of coaches' recommendations on sports nutrition. χ(2) analyses and t-tests were used to compare baseline characteristics; mixed and general linear model analyses were used to assess the change in response to the intervention and differences in behaviors, respectively. Coaches in the intervention vs comparison group provided more nutrition recommendations during the 2-month post-intervention period (mean number of recommendations per coach 25.7±22.0 vs 9.4±6.5, respectively; P=0.004) and recommendations had a greater accuracy (mean number of accurate recommendations per coach 22.4±19.9 [87.1%] vs 4.3±3.2 [46.1%], respectively; Psports nutrition knowledge level over time and helped them to provide more accurate recommendations on sports nutrition. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors and Beliefs of High School Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda M. Manore

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For adolescent athletes (14–18 years, data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP participants (80% Latino completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition. The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p < 0.01. Supplement knowledge differed by sex (16% lower in females; p = 0.047 and race/ethnicity (33% lower in Latinos; p < 0.001. Breakfast consumption was 57%; females ate breakfast less (50% than males (60%; p < 0.001; NSLP-participants ate breakfast less (47% than non-NSLP (62%; p < 0.001. Supplement use was 46%, with Latinos using more supplements than Whites do (p = 0.016. Overall, 30% used protein shakes, with females using less than males (p = 0.02, while use was twice as likely in Latino vs. White (p = 0.03. Overall, 45% reported their nutrient requirements were different from non-athlete peers. Latinos were less likely (p = 0.03 to report that their diet met nutritional requirements, but more than twice as likely to report that nutritional supplements were necessary for training (p < 0.001. Adolescent athletes, especially females and Latinos, would benefit from sport nutrition education that enhances food selection skills for health and sport performance.

  19. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  20. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's, and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American College of Sports Medicine, and Dietitians of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Alan A; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Wildman, Robert; Kleiner, Susan; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Taylor, Lem; Earnest, Conrad P; Arciero, Paul J; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Campbell, Bill; Arent, Shawn M; Bannock, Laurent; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit. The higher the baseline body fat level, the more aggressively the caloric deficit may be imposed. Slower rates of weight loss can better preserve lean mass (LM) in leaner subjects. 4) Diets focused primarily on accruing LM are driven by a sustained caloric surplus to facilitate anabolic processes and support increasing resistance-training demands. The composition and magnitude of the surplus, as well as training status of the subjects can influence the nature of the gains. 5) A wide range of dietary approaches (low-fat to low-carbohydrate/ketogenic, and all points between) can be similarly effective for improving body composition. 6) Increasing dietary protein to levels significantly beyond current recommendations for athletic populations may result in improved body composition. Higher protein intakes (2.3-3.1 g/kg FFM) may be required to maximize muscle retention in lean, resistance-trained subjects under hypocaloric conditions. Emerging research on very high protein intakes (>3 g/kg) has demonstrated that the known thermic, satiating, and LM-preserving effects of dietary protein might be amplified in resistance-training subjects. 7) The collective body of intermittent caloric restriction research demonstrates no significant advantage over daily caloric restriction for improving body composition. 8) The long-term success of a diet depends upon compliance and suppression or

  2. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Erica R; Ziegenfuss, Tim; Kalman, Doug; Kreider, Richard; Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin; Taylor, Lem; Willoughby, Darryn; Stout, Jeff; Graves, B Sue; Wildman, Robert; Ivy, John L; Spano, Marie; Smith, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2010-01-27

    Position Statement: The position of The Society regarding caffeine supplementation and sport performance is summarized by the following seven points: 1.) Caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg) and overall does not result in further enhancement in performance when consumed in higher dosages (>/= 9 mg/kg). 2.) Caffeine exerts a greater ergogenic effect when consumed in an anhydrous state as compared to coffee. 3.) It has been shown that caffeine can enhance vigilance during bouts of extended exhaustive exercise, as well as periods of sustained sleep deprivation. 4.) Caffeine is ergogenic for sustained maximal endurance exercise, and has been shown to be highly effective for time-trial performance. 5.) Caffeine supplementation is beneficial for high-intensity exercise, including team sports such as soccer and rugby, both of which are categorized by intermittent activity within a period of prolonged duration. 6.) The literature is equivocal when considering the effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance, and additional research in this area is warranted. 7.) The scientific literature does not support caffeine-induced diuresis during exercise, or any harmful change in fluid balance that would negatively affect performance.

  3. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildman Robert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: The position of The Society regarding caffeine supplementation and sport performance is summarized by the following seven points: 1. Caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg and overall does not result in further enhancement in performance when consumed in higher dosages (≥ 9 mg/kg. 2. Caffeine exerts a greater ergogenic effect when consumed in an anhydrous state as compared to coffee. 3. It has been shown that caffeine can enhance vigilance during bouts of extended exhaustive exercise, as well as periods of sustained sleep deprivation. 4. Caffeine is ergogenic for sustained maximal endurance exercise, and has been shown to be highly effective for time-trial performance. 5. Caffeine supplementation is beneficial for high-intensity exercise, including team sports such as soccer and rugby, both of which are categorized by intermittent activity within a period of prolonged duration. 6. The literature is equivocal when considering the effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance, and additional research in this area is warranted. 7. The scientific literature does not support caffeine-induced diuresis during exercise, or any harmful change in fluid balance that would negatively affect performance.

  4. Academy of nutrition and dietetics: revised 2014 standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in sports nutrition and dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmuller, Patricia L; Kruskall, Laura J; Karpinski, Christine A; Manore, Melinda M; Macedonio, Michele A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2014-04-01

    Sports nutrition and dietetics addresses relationships of nutrition with physical activity, including weight management, exercise, and physical performance. Nutrition plays a key role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and for maintenance of health, and the ability to engage in physical activity, sports, and other aspects of physical performance. Thus, the Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance as a resource for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sports nutrition and dietetics to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this emerging practice area. The revised document reflects advances in sports nutrition and dietetics practice since the original standards were published in 2009 and replaces those standards. The Standards of Practice represents the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance covers six standards of professional performance: quality in practice, competence and accountability, provision of services, application of research, communication and application of knowledge, and utilization and management of resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standards can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sports nutrition and dietetics. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists in sports nutrition and dietetics practice. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc

  5. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  6. Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: sprinting, weightlifting, throwing events, and bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Gary; Phillips, Stuart M

    2011-01-01

    Strength and power athletes are primarily interested in enhancing power relative to body weight and thus almost all undertake some form of resistance training. While athletes may periodically attempt to promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy, key nutritional issues are broader than those pertinent to hypertrophy and include an appreciation of the sports supplement industry, the strategic timing of nutrient intake to maximize fuelling and recovery objectives, plus achievement of pre-competition body mass requirements. Total energy and macronutrient intakes of strength-power athletes are generally high but intakes tend to be unremarkable when expressed relative to body mass. Greater insight into optimization of dietary intake to achieve nutrition-related goals would be achieved from assessment of nutrient distribution over the day, especially intake before, during, and after exercise. This information is not readily available on strength-power athletes and research is warranted. There is a general void of scientific investigation relating specifically to this unique group of athletes. Until this is resolved, sports nutrition recommendations for strength-power athletes should be directed at the individual athlete, focusing on their specific nutrition-related goals, with an emphasis on the nutritional support of training.

  7. Iron deficiency anemia in sports and preventive dietetic and nutrition interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia in athletes is a very common condition that leads to reduced physical performance. Athletes are susceptible of falling iron deposits, mainly by an increase in its use, by its loss, or by insufficient intake. The present review aims to establish the basis of current knowledge environment: sports-athletes who have increased risk of anemia, etiology of iron deficiency anemia in the sporting group, providing dietary and nutritional guidelines for its prevention. The databases searched were Pubmed, Scirus and Scielo, as well as the official pages of prestigious organizations, recovering items by keywords: “iron-deficiency anemia”, “sports”, “athletic performance”, “iron intake “or Spanish counterparts. Iron deficiency anemia affects mainly endurance athletes (especially women and marathon and the members of team sports with high impact (volleyball and handball. Usually secondary anemias from hemolysis and oxidative stress resulting from the practice of sport, but it cases have also been documented by increased iron losses associated with exercise. Dietary and nutritional practices to prevent iron deficiency anemia in athletes should aim to ensure: carbohydrate intake between 60-65% of total energy daily minimum intake of 1.4 g of protein per day and a consumption of 20-40 mg iron daily, separating the intake of the main absorption inhibitors (phytate, tanetos and calcium. You need assessed by analytical iron status of the athlete every 2-3 months.

  8. Alcohol Drinking and Low Nutritional Value Food Eating Behavior of Sports Bettors in Gambling Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Hibai; Estévez, Ana; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of sports betting advertising has become a major concern for gambling regulators, particularly since the legalization of online gambling in many European jurisdictions. Although the composition of gambling advertisement narratives has received some limited attention, nothing is known regarding how betting advertisements (often referred to as "adverts" or "commercials") might be associating gambling with other potentially risky behaviors. The present paper examines the representation of alcohol drinking and low nutritional value food eating in sports betting advertising. By means of a mixed-methods approach to content analysis, a sample of British and Spanish soccer betting adverts was analyzed ( N  = 135). The results suggest that betting advertising aligns drinking alcohol with sports culture and significantly associates emotionally charged sporting situations such as watching live games or celebrating goals with alcohol. Additionally, alcohol drinking is more frequent in betting adverts with a higher number of characters, linking friendship bonding and alcohol drinking (especially beer) in the context of sports gambling.

  9. Evaluation of food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic Games: the opinion of sports nutrition experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni; Burkhart, Sarah J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of post-competition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.

  10. The nutrition for sport knowledge questionnaire (NSKQ): development and validation using classical test theory and Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate dietary intake can have a significant influence on athletic performance. There is a growing consensus on sports nutrition and professionals working with athletes often provide dietary education. However, due to the limitations of existing sports nutrition knowledge questionnaires, previous reports of athletes' nutrition knowledge may be inaccurate. An updated questionnaire has been developed based on a recent review of sports nutrition guidelines. The tool has been validated using a robust methodology that incorporates relevant techniques from classical test theory (CTT) and Item response theory (IRT), namely, Rasch analysis. The final questionnaire has 89 questions and six sub-sections (weight management, macronutrients, micronutrients, sports nutrition, supplements, and alcohol). The content and face validity of the tool have been confirmed based on feedback from expert sports dietitians and university sports students, respectively. The internal reliability of the questionnaire as a whole is high (KR = 0.88), and most sub-sections achieved an acceptable internal reliability. Construct validity has been confirmed, with an independent T-test revealing a significant ( p  < 0.001) difference in knowledge scores of nutrition (64 ± 16%) and non-nutrition students (51 ± 19%). Test-retest reliability has been assured, with a strong correlation ( r  = 0.92, p  < 0.001) between individuals' scores on two attempts of the test, 10 days to 2 weeks apart. Three of the sub-sections fit the Rasch Unidimensional Model. The final version of the questionnaire represents a significant improvement over previous tools. Each nutrition sub-section is unidimensional, and therefore researchers and practitioners can use these individually, as required. Use of the questionnaire will allow researchers to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of nutrition education programs, and differences in knowledge across athletes of varying ages, genders, and athletic

  11. Relationships between body image, nutritional supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys: implications for prevention programs

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, Zali; O’Dea, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Background Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Methods Participants were 1148 male adolescen...

  12. Estimation of energy and nutritional intake of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    . Almost all subjects had adequate intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin and zinc. The energy value of diet and carbohydrate intake were inadequate to the athletes' requirements. Dietary deficiencies of folate, vitamins C and D, magnesium, calcium and potassium were also observed. There is therefore a need for sports nutrition counselling and education which would help athletes improve their eating habits and health, as well as for optimising their sports training performance.

  13. [Characteristics of Nutrition in Competitive Sports, Ranging from Leisure Activities to High-Performance Athletics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H

    2016-08-01

    Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes. In addition to adequate energy provision, it is important to divide the energy sensibly among the energy sources carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Performance athletes' higher need for protein can usually be covered in their regular diet; supplements are needed only in exceptional cases. Studies have shown that small amounts of 15 - 25 g protein are sensible after weight training, in order to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The need for carbohydrates increases dynamically with the intensity and duration of physical exertion. A sufficient supply is crucial for achieving maximum performance. Low carb diets are unsuitable for performance athletes. So called low-glycogen training, however, can lead to better adjustment/adaptation processes in selected training stages and can increase performance ability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  15. Effects of sports training & nutrition on bone mineral density in young Indian healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Puri, Seema; Tandon, Nikhil; Dhir, Sakshi; Agarwal, Neha; Bhadra, Kuntal; Saini, Namita

    2011-09-01

    Peak bone mass, a major determinant of osteoporosis is influenced by genetic, nutritional, lifestyle and hormonal factors. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of sports training on dietary intake and bone mineral and metabolic parameters in young healthy Indian females. Healthy female college going students (N=186, sportswomen, 90; controls 96) in the age group of 18-21 yr, residing in New Delhi (India) were evaluated for anthropometry, biochemistry (serum total and ionic calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D & parathyroid hormone), diet, physical activity and lifestyle. Bone mineral density (BMD) at hip, forearm and lumbar spine were studied using central DXA. Sports related physical activity (3 vs. 0 h/day, P direct sunlight exposure (120 vs. 30 min/day, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in sportswomen than in controls with sedentary lifestyle. Significantly higher intake of all macronutrients (energy, protein, carbohydrates and fat) and dietary calcium was noted in the diets of sportswomen. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher (53.0 ± 18.9 vs. 12.9 ± 7.7 nmol/l; P < 0.001) while PTH (35.3 ± 17.6 vs. 51.7 ± 44.9 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and ALP levels (194.0 ± 51.0 vs. 222.1 ± 51.4 IU/l; P<0.001) were significantly lower in sportswomen when compared to controls. No significant difference was found in ionized calcium and inorganic phosphorus in the two groups. Significantly higher (P < 0.001) total BMD and BMD at all sites except femur neck were found in sportswomen than controls (P < 0.001). Physical activity, optimal nutrition and adequate sun exposure are vital for attaining peak bone mass.

  16. Validation of a General and Sport Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire in Adolescents and Young Adults: GeSNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Calella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge of nutrition is widely thought to be an important aspect to maintaining a balanced and healthy diet. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new reliable tool to measure the general and the sport nutrition knowledge (GeSNK in people who used to practice sports at different levels. The development of (GeSNK was carried out in six phases as follows: (1 item development and selection by a panel of experts; (2 pilot study in order to assess item difficulty and item discrimination; (3 measurement of the internal consistency; (4 reliability assessment with a 2-week test-retest analysis; (5 concurrent validity was tested by administering the questionnaire along with other two similar tools; (6 construct validity by administering the questionnaire to three groups of young adults with different general nutrition and sport nutrition knowledge. The final questionnaire, consisted of 62 items of the original 183 questions. It is a consistent, valid, and suitable instrument that can be applied over time, making it a promising tool to look at the relationship between nutrition knowledge, demographic characteristics, and dietary behavior in adolescents and young adults.

  17. Relationships between body image, nutritional supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys: implications for prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2014-03-27

    Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Participants were 1148 male adolescents (age range 11-21 years) in Australia who completed a self-report questionnaire that measured weight change behaviors, supplement use, body dissatisfaction (Male Body Attitudes Scale; MBAS) and attitudes towards doping in sport (Performance Enhancing Attitudes Survey; PEAS). There was a positive correlation between MBAS total and PEAS scores (r = .19, p sport. Young men who were currently attempting weight loss or weight gain, and those currently consuming energy drinks (ηp2 = .01, p sport. However, those involved in weight lifting, and using protein powders were not (p > .05). These findings suggest that body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, and supplement use are related to more lenient attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys. Future research might examine whether combining educational content for the prevention of body dissatisfaction and the use of drugs in sport may have a greater preventive impact than current programs aimed at young men.

  18. Body image, nutritional status, abdominal strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents practicing sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Alexandre; Januário, Renata Selvatici B; Casonatto, Juliano; Sonoo, Christi Noriko

    2013-01-01

    To verify the association between nutritional status, physical fitness, and body image in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 401 students (236 boys and 165 girls) aged between 8 and 16 years that were regularly enrolled in sports in the local clubs. The nutritional status was evaluated by the body mass index. Students were assessed for satisfaction with body image, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness. The variables were assessed on the same day following a standardized order. In order to verify relationships between variables, the chi-square test was used. Afterwards, the binary logistic regression was applied to identify the magnitude of the associations, considering p<0.05 as significant. Association was found between body image and body mass index (p=0.001), abdominal strength resistance (p=0.005) and cardiorespiratory fitness (p=0.001). The Odds Ratio for presenting the body image insatisfaction for those who have not achieved the expected values for the health criteria in abdominal strength resistance and cardiorespiratory fitness were 2.14 and 2.42 times respectively, and for those with overweight and obesity, 2.87 times. Insatisfaction with body image is associated with body mass index and also with physical fitness, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness variables.

  19. Sport and Children's Nutrition: What Can We Learn from the Junior Australian Football Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sam; Velardo, Stefania; Drummond, Murray; Drummond, Claire

    2016-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that sport participation inherently enhances health among youth. Such a perception often motivates parents to encourage children's initial and ongoing involvement in organised sport and physical activity. While sport certainly comprises an important vehicle for accruing physical activity, the sport environment may not…

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  1. THE ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR SPORT NUTRITION PRODUCTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH OSSETIA – ALANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Badalyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport nutrition is a relatively new but rather prospective product group of pharmacy organizations range. The article presents the results of the study for consumers’ preferences for this group of products. We conducted the study using the methods of questionnaire and interview. The data obtained can be used by pharmacy organizations for the range formations and advertisement.

  2. Placebo in sports nutrition: a proof-of-principle study involving caffeine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, B; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; de Salles Painelli, V; Gonçalves, L S; Yamaguchi, G; Mutti, T; Maciel, E; Roschel, H; Artioli, G G; Gualano, B

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of supplement identification on exercise performance with caffeine supplementation. Forty-two trained cyclists (age 37 ± 8 years, body mass [BM] 74.3 ± 8.4 kg, height 1.76 ± 0.06 m, maximum oxygen uptake 50.0 ± 6.8 mL/kg/min) performed a ~30 min cycling time-trial 1 h following either 6 mg/kgBM caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) supplementation and one control (CON) session without supplementation. Participants identified which supplement they believed they had ingested ("caffeine", "placebo", "don't know") pre- and post-exercise. Subsequently, participants were allocated to subgroups for analysis according to their identifications. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed using mixed-model and magnitude-based inference analyses. Caffeine improved performance vs PLA and CON (P ≤ 0.001). Correct pre- and post-exercise identification of caffeine in CAF improved exercise performance (+4.8 and +6.5%) vs CON, with slightly greater relative increases than the overall effect of caffeine (+4.1%). Performance was not different between PLA and CON within subgroups (all P > 0.05), although there was a tendency toward improved performance when participants believed they had ingested caffeine post-exercise (P = 0.06; 87% likely beneficial). Participants who correctly identified placebo in PLA showed possible harmful effects on performance compared to CON. Supplement identification appeared to influence exercise outcome and may be a source of bias in sports nutrition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the

  4. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help

  6. Sports Nutrition for the Primary Care Physician: The Importance of Carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Keith B.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between nutrition and fatigue and how carbohydrates and timing of carbohydrate consumption can affect fatigued athletes. Nutrition plays a significant role in successful training and competition. Key concerns are the specific needs of athletes for carbohydrates before, during, and after exercise. (Author/SM)

  7. Evaluation of sports nutrition knowledge of New Zealand premier club rugby coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant; Wall, Clare

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about if and how team coaches disseminate nutrition information to athletes. In a census survey, New Zealand premier rugby coaches (n = 168) completed a psychometrically validated questionnaire, received by either Internet or standard mail (response rate, 46%), identifying their nutrition advice dissemination practices to players, their level of nutrition knowledge, and the factors determining this level of knowledge. The majority of coaches provided advice to their players (83.8%). Coaches responded correctly to 55.6% of all knowledge questions. An independent t-test showed coaches who imparted nutrition advice obtained a significantly greater score, 56.8%, than those not imparting advice, 48.4% (P = 0.008). One-way ANOVA showed significant relationships between total knowledge score of all coaches and qualifications [F(1,166) = 5.28, P = 0.001], own knowledge rating [F(3,164) = 6.88, P = 0.001] and nutrition training [F(1,166) = 9.83, P = 0.002]. We conclude that these rugby coaches were inadequately prepared to impart nutrition advice to athletes and could benefit from further nutrition training.

  8. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins and Minerals Sports Supplements Female Athlete Triad Contact ...

  9. Elite athletes' characteristics in esthetic sports related to body composition, physiology, bone mineral density and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    PEHLİVAN, Çisem; RUDARLI NALÇAKAN, Gülbin; AKTUĞ ERGAN, Semra

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Nutritional deficiencies occur in elite athletes in aesthetic branches who suffer from intensive training programs and strict weight control. Increased disability, the weakening of the immune system, menstrual disorders and increased risk of bone fracture due to abnormal bone mineralization impair the quality of life and threaten the health of athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine body composition, nutrition and hydration status, bone mineral density levels and some physio...

  10. Self-Reported Use and Reasons among the General Population for Using Sports Nutrition Products and Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Wardenaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplements (DS’s and sport nutrition product (SNPs among the general population, to identify differences for gender, age, and exercise frequency, and to determine the main reasons for use. The study was designed as a web-based questionnaire in a representative sample (n = 1544 of the Dutch population. Sixty-two percent (n = 957 of the respondents reported having used DS’s, SNPs, or both in the last twelve months. Women and older people reported the highest DS use. The highest use of SNPs was reported by regular exercising men and younger people with improving sporting performance as their main objective. Most frequently reported DS’s were multivitamins (28% and vitamin C (19%—for SNPs, energy drinks (22% and isotonic drinks (19%. Health considerations were the most important motivation (DS’s 90% and SNPs 52%, but also performance was substantially reported (DS’s 14% and SNPs 35%. A substantial group of sedentary respondents also reported the use of SNPs. This study confirms that DS’s, SNPs, or both are widely used among the general population. Both health as performance are important reasons for use. It can be questioned whether the use of SNPs fits all respondents’ physical activity needs.

  11. "Eat as If You Could Save the Planet and Win!" Sustainability Integration into Nutrition for Exercise and Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nanna; Reguant-Closa, Alba

    2017-04-21

    Today's industrial food production contributes significantly to environmental degradation. Meat production accounts for the largest impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. While food production and consumption are important aspects when addressing climate change, this article focuses predominantly on dietary change that promotes both health for planet and people with focus on athletes. Healthy, sustainable eating recommendations begin to appear in various governmental guidelines. However, there remains resistance to the suggested reductions in meat consumption. While food citizens are likely to choose what is good for them and the planet, others may not, unless healthy eating initiatives integrate creative food literacy approaches with experiential learning as a potential vehicle for change. This concept paper is organized in three sections: (1) Environmental impact of food; (2) health and sustainability connections; and (3) application in sports and exercise. For active individuals, this article focuses on the quantity of protein, highlighting meat and dairy, and quality of food, with topics such as organic production and biodiversity. Finally, the timing of when to integrate sustainability principles in sport nutrition is discussed, followed by practical applications for education and inclusion in team, institutional, and event operations.

  12. [USE, EFFECTS, AND KNOWLEDGE OF THE NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR THE SPORT IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colls Garrido, Christian; Gómez-Urquiza, José Luis; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo Arturo; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    consumption and marketing of supplements that help improve athletic performance has increased in semi-professional sport. Moreover, in the market are increasingly a wide variety of such products pressure and high performance requirements push many young athletes to have recourse to the use of supplements to improve your fitness. However, this type of treatment should be advised and guided by an expert since improper use of such supplements favors the appearance of adverse effects and can be harmful to the health of the individual. to know the use of supplements to improve athletic performance by college athletes methods: was a systematic review in the Pubmed database, care, BIREME CUIDEN, BIREME (IBECS y Scielo) and CINHAL limited to articles published in the last ten years. 25 articles were analyzed. The main themes were found in the literature reviewed have been three: the "levels of supplements to increase athletic performance in college students", "effect of sports supplements" and "knowledge, behaviors and motivations for sports supplements". taking into account that the around 55% of University athletes using supplements but show a lack significant knowledge is necessary to provide a health education on such supplements. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Individualised dietary strategies for Olympic combat sports: Acute weight loss, recovery and competition nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-07-01

    Olympic combat sports separate athletes into weight divisions, in an attempt to reduce size, strength, range and/or leverage disparities between competitors. Official weigh-ins are conducted anywhere from 3 and up to 24 h prior to competition ensuring athletes meet weight requirements (i.e. have 'made weight'). Fighters commonly aim to compete in weight divisions lower than their day-to-day weight, achieved via chronic and acute manipulations of body mass (BM). Although these manipulations may impair health and absolute performance, their strategic use can improve competitive success. Key considerations are the acute manipulations around weigh-in, which differ in importance, magnitude and methods depending on the requirements of the individual combat sport and the weigh-in regulations. In particular, the time available for recovery following weigh-in/before competition will determine what degree of acute BM loss can be implemented and reversed. Increased exercise and restricted food and fluid intake are undertaken to decrease body water and gut contents reducing BM. When taken to the extreme, severe weight-making practices can be hazardous, and efforts have been made to reduce their prevalence. Indeed some have called for the abolition of these practices altogether. In lieu of adequate strategies to achieve this, and the pragmatic recognition of the likely continuation of these practices as long as regulations allow, this review summarises guidelines for athletes and coaches for manipulating BM and optimising post weigh-in recovery, to achieve better health and performance outcomes across the different Olympic combat sports.

  14. Nutritional Supplements for the Treatment and Prevention of Sports-Related Concussion-Evidence Still Lacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Wang, David H; Leddy, John J

    Concussions are common neurologic events that affect many athletes. Very little has been studied on the treatment of concussions with supplements and medications. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reminds us that no supplement has been proven to treat concussions. Many animal studies show that supplements have potential for improving the effects of a brain injury but none have been shown to be of consistent benefit in human studies. Animal studies on severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may not therefore be applicable transfer to sports-related concussions (SRC).Of the many supplements reviewed in this article, omega-3 fatty acids (Ω-3 FA) have potential for SRC treatment but in the one human trial those taking higher dosages preinjury had more concussions. In animal studies, postinjury administration was as effective as pretreatment. N-acetyl-cysteine has demonstrated a positive short-term effect on blast injuries in soldiers if administered within 24 h, but there are no studies in SRC. Caffeine, conversely, may be detrimental if taken after SRC. Lower serum levels of vitamins D, C, or E preinjury have worse outcomes in animal studies. Preinjury correction of deficiencies may be of benefit. Current human trials for nicotinamide ribose, melatonin, and branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may soon provide more evidence for the use of these supplements to reduce the impact of SRC in athletes.

  15. Hidratação e Nutrição no Esporte Hydration and Nutrition in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales de Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    practitioners, either competitive or simply health clubs goers. This article approaches some of the essential aspects of sports hydration and nutrition which were didatically sorted in six sessions: body fluid compartments; thermorregulation in physical exercise; sweat composition; dehydration; hydrogluco electrolytic reposition and nutritional recommendations.

  16. THE EFFECT OF PHYTOADDITIVES ON BIOCHEMICAL INDICATORS AND NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY IN SPORT HORSES NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Galik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a phylogenetic additive on blood serum indicator levels and faecal nutrients digestibility. The experiment was realized in Riding Centre of the Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. Total 14 warmblood sport horses geldings were used 7 horses in control group, 7 horses in experimental group respectively, Slovak warmblood bred, average body weight 525 plus minus 75 kg and 6 8 plus minus 3 Years. The control group of horses were fed by crimped barley, meadow hay and mineral feed mixture. Feed rations in experimental group were supplemented with a photogenic additive containing a blend of essential oils from origanum, anise and citrus, as well as a prebiotic rich in fructooligosaccharides. Blood serum was collected 3 times during the experiment, in the beginning of the experiment, and every 45 days. The experiment lasted 90 days. After the 45 days of phytoadditive supplementation we found a tendency of lower concentrations of serum triglycerides milimol l and total cholesterol milimol 1 in experimental group of horses P. In serum concentrations of glucose, total proteins and urea we find similar values in all of groups. We analyzed a positive effect of phylogenetic additive on organic matter digestibility of feed ration. In experimental group of horses we found significantly, higher organic matter faecal digestibility coefficient 73 per cent in comparison with control group 68 per cent. We analyzed insignificant effect of a phytoadditive on blood serum concentrations during 90 days of experiment. We found positive effect of phytoadditve supplementation on total faecal digestibility of organic nutrients.

  17. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  18. What Is a Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... Overuse injuries Cartilage injuries Exercise-induced asthma Concussions ... Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist? Pediatric sports medicine specialists practice in ...

  19. [Clinical recommendations for sport practice in diabetic patients (RECORD Guide). Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo-Fernández, Manuel; Escalada San Martín, Javier; Gómez-Peralta, Fernando; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Marco Martínez, Amparo; Botella-Serrano, Marta; Tejera Pérez, Cristina; López Fernández, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Sporting activity is becoming a common practice in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This situation requires both a preliminary medical assessment and a wide range of changes in treatment which have scarcely been addressed in medical literature. To prepare a clinical guideline on the medical approach to patients with diabetes who practice sport regularly. An expert panel from the Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) reviewed the most relevant literature in each of the sections. Based both on this review and on data from the experience of a number of athletes with DM, a number of recommendations were agreed within each section. Finally, the Working Group and representatives of the SEEN jointly discussed all these recommendations. The guideline provides recommendations ranging from medical assessment before patients with DM start to practice sport to actions during and after physical activity. Recommendations are also given on aspects such as the impact of sport on blood glucose control, training schemes, or special risk situations. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Applied Sports Nutrition Support, Dietary Intake and Body Composition Changes of a Female Athlete Completing 26 Marathons in 26 Days: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. McManus, Kelly A. Murray, David A. Parry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg-1·min-1 who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days. Prior to undertaking the 26 marathon challenge, three consultations were held between the athlete and a sports nutrition advisor; planning and tailoring the general diet and race-specific strategies to the endurance challenge. During the marathons, the mean energy and fluid intake was 1039.7 ± 207.9 kcal (607.1 – 1453.2 and 2.39 ± 0.35 L (1.98 – 3.19. Mean hourly carbohydrate intake was 38.9 g·hr-1. 11 days following the completion of the 26 marathons, body mass had reduced by 4.6 kg and lean body mass increasing by 0.53 kg when compared with 20 days prior. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for multi-day endurance running events.

  1. Are the Current Guidelines on Caffeine Use in Sport Optimal for Everyone? Inter-individual Variation in Caffeine Ergogenicity, and a Move Towards Personalised Sports Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Craig; Kiely, John

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine use is widespread in sport, with a strong evidence base demonstrating its ergogenic effect. Based on existing research, current guidelines recommend ingestion of 3–9 mg/kg approximately 60 min prior to exercise. However, the magnitude of performance enhancement following caffeine ingestion differs substantially between individuals, with the spectrum of responses ranging between highly ergogenic to ergolytic. These extensive inter-individual response distinctions are mediated by varia...

  2. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  3. [Medicine in sports or sport medicine?] ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M

    2001-01-01

    Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.

  4. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the right amounts. Teen athletes have unique nutrition needs. Because athletes work out more than their ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and ...

  5. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  6. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  7. Role of Nutritional Supplements Complementing Nutrient-Dense Diets: General Versus Sport/Exercise-Specific Dietary Guidelines Related to Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Susan; Greenwood, Mike

    A nutrient-dense diet is a critical aspect in attaining optimal exercise training and athletic performance outcomes. Although including safe and effective nutritional supplements in the dietary design can be extremely helpful in promoting adequate caloric ingestion, they are not sufficient for promoting adequate caloric ingestion based on individualized caloric expenditure needs without the proper diet. Specifically, a strategic and scientifically based nutrient-dense dietary profile should be created by qualified professionals to meet the sport/exercise-specific energy demands of any individual involved in select training intensity protocols. Finally, ingesting the right quantity and quality of nutrient dense calories at precise windows of opportunity becomes vital in attaining desired training and/or competitive performance outcomes.

  8. Quantitation of underivatized branched-chain amino acids in sport nutritional supplements by capillary electrophoresis with direct or indirect UV absorbance detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qiu

    Full Text Available The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs including leucine (Leu, isoleucine (Ile and valine (Val play a pivotal role in the human body. Herein, we developed capillary electrophoresis (CE coupled with conventional UV detector to quantify underivatized BCAAs in two kinds of sport nutritional supplements. For direct UV detection at 195 nm, the BCAAs (Leu, two enantiomers of Ile and Val were separated in a background electrolyte (BGE consisting of 40.0 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, and 40.0 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD at pH 10.2. In addition, the indirect UV detection at 264 nm was achieved in a BGE of 2.0 mmol/L Na2HPO4, 10.0 mmol/L p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS as UV absorbing probe, and 40.0 mmol/L β-CD at pH 12.2. The β-CD significantly benefited the isomeric separation of Leu, L- and D-Ile. The optimal conditions allowed the LODs (limit of detections of direct and indirect UV absorption detection to be tens μmol/L level, which was comparable to the reported CE inline derivatization method. The RSDs (relative standard deviations of migration time and peak area were less than 0.91% and 3.66% (n = 6. Finally, CE with indirect UV detection method was applied for the quantitation of BCAAs in two commercial sport nutritional supplements, and good recovery and precision were obtained. Such simple CE method without tedious derivatization process is feasible of quality control and efficacy evaluation of the supplemental proteins.

  9. Quantitation of underivatized branched-chain amino acids in sport nutritional supplements by capillary electrophoresis with direct or indirect UV absorbance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Jinhao; Xu, Zhongqi; Liu, Huiqing; Ren, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) play a pivotal role in the human body. Herein, we developed capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with conventional UV detector to quantify underivatized BCAAs in two kinds of sport nutritional supplements. For direct UV detection at 195 nm, the BCAAs (Leu, two enantiomers of Ile and Val) were separated in a background electrolyte (BGE) consisting of 40.0 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, and 40.0 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at pH 10.2. In addition, the indirect UV detection at 264 nm was achieved in a BGE of 2.0 mmol/L Na2HPO4, 10.0 mmol/L p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) as UV absorbing probe, and 40.0 mmol/L β-CD at pH 12.2. The β-CD significantly benefited the isomeric separation of Leu, L- and D-Ile. The optimal conditions allowed the LODs (limit of detections) of direct and indirect UV absorption detection to be tens μmol/L level, which was comparable to the reported CE inline derivatization method. The RSDs (relative standard deviations) of migration time and peak area were less than 0.91% and 3.66% (n = 6). Finally, CE with indirect UV detection method was applied for the quantitation of BCAAs in two commercial sport nutritional supplements, and good recovery and precision were obtained. Such simple CE method without tedious derivatization process is feasible of quality control and efficacy evaluation of the supplemental proteins.

  10. The Evaluation of t he Nutritional Habits of Athletes Between the Ages of 17 - 18 Who Perform t he Swimming Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine TURGUT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to determine dietary habits of sporters actively involved in swimming and between ages 17 - 18. 98 sporters (60 male and 38 female who swam in the “Anatolian Cup” swimming competition organized in Malatya province in the East Anatolian Region, constitute popu lation of the study. Sporters have participated in a survey that consisted of two parts. First part of the survey is about personal information, and second part inclu des questions about nutrition. When the results of the survey were evaluated, it was est ablished that most of the sporters made exercise between 3 and 5 hours in one week, and they are doing this sports for about 4 years. It was determined that sporters generally acquired their knowledge about nutrition from their coaches or sports friends. They indicated that they usually eat their last meal 3 - 4 hours before the competition, they pay attention this meal to consist from light food, they prefer food like honey and butter in order to increase their energy before the competition, and the energy they need is between 4000 - 5000 kcal. It is observed that they received protein for contribution to recovery period after the competition and training. It is also revealed that most of the sporters skip breakfast and eat only 2 meals in a day, and they a re not taking any snacks. They explained the reason as they don‟t have enough time and they wake up late. Sporters in the research group think that doping is harmful even though it improves the performance; however most of them state that they can take d oping for a prize or money. It will be beneficial to organize trainings, seminars for sporters and coaches on the subject of foods to be eaten by the sporters and their importance on the performance of the sporters.

  11. “Eat as If You Could Save the Planet and Win!” Sustainability Integration into Nutrition for Exercise and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nanna; Reguant-Closa, Alba

    2017-01-01

    Today’s industrial food production contributes significantly to environmental degradation. Meat production accounts for the largest impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. While food production and consumption are important aspects when addressing climate change, this article focuses predominantly on dietary change that promotes both health for planet and people with focus on athletes. Healthy, sustainable eating recommendations begin to appear in various governmental guidelines. However, there remains resistance to the suggested reductions in meat consumption. While food citizens are likely to choose what is good for them and the planet, others may not, unless healthy eating initiatives integrate creative food literacy approaches with experiential learning as a potential vehicle for change. This concept paper is organized in three sections: (1) Environmental impact of food; (2) health and sustainability connections; and (3) application in sports and exercise. For active individuals, this article focuses on the quantity of protein, highlighting meat and dairy, and quality of food, with topics such as organic production and biodiversity. Finally, the timing of when to integrate sustainability principles in sport nutrition is discussed, followed by practical applications for education and inclusion in team, institutional, and event operations. PMID:28430140

  12. “Eat as If You Could Save the Planet and Win!” Sustainability Integration into Nutrition for Exercise and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Meyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s industrial food production contributes significantly to environmental degradation. Meat production accounts for the largest impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. While food production and consumption are important aspects when addressing climate change, this article focuses predominantly on dietary change that promotes both health for planet and people with focus on athletes. Healthy, sustainable eating recommendations begin to appear in various governmental guidelines. However, there remains resistance to the suggested reductions in meat consumption. While food citizens are likely to choose what is good for them and the planet, others may not, unless healthy eating initiatives integrate creative food literacy approaches with experiential learning as a potential vehicle for change. This concept paper is organized in three sections: (1 Environmental impact of food; (2 health and sustainability connections; and (3 application in sports and exercise. For active individuals, this article focuses on the quantity of protein, highlighting meat and dairy, and quality of food, with topics such as organic production and biodiversity. Finally, the timing of when to integrate sustainability principles in sport nutrition is discussed, followed by practical applications for education and inclusion in team, institutional, and event operations.

  13. Timing, Optimal Dose and Intake Duration of Dietary Supplements with Evidence-Based Use in Sports Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Naderi, Alireza; de Oliveira, Erick P.; Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present narrative review was to consider the evidence on the timing, optimal dose and intake duration of the main dietary supplements β-alanine, nitrate, caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, carbohydrate and protein. [Methods] This review article will focuses on timing, optimal dose and intake duration of main dietary supplements for consuming. [Results] This paper reviewed the evidence to determine the optimal time, efficacy doses and intake duration for sports su...

  14. A Mismatch Between Athlete Practice and Current Sports Nutrition Guidelines Among Elite Female and Male Middle- and Long-Distance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikura, Ida A; Stellingwerff, Trent; Mero, Antti A; Uusitalo, Arja Leena Tuulia; Burke, Louise M

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n = 27) and male (n = 21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and posttraining meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Data are shown as percentage (%) of all athletes, with differences in responses between subgroups (sex or event) shown as Chi-square x 2 when p athletes reported that they aim to eat more food on, or after, hard training days. Most athletes said they focus on adequate fueling (96%) and adequate CHO and protein (PRO) recovery (87%) around key sessions. Twenty-six percent of athletes (11% of middle vs 42% of long-distance athletes [x 2 (1, n = 46) = 4.308, p = .038, phi = 0.3])) reported to undertake training in the fasted state, while 11% said they periodically restrict CHO intake, with 30% ingesting CHO during training sessions. Our findings show that elite endurance athletes appear to execute pre- and post-key session nutrition recovery recommendations. However, very few athletes deliberately undertake some contemporary dietary periodization approaches, such as training in the fasted state or periodically restricting CHO intake. This study suggests mismatches between athlete practice and current and developing sports nutrition guidelines.

  15. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  16. Sport Nutritionist: A New Sport Education Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…

  17. Timing, Optimal Dose and Intake Duration of Dietary Supplements with Evidence-Based Use in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Alireza; de Oliveira, Erick P; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Willems, MarkE T

    2016-12-31

    The aim of the present narrative review was to consider the evidence on the timing, optimal dose and intake duration of the main dietary supplements β-alanine, nitrate, caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, carbohydrate and protein. This review article will focuses on timing, optimal dose and intake duration of main dietary supplements for consuming. This paper reviewed the evidence to determine the optimal time, efficacy doses and intake duration for sports supplements verified by scientific evidence that report a performance enhancing effect in both situation of laboratory and training settings. Consumption of the supplements are usually suggested into 5 specific times such as, pre-exercise (nitrate, caffeine, sodium bicarbonate, carbohydrate and protein), during exercise (carbohydrate), post-exercise (creatine, carbohydrate, protein), meal time (β-alanine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, nitrate, carbohydrate and protein), and before sleep (protein). In addition, the recommended dosing protocol for the supplements such as, nitrate and β-alanine are fixed amount of irrespective of body weight, while dosing protocol for sodium bicarbonate, caffeine and creatine supplements are related with corrected body weight (mg/kg bw). Also, intake duration of the supplements is suggested for the supplements such as, creatine and β-alanine are effective in chronic daily time supplement is required in both chronic daily time < 28 days and acute daily time (2-2.5 h) prior exercise.

  18. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Vol 26, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport nutrition: A review of the latest guidelines for exercise and sport nutrition from the American College of Sport Nutrition, the International Olympic Committee and the International Society for Sports Nutrition · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe ...

  20. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need to balance that choice with the possible negative side effects mentioned above. If a coach, gym ... MD Date reviewed: September 2014 More on this topic for: Teens Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring ...

  1. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q& ...

  2. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness ... to fuel both their sports performance and their growth. Depending on how active they are, teen athletes ...

  3. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ...

  4. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provide athletes with an excellent source of fuel. Cutting back on carbs or following low-carb diets ... September 2014 More on this topic for: Teens Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and ...

  5. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...

  6. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety ... Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports ...

  7. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... negative side effects mentioned above. If a coach, gym teacher, or teammate says that you need to ... 2014 More on this topic for: Teens Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories ...

  8. The association between sport participation and dietary behaviors among fourth graders in the school physical activity and nutrition survey, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Katherine Skala; Gay, Jennifer; Springer, Andrew; Kohl, Harold W; Sharma, Shreela; Saxton, Debra; Wilson, Kim; Hoelscher, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    To determine the association between youth sport team participation and dietary behaviors among elementary school-aged children. Cross-sectional survey. Public schools in Texas during 2009-2010. A total of 5035 ethnically diverse fourth graders. Participation in organized sports teams, consumption of select food items (fruits, vegetables, beverages, sweets/snacks). Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between each food item (eaten at least once on the previous day) and number of sports teams as the independent class variable (0, 1 ,2, ≥3), adjusting for body mass index physical activity, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Significant dose-response associations were observed between number of sports teams and consumption of fruits and vegetables. For boys, the likelihood of eating fruit and fruit-flavored drinks was significantly higher and the odds of drinking soda were lower with the number of teams. For girls, the likelihood of consuming green vegetables increased as sports teams participation increased, and participation was positively associated with diet soda consumption. A positive association was observed between the number of sports teams and scores on the Healthy Food Index for boys and girls. The findings that sports participation is associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables and lower consumption of soda suggest that efforts should be focused on supporting youth team sports to promote healthier food choices. Since sports are available to all ages, sports may be an important venue for promoting healthier dietary behaviors.

  9. Essentials of creatine in sports and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Kalman, Douglas; Antonio, Jose

    2008-01-01

    ... and NIH databases. With all of the misinformation regarding the effects of creatine supplementation on health and sports performance, Essentials of Creatine in Sports and Health brings together the information on how creatine affecs body composition, exercise performance, and health. Supported by the International Society of Sports Nutrition, this...

  10. Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as nutritional supplementation or drug administration in humans participating in a sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzi, G

    2000-03-01

    from sarcosine and cyanamide, variable amounts of contaminants (dicyandiamide, dihydrotriazines, creatinine, ions) are generated and, thus, their tolerable concentrations (ppm) must be defined by specific toxicological researches. Creatine, as the nutritional factors, can be used either at supplementary or therapeutic levels as a function of the dose. Supplementary doses of nutritional factors usually are of the order of the daily turnover, while therapeutic ones are three or more times higher. In a subject with a body weight of 70 kg with a total creatine pool of 120 g, the daily turnover is approximately 2 g. Thus, in healthy subjects nourished with a fat-rich, carbohydrate-, protein-poor diet and participating in a daily recreational sport, the oral creatine supplementation should be on the order of the daily turnover, i.e. less than 2.5-3 g per day, bringing the gastrointestinal absorption to account. In healthy athletes submitted daily to high-intensity strength- or sprint-training, the maximal oral creatine supplementation should be on the order of two times the daily turnover, i.e. less than 5-6 g per day for less than 2 weeks, and the creatine supplementation should be taken under appropriate medical supervision. The oral administration of more than 6 g per day of creatine should be considered as a therapeutic intervention because the dosage is more than three times higher than the creatine daily turnover and more than six times higher than the creatine daily allowance. In this case, creatine administration should be prescribed by physicians only in the cases of suspected or proven deficiency, or in conditions of severe stress and/or injury. 2000 Academic Press@p$hr Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Sport and male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  12. Sports physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...

  13. Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...

  14. Sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Schwartzhoffová

    2010-01-01

    Sport tourism is one specific type of travel and tourism. The goal of this article is to introduce the definition and importance of sport tourism to academic and sports professionals. At present, sport tourism is a diverse social, economic and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique interaction of activity, people and place. The second part of this article reports about sports events as an important part of sport tourism.

  15. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073 9990 East Cent. Afr. J. s 9990 East Cent. Afr.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    psychosocial, biomechanical, and structural influences, obesity if present is believed to contribute to the interplay of these ..... These areas are aspects of the study that should be put into consideration in future .... Musculoskeletal Intervention Center: Sports activities, body weight and smoking in relation to low back pain: a ...

  16. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073 9990 East Cent. Afr. J. s 9990 East Cent. Afr.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    Injury and violence is a major killer of children throughout the world, where unintentional injuries account for almost 90% of these cases. Many of these are left with some form of disability, often with .... al 12 reported that falls accounted for the majority of upper limb fractures, while, sports related injuries to be responsible for ...

  17. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073 9990 East Cent. Afr. J. 9990 East Cent. Afr. J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    Accidents, falls, assaults, recreational activities (sports, bicycle related injuries) and child abuse.2,5,6. Due to variations in the parameters used in the definition of head injuries in studies, as well as the differences in ages used in childhood studies, it might be difficult for an adequate comparison of different demographics to ...

  18. ABC of Sports Medicine*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overuse injuries, osteoporosis and exercise, infections, the overtraining syndrome, sudden death, assessment of physical performance, nutritional aids, drug use, and team medical care. Included in the section on general topics are chapters on the benefits of exercise, sports for older persons and those with disabilities, ...

  19. Drugs in sport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mottram, D. R. (David R.)

    2005-01-01

    ...-Doping Agency (WADA) Methods and advances in doping control, and the sanctions for testing positive The use of therapeutic drugs banned in sport Evaluation of the status of creatine as a legitimate nutritional supplement Ethical, political and administrative issues in monitoring drug use An assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sp...

  20. 78 FR 26223 - National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... at work. Through Let's Move! and the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, we... States to make daily physical activity, sports participation, and good nutrition a priority in their... Physical Fitness and Sports Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation...

  1. 75 FR 61760 - Amendment of the Charter for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Physical Fitness and Sports and Establishment of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition... Executive Order 13545, dated June 22, 2010. The President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition... the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, as directed by Executive Order 13545. FOR...

  2. SPORT MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.

  3. Food Marketing and Management of Mass Sports Games

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    It is a new development concept for the current food marketing to promote the enterprise's food marketing by means of mass sports games. In this study, with an overview of the sports marketing, it analyzes the present situation and the existed questions of Chinese sports nutrition food marketing, putting forward the implementation strategy of food marketing and management of mass sports games.

  4. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  5. Sport Toekomstverkenning

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker

    2017-01-01

    Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen staan centraal in deze toekomstverkenning over sport die werd uitgevoerd door het RIVM en het SCP, op verzoek van het ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport (VWS). In de Sport Toekomstverken...

  6. Sports Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozalova Marina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.

  7. Hydration and Nutrition in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Tales de; Mara, Lourenço Sampaio de

    2010-01-01

    Existem distúrbios decorrentes de falhas nos esquemas de alimentação e reposição hídrica, eletrolítica e de substrato energético, que prejudicam sobremaneira a tolerância ao esforço e colocam em risco a saúde dos praticantes de exercícios físicos, podendo até mesmo causar a morte. Esses distúrbios, mais frequentemente observados em atividades de longa duração, são bastante influenciados pelas condições ambientais. Este artigo, direcionado aos profissionais que militam no esporte e atuam em pr...

  8. SPORT FACILITIES - SPORT ACTIVITIES HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realisation of sport activities always demanded certain conditions. Among those, sports facilities are certainly necessary. Since there were important changes in the process of training itself and successful performance, as well as, the results achieved by the sportsmen; there is a need for adequate sports facilities, that include whole variety of systems,equipment and necessities. Nowadays, Sport facilities are not only “the place of event”, but also a condition/necessity in achieving best sport results. It is demanded that these facilities are comfortable, absolutely secure and that they can accommodate transmissions: an opening, the course of sports activities and the announcement of the winner. The kind of sport activity, age, sex; so the “sports level” of the competitors is emphasising the specific demands to wards sports facilities.

  9. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  10. Sports Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...

  11. SPORT MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  12. oh sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-03-01

    Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.

  13. Sport Biomechanist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…

  14. SPORT FOOD ADDITIVE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  15. Sports Digitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian

    2017-01-01

    evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing......Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...

  16. Knowledge, attitude and skills regarding sports medicine among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, attitude and skills regarding sports medicine among football players and team doctors in the footbal super league in Malawi. ... Most team \\'doctors\\' were aware of the impact of HIV/AIDS on sports but few had good knowledge of the role of nutrition in sports and the effect of performance enhancing drugs in ...

  17. 77 FR 26649 - National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Physical Fitness and Sports Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In... Physical Fitness and Sports Month, we rededicate ourselves to empowering Americans young and old with the... on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, we are working to give more Americans the tools and information...

  18. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences (ISSN 0189-0913), official Journal of the Nutrition Society of Nigeria, is a peer-reviewed publication and is published biannually, two volumes per year. The primary focus of the journal is the publication of basic and applied studies in nutritional sciences and related fields.

  19. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the right amounts. Teen athletes have unique nutrition needs. Because athletes work out more than their less-active peers, they generally need extra calories to fuel both their sports performance and their growth. Depending on how active they ...

  20. Sport Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)

  1. Sport Toekomstverkenning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker

    2017-01-01

    Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen

  2. Teaching Sport as History, History through Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)

  3. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  4. [Sports purpura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  6. Rapportage sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger

  7. Sports Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  8. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-10

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  9. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  10. Knowledge of sugar content of sports drinks is not associated with sports drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Nonexperimental. Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. 3929 U.S. adults. The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ≥1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form.

  11. Nutrition and the Athlete. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This booklet examines some of the more common myths associated with sport nutrition and provides basic guidelines for sound dietary habits for both athletes and nonathletes. It contains a page of teaching…

  12. Prof. Dr. Dusko Bjelica's Articles Published in Sport Mont Journal: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vukovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport Mont Journal (SMJ is a print and electronic scientific journal aims to present easy access to the scientific knowledge for sport-conscious individuals using contemporary methods. SMJ is published three times a year by the Montenegrin sport academy (MSA, in february, june and october of each year. SMJ publishes original scientific papers, review papers, editorials, short reports, peer review - fair review, as well as invited papers and award papers in the fields of sports science and medicine, as well as it can function as an open discussion forum on significant issues of current interest. SMJ covers all aspects of sports science and medicine, all clinical aspects of exercise, health, and sport, exercise physiology and biophysical investigation of sports performance, sports biomechanics, sports nutrition, rehabilitation, physiotherapy, sports psychology, sports pedagogy, sports history, sports philosophy, sports sociology, sports management and all aspects of scientific support of the sports coaches from the natural, social and humanistic side. Professor Bjelica is the editor-in-chief of this reputable magazine. He has also published works on it from 2004 to 2017 and published 65 papers. They are from various fields from the sphere of sports sciences. Among them he mostly dealt with football, sports training, biomechanics, physical education of children, nutrition and many others. This professor has obtained a lot of awards because of his great and hard work.

  13. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    148. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg. COSECSA/ASEA Publication -East & Central African Journal of Surgery. March/April 2016 Volume 21 (1). Urological injuries following Obstetricaland Gynecological Surgeries. H.R. Sebukoto¹, E. Semwaga², R.A. Rugakingila³. 1Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College.

  14. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent Afr J Surg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent Afr J Surg. 57 COSECSA/ASEA Publication -- East & Central African Journal of Surgery 2017; Vol. ... period at a trauma centre in Nigeria. Methods: This was a retrospective review of in-hospital trauma deaths during the period of ..... haematoma evacuation. Four patients underwent laparotomy for ...

  15. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  16. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  17. HPLC Determination of Taurine in Sports Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Dale L.

    2001-06-01

    The amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a nutritional supplement in many sports drinks. An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in these sports drinks. A pre-column derivatization with Sanger's reagent, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, is followed by an HPLC separation utilizing a gradient elution, and detection at 360 nm.

  18. Sports Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  19. Racquet Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebas, Carole J., Ed.; Groppel, Jack L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    In six articles on racquet sports, the origins of the games are traced, methods for teaching skills such as footwork, racquetball strategy, and badminton techniques are discussed, and the biomechanics of the one- and two-handed backhand in tennis are reviewed. Information about paddle tennis is included. (PP)

  20. Sports Ballistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This review describes and classifies the trajectories of sports projectiles that have spherical symmetry, cylindrical symmetry, or (almost) no symmetry. This classification allows us to discuss the large diversity observed in the paths of spherical balls, the flip properties of shuttlecocks, and the optimal position and stability of ski jumpers.

  1. Interfacing Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...

  2. Sports Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... motivator. Physically, you need strength and endurance. Your training will vary with your sport. You would not train the same way for pole vaulting as for swimming. You might, however, cross train. Cross training simply means that you include a variety of ...

  3. Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Composition of Strychnos innocua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mal. Usman

    37. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njbas.v22i1.6. ISSN 0794-5698. 33. Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Composition of Strychnos innocua Del. (Monkey Orange) Fruit. Pulp Grown in Zuru, Nigeria. 1L.G. Hassan, 2U. Abdulmumin,1K.J. Umar, 1P.

  4. Developing a Performance Nutrition Curriculum for Collegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Rachel B; Helwig, Dennis; Dettmann, John; Taggart, Tim; Woodruff, Bridget; Horsfall, Karla; Brooks, M Alison

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for developing a sports nutrition education program in a collegiate athletic department. A review of literature on student-athlete nutrition behaviors is combined with practical suggestions from personnel who wrote a sports nutrition curriculum at a large Midwestern university. There are 2 primary implications for practice. First, maintaining a written curriculum and conducting periodic evaluation are fundamental aspects of sports nutrition education programs. Second, better documentation of program outcomes is needed to establish best practices in collegiate sports nutrition education and demonstrate the value of full-time sports registered dietitians. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES ISSN 1596-2903

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada Global

    Glucose syrups are sweetening agents that have been widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. Syrups are often preferred to other sweetners because of some perculiar characteristics they exhibit. Codex Alimentarius defined glucose syrup as a purified concentrated aqueous solution of nutritive saccharide.

  6. OXFORD DICTIONARY OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine provides reliable definitions of sports science and medicine terms. It provides an invaluable reference book for anyone interested in the captivating subject of sport. PURPOSE This dictionary aims to include almost every sports science, anatomy, physiology, biomechanical, injuries description, and psychological term as related to sports medicine and science and support the explanations by illustrations wherever necessary. AUDIENCE As a comprehensive dictionary of sports science and medicine, it will be of particular help to medical specialists and general practitioners, as well as students of PE, coaches, and athletes who need to understand the anatomical structures and physiological processes which affect athletic performance. Any member of public interested in health and fitness; exercise and sport or wants to understand what the obscure terms mean, like jogger's nipple, social loafing, and Zatopek phenomenon will also benefit from this book. FEATURES The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine features terms in A to Z fashion at all the major areas of sports science and medicine including: anatomy, physiology/exercise physiology, biomechanics, training principles and techniques, nutrition, sports psychology and sociology, sports injuries and rehabilitation. A team of prominent contributors and advisers put together this dictionary in the first edition. The third edition includes around 8000 cross-referenced terms which have been updated or added since the first edition. There are plenty of illustrations wherever appropriate to make the terms easily understandable. ASSESSMENT A must-have dictionary for all medics practising in sports and exercise medicine, as well as students of medicine, physical education, nursing and physiotherapy. Even coaches, trainers, biomechanical experts; in fact anyone who has a special interest in this area will find this dictionary useful.

  7. Can genotype determine the sports phenotype? A paradigm shift in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amit; Mahajan, Preetam B

    2016-06-01

    In last two decades, there has been an evolution in sports medicine. Several researchers have worked on different domains of sports medicine, like strength, endurance, sports injury, and psychology. Besides this, several groups have explored the changes at cellular and molecular levels during exercise, which has led to the development of the new domain in sports science known as genetic medicine. Genetic medicine deals with the genotypic basis of sports phenotype. In this article, we try to provide an up-to-date review on genetic determinants of sports performance, which will be like a journey from the nostalgic past towards the traditional present and the romantic future of sports medicine. Endurance and power performance are two important domains of athletes. They vary in individuals, even among trained athletes. Researches indicate that the genetic makeup of sportsmen play a vital role in their performance. Several genetic factors are reported to be responsible for endurance, power, susceptibility to injury, and even psychology of the individual. Besides this, proper training, nutrition, and environment are also important in shaping their potential. The aim of this discussion is to understand the influence of the environment and the genetic makeup on the performance of the athletes. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that genotype determines the sports phenotype in an athlete. Choosing the right sports activity based on genetic endowment is the key for achieving excellence in sports.

  8. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...

  9. Report on Sport 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not

  10. Initial investigation of nutrition and supplement use, knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Internationally young athletes are reported to have a poor understanding of the principles of sports nutrition and supplement use; hence their diet may be unhealthy and inappropriate for participation in sport. There is limited research on current nutritional knowledge and attitudes of under-16 (U16) age-group ...

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe ...

  12. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q& ...

  13. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ...

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label ( ...

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety ... Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports ...

  17. Ergogenic aids in sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesteban Moriones, Virginia; Ibáñez Santos, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Introduction: Very few nutritional supplements have scientifically demonstrated their effectiveness as an ergogenic aid. This review will examine creatine monohydrate (MC), the β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), sodium bicarbonate (BS), the β-alanine and caffeine. Objectives: To analyze the effi cacy, mechanisms of action, dose, side effects and some sports that can benefit from their consumption. Methods: Searching in PubMed bibliographic database reviews from the last 15 years and original articles from the last 5 years of the studied substances. Results: Doses of 20 mg/day for 4-7 days are effective in improving strength and muscular power and performance in short and repeated sprints. HMB at doses of 3 g/day for at least 2 weeks contributes to increased lean mass and fat-free mass. The intake of 0.3 g/kg of BS improves performance on tests of 400-1,500 meters in athletics and intermittent sprints. Meanwhile, doses of 80 mg/kg/day of β-alanine for 4-10 weeks may improve performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise. Finally, caffeine at doses of 2 mg/kg improves responsiveness and 3-6 mg/kg improves performance in endurance tests. Conclusions: The revised supplements have shown their efficacy in physical performance, but it is needed to keep in mind that most studies have been conducted with recreational-level athletes. Generally, the better the individual´s fitness level is the less improvement in physical performance the supplement shows. However, an increase of only 1% may sometimes allow the athlete to advance several positions in a final. Finally, we should draw attention to the importance of optimizing nutrition before considering the introduction of sports supplements, especially in children and youth. All analyzed substances have scientific basis supporting its ergogenic effect. All of them can be found in the market with Certificate of Quality and Purit

  18. Education and training of sport dietitians in Canada: a review of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer C; Gaul, Catherine; Janzen, Jorie

    2011-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the education and training background of Canadian registered dietitians (RDs) practising in sport and exercise nutrition, as well as learning opportunities in the practice area. A secondary analysis of a 2009 Dietitians of Canada (DC) Sport Nutrition Network survey of members (n=70) was conducted to describe members' educational background. Through the use of publicly available information, Canadian dietetic internship, undergraduate, and graduate sport nutrition educational opportunities were identified. Most (72.9%) respondents indicated they had some type of formal education in sport nutrition; learning from undergraduate courses and conference sessions was cited most frequently. The majority (86.7%) of accredited universities offered undergraduate courses in sport/exercise nutrition. No DC-accredited internship program offered sport nutrition as a mandatory rotation, while 15.8% of graduate programs in Canada had faculty with research interests in the area. Among respondents, 91.4% felt sport nutrition education in Canada was inadequate; all expressed interest in participating in more formal learning experiences, and 97.1% were interested in a specialized credential. Canadian dietitians working in sport and exercise nutrition have diverse educational backgrounds and must direct their own learning. Improved career development pathways and more available formal education are desired and needed.

  19. Sports Medicine Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allan J.

    1978-01-01

    Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)

  20. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  1. Sports and Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports and Concussions ... skiers or snowboarders How Can I Prevent a Sports Concussion? Start With the Right Equipment Everyone should ...

  2. Sports cream overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate

  3. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ... Splints Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Sports Safety Eye Injuries in Sports Eye Injuries in ...

  4. A Study of Diet and Reasonable nutrition for Volleyball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Baodong Yan

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a basis for the scientific recipes of China's volleyball team by suggests a reasonable diet and nutritional supplements. With the unceasing enhancement of competitive sports level, sports scientific research has penetrated into all aspects of sports training, from technical, tactical, physical to fatigue recovery. Bite and sup are the main source of sportive energy. The appropriate ingestion of nutrition is one of the important methods for athlete to comeback and improve th...

  5. Quality of life threats in recreational and competitive sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støckel, Jan Toftegaard

    Quality of life threats in recreational and competitive sport Author: ass. Professor Jan Toftegaard Støckel Key words: sport, stress, depression, illness, Previous research has shown that personal issues (nutrition, injury, goals and expectations), coach-athlete issues (coach, coaching style......, selection) and environmental issues (team atmosphere, support structures) are key determinants for stress, depression and illness in elite sports. In a large scale survey among 4,000 Danish athletes from recreational thru to elite sport a regression analysis show an increase in risk of self-reported stress......, depression or illness (SDI) by odds ratio 6,5 in elite sport compared to recreational sport. One in eight athletes reported SDI and highest associations are related to coach behavior. The key question for this abstract is to examine whether men and women are equally vulnerable to SDI at various sport levels...

  6. Science and the major racket sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Adrian

    2003-09-01

    The major racket sports include badminton, squash, table tennis and tennis. The growth of sports science and the commercialization of racket sports in recent years have focused attention on improved performance and this has led to a more detailed study and understanding of all aspects of racket sports. The aim here, therefore, is to review recent developments of the application of science to racket sports. The scientific disciplines of sports physiology and nutrition, notational analysis, sports biomechanics, sports medicine, sports engineering, sports psychology and motor skills are briefly considered in turn. It is evident from these reviews that a great deal of scientific endeavour has been applied to racket sports, but this is variable across both the racket sports and the scientific disciplines. A scientific approach has helped to: implement training programmes to improve players' fitness; guide players in nutritional and psychological preparation for play; inform players of the strategy and tactics used by themselves and their opponents; provide insight into the technical performance of skills; understand the effect of equipment on play; and accelerate the recovery from racket-arm injuries. Racket sports have also posed a unique challenge to scientists and have provided vehicles for developing scientific methodology. Racket sports provide a good model for investigating the interplay between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and the effect of nutrition, heat and fatigue on performance. They have driven the development of mathematical solutions for multi-segment interactions within the racket arm during the performance of shots, which have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms of both performance and injury. They have provided a unique challenge to sports engineers in relation to equipment performance and interaction with the player. Racket sports have encouraged developments in notational analysis both in terms of analytical procedures and the

  7. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Sports and Concussions Burner (Stinger) Concussions: Alex's Story Compulsive Exercise Repetitive Stress Injuries View more Partner Message About Us Contact ...

  8. Childhood Sports Participation and Adolescent Sport Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  10. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  11. Safe! Sports, Campers & Reducing Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Beth J.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance of adult roles by children increases "adult injuries," notably broken bones from sports. Suggests camp administrators be familiar with clientele, particular sports, and the kinds of injuries that generally result in each. Discusses children's age, types of sports, and other factors that come into play when anticipating and treating…

  12. BS sport

    OpenAIRE

    Pruchnický, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Předmětem diplomové práce je návrh novostavby sportovního zařízení na úrovni dokumentace pro provedení stavby. Návrh klade důraz na dispoziční řešení včetně zajištění konstrukce pro statické stránce, architektonické, požární bezpečnosti, úspory energie a bezpečnosti při užívání objektu. Práce obsahuje textovou i grafickou část. Grafická část práce je zpracována v programu ArchiCad. The subject of the diploma thesis is to design a new building of sports facilities at the documentation for b...

  13. DIETARY FAT AND SPORTS NUTRITION: A PRIMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonnie M. Lowery

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.

  14. Prevention of sports injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John M; Lou, Julia E; Ganley, Theodore J

    2002-12-01

    As children around the world become involved in increasingly competitive and more organized sports activities, the frequency and severity of both acute and overuse injuries continues to rise. Over the past year, several important studies have contributed to our knowledge in the prevention of sports injuries in children. Safety guidelines and protective equipment are crucial to minimizing pediatric recreational injuries. Protective headgear, mouth guards, and wrist and shin guards have all been shown to be effective in preventing injuries. Nutrition and nutritional supplements (eg, creatine) for the pediatric athlete have also received greater attention recently. Combined with appropriate physical activity programs, nutrition is essential in battling the increasing epidemic of childhood obesity. Increased attention has also been directed toward specific injuries and injury rates in the female athlete. Specific training for the female pediatric athlete may have a preventive effect in halting the rising injury rates.

  15. The Interface of Nutritional Practices of Selected Basketball Players of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, On Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene, Alagbu Chukwubikem; Agwubuike, E. O

    2012-01-01

    The nutritional practices of athletes are critical to sports performance, since good result is the goal or expectations of all sports stake-holders, coaches, sports administrators/managers and spectators alike, therefore the issue of good nutrition regarding these ?human machines? (athletes), calls for serious attention. This research, therefore tried to examine the nutritional practices of some selected Basketball players of Nnamdi Azikiwe University (UNIZIK) Awka, in Anambra State of Nigeri...

  16. Sports Medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…

  17. Report on Sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,

  18. Sport and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Andries van den Broek

    2016-01-01

    Oringinal title: Sport en cultuur Many people derive enjoyment from sport and culture in their free time: attending matches, performances, exhibitions or festivals, following sport and culture via the media or participating in a sport or cultural activity. Who takes part in which activities? Does

  19. COMMUNICATIONS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasoje Bjelica

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing questions related to business communications, especially communications in sport, is possible if the analysis of the size and the subject of the communication concept has been done before, in order to enter into a specific stratum of sport communications. This stratum contains the subjects of communications which could be realized in sport or somehow are connected with sport.

  20. Metabolic markers in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should

  1. Report on Sport 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...

  2. International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Shariman; Sulaiman, Norasrudin

    2014-01-01

    The proceeding is a collection of research papers presented at the International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology (ICoSSEET2014), a conference dedicated to address the challenges in the areas of sports science, exercise, sports engineering and technology including other areas of sports, thereby presenting a consolidated view to the interested researchers in the aforesaid fields. The goal of this conference was to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on the scope of the conference and establishing new collaborations in these areas. The topics of interest are as follows but are not limited to:1. Sports and Exercise Science • Sports Nutrition • Sports Biomechanics • Strength and Conditioning • Motor Learning and Control • Sports Psychology • Sports Coaching • Sports and Exercise Physiology • Sports Medicine and Athletic Trainer • Fitness and Wellness • Exercise Rehabilitation • Adapted Physical Activity...

  3. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ...

  4. Sport Specialization, Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  5. Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H

    2013-09-01

    Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised.

  6. Sport and measurement of competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.

    Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are

  7. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  8. Sport, immune system and respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, F; Passalacqua, G; Senna, G; Mosca Frezet, M

    2003-02-01

    In the recent years, the importance of sports in everyday life has rapidly increased. Asthma and respiratory allergy are among the most common problems to be afforded in those individuals practising sports and therefore, the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of allergy in athletes have received in recent times a great interest. The experimental studies performed on allergy and sport have lead to take in consideration a more general aspect, that is the effects of exercise on the immune system. In fact, it has been observed that exercise can induce significant and measurable immunological changes, involving a transient immune suppression (changes in number and activity of neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, and secretion of cytokines). This is probably the reason why athletes seem to be more prone to upper respiratory viral infections. These infections usually appear after exercise discontinuation (within 3 days) particularly in those athletes practising sports which require a long term effort and resistance. The problem is further complicated by the effect of nutrition, since nutrition regimen itself and dietary supplementation were demonstrated able to interfere with the immune response. In the present article we will review the present knowledge and experimental data concerning the effects of sport on immune system and some of the most important clinical implications.

  9. MANAGEMENT PARTICULARITIES IN SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN NEFERU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.

  10. Current Concepts in Sports Injury Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Himmat; Dhilllon, Sidak; Dhillon, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before progression has now

  11. Current Concepts in Sports Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Himmat; Dhilllon, Sidak; Dhillon, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before progression has now

  12. Current concepts in sports injury rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmat Dhillon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before

  13. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  14. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  15. Sport and globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...

  16. Sports and Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Concussion Sports and Concussion Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of ... ages—reducing blows to the head by playing sports safely and avoiding falls is vital to a ...

  17. Investigating sport celebrity endorsement and sport event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When detailed product information is not available to consumers inferences are made using product cues to reduce uncertainty and to form perceptions of products. Advertisers can make use of sport sponsorship and sport celebrity endorsement as extrinsic cues to influence consumers\\' pre-purchase attitudes. These cues ...

  18. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    YETİM, Azmi

    2000-01-01

    Sport is themost effective and common social institute of modern societies. The mostimportant element of societies is individual. Societies in which individualshealthy, well educated, social and cultured could be thought as modern basicaim of sport is to support the development of human in terms of physical mentaland social. And also sport is very effective phenomenon to create a modernsociety. In addition personel benefits and missions sport has very importantsocial effects. In this age, it ...

  19. Sport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2007-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 5,000 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. These clubs and commercial providers

  20. LAW IMPLEMENTATION IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mexhid Krasniqi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.

  1. Sport and Social Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Howard L., II

    Sport is examined in relation to a number of basic aspects of social organization. Each of the seven sections includes a brief clarification of the key sociological concepts used for analysis, a consideration of various applications of those concepts to sport, and a review and discussion of what is known about specific aspects of sport in relation…

  2. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...... irreconcilable functions, high adaptability and the fact that they often make use of urban residual areas....

  3. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  4. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...

  5. Sports and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Sports and Your Eyes Gear up! If you play sports, you know they can be a lot of ... the right safety gear. Think about your favorite sport. Do you wear anything to protect your eyes, ...

  6. 4 Corruption in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Andreff, Wladimir

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A typology of sport corruption differentiates petty corruption, barter corruption, corruption at the level of sport governing bodies, betting scandals and point-shaving. A deeper analysis goes further as regards match fixing-related bets and global online fraudulent sport betting networks and suggests new tools for combatting match fixing.

  7. Researching Sport Education Appreciatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; Hastie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In order to plan and enact appropriate learning environments in physical education (PE) teachers are increasingly directed to models based practice. The Sport Education model is one of these models for PE curriculum and teaching design that informs the content and pedagogical direction of sport teaching in PE. Despite Sport Education being well…

  8. Report on Sport 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2015-01-01

    More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more

  9. Patterns of Nutrition and Dietary Supplements Use in Young Egyptian Athletes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, Safaa; El Koofy, Nehal; Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of basic and sport nutrition as well as perspectives of young Egyptian athletes. Structured interview survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about basic and sport nutrition was administered to adolescent athletes recruited from 4 sport clubs and 2 fitness centers in Greater Cairo governorate. A total of 358 participants aged 13-18 years completed questionnaires. Basic nutrition knowledge was reasonable in almost all do...

  10. eSport: Construct specifications and implications for sport management

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...

  11. Relationship between sport commitment and sport consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberta Elisa Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.

  12. Sports Sponsorships of Food and Nonalcoholic Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Miller, Alysa N; Roberto, Christina A; Sam, Rachel; Sarda, Vishnudas; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2018-04-01

    Food and nonalcoholic beverage companies spend millions of dollars on professional sports sponsorships, yet this form of marketing is understudied. These sponsorships are valuable marketing tools but prompt concerns when unhealthy products are associated with popular sports organizations, especially those viewed by youth. This descriptive study used Nielsen audience data to select 10 sports organizations with the most 2-17 year old viewers of 2015 televised events. Sponsors of these organizations were identified and assigned to product categories. We identified advertisements promoting food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsorships on television, YouTube, and sports organization Web sites from 2006 to 2016, and the number of YouTube advertisement views. The nutritional quality of advertised products was assessed. Youth watched telecasts associated with these sports organizations over 412 million times. These organizations had 44 food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors (18.8% of sponsors), second to automotive sponsors ( n = 46). The National Football League had the most food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors ( n = 10), followed by the National Hockey League ( n = 7) and Little League ( n = 7). We identified 273 advertisements that featured food and/or nonalcoholic beverage products 328 times and product logos 83 times (some advertisements showed multiple products). Seventy-six percent ( n = 132) of foods had unhealthy nutrition scores, and 52.4% ( n = 111) of nonalcoholic beverages were sugar-sweetened. YouTube sponsorship advertisements totaled 195.6 million views. Sports sponsorships are commonly used to market unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverages, exposing millions of consumers to these advertisements. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Marketing of sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...

  14. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SPORTS MARKETING AS A BUSINESS FUNCTION IN MODERN SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović

    2013-01-01

    Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...

  16. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  17. Research on Rationalization of Basketball Player Nutrition Dietary Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Junsheng Zuo; Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable nutritional dietary pattern is the good protection which can promote hoopster fatigue restoring, enhance exercise training effect and promote sport performance. This study analyzes necessity and significance of rationalizing research of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern by the summary of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern. And it concludes insufficient and drawback which current our country hoopster nutritional dietary pattern existing. And then it generalizes the unreasonable...

  18. Sport and migrants' acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morela, Eleftheria

    the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...... who do not.Furthermore, it investigates the role of the coach-created sporting environment in the acculturation process within those participating in sport. The results revealed significant differences regarding the level of acculturative stress with migrant participants engaging in sports scoring...... multiculturalism. Sport is considered to be a vehicle for bringing people together, and recently there has been an increasing policy interest in the use of sport as a venue for promoting social integration and intercultural dialogue. Regardless of its political significance, research on the integrative role...

  19. Is Sport Nationalism Justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez Triviño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.

  20. Technology and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... has long been a heated topic and with gene technology waiting around the corner the relationship between sport and technology has become strained and is more and more often viewed as problematic rather than benign. In this chapter we follow up on this trend by exposing what we consider a tendency...

  1. FUNCTION of MANAGEMENT IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.

  2. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  3. THE SPORT MARKETING MANAGEMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...

  4. SPORTS MARKETING AS A BUSINESS FUNCTION IN MODERN SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Aćimović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primarily an economical process of connecting production (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. It can be seen in the fact besides promoting sport it conducts certain (limited productive activity (exchange of sport equipment, exchange of sport requisites and material goods that create sport clubs through competitions.

  5. Inadvertent doping through nutritional supplements is a reality | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... contaminated with banned substances and that inadvertent doping through nutritional supplement use is a reality for athletes. The sporting community should therefore be aware that supplements might contain anabolic androgenic steroids and stimulants that are not declared on the labels. SA Sports Medicine Vol.16(2) ...

  6. Nutritional Status and Dietary Pattern of Male Athletes in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Several factors, including nutritional status and dietary pattern are paramount to optimum performance among athletes. Notwithstanding, risky ... About 72% of the athletes skipped meals, 77% drank water or sports drinks during sporting activities, about 11% spent less than #40.00 for each meal. About 49% ate ...

  7. Diet app use by sports dietitians: a survey in five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jospe, Michelle R; Fairbairn, Kirsty A; Green, Peter; Perry, Tracy L

    2015-01-22

    Despite the hundreds of diet apps available for use on smartphones (mobile phones), no studies have examined their use as tools for dietary assessment and tracking in sports nutrition. The aim is to examine the prevalence and perceptions of using smartphone diet apps for dietary assessment and tracking among sports dietitians. A cross-sectional online survey to examine the use and perception of diet apps was developed and distributed to sports dietitians in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States (US). The overall response rate from the 1709 sports dietitians invited to participate was 10.3% (n=180). diet apps were used by 32.4% (57/176) of sports dietitians to assess and track the dietary intake of athletes. Sports dietitians from the US were more likely to use smartphone diet apps than sports dietitians from other countries (OR=5.61, 95% CI 1.84-17.08, P=.002). Sports dietitians used 28 different diet apps, with 56% (32/57) choosing MyFitnessPal. Overall, sports dietitians held a positive perception of smartphone diet apps, with the majority of respondents viewing diet apps as "better" (25/53, 47%) or "equivalent" (22/53, 41%) when compared with traditional dietary assessment methods. Nearly one-third of sports dietitians used mobile phone diet apps in sports nutrition practice, and viewed them as useful in helping to assess and track the dietary intake of athletes.

  8. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine recommended sports ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnoff, Jonathan T; Berkoff, David; Brennan, Fred; DiFiori, John; Hall, Mederic M; Harmon, Kimberly; Lavallee, Mark; Martin, Sean; Smith, Jay; Stovak, Mark

    2015-02-01

    The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) developed a musculoskeletal ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships in 2010. As the use of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound in sports medicine has evolved, it became clear that the curriculum needed to be updated. Furthermore, the name 'musculoskeletal ultrasound' was changed to 'sports ultrasound' (SPORTS US) to reflect the broad range of diagnostic and interventional applications of ultrasound in sports medicine. This document was created to outline the core competencies of SPORTS US and to provide sports medicine fellowship directors and others interested in SPORTS US education with a guide to create a SPORTS US curriculum. By completing this SPORTS US curriculum, sports medicine fellows and physicians can attain proficiency in the core competencies of SPORTS US required for the practice of sports medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Developing Sport Psychology in a girls' sport academy curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport psychology. Introduction. The Academy for Girls' Leadership and ..... context by means of age-appropriate stories and metaphors according to the Sport. Psychology principle of visualisation (cf.

  10. Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…

  11. Junior Sport and the Evolution of Sport Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedentop, Daryl

    2002-01-01

    Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…

  12. [Sport and rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, D; Rehart, S

    2014-06-01

    Sport is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Due to the changing age spectrum with a greater number of elderly and substantially more active people, an increasing number of people with underlying orthopedic diseases are becoming interested in participating in sport. This article deals with the possibilities and effects of sporting activities for people with rheumatoid arthritis within the framework of a conservative therapy. A literature search was carried out using medical search engines, in particular PubMed, and also via the recommendations of specialist societies and patient help groups. The quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis consists of physical, mental and social components. Sport as a means of rehabilitation influences all of these components. Sport should be comprehended as a form of therapy and be adapted to the needs of the individual patient. The willingness to actively participate in sport should always be highly rated and encouraged. Sport is therefore an important pillar of therapy in a conservative total concept. The main aspects of sport therapeutic activities are functional, pedagogical and experience-oriented aspects. The clinical symptoms, extent of damage and physical impairment must, however, be evaluated and taken into consideration for the therapeutic concept. The amount of data on the complex topic of sport and rheumatoid arthritis is low and is mainly dealt with as retrospective reviews. A prospective randomized study basis is lacking. The aim must therefore be to confirm the currently available recommendations for various types of sport in controlled studies.

  13. Neurologic emergencies in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B

    2014-12-01

    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  14. Diet App Use by Sports Dietitians: A Survey in Five Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jospe, Michelle R; Fairbairn, Kirsty A; Green, Peter; Perry, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the hundreds of diet apps available for use on smartphones (mobile phones), no studies have examined their use as tools for dietary assessment and tracking in sports nutrition. Objective The aim is to examine the prevalence and perceptions of using smartphone diet apps for dietary assessment and tracking among sports dietitians. Methods A cross-sectional online survey to examine the use and perception of diet apps was developed and distributed to sports dietitians in Austra...

  15. Refleksiv Sports Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...

  16. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  17. NANOTECHNOLOGY AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.

  18. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  19. SPORTS ACTIVITIES SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy.

  20. Sport accidents in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin, Y

    1990-01-01

    Injuries among children during sporting activities are common. This study is a one year study including children between five and fourteen years of age who sustained their injuries during sporting activities and were treated at Trondheim Regional and University Hospital. Sport accidents account for 27 per cent of all childhood accidents in this age group. Fifty-three per cent of the injured were boys, and 47 per cent were girls. The boys sustained more severe injuries than the girls. Soccer c...

  1. Sports Specialization, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID

  2. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  3. SportOn

    OpenAIRE

    Lynghøj, Jesper Ebbesen; Holm, Emil Broo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract More than ever, it is possible for individuals to create or get involved in some kind of public debate on digital platforms. Whether it involves politics or sport events, people have the opportunity to comment on these events via social media platforms. Our thesis focus on creating a concept, where both journalists and users of sports journalistic can participate online, and share the sports stories they are passionated about. We look at the possibilities of making a sportssite, w...

  4. Sport-related concussions

    OpenAIRE

    Ianof, Jéssica Natuline; Freire, Fabio Rios; Calado, Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves; Lacerda, Juliana Rhein; Coelho, Fernanda; Veitzman, Silvia; Schmidt, Magali Taino; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Amorim, Robson; Anghinah, Renato

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such...

  5. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  6. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  7. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  8. Marketing Food and Beverages to Youth Through Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Elbel, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been identified as a major driver of obesity yet sports sponsorship remains common practice and represents millions of dollars in advertising expenditures. Research shows that food and beverage products associated with sports (e.g., M&M's with National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing logo) generate positive feelings, excitement, and a positive self-image among adults and children. Despite this, self-regulatory pledges made by food companies to limit exposure of unhealthy products to children have not improved the nutritional quality of foods marketed to children. We reviewed the literature about sports-related food marketing, including food and beverage companies' use of sports sponsorships, athlete endorsements, and sports video games. This review demonstrates that sports sponsorships with food and beverage companies often promote energy-dense, nutrient-poor products and while many of these promotions do not explicitly target youth, sports-related marketing affects food perceptions and preferences among youth. Furthermore, endorsement of unhealthy products by professional athletes sends mixed messages; although athletes may promote physical activity, they simultaneously encourage consumption of unhealthy products that can lead to negative health outcomes. We argue that more athletes and sports organizations should stop promoting unhealthy foods and beverages and work with health experts to encourage healthy eating habits among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sport a česká meziválečná hudba: úvod do problematiky

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2016), s. 6-40 ISSN 0862-8505 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : sport and music * avant-garde music * music and representation * Czech inter-war music * music of the 1920s * sport and culture Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  10. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ... in sweat can usually be made up with sports drinks or food eaten after exercise. Ditch Dehydration Speaking ...

  11. Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias If you play ice hockey, tennis or ... for the most commonly misdiagnosed groin pain—a sports hernia. A sports hernia often results from overuse ...

  12. Sports medicine in New Zealand.

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, C J

    1992-01-01

    Sports medicine in New Zealand is characterized by a team approach. Experienced professionals work together to the benefit of athletes, be they elite performers or those in sport for purely recreational purposes. A no-fault accident compensation scheme is used to provide speedy access to treatment services for those injured in sport and also for advice on accident prevention. Recent initiatives include a task force on drugs in sport and the creation of regional sports foundations. Sports medi...

  13. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...

  14. Nutrition Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ... health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ...

  15. Olympic Information in the SPORT Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belna, Alison M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Profiles the SPORT database, produced by Sport Information Resource Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, which provides extensive coverage of individual sports including practice, training and equipment, recreation, sports medicine, physical education, sport facilities, and international sport history. Olympic coverage in SPORT, sports sciences, online…

  16. Nutrition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Athletic Performance 71% Nutrition and Coronary Heart Disease 68% Weight Control 67% Nutrition and Cancer 61% Sugar and Fiber in the Diet 46% Vegetarianism ...interested 4 0 .9% D. Not interested E. Don’t know 20. Diet , Nutrition and Athletic Performance 20 .9%A. Fairly interested 29 .3% B. Moderately interested...identify by block number) The objectives of this research centered in two major areas. A computerized nutritional analysis of the diet offered to USAFA

  17. Youth Sports Safety Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemecourt P, Collins C, Comstock RD. Assessment and management of sport-related concussions in United States high schools. Am ... KE, Xu L, McGuire LC, Coronado VG. Nonfatal sports and recreation related traumatic brain injuries ... NT. Diagnosis and management of exercise-induced asthma. Physician Sportsmed. 1996;24( ...

  18. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.

  19. Sports: Art or Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The lesson plan for grades six through nine demonstrates an innovative way of analyzing student ideas and attitudes about sports activity. It includes readings, photographs, and teacher suggestions designed to generate ideas and reactions to personal and social aspects of sports. (Author/DB)

  20. Prevent Children's Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Lyle J.

    1983-01-01

    Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)

  1. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a sense of well-being. Almost any sport places some stress on your spine. That is why it's important to keep the muscles and ligaments that support your spine flexible ... many sports injuries. Getting these muscles to the point where ...

  2. Listening to Sports Idioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkus, Tom; Bohlken, Bob

    In the book, "Talking from 9 to 5," Deborah Tannen suggests that females have difficulty listening to males in the workplace because of the masculine inclination to talk sports the majority of the time. Men use sports idioms, metaphors, and cliches, making business a "peculiar language" which excludes "naive"…

  3. Sport, Religion and Charisma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Verner

    2017-01-01

    Since the end of the Second World War, the popularity of modern elite sport has grown immensely and so has the economical interests in sport. Athletes have become attractive advertising partners. Much money is at stake so it is understandable that companies are alarmed when their poster boys or g...

  4. Concussion in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACSM Information On… Concussion in Sports A concussion is an injury to the brain where force causes the brain to move within the skull. A person does ... deceleration force, and concussions occur in many different sports. While an athlete does not need to hit ...

  5. Sport and Social Inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Farquharson, K.; Marjoribanks, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on the relationship between sport and social inequalities, focusing on gender, race, nation and social mobility. Through an engagement with these areas of research, we highlight how sport reflects and reinforces broader hierarchical structures; how it serves as a

  6. Sports Dehydration Safety Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sports Dehydration Safety Tips Everything you need to know to keep your kids safe from dehydration when playing sports. To keep kids in top ... to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. Dehydration occurs when a body loses more water than ...

  7. Somatotypes in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Teodor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.

  8. Computer vision for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    The world of sports intrinsically involves fast and accurate motion that is not only challenging for competitors to master, but can be difficult for coaches and trainers to analyze, and for audiences to follow. The nature of most sports means that monitoring by the use of sensors or other devices...

  9. Sports Subsidies Soar. Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…

  10. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…

  11. Sport, mindfulness en boeddhisme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan de Leeuw

    2016-01-01

    Binnenkort gaat in Nederland een Academie voor Mindfulness in Sport (AMS) van start. Dat is een techniek die ingezet wordt voor bewustwording van eigen gevoelens en gedachten van het moment, zonder daar op te reageren. Een beroemdheid uit de wereld van de sport die zweert bij mindfulness is Phil

  12. Christianity and sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojković Goran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will demonstrate, relying on theology, that Christianity, i.e. ascetic experience of the Church and sport are two sides of the same coin which is reflected in community or, rather, communion (When Christianity is concerned, or team work towards the goal when it comes to sport.

  13. Mathematics and Sports

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nal stereotype of a mathematician is a highly nonathletic, myopic individual with his head buried in books. Reality, of course, is other- wise. One finds many who are proficient in both mathematics and sports, but even so, rarely there's someone who combines the two. Mathematics in sports? Certainly. Tendulkar does not ...

  14. Sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A

    2015-04-01

    Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC SPORTS INJURIES: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  16. Overview of sports vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  17. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  18. Policy, Sport and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    2010-01-01

    in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance......Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...

  19. Nutritional Status and Dietary Pattern of Male Athletes in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    these include excessive weight reduction and inappropriate dietary practices. This study was conducted to provide information .... for weight reduction in addition to dieting include use of diuretics or laxatives (Kiningham and Gorenflo, ..... Nutrition before and during exercise: In. Sports Nutrition Guidebook; pages 164-188.

  20. Delivery of the Nutrition Supplementation Programme in the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Division for Human Nutrition, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, W Cape. Per Ole Iversen ... More focus on the education part of the NSP would enable mothers to manage their children's nutrition better. ..... common chronic conditions and prescribing in sport. • It presents ...

  1. Milk: the new sports drink? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Brian D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been growing interest in the potential use of bovine milk as an exercise beverage, especially during recovery from resistance training and endurance sports. Based on the limited research, milk appears to be an effective post-resistance exercise beverage that results in favourable acute alterations in protein metabolism. Milk consumption acutely increases muscle protein synthesis, leading to an improved net muscle protein balance. Furthermore, when post-exercise milk consumption is combined with resistance training (12 weeks minimum, greater increases in muscle hypertrophy and lean mass have been observed. Although research with milk is limited, there is some evidence to suggest that milk may be an effective post-exercise beverage for endurance activities. Low-fat milk has been shown to be as effective, if not more effective, than commercially available sports drinks as a rehydration beverage. Milk represents a more nutrient dense beverage choice for individuals who partake in strength and endurance activities, compared to traditional sports drinks. Bovine low-fat fluid milk is a safe and effective post exercise beverage for most individuals, except for those who are lactose intolerant. Further research is warranted to better delineate the possible applications and efficacy of bovine milk in the field of sports nutrition.

  2. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  3. Sport tourist expectations of a world championship sporting event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport tourists have preconceived expectations of the type and quality of services to be offered at a particular event. The extent to which these expectations are met will determine sport tourism satisfaction. For the purpose of this study the definition of a sport tourist was taken as any individual that facilitates or organise a sport ...

  4. Developing Sport Psychology in a Girls' Sport Academy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…

  5. Sports facilities: a problem of school sports in Nigeria | Olajide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in School sports, amateur, recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as the laboratories are to the scientists. Without facilities sports cannot take place. This does not however imply that sports facility is the only variable that is ...

  6. Developing Sport Psychology in a girls' sport academy curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What was gained during this process, as well as the associated challenges encountered, suggest possible areas for research as well as changes and adjustments which could be made in similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport ...

  7. Some Sports Managers' Views about Values Education through Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Velittin; Erdeveciler, Övünç

    2017-01-01

    The indirect aim of this study is to ensure that sports and participation in sports are seen as new tools for values education. From this indirect goal, it was aimed to analyse the views of some Amateur Sports Club managers and supporters who were supposed to directly contribute to sports and the athletes about values education. The study was…

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to ...

  10. Injuries in extreme sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Lior; Pengas, Ioannis P; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2017-04-18

    Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.

  11. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  12. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  13. Relationship between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in elite athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronk, Inge; Heaney, Susan E.; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in a convenience sample of athletes (≥ state level) recruited from four Australian State Sport Institutes. General nutrition knowledge was measured by the validated General Nutrition Knowledge

  14. Laboratory medicine and sports: between Scylla and Charybdis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe; Botrè, Francesco; de la Torre, Xavier; De Vita, Francesco; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Maffulli, Nicola; Marchioro, Lucio; Pacifici, Roberta; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Schena, Federico; Plebani, Mario

    2012-02-28

    Laboratory medicine is complex and contributes to the diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring and follow-up of acquired and inherited human disorders. The regular practice of physical exercise provides important benefits in heath and disease and sports medicine is thereby receiving growing focus from almost each and every clinical discipline, including laboratory medicine. Sport-laboratory medicine is a relatively innovative branch of laboratory science, which can provide valuable contributions to the diagnosis and follow-up of athletic injuries, and which is acquiring a growing clinical significance to support biomechanics and identify novel genomics and "exercisenomics" patterns that can help identify specific athlete's tendency towards certain types of sport traumas and injuries. Laboratory medicine can also provide sport physicians and coaches with valuable clues about personal inclination towards a certain sport, health status, fitness and nutritional deficiencies of professional, elite and recreational athletes in order to enable a better and earlier prediction of sport injuries, overreaching and overtraining. Finally, the wide armamentarium of laboratory tests represents the milestone for identifying cheating athletes in the strenuous fight against doping in sports.

  15. Perceptual characteristics of nutritional supplements determine the expected effectiveness in boosting strength, endurance, and concentration performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila; Bérdi, Márk; Köteles, Ferenc; Bárdos, György

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the link between the physical-perceptual characteristics of nutritional supplements and their expected effectiveness in enhancing sport performance. Participants (n = 267) ranked nine images of fictive nutritional supplements, varying in shape, color, and route of administration (e.g., pill, powder, lotion, etc.), in ranked- order of expected effectiveness. They performed the task three times, (1) for strength, (2) endurance, and (3) for concentration. Results have revealed that the perceived effectiveness of the supplements was statistically significantly different for the three types of performances (p nutritional supplements', aimed at sport performance enhancement, influence their perceived effectiveness. Future inquiries in sport nutrition should examine the relationship between expected and experienced effectiveness of various nutritional supplements in enhancing sport performance.

  16. Development of the Nutritional Diet Information System for Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjiang Wu; Haiyan Zhao; Mingshun Xing; Jing Zhao; Ran Li

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diet for a sportsman will impact directly on the training effectiveness and playing condition. Based on now information technologies the nutritional diet information system would design the planning of nutritional implementation and diet recipes for the athletes according to the different sporting events. The system will manage, balance and rationalize the diet and nutrition for the athletes so as to improve training effect and reduce the physical injury. It will also helpful t...

  17. Aleatorism and Sporting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological. This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.

  18. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  19. Athletic pubalgia (sports hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D

    2011-04-01

    Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Development of Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    The development of sports medicine was influenced by medicalization and increasing competitiveness in modern sport, with sports physicians helping to develop performance enhancing drugs and techniques. This paper discusses sports medicine and drug use in Eastern European countries, early development of anabolic steroids in the United States, and…

  1. Sport in the Netherlands 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2009-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; More than 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 7,200 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. Among the most popular sports

  2. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  3. Je rozhodčí soud pro sport v Lausanne ideálním vzorem sportovní arbitráže?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamerník, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, 3 - 4 (2014), s. 43-49 ISSN 1338-5569 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : Court of Arbitration for Sport * Swiss federal tribunal * arbitration Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences www.magisterofficiorum.sk

  4. A random point process model for the score in sport matches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volf, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2009), s. 121-131 ISSN 1471-678X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : sport statistics * scoring intensity * Cox’s regression model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/SI/volf-a random point process model for the score in sport matches.pdf

  5. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  6. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  7. Doping control in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch

    2016-01-01

    Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...... a web-based questionnaire (N = 645; response rate 43%) and uses qualitative findings to elaborate on and explain quantitative results. Results showed that two-thirds of the athletes reported the national testing programme in their sport to be appropriate. A majority of the athletes who had an opinion...

  8. Parenting in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Camilla J; Berrow, Steffan R; Harwood, Chris G

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature on parenting in sport, with a particular emphasis on literature from the last 2-3 years. Following a brief introduction overviewing the topic area, we firstly focus on the influence of parental involvement on children. Specifically, we examine the range of factors that influence children's perceptions of parental involvement and the consequences of different behaviors. Next we discuss the factors influencing parental involvement, such as the challenges and stressors associated with parenting children in sport and the culture within different sports. Finally, our review focuses upon the strategies developed by parents to facilitate their involvement in their children's sport, as well as the few papers focused upon parent education and support. We conclude by examining the need for further research and examination of support strategies for parents. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ocular Injuries In Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur İNAM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sports related ocular injury is one of the most important reasons of morbidity, blindness and labor loss. Especially children and those who play paintball, basketball and ice hockey are at high risk. Sports can be classified as high risk group, moderate risk group and low risk group according to the risk of these injuries. The extent of the trauma to the eye depends on the shape, velocity and rigidity of the trauma object. Physician can have an opinion about the severity of the trauma by having a carefully taken anamnesis and physical examination. In this manner, sports physicians should do the first aid procedures to the injury and should know in which cases decide not to continue the game. The most important feature of sports-related ocular injury is 90% of these injuries can be preventable in nature. Protective eyeglasses usage and taking simple precautions substantially protects player from serious ocular injuries.

  10. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.

  11. Rethinking enhancement in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2006-12-01

    This article explores the arguments surrounding the use of human enhancement technologies in sport, arguing for a reconceptualization of the doping debate. First, it develops an overview and critique of the legislative structures on enhancement. Subsequently, a conceptual framework for understanding the role of technological effects in sport is advanced. Finally, two case studies (hypoxic chambers and gene transfer) receive specific attention, through which it is argued that human enhancement technologies can enrich the practice of elite sports rather than diminish them. In conclusion, it is argued that elite sports are at a pivotal moment in their history as an increasing range of enhancements makes less relevant the protection of the natural human through anti-doping.

  12. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  13. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID

  14. Sports: Ice -Doping Time

    OpenAIRE

    Barys Tasman

    2013-01-01

    In 2013 the systematic degradation of Belarusian sports continued, which was most vivid in the mass and most popular kinds of sports – soccer, hockey, track and field athletics, and also in the traditional Olympic disciplines – cycling, boxing, weight-lifting. The national ice hockey team lost the qualification tournament and failed to get to the Olympic Games in Sochi. The football national team took the last place in the qualifying group tournament at the 2014 World Cup. At the World Forum ...

  15. Western Sport and Spiritualism

    OpenAIRE

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character) is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria). It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional) recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it c...

  16. SPORT I POLITIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensur Memić

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport and politic are two big appearance and human activities which have as difference so the same segments. New society, democratic society necessity cultivate realization of sport-politic.We could say they are dominates phenomens of modern society. Like this they are manifestationed on the different necessity ways and have different roles. They are sa different as same. Everybody who take part in one or other sphere know from society from sociolog aspect how are two society components connected and reservationed beetwen. Why I am telling it: because the future of sportsmen depend from the future of politics will. Its needed to show how politic manage or give s the hope for development and animate possibility that young people during their evolution can do sport. Politic also depend from sports instutitions on creation mood of young people that their cadres got general and society dope. These two concepts can be near define. Sport as activity and as a appeal represent specific sights orientation of young people in aim curing knight games and evervthing in aim of health formation and effort of results, but they are not only meanings, through the sport can progress and big number acquaintance, friendship and intimacy, through sport ali cultural heredity can be keeping and the lands vvhich belong. Sport sociological looking is important element society life people. Second concept-politic, according to the famous politicians we can definite as a action that direct with another activities and business. Politic is substance, process of manifestation, manner, and it mean that politic has its subject activities vvhich is consist on behavour other social groups.

  17. MANAGEMENT AND SPORTING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA DELIA BÎCĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available “Using applied science in sport management as creates opportunities for rationalization and systematization of sports activity, relying on the knowledge and application of the laws that control the dynamics and phenomena. Management is on the border between art and science. Arts management is manifested by "science" as opposed to use and harness the creative compromise that can produce increased efficiency and effectiveness.”

  18. Sport Spaces for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Anne Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010......Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010...

  19. HYDROSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Vladmila Bojanić; Jelena Radović; Zoran Bojanić; Marko Lazović

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins are organic substances needed for normal cell functioning in the human body, and therefore human health. People who train sports require an optimal psychophysical performance in order to achieve the best sports results. Athletes’ needs for vitamins may be higher than in general population, also they are taking vitamin supplements more often than other people. Thus, it is very important for them to be familiar with the vitamins’ roles and recommended intake levels.Hydrosoluble vitamin...

  20. Sports during a crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Barys Tasman

    2016-01-01

    The crisis in the economy immediately affected the sports industry, one of the largest expense items of the Belarusian budget. Investments in youth and mass sports, as well as in football declined significantly. The situation is aggravated by corruption, doping and other scandals and managerial confusion. The most positive outcomes are associated with the global leadership of Belarusian rowing and canoeing and a recovering athletics sector. Trends: • Organizational changes in athletics; • Deg...

  1. Caffeine and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M

    2008-12-01

    Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.

  2. Sports related to drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  3. State of development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Tikhonova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the study of the development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine. Material : the results of analysis of scientific and methodical literature, statistical reports of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, controls for Physical Culture and Sport, the governing bodies of education and science, society websites promoting Defence of Ukraine, the Sports Committee of Ukraine. Results : technical sports solve complex health and educational problems, promote patriotic education of children. In Ukraine today gaining popularity of sports-technical and applied sports. According to statistics the number of students enrolled in 2013 increased by 6% (1720 people in relation to 2012. Total 30484 person. The most popular among children and adolescents are: military-sport all-around (amount involved is 23.9% of the total number of pupils, fire-applied sports (8.8%, parachute (8.7%, automotive (8.1 %, model aircraft (7.8%, underwater (5.8%, radio sport (7.1%. The most abundant component in the number of sports clubs have engaged in occupations which covered 18264 children and adolescents. Conclusions : Implementation of measures for further development of sports engineering, aviation and military applied sports will foster a versatile development, hardened physically, technically trained people. As the formation of the younger generation of sustained interest and needs in the classroom technical creativity, provide training for young people for military service and active labor.

  4. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  5. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  6. Sport-specific balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  7. Epilepsy and sports participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Gregory M; Radloff, Monika; Sevier, Thomas L

    2004-02-01

    Epilepsy is a common disease found in 2% of the population, affecting both young and old. Unfortunately, epileptics have previously been discouraged from participation in physical activity and sports for fear of inducing seizures or increasing seizure frequency. Despite a shift in medical recommendations toward encouraging rather than restricting participation, the stigma remains and epileptics continue to be less active than the general population. This results in increased body mass index, decreased aerobic endurance, poorer self-esteem, and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Although there are rare cases of exercise-induced seizures, studies have shown that physical activity can decrease seizure frequency, as well as lead to improved cardiovascular and psychologic health. The majority of sports are safe for epileptics to participate in with special attention to adequate seizure control, close monitoring of medications, and preparation of family, coaches, or trainers. Contact sports including football, hockey, and soccer have not been shown to induce seizures, and epileptics should not be precluded from participation. Water sports and swimming are felt to be safe if seizures are well controlled and direct supervision is present. Additional care must be taken in sports involving heights such as gymnastics, harnessed rock climbing, or horseback riding. Sports such as hang-gliding, scuba diving, or free climbing are not recommended, given the risk of severe injury or death, if a seizure were to occur during the activity. This article reviews the risks and benefits of physical activity in epileptics, discusses sports in which epileptics may participate, and addresses how to decrease possible risks for injury.

  8. SURGICAL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Kurniawan Darianto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing surgery faces great physiologic and psychologic stress. so nutritional demands are greatly increased during this period and deficiencies can easily develop. If these deficiencies are allowed to develop and are not in screening, serious malnutrition and clinical problem can occur. Therefore careful attention must be given to a patient's nutritional status in preparation of surgery, as well as to the individual nutritional needs. If these needs are met, complications are less likely developing. Natural resources provide for rapid recovery. Proper nutrition can speed healing in surgical patients with major trauma, severe malnutition, burns, and other severe illnesses. New techniques for tube feeding, intravenous nutrition for patients with serious weight loss due to gastrointestinal disorders, and use of supplements can hasten wound healing and shorten recovery times.

  9. Ecoimmunonutrition: Contemporary approaches to optimal nutrition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Petr; Větvička, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 44 (2014), s. 1-5 ISSN 1613-4133 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) 301/02/1232/A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ecoimmunonutrition * nutrition * immunology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  10. Sports medicine and drug control programs of the U.S. Olympic Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K S

    1984-05-01

    The Amateur Sports Act of 1978 reconstituted the U.S. Olympic Committee ( USOC ), giving it new responsibilities and opportunities as a unifying force in amateur sports, including sports medicine. Sports medicine is the sum of attentions that promote and protect the health of the active person. Olympic sports medicine includes attention to the needs of both the elite athlete and the developing athlete. In some instances the attentions are the same; in others they are not. Those in Olympic sports medicine must thereby reduce the increasing array of general concepts and issues to the applicable specifics of the respective occasion, sport, and individual. The USOC Sports Medicine Program is guided by a 15-person volunteer Sports Medicine Council and implemented by a core Sports Medicine Division staff. Services are provided at the Olympic training centers in Colorado Springs and Lake Placid and extended through a budding network of colleagues in the field to clusters of athletes across the nations. Organizationally , the Division is composed of departments of biomechanics, sports physiology, clinical services, and educational services. Special projects are developed as warranted to provide focal attention to sports psychology, nutrition, chronobiology, vision enhancement, and drug control. The USOC Drug Control Program was born at the 1983 Pan American Games in Caracas after a long gestation period. Drug education in sports has been a frequent activity for the past 20 yr. sometimes focusing on illicit drugs (e.g., marijuana and cocaine) and sometimes on sports performance drugs (e.g., amphetamines and anabolic steroids).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Jaký vliv má úprava mezinárodních sportovních asociací na vnitrostátní sport?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamerník, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 12 (2011), s. 1239-1251 ISSN 0231-6625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP408/10/P539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : international sport * sports law * lex sportiva Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  12. "Food company sponsors are kind, generous and cool": (mis)conceptions of junior sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2011-09-05

    Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103) to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Most children (68%) could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47%) of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P sport performance (86% and 76%, respectively). Around one-third of children reported liking the company more after receiving these rewards. Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.

  13. Sports in postmodern era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Miron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to make a resume from a socio-cultural point of view of the sportiv peisage analized in the evolutionof society trying to answer some questions such as: What is the place of sports in our modern society? How does sportinfluence social and cultural evolutions? What are the cultural tendencies which can be distinguished in the sports practice?These are a few questions which could lead to establishing raports between sports, culture and society. Sport is more andmore amrked by the charactersitics of postmoderinsm. New social values are being vehiclated by current generations whichinfluence sportive behaviours. The popularity of sports has a big influence in the process of globalisation of politics,economics and culture. In our days we observe the fact that some contradictions are being manifested: globalisation andindividualisation, „sportivisation” and „desportivisation”, a culture of health and a culture of amusement and finally,spontaneity and fragmentation compared to the security and autentification of the individual.

  14. Sports Medicine: What is a Sports Medicine Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is a Sports Medicine Specialist? A physician with significant specialized training in both the treatment and prevention of illness and injury. The Sports Medicine Specialist helps patients maximize function and minimize ...

  15. School sport and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John; Keane, Francis; Crawford, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) is an integral part of the school curriculum in Ireland. Historically the "Healthy Body, Healthy Mind" philosophy has promoted the inclusion of PESS alongside more cognitive school subjects. Research suggests that PESS can promote cognitive function and provide educational benefits. However, there is little research on how the choice of school sport influences academic achievement. This study investigated how participation in school sport influences the Leaving Certificate points score in an Irish secondary school. In particular, the study will investigate how the particular sport chosen by students participating in school sport during their Leaving Certificate years influences their Leaving Certificate results. We recorded the Leaving Certificate scores and sports participation from 402 boys graduating from a secondary school in the Ireland during 2008-2011. Sports participation was assigned 1 of 4 categories: rugby, rowing, soccer, and no sport. Participation in sports during the Leaving Certificate years conferred a 25.4-point benefit to the final Leaving Certificate score. However, participation in rowing, the only individual sport available in the study, resulted in significantly higher Leaving Certificate scores than rugby, soccer and no sport (p benefit over the next highest group, rugby. Promoting participation in school sport and providing access to a range of team and individual sports throughout the secondary school years may be a beneficial way to improve students' Leaving Certificate results. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  16. Sport's offer as an instrument of sports marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking logical postulate that a product is all what can be offered on the market in order to satisfy needs, demands or wants of customer, regarding the core of sport's offer (product, marketing experts must give answers to three key questions: What can sports companies, teams or individuals offer to consumer? What needs can sports companies, teams or individuals satisfy? What instruments (techniques and methods should use marketing experts in sports organizations in order to satisfy identified customer needs? .

  17. Sporting embodiment: sports studies and the (continuing) promise of phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    Whilst in recent years sports studies have addressed the calls ‘to bring the body back in’ to theorisations of sport and physical activity, the ‘promise of phenomenology’ remains largely under-realised with regard to sporting embodiment. Relatively few accounts are grounded in the ‘flesh’ of the lived sporting body, and phenomenology offers a powerful framework for such analysis. A wide-ranging, multi-stranded, and interpretatively contested perspective, phenomenology in general has been take...

  18. Western Sport and Spiritualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria. It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it constitutes rather an additional or redundant quality. A competitor focuses his/her attention first of all on the main aim assumed in planned or current rivalry. Emotional sensations which are experienced by athletes before, during or after competitions testify to mental and emotional stress which accompanies sports combat.

  19. SPORT PROMOTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.

  20. Perceived Impacts of Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANNIS DOUVIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It was the purpose of this preliminary project to measure how individuals perceive the impacts of sport in such areas as the economy, the environment, culture, community image and the quality of life, among other areas. The instrument was initially field tested in 1999 with a sample of 702 residents in the North eastern part of the United States. Their views suggest that they perceive sports to make a generally positive contribution to their communities and the local region. Some negative impacts were also identified, mostly of an environmental nature. However, the findings suggest that sports for the most part are perceived to play a major role in the lives of people and contribute in significant ways to the economy, and community pride.

  1. Commuting, Exercise and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    The uniqueness of this article is that it deals with long-distance bike commuting in pro-cycling Copenhagen and its environs. Informed by practice theory and sensuous studies of urban and sport practices, I discuss the ‘things and environments’, ‘meanings’ and ‘competences and biological bodies......’ that typify long-distance commuter cycling. This article develops cycling literature and the ‘mobilities paradigm’ in the following ways: by outlining a practice approach to cycling; challenging the idea that commuter cycling is only for short distances; undermining the distinction between utility and sport...... cycling; and lastly by connecting the ‘mobilities paradigm’ with literature on active travel and sport studies....

  2. The importance of sport psychology in school sport | le Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether the application of Sport Psychology in the coaching of school sport is a necessity or a luxury. The study revealed that school athletes desire further information about Sport Psychology and want the services to be more available. Teacher coaches need some ...

  3. Sport tourist expectations of a world championship sporting event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on the economic and psychic income potential of the event. Sport event organisers should pursue multiple goals when designing the product and service parameters of a particular event. Keywords: Sport tourist, Expectations, Service experience, Satisfaction South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education ...

  4. Sport Psychology: Myths in Sport Education and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Joy

    2008-01-01

    From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…

  5. Patterns of Nutrition and Dietary Supplements Use in Young Egyptian Athletes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Tawfik

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of basic and sport nutrition as well as perspectives of young Egyptian athletes. Structured interview survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about basic and sport nutrition was administered to adolescent athletes recruited from 4 sport clubs and 2 fitness centers in Greater Cairo governorate. A total of 358 participants aged 13-18 years completed questionnaires. Basic nutrition knowledge was reasonable in almost all domains except fast food. Fixed breakfast (78.5%, home meals (lunch, 70.7%, and healthy snacks (55.8% were the most positive features of the basic dietary pattern. More than 70% perceived themselves as knowledgeable about sport nutrition. The prevalence rate of sport supplement intake was (48.9%, n = 175, predominantly sport drinks (66.9% and creatine (54.3%. Coaches were the primary source of sport nutrition information. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 77/175 reported supplement consumption during competition seasons only. Better physical appearance and enhancement of athletic performance were the major motivations for supplement intake. These findings indicate the necessity of a comprehensive nutrition education program targeting not only athletes and parents, but also coaching staff, health trainers and all sport team officials.

  6. STRESS FRACTURES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đivo Ban

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents today, all before starting with regular sports activities and involvement in semi-professional and top professional sport, so it increases the num- ber of discovered stress fractures in this age. This type of injury can occur as a consequence of action one strong force, or the many repeated small force strength, to be exact, when the load (stress transcend ability reparations bones. Stress fractures are recorded and described up to the lower limbs. Research has been confirmed that the bones of lower leg are mostly made in injury, and with the el- derly and with the population of children and young adolescents. Occur in many sports, something to them is greater when the frequency of running and often are present in the female population. According to the results of numerous investigations, mistakes in the training are the most common cause of the emergence of stress fracture. In a direct comparison with complemented these injuries is the condition of muscles, so it is important that at the sa- me time carry out exercises strengthen muscles and stretching. Typical clinical signs of stress fractures are localized painful sensitivity to palpa- tion and runoff in a small number of cases. The basic diagnostic procedure is a medical check, it is the small, radiology and scintigraphyc diagnostics (most accurate and mag- netic resonance imaging. Treatment is usually without surgery and conservative, with rest and reducing stress, and its activity athlete breaks mainly between four and eight weeks. Only the very need surgical treatment The most important thing is that attention is focused on the proper prevention and to take all that it ever occurred to stress fractures that athletes ramble of the courts and the competition (better education of sports workers, separation of groups with increa- sed risk of the formation of an injury, adaptation activities age and abilities of athletes, adequate sports equipment, high-quality sports

  7. Sports Medicine: A Functional Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerreis, Sam

    1981-01-01

    Sports medicine represents a specific body of knowledge which can be practiced as a subspecialty by numerous members of medical society. Professional and sandlot athletes are equally deserving of competent and expedient sports medical care. (JN)

  8. Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

  9. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ... should provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may ...

  10. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins and Minerals Sports Supplements Female ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for educational purposes only. ...

  11. Geography of a Sports Metropolis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the sports infrastructure of Hamburg, Germany, from the residents’ perspective. Empirical evidence is provided for the Sports Place Theory developed by BALE (2003) using a micro-level dataset of 1,319 sports facilities, which is merged with highly disaggregated data......, locations’ endowment of sports infrastructure is captured by potentiality variables, while accounting for natural and unnatural barriers. Given potential demand, central areas are found to be relatively underprovided with a sports infrastructure compared to peripheral areas where opportunity cost...... in the form of price of land is lower. The determinants of spatial distribution vary systematically across types of sports facilities. Publicly provided open sports fields and sport halls tend to be concentrated in areas of relatively low income which is in line with their social infrastructure character...

  12. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying ... than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ...

  13. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / ...

  14. Nutrition review for hockey players : enhancing performance through nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Bursich, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the advancement of sports medicine in the past decade, hockey players all over the world are always trying to find a competitive edge through nutritional education and proper eating. It is very common to find young junior players looking to make the jump into the professional game always trying to find ways to get bigger and add lean muscle mass, likewise, there are always players looking to drop a few pounds while keeping their muscle mass. Research has proven that through proper educat...

  15. Grebet af sport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2017-01-01

    I sommeren 1936 blev de Olympiske Lege gennemført i Tyskland. Mediehistorisk var det en begivenhed, fordi det var de første tv-transmitterede Olympiske Lege. Selvom transmissionen kun nåede ud til små biografteatre i de tyske storbyer, så var det noget af en præstation. Over 70 timers sport med de...... fleste af de discipliner, vi kender fra Legene. (...) Uanset hvornår vi daterer sportens begyndelse, så har den haft en dobbelthed. Sport er ikke kun for dem på banen, men også dem på sidelinjerne....

  16. Nuclear medicine in sports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medicine can synergistically contribute to the sports medicine field, in the management of sports-related stress injures. Bone scintigraphy is commonly requested for evaluation of athletes with pain. Three-Phase 99m Tc MDP Bone Scan has emerged as the imaging reference standard for diagnosing such injuries. The inherently high-contrast resolution of the bone scan allows early detection of bone trauma and becomes positive within six to seventy-two hours after the onset of symptoms. The bone scan is able to demonstrate stress injuries days to weeks before the radiograph

  17. Sports and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The role of curricular activities for the formation of education, health and behavioural outcomes has been widely studied. Yet, the role of extra-curricular activities has received little attention. This study analyzes the effect of participation in sports clubs—one of the most popular extra-curricular activities among children. We use alternative datasets and flexible semi-parametric estimation methods with a specific way to use the panel dimension of the data to address selection into sports. We find positive and robust effects on children’s school performance and peer relations. Crowding out of passive leisure activities can partially explain the effects. PMID:27144474

  18. MARKETING STRATEGY IN SPORTS SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y

  19. THE HEURISTIC FUNCTION OF SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Petrović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Being a significant area of human activity, sport has multiple functions. One of the more important functions of sport, especially top sport, is the inventive heuristic function. Creative work, being a process of creating new values, represents a significant possibility for advancement of sport. This paper aims at pointing at the various dimensions of human creative work, at the creative work which can be seen in sport (in a narrow sense and at the scientific and practical areas which borderline sport. The method of theoretical analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of creative work , both in general and in sport, was applied in this paper. This area can be systematized according to various criterion : the level of creative work, different fields where it appears, the subjects of creative work - creators etc. Case analysis shows that the field of creative work in sport is widening and deepening constantly. There are different levels of creativity not only in the system of training and competition, but in a wider social context of sport as well. As a process of human spirit and mind the creative work belongs not just to athletes and coaches, but also to all the people and social groups who's creative power manifests itself in sport. The classification of creative work in sport according to various criterion allows for heuristic function of sport to be explained comprehensively and to create an image how do the sparks of human spirit improve the micro cosmos of sport. A thorough classification of creative work in sport allows for a detailed analysis of all the elements of creative work and each of it’s area in sport. In this way the progress in sport , as a consequence of innovations in both competitions and athletes’ training and of everything that goes with those activities, can be guided into the needed direction more easily as well as studied and applied.

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potgieter, S. Vol 26, No 1 (2013) - Articles Sport nutrition: A review of the latest guidelines for exercise and sport nutrition from the American College of Sport Nutrition, the International Olympic Committee and the International Society for Sports Nutrition Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-6204. AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. SPORTS JOURNALISM AND MEDIA RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velizar Sredanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Communicology theoreticians, sociologists, and sports experts strive to explain significance of sport, power and influence of media (TV in particular and sports journalism through analysis of media and viewers. Phenomena observed on number of football (soccer and Olympic games through a prism of media research of the Television of Montenegro.

  2. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  3. The Sport-Stress Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomier, James

    1983-01-01

    This article explains how and why stress mechanisms operate in students who participate in sports. Students respond to different sport situations with various physical, psychological, and social reactions. When developing and supervising sports, school personnel should take into consideration the physical and psychological development of…

  4. Sport-related maxillofacial fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslin, M.; Boffano, P.; ten Brincke, Y.J.D.; Forouzanfar, T.; Brand, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Sports and exercise are important causes of maxillofacial injuries. Different types of sports might differ in frequency and type of fractures. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible relation between the types of sport practiced and the frequency and nature of the facial bone

  5. Opvoeding in en door sport?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, Albert

    2005-01-01

    2004 is the European Year of Education through Sport. The European Commission believes that sport is a valuable instrument in creating more open and tolerant societies. Therefore it is necessary that sport and its values play a greater part in education. This article examines the relationship

  6. Updates in pediatric nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, E; Lightdale, J R

    2001-06-01

    Ongoing research in several areas of pediatric nutrition has new practical applications for community-based pediatricians. For example, a fresh understanding of risk factors for rickets persuades pediatricians to recognize and treat this disease, which was thought to be nearly extinct in the modern industrialized world. Similarly, an expanded awareness of the antibacterial components of breast milk encourages a more complete dialogue between pediatricians and new mothers about the potential benefits of breast-feeding. For those infants with feeding intolerance, new data help to refine the indications for hypoallergenic formulas, which are increasingly recommended for children with a variety of symptoms. The past year also has seen breakthroughs in our understanding of supplemental nutrition for children. Vitamin A may provide direct benefits for the most vulnerable of children, namely premature infants at high risk for lung disease. At the other end of the pediatric spectrum, adolescent athletes seeking to enhance their performance are consuming poorly studied sports supplements that may not be beneficial and may even be toxic. Finally, a greater appreciation for the epidemic of obesity that is sweeping the United States and other countries suggests that children at high risk may represent a far more diverse population than had been recognized previously.

  7. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  8. Sports Journalism and the Quality of Sport and Sport Culture in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian GHENA

    2014-01-01

    The issue of recognition of a sports journalism as a quality component of social life that can positively influence the sports and its perception by the population is omnipresent in contemporary society in Romania.

  9. Consuming calories and creating cavities: beverages NZ children associate with sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Moira; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Signal, Louise; McLean, Rachael

    2014-10-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are widely available, discounted and promoted, and despite recommendations to the contrary, frequently consumed by children. They provide few nutritional benefits, and their consumption is implicated in a number of poor health outcomes. This study examined the nature of the beverages that sport-playing New Zealand (NZ) children associate with sport. It assessed how well the beverages aligned with nutrition guidelines and relevant regulations, and their likely impacts on health. Eighty-two children (38 girls and 44 boys) aged 10-12 years were purposively selected from netball, rugby and football clubs in low and high socioeconomic neighbourhoods, in Wellington, New Zealand (NZ). Children photographed beverages they associated with sport. The beverages were then purchased and analysed in accordance with NZ nutrition guidelines, and relevant content and labelling regulations, by: package and serving size; energy, sugar, sodium and caffeine content; pH; and advisory statements. The beverages the children associated with sport overwhelmingly had characteristics which do not support children in adhering to NZ nutrition guidelines. Implementing public health mechanisms, such as healthy food and beverage policies, widely promoting water as the beverage of choice in sport, and implementing healthy eating and drinking campaigns in sports clubs, would assist children who play organised sport to select beverages that are in keeping with children's nutrition guidelines. As part of a comprehensive public health approach they would also reduce the substantial, unnecessary and potentially harmful contribution sugar-sweetened beverages make to their diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Volunteers in Sport Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA CILERDZIC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done in order to describe student’s attitudes on volunteering in sport. The sample consists of 231 students from Serbia, average age 21,06±3,12years. They were from eight colleges and faculties. For nominal and ordinal variables, frequencies were determined. Many of examined students have volunteering experiences. The results confirm that students believe that we live in a society which his generally thought only to its own benefit; they think that volunteering can not solve the problems in society; that people do not have enough experience with volunteering and people do not have time to volunteering; volunteering is for young people; in their family and among friends, there are no volunteers; everyone could be volunteer only if that wishes; do not believe that volunteering is a waste of time and it helps in future career. The prevalent number of students, regardless of the Faculty which they belong, rarely volunteered in areas outside of sport. Results also shows that students from sport faculties have less experience in volunteering in sport than students from other faculties, but this difference is not dramatic.

  11. Sport-Related Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  12. MARKETING MIX IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, companies he use in order to would achieve are wished the scope sales on the target market. In the wider context significant influence of environment on the chosen structure marketing-mixa have not only technological, economic and competitive services already and socially-owned, legislative, legal and political services. From those reasons chant the marketing -mixa occasionally replaces expression are coordinated term acts on the market. Elements marketing-mix-and at sport marketings same are as well as at marketings every other activity. They contain the sportively product and the service, appreciate the sport product and services, distribution of sport product and services and the promotion of sport product and services.

  13. FUNDRAISING IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Radović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundrising is the kind of marketing strategy, which the main gool is to provide the money and the other resources. It is the moust important tasks of nonprofit organizacio( sport organiyation and the other organiyation which need money for development project. Fundraising is independent and sistematical way of compilation the financial resource and anather keind of help in nonprofit organization from the private persone, the enterprice, the associate ect.Fundraising enable the activity and realization projects. Aim of this working paper is to givs contibution these important problem of menagement, to explain it and apply it in sport. Today it we haven`t enought the financial resourceies, without activity to provide it, we will very quickly loss sympathy and support who could help as. Financial problems are present not only in the sport organization , but in the culture, social, eco, education and other organizations. Todey there is strong competition at the fundraising market. Sport has advantages in the mass actions frequently and in his places in the psyche and body development people in all of growth, rather then the another nonprofit organization. Fundraising provide a lot of many and create pozitive image in public environment

  14. Burnout in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Robert J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Burnout is a condition of withdrawal from participation in sports as a result of stress. The most significant advance in the study of burnout has been a cognitive-affective model that contains situational, cognitive appraisal, physiological, and behavioral components. Suggestions for preventing and treating burnout are presented. (BC)

  15. The Economics of Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, William S., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a picture of economic principles at work in the dynamic world of big-time sports. Papers were given at the 35th Annual Lecture-Seminar Series presented by the Department of Economics at Western Michigan University during the 1998-99 school year. After an "Introduction" (William S. Kern), the six papers…

  16. Sports Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Timothy N.

    1991-01-01

    A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…

  17. Sports Teams Extend Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traditional high school athletic teams, Unified Sports teams are designed to immerse students with intellectual disabilities in a facet of school culture that has largely eluded them. Nationwide, more than 2,000 schools in 42 states have the teams, where the ideal is for about half the athletes on each team to be students with intellectual…

  18. Mathematics and Sports

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 12. Mathematics and Sports. Vivek S Borkar. Book Review Volume 4 Issue 12 December 1999 pp 107-108. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/12/0107-0108. Author Affiliations.

  19. Doping in sport

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of talented young athletes residing in Gauteng regarding prohibited performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and anti-doping rules and regulations. Methods. This was a survey study using a quantitative research approach. South African TuksSport academy ...

  20. Defending College Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Debra E.

    1994-01-01

    A philosophy professor who supports college athletics battles to maintain credibility among his academic peers. His interest is in adding balance to criticism of college sports and calling attention to positive aspects such as teamwork and discipline. The professor also teaches a seminar in ethics for first-year athletes. (MSE)

  1. Sport og etik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted

    Sportsidealismens grundsyn på forholdet mellem sport og moral har længe domineret sportsetikken. Opfattelsen, der går ud på, at sporten udgør frugtbar jord for dyrkelse af et moralsk sindelag, fordi sporten indeholder en moralsk dimension i kraft af sin egen-natur, understøttes ikke af den...... forholdet mellem sport og moral kom således til at bekræfte og delvist forklare empirien på området. Endeligt kunne sportsidealismens hovedtese tilbagevises, for så vidt at den omhandler forholdet mellem sport og moral i dette sidste ords moderne betydning. Dette skete i artiklens afsluttende fjerde afsnit......, hvor forskellen mellem antik og moderne etik blev tydeliggjort. På baggrund af den præsenterede undersøgelse af forholdet mellem sport og moral kan vi konkludere, at sporten isoleret set ikke egner sig som arnested for udviklingen af et moralsk sindelag, idet sporten ikke indeholder den af...

  2. Simulation in Sport Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayer, Joris; Rascher, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Simulations have long been used in business schools to give students experience making real-world decisions in a relatively low risk environment. The OAKLAND A'S BASEBALL BUSINESS SIMULATOR takes a traditional business simulation and applies it to the sport industry, in which sales of tangible products are replaced by sales of experiences provided…

  3. Sport in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuttgen, Howard G., Ed.; And Others

    Part 1 of this book, "Evoluation and Organization of Physical Culture," examines the history and current organization of physical education and sport in the People's Republic of China. This part includes chapters on: the evolution and organization of physical culture; physical culture in China today; the organizational structure of…

  4. Rapportage sport 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, K.; Meulen, R. van der; Hildebrandt, V.; Harms, L.; Goossens, R.; Lucassen, J.; Ooijendijk, W.; Stiggelbout, M.; Poel, H. van der; Bottenburg, M. van

    2003-01-01

    De Rapportage Sport is een coproductie van het Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau, het Centraal Bureau voor Statistiek, NOC-NSF, TNO, de Universiteit van Tilburg en het W.J.H. Mulier Instituut. Het bestaat uit twee delen. In het eerste deel worden de ontwikkelingen beschreven op het terrein van het

  5. Sports, Race, and Ressentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…

  6. AI Sport Forecast Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyomi Cerezo Takahash

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explain the development of an application whose function is to predict the results of different sporting encounters. To do this an analysis of the influential factors, algorithms and technology implemented, will be carried out.

  7. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  8. Nutrition for the pediatric athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, Viswanath B; Goulopoulou, Styliani

    2004-08-01

    A paucity of literature exists with regard to research on nutrition for the pediatric athlete. This lack of research makes the development of specific nutritional recommendations for young athletes problematic. This issue is made difficult by the macro- and micronutrient intake required for growth and development in conjunction with that required for sports. Exogenous carbohydrate drinks could be considered for the young athlete engaged in both endurance exercise and high-intensity exercise. Monitoring of the energy intake during resistance training in the pediatric athlete needs to be considered, as there is evidence to suggest that energy deficits may occur. If decrements in exercise performance are noted, then serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations should be monitored, as nonanemic iron deficiency is prevalent in the pediatric athlete. The pediatric athlete exercising in the heat is susceptible to voluntary dehydration and evidence exists to suggest that a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink will abolish this phenomenon.

  9. Imaging of orthopedic sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Gielen, J.L.; Maas, M.

    2007-01-01

    This volume provides an updated review of imaging abnormalities in orthopedic sports injuries. The first part of the book contains background information on relevant basic science and general imaging principles in sports traumatology. The second part comprises a topographic discussion of sports injuries. Each chapter highlights the merit of different imaging techniques, focused on a specific clinical problem. In the third part, natural history, monitoring and follow-up by imaging are discussed. This well-illustrated book will be of value for musculoskeletal radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, sports physicians and everyone else involved in sports medicine. (orig.)

  10. Dietary Habits of Young Athletes Going in for Cyclic Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern sports, outlining an adequate diet is one of the key issues in training young athletes. The following literature review presents new approaches to nutrition of young athletes going in for cyclic sports. These sports take a lot of energy, entail great strain and significant intensity of training. Correspondingly, the ratio of nutrients in athletes training for endurance tends to shift toward carbohydrates, the amount of which in the body should cover the increased need for workload as may be defined by the training process and the amount of workload. High-fat diets have proved irrelevant in terms of providing energy function; therefore, this nutritive approach was dismissed, since an athlete should have an about 25% share of fats of his/her menu’s total caloric value. According to modern standards, the amount of proteins in athletes’ menu should not exceed 1.2–1.6g per 1kg of body weight. To avoid the risk of dehydration and physical weakness, cyclic athletes should take sport drinks (in small portions prior to and following a training session (competition. They contain carbohydrates and electrolytes and therefore are more preferable than pure water. 

  11. Double standards for community sports: promoting active lifestyles but unhealthy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; King, Lesley; Hardy, Louise; Farrell, Louise

    2008-12-01

    Overweight and obesity in Australia is an emerging health concern. Obesity prevention initiatives must consider both physical activity and nutrition to be effective. Community sports venues have the capacity to promote healthy lifestyles through physical activity as well as healthy food choices. A telephone survey was conducted on parents of children aged 5-17 years in NSW to determine the nature of food and beverages purchased by children at community sporting venues and to determine parent's perception of the role that government should play in regulating the types of food and beverages sold at these outlets. The majority of canteens at children's sporting venues were considered to sell mostly unhealthy food and beverages (53%). Very few parents reported that canteens sold mostly healthy food and beverages. Parents reported that their child's most frequently purchased food and beverage items at outdoor sports fields were water, chocolate and confectionery, soft drink and sports drinks, and ice cream. At community swimming pools the most frequently purchased items were ice cream, followed by snack foods, including chips, cakes and biscuits. Most parents (63%) agreed that government should restrict the types of food and beverages that can be sold at children's sporting venues. Children are receiving inconsistent health messages at sporting venues, with healthy lifestyles being promoted through sports participation, but unhealthy dietary choices being provided at sports canteens.

  12. "Food company sponsors are kind, generous and cool": (Misconceptions of junior sports players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Lesley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Methods Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103 to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Results Most children (68% could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47% of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P Conclusions Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.

  13. The use of sports references in marketing of food and beverage products in supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Liu, Peggy J; Roberto, Christina A; Sarda, Vishnu; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-04-01

    Food marketing has been identified as a significant driver of the childhood obesity epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to (i) conduct a content analysis of the types of sports references that appear on supermarket food and beverage products and (ii) assess each product's nutritional and marketing profile. This was a descriptive study. Every product featuring sports references on the packaging was purchased in two major supermarkets during 2010. A content analysis was conducted and nutritional evaluations were made based on the Nutrient Profile Model, a validated nutrition model. Marketing data were obtained from The Nielsen Company. Two major supermarkets in Connecticut, USA. Food and beverage products (n 102) were selected from two supermarkets. The 102 products (fifty-three foods and forty-nine beverages) had sports references as part of their packaging: 72·5 % featured a character exercising, 42·2 % were endorsed by a professional sports entity and 34·0 % were child-targeted. The median nutrition score for food products was 36 (1 = unhealthiest and 100 = healthiest; scores of ≥63 are considered healthy according to this model). More than two-thirds of beverages (69·4 %) were 100 % sugar-sweetened. Children saw significantly more commercials for these products than adults. Companies place sports figures on food and beverage products that are child-targeted and unhealthy.

  14. SAFETY ASPECTS OF SPORTS COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sport, as an activity of public interest in contemporary conditions of life,has an important role in almost every state. Financial and security of participation of the state in the sports field, through the budgets of all levels are important issues regardless of the status and relationships of government and non-governmental organizations and sports associations. Cooperation and clear definition of security responsibilities between public authorities and sports clubs is essential and widely accepted phenomenon. The causes of conflict in sport competitions are polyvalent. It affects the study of this type of security phenomena that must be approached from different aspects. The causes of conflict in sports competitions may be direct and indirect, structural, economic - social, political and cultural - perceptual. All together they contribute to the occurrence of conflict and measuring the occurrence and development of modern security phenomenon in sport competitions

  15. Direct catastrophic injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P

    2005-11-01

    Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Youth Sports Coaches Regarding Sport Volume Recommendations and Sport Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R

    2018-02-22

    Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.

  17. A comparison of Ancient Greek and Roman Sports Diets with Modern Day Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian; Bartels, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    potential. In reality, nothing has changed between the ancient and modern athletes. To be optimal, a sports diet should be nutritionally balanced, whilst accommodating the genetic and environmental requirements, the gender and age needs, the demands of the sports discipline, as well as addressing any...... of a modern Olympic athlete and contrast these with those of ancient Greek and Roman athletes. Our particular emphasis has been on the source of nutrients, historical dietary trends, and the search for the optimal sports diet, that is to say a diet that will ensure the attainment of an athlete’s full...

  18. Can we consider religiousness as a protective factor against doping behavior in sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodek, Jelena; Sekulic, Damir; Pasalic, Emir

    2009-12-01

    Religiousness is rarely studied in relation to doping behaviors in sport. In this study, we sampled 27 weightlifting/powerlifting athletes from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Using the originally developed questionnaire and by means of Spearman's correlation, we interpreted data and discussed relationships between (a) social, religious, sport, and educational factors, and (b) substance use criteria, including cigarettes, alcohol, analgesics, nutritional supplementation, and doping behaviors. In conclusion, we found (1) that religiousness can be considered as a potential protective factor against doping, but also (2) that religious subjects tend to deny and underestimate the doping behaviors in their sport. Both of these findings should be extensively studied in future investigations.

  19. Sanctions for doping in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.

  20. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg. (Online) 17

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    In high output fistula loss of fluid and nutrients may far outstrip rate of replacement. The fistula effluent contains large ... Such patients have shifted into a starvation mode, are in a high catabolic state and a prolonged state of ... Signs of nutritional deficiency may include loss of 10% body weight, weakness, anaemia, loss of ...

  1. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine...... strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data...... handling, this thesis also deals with biological interpretation of postprandial metabolism and trans fatty acid (TFA) intake. Two nutritional issues were objects of investigation: 1) metabolic states as a function of time since the last meal and 2) markers related to intakes of cis- and trans-fat. Plasma...

  2. Marketing management of sport and tourism - Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Bieger, Thomas; Beritelli, Pietro

    2003-01-01

    Marketing Management of sport and tourism does not just mean marketing of touristic sport products. Marketing management of sport and tourism can be divided into marketing of sport activities, events or infrastructure for people outside the location and marketing of tourism through sport activities, events and sport infrastructure. A system approach is introduced to serve as a model for explaining interrelations between the different elements in the sport and tourism context. As such destinat...

  3. Sport participation and migration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Humphreys, B. R.; Münich, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2008), s. 335-347 ISSN 1475-8962 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : human capital investment * economic model * youth ice hockey Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  4. Nutritional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An evaluation of wheelchair basketball players' nutritional status and nutritional knowledge levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Günay; Ersoy, Gülgün

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of women paralympic athletes and their nutritional knowledge. Twenty two players of National Wheelchair Women Basketball Team (15-38 years) participated in this study and answered a questionnaire (76 questions) Players were at sport camp during the assessment where their body weight is measured regularly by the team coach. The waist, hip size and the height of the players who are able to stand have been used for the assessment, while the knee height of the players who are not able to stand have been measured for the study. SPSS 15.0 and BEBIS (Nutritional Data System) have been used for statistical assessment. The average age and sport years as a player of the participants are; respectively; 25.5±7.2 years and 3.9±2.8 years. The average daily energy consumption is 2867.8±523.6 kcal/day. The average proportion of energy, converted from carbohydrate, protein, fat are been calculated as, respectively; 42.7% (5.3±1.5 g/kg/day), 13.3% (1.6±0.3 g/kg/day), 44% (2.5±0.8 g/kg/day). It is also found that Vitamin B1, folic acid, magnesium, iron and fiber have not been consumed enough. The questions about sport nutrition have been mostly answered incorrectly. Athletes have inadequate food consumption and nutrition information. The athletes have to be educated more about nutrition and they should have nutritional counseling support.

  6. Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products.

  7. [Sports and osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M; Dreinhöfer, K

    2009-12-01

    Many risk factors for developing osteoarthrosis exist. Osteoarthrosis is the most common cause of chronic disability in middle-aged and older people. On the one hand, physical exercise can lead to arthrosis; on the other hand, physical exercise is commonly used in preventing and treating it. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that increased high-impact running or competitive sports result in a higher risk for osteoarthrosis than moderate low-impact running. In particular, sudden-impact loading and twisting movements of the joints can result in premature osteoarthrosis. Also, sports with a high risk for injuries can lead to secondary osteoarthrosis. Preventive exercises to strengthen the skeletal muscles seem to have a pivotal role. There are different therapeutic approaches to osteoarthrosis, which will be more important in the future. Exercise should be a core treatment for people with osteoarthritis, irrespective of age, comorbidity, pain severity, or disability. Exercise should include local muscle strengthening and general aerobic fitness.

  8. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Patiño Giraldo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100 games. The great variability among the incidence rates may be explained by differences among sports, countries, competitive levels, ages and methodology used in the studies. Sports injuries have been defined as those occurring when athletes are practicing sports and that result in tissue alterations or damages, affecting the operation of the corresponding structures. Contact sports such as soccer, rugby, martial arts, basketball, handball and hockey generate greater risk of injuries. The probability of lesions is higher during competition than in training. El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes

  9. PRIVATE SECURITY IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.

  10. ETHICS AND CHANGES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Radoš

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.

  11. Onepoto sports changing facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Located in the centre of a small extinct volcano, the sports changing rooms are the focus for community activities. The construction exploits natural and local products such as the volcanic rock contained in stainless steel gabions. The roof awnings serve several purposes: to increase rainwater harvesting area, to provide shade for spectator seating and for solar panels. Short-listed for the NZIA sustainability award.

  12. The neuropathology of sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Stein, Thor D.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing dementia, and impedes neurodegeneration. Nonetheless, the play of sports is associated with risks, including a risk for mild TBI (mTBI) and, rarely, catastrophic traumatic injury and death. There is also growing awareness that repetitive mTBIs, such as concussion and subconcussion, can occasionally produce persistent cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems as well as lead to the development of a neurodegeneration, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In this review, we summarize the beneficial aspects of sports participation on psychological, emotional, physical and cognitive health, and specifically analyze some of the less common adverse neuropathological outcomes, including concussion, second-impact syndrome, juvenile head trauma syndrome, catastrophic sudden death, and CTE. CTE is a latent neurodegeneration clinically associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction and cognitive impairments, and pathologically characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, neuronal and axonal loss, and abnormal deposits of paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and 43 kDa TAR deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding protein (TDP-43). CTE often occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including motor neuron disease (CTE-MND). Although the incidence and prevalence of CTE are not known, CTE has been reported most frequently in American football players and boxers. Other sports associated with CTE include ice hockey, professional

  13. Diabetes in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Shugart, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Fields, Karl B.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Exercise is recommended for individuals with diabetes mellitus, and several facets of the disease must be considered when managing the diabetic athlete. The purpose of this article is to review diabetes care in the context of sports participation. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane database, as well as manual review of reference lists of identified sources. Results: Diabetics should be evaluated for complicat...

  14. Aquatic sports and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Миколайович Зюзь

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sports or boating, has become a mass sport and recreation. It is as delightful a holiday as one might wish for, gaining strength around the world and especially in Ukraine. More and more people are eager to see the beauty of the underwater world, enjoy exciting sailing races, long journeys along beautiful rivers and unexplored areas, as well as smooth sailing at the height of the season. The article analyzes the modern aquatic (water tourism hazards that can lie in wait for a person in the water during camping trips and various boating competitions. This kind of sports is dangerous in principle, as aqueous medium is always perilous whether water is rough or calm. Accidents are always possible and tourists may find themselves in water, hypothermia, impossibility to breathe, impactions against different objects in the water resulting. Ships, food and equipment may also be damaged or lost, that is the consequences may be extremely negative. This article includes description of boating types, extreme forms of boating, the design features of the swimming facilities used in boating, practical skills and the ability to apply the facilities; characteristics of waves and currents; types of rivers; forms and methods of transportation and rescue of the drowning people; rendering assistance and first aid to the victims; promotion of safety rules on the water during the boating. The main goals and objectives in preparing aquatic tourism professionals whose main duty is safety, training topics, theoretical and practical materials for training the basics of safety that makes it possible to get acquainted with all the requirements have been discussed. The first attempt to develop general educational standards in training professionals in water sports and safety basing on the new priorities and the principles of modern vocational education has been made in the articles

  15. The neuropathology of sport

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Ann C.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Stein, Thor D.

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing deme...

  16. The neuropathology of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Alvarez, Victor E; Stein, Thor D

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing dementia, and impedes neurodegeneration. Nonetheless, the play of sports is associated with risks, including a risk for mild TBI (mTBI) and, rarely, catastrophic traumatic injury and death. There is also growing awareness that repetitive mTBIs, such as concussion and subconcussion, can occasionally produce persistent cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems as well as lead to the development of a neurodegeneration, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In this review, we summarize the beneficial aspects of sports participation on psychological, emotional, physical and cognitive health, and specifically analyze some of the less common adverse neuropathological outcomes, including concussion, second-impact syndrome, juvenile head trauma syndrome, catastrophic sudden death, and CTE. CTE is a latent neurodegeneration clinically associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction and cognitive impairments, and pathologically characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, neuronal and axonal loss, and abnormal deposits of paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and 43 kDa TAR deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding protein (TDP-43). CTE often occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including motor neuron disease (CTE-MND). Although the incidence and prevalence of CTE are not known, CTE has been reported most frequently in American football players and boxers. Other sports associated with CTE include ice hockey, professional

  17. Professional Team Sports Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....

  18. Conference on sports

    CERN Document Server

    Guenin

    1983-01-01

    Le Docteur Guenin, lui-même un grand sportif, qui exerce entre beaucoup d'autres activités la course à pieds et le ski de fond, est aussi sécrétaire médical du journal "Vie et Santé. Il nous parle de l'exercice du sport, gym aérobic, jogging etc. avec présention de quelques dias et d'un film du Dr.Kupper.

  19. Nutritional recommendations for synchronized swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sherry; Benardot, Dan; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers.

  20. [Doping and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G; Guidi, G

    1999-09-01

    Doping is widely known as the use of banned substances and practices by athletes in an attempt to improve sporting performances. The term doping likely derives from "dope", an ancient expression referred to a primitive alcoholic drink that was used as a stimulant in South African ceremonial dances; gradually, the term was extended and finally adopted his current significance. There are at least two essential reasons to support the fight against doping: the potential harmful effects on athletes and the depth corruption of the fair competition. An exhaustive list of banned substances and methods has been drawn by the International Olympic Committee and further accepted by other International Sport Authorities and Federations. This list, regularly updated, is basically divided into doping substances (stimulants, narcotic analgesics, anabolic agents, diuretics, peptide and glycoprotein hormones and analogues), doping methods (blood doping, pharmacological, chemical and physical manipulation) and drugs subjected to certain restrictions (alcohol, marijuana, local anesthetics, corticosteroids and beta-blockers). Although there might be some medical conditions, which could legitimate the need of these substances or methods, there is no place for their use in sport. Thus, an athlete's consume of any of these substances or methods will result in disqualification. Aim of the present review is to provide a synthetic description of both the desirable effects and the potentially harmful consequences of the use of some of the major doping substances and methods.