Morgan, Haydn J.; Bush, Anthony J.
Reducing social exclusion through interventions designed to sustain school engagement is a key aim of the education and social policy of any government. This paper is a response to the call for there to be more focused empirical sports coaching research through examining the transformative potential of community-based sports coaches to support…
Kihl, Lisa A; Tainsky, Scott; Babiak, Kathy; Bang, Hyejin
Corporate community initiatives (CCI) are often established via cross-sector partnerships with nonprofit agencies to address critical social problems. While there is a growing body of literature exploring the effectiveness and social impact of these partnerships, there is a limited evaluative research on the implementation and execution processes of CCIs. In this paper, we examined the implementation and operational processes in the delivery of a professional sport organization's CCI initiative using program theory evaluation. The findings showed discrepancies between the associate organization and the implementers regarding understanding and fulfilling responsibilities with performing certain aspects (maintaining accurate records and program marketing) of the service delivery protocol. Despite program stakeholders being satisfied overall with the program delivery, contradictions between program stakeholders' satisfaction in the quality of program delivery was found in critical components (marketing and communications) of the service delivery. We conclude that ongoing evaluations are necessary to pinpoint the catalyst of the discrepancies along with all partners valuing process evaluation in addition to outcome evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sixto González Víllora
Full Text Available TIn this paper a wide analysis of bibliography related to the definition of sport initiation in the last decades is presented for this reason we have carried out a new view of the concept of games teaching in the early years from three points of view. First, teaching methods that have focused now on product, rather than on results. Second, teaching games concept has evolved from vertical to thematic approaches. Third, the context where sport is carried out, outlining leisure-health, education and competition-high performance. Finally we state that coexist as a result of linking this three points of view. One is more traditional, focusing games teaching on product, one sport and, in a certain way, on performance. On the other hand, second perspective is more focused on process, on thematic approaches and educational or leisure goals.
Irwin, Carol; Irwin, Richard; Richey, Phyllis; Miller, Maureen; Boddie, Justin; Dickerson, Teresa
Professional sports organizations in the United States have notable celebrity status, and several teams have used this "star power" to collaborate with local schools toward the goal of affecting childhood obesity (e.g., NFL Play 60). Program effectiveness is unknown owing to the absence of comprehensive evaluations for any of these initiatives. In 2006, the Memphis Grizzlies, the city's National Basketball Association (NBA) franchise, launched "Get Fit with the Grizzlies," a 6-week, curricular addition focusing on nutrition and physical activity for the 4th and 5th grades in Memphis City Schools. The health-infused mini-unit was delivered by the physical education teachers during their classes. National and local sponsors whose business objectives matched the "Get Fit" objectives were solicited to fund the program. Here we highlight the program evaluation results from the first year of "Get Fit" and the Journal of School Health article. However, the "Get Fit" program has now taken place in Memphis area schools for 5 years. During the 2010-11 school-year, "Get Fit" evolved into a new program called "Healthy Home Court" with Kellogg's as the primary sponsor. "Healthy Home Court" included the original fitness part of the program and added a breakfast component at high schools where data indicated great need. Kellogg's sponsored special "carts" with healthy breakfast options (i.e., fruit, protein bars) for students to grab and eat. This program matched their existing program "Food Away from Home." Research supports the objectives of these programs and has shown that breakfast consumption can have a positive impact on academic achievement, behavior in school, and overall health status. Survey research employed over the first 4 years measured health knowledge acquisition and health behavior change using a matched pre/post test design (n=2210) in randomly chosen schools (n=18) from all elementary schools in the Memphis area. McNemar's test for significance (breakfast
Warner, Stacy; Dixon, Marlene A.
Student affairs personnel are often charged with the task of creating a sense of community on campuses. Sports is among the many activities that historically have been used to meet this need for community among students. Yet, how and when a sense of community is created within a sports context has not been appropriately addressed in literature.…
Frisch, Anne; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel
Sports injuries in young athletes are a public health issue which deserves special attention. Effective prevention can be achieved with training programmes originating from the field of physical therapy and medicine. A systematic literature search on injury prevention in youth sport was performed in the MEDLINE database. For prevention programmes to reduce sports injuries, critical factors must be considered, such as training content, duration and frequency, as well as athlete compliance. Home-based programmes could be inferior to supervised training, but are efficient if compliance is high. So far prevention programmes have focused on team sports and their efficiency in individual sports remains to be proven. Active prevention programmes focusing specifically on the upper extremity are scarce. Initiatives enhancing the awareness of trainers, athletes and therapists about risk factors and systematic prevention measures should be encouraged.
The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship among community spirit, community identification, and community loyalty of online sports community user. To accomplish the purpose of the study, adult users of "N" research engine are subjected to questionnaire. Based on convenience sampling, 383 questionnaires are used for final data analysis. By utilizing SPSS 21.0, frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, simple regression analysis and multiple regression...
Spaaij, R.; Oxford, S.; Jeanes, R.
The value of sport as a vehicle for social development and progressive social change has been much debated, yet what tends to get missed in this debate is the way education may foster, enable or impede the transformative action that underpins the social outcomes to which the ‘sport for development
Ekegren, C L; Gabbe, B J; Finch, C F
A lack of available injury data on community sports participants has hampered the development of informed preventive strategies for the broad-base of sports participation. In community sports settings, sports trainers or first-aiders are well-placed to carry out injury surveillance, but few studies have evaluated their ability to do so. The aim of this study was to investigate the reporting rate and completeness of sports trainers' injury records and agreement between sports trainers' and players' reports of injury in community Australian football. Throughout the football season, one sports trainer from each of four clubs recorded players' injuries. To validate these data, we collected self-reported injury data from players via short message service (SMS). In total, 210 discrete injuries were recorded for 139 players, 21% by sports trainers only, 59% by players via SMS only, and 21% by both. Completeness of injury records ranged from 95% to 100%. Agreement between sports trainers and players ranged from K = 0.32 (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.37) for date of return to football to K = 1.00 for activity when injured. Injury data collected by sports trainers may be of adequate quality for providing an understanding of the profile of injuries. However, data are likely to underestimate injury rates and should be interpreted with caution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; King, Lesley; Hardy, Louise; Farrell, Louise
Overweight and obesity in Australia is an emerging health concern. Obesity prevention initiatives must consider both physical activity and nutrition to be effective. Community sports venues have the capacity to promote healthy lifestyles through physical activity as well as healthy food choices. A telephone survey was conducted on parents of children aged 5-17 years in NSW to determine the nature of food and beverages purchased by children at community sporting venues and to determine parent's perception of the role that government should play in regulating the types of food and beverages sold at these outlets. The majority of canteens at children's sporting venues were considered to sell mostly unhealthy food and beverages (53%). Very few parents reported that canteens sold mostly healthy food and beverages. Parents reported that their child's most frequently purchased food and beverage items at outdoor sports fields were water, chocolate and confectionery, soft drink and sports drinks, and ice cream. At community swimming pools the most frequently purchased items were ice cream, followed by snack foods, including chips, cakes and biscuits. Most parents (63%) agreed that government should restrict the types of food and beverages that can be sold at children's sporting venues. Children are receiving inconsistent health messages at sporting venues, with healthy lifestyles being promoted through sports participation, but unhealthy dietary choices being provided at sports canteens.
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
Sponsorship is recognised as a significant marketing tool and restricting unhealthy food sponsorship of children's sport has been recommended by leading health agencies as a contribution towards preventing childhood obesity. This study aimed to determine the junior sporting community's support for policy interventions to restrict unhealthy food sponsorship. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with parents (n=200) and officials (n=20), and with governing sporting associations (n=20). Questionnaires measured respondents' attitudes towards sponsorship and support for sponsorship regulations. Many officials and parents perceived children to be 'very' influenced by elite sport sponsorship (65% of association officials, 53% of parents and 45% of club officials). Children were thought to be less influenced by sponsorship of their own sporting clubs (10%, 11% and 10%, respectively). However, 50% of officials and 70% of parents supported restrictions to children's sport sponsorship. Respondents were most supportive of restricting the use of unhealthy food logos on children's uniforms. Restricting unhealthy food sponsorship is supported by the sporting community and policy change is needed to reduce the perceived impact of this marketing. Alternative funding mechanisms have the potential to maintain sport funding whilst reducing promotional opportunities for unhealthy food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Griffiths, Mark; Armour, Kathleen
The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach…
Cronin, Colum; Armour, Kathleen M.
Coaching in the participation domain is the act of coaching participants that are less intensely engaged in sport than performance orientated athletes. This form of coaching is a popular activity occurring in community settings such as schools or sport clubs, and it is often undertaken with a broad range of social and health outcomes in mind. The…
The purpose of this paper is to share how sport was used to build relationships between Monash University (Gippsland campus) pre-service education and six rural primary schools during semester one, 2012. Not only was sport used to build partnerships but also to deliver quality Health and Physical Education lessons, offering children sporting…
Smith, Brian; Sharma, Priya; Hooper, Paula
This paper describes the forms of knowledge used by players of fantasy sports, games where players create ideal sports teams and compete to accumulate points based on professional athletes' statistical performances. Messages from a discussion forum associated with a popular fantasy basketball game were analyzed to understand how players described…
Warner, Stacy; Dixon, Marlene A.; Chalip, Laurence
As the popularity of sport continues to grow, more community developers, planners, and leaders are recognizing the ability for sport to foster community. Similar to other community contexts, understanding the structure and management of sport remains central to community building. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explain how sport system…
Newton, Joshua D; White, Peta E; Ewing, Michael T; Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin A; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Seward, Hugh; Finch, Caroline F
Sporting bodies have developed guidelines for managing community-level players with suspected concussion in response to international consensus statements on concussion in sport. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence the intended use of concussion guidelines among community-level coaches and sports trainers from two popular football codes in Australia: Australian football and rugby league. Cross-sectional survey. The survey, based on an extended theory of planned behaviour model, was completed by 183 Australian football coaches, 121 Australian football sports trainers, 171 rugby league coaches, and 142 rugby league sports trainers. Personal norms and self-efficacy were significant predictors of intention to use concussion guidelines, although the relationship between self-efficacy and intention was stronger among Australian football coaches than rugby league coaches. Analysis of the salient beliefs that underpin self-efficacy found that coaches, irrespective of football code, felt less familiar (χ(2)=25.70, psports trainers in using the concussion guidelines. At the same time, Australian football personnel, irrespective of their team role, felt that they had insufficient time (χ(2)=8.04, psport concussion guidelines should focus on enhancing self-efficacy and leveraging personal norms. Increasing coaches' familiarity and experience in using the concussion guidelines would also be warranted, as would finding ways to overcome the perceived time and resource constraints identified among Australian football personnel. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donohue, Brad; Silver, N. Clayton; Dickens, Yani; Covassin, Tracey; Lancer, Kevin
The Sport Interference Checklist (SIC) was developed in 141 athletes to assist in the concurrent assessment of cognitive and behavioral problems experienced by athletes in both training (Problems in Sports Training Scale, PSTS) and competition (Problems in Sports Competition Scale, PSCS). An additional scale (Desire for Sport Psychology Scale,…
Svender, Jenny; Larsson, Hakan; Redelius, Karin
What does it mean to promote girls' participation in sports and which girls are seen as needing support? In this article we focus a government-financed sports venture and scrutinize the frames governing what is possible to say about girls and their participation in sports. By analyzing project applications from local sport clubs we investigate how…
Guo, Xiujin; Dai, Jian; Xun, Pengcheng; Jamieson, Lynn M; He, Ka
Increased sport facility proximity is associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations in western studies, but it is uncertain whether the findings can be generalized to the Chinese population. From September 2012 to December 2012, 3926 participants drawn from China using a multi-stage sampling strategy were invited to participate in the Study of Community Sports in China. Participants' demographics, commuting time to the nearest sport facility and PA levels were assessed. Among 3926 participants included (51.2% female) in the final analysis, 878 (22.4%) of them met the PA recommendation. Participants who spent ≥30 minutes in commuting time had 80% odds [odds ratio (OR): 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.98)] of meeting the PA recommendation compared to those who spent less than 10 minutes. For every 10-minute increment in commuting time, the odds reduced by 6% [OR = 0.94 (0.88-0.99)]. The observed associations were not appreciably modified by age, gender or education level. In this cross-sectional community-based study, we found that residents in China were less likely to meet the PA recommendation if they needed more commuting time to the nearest sport facility. Increasing sport facility proximity may be effective in improving the PA levels in the Chinese population.
A questionnaire was used to assess barriers to sports and recreation participation among men and women of the three communities in five barrier categories: aptitude, socio-economic, socio-cultural, awareness of facilities and facility constraints. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. T-test was used to ...
Munson, Richard James; Sweeney, Dave; Rule, James
Widnes Vikings and Halton CCG Partnership: Widnes Vikings and Halton Clinical Commissioning Group have developed a working partnership which is focused on delivering innovative projects that lead to tangible health benefits for the local community. One example of this is their work on the successful World Record attempt for the most people participating in a group exercise video. Over 3,000 people of all ages and backgrounds from the community participated in the attempt the Vikings stadium, ...
Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, R J; Sarmiento, Kelly
Concussions remain a serious public health concern. It is important that persons involved in youth sports, particularly coaches, be made aware and educated on the signs and symptoms of concussion. This study assessed the perceptions of youth sport coaches who have received the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) "Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports" materials in preventing, recognizing, and responding to concussions. A 22-item survey was developed with questions pertaining to demographics, awareness of sports-related concussion, and the usefulness of the CDC's "Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports" initiative and materials. A total of 340 youth sport coaches completed the survey, for a response rate of 34.0%. All youth sport coaches reported having the "Heads Up" materials for approximately 6 months before completing the survey. Seventy-seven percent of youth sports coaches reported being better able to identify athletes who may have a concussion, with 50% reported having learned something new about concussion after reviewing the materials. Sixty-three percent of youth sport coaches viewed concussions as being more serious, while 72% of coaches reporting that they are now educating others on concussion. The "Heads Up" materials demonstrated that youth sports coaches' were able to appropriately prevent, recognize, and respond to sports-related concussions after reviewing the materials. Future studies should concentrate on evaluating the impact of concussion policies, laws and media coverage on coaches' awareness and prevention, recognition, and response to concussions using a rigorous design including a control group. © 2012, American School Health Association.
Rowland, Bosco C; Wolfenden, Luke; Gillham, Karen; Kingsland, Melanie; Richardson, Ben; Wiggers, John
Community sports clubs provide an important contribution to the health and wellbeing of individuals and the community; however, they have also been associated with risky alcohol consumption. This study assessed whether a club's alcohol management strategies were related to risky alcohol consumption by members and levels of social capital, as measured in terms of participation in and perceived safety of the club. A total of 723 sports club members from 33 community football clubs in New South Wales, Australia, completed a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) and a management representative from each club also completed a CATI. The club representative reported on the club's implementation of 11 alcohol management practices, while club members reported their alcohol consumption and perceived levels of safety at the club and participation in the club. A structural equation model identified having the bar open for more than four hours; having alcohol promotions; and serving intoxicated patrons were associated with increased risky alcohol consumption while at the club; which in turn was associated with lower levels of perceived club safety and member participation. The positive contribution of community sports clubs to the community may be diminished by specific inadequate alcohol management practices. Changing alcohol management practices can reduce alcohol consumption, and possibly increase perceived aspects of social capital, such as safety and participation. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John W; Allen, Felicity
The Good Sports program uses a systematic accreditation process to implement gradual alcohol-related harm-reduction strategies in Australian community sports clubs that aim to reduce the incidence of harmful alcohol-related behaviors, such as drink driving. This study tested whether the Good Sports program reduced the incidence of drink driving and whether reductions are related to the level of program implementation. An adoption versus nonadoption pilot study was undertaken with 65 cricket and 48 Australian Football League clubs (N = 1,968 individuals). Associations between the stage of accreditation (Stage 1 and Stage 2) and the likelihood of driving with an illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were examined. Alcohol-use diary accounts were used to calculate BAC before driving home from the club. The percentage of club members driving at least once in the previous week with a BAC estimate greater than .05% (the legal limit in Australia) was lower in clubs that had achieved Stage 2 Good Sports accreditation (7%, 95% CI [5%, 9%]) than those that had not (8%, 95% CI [6%, 9%]), but this was not significantly different. However, multilevel modeling identified a larger number of the safe-transport strategies, implemented as part of Stage 2 accreditation, which were associated with a significantly lower probability of drink driving. Being a risky drinker at the club, and the average number of risky drinkers at the club, was also predictive of drink driving. The findings of this pilot study suggest that implementation of the Good Sports program is likely to have a significant effect on harms associated with drink driving in Australia and elsewhere. Further community studies will be required, however, to examine precisely how the program is achieving improvements and whether it can be refined to have a greater impact in both Australia and overseas.
Full Text Available The Health through Sport conceptual model links sport participation with physical, social and psychological outcomes and stresses the need for more understanding between these outcomes. The present study aims to uncover how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated by examining these outcomes in one model.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine disadvantaged communities in Antwerp (Belgium. Two hundred adults (aged 18-56 per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study.Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that sport participation (β = .095 and not total physical activity (β = .027 was associated with better mental health. No association was found between sport participation and community social capital (β = .009 or individual social capital (β = .045. Furthermore, only community social capital was linked with physical activity (β = .114, individual social capital was not (β = -.013. In contrast, only individual social capital was directly associated with mental health (β = .152, community social capital was not (β = .070.This study emphasizes the importance of sport participation and individual social capital to improve mental health in disadvantaged communities. It further gives a unique insight into the functionalities of how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated. Implications for policy are that cross-sector initiatives between the sport, social and health sector need to be supported as their outcomes are directly linked to one another.
Marlier, Mathieu; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Babiak, Kathy; Willem, Annick
Background The Health through Sport conceptual model links sport participation with physical, social and psychological outcomes and stresses the need for more understanding between these outcomes. The present study aims to uncover how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated by examining these outcomes in one model. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine disadvantaged communities in Antwerp (Belgium). Two hundred adults (aged 18–56) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Results Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that sport participation (β = .095) and not total physical activity (β = .027) was associated with better mental health. No association was found between sport participation and community social capital (β = .009) or individual social capital (β = .045). Furthermore, only community social capital was linked with physical activity (β = .114), individual social capital was not (β = -.013). In contrast, only individual social capital was directly associated with mental health (β = .152), community social capital was not (β = .070). Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of sport participation and individual social capital to improve mental health in disadvantaged communities. It further gives a unique insight into the functionalities of how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated. Implications for policy are that cross-sector initiatives between the sport, social and health sector need to be supported as their outcomes are directly linked to one another. PMID:26451731
Marlier, Mathieu; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Babiak, Kathy; Willem, Annick
The Health through Sport conceptual model links sport participation with physical, social and psychological outcomes and stresses the need for more understanding between these outcomes. The present study aims to uncover how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated by examining these outcomes in one model. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine disadvantaged communities in Antwerp (Belgium). Two hundred adults (aged 18-56) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that sport participation (β = .095) and not total physical activity (β = .027) was associated with better mental health. No association was found between sport participation and community social capital (β = .009) or individual social capital (β = .045). Furthermore, only community social capital was linked with physical activity (β = .114), individual social capital was not (β = -.013). In contrast, only individual social capital was directly associated with mental health (β = .152), community social capital was not (β = .070). This study emphasizes the importance of sport participation and individual social capital to improve mental health in disadvantaged communities. It further gives a unique insight into the functionalities of how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated. Implications for policy are that cross-sector initiatives between the sport, social and health sector need to be supported as their outcomes are directly linked to one another.
Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F
The use of text messaging or short message service (SMS) for injury reporting is a recent innovation in sport and has not yet been trialled at the community level. Considering the lack of personnel and resources in community sport, SMS may represent a viable option for ongoing injury surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of injury self-reporting via SMS in community Australian football. A total of 4 clubs were randomly selected from a possible 22 men's community Australian football clubs. Consenting players received an SMS after each football round game asking whether they had been injured in the preceding week. Outcome variables included the number of SMS-reported injuries, players' response rates and response time. Poisson regression was used to evaluate any change in response rate over the season and the association between response rate and the number of reported injuries. The sample of 139 football players reported 167 injuries via SMS over the course of the season. The total response rate ranged from 90% to 98%. Of those participants who replied on the same day, 47% replied within 5 min. The number of reported injuries decreased as the season progressed but this was not significantly associated with a change in the response rate. The number of injuries reported via SMS was consistent with previous studies in community Australian football. Injury reporting via SMS yielded a high response rate and fast response time and should be considered a viable injury reporting method for community sports settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carcione, Brian; Wood, Lance; Maloney, Joseph; Estupinan, Jeral; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Blottman, Peter; Rozumalski, Robert A.
The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can be used to initialize local model runs within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). These real-time datasets consist of surface-based information updated at least once per day, and produced in a composite or gridded product that is easily incorporated into the WRF EMS. The primary goal for making these NASA datasets available to the WRF EMS community is to provide timely and high-quality information at a spatial resolution comparable to that used in the local model configurations (i.e., convection-allowing scales). The current suite of SPoRT products supported in the WRF EMS include a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent, a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. The SPoRT SST composite is a blend of primarily the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System data for non-precipitation coverage over the oceans at 2-km resolution. The composite includes a special lake surface temperature analysis over the Great Lakes using contributions from the Remote Sensing Systems temperature data. The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Ice Percentage product is used to create a sea-ice mask in the SPoRT SST composite. The sea-ice mask is produced daily (in-season) at 1.8-km resolution and identifies ice percentage from 0 100% in 10% increments, with values above 90% flagged as ice.
Hill, Andrew P.; Appleton, Paul R.; Mallinson, Sarah H.
Valid and reliable instruments are required to appropriately study perfectionism. With this in mind, three studies are presented that describe the development and initial validation of a new instrument designed to measure multidimensional performance perfectionism for use in sport (Performance Perfectionism Scale--Sport [PPS-S]). The instrument is…
Full Text Available The processes of incorporation of young migrants have been studied using a range of new approaches. Among them, sports and physical activity have been claimed as a space for social and cultural integration. To date, most research has been based mainly on ethnographic and grassroots perspectives to better understand the experiences of sports practices of migrants and their families. However, fewer contributions have focused on the political discourse on sports as a field of integration. This article explores methodological challenges arosen when choosing sports policies as a field of study. The main methodological challenges considered include the contested conceptualizations of the target population in sports initiatives and the development of comparative selection criteria for different levels of institutional participants. An indepth analysis of these methodological issues can help to reflect on the ideological constructs of sports as a field of integration and highlight the contribution of the political sociological perspective to existing migration studies.
Kyles, Carli; Lounsbery, Monica
The purpose of this article is to emphasize the need to develop unique physical activity and sport programs that specifically target the participation of nonathletic and nonactive girls. In addition, the authors provide an overview of an example of one such program, Project Destiny. A description of Project Destiny is provided in terms of its…
Kelly, Bridget; King, Lesley; Bauman, Adrian E; Baur, Louise A; Macniven, Rona; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
Children's high participation in organised sport in Australia makes sport an ideal setting for health promotion. This study aimed to generate consensus on priority health promotion objectives for community sports clubs, based on informed expert judgements. Delphi survey using three structured questionnaires. Forty-six health promotion, nutrition, physical activity and sport management/delivery professionals were approached to participate in the survey. Questionnaires used an iterative process to determine aspects of sports clubs deemed necessary for developing healthy sporting environments for children. Initially, participants were provided with a list of potential standards for a range of health promotion areas and asked to rate standards based on their importance and feasibility, and any barriers to implementation. Subsequently, participants were provided with information that summarised ratings for each standard to indicate convergence of the group, and asked to review and potentially revise their responses where they diverged. In a third round, participants ranked confirmed standards by priority. 26 professionals completed round 1, 21 completed round 2, and 18 completed round 3. The highest ranked standards related to responsible alcohol practices, availability of healthy food and drinks at sports canteens, smoke-free club facilities, restricting the sale and consumption of alcohol during junior sporting activities, and restricting unhealthy food and beverage company sponsorship. Identifying and prioritising health promotion areas that are relevant to children's sports clubs assists in focusing public health efforts and may guide future engagement of sports clubs. Approaches for providing informational and financial support to clubs to operationalise these standards are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hungary also has seen a tremendous increase in quality golf facilities in the last decade. The sport of golf – including golf tourism – in Hungary also makes it first moves to be officially (reunified with its historical partners in Western Europe and in the USA. This paper looks at developments in Hungarian Golf community in the last decades. While focusing on the ongoing economic, financial, and political changes surrounding the Hungarian National Golf Federation, this study also poses some questions. To what extent mushrooming of golf communities could be seen as a result of Europeanization of the country? Is it just a new achievement in PGA America’s global explosion? Can we see it as the benefit of the European Team’s astronomical success at the Ryder Cup tournaments?
Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard
Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts. Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers. Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites. Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities. So what?: Alternative approaches can extend the health benefits of sport participation to disadvantaged children and youth who are excluded from traditional sport participation opportunities.
Full Text Available Researchers have positioned renewable energy as sustainable and able to mitigate environmental issues associated with fossil fuels. Further, sustainable initiatives have been offered as a point of differentiation for brands. In order to reap the benefits of such differentiation, managers must communicate the initiatives to relevant stakeholders. The research question guiding the current investigation thus was: What is the communication by Canadian sport stadium operators to calls for sustainable initiatives, specifically in the area of renewable energy? The examination included the 15 sport stadiums that hosted a professional team in Canada and their web-based stadium communications on renewable energy (SCORE. Understandings and competencies in renewable energy are proposed as a new function of sport stadium management; communication of these competencies is seen as a key point of differentiation and best practice.
Kleindienst, Viola K.; Weston, Arthur
This book is designed for those wishing to acquire a specific and comprehensive knowledge of the recreational sports program and an understanding of its place and value in education and society. Part one describes the recreational sports program in education with stress on its historical evolution and philosophical foundations. Special attention…
Paula A White
Full Text Available Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014, this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.
Kubayi, Alliance; Toriola, Abel; Didymus, Faye
The aim of this series of studies was to develop and initially validate an instrument to assess stressors among South African sports coaches. In study one, a preliminary pool of 45 items was developed based on existing literature and an expert panel was employed to assess the content validity and applicability of these items. In study two, the 32 items that were retained after study one were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). The resultant factorial structure comprised four components: environmental stressors, performance stressors, task-related stressors, and athlete stressors. These four components were made up of 26 items and, together, the components and items comprised the provisional Stressors in Sports Coaching Questionnaire (SSCQ). The results show that the SSCQ demonstrates acceptable internal consistency (.73-.89). The findings provide preliminary evidence that SSCQ is a valid tool to assess stressors among South African sports coaches.
The focus of this article is on the management and social impacts of sport tourism events on the host community. This article specifically evaluates the Red Bull Big Wave Africa (RBBWA) event as a case study. Of cognisance is the host community\\'s involvement, perceptions, attitudes and an understanding of costs and ...
Myer, Gregory D.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Best, Thomas M.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Hewett, Timothy E.
Regular participation in organized youth sports does not ensure adequate exposure to skill- and health-related fitness activities; and sport training without preparatory conditioning does not appear to reduce risk of injury in young athletes. Recent trends indicate that widespread participation in organized youth sports is occurring at a younger age, especially in girls. Current public health recommendations developed to promote muscle strengthening and bone building activities for youth aged 6 and older, along with increased involvement in competitive sport activities at younger ages, has increased interest and concern from parents, clinicians, coaches and teachers regarding the optimal age to encourage and integrate more specialized physical training into youth development programs. This review synthesizes the latest literature and expert opinion regarding when to initiate neuromuscular conditioning in youth and presents a how to integrative training conceptual model that could maximize the potential health-related benefits for children by reducing sports-related injury risk and encouraging lifelong regular physical activity. PMID:21623307
Kurc, Andrew R; Leatherdale, Scott T
To examine how social support, participation in intramurals, varsity and community sports are associated with physical activity among Ontario secondary school students, and explore gender differences in the prevalence of physical activity and participation in school- and community-based sports. Data from 25,416 students (grades 9-12) attending 76 Ontario secondary schools were collected using the School Health Action, Planning, and Evaluation System (SHAPES). Logistic regression analyses examined how social support and school- and community-based sports participation were associated with physical activity. Males and females with low social support for physical activity were less likely to be active than their lower-risk peers (males: OR 0.61; females: OR 0.72). Males and females were more likely to be active if they participated in intramural activities (males: OR 1.92; females: OR 1.55), varsity sports (males: OR 1.93; females: OR 1.77), or community sports (males: OR 2.84; females: OR 2.90). Since students with low social support for physical activity were less likely to be active, interventions to increase support and engagement in physical activity should be targeted to these students. In addition, considering that participation in school- and community-based sports increases the likelihood that students were active, practitioners should seek to enhance opportunities for participation in and access to these programs in order to increase the level of activity obtained by students.
Carolina Fernandes da Silva
Full Text Available People usually start thinking about death when something tragic happens, including in the sport context. At the beginning of 20th century, in South Brazil, four rowers died while they practiced their sport, coming back from an excursion to an island near to Porto Alegre, the capital city of Rio Grande do Sul, where they lived. Following the tragedy, the newspapers published details, both of the tragedy itself, and the ensuing commotion of society, with reflections about life, its fragility and death. This sporting tragedy is a suitable example for trying to understand the way we think about death in sport, given its vast newspaper coverage and the effort to remember the event throughout the 20th century. The interpretation of newspaper sources and reflections on the event will also be considered through the lens of the philosophy of existence of Martin Heidegger. The sources revealed that the shipwreck tragedy made it possible for people to realize that being mortal affects us existentially – that we can never return back to this moment (it is fleeting, it is here and then gone, that we have to make choices that we cannot take back, and that we ourselves are finite beings.
Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Gil-Lacruz, Marta; Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel
To analyse the association between perceived and diagnosed health, sport practice, and the belonging to a vulnerable socioeconomic group. Observational study. Questionnaire. Casablanca neighbourhood. Primary Health Care Area in the city of Zaragoza (Spain). 1032 residents aged over 15 years. a) Perceived health using the Health Perception Questionnaire of Davis and Ware; b) diagnosed morbidity; c) sport practice using the Healthy Lifestyles questionnaire-94 of Herrero, Musitu and Gracia, and d) socioeconomic vulnerability based on the occupational, educational and economic conditions of the family unit. Socioeconomic vulnerability had a statistically significant association with diagnosed health, self-perceived health, and sport practice. Vulnerability and exercise showed a higher influence over self-perceived health than over diagnosed health. In the analysis stratified by gender, the association could only be observed in men. The impact of health social factors is modulated by gender. Social stratification and lifestyles, such as sport practice, are predictors of self-perceived health and, thus, of the relationship between the population and the use of health services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Case, Jonathan L.; Lafontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Rozumalski, Robert A.
The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can initialize specific fields for local model runs within the NOAA/NWS Science and Training Resource Center Environmental Modeling System (EMS). The suite of SPoRT products for use in the EMS consists of a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite that includes a Lake Surface Temperature (LST) analysis over the Great Lakes, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent within the SST composite, a real-time Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and NASA Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. This paper and companion poster describe each dataset and provide recent upgrades made to the SST, Great Lakes LST, GVF composites, and the real-time LIS runs.
Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, R. J.; Sarmiento, Kelly
Background: Concussions remain a serious public health concern. It is important that persons involved in youth sports, particularly coaches, be made aware and educated on the signs and symptoms of concussion. This study assessed the perceptions of youth sport coaches who have received the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's…
International audience; Football Manager is one of the most popular sports management video games. For twenty years now, it has been a best seller in all the countries of the world where football is culturally important. Its purpose is to simulate a manager's career with an emphasis on data analysis and number crunching, especially the football match scenario and the football players' quantified characteristics. The claimed realism of the game is therefore based, among other things, on the re...
Tsuji, Taishi; Miyaguni, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Satoru; Hanazato, Masamichi; Kondo, Katsunori
Community-level group participation is a structural aspect of social capital that may have a contextual influence on an individual's health. Herein, we sought to investigate a contextual relationship between community-level prevalence of sports group participation and depressive symptoms in older individuals. We used data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), a population-based, cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥65 years without long-term care needs in Japan. Overall, 74,681 participants in 516 communities were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were diagnosed as the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥5. Participation in a sports group 1 day/month or more often was defined as "participation." For this study, we applied two-level multilevel Poisson regression analysis stratified by sex, calculated prevalence ratios (PRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, 17,420 individuals (23.3%) had depressive symptoms, and 16,915 (22.6%) participated in a sports group. Higher prevalence of community-level sports group participation had a statistically significant relationship with a lower likelihood of depressive symptoms (male, PR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.85-0.92; female, PR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99, estimated by 10% of participation proportion) after adjusting for individual-level sports group participation, age, diseases, family form, alcohol, smoking, education, equivalent income, and population density. We found statistically significant cross-level interaction terms in males only (PR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.77-0.95). We found a contextual preventive relationship between community-level sports group participation and depressive symptoms in older individuals. Therefore, promoting sports groups in a community may be effective as a population-based strategy for the prevention of depression in older individuals. Furthermore, the benefit may favor male sports group participants.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the
It stresses the need for respect for the cultural lifestyles of indigenous peoples, because traditional knowledge can build on the scientific knowledge of our country's aquatic ecosystems. Keywords: grassroots communities; cultural awareness; community participation; participatory methods; South Africa African Journal of ...
Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence
When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…
Jacobs, Jennifer M.; Castañeda, Amy; Castañeda, Rob
Rob and Amy Castañeda, the co-founders of a sports/play-based youth and community development organization called Beyond the Ball (www.beyondtheball.org), cite the collaborative and dynamic nature of the TPSR Alliance as an important influence for their work. Beyond the Ball serves individuals between kindergarten and post-college, in the North…
Eller, Ronald; Martinez, Ruben; Pace, Cynthia; Pavel, Michael; Garza, Hector; Barnett, Lynn
This report addresses the Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) from the American Association of Community Colleges, which seeks to enhance the capacity of targeted community colleges to expand access to postsecondary education and help foster regional economic development. The Ford Foundation has made a decade-long commitment to community…
This paper first reviews the influence that European Communities fiscal policies have had in the past on the development of more environmentally compatible fuels such as unleaded gasoline. It then discusses which directions fiscal policy makers should take in order to create appropriate financial incentives encouraging the production and use of biomass derived fuels - methanol, ethanol and pure and transesterified vegetable oils. An assessment is made of the efficacy of a recent European Communities proposal which calls for the application of excise tax reductions on bio-fuels. Attention is given to the net effects due to reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide emissions characterizing bio-fuels and the increased use of fertilizers necessary to produce biomass fuels
Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee
Health message sponsorship at community sport and arts events is an established component of a health promotion settings approach. Recent increases in commercial sponsorship of sport and community events has swelled competition for consumer attention and potentially reduced the impact of health message sponsorship. The purpose of this study was to evaluate awareness, understandings and behavioural intentions of health messages promoted at sponsored community sport and arts events. Interview and self-administered surveys were completed by 2259 adults attending one of 29 sport and arts events held in Western Australia between 2008 and 2013. The surveys measured participant awareness of the health message promoted at the event, as well as comprehension, acceptance and behavioural intention as a result of exposure to health messages. Awareness of the sponsored health message was 58% across all sponsored events, with high levels of comprehension (74%) and acceptance (92%) among those aware of the health message. Forming behavioural intentions was significantly related to the type of sponsored message promoted at the event, being female and over 40 years of age. Messages about sun protection and promoting mental health were the most likely to result in behavioural intention. Health message sponsorship, at least within a comprehensive sponsorship program, appears to remain an effective health promotion strategy for generating awareness and behavioural intention among people attending sport and arts events. Remaining relevant within a modern sponsorship environment appears closely aligned to selecting health messages that promote behavioural action relevant to the sponsored event that are also supported by broader health promotion campaigns.
The relevance of the relationship between evaluation and learning is widely acknowledged; as well as the importance of this learning process to support policy decision making and to judge the value of “what was done”, “how” and “with what results”. Although the activity of evaluation...... is not something new, but a field of knowledge with its own theories and practices, it is important to notice that there is great variability in the tradition and cultures of evaluation between countries. At the European level this issue gained a greater prominence with the publication of the Guide MEANS “Means...... for Evaluating Actions of a Structural Nature”, that in 1999 presented the main guidelines, standards and recommendations of the European Commission for the assessment of socio-economic development programs involving Community funding. Several were the changes proposed by this guide, among others, a greater...
Full Text Available The present essay, with theoretic nature, assumes as an object of study the exhibition of the fundamental guidelines, on a didactic model, of the initiation to combat sports. For that, the contributions of several different authors were analyzed, who, from different points of view, consider that the initiation to combat sports does not imply a specific knowledge on any of the subjects that compose them, but their integrated and cross-curricular treatment. These alternative conceptions decreases the importance of the specific technical models, through the strengthening of the common elements of the combat sports, highlighting what is usually called “fighting knowledge”; that is, the capacity that allows the fighter to find solutions for the different situations that take place during a fight.
Eller, Ronald; Martinez, Ruben; Pace, Cynthia; Pavel, Michael; Barnett, Lynn
This Project Brief focuses on the Ford Foundation's Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI), which aims to help selected community colleges in distressed communities expand their capacity to increase access to postsecondary education and to foster regional economic development. RCCI is geared to specific geographic regions where communities face…
Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Rozumalski, Robert A.
The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can initialize specific fields for local model runs within the NOAA/NWS Science and Training Resource Center (STRC) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). In last year's NWA abstract on this topic, the suite of SPoRT products supported in the STRC EMS was presented, which includes a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent, a Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and NASA Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. This abstract and companion presentation describes recent upgrades made to the SST and GVF composites, as well as the real-time LIS runs. The Great Lakes sea-ice product is unchanged from 2011. The SPoRT SST composite product has been expanded geographically and as a result, the resolution has been coarsened from 1 km to 2 km to accommodate the larger domain. The expanded domain covers much of the northern hemisphere from eastern Asia to western Europe (0 N to 80 N latitude and 150 E to 10 E longitude). In addition, the NESDIS POES-GOES product was added to fill in gaps caused by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) being unable to sense in cloudy regions, replacing the recently-lost Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS with negligible change to product fidelity. The SST product now runs twice per day for Terra and Aqua combined data collections from 0000 to 1200 UTC and from 1200 to 0000 UTC, with valid analysis times at 0600 and 1800 UTC. The twice-daily compositing technique reduces the overall latency of the previous version while still representing the diurnal cycle characteristics. The SST composites are available at approximately four hours after the end of each collection period (i.e. 1600 UTC for the nighttime analysis and 0400 UTC for the daytime analysis). The real-time MODIS GVF composite has only received minor updates in the
Pitt, Hannah; Thomas, Samantha L; Bestman, Amy
Harmful gambling is a significant public health issue. Alongside the rapid diversification of gambling products, are rapid increases in the marketing for specific types of gambling products, such as online wagering. While concern has been raised about the impact of gambling promotions during sporting matches on the gambling beliefs and behaviours of adolescents, very little research has explored adolescents' and parents' attitudes towards the marketing of gambling products within sport. A qualitative study was conducted with 59 family groups comprising of at least one parent and one adolescent (14-18 years old) in Victoria, Australia. Parents and adolescents were interviewed separately and asked questions relating to their gambling attitudes and behaviours. They were then brought together, and advertising reception techniques were utilised to prompt discussions about the marketing of gambling during sport. A thematic approach to analysis was used, constantly comparing similarities and differences between and across groups. Three main themes emerged. First, was initiation of sport as a platform for the promotion of gambling. Adolescents perceived that the use of embedded promotions (for example during the match) and the use of athletes in gambling promotions were significant mechanisms for creating an alignment between gambling companies and sporting teams and codes. Second, was the influence of marketing messages in creating a perception that gambling was always accessible, and was an integral part of the sporting experience. Third was the impact of marketing messages on adolescent's discourses about sport. Parents described that they had noticed that wagering, and 'odds' discussions, had become embedded in adolescents narratives about sporting matches. Gambling marketing during sport has significantly increased. While the gambling industry states that it does not aim to intentionally target young people, adolescents are increasingly aware of the relationship
Smith, Ann Marie; Hurst, Jeannine; Murakami, Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of faculty as they engaged in professional development under a Teacher Preparation Initiative (TPI). This initiative engaged faculty in a community of practice that included activities such as aligning curricula, professional development, and examining teaching practices. This study was…
Timpka, T; Lindqvist, K; Ekstrand, J; Karlsson, N
As physical activity is promoted as part of a healthy lifestyle, sports injuries are becoming an important public health concern in many countries. The objective of this study is to investigate rates of sports injuries before and after implementation of a WHO Safe Community program. Sports injury data were collected pre- and post-implementation from all individuals below 65 years of age during 1 year in the targeted municipality (population 41,000) and in a control municipality (population 26,000). A quasi-experimental design was used and individuals were divided into three categories based on household relationship to the labour market. There were no differences between socio-economic categories regarding pre-intervention injury rates. No statistically significant post-intervention changes in injury rate were observed in the control area or among any females in either area. In the intervention area, a statistically significant (p = 0.011) decrease in injury rate was observed among male members of households in which the vocationally important member was employed. A statistically significant decrease was observed in injuries sustained in team sports among male members of households in which the vocationally important member was employed (p = 0.001) and among members of households in which the vocationally important member was self employed (psports, and members of non-vocationally active households were less affected by the interventions. These facts have to be addressed in planning future community based sports injury prevention programmes and their evaluations.
Brown, Arleen F; Morris, D'Ann M; Kahn, Katherine L; Sankaré, Ibrahima C; King, Keyonna M; Vargas, Roberto; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Loretta F; Flowers, Astrea; Jones, Felica U; Bross, Rachelle; Banner, Dennishia; Del Pino, Homero E; Pitts, Orwilda L; Zhang, Lujia; Porter, Courtney; Madrigal, Sigrid K; Vassar, Stefanie D; Vangala, Sitaram; Liang, Li-Jung; Martinez, Arturo B; Norris, Keith C
To describe the design and rationale of the Healthy Community Neighborhood Initiative (HCNI), a multi-component study to understand and document health risk and resources in a low-income and minority community. A community-partnered participatory research project. A low-income, biethnic African American and Latino neighborhood in South Los Angeles. Adult community residents aged >18 years. Household survey and clinical data collection; neighborhood characteristics; neighborhood observations; and community resources asset mapping. We enrolled 206 participants (90% of those eligible), of whom 205 completed the household interview and examination, and 199 provided laboratory samples. Among enrollees, 82 (40%) were aged >50 years and participated in functional status measurement. We completed neighborhood observations on 93 street segments; an average of 2.2 (SD=1.6) study participants resided on each street segment observed. The community asset map identified 290 resources summarized in a Community Resource Guide given to all participants. The HCNI community-academic partnership has built a framework to assess and document the individual, social, and community factors that may influence clinical and social outcomes in a community at high-risk for preventable chronic disease. Our project suggests that a community collaborative can use culturally and scientifically sound strategies to identify community-centered health and social needs. Additional work is needed to understand strategies for developing and implementing interventions to mitigate these disparities.
Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Bergeron, Michael F; Hewett, Timothy E
Regular participation in organized youth sports does not ensure adequate exposure to skill- and health-related fitness activities, and sport training without preparatory conditioning does not appear to reduce risk of injury in young athletes. Current trends indicate that widespread participation in organized youth sports is occurring at a younger age, especially in girls. Current public health recommendations developed to promote muscle strengthening and bone building activities for youth aged 6 yr and older, along with increased involvement in competitive sport activities at younger ages, has increased interest and concern from parents, clinicians, coaches, and teachers regarding the optimal age to encourage and integrate more specialized physical training into youth development programs. This review synthesizes the latest literature and expert opinion regarding when to initiate neuromuscular conditioning in youth and presents a how-to integrative training conceptual model that could maximize the potential health-related benefits for children by reducing sports-related injury risk and encouraging lifelong, regular physical activity.
Goble, Daniel J; Manyak, Kristin A; Abdenour, Thomas E; Rauh, Mitchell J; Baweja, Harsimran S
As recently dictated by the American Medical Society, balance testing is an important component in the clinical evaluation of concussion. Despite this, previous research on the efficacy of balance testing for concussion diagnosis suggests low sensitivity (∼30%), based primarily on the popular Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The Balance Tracking System (BTrackS, Balance Tracking Systems Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) consists of a force plate (BTrackS Balance Plate) and software (BTrackS Sport Balance) which can quickly (balance testing with gold standard accuracy. The present study aimed to determine the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sports Balance Software for concussion diagnosis. Cross-Sectional Study. Preseason baseline balance testing of 519 healthy Division I college athletes playing sports with a relatively high risk for concussions was performed with the BTrackS Balance Test. Testing was administered by certified athletic training staff using the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software. Of the baselined athletes, 25 later experienced a concussion during the ensuing sport season. Post-injury balance testing was performed on these concussed athletes within 48 of injury and the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software was estimated based on the number of athletes showing a balance decline according to the criteria specified in the Sport Balance software. This criteria is based on the minimal detectable change statistic with a 90% confidence level (i.e. 90% specificity). Of 25 athletes who experienced concussions, 16 had balance declines relative to baseline testing results according to the BTrackS Sport Balance software criteria. This corresponds to an estimated concussion sensitivity of 64%, which is twice as great as that reported previously for the BESS. The BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software has the greatest concussion sensitivity of any balance testing instrument reported to date. Level 2
Full Text Available It was the purpose of this preliminary project to measure how individuals perceive the impacts of sport in such areas as the economy, the environment, culture, community image and the quality of life, among other areas. The instrument was initially field tested in 1999 with a sample of 702 residents in the North eastern part of the United States. Their views suggest that they perceive sports to make a generally positive contribution to their communities and the local region. Some negative impacts were also identified, mostly of an environmental nature. However, the findings suggest that sports for the most part are perceived to play a major role in the lives of people and contribute in significant ways to the economy, and community pride.
Rossato, Claire; Brackenridge, Celia
This article reports on the results of an online survey of child protection training for students on sport-related degrees and Initial Teacher Training Physical Education courses, and on the views of recently-graduated teachers of the usefulness of such training in their everyday work. The results indicate that child protection training is provided on most courses but in varying amounts. Respondents to the survey reported positively, in the main, about the effects of new requirements for te...
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore community perspectives on provider-initiated HIV testing. Design: The study was a cross-sectional descriptive design. The study used both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Multistage sampling was used to select households for interviews. Adults above 18 years of age ...
Treder, David; Kutash, Krista; Duchnowski, Albert J.; Rudo, Zena; Sumi, W. Carl; Harris, Karen M.; Nelson, Steven L.
The School, Family, and Community Partnership Program is an integrated, school-based intervention for improving the outcomes of students served in classrooms for children who have emotional and behavioral disabilities. This report briefly describes the intervention, the characteristics of the children, and initial results of measuring fidelity to…
Black, Alison; Costello, Rebecca; Craft, Anna; Katene, Will
Between 2011 and 2013, the Department for Education (DfE) in England made £3.3 million available to support the development of opportunities for young disabled people to access high-quality physical education and school sport. The DfE with the Youth Sport Trust (YST) developed a range of initiatives to help meet this aim, including Project…
Ransom, Jason I.
Population size of many threatened and endangered species is relatively unknown because estimating animal abundance in remote parts of the world, without access to aircraft for surveying vast areas, is a scientific challenge with few proposed solutions. One option is to enlist local community members and train them in data collection for large line transect or point count surveys, but financial and sometimes technological constraints prevent access to the necessary equipment and training for accurately quantifying distance measurements. Such measurements are paramount for generating reliable estimates of animal density. This problem was overcome in a survey of Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) in the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area, Mongolia, by converting an inexpensive optical sporting rangefinder into a species-specific rangefinder with visual-based categorical labels. Accuracy trials concluded 96.86% of 350 distance measures matched those from a laser rangefinder. This simple customized optic subsequently allowed for a large group of minimally-trained observers to simultaneously record quantitative measures of distance, despite language, education, and skill differences among the diverse group. The large community-based effort actively engaged local residents in species conservation by including them as the foundation for collecting scientific data.
Massoudi, Barbara L; Marcial, Laura H; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula
The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7-14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4-6). Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach
Casey, Meghan; Mooney, Amanda; Eime, Rochelle; Harvey, Jack; Smyth, John; Telford, Amanda; Payne, Warren
The engagement of adolescent girls in physical activity (PA) is a persistent challenge. School-based PA programs have often met with little success because of the lack of linkages between school and community PA settings. The Triple G program aimed to improve PA levels of secondary school girls (12-15 years) in regional Victoria, Australia. The program included a school-based physical education (PE) component that uniquely incorporated student-centered teaching and behavioral skill development. The school component was conceptually and practically linked to a community component that emphasized appropriate structures for participation. The program was informed by ethnographic fieldwork to understand the contextual factors that affect girls' participation in PA. A collaborative intervention design was undertaken to align with PE curriculum and coaching and instructional approaches in community PA settings. The theoretical framework for the intervention was the socioecological model that was underpinned by both individual-level (social cognitive theory) and organizational-level (building organizational/community capacity) strategies. The program model provides an innovative conceptual framework for linking school PE with community sport and recreation and may benefit other PA programs seeking to engage adolescent girls. The objective of this article is to describe program development and the unique theoretical framework and curriculum approaches.
Full Text Available The current study presents initial validation statistics for the Italian Mood Scale (ITAMS, a culturally- and linguistically-validated Italian version of the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS: Terry and Lane, 2010. The ITAMS was administered to 950 sport participants (659 females, who ranged in age from 16 to 63 years (M = 25.03, SD = 7.62. In the first stage of the validation process, statistical procedures in Mplus were used to evaluate the measurement model. Multigroup exploratory structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized 6-factor measurement model for males and females separately and for the combined sample. Analysis of the scale scores using SPSS provided further support for the construct validity of the ITAMS with hypothesized relationships observed between ITAMS scores and measures of depression and affect. The development and validation of the ITAMS opens the way for mood-related research and sport or exercise interventions requiring mood assessments, in an Italian-language context.
Elisabeth van de Grift
Full Text Available The Transition Network is a global grassroots network that supports community-led resilience in the face of global change. This paper reports on an ethnographic study of one of its longest-running projects, Transition Town Lewes (TTL in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study is to analyse TTL as a community. More specifically, we ask two questions: (1 what type of community is TTL? and (2 what are the challenges TTL faces as a community? With this, we contribute to the existing literature on local sustainability initiatives and in particular on Transition initiatives, by providing an in-depth understanding of the challenges and social dynamics at play in a day-to-day setting. We conducted three months of intensive ethnographic fieldwork using participant observation, interviews, and a focus group. Our analysis shows that TTL is a community that, on the one hand, is motivated by explicit intentions and goals, but that, on the other hand, leaves openness and flexibility regarding the level and specifics of participants’ engagement. We introduce the novel concept of ‘light intentional community’ to describe this type of community. We first investigate intentionality in TTL, finding that differences exist between individual participant motivations and stated TTL objectives. We go on to describe the ‘light’ aspect of TTL—the differences in levels of engagement between community participants. Our analysis shows that TTL and its participants face two main challenges. First, TTL participants experience ‘multi-dimensional liminality’: they operate in a liminal space between mainstream society and TTL practices, and additionally experience a continuous sense of transitioning toward a moving goal. Second, TTL as a community faces internal and external frictions. These challenges are interrelated and stem from the structure and dynamics of TTL as a light intentional community. We conclude by reflecting on our analysis of the nature and
Paddack, Michael; DeWolf, Ryan; Covassin, Tracey; Kontos, Anthony
College sport organizations and associations endorse concussion-management protocols and policies. To date, little information is available on concussion policies and practices at community college institutions. To assess and describe current practices and policies regarding the assessment, management, and return-to-play criteria for sport-related concussion (SRC) among member institutions of the California Community College Athletic Association (CCCAA). Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. A total of 55 head athletic trainers (ATs) at CCCAA institutions. Data about policies, procedures, and practices regarding SRC were collected over a 3-week period in March 2012 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Fisher exact test, and the Spearman test. Almost half (47%) of ATs stated they had a policy for SRC assessment, management, and return to play at their institution. They reported being in compliance with baseline testing guidelines (25%), management guidelines (34.5%), and return-to-play guidelines (30%). Nearly 31% of ATs described having an SRC policy in place for academic accommodations. Conference attendance was positively correlated with institutional use of academic accommodations after SRC (r = 0.44, P = .01). The number of meetings ATs attended and their use of baseline testing were also positively correlated (r = 0.38, P = .01). At the time of this study, nearly half of CCCAA institutions had concussion policies and 31% had academic-accommodation policies. However, only 18% of ATs at CCCAA institutions were in compliance with all of their concussion policies. Our findings demonstrate improvements in the management of SRCs by ATs at California community colleges compared with previous research but a need for better compliance with SRC policies.
Jedlovec, Gary J.
Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. With the ever-broadening application of real-time high resolution satellite data from current EOS, Suomi NPP, and planned JPSS and GOES-R sensors to weather forecast problems, significant challenges arise in the acquisition, delivery, and integration of the new capabilities into the decision making process of the operational weather community. For polar orbiting sensors such as MODIS, AIRS, VIIRS, and CRiS, the use of direct broadcast ground stations is key to the real-time delivery of the data and derived products in a timely fashion. With the ABI on the geostationary GOES-R satellite, the data volumes will likely increase by a factor of 5-10 from current data streams. However, the high data volume and limited bandwidth of end user facilities presents a formidable obstacle to timely access to the data. This challenge can be addressed through the use of subsetting techniques, innovative web services, and the judicious selection of data formats. Many of these approaches have been implemented by SPoRT for the delivery of real-time products to NWS forecast offices and other weather entities. Once available in decision support systems like AWIPS II, these new data and products must be integrated into existing and new displays that allow for the integration of the data with existing operational products in these systems. SPoRT is leading the way in demonstrating this enhanced capability. This paper will highlight the ways SPoRT is overcoming many of the challenges presented by the enormous data
Orionzi, Dimpho E; Mink, Pamela J; Azzahir, Atum; Yusuf, Amged A; Jernigan, Mau J; Dahlem, Janet L; Anderson, Mark J; Trahan, Lovel; Rosenberg-Carlson, Elena
In community-based participatory research (CBPR), issues such as creating a setting where community members drive decisions and creating culturally relevant processes remain largely underachieved. The Backyard Initiative (BYI) provided the setting for implementing a community-centered collaborative research process. The BYI is a partnership between Allina Health, the Cultural Wellness Center (CWC), and community residents to improve health. To describe the unique community-centered method used in the 2013 BYI Community Health Survey (CHS) as a viable approach for collecting meaningful and valid health related data. With this approach, the community operates as the agent of change rather than the target. At the core was the BYI assessment team, which brought together conventional researchers and community members to collaboratively design, implement, analyze, interpret, and disseminate the CHS results. Focusing on the CHS, this structure and process permitted and facilitated important and difficult discussions about approach, content and outcomes of the research. We held seven sessions (239 participants). Participants were 37% African American/African and 34% Native American, 65% female, and 72% spoke English at home. Achievement of our recruitment goals, participation of groups typically underrepresented in research, and positive community feedback were indications that the BYI approach to survey research was successful. The BYI CHS community-centered methods built trust among research partners and participants, engaged populations often underrepresented in research, and collected meaningful data. Our success indicates that it is possible to co-design and implement a lengthy survey to inform future research and community activities.
Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Kelly, Bridget; Pettigrew, Simone
To explore children's responses to sponsorship of community junior sport by unhealthy food brands and investigate the utility of alternative, pro-health sponsorship options. Between-subjects experiment, with four sponsorship conditions: A, non-food branding (control); B, unhealthy food branding; C, healthier food branding; D, obesity prevention campaign branding. Online experiment conducted in schools. Participants were shown a junior sports pack for their favourite sport that contained merchandise with branding representing their assigned sponsorship condition. Participants viewed and rated the sports pack, completed a distractor task, then completed questions assessing brand awareness, brand attitudes and preference for food sponsors' products. Students in grades 1 to 3 (aged 5-10 years; n 1124) from schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Compared with the control condition, there were no significant effects of unhealthy food branding on awareness of, attitudes towards or preference for these brands. Exposure to healthier food branding prompted a significant increase in the proportion of children aware of these brands, but did not impact attitudes towards or preference for these brands. Exposure to either healthier food branding or obesity prevention campaign branding prompted a significant reduction in the proportion of children showing a preference for unhealthy food sponsor products. The sponsorship of children's sport by healthier food brands may promote awareness of these brands and healthier sponsorship branding may reduce preferences for some unhealthy food products. Establishing and implementing healthy sponsor criteria in sports clubs could forge healthier sponsorship arrangements and help phase out unhealthy food and beverage sponsors.
Bardsley, N.; Buchs, M.; James, P.A.; Papafragrou, A.; Rushby, T.; Saunders, C.; Smith, G.; Wallbridge, R.; Woodman, N.
Can community-based behavioural intervention reduce energy use in the home? We report on initial data from an ongoing matched case and control field experiment on energy saving. Household energy use in 175 households is measured using monitoring equipment, recording electrical power consumption and temperature. Participants in treatment and control groups received improvements to the thermal insulation of their homes. A behavioural intervention in the treatment group began with a 2 hour works...
Full Text Available Major companies in the minerals industry are increasingly recognizing that their operations have an impact in the wider community. Regarding transportation issues, this impact extends beyond purely the safety of company vehicle fleets to consideration of Community Road Safety (CRS concerns, which address the driving, walking, and riding practices of community members in a locale with increased heavy vehicle traffic. Our assessment here of national and international trends in approaches to road safety awareness and associated road safety strategies is meant to inform companies in the minerals industry of developments that can influence the design of their road safety initiatives. The review begins by considering the overall road safety context and the dominant “safe systems” framework employed internationally. Thereafter, it considers what is typically included in CRS initiatives for the minerals industry. Three case studies are then presented to highlight approaches that feature exemplary collaboration, design, implementation, or impact. Thereafter, we analyze lessons learnt by key researchers and practitioners in the CRS field. Finally, we conclude that best CRS practices for the minerals industry rely on eleven factors, including for example collaboration with local entities and stepwise implementation.
Raphael Bastos de Almeida
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate to what extent does a Fantasy Sports Game (FSG brand community’s members Identification and Engagement influence their Membership Continuance Intention as well as their perception of the brand equity of the FSG’s sponsor. The Consumer Culture Theory – CCT CITATION Arn05 \\l 1046 (Arnould & Thompson, 2005 was used as the theoretical framework for this study, more specifically situated in the brand community group of CCT studies. The ‘Social Influence of Brand Communities’ model CITATION Alg05 \\l 1046 (Algesheimer, Dholakia, & Herrmann, 2005 was used as the basis for the development of the conceptual model of this study, which focused on the players of Cartola FC, the most important Brazilian football (soccer FSG. A non-probabilistic judgment sample was collected through a web survey focusing on the Cartola FC’s official Facebook fan page members resulting in 3,710 valid responses. The constructs’ reliability, as well as their convergent, discriminant and nomological validities were assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to test the substantive hypotheses of this study. Five of the six substantive hypotheses were empirically supported. The results suggest that the sponsor’s consumer based brand equity is positively influenced by the brand communities members engagement and membership continuance intention.
Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that differences in social status between groups of people within a population may induce variation in insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1 levels and, by extension, growth in height. This is called the community effect in height hypothesis. The relationship between IGF-1, assessed via finger-prick dried blood spot, and elite level sport competition outcomes were analysed for a sample of 116 undergraduate men and women. There was a statistically significant difference between winners and losers of a competition. Winners, as a group, had higher average pre-game and post-game IGF-1 levels than losers. We proposed this type of difference as a proxy for social dominance. We found no evidence that winners increased in IGF-1 levels over losers or that members of the same team were more similar in IGF-1 levels than they were to players from other teams. These findings provide limited support toward the community effect in height hypothesis. The findings are discussed in relation to the action of the growth hormone/IGF-1 axis as a transducer of multiple bio-social influences into a coherent signal which allows the growing human to adjust and adapt to local ecological conditions.
Full Text Available To evaluate the awareness of concussion-related symptoms amongst members of the sports community in Canada.A cross-sectional national electronic survey was conducted. Youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals across Canada were recruited through mailing lists from sports-related opt-in marketing databases. Participants were asked to identify, from a list of options, the symptoms of a concussion. The proportion of identified symptoms (categorized as physical, cognitive, mental health-related and overall as well as participant factors associated with symptom recognition were analyzed.The survey elicited 6,937 responses. Most of the respondents (92.1% completed the English language survey, were male (57.7%, 35-54 years of age (61.7%, with post-secondary education (58.2%, or high reported yearly household income (>$80,000; 53.0%. There were respondents from all provinces and territories with the majority of respondents from Ontario (35.2% or British Columbia (19.1%. While participants identified most of the physical (mean = 84.2% of symptoms and cognitive (mean = 91.2% of symptoms, they on average only identified 53.5% of the mental health-related symptoms of concussions. Respondents who were older, with higher education and household income, or resided in the Northwest Territories or Alberta identified significantly more of the mental health-related symptoms listed.While Canadian youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals are able to identify most of the physical and cognitive symptoms associated with concussion, identification of mental health-related symptoms of concussion is still lagging.
Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley; Wong, Hatty; Lam, Emily; Jing, Rowan; Russell, Kelly; Cusimano, Michael D
To evaluate the awareness of concussion-related symptoms amongst members of the sports community in Canada. A cross-sectional national electronic survey was conducted. Youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals across Canada were recruited through mailing lists from sports-related opt-in marketing databases. Participants were asked to identify, from a list of options, the symptoms of a concussion. The proportion of identified symptoms (categorized as physical, cognitive, mental health-related and overall) as well as participant factors associated with symptom recognition were analyzed. The survey elicited 6,937 responses. Most of the respondents (92.1%) completed the English language survey, were male (57.7%), 35-54 years of age (61.7%), with post-secondary education (58.2%), or high reported yearly household income (>$80,000; 53.0%). There were respondents from all provinces and territories with the majority of respondents from Ontario (35.2%) or British Columbia (19.1%). While participants identified most of the physical (mean = 84.2% of symptoms) and cognitive (mean = 91.2% of symptoms), they on average only identified 53.5% of the mental health-related symptoms of concussions. Respondents who were older, with higher education and household income, or resided in the Northwest Territories or Alberta identified significantly more of the mental health-related symptoms listed. While Canadian youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals are able to identify most of the physical and cognitive symptoms associated with concussion, identification of mental health-related symptoms of concussion is still lagging.
Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Villanueva, Sandra; Douglas, Jason A
Childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in communities of color, partially because of structural inequities in the social and built environment (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, pollution) that restrict healthy eating and active living. Community organizing is an underexamined, grassroots health promotion approach that empowers and mobilizes community residents to advocate for, and achieve, environmental and policy changes to rectify these structural inequities. This paper presents outcomes of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative: the first national program to apply community organizing to combat childhood obesity-causing structural inequities in communities of color. Twenty-one community-based organizations and tribal nations (grantees) conducted 3-year community organizing-based interventions primarily designed to increase children's healthy food and safe recreational access. Grantees' policy wins (environmental and policy changes resulting from grantee interventions) were measured from 2009 to 2014 using semi-structured interviews conducted quarterly and 6 months post-grant, and independently coded and reviewed in 2015 by researchers and expert community organizers. The 21 grantees achieved 72 policy wins (mean=3.43, SD=1.78) across six domains: two directly addressed childhood obesity by enhancing children's healthy food (37.50%) and recreational access (33.33%), whereas four indirectly addressed obesity by promoting access to quality health care (8.33%); clean environments (9.73%); affordable housing (8.33%); and discrimination- and crime-free neighborhoods (2.78%). These findings provide compelling evidence that community organizing-based interventions designed and led by community stakeholders can achieve diverse environmental and policy solutions to the structural inequities that foment childhood obesity in communities of color. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published
Natasa Zenic; Djivo Ban; Sanja Jurisic; Mladen Cubela; Jelena Rodek; Ljerka Ostojic; Mario Jelicic; Antonino Bianco; Damir Sekulic
The prevalence of smoking among Croatian adolescents is alarmingly high, but no previous study has prospectively examined the sport- and academic-factors associated with smoking and smoking initiation. This study aimed to prospectively examine the associations between scholastic (educational) achievement and sport factors and smoking in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents. This two-year prospective cohort study included 644 adolescents who were 16 years of age at baseline (46% females). Baseline t...
Eller, Ronald; Martinez, Ruben; Pace, Cynthia; Pavel, Michael; Barnett, Lynn
This brief reports on the Ford Foundation's establishment of the Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) for selected institutions in economically distressed areas of the Southeast, Deep South, Southwest, Appalachia, and western Indian reservations. This is the fourth report in a series by the RCCI Documentation Team. The RCCI program challenges…
Full Text Available While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b 8 in-depth interviews with program personnel. Widespread conviction in the positive developmental benefits of surfing was evident, and that surfing had a “special” capacity to reform or heal those who participate in it. However, the ways in which individuals’ self-developments were promoted appear to be following the traditional sport/youth development path. They focus on policies aimed at improved life chances, equipping youth with the tools for self-improvement and self-management, inculcating self-governance and self-reliance. However, a counter narrative co-existed, highlighting surfing as a freeing experience, which, rather than restoring social order, works to instigate a personal transformation or awakening. Despite the range of challenges presented by surfing as a tool for positive development, surfing presents a potentially “critical alternative” which if sport-for-development programs are to be a form of social change, we should remain open to exploring.
Full Text Available Purpose : to develop theoretically and experimentally justify the methodology of development of coordination abilities of athletes aged 7-9 years involved in sports aerobics. Material : the study involved 20 participants (7-9 years. 8 athletes performed the test tasks. The choice of tests carried out on the basis of the analysis of the dominant motor mode competition exercises. Results : It was found that the coordination abilities are necessary in the development of speed, density, and the number of running technical elements. With more than a significant increase in performance test tasks that characterize: musicality, coordination, dynamic balance. The basic tools, methods, techniques, and requirements for the exercises. The level of development of coordination abilities. Conclusions : the author's method of development of coordination abilities include: rational choice of means and methods of training impact on their similarities and differences with the target competitive activity.
Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs
Full Text Available Critical scholars have indicated that the assumptions underlying most sport-for-development (SFD initiatives tend to align with a ‘deficit model’ of youth: young people from disadvantaged areas are uniformly deficient and in need of development, which can be achieved through sport (Coakley, 2011; Coalter, 2013. In this article, we investigated these assumptions within six urban SFD initiatives that work with young people in socially vulnerable situations in a ‘first’ world nation, Belgium. We conducted a survey at two moments in time amongst 14- to 25-year-old participants in order to test two assumptions: i ‘participants are deficient and in need of development’; and ii ‘participation in SFD initiatives leads to positive personal development’. We operationalised ‘development’ as the commonly used outcomes of perceived self-efficacy and self-esteem. These are ‘household words’ both inside and outside SFD research, practice, and policy and carry the assumption that boosting them will by itself foster positive outcomes. The findings refute the supposition that young people from disadvantaged urban areas are uniformly in need of more perceived self-efficacy and self-esteem and show that there is no simple and predictable change in participants’ ‘development’. We suggest that, in designing and researching programs, SFD stakeholders start from an open-ended bottom-up approach which is tailored to the actual life situations of young people and their individual differences and consider more interpersonal and critical conceptualisations of ‘development’.
Super, Sabina; Verkooijen, Kirsten; Koelen, Maria
Sport is widely recognised as having the potential to enhance the personal development of socially vulnerable youth, yet there is very limited knowledge on how community sports coaches can create optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability. We adopt a salutogenic approach in order to study whether and how community…
Pappas-Rogich, Maria; King, Michalene
One innovative community-based setting to promote health is the faith community, where care is provided by a faith community nurse (FCN). This descriptive study describes the practice of FCNs, FCN functions and standards, identifies Healthy People 220 Leading Health Indicators being addressed by FCNs, and explores how the FCN model of community-based practice can support implementation of Healthy People 2020.
Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco C; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen E; Dodds, Pennie; Sidey, Maree N; Rogerson, John C; McElduff, Patrick; Crundall, Ian; Wiggers, John H
An increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm has been reported for members of sporting groups and at sporting venues compared with non-sporting populations. While sports clubs and venues represent opportune settings to implement strategies to reduce such risks, no controlled trials have been reported. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an alcohol management intervention in reducing risky alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related harm among community football club members. A cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention was undertaken with non-elite, community football clubs and their members in New South Wales, Australia. Risky alcohol consumption (5+ drinks) at the club and risk of alcohol-related harm using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were measured at baseline and postintervention. Eighty-eight clubs participated in the trial (n=43, INTERVENTION; n=45, CONTROL) and separate cross-sectional samples of club members completed the baseline (N=1411) and postintervention (N=1143) surveys. Postintervention, a significantly lower proportion of intervention club members reported: risky alcohol consumption at the club ( 19%; 24%; OR: 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.00); p=0.05); risk of alcohol-related harm ( 38%; 45%; OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); psports officiating, enhancing club-based alcohol management interventions could make a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of alcohol misuse in communities. ACTRN12609000224224. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
a more useful and cost effective approach for initiating behaviour change at community level.
European Commission, 2017
This document, "Annex 1 to the Final Report to DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture of the European Commission" is intended as a companion piece to European Commission report "Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Final Report". It contains country fiches which are overviews of available…
Nanos, Katherine N; Franco, John M; Larson, Dirk; Mara, Kristin; Laskowski, Edward R
To assess concussion knowledge of athletes, coaches, and parents/guardians in a community setting and to understand trends/gaps in knowledge among subgroups to tailor efforts toward creating educational interventions. This prospective cross-sectional study involved 262 individuals (142 [55%] female): 115 athletes participating in noncontact and contact sports (ages 13-19 years), 15 coaches, and 132 parents. Recruitment occurred from August 30, 2015, through August 30, 2016, at 3 local high schools. Participants completed a questionnaire developed by the investigators to assess concussion experience and basic knowledge. Females, health care employees, and parents showed stronger concern for potential long-term sequelae of concussion, whereas athletes were most concerned about not being able to return to sport. Those with higher perceived concussion knowledge were slightly older (median age, 42.5 vs 33 years), more educated (college or higher: 42 [70%] vs 100 [50%]), and more likely to be health care workers (22 [37.9%] vs 34 [17.7%]) and scored higher on knowledge questions (average correct: 75.5% vs 60%). Most participants could identify potential concussion sequelae, but only 86 (34.3%) identified a concussion as a brain injury. Of the subgroups, coaches scored highest on knowledge questions. Those with a concussion history tended to consider themselves more knowledgeable but were also less concerned about sequelae. Overall, those with a concussion history scored slightly higher on knowledge questions (average correct: 69.8% vs 61.9%). Participants involved in contact sports were more likely to have had a concussion vs those in noncontact sports (57 [26%] vs 4 [10.3%]). Significant differences in perceived and actual concussion knowledge across different subgroups of study participants involved in high school sports were identified. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Giebel, Stephen; Kothari, Rashmi; Koestner, Amy; Mohney, Gretchen; Baker, Robert
Numerous guidelines to grade and manage sports-related concussions have been published. However, little is known about how frequently they are implemented in the emergency department. This study evaluates the current practices of emergency physicians (EPs) in managing sports-related concussions. To evaluate the current practice of EP evaluation and management of sports-related concussions. All EPs and emergency medicine residents in Kalamazoo County were surveyed regarding their management of sports-related concussions. The surveys obtained demographic data, participants' use of guidelines, and the importance of clinical and non-clinical factors in deciding when to allow a player to return to play. Of the 73 EP respondents, only 23% used a nationally recognized guideline, with no significant difference between attending and resident EPs. The symptomatic complaints of loss of consciousness, amnesia of the event, and difficulty concentrating were ranked most important by EPs in assessing patients with sports-related concussions. Among non-clinical factors, residents were significantly more likely than attendings to report that medical-legal, parental, and players' concerns were more likely to influence their decision in allowing a patient to return to play. EPs take into consideration important clinical factors in assessing patients with sports-related concussion. However, almost 75% do not use any nationally recognized guideline in their evaluation. Residents are more likely than attendings to be influenced by non-clinical factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...
Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J J
This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1-5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings.
Olivares, Pedro R.; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J. J.
This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1–5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings. PMID:28582387
Kyle A. Rich
Full Text Available While sport is widely understood to produce positive social outcomes for communities, such as the inclusion of diverse and marginalized groups, little researched has focused on the specific processes through which these outcomes may or may not be occurring. In this paper, we discuss the Community Cup program, and specifically a participatory sport event which seeks to connect newcomers to Canada (recent immigrants and refugees in order to build capacity, connect communities, and facilitate further avenues to participation in community life. For this research, we worked collaboratively with the program to conduct an intrinsic case study, utilizing participant observation, document analysis, focus group, and semi-structured interviews. We discuss how the structure and organization of the event influences participants’ experiences and consequently how this impacts the adaptation and acculturation processes. Using Donnelly and Coakley's (2002 cornerstones of social inclusion and Berry’s (1992 framework for understanding acculturation, we critically discuss the ways that the participatory sport event may provide an avenue for inclusion of newcomers, as well as the aspects of inclusion that the event does not address. While exploratory in nature, this paper begins to unpack the complex process of how inclusion may or may not be facilitated through sport, as well discussing the role of the management of these sporting practices. Furthermore, based on our discussion, we offer suggestions for sport event managers to improve the design and implementation of programming offered for diverse/newcomer populations.
Zha, Yinghua; Berga, Mercè; Comte, Jérôme; Langenheder, Silke
Natural communities are open systems and consequently dispersal can play an important role for the diversity, composition and functioning of communities at the local scale. It is, however, still unclear how effects of dispersal differ depending on the initial diversity of local communities. Here we implemented an experiment where we manipulated the initial diversity of natural freshwater bacterioplankton communities using a dilution-to-extinction approach as well as dispersal from a regional species pool. The aim was further to test whether dispersal effects on bacterial abundance and functional parameters (average community growth rates, respiration rates, substrate utilisation ability) differ in dependence of the initial diversity of the communities. First of all, we found that both initial diversity and dispersal rates had an effect on the recruitment of taxa from a regional source, which was higher in communities with low initial diversity and at higher rates of dispersal. Higher initial diversity and dispersal also promoted higher levels of richness and evenness in local communities and affected, both, separately or interactively, the functional performance of communities. Our study therefore suggests that dispersal can influence the diversity, composition and functioning of bacterial communities and that this effect may be enhanced if the initial diversity of communities is depleted.
Gibbons, Michael C; Illangasekare, Samantha L; Smith, Earnest; Kub, Joan
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been shown to enhance trust and engagement among community academic partners. However, the value of CBPR among hyper-researched, inner-city communities has not been evaluated adequately. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a CBPR based engagement process in an inner-city, hyper-researched, underserved community. A qualitative process evaluation was conducted using focus groups, key informant in-depth interviews, and a brief survey to evaluate the attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, impact of, and satisfaction with the CBPR engagement process used to plan and conduct a community asset mapping project. Three focus groups, eight in-depth interviews, and survey responses from 31 individuals were obtained and analyzed. Findings include a sense of accomplishment and value with the engagement process, as well as a sense of tangible benefits of the process perceived by community members and academic research partners. CBPR may represent an effective approach to enhancing trust and community-academic collaboration even among cynical, resistant, hyper-researched, underserved communities.
Cheadle, Allen; Atiedu, Akpene; Rauzon, Suzanne; Schwartz, Pamela M; Keene, Laura; Davoudi, Mehrnaz; Spring, Rebecca; Molina, Michelle; Lee, Lynda; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Steimberg, Clara; Tinajero, Roberta; Ravel, Jodi; Nudelman, Jean; Azuma, Andrea Misako; Kuo, Elena S; Solomon, Loel
A growing number of health systems are leading health promotion efforts in their wider communities. What impact are these efforts having on health behaviors and ultimately health status? This paper presents evaluation results from the place-based Kaiser Permanente Healthy Eating Active Living Zones obesity prevention initiative, implemented in 2011-2015 in 12 low-income communities in Kaiser Permanente's Northern and Southern California Regions. The Healthy Eating Active Living Zones design targeted places and people through policy, environmental, and programmatic strategies. Each Healthy Eating Active Living Zone is a small, low-income community of 10,000 to 20,000 residents with high obesity rates and other health disparities. Community coalitions planned and implemented strategies in each community. A population-dose approach and pre and post surveys were used to assess impact of policy, program, and environmental change strategies; the analysis was conducted in 2016. Population dose is the product of reach (number of people affected by a strategy divided by target population size) and strength (the effect size or relative change in behavior for each person exposed to the strategy). More than 230 community change strategies were implemented over 3 years, encompassing policy, environmental, and programmatic changes as well as efforts to build community capacity to sustain strategies and make changes in the future. Positive population-level results were seen for higher-dose strategies, particularly those targeting youth physical activity. Higher-dose strategies were more likely to be found in communities with the longest duration of investment. These results demonstrate that strong (high-dose), community-based obesity prevention strategies can lead to improved health behaviors, particularly among youth in school settings. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is
Milne, C J
Sports medicine in New Zealand is characterized by a team approach. Experienced professionals work together to the benefit of athletes, be they elite performers or those in sport for purely recreational purposes. A no-fault accident compensation scheme is used to provide speedy access to treatment services for those injured in sport and also for advice on accident prevention. Recent initiatives include a task force on drugs in sport and the creation of regional sports foundations. Sports medi...
Mallinson, Sarah H.; Hill, Andrew P.; Hall, Howard K.; Gotwals, John K.
The authors adopted the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism to examine the unique and interactive effects of two dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards perfectionism [PSP] and evaluative concerns perfectionism [ECP]) on personal and interpersonal indicators of participant experience in youth sport (enjoyment, physical self-worth, and friendship…
Buelens, Evi; Theeboom, Marc; Vertonghen, Jikkemien; De Martelaer, Kristine
A considerable number of adolescents in Western societies live in socially vulnerable situations. Approaches to improve this situation ultimately aim to make institutional changes through a focus on individual development. With regard to the latter, there have been high expectations regarding sport
Zenic, Natasa; Ban, Djivo; Jurisic, Sanja; Cubela, Mladen; Rodek, Jelena; Ostojic, Ljerka; Jelicic, Mario; Bianco, Antonino; Sekulic, Damir
The prevalence of smoking among Croatian adolescents is alarmingly high, but no previous study has prospectively examined the sport- and academic-factors associated with smoking and smoking initiation. This study aimed to prospectively examine the associations between scholastic (educational) achievement and sport factors and smoking in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents. This two-year prospective cohort study included 644 adolescents who were 16 years of age at baseline (46% females). Baseline testing was implemented at the beginning of the 3rd year of high school (September 2014) when participants were 16 years old. Follow-up testing was completed at the end of the fourth year of high school, which occurred 20 months later. The evaluated predictor variables were educational-achievement- and sport-related-factors. The outcome variables were (i) smoking at baseline; (ii) smoking at follow-up; and (iii) smoking initiation over the course of the study. We assessed the associations between predictors and outcomes using logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and conflict with parents. The educational variables were consistently associated with smoking, with lower grade-point-average (Baseline: odd ratio (OR): 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.61-2.55; Follow-up: 1.59, 1.31-1.94), more frequent absence from school (Baseline: OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.19-1.69; Follow-up: 1.30, 1.08-1.58), and lower behavioral grades (Baseline: OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.10-2.89; Follow-up: 1.57, 1.03-2.41) in children who smoke. Adolescents who reported quitting sports were at greater odds of being smokers (Baseline: 2.07, 1.31-3.32; Follow-up: 1.66, 1.09-2.56). Sport competitive achievement at baseline was protective against smoking initiation during following two-year period (0.45, 0.21-0.91). While the influence of the educational variables on smoking initiation has been found to be established earlier; sport achievement was identified as a significant
Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking among Croatian adolescents is alarmingly high, but no previous study has prospectively examined the sport- and academic-factors associated with smoking and smoking initiation. This study aimed to prospectively examine the associations between scholastic (educational achievement and sport factors and smoking in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents. This two-year prospective cohort study included 644 adolescents who were 16 years of age at baseline (46% females. Baseline testing was implemented at the beginning of the 3rd year of high school (September 2014 when participants were 16 years old. Follow-up testing was completed at the end of the fourth year of high school, which occurred 20 months later. The evaluated predictor variables were educational-achievement- and sport-related-factors. The outcome variables were (i smoking at baseline; (ii smoking at follow-up; and (iii smoking initiation over the course of the study. We assessed the associations between predictors and outcomes using logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and conflict with parents. The educational variables were consistently associated with smoking, with lower grade-point-average (Baseline: odd ratio (OR: 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61–2.55; Follow-up: 1.59, 1.31–1.94, more frequent absence from school (Baseline: OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.19–1.69; Follow-up: 1.30, 1.08–1.58, and lower behavioral grades (Baseline: OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.10–2.89; Follow-up: 1.57, 1.03–2.41 in children who smoke. Adolescents who reported quitting sports were at greater odds of being smokers (Baseline: 2.07, 1.31–3.32; Follow-up: 1.66, 1.09–2.56. Sport competitive achievement at baseline was protective against smoking initiation during following two-year period (0.45, 0.21–0.91. While the influence of the educational variables on smoking initiation has been found to be established earlier; sport achievement was identified
Kemp, Joanne L; Newton, Joshua D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F
While guidelines outlining the appropriate management of sport-related concussion have been developed and adapted for use within community sport, it remains unknown how they are experienced by those responsible for implementing them. Longitudinal study. 111 coaches and sports trainers from community-level Australian Football and Rugby League teams completed pre- and post-season surveys assessing their attitudes towards using concussion guidelines. Participants also provided post-season feedback regarding their experiences in using the guidelines. 71% of participants reported using the guidelines in the preceding season. Post-season attitude was related to pre-season attitude (p=0.002), football code (p=0.015), and team role (p=0.045). An interaction between team role and guideline use (p=0.012) was also found, with coaches who had used the guidelines, and sports trainers who had not, reporting more positive post-season attitudes towards using the concussion guidelines. Implementation challenges included disputing of decisions about return-to-play by players, parents, and coaches, and a perceived lack of time. Recommendations for improved guideline materials included using larger fonts and providing for witnessing of advice given to players. This is the first study to examine the implementation of concussion guidelines in community sport. Training of coaches/sports trainers needs enhancement. In addition, new education should be developed for parents/players about the importance of the return-to-play advice given to them by those who follow these guidelines. Information provided by those who attempted to use the guidelines will assist the refinement of implementation and dissemination processes around concussion guidelines across sports. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boersma, Annoesjka; ten Dam, Geert; Wardekker, Willem; Volman, Monique
In this study, the concept of "community of learners" was used to improve initial vocational education. The framework of a 'community of learners for vocational orientation' that we present offers both a theoretical understanding of teaching-learning processes in initial vocational education and heuristics for the design of innovative…
Eller, Ronald; Martinez, Ruben; Pace, Cynthia; Pavel, Michael; Garza, Hector; Barnett, Lynn
The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) is a decade-long commitment by the Ford Foundation to community colleges in distressed rural areas of the United States. Through RCCI, the Foundation channels both funds and technical assistance to targeted community colleges to improve access and foster economic development. The RCCI approach includes…
Palombaro, Kerstin M.; Lattanzi, Jill B.; Dole, Robin L.
Many institutions of higher learning engage in activities related to community building. At Widener University, the Institute for Physical Therapy Education has undergone a process to build on relationships with those in its community to create service-learning and community engagement activities that were first initiated with short-term, one-time…
Vierimaa, Matthew; Turnnidge, Jennifer; Bruner, Mark; Côté, Jean
Background: A growing body of research has studied sport as a vehicle for positive youth development (PYD). While much of this research has investigated the developmental outcomes associated with sport participation, less is known about the mechanisms through which PYD occurs in a sport context. Further, much of the research on PYD in sport has…
Royer, Suzanne M.
Quality teaching requires a strong practice of collaboration, an essential building block for educators to improve student achievement. Researchers have theorized that the implementation of a professional learning community (PLC) with resultant collaborative practices among teachers sustains academic improvement. The problem addressed specifically…
These institutions are joining efforts to shine new light on the complex process of building safer spaces in cities affected by violence and insecurity. It will also include a ... It will analyze the impacts of public policies to build safer spaces, and how they are being influenced by existing community interventions. It will strengthen ...
Thomas, Elizabeth; Pate, Sarah; Ranson, Anna
This case study examines an arts organization at the center of an urban neighborhood revitalization effort and its contributions to creative placemaking and inclusive community building. The study documents innovative arts practices and explores their meaning for a local context, an understudied city in the Mid-South region of the United States. It builds on the research team's ongoing work as teachers, students, and scholars in partnership with the arts organization. It includes systematic participant observation, interviews with stakeholders, and a review of historical and contemporary media coverage. We found that the organization and its practices provided a rich context for exploring an expanded sense of community including bridging social capital and place-based frameworks. Analysis suggests that the organization's intentional arts based practices bring multiple understandings of community and art into meaningful dialogue through the generation of creative and social friction. These practices illustrate one context-specific strategy addressing the tensions in a community-diversity dialectic (Townley et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 47:69-85, 2011).
Sekulic, Damir; Sisic, Nedim; Terzic, Admir; Jasarevic, Indira; Ostojic, Ljerka; Pojskic, Haris; Zenic, Natasa
Sport and scholastic factors are known to be associated with cigarette smoking in adolescence, but little is known about the causality of this association. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationships of different sport and scholastic factors with smoking prevalence initiation in older adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this 2-year prospective cohort study, there were 872 adolescent participants (16 years at baseline; 46% females). The study consisted of baseline tests at the beginning of the third year (September 2013) and follow-up at the end of the fourth year of high school (late May to early June 2015). The independent variables were scholastic and sport-related factors. The dependent variables were (1) smoking at baseline, (2) smoking at follow-up and (3) smoking initiation over the course of the study. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender and socioeconomic status were applied to define the relationships between independent and dependent variables. School absence at the baseline study was a significant predictor of smoking initiation during the course of the study (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8). Those who reported quitting sports at baseline showed an increased risk of smoking at the end of the study (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and of smoking initiation (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.0). Adolescents who reported lower competitive achievements in sport were at a higher risk of (1) smoking at baseline (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1), (2) smoking at follow-up (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1) and (3) smoking initiation (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6). In developing accurate antismoking public health policies for older adolescents, the most vulnerable groups should be targeted. The results showed that most participants initiated smoking before 16 years of age. Therefore, further investigations should evaluate the predictors of smoking in younger ages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already
This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…
Full Text Available Introduction: The implementing within the academic physical education and sports curricula of a new discipline such as water gymnastics falls within the current trends of curriculum modernization. Purpose: The purpose of the study aims at evaluating the effects of driving, exercise-induced functional and somatic programs initiation of the gymnasts in the water compared to the effects specific to the initiation swimming. Material and Methods: research duration: two semesters / 14 practical courses. In the first semester the water gymnastics initiation program was implemented and in the second semester the swimming initiation program was implemented. Research Tests: Pretest in the first practical lesson of each semester and posttest in the last lesson of each semester. Participants: 34 male students, specializing in physical education and sport. Somatic, motor and functional assessment: weight, height, BMI, basal metabolism; H2O%, fat%, 2km UKK test, VO2max, fitness index. Statistical processing SPPS 20: arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t-test, probability threshold. Results: improvements relevant to the aqua-gymnastics group: VO2max 7.07 ml/min/kg; Test duration 2km UKK 1.049 minutes; BMI 0.255; and the group of swimming VO2max 0.43 ml/min/kg; Duration 2km UKK 0.44 minutes; BMI 0.139. Conclusions: effects on the functional motor and exercise-induced somatic programs initiation water gymnastics are significantly superior to those of initiation in swimming. We recommend conducting further studies to assess the effects of gymnastics on water through differentiated programs on levels of physical training, age, and the use of various sporting materials.
This podcast is an interview with Dr. Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Associate Professor in the Department of Public Health at East Carolina University. Dr. Pitts answers questions about her study involving a healthy corner store initiative in North Carolina. Created: 7/18/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 7/18/2013.
Vietnam including urban light rail modernization, sustainable energy initiatives and energy strategy development. 34 This indirect connection... runoff and discharged directly into rivers and seas. As of 2010, only 14 percent of all urban wastewater was treated prior to discharge. 6 Air...harvesting and burning of wood, and to remedy the resulting pollution of Vietnam’s rivers and deltas from unchecked runoff . 32 These programs are
Full Text Available In the article the author presents data on the method of diagnosis of the initial degree of overtraining syndrome in athletes involved in cyclic sports. Purpose: to develop and assess diagnostic tests to detect early signs of overtraining syndrome in athletes involved in cyclic sports. Material and Methods: developed by the author was applied a set of jumping exercises in 42 athletes with an initial degree of overtraining syndrome in age from 21 to 27 years old male, who were engaged in cyclic kinds of sports (athletics, skiing, cycling, swimming. To control the data obtained were compared with the same athletes before their clinical and functional signs of overtraining syndrome were identified. Results: using the jumping exercises on track kinematometra control and the expectation of landing an athlete with a spade to the side, front and rear walls of the rectangular contour of the rotation at the time of jumping on 90o and without it as a set of available physical exercise greatly simplifies the identification of the main indicators characterizing changes in the central nervous system in the early stages of overtraining syndrome
Full Text Available The Market Towns Initiative (MTI, a UK community-led development programme, operated throughout rural England from 2000 until 2005/6. It was designed to help local people, with professional support, identify – and then capitalize on – the economic, environmental and social strengths and weaknesses of small country towns. This paper explains the origins and ways of working of the MTI. Examples of the topics explored and participants’ views are given, and conclusions drawn. The opportunity is also taken to explain how interest in the roles of England’s small country towns grew in the years following the Second World War, and how this led to the development of the MTI. Evidence suggests that the programme worked well. It demonstrated that local people have the enthusiasm, skills and knowledge to take a lead in the development of the places in which they live; something which, until local government reforms changed roles and structures, was largely taken for granted.
Luis Alberto Hernández-Pérez
Full Text Available This work approaches an important and present time problem for the staff that is working directly with handball sport training, because it treats aspects that are kept in the talents selection having as general objective to propose anthropometric parameters to attract female handball talentns from “Ormani Arenado Llonch” Initial Sport School of 15-18 years senior category. It was carried out a wide and detailed bibliographical revision about the topic, as well as interviews addressed to specialists that are part of the team management system with the objective of proposing anthropometric parameters for the gainig, allowing to determine the current necessities of this pedagogic process, as well as to establish these parameters to facilitate this process and making it more effective.
Full Text Available The new media enable numerous advantages in the strengthening of civic engagement, through removing barriers in space and time and through networking of individuals of the same social, civic or political interests at the global level. Different forms of civic engagement and civic responsibility in the virtual space are ever more present, and internet and mobile technology are its main instruments. Taking into account the findings of previous research in this area, in particular, the findings of a positive correlation between new media literacy and civic engagement in the United States and in Serbia, the objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in civic engagement in relation to media exposure and the differences in civic engagement in relation to digital participation of the Serbian academic and educational community. The survey was conducted in 2013. Questionnaire regarding the presence of respondents’ civic engagement has been taken from the author’s Literat earlier study (2011 and it consists of 5 close ended questions, whose reliability is satisfactory: α = 0.742. The research sample was consisted from the members of Serbian educational community, including those from high school students to university professors. The research results of differences in civic engagement in relation to media exposure showed that the research participants who spend more time reading the print media or using the Internet for the purposes of work or school are more socially engaged, while respondents who watch television program are not. Analysis of civic engagement in relation to digital participation showed that respondents who use online communities, forums and message boards (online activities that require discussion and active participation achieve higher scores on civic engagement, in contrast to respondents who spend more time on entertainment, commercial facilities, such as YouTube and video gaming. The results of this study are
Middlemiss, Lucie; Parrish, Bradley D.
Grassroots initiatives for change rely on people with limited power, limited resources and limited ability to influence others. From this position, people acting from the bottom up can change their own actions, seek to influence others around them and seek to change the social structures that they inhabit. These acts are invariably conceived, initiated and enacted within communities, and there is an emerging interest from practitioner, policy and academic circles in the importance of community as a space for realising pro-environmental change. In this paper, we ask what role grassroots initiatives can have in creating low-carbon communities. Using a theoretical framework from work on community-based practice change initiatives, we discuss the interplay between grassroots action and community capacity. We then present two cases of grassroots low-carbon community initiatives in light of this theoretical work. We conclude by discussing key themes emerging from the cases, including the potential for grassroots initiatives to build community capacity for low-carbon practices, and the importance of locally crafted solutions according to the structures specific to place.
Minich, Lisa; Howe, Steven; Langmeyer, Daniel; Corcoran, Kevin
One of the challenges facing nonprofit organizations today is the demand for measurable results. Increasingly, these organizations are focusing less on program outputs and program outcomes in favor of community outcomes or changes demonstrated in the larger community. Success by 6(R) is a popular United Way initiative that emphasizes defining and measuring community outcomes. In this paper, we describe our work with 24 Success by 6(R) initiatives around the country. It is clear that not all of these initiatives are measuring community outcomes. Of those initiatives that are experiencing some success measuring community outcomes, similar measurement strategies are reported. Additionally, our experience suggests several United Way employees express dissatisfaction with the logic model as a framework for defining and measuring community outcomes although no preferred alternative model is identified. Evaluators working with community-wide initiatives must find ways to communicate the differences between program and community outcomes to key stakeholders and funders.
Fauzie, W. Z.; Sariffudin, S.
Community-based disaster risk reduction is one of the homegrown initiatives efforts and community empowerment oriented in disaster management. This approach is very important because no one can understand the conditions in a region better than the local communities. Therefore, the implementation of CBDRM always emphasize local initiatives in decision making. The existence of local initiative is necessary specially to anticipate the impact of climate change which is increasingly affecting towns in coastal areas, including settlements in Semarang. Kemijen Urban Village is one of the informal settlements in Semarang, which has the highest intensity of flood that is 12 times during 5 years (2011-2015). The research question is how the level of local initiatives in flood disaster management in Kemijen, Semarang? This study aims to assess the level of local initiatives in Kemijen as the community adaptive capacity of flood prevention in pre-disaster, emergency response, and post-disaster. Local initiatives assessed on water supply, sanitation, food, shelter, health, drainage maintenance and waste management. This study shows the level of local initiatives in pre-disaster and post-disaster is almost same and bigger than the response phase. Scoring results showed that pre-disaster is 35.002, 27.9577 for emergency response, and post-disaster is 34.9862 with each category that is independent, empowered, and independent. This study also shows that local initiatives in Kemijen largely formed by individual initiative and only a few were formed by a collective initiative.
Clacy, Amanda; Goode, Natassia; Sharman, Rachael; Lovell, Geoff P; Salmon, Paul
The aim of the present study was to utilise a systems thinking approach to explore the perceived responsibilities for identifying and treating concussion held by different actors across the community rugby system (e.g., players, coaches, parents, medics, referees, and management), as well as their role-specific concussion management strategies. A systems approach was taken to assess what different stakeholders within rugby systems perceive their roles to be regarding concussion identification and treatment. Through an online survey, 118 members of the amateur (community) rugby union system were asked about their role-specific concussion management responsibilities and strategies. Respondents included players, parents, medics, coaches, club managers, administrators, and volunteers. The majority of respondents indicated that they were able to identify the symptoms of rugby-related concussion, however, only medics stated their responsibility to use formal concussion assessments (e.g., SCAT2). A smaller number of the respondents indicated that they were involved in treating concussion within their current role/s (majority of which were medics). This study illustrated that the current challenges in the identification and treatment of rugby-related concussion in community sport may be due to role/responsibility confusion and possible overreliance on field-side medics. These findings offer insight into the possible limitations of the current concussion management guidelines and may offer empirically based direction for future revisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roeg, D.P.K.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Garretsen, H.F.L.
Engagement is a determinant of how well a person will respond to professional input. This study investigates whether, in practice, routinely measured data predict initial client engagement with community mental health services. Engagement, problem severity, client characteristics, and duration
Full Text Available Sports and events play an important role in local identity building and creating a sense of community that encourages participation and increases social capital. Rural communities are specific areas with special needs and can face challenges and restraints when it comes to event organisation. The purpose of this paper is to identify organisational challenges and analyse the potential to achieving long-term sustainable social and economic outcomes linked to small-scale sports events in rural communities. Organisational challenges of rural communities in terms of organising sport events are examined and discussed using the framework of event leveraging developed by O’Brien and Chalip. This methodology is applied and discussed to a case study focusing on small-scale winter sport events in rural Croatia. Semi-structured interviews with local organisers were conducted in order to collect data on the overall event organisation and management, local coordination, role of community stakeholders and challenges facing strategic planning, with the intent to identify objectives for future events. Results were discussed independently and in the context of the leverage framework, with reflection on its applicability to rural communities as the event organisers. Recommendations are provided based on critical insight from the literature and are oriented on how to streamline the process of organising, delivering and managing of events in remote rural communities. Finally, the idea of inter-community organisation is proposed to ensure long-term social and economic benefits and to address the existing issues of overlapping of stakeholder categories, mixed objectives, distrust among stakeholders and inefficiently used local resources.
Ahmed, Syed M; Size, Tim; Crouse, Byron; Patterson, Leslie; Gass, Eric; Karon, Sarita L; Lund, Liz; Abert, Connie; Wergin, Amy; Hegranes, Karen; Bishop, Linda; Duffy, Sue; Jacobson, Kevin
The Strong Rural Communities Initiative (SRCI) was created to address the health needs of rural Wisconsin communities through a multifaceted partnership that included the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW), University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health (UWSMPH), the Rural Health Development Council (RHDC), and hospitals, public health departments, and businesses in 6 rural communities in Wisconsin. The SRCI provided a broad framework of leadership to assist each of the 6 rural communities in developing and implementing new, collaborative interventions that addressed the specific health needs of the community. Separate assessments were conducted for the communities that partnered with each respective medical school and focused on the processes of community collaboration and partnership function. Assessment approaches included formative and outcome evaluation. Each community independently reported positive outcomes associated with the partnership process and various aspects of community collaboration, including the successes and health impacts of the workplace wellness programs implemented. Assessment data also revealed challenges related to conducting effective community-academic partnerships. The SRCI was established to execute statewide programs in rural communities with the goal to improve the health of people living in those communities. We have gained applicable knowledge regarding the types of challenges that exist in establishing a rural-based community research network between academic partners and community leaders.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...
Sylvie, Mrug; Windle, Michael
Early alcohol use initiation has been linked with exposure to community violence, but the direction of these associations and the roles of witnessing violence vs. victimization are not clear. This study used a cross-lagged structural equation model to examine the prospective relationships between alcohol use initiation and witnessing community violence and victimization in early adolescence. A sample of 603 boys and girls provided two waves of data 16 months apart. After controlling for conti...
Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre
Objective Disadvantaged communities bear a disproportionate burden of childhood obesity and show low participation in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. This study aims to examine the level of readiness of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Methods Using the community readiness model, 95 semi-structured interviews were conducted among communities in four disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Community readiness analysis and paired t-tests were performed to assess the readiness levels of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Results The results showed that disadvantaged communities demonstrated low levels of readiness (readiness score=4/9, 44%) to engage with the existing childhood obesity prevention initiatives, lacked knowledge of childhood obesity and its prevention, and reported facing challenges in initiating and sustaining participation in obesity prevention initiatives. Conclusion This study highlights the need to improve community readiness by addressing low obesity-related literacy levels among disadvantaged communities and by facilitating the capacity-building of bicultural workers to deliver obesity prevention messages to these communities. Integrating these needs into existing Australian health policy and practice is of paramount importance for reducing obesity-related disparities currently prevailing in Australia. What is known about the topic? Childhood obesity prevalence is plateauing in developed countries including Australia; however, obesity-related inequalities continue to exist in Australia especially among communities living in disadvantaged areas, which experience poor engagement in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Studies in the USA have found that assessing disadvantaged communities' readiness to participate in health programs is a critical initial step in reducing the disproportionate obesity burden among these communities
White, Peta E; Newton, Joshua D; Makdissi, Michael; Sullivan, S John; Davis, Gavin; McCrory, Paul; Donaldson, Alex; Ewing, Michael T; Finch, Caroline F
The need for accurate diagnosis and appropriate return-to-play decisions following a concussion in sports has prompted the dissemination of guidelines to assist managing this condition. This study aimed to assess whether key messages within these guidelines are reflected in the knowledge of coaches and sports trainers involved in community sport. An online knowledge survey was widely promoted across Australia in May-August 2012 targeting community Australian Football (AF) and Rugby League (RL) coaches and sports trainers. 260 AF coaches, 161 AF sports trainers, 267 RL coaches and 228 RL sports trainers completed the survey. Knowledge scores were constructed from Likert scales and compared across football codes and respondent groups. General concussion knowledge did not differ across codes but sports trainers had higher levels than did coaches. There were no significant differences in either concussion symptoms or concussion management knowledge across codes or team roles. Over 90% of respondents correctly identified five of the eight key signs or symptoms of concussion. Fewer than 50% recognised the increased risk of another concussion following an initial concussion. Most incorrectly believed or were uncertain that scans typically show damage to the brain after a concussion occurs. Fewer than 25% recognised, and >40% were uncertain that younger players typically take longer to recover from concussion than adults. The key messages from published concussion management guidelines have not reached community sports coaches and sports trainers. This needs to be redressed to maximise the safety of all of those involved in community sport.
The current research, "Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery", asks the question: Do the citizens of Northern Ohio support community college funding during difficult economic times? Based on the theory of Stakeholder Analysis, the purpose of this concurrent,…
Jeanneret, Neryl; Brown, Robert
The City of Melbourne's ArtPlay is open to children and young people aged 3-13 years, and provides a wide range of artist-led programs that serve a broad community within and outside the municipality. Its sister facility, Signal, caters for young people 13-22 years. An Australia Council of the Arts funded Creative Community Partnership Initiative,…
There have been a large number of studies on communities of learners, mostly in the context of general education. They show that fostering communities of learners in the classroom can enhance student learning and engagement. Students enrolled in initial vocational education might also profit from
McLeigh, Jill D; Katz, Carmit; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Ben-Arieh, Asher
A unique primary prevention effort, Strong Communities for Children (Strong Communities), focuses on changing attitudes and expectations regarding communities' collective responsibilities for the safety of children. Findings from a 6-year pilot of the initiative in South Carolina have shown promise in reducing child maltreatment, but efforts to adapt the initiative to different cultural contexts have been lacking. No models exist for adapting an initiative that takes a community-level approach to ensuring children's safety. Thus, this article addresses the gap by providing an overview of the original initiative, how the initiative was adapted to the Israeli context, and lessons learned from the experience. Building on conceptualizations of cultural adaptation by Castro et al. (Prevention Science, 5, 2004, 41) and Resnicow et al. (Ethnicity and Disease, 9, 1999, 11), sources of nonfit (i.e., sociodemographic traits, political conflict, government services, and the presence and role of community organizations) were identified and deep and surface structure modifications were made to the content and delivery. Ultimately, this article describes the adaption and dissemination of a community-based child maltreatment prevention initiative in Tel Aviv, Israel, and addresses researchers' calls for more publications describing the adaptation of interventions and the procedures that need to be implemented to achieve cultural relevance. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
This study investigates the impact of self-help initiatives on rural development in Ibesikpo community of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Self help initiatives were defined in terms of provision of employment, education and health-care. A sample size of 369 rural dwellers was drawn and data were analyzed using simple regression ...
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for Transformation Initiative: Sustainable Communities...(a)(4)(C) of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Reform Act of 1989, this document notifies the public of funding for the Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Transformative Initiative: Sustainable...
Tevendale, Heather D; Condron, D Susanne; Garraza, Lucas Godoy; House, L Duane; Romero, Lisa M; Brooks, Megan A M; Walrath, Christine
This paper presents an overview of the key evaluation components for a set of community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. We first describe the performance measures selected to assess progress toward meeting short-term objectives on the reach and quality of implementation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention interventions and adolescent reproductive health services. Next, we describe an evaluation that will compare teen birth rates in intervention communities relative to synthetic control communities. Synthetic controls are developed via a data-driven technique that constructs control communities by combining information from a pool of communities that are similar to the intervention community. Finally, we share lessons learned thus far in the evaluation of the project, with a focus on those lessons that may be valuable for local communities evaluating efforts to reduce teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taylor Chase Dotson
Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the potentialities and interconnections between existing and hypothetical community energy systems and the concept of generative justice. New York State’s more recent official energy plan, for instance, includes provisions for community-scale microgrids, and several European nations offer significant financial support to citizens interested in building micro and intermediate-scale renewable energy systems. Such efforts and technologies appear to promise some degree of generative justice, returning much of the value generated by distributed renewable energy back to the community producing it. However, most currently conceived and implemented community energy systems recirculate value in very narrow and limited ways. Building upon an analysis of New York energy policy and on-the-ground cases, we explore community energy’s potential. What kinds of value are being generated by community energy systems and for whom? How could such efforts be more generative of justice across a broad range of values, not just electrons and dollars? Through the attempt to broaden thinking not only about community energy systems but also the concept of generative justice, we connect technological and organizational configurations of community energy systems and the forms of value they have the potential to generate: including, the production of grassroots energy and organizational expertise, the capacity for local and personal autonomy in energy planning and decision-making, and the enhancement of an affective sense and embodied experience of community. Finally, we examine some of the barriers to realizing more generatively just community energy systems.
Full Text Available In this paper we will demonstrate, relying on theology, that Christianity, i.e. ascetic experience of the Church and sport are two sides of the same coin which is reflected in community or, rather, communion (When Christianity is concerned, or team work towards the goal when it comes to sport.
A. S. Khorloohiyn
Full Text Available One of key elements of an engineering component quality management system of process of provision of sports and improving services in gyms is the subsystem of diagnostics of physical client state. The aim of the study was to increase in efficiency of functioning of a quality management system of process of provision of sports and improving services in gyms due to development of techniques of incorrect estimation of the initial client state.The task of formation of a complex of indices of the initial status by criterion of necessary informtiveness is formulated. The principle of the functional interchangeability as a methodological basis for its decision is reasonable. The hierarchical structure of an integral assessment of the initial client state of gym is offered. On its basis the hierarchical model of rating of informtiveness of a complex of the single (measured indices, the providing objectivity of an integral assessment of the initial status is developed. The correctness of model is provided at the expense of a formulation of a complex of assumptions and original technology of application of different methods of expert estimation.The result of simulation of informtiveness of an integral assessment of the initial client state for a specific type of service and the purposes of physical enhancement includes: 1 library of sets of single indices, for each of which the technique and a monitoring aid, and also an informtiveness assessment in points, 2 the rules of support of the functional interchangeability of alternative complexes of indices by criterion of sufficiency of informtiveness of a complex based on additive models and the accepted restrictions is defined.The concept of a technique of formation of a complex of the measured and (or evaluated indices of the initial client state for the specific type of sports and improving service adapted under material opportunities of gym on the one hand, and responding to criterion of necessary
Peretz, Patricia J; Matiz, Luz Adriana; Findley, Sally; Lizardo, Maria; Evans, David; McCord, Mary
In 2005, local leaders in New York City developed the Washington Heights/Inwood Network for Asthma Program to address the burden of asthma in their community. Bilingual community health workers based in community organizations and the local hospital provided culturally appropriate education and support to families who needed help managing asthma. Families participating in the yearlong care coordination program received comprehensive asthma education, home environmental assessments, trigger reduction strategies, and clinical and social referrals. Since 2006, 472 families have enrolled in the yearlong program. After 12 months, hospitalizations and emergency department visits decreased by more than 50%, and caregiver confidence in controlling the child's asthma increased to nearly 100%. Key to the program's success was the commitment and involvement of community partners from program inception to date.
Taylor, Judy; Carlisle, Karen; Farmer, Jane; Larkins, Sarah; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Kenny, Amanda
In this paper, we consider factors significant in the success of community participation in the implementation of new oral health services. Our analysis draws on data from the Rural Engaging Communities in Oral Health (Rural ECOH) study (2014-2016). We aimed to assess the Australian relevance of a Scottish community participation framework for health service development; Remote Service Futures. Internationally, community participation in planning of health initiatives is common, but less common in new service implementation. Health managers query the legitimacy of "lay" community members, whether they will persist, and whether they can act as change agents. Our data provide evidence that helps answer these queries. Six communities, located within regions covered by two large rural primary healthcare organisations (Medicare Locals), were selected in two Australian states. Two university-based facilitators worked with a group of local residents (for each community) to monitor implementation of new oral health initiatives designed through participatory processes. Data about implementation were collected through interviews with 28 key stakeholders at the beginning of implementation and 12 months later. Data were coded, themed and analysed abductively. Five themes emerged; the inter-relationship between community motivation to participate with the fortunes of the oral health initiatives, having the "right" people involved, continuing involvement of sponsors and/or significant people, trusting working relationships between participants and perceiving benefits from participation. Findings provide evidence of a role for community participation in implementing new community services if solid partnerships with relevant providers can be negotiated and services are seen to be relevant and useful to the community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sun, Xu; May, Andrew; Wang, Qingfeng
This article describes an experimental study investigating the impact on user experience of two approaches of personalization of content provided on a mobile device, for spectators at large sports events. A lab-based experiment showed that a system-driven approach to personalization was generally preferable, but that there were advantages to retaining some user control over the process. Usability implications for a hybrid approach, and design implications are discussed, with general support for countermeasures designed to overcome recognised limitations of adaptive systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Examines the construction of community on a women's ice hockey team, using data from fieldwork and interviews with one Canadian team. Results indicated that the locker room provided a space where players came together as hockey players and women. A common focus on hockey united the diverse group. (SM)
Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian; Batterham, Marijka; Boydell, Katherine M; Eckermann, Simon; Fogarty, Andrea; Hurley, Diarmuid; Liddle, Sarah K; Lonsdale, Chris; Miller, Andrew; Noetel, Michael; Okely, Anthony D; Sanders, Taren; Telenta, Joanne; Deane, Frank P
There is a recognised need for targeted community-wide mental health strategies and interventions aimed specifically at prevention and early intervention in promoting mental health. Young males are a high need group who hold particularly negative attitudes towards mental health services, and these views are detrimental for early intervention and help-seeking. Organised sports provide a promising context to deliver community-wide mental health strategies and interventions to adolescent males. The aim of the Ahead of the Game program is to test the effectiveness of a multi-component, community-sport based program targeting prevention, promotion and early intervention for mental health among adolescent males. The Ahead of the Game program will be implemented within a sample drawn from community sporting clubs and evaluated using a sample drawn from a matched control community. Four programs are proposed, including two targeting adolescents, one for parents, and one for sports coaches. One adolescent program aims to increase mental health literacy, intentions to seek and/or provide help for mental health, and to decrease stigmatising attitudes. The second adolescent program aims to increase resilience. The goal of the parent program is to increase parental mental health literacy and confidence to provide help. The coach program is intended to increase coaches' supportive behaviours (e.g., autonomy supportive behaviours), and in turn facilitate high-quality motivation and wellbeing among adolescents. Programs will be complemented by a messaging campaign aimed at adolescents to enhance mental health literacy. The effects of the program on adolescent males' psychological distress and wellbeing will also be explored. Organised sports represent a potentially engaging avenue to promote mental health and prevent the onset of mental health problems among adolescent males. The community-based design, with samples drawn from an intervention and a matched control community
Tevendale, Heather D; Fuller, Taleria R; House, L Duane; Dee, Deborah L; Koumans, Emilia H
Seeking to reduce teen pregnancy and births in communities with rates above the national average, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Adolescent Health Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program, developed a joint funding opportunity through which grantees worked to implement and test an approach involving community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. Once these projects had been in the field for 2.5 years, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff developed plans for a supplemental issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health to present findings from and lessons learned during implementation of the community-wide initiatives. When the articles included in the supplemental issue are considered together, common themes emerge, particularly those related to initiating, building, and maintaining strong partnerships. Themes seen across articles include the importance of (1) sharing local data with partners to advance initiative implementation, (2) defining partner roles from the beginning of the initiatives, (3) developing teams that include community partners to provide direction to the initiatives, and (4) addressing challenges to maintaining strong partnerships including partner staff turnover and delays in implementation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the potential of the mining industry to contribute to social development (community building, resilience and wellbeing and to economic transitioning post-mining. A number of factors may facilitate the realisation of this potential, in particular community engagement activities that build community resilience and capacity to adapt to changing environments. This paper reviews a community foresight initiative, named Clermont Preferred Future (CPF, which is associated with a coal mine development in the town of Clermont in Queensland, Australia. The purpose of CPF, which was adopted in 2008 and is intended to continue to 2020, is to facilitate a transition to a prosperous and sustainable future by leveraging opportunities from coal mining while reducing dependence on the industry. CPF has been cited as a successful model of engagement and community development, and was highly commended in the Community Economic Development category at the 2011 Australian National Awards for Economic Development Excellence. This review draws on the experiences of stakeholders involved in CPF, and on foresight, community engagement, and community development literature. It identifies what has worked well, what has fallen short of the project’s rhetorical aspirations, and how processes and outcomes might be improved. It also trials artwork as an engagement tool. The findings are valuable for Clermont specifically, but also for the mining industry and mining communities more broadly, as well as for other industries in the context of community engagement and strategic planning.
Bosworth, Gary; Salemink, Koen
In the context of community-led local development, this research aims to understand the blend of top down and bottom up influences that combine in campaigns for improved rural broadband provision. The representativeness of the membership of rural community broadband initiatives and the motivations and dominant arguments behind their campaigns are analysed from the perspective of neo-endogenous development, which concerns endogenous actors linking to exogenous networks and resources to raise “...
Mitbavkar, S.; Anil, A.C.
to sound devices, electronic units, cables and other instruments intended for underwater research. In the process of fouling, bacteria and diatoms are the initial colonizers of any substrata immersed in seawater (Cooksey et al., 1980). The source... on various types of natural as well as artificial substrates where they tend to settle and develop into a biofouling community. These diatom communities are responsible for a major input of energy in the form of reduced carbon to the surface (Cooksey et al...
Anderson, Tania; Kenney, Jessica; Maple, John
This presentation will feature effective outreach strategies used to recruit, engage, and sustain student involvement from underserved communities in out-of-school science outreach programs. For example, one strategy is to partner with subject matter experts to provide your audience with a deeper understanding of and a unique perspective on current science. Join us to learn more about how you can initiate and sustain a STEM based program in your local community.
Full Text Available Dayne T Mickelson,1 Philip K Louie,2 Kenneth R Gundle,3 Alex W Farnand,4 Douglas P Hanel5 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 4Department of General Surgery, Presence Saint Joseph Hospital – Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, University of Washington, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Purpose: To investigate the impact of the Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Interest Group (OSSMIG on medical student interest and confidence in core musculoskeletal (MSK concepts through supplemental education and experiences at a single tertiary, academic institution.Methods: Medical student OSSMIG members at various levels of training were anonymously surveyed at the beginning and end of the 2014–2015 academic year.Results: Eighteen (N=18 medical student interest group members completed the survey. Significant improvement in their level of training was observed with regard to respondents’ self-assessed competence and confidence in MSK medicine (p<0.05. Additionally, respondents’ attitudes toward exposure and support from the interest group were significantly higher than those provided by the institution (p<0.05. Members believed OSSMIG increased interest in MSK medicine, improved confidence in their ability to perform orthopedics-related physical exams, strengthened mentorship with residents and attendings, and developed a connection with the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and its residents (median “Strongly Agree”, interquartile range one and two scale items.Conclusion: Since its inception 8 years ago, OSSMIG has been well received and has positively impacted University of Washington School of Medicine students through various interventions
European Commission, 2017
"Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Annex 2 To the Final Report to DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture of the European Commission. Case Study Summaries" is designed as a companion document to the final report "Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Final…
Stein, Catherine H; Faigin, David A
In this introduction to the special issue, we describe some of the rewards and challenges of community-based arts initiatives for our discipline. We explore the inherent tensions between art and science that are reflected in community-based arts activities. We pose larger questions about researching community-based arts activities and defining the arts as a means of promoting social change. The diversity of populations, settings, and issues represented by the papers in the special issue are described and a common set of values, methods of inquiry and action are discussed.
Maidenberg, Michelle P
Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities.
Kramer, Leila; Schwartz, Pamela; Cheadle, Allen; Borton, J Elaine; Wright, Merrick; Chase, Charlie; Lindley, Corina
Creative ways must be found to engage both community residents and political leaders around policy and environmental solutions to public health issues. Photovoice is a community-based, participatory approach to documentary photography that provides people with training on photography, ethics, critical discussion, and policy advocacy. Photovoice projects have been implemented across the nation as part of Kaiser Permanente's Community Health Initiative-a community-based obesity prevention effort. This article focuses on the first Photovoice project implemented in three communities in Colorado. Photovoice themes related to healthy eating and active living include a lack of access to healthy food choices in stores and schools, unsafe street crossings and sidewalks, and the need to redevelop certain areas to encourage safe recreation. The involvement of policy leaders in the project combined with several dissemination activities has contributed to healthier food offerings in schools and neighborhoods and city planning efforts that emphasize walkability and access to healthy food, and park revitalization.
Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Goldshore, Matt; Solomon, Barry S; Guyer, Bernard; Grason, Holly
To compare community involvement of pediatricians exposed to enhanced residency training as part of the Dyson Community Pediatrics Training Initiative (CPTI) with involvement reported by a national sample of pediatricians. A cross-sectional analyses compared 2008-2010 mailed surveys of CPTI graduates 5 years after residency graduation with comparably aged respondents in a 2010 mailed national American Academy of Pediatrics survey of US pediatricians (CPTI: n = 234, response = 56.0%; national sample: n = 243; response = 59.9%). Respondents reported demographic characteristics, practice characteristics (setting, time spent in general pediatrics), involvement in community child health activities in past 12 months, use of ≥1 strategies to influence community child health (eg, educate legislators), and being moderately/very versus not at all/minimally skilled in 6 such activities (eg, identify community needs). χ(2) statistics assessed differences between groups; logistic regression modeled the independent association of CPTI with community involvement adjusting for personal and practice characteristics and perspectives regarding involvement. Compared with the national sample, more CPTI graduates reported involvement in community pediatrics (43.6% vs 31.1%, P .05). Differences in involvement remained in adjusted analyses with greater involvement by CPTI graduates (adjusted odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5-3.7). Five years after residency, compared with their peers, more CPTI graduates report having skills and greater community pediatrics involvement. Enhanced residency training in community pediatrics may lead to a more engaged pediatrician workforce. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
David J. Ganz; Jill Blockhus; Kathleen Lawlor; Erin Myers Madeira
The advent of initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks (REDD+) in developing countries has raised much concern regarding impacts on local communities. To inform this debate, we analyze the initial outcomes of those REDD+ projects that systematically report on their socio-economic dimensions. To categorize and compare projects, we develop a participation and benefits framework that considers REDD+’s effects on local populations’ opport...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...
... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...
Wood, Lance; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Case, Jon
A joint collaborative modeling effort among the NWS offices in Mobile, AL, and Houston, TX, and NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center began during the 2011-2012 cold season, and continued into the 2012 warm season. The focus was on two frequent U.S. Deep South forecast challenges: the initiation of deep convection during the warm season; and heavy precipitation during the cold season. We wanted to examine the impact of certain NASA produced products on the Weather Research and Forecasting Environmental Modeling System in improving the model representation of mesoscale boundaries such as the local sea-, bay- and land-breezes (which often leads to warm season convective initiation); and improving the model representation of slow moving, or quasi-stationary frontal boundaries (which focus cold season storm cell training and heavy precipitation). The NASA products were: the 4-km Land Information System, a 1-km sea surface temperature analysis, and a 4-km greenness vegetation fraction analysis. Similar domains were established over the southeast Texas and Alabama coastlines, each with an outer grid with a 9 km spacing and an inner nest with a 3 km grid spacing. The model was run at each NWS office once per day out to 24 hours from 0600 UTC, using the NCEP Global Forecast System for initial and boundary conditions. Control runs without the NASA products were made at the NASA SPoRT Center. The NCAR Model Evaluation Tools verification package was used to evaluate both the positive and negative impacts of the NASA products on the model forecasts. Select case studies will be presented to highlight the influence of the products.
Sport tourism is one specific type of travel and tourism. The goal of this article is to introduce the definition and importance of sport tourism to academic and sports professionals. At present, sport tourism is a diverse social, economic and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique interaction of activity, people and place. The second part of this article reports about sports events as an important part of sport tourism.
Karageorghis, C I; Terry, P C; Lane, A M
Equivocal results of the psychophysical effects of music have been explained in part by the insensitivity of researchers to important personal and situational variables when selecting music. The aim of the present study was to operationalize a conceptual framework for the prediction of psychophysical responses to music into a music rating inventory to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments. An initial item pool was developed and administered to 334 aerobics instructors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a 13-item, four-factor structure (association, musicality, cultural impact and rhythm response), which accounted for 59.2% of the variance. This model demonstrated acceptable fit indices when tested using confirmatory factor analysis on 314 exercise-to-music participants, and was better than an alternative two-factor model. When cross-validated using multisample confirmatory factor analysis, the model also showed an acceptable fit overall, although some invariance in the rhythm response factor was evident that can be attributed to the exclusive use of synchronous music by aerobics instructors. The Brunel Music Rating Inventory appears to be a valid and reliable tool for both researchers and practitioners to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments.
Casey, Meghan M; Telford, Amanda; Mooney, Amanda; Harvey, Jack T; Eime, Rochelle M; Payne, Warren R
The purpose of this study was to undertake a process evaluation to examine the reach, adoption and implementation of a school-community linked physical activity (PA) program for girls aged 12 - 15 years (School Years 7 - 9) using the RE-AIM framework. Various approaches were used to assess 'reach', 'adoption' and implementation: (a) a school environment survey of intervention schools (n = 6); (b) teacher feedback regarding the professional development component (91.1% response rate) and lesson implementation (60.8% response rate); and (c) post-intervention focus group interviews with physical education (PE) teachers (n = 29), students (n = 125), coaches (n = 13) and instructors (n = 8) regarding program experiences. Reach and Adoption: Seven schools (n = 1491 Year 7-9 female student enrolment; 70% adoption rate), five tennis clubs, eight football clubs and five leisure centres participated in the program during 2011. Program design and professional development opportunities (training, resource manual and opportunities to work with coaches and instructors during PE classes) supported implementation and student engagement in PA. However, there was a lack of individual and organisational readiness to adopt program principles. For some deliverers there were deeply embedded ideologies that were not aligned with the Game Sense teaching approach upon which the program was based. Further, cognitive components of the program such as self-management were not widely adopted as other components of the program tended to be prioritised. The program design and resources supported the success of the program, however, some aspects were not implemented as intended, which may have affected the likelihood of achieving further positive outcomes. Barriers to program implementation were identified and should be considered when designing school-community linked interventions. In particular, future programs should seek to assess and adjust for organizational readiness within the study
Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Wood, Lance; Zavodsky, Brad; Case, Jon; Molthan, Andrew
The initiation of deep convection during the warm season is a forecast challenge in the relative high instability and low wind shear environment of the U.S. Deep South. Despite improved knowledge of the character of well known mesoscale features such as local sea-, bay- and land-breezes, observations show the evolution of these features fall well short in fully describing the location of first initiates. A joint collaborative modeling effort among the NWS offices in Mobile, AL, and Houston, TX, and NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center was undertaken during the 2012 warm season to examine the impact of certain NASA produced products on the Weather Research and Forecasting Environmental Modeling System. The NASA products were: a 4-km Land Information System data, a 1-km sea surface temperature analysis, and a 4-km greenness vegetation fraction analysis. Similar domains were established over the southeast Texas and Alabama coastlines, each with a 9 km outer grid spacing and a 3 km inner nest spacing. The model was run at each NWS office once per day out to 24 hours from 0600 UTC, using the NCEP Global Forecast System for initial and boundary conditions. Control runs without the NASA products were made at the NASA SPoRT Center. The NCAR Model Evaluation Tools verification package was used to evaluate both the forecast timing and location of the first initiates, with a focus on the impacts of the NASA products on the model forecasts. Select case studies will be presented to highlight the influence of the products.
Full Text Available Purpose: the establishment of nature of the interrelation between sports results of weight-lifters and level of their special physical and morphofunctional preparedness. Material & Methods: 48 sportsmen of group of initial preparation of the first year of training were involved to the experiment. The research was conducted on the basis of the chair of weightlifting and boxing of Kharkov state academy of physical culture and CYSS “HTZ”. Results: the correlation between indicators of morphofunctional, high-speed and power and special (competitive preparedness of weight-lifters is revealed at the stage of initial preparation. The conducted research shows that the result of competitive exercises of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation, depends on power and high-speed and power preparedness. Conclusions: it is established that the correlation between results of competitive exercises and jumps uphill from the place, in length from the place, run on 30 m can demonstrate the interrelation of power and high-speed and power preparedness of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation.
Matt Royer; Kristen Kyler; Jennifer Fetter
Over the last several years, a partnership of over thirty organizations called the Conewago CreekÂ Initiative has been working cooperatively in a small watershed to increase community engagementÂ and work with farmers and landowners to adopt land management practices to improve waterÂ quality.
Johnston, Francis E.
The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative (AUNI) presents a fruitful partnership between faculty and students at a premier research university and members of the surrounding community aimed at addressing the problem of childhood obesity. AUNI uses a problem-solving approach to learning by focusing course activities, including service-learning, on…
Cheadle, Allen; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Rauzon, Suzanne; Bourcier, Emily; Senter, Sandra; Spring, Rebecca; Beery, William L.
When planning and evaluating community-level initiatives focused on policy and environment change, it is useful to have estimates of the impact on behavioral outcomes of particular strategies (e.g., building a new walking trail to promote physical activity). We have created a measure of estimated strategy-level impact--"population dose"--based on…
The purpose of this case study was to examine the role of social capital in the enactment of a faculty-based initiative designed to improve student success and completion at one community college. The concept of social capital--or the actual and potential resources that are embedded in relationships--has been examined in research studies in many…
Walker, Karen E.
In 2002, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation launched an early childhood initiative in Trenton, NJ, called "Children's Futures" (CF) to determine if focused efforts to bring about community change could make measurable differences in children's health and well-being and help ensure their readiness to enter school. The Foundation engaged…
Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann
Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.
Carroll-Scott, Amy; Toy, Peggy; Wyn, Roberta; Zane, Jazmin I; Wallace, Steven P
In an era of community-based participatory research and increased expectations for evidence-based practice, we evaluated an initiative designed to increase community-based organizations' data and research capacity through a 3-day train-the-trainer course on community health assessments. We employed a mixed method pre-post course evaluation design. Various data sources collected from 171 participants captured individual and organizational characteristics and pre-post course self-efficacy on 19 core skills, as well as behavior change 1 year later among a subsample of participants. Before the course, participants reported limited previous experience with data and low self-efficacy in basic research skills. Immediately after the course, participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in data and research self-efficacy. The subsample reported application of community assessment skills to their work and increased use of data 1 year later. Results suggest that an intensive, short-term training program can achieve large immediate gains in data and research self-efficacy in community-based organization staff. In addition, they demonstrate initial evidence of longer-term behavior change related to use of data and research skills to support their community work.
Carroll-Scott, Amy; Toy, Peggy; Wyn, Roberta; Zane, Jazmin I.; Wallace, Steven P.
Objectives. In an era of community-based participatory research and increased expectations for evidence-based practice, we evaluated an initiative designed to increase community-based organizations’ data and research capacity through a 3-day train-the-trainer course on community health assessments. Methods. We employed a mixed method pre–post course evaluation design. Various data sources collected from 171 participants captured individual and organizational characteristics and pre–post course self-efficacy on 19 core skills, as well as behavior change 1 year later among a subsample of participants. Results. Before the course, participants reported limited previous experience with data and low self-efficacy in basic research skills. Immediately after the course, participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in data and research self-efficacy. The subsample reported application of community assessment skills to their work and increased use of data 1 year later. Conclusions. Results suggest that an intensive, short-term training program can achieve large immediate gains in data and research self-efficacy in community-based organization staff. In addition, they demonstrate initial evidence of longer-term behavior change related to use of data and research skills to support their community work. PMID:22594748
Anthony Stuart Amend
Full Text Available Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity. This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between phylogenetic diversity and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial phylogenetic diversity, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of sixty-six days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial phylogenetic diversity failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which phylogenetic diversity predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context.
Amend, Anthony S; Matulich, Kristin L; Martiny, Jennifer B H
Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context.
Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.
Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M.
Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time. PMID:29057794
Chelsea R. Singleton
Full Text Available Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI. Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97% stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.
Singleton, Chelsea R; Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M
Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.
Creed, Torrey A; Frankel, Sarah A; German, Ramaris E; Green, Kelly L; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Taylor, Kristin P; Adler, Abby D; Wolk, Courtney B; Stirman, Shannon W; Waltman, Scott H; Williston, Michael A; Sherrill, Rachel; Evans, Arthur C; Beck, Aaron T
Progress bringing evidence-based practice (EBP) to community behavioral health (CBH) has been slow. This study investigated feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity outcomes of a program to implement transdiagnostic cognitive therapy (CT) across diverse CBH settings, in response to a policy shift toward EBP. Clinicians (n = 348) from 30 CBH programs participated in workshops and 6 months of consultation. Clinician retention was examined to assess feasibility, and clinician feedback and attitudes were evaluated to assess implementation acceptability. Experts rated clinicians' work samples at baseline, mid-, and end-of-consultation with the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS) to assess fidelity. Feasibility was demonstrated through high program retention (i.e., only 4.9% of clinicians withdrew). Turnover of clinicians who participated was low (13.5%) compared to typical CBH turnover rates, even during the high-demand training period. Clinicians reported high acceptability of EBP and CT, and self-reported comfort using CT improved significantly over time. Most clinicians (79.6%) reached established benchmarks of CT competency by the final assessment point. Mixed-effects hierarchical linear models indicated that CTRS scores increased significantly from baseline to the competency assessment (p case-conceptualization driven EBP with high levels of competency and acceptability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Zieff, Susan G; Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kim, Mi-Sook
Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space, including bicycle lanes, temporary parks, and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. This article describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in 2 US urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and Web sites, media sources, and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on 3 grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy makers in other contexts? Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach, and merchant support were relatively similar among the 2 initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents, and city agencies is critical for a positive experience in developing and implementing ciclovia-type initiatives
Simonsen, Sara E; Ralls, Brenda; Guymon, Anna; Garrett, Teresa; Eisenman, Patricia; Villalta, Jeannette; Tavake-Pasi, O Fahina; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Digre, Kathleen; Hayes, Stephen; Alexander, Stephanie
The Coalition for a Healthier Community for Utah Women and Girls (CHC-UWAG) focused on addressing obesity-related health disparities impacting Utah women of color using community-based participatory research, a gender-based approach, and culturally sensitive health promotion activities delivered through community health workers (CHWs). A randomized trial of low vs. high intensity wellness coaching by CHWs was initiated. During this process, numerous policy issues emerged and were tracked. We present a case study illustrating how we identified, tracked, and engaged with emerging policy initiatives. Between September 2011 and August 2017, policy initiatives addressing obesity-related disparities among Utah women and girls were identified, tracked in a shared document, and updated regularly. Policies were classified by level (organizational, local, and statewide) and by focus (healthy eating, active living, and promotion of community health workers). CHC-UWAG engagement with policy work was also documented and tracked. Broad dissemination of study findings generated interest in the role of CHWs in addressing obesity. Partnering community-based organizations implemented policies focused on healthy eating and physical activity. Barriers to the broader use of CHWs in Utah were addressed in policy initiatives including the formation of a Utah Public Health Association Section for CHWs and a statewide CHW Coalition with involvement of CHC-UWAG members. The regular solicitation of information about policy initiatives resulted in successful policy tracking and engagement in policy work. The utilization of a gender-based approach helped illuminate the impact of emerging policies on the health of women and girls. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lois M. Meyer
Full Text Available In an era when U.S. and Mexican teachers are valued more for their academic achievements than their community-based knowledge and local/ethnic identity (e.g. Teach for America, or its off-shoot, Teach for Mexico, this study provides initial results of a one-year (2011-2012 intensive professional development experience (called a diplomado for 35 indigenous teachers of Initial Education who are “teaching their own babies” in marginalized communities of Oaxaca, Mexico, as documented in portfolios of written and photographic evidence produced by the teachers as their final diplomado product. The goal was to enrich these local teachers' background knowledge and equip them with research skills to investigate and honor the communal practices, governance, and perspectives (known as comunalidad of the rural indigenous communities where they teach, in order to generate an authentic, community-based approach to Initial Education for pregnant mothers, babies and toddlers up to 3 years old – a ground-breaking alternative to the Mexican government’s homogeneous Initial Education approach. Early findings indicate that these Oaxacan indigenous teachers faced a complex of internal and external challenges in this radical, regenerative work: they are young, female, mostly novice teachers, they lack professional preparation, and they have confronted racism throughout their own lives, especially and intensely in Mexican public schools. In the process of documenting communal life and early childhood socialization practices in rural communities where they teach, they confronted their own (often uneasy biculturalism and bilingualism. “Communalizing” early education in indigenous Oaxaca involves reconstructing and revitalizing the indigenous identities and language use of children and teachers alike. Preparing these local indigenous teachers to “teach their own babies” is a challenging but invaluable and achievable task.
Irwin, Carol C; Irwin, Richard L; Miller, Maureen E; Somes, Grant W; Richey, Phyllis A
Professional sport organizations in the United States have notable celebrity status, and several teams have used this "star power" to collaborate with local school districts toward the goal of affecting children's health. Program effectiveness is unknown due to the absence of comprehensive evaluations for these initiatives. The Memphis Grizzlies, the city's National Basketball Association franchise, launched "Get Fit with the Grizzlies," a 6-week, curricular addition focusing on nutrition and physical activity for the fourth and fifth grades in Memphis City Schools (MCS). The health-infused mini-unit was delivered by physical education teachers during their classes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the "Get Fit" program effectiveness. Survey research was employed which measured health knowledge acquisition and health behavior change using a matched pre/posttest design in randomly chosen schools (n = 11) from all elementary schools in the MCS system (N = 110). The total number of matched pre/posttests (n = 888) equaled approximately 5% of the total fourth-/fifth-grade population. McNemar's test for significance (p school-home initiative using a professional team's celebrity platform within a certain locale is largely overlooked by school districts and should be considered as a positive strategy to confront childhood obesity.
Final Report for DOE project DE-IE0000036 The Sokaogon Chippewa Community received a tribal clean energy initiative grant and installed a community wide solar system estimated to produce 606 kw of carbon free clean energy on seventeen (17) tribal buildings and three (3) residential homes significantly reducing the tribes’ energy bills over the life of the system, potentially saving the tribe up to $2.7 million in energy savings over a thirty (30) year time span. Fifteen (15) solar installations utilized aluminum roof-top mounting systems while two (2) installations utilized a ground mount aluminum racking system.
Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter
Abstract Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen staan centraal in deze toekomstverkenning over sport die werd uitgevoerd door het RIVM en het SCP, op verzoek van het ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport (VWS). In de Sport Toekomstverken...
Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Millon-Underwood, Sandra; Townsend, Leolia; Kelber, Sheryl T
There is limited information about what African Americans think about biobanks and the ethical questions surrounding them. Likewise, there is a gap in capacity to successfully enroll African Americans as biobank donors. The purposes of this community-based participatory study were to: (a) explore African Americans' perspectives on genetics/genomic research, (b) understand facilitators and barriers to participation in such studies, and (c) enlist their ideas about how to attract and sustain engagement of African Americans in genetics initiatives. As the first phase in a mixed methods study, we conducted four focus groups with 21 African American community leaders in one US Midwest city. The sample consisted of executive directors of community organizations and prominent community activists. Data were analyzed thematically. Skepticism about biomedical research and lack of trust characterized discussions about biomedical research and biobanks. The Tuskegee Untreated Syphilis Study and the Henrietta Lacks case influenced their desire to protect their community from harm and exploitation. Connections between genetics and family history made genetics/genomics research personal, pitting intrusion into private affairs against solutions. Participants also expressed concerns about ethical issues involved in genomics research, calling attention to how research had previously been conducted in their community. Participants hoped personalized medicine might bring health benefits to their people and proposed African American communities have a "seat at the table." They called for basic respect, authentic collaboration, bidirectional education, transparency and prerogative, and meaningful benefits and remuneration. Key to building trust and overcoming African Americans' trepidation and resistance to participation in biobanks are early and persistent engagement with the community, partnerships with community stakeholders to map research priorities, ethical conduct of research, and
Chilton, L. A.; Rindge, H.
Science literate and engaged members of the public, including students, are critical to building climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant facilitates programs that work to build and strengthen these connections. The Urban Tides Community Science Initiative (Urban Tides) and the Youth Exploring Sea Level Rise Science Program (YESS) engage communities across the boundaries of public engagement, K-12 education, and informal education. YESS is an experiential sea level rise education program that combines classroom learning, field investigations and public presentations. Students explore sea level rise using a new curricula, collect their own data on sea level rise, develop communication products, and present their findings to city governments, researchers, and others. Urban Tides engages community members, informal education centers, K-12 students, and local government leaders in a citizen science program photo- documenting extreme high tides, erosion and coastal flooding in Southern California. Images provide critical information to help calibrate scientific models used to identify locations vulnerable to damage from future sea level rise. These tools and information enable community leaders and local governments to set priorities, guidelines, and update policies as they plan strategies that will help the region adapt. The program includes a mobile app for data collection, an open database to view photos, a lesson plan, and community beach walks. Urban Tides has led to an increase in data and data-gathering capacity for regional scientists, an increase in public participation in science, and an increase in ocean and climate literacy among initiative participants. Both of these programs bring informed and diverse voices into the discussion of how to adapt and build climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant will share impacts and lessons learned from these two unique programs.
Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Rowland, Bosco C; Gillham, Karen E; Kennedy, Vanessa J; Ramsden, Robyn L; Colbran, Richard W; Weir, Sarah; Wiggers, John H
Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted 'happy hour' promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs.
Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Methods A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Results Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted ‘happy hour’ promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs. PMID:23947601
Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.
Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Buchhofer, Regina; McLaulin, J. Bryce; Evans, Arthur C.; Beck, Aaron T.
The Beck Initiative is a partnership between researchers and clinicians at a large university and an urban behavioral health managed care system. Both partners share a commitment to ensuring that consumers in the community have access to competently delivered, individualized, evidence-based mental health care and that the providers who serve them have the support they need to deliver high-quality evidence-based treatments. Central features of the program are individualized training and consultation in cognitive therapy for each provider agency and policies to promote the sustainability of the initiative and its continuing evolution to meet the needs of providers and consumers. PMID:19797367
Brett, Benjamin L; Kuhn, Andrew W; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary S; Zuckerman, Scott L
The empirical identification of risk factors associated with sport-related concussion (SRC) may improve the management of student-athletes. The current study attempted to identify and quantify bio-cognitive risk factors associated with sustaining a SRC. Cross-sectional ambispective study; level of evidence, 3. Neurocognitive testing of 12,320 middle school, high school and collegiate athletes was completed at preseason baseline and post-SRC. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine which pre-injury variables accurately predicted the occurrence of SRC. A quantitative risk score for each variable was developed. Five of 13 variables maintained significance in the multivariable model with the associated weighted point scores: SRC history (21), prior headache treatment (6), contact sport (5), youth level of play (7), and history of ADHD/LD (2). Six stratified groups were formed based on probability of SRC, which produced an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71 (95% CI 0.69-0.72, p < .001). Though the model was a significant predictor of SRC (X2 = 1,112.75, p < .001), the effect size was small and accounted for only 16% of the overall variance. An initial aggregate model of weighted bio-cognitive factors associated with increased odds of sustaining a SRC was developed. Previously validated factors were confirmed, yet a large source of variance remained unexplained. These findings emphasize the need to expand the host factors studied when assessing SRC risk, and that the existing, empirically based bio-cognitive factors do not adequately quantify the risk of SRC.
Full Text Available The challenge of facilitating a shift towards sustainable housing, food and mobility has been taken up by diverse community-based initiatives ranging from “top-down” approaches in low-carbon municipalities to “bottom-up” approaches in intentional communities. This paper compares intervention measures in four case study areas belonging to these two types, focusing on their potential of re-configuring daily housing, food, and mobility practices. Taking up critics on dominant intervention framings of diffusing low-carbon technical innovations and changing individual behavior, we draw on social practice theory for the empirical analysis of four case studies. Framing interventions in relation to re-configuring daily practices, the paper reveals differences and weaknesses of current low-carbon measures of community-based initiatives in Germany and Austria. Low-carbon municipalities mainly focus on introducing technologies and offering additional infrastructure and information to promote low-carbon practices. They avoid interfering into residents’ daily lives and do not restrict carbon-intensive practices. In contrast, intentional communities base their interventions on the collective creation of shared visions, decisions, and rules and thus provide social and material structures, which foster everyday low-carbon practices and discourage carbon-intensive ones. The paper discusses the relevance of organizational and governance structures for implementing different types of low-carbon measures and points to opportunities for broadening current policy strategies.
Walker, R Dale; Bigelow, Douglas A; LePak, Jessica Hope; Singer, Michelle J
In 2007 the federal Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Minority Health, collaborating with other federal agencies, sponsored the Indian Country Methamphetamine Initiative (ICMI). ICMI was undertaken to create community-driven, culture-based best practices in methamphetamine prevention and treatment which could then be disseminated throughout Indian Country. The ICMI ultimately involved ten tribes and five national organizations. Each tribe established a coalition of community government, nongovernment agencies, and elements of civic society to develop a comprehensive assessment, plan, and then to implement the plan. Each tribal coalition planned a complex array of activities including treatment programs, public education and mobilization, law enforcement strategies, and other intervention strategies, each intervention described within a logic model. These interventions focused on logic modeling; coalitions; capacity development and service system optimization; law enforcement and justice; individual and family treatment; public information, awareness, and education; community mobilization; and a very popular ICMI strategy, cultural renaissance. It was concluded that worthwhile activities were conducted under ICMI sponsorship, but that the specific aim of demonstrating community-driven, culture-based innovations in a manner suitable for dissemination was achieved only to a limited extent. Based on this outcome together with similar experiences, recommendations for future initiatives are suggested.
Finley, Cara; Suellentrop, Katherine; Griesse, Rebecca; House, Lawrence Duane; Brittain, Anna
Teen pregnancies and births continue to decline due in part to implementation of evidence-based interventions and clinical strategies. While local stakeholder education is also thought to be critical to this success, little is known about what types of strategies work best to engage stakeholders. With the goal of identifying and describing evidence-based or best practice strategies for stakeholder education in community-based public health initiatives, we conducted a systematic literature review of strategies used for effective stakeholder education. Over 400 articles were initially retrieved; 59 articles met inclusion criteria. Strategies were grouped into four steps that communities can use to support stakeholder education efforts: identify stakeholder needs and resources, develop a plan, develop tailored and compelling messaging, and use implementation strategies. These strategies lay a framework for high-quality stakeholder education. In future research, it is important to prioritize evaluating specific activities taken to raise awareness, educate, and engage a community in community-wide public health efforts.
McGarvey, Elizabeth Lloyd; Leon-Verdin, MaGuadalupe; Wanchek, Tanya Nicole; Bonnie, Richard J
This study examined the predictors of actions to initiate involuntary commitment of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis. Emergency services clinicians throughout Virginia completed a questionnaire following each face-to-face evaluation of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis. Over a one-month period in 2007, a total of 2,624 adults were evaluated. Logistic hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyze the relationship between demographic, clinical, and service-related variables and outcomes of the emergency evaluations. Several factors predicted 84% of the actions taken to initiate involuntary commitment. These included unavailability of alternatives to hospitalization, such as temporary housing or residential crisis stabilization; evaluation of the client in a hospital emergency room or police station or while in police custody; current enrollment in treatment; and clinical factors related to the commitment criteria, including risk of self-harm or harm to others, acuity and severity of the crisis, and current drug abuse or dependence. A lack of intensive community-based treatment and support in lieu of hospitalization accounted for a significant portion of variance in actions to initiate involuntary commitment. Comprehensive community services and supports for individuals experiencing mental health crises may reduce the rate of involuntary hospitalization. There is a need to enrich intensive community mental health services and supports and to evaluate the impact of these enhancements on the frequency of involuntary mental health interventions.
Full Text Available In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany. Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L. were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1–4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity
Esperschütz, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Dümig, A.; Welzl, G.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.
In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany). Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L.) were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1-4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity)
Drennan, Vari; Goodman, Claire; Manthorpe, Jill; Davies, Sue; Scott, Cherill; Gage, Heather; Iliffe, Steve
To examine the factors affecting the extent to which English policy on the introduction of community matrons for people with chronic conditions was implemented. Improving health services for people with chronic diseases (long-term conditions) is an international priority. In England, the new post of community matron, a case management role, was introduced. A target was set for 3000 community matrons to be in post by 2008, but this was not achieved. A realist, pragmatic evaluation of the introduction of community matron posts. The study used mixed methods at multiple levels: an analysis of national and local strategy and planning documents, a national survey and a stakeholder analysis using semi-structured interviews in three primary care organisation case study sites. National policy established targets for the introduction of community matron posts, but there was local variation in implementation. Pragmatic decisions reflected the history of local service configurations, available finance, opportunities or challenges created by other service redesigns and scepticism about the value of the community matron role. There was resistance to 'bolt on' nursing roles in primary care. The implementation of the community matron role is an example of how a policy imperative that valued the clinical skills and expertise of nurses was reinterpreted to fit with local patterns of service delivery. Before new nursing roles are introduced through national policies, a more nuanced understanding is required of the local factors that resist or support such changes. There is a need for consultation and understanding of local conditions before the implementation of workforce initiatives. For clinicians, it is important to understand how the context of care shapes priorities and definitions of new nursing roles and how their expertise is recognised and used. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Realisation of sport activities always demanded certain conditions. Among those, sports facilities are certainly necessary. Since there were important changes in the process of training itself and successful performance, as well as, the results achieved by the sportsmen; there is a need for adequate sports facilities, that include whole variety of systems,equipment and necessities. Nowadays, Sport facilities are not only “the place of event”, but also a condition/necessity in achieving best sport results. It is demanded that these facilities are comfortable, absolutely secure and that they can accommodate transmissions: an opening, the course of sports activities and the announcement of the winner. The kind of sport activity, age, sex; so the “sports level” of the competitors is emphasising the specific demands to wards sports facilities.
Gold, Marthe R; Realmuto, Lindsey; Scherer, Maya; Kamler, Alexandra; Weiss, Linda
Internal revenue service provisions require not-for-profit hospitals to provide "community benefit." In addition, the Affordable Care Act requires these hospitals to conduct community health needs assessments that involve appropriate stakeholders. These requirements signal government interest in creating opportunities for developing programs that are well tailored and responsive to the needs of the communities served. Gaining meaningful input from residents is a critical aspect of these processes. To implement public deliberations that explore local resident priorities for use of a hospital's community benefit resources to prevent chronic disease. Public deliberation is a method of community engagement that can provide guidance to decision makers on value-laden issues when technical solutions alone are inadequate to provide direction or set priorities. Three deliberations featuring presentations by experts and discussions among participants were convened with a cross section of residents in Brooklyn, New York. Participants were asked whether new hospital initiatives should prioritize: clinical prevention, community-based interventions, or action on broader policies affecting population health. Pre- and postsurveys, as well as qualitative methods, were used to assess knowledge and attitudes. Postdeliberation, participants had significant changes in knowledge, particularly on the impact of education on health. Participants prioritized community-based and policy interventions over expanding clinical prevention capacity. Public deliberation offers a method to probe informed constituent views of how a hospital can best promote its community's health. Informed local residents felt that hospitals should frame health-promoting activities more broadly than is current practice. Not-for-profit hospitals gain significant tax advantages. Increased insurance rates suggest that some hospitals will experience savings in uncompensated care that can be used to promote health more
The results indicate that the implementation process starts where top management initiates sporting activities and makes the employees aware of sporting events. The employees need to be informed through induction, presentations, electronic mail, sports competitions among different departments and videos.
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...
Hermansyah, Andi; Sainsbury, Erica; Krass, Ines
The development of health and healthcare systems in South-East Asia has influenced the practice of community pharmacy. Over the years, community pharmacy in the region has striven to expand services beyond dispensing to encompass more involvement in public health issues. Searches were conducted in Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PubMed for articles published between January 2000 and December 2014, with 21 studies in five countries meeting the inclusion criteria. The findings showed increasing interest in research into the delivery of pharmacy services and public health initiatives. Overall, the review found that provision of some health services in pharmacies was common; however, most public health initiatives appeared to be poorly implemented, had limited evidence and were not demonstrated to be sustainable across the sector. This indicates that the practice of community pharmacy in the region has not significantly changed over the past 14 years with respect to the scope and quality of pharmacy services provided, and fundamental policy changes are necessary to improve this situation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović
Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...
Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Linnan, Laura A; Marshall, Stephen W; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Mueller, Frederick O; Guskiewicz, Kevin M
To assess the influence of psychosocial determinants from the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour (TRA/TPB) on concussion-reporting intentions. The present study employed the TRA/TPB to develop a cross-sectional survey to examine contributors to intention to report concussion symptoms. High school athletes (n = 167, age = 15.7 ± 1.4) completed this survey. The TRA/TPB constructs of attitude (perceptions about concussion reporting), subjective norm (perception of important social referents beliefs about concussion reporting), perceived behavioural control (perceived control over concussion reporting) and intention to report concussion symptoms served as the independent variables. Linear regression models were used to predict intention to report concussion symptoms. Binomial regression models were used to predict concussion-reporting behaviours from intention. Direct attitude, subjective norm and direct perceived behavioural control were all associated with intention to report concussion. Intention was associated with decreased prevalence of participating in practices and games while symptomatic from concussion. Favourable attitudes toward reporting and social referents' beliefs have the greatest impact on intention to report concussion symptoms. Reporting intention may not always be an indicator of concussion-reporting behaviours. Concussion education initiatives should focus on improving attitudes and beliefs among athletes, coaches and parents to promote better care-seeking behaviours among young athletes.
Full Text Available Currently, it is widely known that sports, exercise and recreational physical activities have benefits for human and social development as well as for their establishment as a human right within different legal activities. This right to sport and recreational game during childhood is made explicit in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN, 1989, and the National Education Act, and the Integral Protection Act (Law 26.061. The aim of this article is to analyze the implementation of public policies through a case study in La Matanza, in three socio-residential areas of slums or urban settlements, with children from 4 to 14 years old as the target population. Adopting qualitative perspectives, we carried out the analysis of the theoretical and methodological approach together with objective field practices. The results show that programs oriented towards sport as a social practice have limitations when it comes to translating the essence of human development from a rights approach into concrete practice, as well as covering, constructing and implementing educational offers in the field of game and recreational sport.
Penland, Nathan Paul
Research has shown benefits to the student experience for college students when they participate in intramural sports on university campuses. These benefits include improved physical and social health as well as academic performance. This non-experimental, predictive correlational study sought to understand if a relationship exists between the…
Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.
If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…
Luz María Vázquez
Full Text Available Abstract This paper explores some key challenges the Mexican government may face when implementing climate change adaptation initiatives in coastal lagoon communities in the Mexican state of Tabasco, in the Gulf of Mexico. I discuss some challenges state initiatives of this type may encounter considering the existence of local contentious political issues among various actors – fishers and the state-owned oil industry – that are at the core of the emergence of coastal environmental changes in the study site. A close analysis of local political, economic and environmental processes in coastal lagoon communities illustrates the existence of contentious issues among powerful actors over territory and its resources. It is in the context of these local, on the ground, issues that I argue that climate change adaptation interventions become highly political. I also argue that climate change policy analysis must be done in light of past and failed state interventions in Tabasco that have had a negative impact on ecosystems and fishers’ livelihoods. My analysis of climate change adaptation initiatives and fishers’ views on their local environmental problems is based on political ecology approaches to environmental narratives and critical literature on climate change.
Full Text Available The present school system in the most countries of the World contains as planned and systematic students and learners activity among others subjects also the physical education (in some countries it is called sport, physical activity etc. University education cannot be imagined without sport activities of the students and almost every modern University of the world has organized and evaluated sport stu- dent activities. Today in the most countries of ex Yugoslavia there isn’t regulated proble- matics concerning sport activities of Universities (both state and private, and it is held on it (except in some student competitions. The main goal of the authors of this study is that in the year of Univesity Games (Belgrade 2009, they initiate the resolution of problematics concerning sport activities i.e. student sport, beginings from the needs of the students and community, and healthy life in general. The further aim of this study is presentation and observation of arguments for invloving sport student activities in regular student duties with posssibility of their eva- luation (Declaration of Bologna, on the example of a research at a private University in Banja Luka, and on the basis of examining the student opinions. Sample of examined people will be the students of 5 Faculties of Paneuropean University ’’APEIRON’’ Banja Luka and the data will be achieved by questionnaire.
Bitting, Sara; Nash, Angela; Ochoa, Ashley
Recovery from alcohol and drug problems is a process of change through which an individual achieves control and improved quality of life. Recovery is a primary goal for individuals with substance use disorder as it provides hope that treatment and overall health are possible for every individual. More than 23 million Americans are in recovery from addiction to alcohol and other drugs.Recovery-oriented systems of care (ROSC) are networks of community services and peer support that help individuals and families achieve recovery from substances and improve overall health. ROSC is a strengths-based and person-centered model that leverages existing community resources to address the needs of individuals and families as they progress through the journey of recovery. The ROSC model serves as the foundation of the Houston Recovery Initiative (HRI).The purpose of this article is to describe the history, development, and infrastructure of the HRI, which is a volunteer collaboration whose main goal is to educate the community on recovery and broaden the recovery safety net for people with substance use disorder in Houston, Texas. Since 2010, the HRI has grown to include more than 200 agencies across the spectrum of treatment and recovery support services in Houston so as to provide a resource for the community. Herein, we detail efforts to grow the HRI, lessons learned, future plans, and resources needed to move the HRI forward.
Spohr, Stephanie A; Taxman, Faye S; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott T
Although substance use is common among people in the U.S. criminal justice system, treatment initiation remains an ongoing problem. This study assessed the reliability and predictive validity of the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity 3.1.1. (MITI) coding instrument in a community corrections sample. We used data from 80 substance-using clients who were participating in a clinical trial of MI in a probation setting. We analyzed 124 MI counseling sessions using the MITI, a coding system for documenting MI fidelity. Bivariate associations and logistic regression modeling were used to determine if MI-consistent behaviors predicted substance use or treatment initiation at a 2-month follow-up. We found a high level of agreement between coders on behavioral utterance counts. Counselors met at least beginning proficiency on most MITI summary scores. Probationers who initiated treatment at 2-month follow-up had significantly higher ratings of clinician empathy and MI spirit than clients who did not initiate treatment. Other MITI summary scores were not significantly different between clients who had initiated treatment and those who did not. MI spirit and empathy ratings were entered into a forward logistic regression in which MI spirit significantly predicted 2-month treatment initiation (χ(2) (1)=4.10, p<.05, R(2)=.05) but counselor empathy did not. MITI summary scores did not predict substance use at 2-month follow-up. Counselor MI-consistent relational skills were an important predictor of client treatment initiation. Counselor behaviors such as empathy and MI spirit may be important for developing client rapport with people in a probation setting. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Starting from the need to tackle in a sustainable way the new economic and social requirements particularly induced by the recent financial crisis, corporate social responsibility (CSR is one envisaged solution at community and organizational level, because of its win-win strategic potential. More than that, acknowledging the economic impact of strongly supporting social domains like education and sport, the European Union (EU has designed new measures for developing the human potential during 2014-2020 period. Following these two rationales, the main research objective is to emphasize the relationship between CSR and corporate support for educational and sport projects of top performing companies in Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia in the post-crisis period. Four main issues are investigated in detail regarding the corporate support for education and sport areas through CSR initiatives, namely existence of corporate involvement, forms of commitment, reasons for engagement, and main beneficiaries of implication. The research methodology focuses on empirical and analytical perspectives, while the results show new facets and implications of CSR initiatives in education and sport domains, but also a set of similarities and differences between the analysed EU countries. Economic and social impacts are also examined, as well as future research directions.
... submit" value="Submit" /> HEADS UP to School Sports Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir To help ... organizations, developed the HEADS UP: Concussion in School Sports initiative and materials. Specific Concussion Information for... Coaches ...
Jenkin, Claire R; Eime, Rochelle M; Westerbeek, Hans; O'Sullivan, Grant; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z
The global population is ageing. As ageing is often associated with a decline in health, there is a need to further develop preventative health measures. Physical activity can positively influence older adults' (aged 50 years and older) health. Previous research on the relationship between physical activity and health for older adults has mainly focused on physical activity in general, and not specific types of exercise. Due to the social nature of sport, it may assist in improving physical, mental and social health for older adults. Sport, as a form of physical activity, has not been widely explored as a physical activity opportunity for older adults. This review concurrently explored two research questions: the determinants and the trends of sport participation for community dwelling older adults. Two parallel systematic searches of nine electronic databases were conducted in December 2015 for the two research questions. English language quantitative and qualitative studies that provided specific results for community dwelling older adults' sport participation were included and a quality ratings assessment was undertaken. There were 10,171 studies initially identified for the first research question and 1992 studies for the second research question. This culminated in 18 and 8 studies respectively that met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently mentioned determinants of participation were health and using sport to negotiate the ageing process. The most frequently mentioned trends of sport participation were the effect of historical sport participation on current participation, and sport participation across the lifespan. The main themes for both research questions had contrasting results, for example, participation in sport could improve health, but poor health was also a limitation of sport participation. This review demonstrates that older adults are a heterogeneous age group, and therefore require different strategies than other age groups to
Thronson, Harley; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. J.; Cooke, Doug; Hopkins, Joshua; Perino, Maria A.; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard
There is a growing consensus that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget assumptions and with sustained international participation. In response to this idea, a distinguished group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December, 2013. Participants reviewed and discussed scenarios for affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station over the coming decade as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and a usable definition of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop.
Lyle, John W. B.
Conceptualizes excellence in sports performance and suggests that there is a failure to distinguish between community recreation and performance sports as well as lack of knowledge about talent identification. Proposes a structure for management and investment in education and training in the field. (SK)
Laver, Lior; Pengas, Ioannis P; Mei-Dan, Omer
Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.
This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.
Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.
Sweeney, Dave; Rule, James
Introduction: The NHS CCG for Halton, one of Britain’s most deprived boroughs, has developed an unparalleled platform to support older people and people living with dementia through partnership working with the Super League rugby club, Widnes Vikings.Description: This is a key part of Britain’s most innovative and ambitious partnership between a health and sporting organisation.Stakeholders include: The integrated team of Halton CCG, Halton Borough Council and Widnes Vikings.Public HealthVolu...
Madin, J.; Bowers, S.; Jones, M.; Schildhauer, M.
Advances in ecology and environmental science increasingly depend on information from multiple disciplines to tackle broader and more complex questions about the natural world. Such advances, however, are hindered by data heterogeneity, which impedes the ability of researchers to discover, interpret, and integrate relevant data that have been collected by others. Here, we outline two community-building initiatives for improving data interoperability in the ecological and environmental sciences, one that is well-established (the Ecological Metadata Language [EML]), and another that is actively underway (a unified model for observations and measurements). EML is a metadata specification developed for the ecology discipline, and is based on prior work done by the Ecological Society of America and associated efforts to ensure a modular and extensible framework to document ecological data. EML "modules" are designed to describe one logical part of the total metadata that should be included with any ecological dataset. EML was developed through a series of working meetings, ongoing discussion forums and email lists, with participation from a broad range of ecological and environmental scientists, as well as computer scientists and software developers. Where possible, EML adopted syntax from the other metadata standards for other disciplines (e.g., Dublin Core, Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata, and more). Although EML has not yet been ratified through a standards body, it has become the de facto metadata standard for a large range of ecological data management projects, including for the Long Term Ecological Research Network, the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, and the Ecological Society of America. The second community-building initiative is based on work through the Scientific Environment for Ecological Knowledge (SEEK) as well as a recent workshop on multi-disciplinary data management. This initiative aims at improving
Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Schwartz, Robert P; Fitzgerald, Terrence T; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vocci, Frank J
Buprenorphine is a promising treatment for heroin addiction. However, little is known regarding its provision to pre-release prisoners with heroin dependence histories who were not opioid-tolerant, the relative effectiveness of the post-release setting in which it is provided, and gender differences in treatment outcome in this population. This is the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine provided to male and female inmates in the US who were previously heroin-dependent prior to incarceration. A total of 211 participants with 3-9 months remaining in prison were randomized to one of four conditions formed by crossing In-Prison Treatment Condition (received buprenorphine vs. counseling only) and Post-release Service Setting (at an opioid treatment center vs. a community health center). Outcome measures were: entered prison treatment; completed prison treatment; and entered community treatment 10 days post-release. There was a significant main effect (p=.006) for entering prison treatment favoring the In-Prison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (99.0% vs. 80.4%). Regarding completing prison treatment, the only significant effect was Gender, with women significantly (pPrison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (47.5% vs. 33.7%). Buprenorphine appears feasible and acceptable to prisoners who were not opioid-tolerant and can facilitate community treatment entry. However, concerns remain with in-prison treatment termination due to attempted diversion of medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Fitzgerald, Terrence; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Vocci, Frank J.
Background Buprenorphine is a promising treatment for heroin addiction. However, little is known regarding its provision to pre-release prisoners with heroin dependence histories who were not opioid-tolerant, the relative effectiveness of the post-release setting in which it is provided, and gender differences in treatment outcome in this population. Methods This is the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine provided to male and female inmates in the US who were previously heroin-dependent prior to incarceration. A total of 211 participants with 3–9 months remaining in prison were randomized to one of four conditions formed by crossing In-Prison Treatment Condition (received buprenorphine vs. counseling only) and Post-release Service Setting (at an opioid treatment center vs. a community health center). Outcome measures were: entered prison treatment; completed prison treatment; and entered community treatment 10 days post-release. Results There was a significant main effect (p=.006) for entering prison treatment favoring the In-Prison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (99.0% vs. 80.4%). Regarding completing prison treatment, the only significant effect was Gender, with women significantly (pbuprenorphine Treatment Condition (47.5% vs. 33.7%). Conclusions Buprenorphine appears feasible and acceptable to prisoners who were not opioid-tolerant and can facilitate community treatment entry. However, concerns remain with in-prison treatment termination due to attempted diversion of medication. PMID:24962326
Clément, Annie-Pier; Djilas, Dusica; Vinet, Tanya; Aubin, Ariane; Demers, Karine; Levasseur, Mélanie
Although some social participation initiatives exist to counter the isolation of older adults, none were identified and prioritized according to the needs of rural regional county municipalities (RCM), including in Canada. To identify and prioritize social participation initiatives for older Canadians, and to document the feasibility of their implementation in a rural RCM. An action research was used to identify, based on a review of scientific and grey literature, social participation initiatives, enriched and prioritized by the community. Facilitators, challenges, and advice for the implementation of these initiatives were documented through nine group discussions (n = 85). Two social participation initiatives were identified as more relevant to the RCM, combined and adapted as the Benevolent Community to locate and assist isolated older adults. Two other initiatives were prioritized to identify transportation needs and solutions, and create a website on social participation activities available. Most participants perceived these initiatives as feasible, and will address older adults' social participation needs. Two facilitators were a field worker for older adults and the preoccupations of the community toward isolated older adults. The main challenges concerned the difficulty in recruiting volunteers and locating isolated older adults, exacerbated by the RCM's vast territory. Main advice involved suggestions of people for the recruitment of volunteers. Through valuable collaboration with the community, initiatives were identified and prioritized, and challenges were raised, with anticipated success. Further studies are needed to document the implementation and effects of these initiatives on the social participation of older adults in the RCM.
Wood, J. \\Luke; Harris, Frank, III.
The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the utility of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM[c]), an instrument designed to examine predictors of student success for men in community colleges. The authors highlight initial validation results from a recent pilot of the CCSM[c], with a focus on the non-cognitive outcomes construct employed…
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2107-000] North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of North Community Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...
David J. Ganz
Full Text Available The advent of initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks (REDD+ in developing countries has raised much concern regarding impacts on local communities. To inform this debate, we analyze the initial outcomes of those REDD+ projects that systematically report on their socio-economic dimensions. To categorize and compare projects, we develop a participation and benefits framework that considers REDD+’s effects on local populations’ opportunities (jobs, income, security (of tenure and ecosystem services, and empowerment (participation in land use and development decisions. We find material benefits, in terms of jobs and income, to be, thus far, modest. On the other hand, we find that many projects are helping populations gain tenure rights. A majority of projects are obtaining local populations’ free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC. However, for those projects interacting with multiple populations, extent of participation and effects on forest access are often uneven. Our participation and benefits framework can be a useful tool for identifying the multi-faceted socio-economic impacts of REDD+, which are realized under different timescales. The framework and initial trends reported here can be used to build hypotheses for future REDD+ impact evaluations and contribute to evolving theories of incentive-based environmental policy.
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing......Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...
de Wit, Liesbeth; Fenenga, Christine; Giammarchi, Cinzia; di Furia, Lucia; Hutter, Inge; de Winter, Andrea; Meijering, Louise
Critical health literacy enables older adults to make informed health decisions and take actions for the health and wellbeing of themselves and their community, within their own social and cultural context. A community-based approach has the potential to improve the critical health literacy of older adults and their communities. However, it is not clear how such initiatives consider critical health literacy. Therefore, this study explored how community-based initiatives address the critical health literacy of older adults and their communities. A systematic literature search was conducted. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, as well as the quality of the methodological and community-based elements of the studies. In addition, a meta-synthesis was carried out, consisting of a qualitative text analysis of the results sections of the 23 included studies. We identified two main themes, which are practices that contribute to the critical health literacy of older adults as well as their communities: 1) collaborative learning, and 2) social support. In these practices we identified reciprocity as a key characteristic of both co-learning and social support. This study provides the first overview of community-based initiatives that implicitly address the critical health literacy of older adults and their community. Our results demonstrate that in the context of one's own life collaborative learning and social support could contribute to people's understanding and ability to judge, sift and use health information. We therefore suggest to add these two practices to the definition of critical health literacy.
Wroth, Thomas H; Boals, Joseph C
leadership and support. The leaders of the practice saw beyond the usual metrics of patient visit counts and relative value units (RVUs) to embrace the concept of population health: the notion that practices are not only responsible for providing acute, episodic care in the office, but also for improving health outcomes in the community in which they serve. Other important factors included ensuring a basic agreement among providers on the need for improvement and frequent communication about the goals of the project. Although the champions of the project tried to minimize formal meeting time, there was frequent informal communication between team members. In the future, there is a need to develop other approaches to stimulate these endeavors in community practices, such as "pay for performance" programs, continuing education credit, and tying maintenance of board certification to quality improvement initiatives.
Full Text Available The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33 of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include:
Siewell, Nicholas; Aguirre, Stephanie; Thomas, Madhavappallil
Building communities through creative community garden projects is increasingly common and seems to create beneficial effects for participants. This study recognizes the need to understand the impact of gardens on low socioeconomic neighborhoods. By conducting a needs assessment study and establishing a community garden, we were able to study its…
Daniels, Amy M; Salisbury-Afshar, Elizabeth; Hoffberg, Adam; Agus, Deborah; Fingerhood, Michael I
The aims of this retrospective, descriptive study were to describe clients served by a buprenorphine program in a community-based recovery center and to present initial treatment outcomes. A record review was conducted for clients treated from July 2010 to August 2011. Client demographic, health, substance use, and treatment history data were abstracted from the records of the first 78 clients served. Buprenorphine and opiate use data were collected via urine toxicology reports, collected weekly among clients who remained enrolled in treatment. The average percentages of weeks spent opiate free and buprenorphine compliant were 83% (SD = 26%) and 95% (SD = 13%), respectively. When positive heroin toxicology and negative buprenorphine toxicology were replaced for the missing/unknown data, the average percentages of opiate-abstinent weeks and buprenorphine compliance were 60% (SD = 34%) and 74% (SD = 28%), respectively. Roughly half of all clients (49%) were successfully transitioned to continue treatment with buprenorphine in a primary care setting. Findings from this study demonstrate that buprenorphine treatment for opiate dependence can be incorporated into a community-based recovery center with high rates of opiate abstinence and treatment adherence.
McFadyen, Tameka; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Tindall, Jenny; Yoong, Sze Lin; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen; Sherker, Shauna; Rowland, Bosco; McLaren, Nicola; Kingsland, Melanie
The implementation of comprehensive alcohol management strategies can reduce excessive alcohol use and reduce the risk of alcohol-related harm at sporting venues. Supporting sports venues to implement alcohol management strategies via the Web may represent an effective and efficient means of reducing harm caused by alcohol in this setting. However, the feasibility and acceptability of such an approach is unknown. This study aimed to identify (1) the current access to and use of the Web and electronic devices by sports clubs; (2) the perceived usefulness, ease of use, and intention to use a Web-based program to support implementation of alcohol management policies in sports clubs; (3) the factors associated with intention to use such a Web-based support program; and (4) the specific features of such a program that sports clubs would find useful. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with club administrators of community football clubs in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Perceived usefulness, ease of use and intention to use a hypothetical Web-based alcohol management support program was assessed using the validated Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) instrument. Associations between intention to use a Web-based program and club characteristics as well as perceived ease of use and usefulness was tested using Fisher's exact test and represented using relative risk (RR) for high intention to use the program. Of the 73 football clubs that were approached to participate in the study, 63 consented to participate and 46 were eligible and completed the survey. All participants reported having access to the Web and 98% reported current use of electronic devices (eg, computers, iPads/tablets, smartphones, laptops, televisions, and smartboards). Mean scores (out of a possible 7) for the TAM constructs were high for intention to use (mean 6.25, SD 0.87), perceived ease of use (mean 6.00, SD 0.99), and perceived usefulness (mean 6.17, SD 0.85). Intention to use the Web
Herschell, Amy D.; Lindhiem, Oliver J.; Kogan, Jane N.; Celedonia, Karen L.; Stein, Bradley D.
We examined the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) training in community-based agencies. Data were gathered at four time points over a two-year period from front-line mental health therapists (N = 64) from 10 community-based agencies that participated in a DBT implementation initiative. We examined change on therapist attitudes towards consumers with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), confidence in the effectiveness of DBT, and use of DBT model components. All measures were self-report. Participating in DBT training resulted in positive changes over time, including improved therapist attitudes toward consumers with BPD, improved confidence in the effectiveness of DBT, and increased use of DBT components. Therapists who had the lowest baseline scores on the study outcomes had the greatest self-reported positive change in outcomes over time. Moreover, there were notable positive correlations in therapist characteristics; therapists who had the lowest baseline attitudes towards individuals with BPD, confidence in the effectiveness of DBT, or who were least likely to use DBT modes and components were the therapists who had the greatest reported increase over time in each respective area. DBT training with ongoing support resulted in changes not commonly observed in standard training approaches typically used in community settings. It is encouraging to observe positive outcomes in therapist self-reported skill, perceived self-efficacy and DBT component use, all of which are important to evidence-based treatment (EBT) implementation. Our results underscore the importance to recognize and target therapist diversity of learning levels, experience, and expertise in EBT implementation. PMID:24333657
Lonardoni, Davide; Amin, Hayder; Di Marco, Stefano; Maccione, Alessandro; Berdondini, Luca; Nieus, Thierry
Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs), interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities) that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity.
Full Text Available Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs, interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity.
Courtney, Karen L.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Mecca, Laurel Person; Garlock, Laurie A.; Schulz, Richard; Dick, Andrew W.; Olshansky, Ellen
Community-based (multi-user) telehealth interventions may be beneficial for older adults, but there is little research regarding community-based telehealth. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to examine the acceptability and perceived value of community-based telehealth kiosks with regard to current health self-management practices of community-dwelling older adults as a first step in feasibility assessment. Participants included residents (n=6) and community agency case managers (n=3) of a HUD-subsidized senior apartment building. Both positive impressions and concerns of each group are presented. Findings helped guide the plans for future telehealth kiosk implementation and training. PMID:20509594
Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others
Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen
Bolton, K A; Kremer, P; Gibbs, L; Waters, E; Swinburn, B; de Silva, A
The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Health-Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well (HPC:BAEW, 2007-2010) initiative, which comprised community-based multi-component interventions adapted to community context in five separate communities. The intervention aimed to promote healthy eating, physical activity and stronger, healthier communities. A mixed method and multilevel quasi-experimental evaluation of the HPC:BAEW initiative captured process, impact and outcome data. The evaluation involved both cross-sectional (children and adolescents) and longitudinal designs (adults) with data collected pre- and post-intervention in intervention (n=2408 children and adolescents from 18 schools, n=501 adults from 22 workplaces) and comparison groups (n=3163 children and adolescents from 33 schools, n=318 adults from seven workplaces). Anthropometry, obesity-related behavioural and environmental data, information regarding community context and implementation factors were collected. The primary outcomes were differences in anthropometry (weight, waist, body mass index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI z-score)) over time compared with comparison communities. Baseline data was collected 2008/2009 and post-intervention collected in 2010 with an average intervention time frame of approximately 12 months. The strategies most commonly implemented were related to social marketing, stakeholder engagement, network and partnership development, community-directed needs assessment and capacity building. Analysis of post-intervention data showed gains in community capacity, but few impacts on environments, policy or individual knowledge, skills, beliefs and perceptions. Relative to the comparison group, one community achieved a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity, lower weight, waist circumference and BMI (Plevel of healthy eating policy implementation in schools; two communities achieved improved healthy eating-related behaviours (Plevels of physical activity in
Wheeler, Robert F.
Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)
Downey, Laura Hall; Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Yadrick, Kathy; Avis-Williams, Amanda; Graham-Kresge, Susan; Bogle, Margaret
Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been used to develop sustainable nutrition intervention strategies. Focus groups were conducted with 22 faculty and staff members from the academic partners on the project to document their perceptions of community-based participatory processes in a federally funded, multi-academic-community partnership spanning a decade. Focus groups were conducted to glean insights or lessons from the experiences of academic personnel. Focus groups were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Two researchers analyzed each transcript independently and reached consensus on the consistent themes. Participants candidly shared their experiences of working with community members to devise research plans, implement programs, and evaluate outcomes. The majority of faculty and staff members were attracted to this project by an excitement for conducting a more egalitarian and potentially more successful type of research. Yet each academic partner voiced that there was an underlying disconnect between community practices and research procedures during the project. Additional barriers to collaboration and action, located in communities and academic institutions, were described. Academic partners stressed the importance of open and ongoing communication, collective decision-making strategies, and techniques that support power sharing between all parties involved in the project. Findings from this research can inform academic-community partnerships and hopefully improve the community-based participatory research process implemented by academic institutions and communities.
Background Extracurricular school-based sports are considered to be an ideal means of reaching children who are not active in community sports. The purposes of this study were to examine the extent to which pupils not engaging in community sports do participate in extracurricular school-based sports, and to assess whether extracurricular school-based sports participants are more physically active and/or more autonomously motivated towards sports in daily life than children who do not participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Methods One thousand forty-nine children (53.7% boys; M age = 11.02 years, SD = 0.02) out of 60 classes from 30 Flemish elementary schools, with an extracurricular school-based sports offer, completed validated questionnaires to assess physical activity (Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire) and motivation (Behavioral Regulations in Physical Education Questionnaire). Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the data generated from these questionnaires. Results More than three quarters of the children (76%) reported participating in extracurricular school-based sports during the current school year and 73% reported engaging in organized community sports. Almost two third of the children (65%) not participating in community sports stated that they did participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Extracurricular school-based sports participants were significantly more physically active than children not participating in extracurricular school-based sports (β = 157.62, p sports participation × community sports participation) were found for autonomous motivation, with boys engaging in extracurricular school-based sports but not in community sports being significantly more autonomously motivated towards sports than boys not engaging in community or extracurricular school-based sports (β = 0.58, p = 0.003). Such differences were not noted among girls. Conclusions If extracurricular school-based sports are offered
Sarmiento, Kelly; Mitchko, Jane; Klein, Cynthia; Wong, Sharon
Background: To reduce the number of sports-related concussions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with the support of partners and experts in the field, has developed a tool kit for high school coaches with practical, easy-to-use concussion-related information. This study explores the success of the tool kit in changing…
Full Text Available Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondents from 30 million Malaysian population. Respondents were selected from urban (50% and rural areas (50%. Ethnically 56% were Malays, Sarawak and Sabah natives were 11%, Chinese 25% and finally Indians 7%. The respondents age categories were 12 to 19 years (30%, 20 to 25 years (50%, 56 and above (20%. A questionnaire developed by the research team was used to collect data. The quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21.0 for windows. Results: The findings indicate that from 5864 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full, a total of 4553 people or 77.6% watch sporting events, while a total of 1311 people or 22.4% have stated not watching any sports activities. Comparison by gender showed that 85.2% of the 2482 males watch sports events while among the female 70.2% of the 2071 watch sports events. In the category of those who do not watch, the female are higher at 29.8% than the males at 14.8%. In terms of ethnicity the Malays 80.2%. Chinese 64.6%, Indians 81.9%, natives of Sabah 94.0%, natives of Sarawak 77.6% like to watch sports events. Residential locations showed no significant differences as 78.7% of urban respondents watch sports events compared to 76.8% of rural communities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that majority of Malaysians having fun in watching sports activities. Gender still plays a role in the involvement and enjoyment of sports events either as a player or supporter. Ethnicity
Galbraith, N. R.; Graybeal, J.; Bermudez, L. E.; Wright, D.
The Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) initiative promotes the exchange, integration and use of marine data through enhanced data publishing, discovery, documentation and accessibility. The project, operating since late 2004, presents several cultural organizational challenges because of the diversity of participants: scientists, technical experts, and data managers from around the world, all working in organizations with different corporate cultures, funding structures, and systems of decision-making. MMI provides educational resources at several levels. For instance, short introductions to metadata concepts are available, as well as guides and "cookbooks" for the quick and efficient preparation of marine metadata. For those who are building major marine data systems, including ocean-observing capabilities, there are training materials, marine metadata content examples, and resources for mapping elements between different metadata standards. The MMI also provides examples of good metadata practices in existing data systems, including the EU's Marine XML project, and functioning ocean/coastal clearinghouses and atlases developed by MMI team members. Communication tools that help build community: 1) Website, used to introduce the initiative to new visitors, and to provide in-depth guidance and resources to members and visitors. The site is built using Plone, an open source web content management system. Plone allows the site to serve as a wiki, to which every user can contribute material. This keeps the membership engaged and spreads the responsibility for the tasks of updating and expanding the site. 2) Email-lists, to engage the broad ocean sciences community. The discussion forums "news," "ask," and "site-help" are available for receiving regular updates on MMI activities, seeking advice or support on projects and standards, or for assistance with using the MMI site. Internal email lists are provided for the Technical Team, the Steering Committee and
Engerman, Jason A.; Hein, Robert J.
Digital gaming communities are nuanced and developing. The eSports community has advanced in noticeable ways and represents the highest form of online competitive play for digital gaming environments. Due to the high stakes nature of eSports, its participants sit on the very edge of strategic planning boundaries and push the ceiling of…
Shahjahan, Md; Harun, Md Golam Dostogir; Chowdhury, A B M Alauddin; Ahmed, Kapil; Khan, Hafiz T A
This study explored factors influencing the initiation of smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption in a low socioeconomic urban community in Bangladesh. The study conducted four focus group discussions among 33 informants involves school teachers, community leaders, women, and betel-nut shops owners. The results were prepared by thematic analysis of the transcripts where informants mean age was 30 ( SD ± 6.8) years with varying level of education. Tradition of hospitality, curiosity, offer from an elderly person, and avoiding nausea during pregnancy and at time of quitting smoking were key factors for the initiation of SLT consumption. The results also revealed most people were aware about the danger of SLT consumption but, in practice, consumed frequently. The research suggested that doctors might advise people not to use any form of SLT while they seeking health services. Furthermore, community-based awareness program could minimize the wider use of SLT among low-income community in Bangladesh.
Mittal, Srabani; Das, Samiran
Since the home is the primary source of exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS), measures to restrict smoking at home should be introduced to protect children from its adverse health consequences. Objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness of rural Indian women on the health impacts of SHS on children and to look into the strategies they used to reduce children's exposure to SHS at home. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 438 rural women using a survey questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on specific health effects of SHS on children, and attitude toward having a smoke-free home were collected. The perceived reasons that made it difficult to have smoke-free homes were also explored. A total of 75.8% of women agreed that SHS was a serious health risk for children. Knowledge on health impacts of SHS on children identified asthma as the most common problem. Smoking by husbands (89.7%) was the major source of exposure to SHS at home. While 67.6% of women reported having taken measures to limit SHS exposure in their homes, only 12.8% of them had tried to introduce a complete ban on smoking at home. On a five-point evaluation scale, 73.3% of the women indicated a failure of their initiatives to have smoke-free homes. Women's initiatives to introduce restrictions on smoking at home had very limited success and did not produce an appreciable change in smoking behavior at home. Lack of empowerment of women in rural India probably rendered the interventional measures ineffective.
Full Text Available Context: Since the home is the primary source of exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS, measures to restrict smoking at home should be introduced to protect children from its adverse health consequences. Aims: Objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness of rural Indian women on the health impacts of SHS on children and to look into the strategies they used to reduce children′s exposure to SHS at home. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 438 rural women using a survey questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on specific health effects of SHS on children, and attitude toward having a smoke-free home were collected. The perceived reasons that made it difficult to have smoke-free homes were also explored. Results: A total of 75.8% of women agreed that SHS was a serious health risk for children. Knowledge on health impacts of SHS on children identified asthma as the most common problem. Smoking by husbands (89.7% was the major source of exposure to SHS at home. While 67.6% of women reported having taken measures to limit SHS exposure in their homes, only 12.8% of them had tried to introduce a complete ban on smoking at home. On a five-point evaluation scale, 73.3% of the women indicated a failure of their initiatives to have smoke-free homes. Conclusions: Women′s initiatives to introduce restrictions on smoking at home had very limited success and did not produce an appreciable change in smoking behavior at home. Lack of empowerment of women in rural India probably rendered the interventional measures ineffective.
Twigg, Michael J.; Wright, David; Kirkdale, Charlotte L.; Desborough, James A.; Thornley, Tracey
Introduction The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England. Objective Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel com...
Fletcher, Barbara J; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison; Lira, Maria Teresa; Meininger, Janet C; Pradhan, Sala Ray; Sikkema, Joanna
Policy changes are necessary to promote cardiovascular disease prevention. These will involve community-based and public health initiatives for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this article, we discuss such interventions, community-based participatory research that has been conducted in this area, and implications for capacity building in genetics research. Finally, areas for future research in this area will be identified.
Christianson, Jon B; Volmar, Karen M; Shaw, Bethany W; Scanlon, Dennis P
To describe the approaches used by the Aligning Forces for Quality (AF4Q) alliances in producing community-based reports of physician quality and to assess the contribution of these reports to existing physician performance information. The study included semi-structured interviews with alliance stakeholders and tracking of the number and content of physician performance reports in 14 AF4Q initiative communities and 7 comparison communities. The study used qualitative analysis of interview data and systematic tracking of the number and content of physician performance reports over time. Report production occurred in several stages including initiation, measure selection/specification, measure construction, and dissemination. The measure selection/specification process was often the first major act undertaken by alliances under the AF4Q initiative grant. Alliances utilized nationally endorsed performance measures and made a strategic decision to gain buy-in with physicians. Alliances have experienced greater difficulty in producing buy-in for patient experience measures. The primary decision point for measure construction was the use of administrative claims data or physician-provided medical records data. Overall, AF4Q alliances have contributed to an increase in physician performance information in their communities. Our findings suggest that the AF4Q initiative has accelerated the development and content of physician performance measures in AF4Q communities.
Full Text Available This article discusses the sport dynamics of the Mexican communities in the United States in the context of soccer. From the analysis of Mexican groups which immigrated to the American territory, and from their soccer practices (of resistance, this research questions whether we would be witnessing a sportive “latinoamericanization” of the U.S. through the soccer practices. As a counter-response to a homogenization and subordination, the Mexican Americans (and, by extension, the Latinos in general have created new cultural practices (and, among them sportive ones that put together Mexican traditions with American values of society constituting, in that way, “a third space”, which extends beyond the borders of both national States. This paper, therefore, examines why a growing number of migrants strengthens relationships with their communities of origin in Mexico through the (recreation of a soccer world itself, expressing thereby a “transnational mexicanity”, which is not “harmonic” by itself, but marked by conflicts. In this “new mexicanities” gender, class and ethnic, national and local conflicts – which occur simultaneously in the U.S. and Mexico, influencing each other – appear.
Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Damentko, Mariusz
The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33) of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include: Coaching excellence and the coaching modelPartnerships with international (regional) sports federationsSports Resources Teams (SRT)Extended quota for high level athletesAthletes Leadership Program (ALPS)Young Athletes ProgramYouth volunteer initiativesUnified Sports ProgramMotor Activity Training ProgramHealthy Athletes Program These initiatives fulfill and expand the existing program, which was launched in 1968 and is the largest sports organization for people with disabilities worldwide, with very important new social, marketing, and developmental aspects of life, going far beyond activities met in other sports organizations. PMID:25964828
Angermeier, P.L.; Davideanu, G.
Multimetric biotic indices increasingly are used to complement physicochemical data in assessments of stream quality. We initiated development of multimetric indices, based on fish communities, to assess biotic integrity of streams in two physiographic regions of central Romania. Unlike previous efforts to develop such indices for European streams, our metrics and scoring criteria were selected largely on the basis of empirical relations in the regions of interest. We categorised 54 fish species with respect to ten natural-history attributes, then used this information to compute 32 candidate metrics of five types (taxonomic, tolerance, abundance, reproductive, and feeding) for each of 35 sites. We assessed the utility of candidate metrics for detecting anthropogenic impact based on three criteria: (a) range of values taken, (b) relation to a site-quality index (SQI), which incorporated information on hydrologic alteration, channel alteration, land-use intensity, and water chemistry, and (c) metric redundancy. We chose seven metrics from each region to include in preliminary multimetric indices (PMIs). Both PMIs included taxonomic, tolerance, and feeding metrics, but only two metrics were common to both PMIs. Although we could not validate our PMIs, their strong association with the SQI in each region suggests that such indices would be valuable tools for assessing stream quality and could provide more comprehensive assessments than the traditional approaches based solely on water chemistry.
Krotee, March L.
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger
Bhuiya, Nazmim; House, L Duane; Desmarais, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Erica; Conlin, Maeve; Perez-McAdoo, Sarah; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A
This paper describes an assessment of community readiness to implement a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative, Youth First, and presents strategies used to enhance this readiness as informed by the assessment. Twenty-five community stakeholder interviews were conducted to assess four domains of readiness: (1) attitudes, perception, and knowledge of teen pregnancy; (2) perceived level of readiness; (3) resources, existing and current efforts; and (4) leadership. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Stakeholders acknowledged teen pregnancy as an issue but lacked contextual information. They also perceived the community as ready to address the issue and recognized some organizations already championing efforts. However, many key players were not involved, and ongoing data collection to assess teen pregnancy and prevention efforts was limited. Though many stakeholders were ready to engage in teen pregnancy prevention efforts, they required additional information and training to appropriately address the issue. In response to the assessment findings, several strategies were applied to address readiness and build Youth First partners' capacity to implement the community-wide initiative. Thus, to successfully implement community-wide prevention efforts, it is valuable to assess the level of community readiness to address health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.
João Manuel Pereira Ramalho Serrano
Full Text Available O presente estudo pretende analisar e caracterizar a preparação desportiva em longo prazo dos melhores jogadores de futsal portugueses. Para alcançar este objetivo foram realizados dois estudos distintos. O estudo 1 permitiu averiguar o percurso desportivo de jogadores séniores proveniente de diferentes níveis competitivos, elite (n=60, intermédio (n=160 e regional (151. Por sua vez, o estudo 2 comparou o envolvimento desportivo inicial dos melhores jogadores portugueses (n=24, com aquele desenvolvido por jogadores mais jovens, selecionados para representar as equipas distritais (n=270 e contemplou, adicionalmente, uma análise entre sexos. Todos os participantes preencheram um questionário previamente validado, que fornece informações de carácter retrospectivo sobre as atividades desportivas experiências ao longo da sua carreira. Os resultados demonstraram que os melhores jogadores se distinguem dos jogadores de níveis competitivos inferiores pela dedicação mais precoce ao treino desportivo e especificamente ao futsal, facto que é reforçado tanto pelo acréscimo progressivo do volume de treino semanal como na duração das épocas desportivas. Estes aspectos emergem como fatores discriminantes neste processo, não deixando de referenciar o contributo da prática diversificada no percurso dos melhores jogadores portugueses de futsal.The present study aimed to analyze and characterize the long-term athlete development in the elite Portuguese futsal players. There were performed two different studies to achieve this goal. The first one allowed to ascertain the route of seniors sports players from different competitive levels, elite (n=60, medium (N=160 and regional (n=151. The second study has compared the early involvement of the elite senior Portuguese players (n=24, with the study developed with young players, selected to represent the district teams (n=270 and also included a comparison between genders. All the participants
Smith, Jason; Pelco, Lynn E.; Rooke, Alex
Universities are increasing their efforts to more clearly demonstrate their social value. This article illustrates how higher education administrators can incorporate collective impact partnerships in their community benefit strategies. The article explores two of the more familiar paradigms for community benefit--community engagement and anchor…
Chilaka, M A
There are two objectives. The first is to outline the processes involved in the estimation and use of quantitative values to measure community participation. The community participation value (Cp value) is a new concept being introduced in this study. The second is to compare the levels of community participation in the RBM programmes in five African countries, namely, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda. The study design is based on the Rifkin and Pridmore Spidergram model for assessing the level of community participation in a development programme. The methods involved a structured review of web-based and published secondary data. Appropriate indices were used to capture the extent of malaria control in the respective countries. Comparisons were then made between the Cp values and the results obtained for malaria control in order to arrive at a judgement of the significance of community participation to the success of the RBM programmes. The findings from this study showed that community participation was present in varying degrees in the RBM programmes of the different countries. The computed Cp values for the five countries under consideration were as follows: Uganda (12.5), Ghana (10.5), Tanzania (10.0), Nigeria (9.0) and Burkina Faso (8.0). Based on a maximum attainable Cp value of 25, it was observed that the level of community participation in the RBM initiative is still generally low in the countries studied. Although community participation was present and relevant to the Roll Back Malaria initiative, other factors appeared to have more significant influence on the success, or otherwise, of the initiative. Such factors include the availability of financial resources for malaria control, competent health personnel, and the general health infrastructure available in a given country.
Full Text Available Marketing developed close relation with sponsorship since the beginnings of the industrial era of sports. The relation has transformed in a stable relation, the two forces – the sponsor and the sponsored – transforming into two companions of journey. The effort undertaken in this work was focused on analyzing the modern aspects of the partnership generated through sports sponsorship.The current issue and sport sponsorship has come a long way since the first action of its kind until now. Based on the presentation of new concepts on the development efforts in sport sponsorship, content provides a detailed analysis of the actual specifics of this type of activity. Analysis of influence vectors sponsorship process gives us a picture of the forces that can act on this. At the end of our research we focused attention on elements that empowers sports portfolio in terms of corporate interest, the potentiation commercial message and image association. This technique of promotional community for and through sports is maybe the one that manifests the most “laic” status among the promotional forms. This epithet implies a metaphorical approach given by the possibility of accomplishing some objectives that can have some more obvious “corporality” than in the case of the other forms of promotion used in the sports industry. Sports sponsorship has been an early ally of sports, and has remained a basic communicational technique. This fact is due to some determination in double sense: on the one hand, sport has adapted permanently to the dynamics of the range of sponsorship techniques and, on the other hand, the sponsorship tried to use the chameleon-like offer of the sports potential.
Fox, A. M.; Hoar, T. J.; Smith, W. K.; Moore, D. J.
The locations and longevity of terrestrial carbon sinks remain uncertain, however it is clear that in order to predict long-term climate changes the role of the biosphere in surface energy and carbon balance must be understood and incorporated into earth system models (ESMs). Aboveground biomass, the amount of carbon stored in vegetation, is a key component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, representing the balance of uptake through gross primary productivity (GPP), losses from respiration, senescence and mortality over hundreds of years. The best predictions of current and future land-atmosphere fluxes are likely from the integration of process-based knowledge contained in models and information from observations of changes in carbon stocks using data assimilation (DA). By exploiting long times series, it is possible to accurately detect variability and change in carbon cycle dynamics through monitoring ecosystem states, for example biomass derived from vegetation optical depth (VOD), and use this information to initialize models before making predictions. To make maximum use of information about the current state of global ecosystems when using models we have developed a system that combines the Community Land Model (CLM) with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), a community tool for ensemble DA. This DA system is highly innovative in its complexity, completeness and capabilities. Here we described a series of activities, using both Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) and real observations, that have allowed us to quantify the potential impact of assimilating VOD data into CLM-DART on future land-atmosphere fluxes. VOD data are particularly suitable to use in this activity due to their long temporal coverage and appropriate scale when combined with CLM, but their absolute values rely on many assumptions. Therefore, we have had to assess the implications of the VOD retrieval algorithms, with an emphasis on detecting uncertainty due to
Whelan, Jillian; Love, Penny; Romanus, Anne; Pettman, Tahna; Bolton, Kristy; Smith, Erin; Gill, Tim; Coveney, John; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve
Abstract Objective: Obesity is the single biggest public health threat to developed and developing economies. In concert with healthy public policy, multi-strategy, multi-level community-based initiatives appear promising in preventing obesity, with several countries trialling this approach. In Australia, multiple levels of government have funded and facilitated a range of community-based obesity prevention initiatives (CBI), heterogeneous in their funding, timing, target audience and structure. This paper aims to present a central repository of CBI operating in Australia during 2013, to facilitate knowledge exchange and shared opportunities for learning, and to guide professional development towards best practice for CBI practitioners. Methods: A comprehensive search of government, non-government and community websites was undertaken to identify CBI in Australia in 2013. This was supplemented with data drawn from available reports, personal communication and key informant interviews. The data was translated into an interactive map for use by preventive health practitioners and other parties. Results: We identified 259 CBI; with the majority (84%) having a dual focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Few initiatives, (n=37) adopted a four-pronged multi-strategy approach implementing policy, built environment, social marketing and/or partnership building. Conclusion: This comprehensive overview of Australian CBI has the potential to facilitate engagement and collaboration through knowledge exchange and information sharing amongst CBI practitioners, funders, communities and researchers. Implications: An enhanced understanding of current practice highlights areas of strengths and opportunities for improvement to maximise the impact of obesity prevention initiatives. PMID:25561083
Whelan, Jillian; Love, Penny; Romanus, Anne; Pettman, Tahna; Bolton, Kristy; Smith, Erin; Gill, Tim; Coveney, John; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve
Obesity is the single biggest public health threat to developed and developing economies. In concert with healthy public policy, multi-strategy, multi-level community-based initiatives appear promising in preventing obesity, with several countries trialling this approach. In Australia, multiple levels of government have funded and facilitated a range of community-based obesity prevention initiatives (CBI), heterogeneous in their funding, timing, target audience and structure. This paper aims to present a central repository of CBI operating in Australia during 2013, to facilitate knowledge exchange and shared opportunities for learning, and to guide professional development towards best practice for CBI practitioners. A comprehensive search of government, non-government and community websites was undertaken to identify CBI in Australia in 2013. This was supplemented with data drawn from available reports, personal communication and key informant interviews. The data was translated into an interactive map for use by preventive health practitioners and other parties. We identified 259 CBI; with the majority (84%) having a dual focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Few initiatives, (n=37) adopted a four-pronged multi-strategy approach implementing policy, built environment, social marketing and/or partnership building. This comprehensive overview of Australian CBI has the potential to facilitate engagement and collaboration through knowledge exchange and information sharing amongst CBI practitioners, funders, communities and researchers. An enhanced understanding of current practice highlights areas of strengths and opportunities for improvement to maximise the impact of obesity prevention initiatives. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Henderson, Jamila; Biscocho, Francine; Gerstein, Amy
The Youth Arts and Music Center Initiative is a community-wide effort to design and build an arts center in East Palo Alto. The six-year process, supported by the Goldman Foundation, centered on youth leadership and the arts, and engaged a cross-sector collaborative of partner organizations in an attempt to address the city's shortage of existing…
Meyer, Lois M.
In an era when U.S. and Mexican teachers are valued more for their academic achievements than their community-based knowledge and local/ethnic identity (e.g. Teach for America, or its off-shoot, Teach for Mexico), this study provides initial results of a one-year (2011-2012) intensive professional development experience (called a…
Whitfill, Travis; Gawel, Marcie; Auerbach, Marc
The National Pediatric Readiness Project Pediatric Readiness Survey (PRS) measured pediatric readiness in 4149 US emergency departments (EDs) and noted an average score of 69 on a 100-point scale. This readiness score consists of 6 domains: coordination of pediatric patient care (19/100), physician/nurse staffing and training (10/100), quality improvement activities (7/100), patient safety initiatives (14/100), policies and procedures (17/100), and availability of pediatric equipment (33/100). We aimed to assess and improve pediatric emergency readiness scores across Connecticut's hospitals. The aim of this study was to compare the National Pediatric Readiness Project readiness score before and after an in situ simulation-based assessment and quality improvement program in Connecticut hospitals. We leveraged in situ simulations to measure the quality of resuscitative care provided by interprofessional teams to 3 simulated patients (infant septic shock, infant seizure, and child cardiac arrest) presenting to their ED resuscitation bay. Assessments of EDs were made based on a composite quality score that was measured as the sum of 4 distinct domains: (1) adherence to sepsis guidelines, (2) adherence to cardiac arrest guidelines, (3) performance on seizure resuscitation, and (4) teamwork. After the simulation, a detailed report with scores, comparisons to other EDs, and a gap analysis were provided to sites. Based on this report, a regional children's hospital team worked collaboratively with each ED to develop action items and a timeline for improvements. The National Pediatric Readiness Project PRS scores, the primary outcome of this study, were measured before and after participation. Twelve community EDs in Connecticut participated in this project. The PRS scores were assessed before and after the intervention (simulation-based assessment and gap analysis/report-out). The average time between PRS assessments was 21 months. The PRS scores significantly improved 12
Meaume, S; Kerihuel, J C; Fromantin, I; Téot, L
To calculate the prevalence of open cutaneous wounds presented on a routine working day in community settings in metropolitan France, and to estimate the workload associated with the care of these wounds by nurses, GPs and specialists (dermatologists, diabetologists and phlebologists). A transversal epidemiological survey was conducted on a randomly selected sample of the above practitioners between June and July 2008. The percentage of patients presenting on a routine working day with open a cutaneous lesion of any origin, location, size and duration was assessed. All local and systemic care performed on the patient during that day because of the wound was also recorded. In total, 475 GPs, 453 specialists and 238 nurses participated (n=1166) and saw a total of 29 663 patients, of whom 3037 presented with one or more cutaneous wound. The overall non-weighted prevalence of patients with a wound was 10.2% (95%CI: 9.9%;10.6%). This prevalence was similar for GPs (6.0%) and for specialists (6.9%), but was higher for nurses (22.0%). Forty-three per cent of all wounds had a duration of over 6 weeks. These chronic wounds were predominantly leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers or pressure ulcers, but also included wounds of all aetiologies. For 33% of all patients with wounds, the impact on their health status was serious to severe. The overwhelming majority of wounds (95%) required local care, including in 65% of cases cleansing and debridement. Despite its limitations, this initiative, the first of its type in France, strongly suggests that wound care constitutes an important part of routine care given by health professionals in the community, and for a substantial number of these patients, wounds represent a serious morbidity. The non-profit organisation 'Association Vivre avec une Plaie' financially supported this study. This association received unrestricted grants from the French Wound Healing Society (SFFPC) and a consortium of private companies (main sponsors: Conva
Cheadle, Allen; Samuels, Sarah E; Rauzon, Suzanne; Yoshida, Sallie C; Schwartz, Pamela M; Boyle, Maria; Beery, William L; Craypo, Lisa; Solomon, Loel
Despite growing support among public health researchers and practitioners for environmental approaches to obesity prevention, there is a lack of empirical evidence from intervention studies showing a favorable impact of either increased healthy food availability on healthy eating or changes in the built environment on physical activity. It is therefore critical that we carefully evaluate initiatives targeting the community environment to expand the evidence base for environmental interventions. We describe the approaches used to measure the extent and impact of environmental change in 3 community-level obesity-prevention initiatives in California. We focus on measuring changes in the community environment and assessing the impact of those changes on residents most directly exposed to the interventions.
Reed, Thomas A; Broussard, Beth; Moore, Alicia; Smith, Kelly J; Compton, Michael T
New approaches for preventing repeated inpatient psychiatric stays, detention in jails and prisons, and homelessness among individuals with serious mental illnesses with established histories of such recidivism, while promoting recovery, are direly needed. We present findings from an initial program evaluation of a new community-based, recovery-oriented "community navigation" program in southeast Georgia, called Opening Doors to Recovery. Twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders, program participants, community navigation specialist team members, and referring mental health professionals to identify hopes and strengths, challenges and weaknesses, and recommendations pertaining to the new program. Cited strengths included teamwork and pooling of resources from various partners, as well as the novel recovery-based, community navigation team approach. An initial lack of fidelity processes across teams and an ongoing scarcity of safe and affordable housing were identified as weaknesses, with the latter seen as a liability of the overall mental health and social service systems rather than the program itself. Findings from this evaluation highlight strengths and opportunities of this new community navigation approach, including those related to the involvement of certified peer specialists and multiple community partners.
Full Text Available While citizen science is gaining attention of late, for those of us involved in community-based public health research, community/citizen involvement in research has steadily increased over the past 50 years. Community Health Workers (CHWs, also known as Promotores de Salud in the Latino community, are critical to reaching underserved populations, where health disparities are more prevalent. CHWs/Promotores provide health education and services and may also assist with the development and implementation of community- and clinic-based research studies. Recognizing that CHWs typically have no formal academic training in research design or methods, and considering that rigor in research is critical to obtaining meaningful results, we designed instruction to fill this gap. We call this educational initiative “Building Research Integrity and Capacity” or BRIC. The BRIC training consists of eight modules that can be administered as a self-paced training or incorporated into in-person, professional development geared to a specific health intervention study. While we initially designed this culturally-grounded, applied ethics training for Latino/Hispanic community research facilitators, BRIC training modules have been adapted for and tested with non-Latino novice research facilitators. This paper describes the BRIC core content and instructional design process.
Located in the centre of a small extinct volcano, the sports changing rooms are the focus for community activities. The construction exploits natural and local products such as the volcanic rock contained in stainless steel gabions. The roof awnings serve several purposes: to increase rainwater harvesting area, to provide shade for spectator seating and for solar panels. Short-listed for the NZIA sustainability award.
Full Text Available Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR, a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.
William R. Doucette; Cailin Lickteig; Stevie Veach; Barry Carter; Barcey Levy
Objectives: 1) Conduct team building activities for provider-community pharmacist teams in small communities and 2) Determine the impact of the team approach on practitioner-reported consequences and 3) Identify obstacles to the team approach and ways to overcome them. Methods: Eleven provider-pharmacist teams were recruited in rural/micropolitan communities in Iowa. The teams participated in team building sessions facilitated by the project leaders, to discuss the team approach. Decisio...
Jennifer B. Averill
Full Text Available Rural populations experience higher rates of illness, less access to health care resources, and lower rates of health insurance coverage than do urban populations. A need exists to identify and address the health care needs of rural communities and other isolated populations and to contextualize the findings in the larger rural health environment. Critical ethnography combined with community-based action research is a constructive approach for improving the health status of rural elders as well as other members of isolated communities. Detailed guidelines on how to initiate an ethnographic community-based action study, as shown through a study that explores the definitions of health, health care perceptions, and health care issues for rural elders in the southwestern United States, highlight the value of this type of research for the study of the health care issues of rural populations.
Simona Kustec Lipicer
Full Text Available Times when relations between politics and sports did not exist – be it in everyday practices or within scientific research – is definitely long gone, if they ever even existed. Nevertheless, it seems today that, especially within scientific research, these relations do not receive appropriate attention in the territories of former socialist sports superpowers, being a priori denied and considered as unimportant. That is why the key motive of this article is to initiate a discussion about the relevance of knowledge and research of the relations between politics and sport from two perspectives – the existing world-wide political science research experiences gained so far and already conducted researches in the territory of former Yugoslavia. In doing so, we first theoretically define the context of sports and politics, and then with the use of the literature review method analyse their mutual connectivity in the world and, more narrowly, within the work of the scientific community in the region of former Yugoslavia. Based on the gained conclusions which confirm a tight and constant, but also often abstract and flat-rate understood interplay between both analysed phenomena, a special typology for their in-depth and political-science-focused study is delivered. It is believed that distinctions between political, polity and policy approaches to sport decisively influence the mode of their future interplay.
... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...
Janet Njelesani; Lauren Fehlings; Amie Tsang; Helene Polatajko
Sport-for-development (SFD) is a growing phenomenon involving engagement in sport activities to achieve international development goals. Kicking AIDS Out is one sport for development initiative that raises HIV/AIDS awareness through sport. Despite sport-for-development’s global prevalence, there is a paucity of literature exploring how activities are selected for use in differing contexts. An occupational perspective can illuminate the selection of activities, sport or otherwise, in sport-for...
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2016
By bringing together the national German sports game community and an international scientific community in a joint conference, the 6th International Teaching Games for Understanding Conference (TGfU) Meets the 10th German Sports Games Symposium of the German Association of Sport Science (DVS), held July 25-27, 2016, at the German Sport University…
Intentional communities, Cooperatives de logement, Genossenschaften or Co-housing are types of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their own neighbourhoods. Cohousing residents are consciously committed to living as a community, and to
Gavryushina Ekaterina Alexandrovna
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of cultural and mental specificity of language units in the sport communication. The study was conducted on the material of English, Russian and German analytical articles, thematically related to tennis. Using the technique of cross-language comparison it is revealed significant characteristic parameters of sports discourse. The proposed comparative procedure consists in three stages of analysis: linguistic, cognitive-communicative and linguistic-cultural. During the analysis at each step there were identified certain criteria specific to the sport discourse in three linguasocieties. Sport communication reflects not only the specificity and originality of the language, but also the traditions, history, mentality, culture, and behavior patterns of modern professional sport community. Comparative study of sport discourse reveals the cultural, linguistic and cognitive features of sublanguage sports and allows to get a common view of the structure of sport analytical articles.
Martellozzo, Federico; Hendrickson, Cary; Gozdowska, Iga; Groß, Helge; Henderson, Charles; Reusser, Dominik
The active participation in Community Based Initiatives (CBI) is a spreading phenomenon that has reached a significant magnitude and - in some cases - CBIs are also supposed to have catalysed social and technological innovation, thus contributing to global transition into low-carbon economy. Generally speaking, CBIs are grassroots initiatives with broad sustainability foci that promote a plethora of activities such as alternative transportation, urban gardening, renewable energy implementation, waste regeneration/reduction, etc. Some advocate that such practices fostered by bottom-up activities, rather than top-down policies, represent a proficient countermeasure to alleviate global environmental change and effectively foster a societal transition towards sustainability. However, thus far most empirical research grounds mainly on anecdotal evidence and little work has been done to quantitatively assess CBIs' "environmental impacts" (EI) or their carbon footprints using comparative methodologies. This research main aim is to frame a methodology to assess univocally CBIs' EIs which are crucial to understanding their role in societal sustainability transition. However, to do so, three main caveats need to be addressed: first, some CBIs do not directly produce tangible measurable outputs, nor have an intelligibly defined set of inputs (e.g. CBIs focusing on environmental education and awareness rising). Thus, calculating their "indirect" EI may represent an intricate puzzle that is very much open to subjective interpretation. Second, CBIs' practices are heterogenic and therefore existing methodologies to make comparisons of their EIs are neither straightforward nor proficient, also given the lack of available data. Third, another issue closely related to the one previously mentioned, is a general lack of consensus among already existing impact-assessment frameworks for certain practices (e.g. composting). A potential way of estimating a CBI's EI is a standard Carbon
N. V. Tikhonova
Full Text Available Purpose: determine the social significance and especially the development of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine. Material : a questionnaire survey of 50 experts in the sphere of physical culture and sports. Results : notes that children and youth and sports reserve three tasks: training of sports reserve, rehabilitation of children and youth, education of children and youth. Structure of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine in 1455 has youth sports schools, 184 specialized youth sports school of Olympic reserve, sports club 4522, 891 children and youth sports and sports club in the community population, 17 schools of Physical Culture and Olympic reserve, 35 high school sports. Conclusions : Children and Youth and reserve a sport that requires a thorough reform. Determined that develop youth sport must youth sports school.
House, L Duane; Tevendale, Heather D; Martinez-Garcia, Genevieve
To describe efforts to implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs) within multicomponent, community-wide initiatives to reduce teen pregnancy. During 2011-2014, we collected information about the capacity (i.e., knowledge, confidence, training, and experience) of state and community-based organizations to support implementation of the following: EBIs, number and characteristics of youth served by EBIs, type of EBIs implemented, EBI settings, hours of training, and technical assistance provided. State and community-based organizations reported these data annually; however, training and technical assistance was reported monthly. We used aggregated data from these annual and monthly reports to describe the implementation of EBIs in the community-wide initiative project. From baseline in 2011-2014, state and community-based organizations increased their capacities to support program partners in delivering EBIs. They provided 5,015 hours of technical assistance and training on topics, including ensuring adequate capacity, process and outcome evaluation, program planning, and continuous quality improvement. Program partners increased the number of youth reached by an EBI in targeted communities by 349%, from 4,304 in the first year of implementation in 2012 to 19,344 in 2014. Most youth in 2014 received sexuality education programs (59%), whereas smaller percentages received abstinence-based, youth development, and clinic-based programs. Most youth were reached through schools (72%) and community-based organizations (16%), and smaller numbers were reached in other settings (e.g., faith-based organizations, health centers). Building and monitoring the capacity of program partners to deliver EBIs through technical assistance and training is important. In addition, partnering with schools leads to reaching more youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drygas, Wojciech; Ruszkowska, Joanna; Philpott, Matthew; Björkström, Olav; Parker, Mike; Ireland, Robin; Roncarolo, Federico; Tenconi, Maria
Sport plays an important role within society and sports stadia provide significant settings for public health strategies. In addition to being places of mass gathering, stadia are often located in less affluent areas and are traditionally attended by 'harder to reach' communities. Unfortunately sports stadia and the clubs they host are rarely perceived as places that promote healthy lifestyles. Fast food, alcohol and tobacco are commonly advertized, served and consumed during sports games giving the spectators and TV fans contradictory messages concerning healthy choices. As part of a wider programme of work part-funded by the European Union, a study was therefore designed to explore current 'good practice' relating to positive health interventions in sports stadia across a number of European countries. Using a specially designed questionnaire, information about health policies and good practices relating to food offerings in stadia, physical activity promotion among local communities, tobacco policy, positive mental health initiatives, environmental sustainability practices and social responsibility policies were collected in 10 European countries (England and Northern Ireland, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Spain and Sweden) involving 88 stadia. The audit results show that stadia health policies differ considerably between specific countries and sports. Based on the literature analysed, the examples of good practices collected through the study, and the subsequent instigation of a European Healthy Stadia Network, it shows that there is considerable potential for stadia to become health promoting settings.
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…
Zebas, Carole J., Ed.; Groppel, Jack L., Ed.
In six articles on racquet sports, the origins of the games are traced, methods for teaching skills such as footwork, racquetball strategy, and badminton techniques are discussed, and the biomechanics of the one- and two-handed backhand in tennis are reviewed. Information about paddle tennis is included. (PP)
This review describes and classifies the trajectories of sports projectiles that have spherical symmetry, cylindrical symmetry, or (almost) no symmetry. This classification allows us to discuss the large diversity observed in the paths of spherical balls, the flip properties of shuttlecocks, and the optimal position and stability of ski jumpers.
Andersen, Tem Frank
This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...
... motivator. Physically, you need strength and endurance. Your training will vary with your sport. You would not train the same way for pole vaulting as for swimming. You might, however, cross train. Cross training simply means that you include a variety of ...
.... What follows is an overview of Knowledge Sharing through the eyes of the Defense Acquisition University, along with some new initiatives called Learning Asset Integration and Workflow Learning...
Tineke van der Schoor; Bert Scholtens
Abstract: The transition towards renewable and sustainable energy is being accompanied by a transformation of communities and neighbourhoods. This transition may have huge ramifications throughout society. Many cities, towns and villages are putting together ambitious visions about how to achieve
van der Schoor, Tineke; Scholtens, Bert
The transition towards renewable and sustainable energy is being accompanied by a transformation of communities and neighbourhoods. This transition may have huge ramifications throughout society. Many cities, towns and villages are putting together ambitious visions about how to achieve 100%
The concepts of Knowledge Management (KM) and knowledge communities have matured over the past decade and are being recognized as major enablers for personal learning and job performance in achieving organizational business objectives...
Courtney, Karen L; Lingler, Jennifer H; Mecca, Laurel Person; Garlock, Laurie A; Schulz, Richard; Dick, Andrew W; Olshansky, Ellen
Community-based (multi-user) telehealth interventions may be beneficial for older adults, but there is little research regarding such interventions. As a first step in feasibility assessment, we used a qualitative descriptive approach to examine the acceptability and perceived value of community-based telehealth kiosks with regard to current health self-management practices of community-dwelling older adults. Participants included residents (n = 6) and community agency case managers (n = 3) of a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development-subsidized senior apartment building. Both positive impressions from and concerns of each group are presented. Findings helped guide plans for future telehealth kiosk implementation and training. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Buchhofer, Regina; McLaulin, J Bryce; Evans, Arthur C; Beck, Aaron T
The Beck Initiative is a partnership between researchers and clinicians at a large university and an urban behavioral health managed care system. Both partners share a commitment to ensuring that consumers in the community have access to competently delivered, individualized, evidence-based mental health care and that the providers who serve them have the support they need to deliver high-quality evidence-based treatments. Central features of the program are individualized training and consultation in cognitive therapy for each provider agency and policies to promote the sustainability of the initiative and its continuing evolution to meet the needs of providers and consumers.
Noonan, Emily J; Sawning, Susan; Combs, Ryan; Weingartner, Laura A; Martin, Leslee J; Jones, V Faye; Holthouser, Amy
Phenomenon: Transgender patients experience discrimination, limited access to care, and inadequate provider knowledge in healthcare settings. Medical education to address transgender-specific disparities is lacking. Research that engages transgender community members may help address health disparities by empowering patients, increasing trust, and informing medical curricula to increase competence. A 2015 Community Forum on Transgender Health Care was hosted at the University of Louisville School of Medicine, which included healthcare professionals and transgender community members to facilitate dialogue among mixed-participant groups using a World Café model. Fifty-nine participants discussed the status of transgender healthcare and made recommendations for local improvements. A follow-up survey was administered to 100 individuals, including forum participants and their referrals. The forum discussion and survey responses were analyzed to determine common perceptions of transgender healthcare, priorities for improvement interventions, and themes to inform curriculum. The community forum discussion showed that local transgender care is overwhelmingly underdeveloped and unresponsive to the needs of the transgender community. The follow-up survey revealed that priorities to improve transgender care included a multidisciplinary clinic for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients, an LGBT-friendly network of physicians, and more training for providers and support staff. This mutually constructive engagement experience influenced reform in undergraduate curricula and continuing education opportunities. Insights: Community engagement in healthcare disparities research can cultivate improbable discussions, yield innovative insight from marginalized populations, and build relationships with community members for future collaborations and interventions. Societal acceptance of transgender identities, which could be promoted through healthcare providers, could
Participation in sporting activities carries an injury risk. Conversely, the increased awareness that physical inactivity is a major risk factor for disease has led government agencies and the medical community to encourage increased levels of physical activity. Many people will achieve this through participation in sport. Injury inevitably leads to a reduction in participation on a temporary or permanent basis, but the injury experience may also influence the lifelong physical activity behaviour. Few studies adequately examine the possible long-term consequences of sport participation after the competitive period has been completed, but by understanding the patterns of injuries in different sports one test can develop strategies to prevent and better manage the conditions that occur and promote lifelong physical activity. There is a need to develop models of understanding of injury risk at different life phases and levels of participation in a specific sport. The risk assessment of sport participation has to be relevant to a particular sport, the level of participation, skill, age and potential future health consequences. This article describes a sport-specific model which will improve guidance for coaches and healthcare professionals. It poses questions for sports physicians, healthcare providers, educators and for governing bodies of sports to address in a systematic fashion. Additionally the governing body, as an employer, will need to meet the requirements for risk assessment for professional sport and its ethical responsibility to the athlete.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2005
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Obesity Education Initiative (OEI) convened a two-day meeting to help develop a national public education outreach initiative to help reduce and prevent overweight and obesity in the United States. This Strategy Development Workshop, held on February 17-18, 2004, convened more that 70 public…
Stewart, Lynn A; Farrell-MacDonald, Shanna; Feeley, Stacey
The Community Mental Health Initiative (CMHI) is mandated to assist offenders with serious mental disorders in their transition from institutions to the community, but this incorporates different styles of service. An important unanswered question is whether these are equivalent. Our aim was to compare outcomes for different intervention styles within the CMHI, a programme for serious offenders in prison who also have at least one major mental disorder. Our specific research questions were as follows: do outcomes differ according to whether offenders with mental health difficulties receive (1) clinical discharge planning only; (2) community mental health services only; (3) the combined services or (4) none, although meeting criteria for any CMHI service? Survival analyses, controlling for variables with a significant effect on recidivism or return to prison, were used to test for differences in recidivism or return to prison rates between the intervention and no-intervention groups during a fixed follow-up period. Men receiving only community mental health services had a significantly lower risk of returning to custody and of recidivism than men receiving discharge planning alone or no community mental health service at all, even after controlling for potential confounders including age, number of previous imprisonments and number of previous community failures. The advantages were apparent within 3-6 months and sustained for up to 4 years. Provision of specialised community mental health services for higher-risk male offenders with a mental disorder may reduce recidivism in the short and longer term - within 3 months and up to 4 years respectively. Statistical modelling also pointed to the need to include treatment for substance abuse and assistance in identifying stable accommodation and brokerage of community services among the interventions and services. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Greenfield, Emily A
Age-friendly community initiatives (AFCIs) foster efforts across stakeholders to make localities more supportive and inclusive of older adults, and potentially better for residents of all ages. This study drew on in-depth interviews with leaders of nine newly forming AFCIs in northern New Jersey to develop an empirically based logic model for the initiatives in the early planning phase. The results obtained from a conventional content analysis indicated three main activities in the early planning phase: assessing the community; meeting; and communicating with stakeholders; and facilitating communitywide communications. These activities worked toward two outputs: increased understanding of aging in the community and more engaged stakeholders in aging. Participants described leveraging the contributions of lead staff, consultants, elected officials, organizational partners, volunteers, interns, funders, and other AFCIs to engage in their focal activities. Based on these findings, a logic model for AFCIs in the early planning phase is presented. AFCI leaders can draw on this model to evaluate AFCI processes and outcomes in their formative stages, as well as to strategically plan for the start of an AFCI within a given locality. Findings also suggest important directions for future research on the development of AFCIs and the community changes that they seek to influence.
Markle-Reid, Maureen; Dykeman, Cathy; Ploeg, Jenny; Kelly Stradiotto, Caralyn; Andrews, Angela; Bonomo, Susan; Orr-Shaw, Sarah; Salker, Niyati
Falls among community-dwelling older adults are a serious public health concern. While evidence-based fall prevention strategies are available, their effective implementation requires broad cross-sector coordination that is beyond the capacity of any single institution or organization. Community groups comprised of diverse stakeholders that include public health, care providers from the public and private sectors and citizen volunteers are working to deliver locally-based fall prevention. These groups are examples of collective impact and are important venues for public health professionals (PHPs) to deliver their mandate to work collaboratively towards achieving improved health outcomes. This study explores the process of community-based group work directed towards fall prevention, and it focuses particular attention on the collaborative leadership practices of PHPs, in order to advance understanding of the competencies required for collective impact. Four community groups, located in Ontario, Canada, were studied using an exploratory, retrospective, multiple case study design. The criteria for inclusion were presence of a PHP, a diverse membership and the completion of an initiative that fit within the scope of the World Health Organization Fall Prevention Model. Data were collected using interviews (n = 26), focus groups (n = 4), and documents. Cross-case synthesis was conducted by a collaborative team of researchers. The community groups differed by membership, the role of the PHP and the type of fall prevention initiatives. Seven practice themes emerged: (1) tailoring to address context; (2) making connections; (3) enabling communication; (4) shaping a vision; (5) skill-building to mobilize and take action; (6) orchestrating people and projects; and (7) contributing information and experience. The value of recognized leadership competencies was underscored and the vital role of institutional supports was highlighted. To align stakeholders working
Extracurricular School-Based Sports as a Stepping Stone toward an Active Lifestyle? Differences in Physical Activity and Sports-Motivation between Extracurricular School-Based Sports Participants and Non-Participants
De Meester, An; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Haerens, Leen
Purpose: The goals were to investigate whether extracurricular school-based sports reach students not engaging in community sports and whether extracurricular school-based sports participants are more physically active and/or autonomously motivated toward sports than nonparticipants. Method: 1526 students (48.0% boys; 85.9% Belgian natives; age =…
Grant, Cathy G; Davis, Jenna L; Rivers, Brian M; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Antolino, Prado; Harris, Erika; Green, B Lee
Racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and gender disparities in health and access to and use of health care services currently exist. Health professionals are continually striving to reduce and eliminate health disparities within their own community. One such effort in the area of Tampa Bay, Florida was the creation of the African American Men's Health Forum, currently referred to as the Men's Health Forum. The African American Men's Health Forum was the result of the community's desire to reduce the gap in health outcomes for African American men. Later, it was recognized that the gap in health outcomes impacts other communities; therefore, it was broadened to include all men considered medically underserved (those who are uninsured, underinsured, or without a regular health care provider). The Men's Health Forum empowers men with the resources, knowledge, and information to effectively manage their health by providing health education and screenings to the community. This article provides an explanation of the key components that have contributed to the success of the Men's Health Forum, including challenges and lessons learned. It is intended that this information be replicated in other communities in an effort to eliminate health disparities.
Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O
OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.
Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander
Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689
Pandya, R. E.
The atmospheric and related sciences have one of the lowest rates of participation by American Indians of any physical science. This not only disadvantages the atmospheric sciences by isolating them from a rich and relevant intellectual heritage, it disadvantages tribal communities who seek to apply the insights from atmospheric sciences to planning their own future. In a time of rapid environmental change and its impact on tribal lands and all lands, the need for connection between these two communities is especially urgent. In 2007, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research launched a new Community Building Program, in order to catalyze and coordinate activities that contribute to UCAR's strategic goal of developing a diverse atmospheric science workforce. A key goal of this program has been to look for partnerships with the American Indian community around climate change issues. The goal of these partnerships is to support North American tribal efforts to enhance their own scientific and adaptive capacity around climate change. In the early stages of this partnership, we have listened to some important messages from Indigenous communities: •Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to identity and sovereignty • Scientific expertise is one among many skills indigenous people employ in their relation with their homelands • Climate change research and education are embedded in decision-making about economic development, energy, public health as well as cultural preservation, language, and tribal sovereignty This presentation will be an opportunity to check and extend these insights discuss and use them as a basis for a long-term partnership between UCAR and tribal communities.
Mason, Maryann; Zaganjor, Hatidza; Bozlak, Christine T; Lammel-Harmon, Colleen; Gomez-Feliciano, Lucy; Becker, Adam B
The objective of this case study was to evaluate the acceptability, sales impact, and implementation barriers for the Chicago Park District's 100% Healthier Snack Vending Initiative to strengthen and support future healthful vending efforts. The Chicago Park District is the largest municipal park system in the United States, serving almost 200,000 children annually through after-school and summer programs. Chicago is one of the first US cities to improve park food environments through more healthful snack vending. A community-based participatory evaluation engaged community and academic partners, who shared in all aspects of the research. From spring 2011 to fall 2012, we collected data through observation, surveys, and interviews on staff and patron acceptance of snack vending items, purchasing behaviors, and machine operations at a sample of 10 Chicago parks. A new snack vending contract included nutrition standards for serving sizes, calories, sugar, fat, and sodium for all items. Fifteen months of snack vending sales data were collected from all 98 snack vending machines in park field houses. Staff (100%) and patrons (88%) reacted positively to the initiative. Average monthly per-machine sales increased during 15 months ($84 to $371). Vendor compliance issues included stocking noncompliant items and delayed restocking. The initiative resulted in improved park food environments. Diverse partner engagement, participatory evaluation, and early attention to compliance can be important supports for healthful vending initiatives. Consumer acceptance and increasing revenues can help to counter fears of revenue loss that can pose barriers to adoption.
Chikwapulo, Bongani; Ngwira, Bagrey; Sagno, Jean Baptiste; Evans, Rhys
Tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy (TDF ART) is the first-line regimen for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa. However, contemporary data on nephrotoxicity are lacking. We determined the renal outcomes of patients commenced on TDF ART in Malawi. ART-naïve patients initiated on TDF ART at a community health centre between 1 July 2013 and 31 December 2015 were included. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, Cockcroft-Gault) was recorded at the initiation of therapy and over 18 months thereafter. The prevalence of renal impairment at ART initiation (eGFR age: 32 years; 317 [72.2%] female) were included. Twenty-one (4.8%) patients had renal impairment at ART initiation; eGFR improved in all during follow-up. Nephrotoxicity occurred in 17 (4.0%) patients with eGFR > 50 ml/min at baseline, predominantly within the first six months of therapy. Increasing age and diastolic hypertension (>100 mmHg) were independent risk factors for nephrotoxicity development. The prevalence of kidney disease at ART initiation was 4.8% and nephrotoxicity occurred in 4.0%. Some eGFR decline may have been due to weight gain. Targeted monitoring of kidney function six months after TDF initiation should be considered in Malawi.
Littlefield, Adriane C.; Munir, Ammar M. (Arab Science and Technology Foundation, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates); Alnajjar, Abdalla Abdelaziz (Arab Science and Technology Foundation, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates); Pregenzer, Arian Leigh
This report describes the findings of the effort initiated by the Arab Science and Technology Foundation and the Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories to identify, contact, and engage members of the Iraqi science and technology (S&T) community. The initiative is divided into three phases. The first phase, the survey of the Iraqi scientific community, shed light on the most significant current needs in the fields of science and technology in Iraq. Findings from the first phase will lay the groundwork for the second phase that includes the organization of a workshop to bring international support for the initiative, and simultaneously decides on an implementation mechanism. Phase three involves the execution of outcomes of the report as established in the workshop. During Phase 1 the survey team conducted a series of trips to Iraq during which they had contact with nearly 200 scientists from all sections of the country, representing all major Iraqi S&T specialties. As a result of these contacts, the survey team obtained over 450 project ideas from Iraqi researchers. These projects were revised and analyzed to identify priorities and crucial needs. After refinement, the result is approximately 170 project ideas that have been categorized according to their suitability for (1) developing joint research projects with international partners, (2) engaging Iraqi scientists in solving local problems, and (3) developing new business opportunities. They have also been ranked as to high, medium, or low priority.
Hammermeister, Jon; VonGuenthner, Shannon
An optimal psychologic state for peak athletic performance is strongly documented in the sport psychology literature. A wealth of peer-reviewed studies also strongly supports the role that mental skills training (MST) plays in the development of this state. However, some disagreement exists in the sport psychology community over how best to deliver the MST tools and skills necessary for optimal sport performance. Mental training consultants and intervention researchers have recently suggested that periodization of mental training may be the next major leap forward in applied sport psychology program delivery. This new method of "training the mind" is presented and discussed.
Quinones, Sandra; Ares, Nancy; Padela, Maryam Razvi; Hopper, Mindy; Webster, Stephanie
Our ethnography focuses on an urban community change organization within a predominantly African American and Latino population. Latino Critical Race Theory and Critical Race Theory help us understand the Spanish speakers' positioning and how particularities of Latinas/os' experience challenged power relations and group cohesion. Our findings…
Plochg, Thomas; Delnoij, Diana M. J.; Hoogedoorn, Nelleke P. C.; Klazinga, Niek S.
BACKGROUND: To improve health-care delivery, care providers must base their services on community health needs and create a seamless continuum of care in which these needs can be met. Though, it is not obvious that providers apply this vision. Experiments with regulated competition in the health
Plochg, T.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Hoogedoorn, N.P.C.; Klazinga, N.S.
BACKGROUND: To improve health-care delivery, care providers must base their services on community health needs and create a seamless continuum of care in which these needs can be met. Though, it is not obvious that providers apply this vision. Experiments with regulated competition in the health
Plochg, T.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Hoogedoorn, N.P.C.; Klazinga, N.S.
Background: To improve health-care delivery, care providers must base their services on community health needs and create a seamless continuum of care in which these needs can be met. Though, it is not obvious that providers apply this vision. Experiments with regulated competition in the health
Ledley, T. S.; Niepold, F., III; Bozuwa, J.; Davis, A.; Fraser, J.; Kretser, J.; Poppleton, K. L. I.; Qusba, L.; Ruggiero, K.; Spitzer, W.; Stylinski, C.
The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) was formed in 2008 to help climate and energy literacy stakeholders implement the Climate and Energy Literacy Essential Principles to enable effective and responsible decisions with regard to actions that may affect climate. The ongoing conversations of the CLEAN Network have cultivated a culture of shared resources and expertise and allowed for the development of collective impact strategies. However, it has become clear that to accelerate and scale change, effective mitigation, adaptation, and resilience strategies must be developed by a diverse network of stakeholders at the community level to deal with the local impacts of climate change and move toward decarbonized and resilient economies. A group of CLEAN Network members, experienced in establishing effective networks and representing mature climate change education programs, came together to discuss at the community level 1) how we can collectively enable larger scale efforts to 2) develop effective strategies, 3) identify gaps in the system that limit action, and 4) coordinate possible vectors for interceding to advance community level decisions related to climate. We will describe our Theory of Change, based on both the power of communities and increasing climate literacy as a key requirement for sustained progress on the crisis climate change presents. From our Theory of Change, we have begun to outline a national monitoring strategy that can provide communities a measured way to understand their local readiness to respond to the impacts of climate change and understand the magnitude of those impacts in relation to their political and ecological economies. The scale would help describe the robustness of their programs and partnerships to address those impacts, the political climate for working in advance of pending change, and the degree of citizen engagement in resilience planning and action. The goal is to provide a common tool equivalent to GDP
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable sports blackout. 76.111 Section 76.111... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.111 Cable sports blackout. (a) No community unit located in whole or in part within the specified...
...] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATE(S): We will hold the... sport fishing, boating, and conservation communities and is organized to enhance partnerships among...
Harrington, Daniel W.; Jarvis, Jocelyn W.; Manson, Heather
Sports and recreation facilities provide places where children can be physically active. Previous research has shown that availability is often worse in lower-socioeconomic status (SES) areas, yet others have found inverse relationships, no relationships, or mixed findings. Since children’s health behaviours are influenced by their parents, it is important to understand parents’ perceived barriers to accessing sports and recreation facilities. Data from computer assisted telephone interviews ...
Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard
of a team sports project as well as coaching and mentoring, the project goal was to challenge the boys to be part of a new shared and empowering community, so that they actively experienced the ability to take responsibility for themselves and others in the arenas where they lived. In close co......-operation with the local sports club ’Nørrebro United’, 26 volunteer coaches (coaching the boys in school), school staff, the local community and not least the young people themselves, the intervention gradually took it’s own form. The intention of this strong local co-operation, was to clarify the young participants...... bullet points. We will use voices from the project, like volunteer coaches and the local sports club Nørrebro United. This final discussion will broaden the local agenda of this research project towards a more general discussion with the participants....
Full Text Available Introduction: This is an empirical article aiming at defining the changes of motor fitness in children practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Proper selection of candidates to practice certain sports is a very complex process. One needs to select from the very large population of children, girls and boys, characterized by certain features, including somatic and motor features, which developed in a longstanding process of training, will lead them to become champions. The purpose of the research: The purpose of the research was to define the changes of motor fitness in girls’ practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Material and Methods: The subjects to the research were 85 girls aged 7 (1st year of primary school, including 36 girls in swimming group and 49 girls in control group. 36 of them belonged to swimmers’ group- all girls were members of the Municipal Swimming Club in Szczecin. Control group consisted of 49 girls, who attended the same elementary schools. The examinations were carried out twice in the 2009-2010 academic year. The most reliable and accurate indirect test- EUROFIT Test Battery-was used. Results : The research revealed changes in both groups (Sw, C in terms of all eight tests. Examination II proved statistically significant improvement of results in both groups (Sw, C in comparison to Examination I. The dynamics of changes in general balance, flexibility, static force, functional force, running agility, was bigger in the girls who practiced swimming. As the speed of movement of upper limb, explosive force and thorax force are concerned; the differences of results in both examinations were similar in both groups (swimming group and control group. Progressive changes in motor fitness of the examined groups are a positive phenomenon in the development of child’s young organism. Conclusions: Swimming training significantly affected the dynamics of
Christensen, Mette Krogh
Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not
Sarmiento, Kelly; Mitchko, Jane; Klein, Cynthia; Wong, Sharon
To reduce the number of sports-related concussions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with the support of partners and experts in the field, has developed a tool kit for high school coaches with practical, easy-to-use concussion-related information. This study explores the success of the tool kit in changing knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the prevention and management of concussions. A mail questionnaire was administered to all eligible high school coaches who received the tool kit. Follow-up focus groups were conducted for additional information. Both quantitative data from the surveys and qualitative data from the focus groups were analyzed to support the objectives of the study. Respondents self-reported favorable changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward the prevention and management of concussions. Qualitative responses augmented the quantitative data. Barriers to concussion prevention and management are complex; however, these results highlight the role that coaches can play in school settings in establishing a safe environment for their athletes.
Wai, Pyae Phyo; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Thein, Saw; Si Thu, Aung; Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; Aye, Nyein Nyein; Phyo, Aye Mon; Maung, Htet Myet Win; Soe, Kyaw Thu; Aung, Si Thu
The Union in collaboration with national TB programme (NTP) started the community-based MDR-TB care (CBMDR-TBC) project in 33 townships of upper Myanmar to improve treatment initiation and treatment adherence. Patients with MDR-TB diagnosed/registered under NTP received support through the project staff, in addition to the routine domiciliary care provided by NTP staff. Each township had a project nurse exclusively for MDR-TB and 30 USD per month (max. for 4 months) were provided to the patient as a pre-treatment support. To assess whether CBMDR-TBC project's support improved treatment initiation. In this cohort study (involving record review) of all diagnosed MDR-TB between January 2015 and June 2016 in project townships, CBMDR-TBC status was categorized as "receiving support" if date of project initiation in patient's township was before the date of diagnosis and "not receiving support", if otherwise. Cox proportional hazards regression (censored on 31 Dec 2016) was done to identify predictors of treatment initiation. Of 456 patients, 57% initiated treatment: 64% and 56% among patients "receiving support (n = 208)" and "not receiving support (n = 228)" respectively (CBMDR-TBC status was not known in 20 (4%) patients due to missing diagnosis dates). Among those initiated on treatment (n = 261), median (IQR) time to initiate treatment was 38 (20, 76) days: 31 (18, 50) among patients "receiving support" and 50 (26,101) among patients "not receiving support". After adjusting other potential confounders (age, sex, region, HIV, past history of TB treatment), patients "receiving support" had 80% higher chance of initiating treatment [aHR (0.95 CI): 1.8 (1.3, 2.3)] when compared to patients "not receiving support". In addition, age 15-54 years, previous history of TB and being HIV negative were independent predictors of treatment initiation. Receiving support under CBMDR-TBC project improved treatment initiation: it not only improved the proportion initiated but also
Sansiritaweesook, Getsara; Muangsom, Niramon; Kanato, Manop; Ratanasiri, Amornrat
This study had a 2-group pre-post quasiexperimental design and was conducted in 2 selected areas of Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. The objective was to evaluate the extent to which the surveillance system that was developed helped in drowning prevention. The development process involved extensive participation from the community. System efficiency was evaluated, and the drowning rates were compared. The system demonstrated 82.8% system sensitivity and 87% positive-predictive value. There were 90.0% rescues with no injury during the study period. The relative risk of drowning injury suggests that the control area was at 5.6 times more at risk for drowning injury than the intervention area (95% CI = 1.58, 20.12). Local knowledge and participation from the community were found to be key issues in the success of the surveillance system, and such systems can be applied to other areas with similar problems. © 2013 APJPH.
Jopang, Yupin; Petchmark, Suthep; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Schelp, Frank Peter
The study was conducted to assess the achievement of a thalassemia screening program at a community level supported by village health volunteers (VHVs) of 2 subdistricts in the northeast of Thailand. One subdistrict served as the intervention and the other as the control area. A training program was organized for the village health volunteers from the intervention area. Essential information about the risk and danger of thalassemia was given to the participants who wanted to have children in the community as well. Of the 206 individuals who wanted to have children living in the intervention area, 190 (92.2%) agreed to undergo screening. Of the 196 individuals within the control area, only 26 (13.3%) voluntarily participated in the screening tests. Attitude toward prevention and knowledge about the disease improved significantly in both areas, but the differences between the scores were statistically significantly higher for individuals living in the intervention area. © 2012 APJPH.
Parkhill, K.A.; Shirani, F.; Butler, C.; Henwood, K.L.; Groves, C.; Pidgeon, N.F.
Highlights: • We engage with conceptual characteristics of 3 community-led energy case studies. • We examine data from interviews to explore the issues community energy groups face. • Shared visions, social action and social resilience are important to community energy. • Creating and maintaining shared visions, social action and social resilience is extremely challenging. - Abstract: In UK energy policy, community-led energy initiatives are increasingly being imbued with transformative power to facilitate low carbon transitions. The ways that such expectations for communities are manifesting in practice remains, however, relatively poorly understood. In particular, key conceptual developments in unpacking what constitutes ‘community’ that highlight the significance of ‘place’ along with important characteristics, such as shared visions, collective social action, and resilience, have yet to be comprehensively explored in the context of community-led energy initiatives. This paper uses an interpretive stance to engage with these conceptual ideas about community and provides insights into the nature of community and its meaning for developing energy-related initiatives and realising the wider goals of energy policy. The paper draws on data from in-depth qualitative, longitudinal interviews undertaken in two residential communities and one purely workplace-based community, which are engaged in community energy initiatives. We argue that there are difficulties and ambiguities in creating shared visions, achieving social action, and developing resilience that are related to the specificities of community in place, but that all three characteristics are likely to be important for the making of sustainable places
McCary, J; Schainker, E; Liu, P
Medical students from University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University, with a grant from the Maryland Chapter of the American College of Physicians, held a free health fair in a Baltimore City neighborhood. The goals were to heighten awareness of common health problems, learn more about a medically underserved community, and increase access to primary care services in that community. The students planned booths to offer information and screening on 19 common health topics. Fair organizers worked with a local clinic, People's Community Health Center, and a neighborhood development organization, the Safe and Smart Center, to create an event that would engage and educate people on relevant issues. Approximately 100 medical students participated in the event and 350 people attended the fair. An optional survey filled out by fair participants revealed that a diverse group of people attended the event. Comments about the day from medical students and fair participants show that the event was enjoyable and offered a tremendous learning opportunity for both groups. This paper also discusses problems that arose during the planning stages as well as suggestions for those interested in planning a similar event.
GenPhilly is an innovative, replicable model that was developed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to inspire and engage emerging leaders from a variety of disciplines to promote and sustain an aging-in-community agenda. Administrative support is provided by the Area Agency on Aging, Philadelphia Corporation for Aging, yet it was designed by its members to be peer-led. In this way, young professionals in their 20s and 30s can capitalize on popular culture to create unique professional development opportunities and get younger generations thinking about the type of city in which they themselves want to get older. The group has benefited the field of aging by building awareness of aging services in the wider community; facilitating cross-disciplinary learning and innovation around aging issues; stressing the competitive advantage for emerging leaders from all fields to know about aging issues; strengthening the aging network workforce; breaking down stereotypes about working with older adults; and introducing expertise from outside the aging network to benefit older adults. Encouraging the development of similar groups will not only benefit the field of aging, it will assist the next generation of leaders in many fields to plan better for their communities and for themselves.
Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.
This handbook was generated by a survey of the specific needs of the coaching community serving young children as athletic coaches. The survey revealed a need for information that addresses the needs of beginning level volunteer coaches. The first section discusses the benefits of competitive sports for children and youth and the role of the youth…
Belforti, Raquel K; Lagu, Tara; Haessler, Sarah; Lindenauer, Peter K; Pekow, Penelope S; Priya, Aruna; Zilberberg, Marya D; Skiest, Daniel; Higgins, Thomas L; Stefan, Mihaela S; Rothberg, Michael B
Fluoroquinolones have equivalent oral and intravenous bioavailability, but hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) generally are treated intravenously. Our objectives were to compare outcomes of hospitalized CAP patients initially receiving intravenous vs oral respiratory fluoroquinolones. This was a retrospective cohort study utilizing data from 340 hospitals involving CAP patients admitted to a non-intensive care unit (ICU) setting from 2007 to 2010, who received intravenous or oral levofloxacin or moxifloxacin. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included clinical deterioration (transfer to ICU, initiation of vasopressors, or invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV] initiated after the second hospital day), antibiotic escalation, length of stay (LOS), and cost. Of 36 405 patients who met inclusion criteria, 34 200 (94%) initially received intravenous treatment and 2205 (6%) received oral treatment. Patients who received oral fluoroquinolones had lower unadjusted mortality (1.4% vs 2.5%; P = .002), and shorter mean LOS (5.0 vs 5.3; P fluoroquinolones for CAP, there was no association between initial route of administration and outcomes. More patients may be treated orally without worsening outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice
Friedman, P.; Enis, S.; Pinyard, J.
To evaluate the effectiveness in diagnosing mammographically and sonographically occult breast lesions by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in patients who presented to a community-based hospital with a newly established breast MRI program. The records of 142 consecutive patients, median age of 55 years, who had undergone MRI-guided biopsy at our institution between July 2006 and July 2007 were reviewed. From these patients, 197 mammographically and sonographically occult lesions were biopsied at the time of discovery. The pathology was then reviewed and correlated with the MRI findings. Cancer was present and subsequently discovered in 8% of the previously occult lesions (16/197) or 11% of the women studied (16/142). Of the cancerous lesions, 56% were invasive carcinomas (9/16) and 44% were ductal carcinomas in situ (7/16). Fourteen percent of the discovered lesions (28/197) were defined as high risk and included atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, and radial scar. In total, occult cancerous and high-risk lesions were discovered in 22% of the found lesions (44/197) or 31% of the women who underwent MRI-guided biopsy (44/142). This study demonstrated that detection of cancerous and high-risk lesions can be significantly increased when an MRI-guided biopsy program is introduced at a community-based hospital. We believe that as radiologists gain confidence in imaging and histologic correlation, community-based hospitals can achieve similar rates of occult lesion diagnosis as those found in data emerging from academic institutions. (author)
Friedman, P.; Enis, S.; Pinyard, J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Morristown Memorial Hospital, The Carol W. and Julius A. Rippel Breast Center, The Carol G. Simon Cancer Centre, Morristown, New Jersey (United States)
To evaluate the effectiveness in diagnosing mammographically and sonographically occult breast lesions by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in patients who presented to a community-based hospital with a newly established breast MRI program. The records of 142 consecutive patients, median age of 55 years, who had undergone MRI-guided biopsy at our institution between July 2006 and July 2007 were reviewed. From these patients, 197 mammographically and sonographically occult lesions were biopsied at the time of discovery. The pathology was then reviewed and correlated with the MRI findings. Cancer was present and subsequently discovered in 8% of the previously occult lesions (16/197) or 11% of the women studied (16/142). Of the cancerous lesions, 56% were invasive carcinomas (9/16) and 44% were ductal carcinomas in situ (7/16). Fourteen percent of the discovered lesions (28/197) were defined as high risk and included atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, and radial scar. In total, occult cancerous and high-risk lesions were discovered in 22% of the found lesions (44/197) or 31% of the women who underwent MRI-guided biopsy (44/142). This study demonstrated that detection of cancerous and high-risk lesions can be significantly increased when an MRI-guided biopsy program is introduced at a community-based hospital. We believe that as radiologists gain confidence in imaging and histologic correlation, community-based hospitals can achieve similar rates of occult lesion diagnosis as those found in data emerging from academic institutions. (author)
William R. Doucette
Full Text Available Objectives: 1 Conduct team building activities for provider-community pharmacist teams in small communities and 2 Determine the impact of the team approach on practitioner-reported consequences and 3 Identify obstacles to the team approach and ways to overcome them. Methods: Eleven provider-pharmacist teams were recruited in rural/micropolitan communities in Iowa. The teams participated in team building sessions facilitated by the project leaders, to discuss the team approach. Decisions included patient identification, practitioner roles, and communications. Most pharmacists conducted blood pressure (BP checks in the pharmacy and assessed the anti-hypertensive medications. If the BP was not at goal, the pharmacist worked with the patient and provider to make improvements. Teams followed their strategies for 3-5 months. Data were collected from pharmacy logs and on-line surveys of team members before and after the team period. Results: Using a multi-case approach, 4 cases were classified as Worked-Well, 5 as Limited-Success, and 2 as No-Team-Care. The Worked-Well teams provided an average of 26.5 BP visits per team, while the Limited-Success teams averaged 6.8 BP visits. The Worked-Well teams established and used a system to support the team approach. The Limited-Success teams either didn't fully establish their team system, or used it sparingly. The No-Team-Care cases did not provide any team care. Conclusions: Factors supporting success were: positive provider-pharmacist relations, established team system, commitment to team care, and patient willingness to participate. While this program had some success, potential improvements were identified: more follow-up after the team building session, additional patient materials, and guidance for practice changes. Type: Case Study
Ryan, Allan J.
Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)
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Michael J Twigg
Full Text Available The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England.Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel community pharmacy-based person-centred service.Patients over fifty years of age prescribed more than one medicine including at least one for cardiovascular disease or diabetes were enrolled. Medication review and person-centred consultation resulted in agreed health goals and steps towards achieving them. Data were collated and analysed to determine appropriateness of patient recruitment process and quality of outcome data collection. A focus group of seven pharmacists was used to ascertain initial views on the service.Within 3 months of service initiation, 683 patients had baseline clinical data recorded, of which 86.9% were overweight or obese, 53.7% had hypertension and 80.8% had high cardiovascular risk. 544 (77.2% patients set at least one goal during the first consultation with 120 (22.1% setting multiple goals. A majority of patients identified their goals as improvement in condition, activity or quality of life. Pharmacists could see the potential patient benefit and the extended role opportunities the service provided. Allowing patients to set their own goals occasionally identified gaps to be addressed in pharmacist knowledge.Pharmacists successfully recruited a large number of patients who were appropriate for such a service. Patients were willing to identify goals with the pharmacist, the majority of which, if met, may result in improvements in quality of life. While challenges in delivery were acknowledged, allowing patients to identify their own personalised goals was
Full Text Available Recently, the influence of genetics on sports performance has received increased attention from many researchers. In combat sports, some investigations have also been conducted. This article’s main objective was to review the representation of specific gene polymorphisms in combat sports athletes compared to controls. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science and SportDiscus. The terms used in this search involved combat sports (boxing, karate, judo, mixed martial arts, taekwondo and wrestling, genes, genetics and candidate genes. Articles published until November 2013 were included if combat sports athletes were considered as a single group (i.e., not mixed with athletes of other sports. Seven studies were found, with two presenting no difference between combat sports athletes and controls, two presenting higher frequencies of candidate genes related to a more endurance-related profile compared to controls, and three where a more power-related gene overrepresentation was found in comparison to controls. Taken together, the initial studies about the genetic characteristics of combat sports athletes are controversial, which is probably due to the mixed (aerobic and anaerobic characteristic and to the multifactorial performance determinants of these sports.
Full Text Available Abstract The field of sports nutrition is a dynamic one. Core competencies in exercise physiology, psychology, integrated metabolism and biochemistry are the initial parameters for a successful career in sports nutrition. In addition to the academic fundamentals, it is imperative that the sports nutritionist understand the sport in which our client participates. This sport specific understanding should manifest itself in fuel utilization, mechanics of movement, as well as psychological processes that motivate the participant to perform optimally. Sports nutrition as a field has grown substantially over the past 50 years, from glycogen loading to today's scientifically validated ergogenic aids. The last ten years has seen the largest advancement of sports nutrition, with the following areas driving much of the research: the effects of exercise on protein utilization, meal timing to maximize the anabolic response, the potential for ribose to benefit those engaged in high-energy repetitive sports, and creatine and its uses within athletics and medicine. The future of sports nutrition will dictate that we 1 collectively strive for a higher standard of care and education for counseling athletes and 2 integrate different disciplines. We are in an era of unprecedented growth and the new knowledge is constantly evolving. The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN will contribute to this exciting field in many ways, and we ask for your contribution by sharing your passion, stories, research, and life experiences with us.
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Lape, Emma C; Katz, Jeffrey N; Losina, Elena; Kerman, Hannah M; Gedman, Marissa A; Blauwet, Cheri A
Although participation in adaptive sports offers numerous benefits for persons with disabilities, a substantial number of eligible persons do not take part. Previous studies have identified personal and environmental factors that promote or inhibit adaptive sports participation. However, these studies have considered a relatively narrow range of factors. To use qualitative research techniques to identify novel factors that influence participation in a community-based adaptive sports program. Qualitative focus group study. Community-based adaptive sports programs affiliated with a rehabilitation hospital network. Participants were recruited from among 134 adults who registered for the sports program in 2013-2014. Participants with mobility or sensory impairment, absence of cognitive impairment, and English proficiency were included. The 90 former participants with adequate contact information were contacted, and 17 participated in the focus groups. Two moderators led each of 3 audio-recorded focus groups using a moderator's guide. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcript data to identify perceived benefits, barriers, and facilitators of participation. Our analysis identified 5 themes: physical well-being and health/safety; interpersonal and social relationships; intrapersonal and beliefs/attitudes; physical environment; and access. Participants experienced participation both as physically beneficial and as transformative in terms of how they view themselves. However, programs drew on limited personal resources and sometimes presented a perceived risk of injury. Finding information about and transportation to programs was a challenge. Participants formed an informal community that modeled what athletes with disabilities are capable of, helping to overcome initial doubts. To gain the benefits of participation, athletes overcame significant barriers, several of which may be modifiable, including transportation and difficult-to-find information about program
This report summarizes the experiences gained in a project involving faculty direct undergraduate research focused on biotechnology and its applications. The biology program at Northern New Mexico Community College has been involved in screening for mutations in human DNA and has developed the ability to perform many standard and advanced molecular biology techniques. Most of these are based around the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and include the use of single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in the screening for mutant DNA molecules, and the capability to sequence PCR generated fragments of DNA using non-isotopic imaging. At Northern, these activities have a two-fold objective: (1) to bring current molecular biology techniques to the teaching laboratory, and (2) to support the training of minority undergraduates in research areas that stimulate them to pursue advanced degrees in the sciences.
Kendall, J. S.
Observing the night sky in New York City is a challenge. However, there is a popular, and even club-going, interest in science in New York City. On the edges of that interest, most people that live in New York City have never had the opportunity to look through a telescope, particularly in underserved areas such as Northern Manhattan. The presenter discusses plans for frequent observing sessions utilizing the parks in New York City combined with public classes at the New York Public Library. Both observing sessions and classes will be held in the ethnically, racially and economically diverse Bronx and Manhattan neighborhoods of Washington Heights, Marble Hill and Inwood. Integration with area middle, elementary and high schools is also discussed. Particular issues surrounding publicity and the need for showmanship in an image-driven community with numerous entertainment opportunities are also discussed.
Montserrat C Rodríguez-Ruiz
Full Text Available The National Biodiversity Strategy developed in Chile aims to protect 10% of the surface area of the most relevant marine ecosystems. The waters around the Juan Fernández Archipelago were not protected until 2014, when a Multiple Use Marine Protected Area was created in the 12 nautical miles around the archipelago, which includes five marine parks in sites of high conservation value. Three of these parks are located around Robinson Crusoe Island. This study aims to define a baseline for monitoring the impact of the marine protected area and provides ecological information to improve the understanding of coastal marine ecosystems around Robinson Crusoe Island. In addition to a characterization of bathymetry and habitats, intertidal and subtidal communities were sampled using transects and quadrats within the marine parks. We quantified species richness and abundances, which were later organized into functional groups for algae and trophic groups for mobile organisms. Although species richness did not vary between sites nor among the habitats sampled, we observed important differences in species abundance and composition as well as in functional and trophic groups both between sites and habitats. Among our results, we highlight: a the dominance of endemic algae in intertidal and subtidal (mainly corticated and corticated foliose habitats, b high abundances of macroinvertebrate herbivores in intertidal habitats and detrivores in subtidal habitats, c dominance of invertivorous fish in the subtidal, which are the primary predators of mobile benthic organisms. This characterization includes both the inter and subtidal coastal communities of the Juan Fernández Archipelago.
Matos, Sergio; Kapadia, Smiti; Islam, Nadia; Cusack, Arthur; Kwong, Sylvia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
Objectives. Despite the importance of community health workers (CHWs) in strategies to reduce health disparities and the call to enhance their roles in research, little information exists on how to prepare CHWs involved in community–academic initiatives (CAIs). Therefore, the New York University Prevention Research Center piloted a CAI–CHW training program. Methods. We applied a core competency framework to an existing CHW curriculum and bolstered the curriculum to include research-specific sessions. We employed diverse training methods, guided by adult learning principles and popular education philosophy. Evaluation instruments assessed changes related to confidence, intention to use learned skills, usefulness of sessions, and satisfaction with the training. Results. Results demonstrated that a core competency–based training can successfully affect CHWs’ perceived confidence and intentions to apply learned content, and can provide a larger social justice context of their role and work. Conclusions. This program demonstrates that a core competency–based framework coupled with CAI-research–specific skill sessions (1) provides skills that CAI–CHWs intend to use, (2) builds confidence, and (3) provides participants with a more contextualized view of client needs and CHW roles. PMID:22594730
Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu
We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available The primary objective was to examine trends in new HIV diagnoses in a UK area of high HIV prevalence between 2000 and 2012 with respect to site of diagnosis and stage of HIV infection.Single-centre observational cohort study.An outpatient HIV department in a secondary care UK hospital.1359 HIV-infected adults.Demographic information (age, gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation, site of initial HIV diagnosis (Routine settings such as HIV/GUM clinics versus Non-Routine settings such as primary care and community venues, stage of HIV infection, CD4 count and seroconversion symptoms were collated for each participant.There was a significant increase in the proportion of new HIV diagnoses made in Non-Routine settings (from 27.0% in 2000 to 58.8% in 2012; p<0.001. Overall there was a decrease in the rate of late diagnosis from 50.7% to 32.9% (p=0.001. Diagnosis of recent infection increased from 23.0% to 47.1% (p=0.001. Of those with recent infection, significantly more patients were likely to report symptoms consistent with a seroconversion illness over the 13 years (17.6% to 65.0%; p<0.001.This is the first study, we believe, to demonstrate significant improvements in HIV diagnosis and a shift in diagnosis of HIV from HIV/GUM settings to primary practice and community settings due to multiple initiatives.
Van de Vliet, Peter
This study reports in detail on the antidoping program of the Paralympic Movement to improve knowledge and optimize intervention programs, including educational and awareness initiatives. Data retrieved from annual statistics reports and historical records are complemented with personal observations. An overall incidence proportion of powerlifting) since 2000. A critical analysis of these data allows for an assessment of risk factors by sport. An efficient transfer of knowledge indicates the need to strengthen educational awareness, preferably imbedded in a multidisciplinary approach toward athletes' health. The particular case of autonomic dysreflexia is addressed as a separate theme.
van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten
This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to
van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving
This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to
Thomson, Beth J.
Acceptance of adult roles by children increases "adult injuries," notably broken bones from sports. Suggests camp administrators be familiar with clientele, particular sports, and the kinds of injuries that generally result in each. Discusses children's age, types of sports, and other factors that come into play when anticipating and treating…
Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M
Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.
Eddie T. C. Lam
Full Text Available Hong Kong is well-known for its beautiful natural harbor, vibrant nightlife, as well as tremendous entertainment and shopping opportunities. It is a paradise for outdoor activities such as golfing, hiking, fishing, and water sports. Throughout the city, there are extensive hiking trails that are over 30 miles long and navigate through beautiful scenic areas and parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the sport culture of Hong Kong, including the development and administration of sports and sporting events. After a thorough review on the sports development of Hong Kong, it was found that the following three main themes would guide the direction of future sports development: (a promoting “Sports for All,” (b fostering high performance sports, and (c equipping Hong Kong to host international sports events. In this regard, the Hong Kong Government provides a wide range of sports facilities and funding to support the development of sports. In addition, sport development is also supported by the business sector in Hong Kong. Among those different departments, the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD takes an active role in promoting sports in the community and administers funding support for relevant organizations under the established sports policy. The LCSD not only develops and manages a wide range of sports and recreational facilities for use by the general public, but also supports and organizes sports and recreational programs for the community. For instance, the most exciting projects people cannot wait to see their completion are the HK$19.7 billion Kai Tak Sports Complex and the Tseung Kwan O Football Training Centre that is supported with a grant of HK$133 million from the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.
Trasatti, Elisa; Rubbia, Giuliana; Romaniello, Vito; Merucci, Luca; Corradini, Stefano; Spinetti, Claudia; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Borgstrom, Sven; Salvi, Stefano; Parks, Michelle; Dürig, Tobias; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn
The EVER-EST project (European Virtual Environment for Research - Earth Science Themes: a solution) is a H2020 project (2015-2018) aimed at the creation of a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) focused on the requirements of the Earth Science community. The VRE is intended to enhance the ability to collaborate, interoperate and share knowledge and experience between all relevant stakeholders, including researchers, monitoring teams and civil protection agencies. Among the innovations of the project is the exploitation of the "Research Object" concept (http://www.rohub.org), i.e. "digital objects that encapsulate essential information about experiments and investigations to facilitate their reusability, reproducibility and better understanding". Research Objects encapsulate not only data and publications, but also algorithms, codes, results, and workflows that can be stored, shared and re-used. The European subgroup of the GEO Geohazard Supersites community involved in the project (INGV, University of Iceland) has provided user requirements and user scenarios, as well as created Research Objects embedding research activities and workflows on the Permanent Supersites Campi Flegrei, Mount Etna and Icelandic Volcanoes. These Supersites play the role of test sites for the platform, but during the last year of the project other Supersites may also be involved, to demonstrate the added value of the collaborative environment in research activities aiming to support Disaster Risk Reduction. Using the VRE, the Supersite scientists should be able to collaborate with colleagues located in different parts of the world, in a simple and effective way. This includes being able to remotely access and share data, research results and ideas, to carry out training sessions and discussions, to compare different results and models, and to synthesize many different pieces of information in a single consensus product to be disseminated to end-users. A further need of the Supersite
Kristi S. Lekies
Full Text Available Across the country, youth gardening opportunities are rapidly increasing, as is the need for documentation on successful strategies for working with young people. This paper describes the evaluation of the Greener Voices project, a three-year initiative created to increase youth participation in gardening activities through consultation, resources, and information provided to adult leaders at six sites across New York and Pennsylvania. The evaluation is highlighted to encourage others to think about ways to incorporate evaluation into gardening programs. Useful strategies include starting early with evaluation planning, using an underlying program theory or logic model, collecting data through multiple methods, coordinating evaluation and program planning, building theory into evaluation, and publicizing findings. Documenting lessons learned can contribute to the knowledge base in the youth gardening field.
Trutnevyte, Evelina; Stauffacher, Michael; Scholz, Roland W.
Many decisions about future energy systems in small communities are based on the visions of several key actors about the ideal-type system. Although meaningful, such visions may not inclusively represent the objectives of all relevant actors. Moreover, the visions are mostly intuitively judged by these actors and reflect their experiences and concerns. Yet, analytical expertise provides essential information about the required decisions and their consequences. We argue that coming up with a number of alternative visions about a future energy system and addressing these visions from both intuitive and analytical perspectives leads to better-quality decisions. This paper presents a case study in the small Swiss community of Urnäsch, where actors from practice and academia collaborated in a transdisciplinary process to address the future energy system. Visions of these actors about the ideal-type energy system were linked both with energy scenarios that analytically specified options to implement these visions and with stakeholder-based multi-criteria assessment of the consequences. As a result, most of the involved actors adjusted their initial vision preferences. Thus, we believe this approach could lead to capacity building and formation of stable, informed preferences, which are necessary to support a transition in the coming decades. - Highlights: ► Linking energy visions with realistic options and their consequences. ► Novel methodology developed to support this. ► Applied in a case study whereby stakeholders revised visions in light of results. ► Energy initiatives in small communities are facilitated and supported analytically.
Cary, J.R.; Spentzouris, P.; Amundson, J.; McInnes, L.; Borland, M.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.; Wang, Y.; Fischer, W.; Fedotov, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Ryne, R.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.; Qiang, J.; Ng, E.; Li, S.; Ng, C.; Lee, R.; Merminga, L.; Wang, H.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Dechow, D.; Mullowney, P.; Messmer, P.; Nieter, C.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Paul, K.; Stoltz, P.; Wade-Stein, D.; Mori, W.B.; Decyk, V.; Huang, C.K.; Lu, W.; Tzoufras, M.; Tsung, F.; Zhou, M.; Werner, G.R.; Antonsen, T.; Katsouleas, T.; Morris, B.
Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction
Raquel Álvares Leão
Full Text Available Mining activities for urbanization purposes have been practiced in the BrazilianFederal District for the last fifty years. Exploitation of sand, clay, stones, calcareous rocks,and gravel deposits resulted in 0.6% of the territory degraded by mining. Deposits explored inthe last ten years have been reclaimed as demanded by local laws.The natural restoration of areas degraded by mining explotation is unpraticable,because the seed-bed and seedlings-bed is very injuried. Also the superficial layers of soil aretaken off, causing loss of microorganism like fungi, which contributes for environmental’squality improvement for the vegetation reestablishment (Vargas & Hungria, 1997.Fortunatelly, environmental laws oblige miners to replace these superficial layers of soil(CREA-DF Cursos, 2004.The recovering of a degradaded area doesn’t necessarily mean restoration. Restorationonly happens when the damage is minimal, for example, a glade opened by the death of a tree(Fonseca et al., 2001. When an area is hardly damaged, the vegetal climax community,resulting from secondary succession, will never be the same as the one standed there before(CREA-DF Cursos, 2004; Fonseca et al., 2001. In the case of areas degraded by mining,human intervention is necessary, because the vegetation has lost its resilience, and is not ableto commence a secondary succession by itself.
Walker, S. H.; Stone, D.; Schultz, T.; LeBlanc, T.; Miller-Way, T.; Estrada, P.
This five-year, Gulf of Mexico regional collaborative is funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-Office of Education and represents a successful grant submitted by the FL Aquarium as a member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). This climate change effort focuses on enhanced content knowledge and the manner in which personal actions and behaviors contribute to sustainability and stewardship. Diverse audiences—represented by visitors at the informal centers listed above—have been and are involved in the following activities: social networking via responses to climate change surveys; an "ocean and climate change defender" computer game, specifically designed for this project; an average of 10 annual outreach events implemented by these facilities at community festivals; climate change lectures provided to family audiences; and professional development workshops for informal and formal educators. This presentation will provide opportunities and challenges encountered during the first two years of implementation. This regional effort is also aligned with both the Ocean Literacy: Essential Principles and the Climate Literacy: Essential Principles. Additional partners include: Normandeau Associates, Conservation Enterprises, Unlimited, and Mindclay Creative.
DiDonato, Kristen L; Liu, Yifei; Lindsey, Cameron C; Hartwig, David Matthew; Stoner, Steven C
To determine patient perceptions of using a demonstration application (app) of mobile technology to improve medication adherence and to identify desired features to assist in the management of medications. A qualitative study using key informant interviews was conducted in a community pharmacy chain for patients aged 50 and older, on statin therapy and owning a smart device. Three main themes emerged from 24 interviews at four pharmacy locations, which included benefits, barriers and desired features of the app. Benefits such as accessibility, privacy, pros of appearance and beneficiaries were more likely to lead to usage of the app. Barriers that might prevent usage of the app were related to concerns of appearance, the burden it might cause for others, cost, privacy, motivation and reliability. Specific features patients desired were categorized under appearance, customization, communication, functionality, input and the app platform. Patients provided opinions about using a mobile app to improve medication adherence and assist with managing medications. Patients envisioned the app within their lifestyle and expressed important considerations, identifying benefits to using this technology and voicing relevant concerns. App developers can use patient perceptions to guide development of a mobile app addressing patient medication-related needs. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Full Text Available The National Preparedness Guidelines (2007 state, “as uniformed responders account for less than 1% of the total U.S. population, it is clear that citizens must be better prepared, trained, and practiced on how best to take care of themselves and assist others in those first crucial hours during and after a catastrophic incident.” This is increasingly more evident due to recent disasters such as hurricane Katrina. The Alert, Evacuate and Shelter (AES program identified and trained youth/adult teams to use geospatial technology to map shelter locations and evacuation routes. Training began with team building activities to strengthen and build youth/adult preparedness partnerships. Program evaluations revealed a major shift in thinking about the positive potential level of involvement of youth in emergencies. Survey results immediately following trainings revealed statistically significant increases in participant knowledge gain regarding emergency preparedness. Follow-up evaluations indicate the success of this project in meeting community preparedness goals.
Mehta, Ambereen K; Wilks, Steven; Cheng, M Jennifer; Baker, Karen; Berger, Ann
Patients who receive early palliative care consults have clinical courses and outcomes more consistent with their goals. Nurses have been shown to be advocates for early palliative care involvement and are able to lead advanced care planning discussions. The purpose of this study was to assess whether after a brief educational session, nurses at a suburban, community hospital could demonstrate knowledge of palliative care principles, would want to independently initiate end-of-life conversations with patients and families, and would want to place specialty palliative care consults. Four 1 hour presentations were made at 4 nursing leadership council meetings from November through December 2015. Anonymous pre- and post-presentation surveys were distributed and collected in person. Setting/Participant: Nonprofit, suburban, community hospital in Maryland. Participants were full-time or part-time hospital employees participating in a nursing leadership council who attended the presentation. We compared responses from pre- and post-presentation surveys. Fifty nurses (19 departments) completed pre-presentation surveys (100% response rate) and 49 nurses completed post-presentation surveys (98% response rate). The average score on 7 index questions increased from 71% to 90%. After the presentations, 86% strongly agreed or agreed that nurses should be able to independently order a palliative care consult and 88% strongly agreed or agreed with feeling comfortable initiating an end-of-life conversation. Brief educational sessions can teach palliative care principles to nurses. Most participants of the study would want to be able to directly consult palliative care and would feel comfortable initiating end-of-life conversations after this educational session.
Předmětem diplomové práce je návrh novostavby sportovního zařízení na úrovni dokumentace pro provedení stavby. Návrh klade důraz na dispoziční řešení včetně zajištění konstrukce pro statické stránce, architektonické, požární bezpečnosti, úspory energie a bezpečnosti při užívání objektu. Práce obsahuje textovou i grafickou část. Grafická část práce je zpracována v programu ArchiCad. The subject of the diploma thesis is to design a new building of sports facilities at the documentation for b...
Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.
Humans face climatic and hydro-meteorological hazards on different scales in time and space. In particular natural hazards can have disastrous impact in the short term (flood) and in the long term (drought) as they affect human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. They represent a pending danger for vulnerable lifelines, infrastructure and the agricultural systems that depend on the water supply, reservoirs, pipelines, and power plants. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Extreme natural events such as extreme floods or prolonged drought can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. The beginning of the XX1st century has been marked by a significant number of natural disasters, such as floods, severe storms, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Extreme natural events cause devastation resulting in loss of human life, large environmental damage, and partial or total loss of infrastructure that, in the longer time, will affect the potential for agricultural recovery. Recent catastrophic events of the early 21st century (e.g. floods in Pakistan and Thailand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami) remind us once again that there is a strong coupling between complex solid Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric processes and that even developed countries such as Japan are subject to agricultural declines as a result of disastrous hydro-meteorological events. Scientific community recognizes that communication between the groups of experts of various international organizations dealing with natural hazards and their activity in disaster risk reduction and food security needs to be strengthened. Several international scientific unions and intergovernmental institutions set up a consortium of experts to promote studies of weather, climate and their interaction with agriculture, food and their socio
Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.
AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a “matrix” species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous “non-matrix” species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 1–2 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 ×3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.
Eime, Rochelle M; Harvey, Jack; Charity, Melanie J; Casey, Meghan; Westerbeek, Hans; Payne, Warren R
Ecological models have been applied to investigate multiple domains influencing physical activity behaviour, including individual, social, organisational, community, environmental and policy factors. With regard to the built environment, research to date has been limited to small geographical areas and/or small samples of participants. This study examined the geographical association between provision of sport facilities and participation in sport across an entire Australian state, using objective total enumerations of both, for a group of sports, with adjustment for the effect of socioeconomic status (SES). De-identified membership registration data were obtained from state sport governing bodies of four popular team sports. Associations between participation rate, facility provision rate and SES were investigated using correlation and regression methods. Participation rate was positively associated with provision of facilities, although this was complicated by SES and region effects. The non-metropolitan region generally had higher participation rates and better provision of facilities than the metropolitan region. Better provision of sports facilities is generally associated with increased sport participation, but SES and region are also contributing factors. Implications for public health: Community-level analysis of the population, sport participation and provision of facilities should be used to inform decisions of investments in sports facilities. © 2017 The Authors.
Bloomquist, Lorraine E.
This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,
Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Andries van den Broek
Oringinal title: Sport en cultuur Many people derive enjoyment from sport and culture in their free time: attending matches, performances, exhibitions or festivals, following sport and culture via the media or participating in a sport or cultural activity. Who takes part in which activities? Does
Full Text Available Analyzing questions related to business communications, especially communications in sport, is possible if the analysis of the size and the subject of the communication concept has been done before, in order to enter into a specific stratum of sport communications. This stratum contains the subjects of communications which could be realized in sport or somehow are connected with sport.
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...
Bishop, David; Burnett, Angus; Farrow, Damian; Gabbett, Tim; Newton, Robert
As sports scientists, we claim to make a significant contribution to the body of knowledge that influences athletic practice and performance. Is this the reality? At the inaugural congress of the Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science, a panel of well-credentialed academic experts with experience in the applied environment debated the question, Does sports-science research influence practice? The first task was to define "sports-science research," and it was generally agreed that it is concerned with providing evidence that improves sports performance. When practices are equally effective, sports scientists also have a role in identifying practices that are safer, more time efficient, and more enjoyable. There were varying views on the need for sports-science research to be immediately relevant to coaches or athletes. Most agreed on the importance of communicating the results of sports-science research, not only to the academic community but also to coaches and athletes, and the need to encourage both short- and long-term research. The panelists then listed examples of sports-science research that they believe have influenced practice, as well as strategies to ensure that sports-science research better influences practice.
Swan, Peter; Otago, Leonie; Finch, Caroline F; Payne, Warren R
Sport is an important context for physical activity and it is critical that safe environments are provided for such activity. Sports safety is influenced by the presence of sports ground environmental hazards such as ground hardness, poorly maintained playing fields, surface irregularities and the presence of debris/rubbish. To reduce injury risk, sports governing bodies need to ensure regular assessment of grounds safety and the removal of identified hazards. This study describes sports ground safety guidelines and recommendations of a sample of sports governing bodies and provides recommendations for how they could be improved. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with nominees of state governing bodies for Australian football, cricket, soccer and hockey. The use of matchday checklists to identify ground hazards, as mandated by insurance companies was widely promoted across all levels of play. Sports governing bodies had more direct involvement in assessing grounds used for higher level of play, than grounds used for community or junior sport. There was a general presumption that identified hazards on community grounds would be corrected by local councils or clubs before anyone played on them, but this was rarely monitored. Sports governing bodies run the risk of being negligent in their duty of care to sports participants if they do not formally monitor the implementation of their ground safety polices and guidelines. There is also further scope for sports bodies to work closely with insurers to develop ground safety assessment guidelines specific to their sport.
Elliott, Sam; Velardo, Stefania; Drummond, Murray; Drummond, Claire
There is a widely held belief that sport participation inherently enhances health among youth. Such a perception often motivates parents to encourage children's initial and ongoing involvement in organised sport and physical activity. While sport certainly comprises an important vehicle for accruing physical activity, the sport environment may not…
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...
Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are
Danielson, Lisa; Draper, David
NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting-edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists; over the past five years, the 16 full time contract research and technical staff members in our division have hosted a total of 223 visiting researchers, representing 35 institutions. In order to continue to provide this level of support to the planetary sciences community, and also expand our services and collaboration within the broader scientific community, we intend to submit a proposal to NASA specifically for facilities support and establishment of our laboratories as a collective, PSAMS, Planetary Sample Analyses and Mission Science. This initiative should result in substantial cost savings to PIs with NASA funding who wish to use our facilities. Another cost saving could be realized by aggregating visiting user experiments and analyses through COMPRES, which would be of particular interest to researchers in earth and material sciences. JSC is a recognized NASA center of excellence for curation, and in future will allow PIs and mission teams easy access to samples in Curation facilities that they have been approved to study. Our curation expertise could also be used for a collection of experimental run products that could be shared and distributed to COMPRES community members. These experimental run products could range from 1 bar controlled atmosphere furnace, piston cylinder, multi-anvil, CETUS (see companion abstract), to shocked products. Coordinated analyses of samples is one of the major strengths of our division, where a single sample can be prepared with minimal destruction for a variety of chemical and structural analyses, from macro to nano-scale.
Cheadle, Allen; Cromp, DeAnn; Krieger, James W; Chan, Nadine; McNees, Molly; Ross-Viles, Sarah; Kellogg, Ryan; Rahimian, Afsaneh; MacDougall, Erin
Initiatives that convene community stakeholders to implement policy, systems, environment, and infrastructure (PSEI) change have become a standard approach for promoting community health. To assess the PSEI changes brought about by the King County, Washington, Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative and describe how initiative structures and processes contributed to making changes. The impact evaluation used a logic model design, linking PSEI changes to longer-term behavioral impacts in healthy eating active living and tobacco use and exposure. Qualitative methods, including stakeholder interviews and surveys, were used to identify initiative success factors. Communities Putting Prevention to Work activities occurred throughout King County, with a focus on 7 low-income communities in South Seattle/King County. The focus communities had a combined population of 652 000, or 35% of the county total, with lower incomes and higher rates of physical inactivity, tobacco use, poor diet, and chronic disease. Twenty-four PSEI strategies were pursued by organizations in sectors including schools, local governments, and community organizations, supported by the public health department. There were 17 healthy eating active living strategies (eg, enhancements to school menus, city planning policies) and 7 tobacco strategies (eg, smoke-free policies in schools, housing, and hospitals). PSEI changes made and numbers of residents reached. Twenty-two of the 24 strategies achieved significant progress toward implementing PSEI changes. The most common success factor was a "dyad" consisting of a dedicated technical assistance provider-either an outside consultant or public health department staff-working closely with a champion from the participating organizations to bring about PSEI changes. An initiative structure that creates and supports external consultant/internal organizational champion dyads in key community sectors offers a promising approach that may be adopted by
Daniel W. Harrington
Full Text Available Sports and recreation facilities provide places where children can be physically active. Previous research has shown that availability is often worse in lower-socioeconomic status (SES areas, yet others have found inverse relationships, no relationships, or mixed findings. Since children’s health behaviours are influenced by their parents, it is important to understand parents’ perceived barriers to accessing sports and recreation facilities. Data from computer assisted telephone interviews with parents living in Ontario, Canada were merged via postal codes with neighbourhood deprivation data. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the likelihood that parents reported barriers to accessing local sports and recreation facilities. Parents with lower household incomes were more likely to report barriers to access. For each unit increase in deprivation score (i.e., more deprived, the likelihood of reporting a barrier increased 16% (95% CI: 1.04, 1.28. For parents, the relationships between household income, neighbourhood-level deprivation, and barriers are complex. Understanding these relationships is important for research, policy and planning, as parental barriers to opportunities for physical activity have implications for child health behaviours, and ultimately childhood overweight and obesity.
Harrington, Daniel W; Jarvis, Jocelyn W; Manson, Heather
Sports and recreation facilities provide places where children can be physically active. Previous research has shown that availability is often worse in lower-socioeconomic status (SES) areas, yet others have found inverse relationships, no relationships, or mixed findings. Since children's health behaviours are influenced by their parents, it is important to understand parents' perceived barriers to accessing sports and recreation facilities. Data from computer assisted telephone interviews with parents living in Ontario, Canada were merged via postal codes with neighbourhood deprivation data. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the likelihood that parents reported barriers to accessing local sports and recreation facilities. Parents with lower household incomes were more likely to report barriers to access. For each unit increase in deprivation score (i.e., more deprived), the likelihood of reporting a barrier increased 16% (95% CI: 1.04, 1.28). For parents, the relationships between household income, neighbourhood-level deprivation, and barriers are complex. Understanding these relationships is important for research, policy and planning, as parental barriers to opportunities for physical activity have implications for child health behaviours, and ultimately childhood overweight and obesity.
The purpose of this article is to develop a toolkit for academics and practitioners, which elaborates on how strategic application of corporate social responsibility (CSR) may guide sports branding initiatives and sponsorship partnerships and lead to increased levels of brand capitalisation....... Inspired by Shank's (2009) notion of the sports brand building process, i.e.: 1) brand awareness; 2) brand image; 3) brand equity; 4) brand loyalty, the interacting nature of sports brands exemplified by how sports brands at the corporate level interact with sports brands at the personal and product levels...... is integrated in the article. This is done to propose how these interactions may increase the effect of the work with strategic CSR on corporate sports brands....
Ruchitbhai M. Shah
Full Text Available Objectives: There has been considerable debate over the last few decades about creating a third class of drugs that would not require a prescription or not be available freely over the counter, but require a pharmacist’s consultation upon purchase. These debates reignited again in 2012, when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA held a hearing about a third class of drugs positioned as an expanded nonprescription drug class under the FDAs Nonprescription Safe-Use Regulatory Expansion (NSURE Initiative. The objective of this study was to determine which prescription drugs community pharmacists believe are acceptable additions to an expanded definition of nonprescription drugs that would be available pending pharmacists’ consultation with a patient. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-report, web-based survey administered to a national panel of community pharmacists. The survey contained a list of 24 current “prescription-only” drugs which may be potential candidates for an expanded nonprescription drug class, based on criteria outlined by the FDA, and questions related to respondent demographic and practice characteristics. The respondents were asked to indicate whether a particular drug should be marketed as a prescription drug, nonprescription drug or as part of an expanded non-prescription drug class. Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine the drugs that community pharmacists believed would be suitable additions to an expanded non-prescription drug class under the NSURE initiative. Results: 462 completed surveys were received. Most respondents indicated that clopidogrel bisulfate (85.3% and zolpidem (86.6% should continue to be dispensed as prescription drugs. Atorvastatin, metformin, and sildenafil (among others were considered appropriate to be marketed as an expanded nonprescription drug, in other words, dispensed without a prescription but upon pharmacist consultation. Desloratadine (64.6% and
Since economic reform in the 1980s, Chinese sport has undergone an extraordinary transformation. The most distinguishing phenomenon is the rapid growth of mass sport at the grassroots level with increasing demands for physical activities in women's daily lives. The rapid growth of women's sports participation at the grassroots is deeply embedded in the process of social stratification as a result of the urbanisation of Chinese society. The purpose of this paper is to use the socialist, feminist and theoretical framework to explore how Chinese women's different economic, educational, domestic and cultural situations shape their sports values and patterns of participation, marking social boundaries in Chinese urban communities. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted with 60 female physical exercisers in sports clubs, parks and neighbourhood playgrounds. Documentary research was also applied as a complement method to the interview. The findings indicate that within different classes (middle class, working class and a group who were unemployed), many different opportunities for and limitations on women to participate in sport are noticed. Chinese women have not fully and equally utilised sports opportunities created by urbanisation. Most Chinese women still live within patriarchal arrangements. Consequently, they do not completely fulfil their ambitions in sport.
Full Text Available Marketing research, which provide the data and the information for the decision making process, are essential for organizers of sport events, especially to the organizers of the most significant ones. The mentioned marketing research involves: research of the local market, visitors satisfaction research, evaluation of sponsorship effectiveness, research of the sport events economic influence on the local community or host cities, event host attitudes examination-local population and so on. The marketing research process, for the sport event organizers of needs, involves several steps, such as: goal definition, choice of the research method, research instruments determination, interviewer education, information gathering, data processing, data report, conclusions.
Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.
Warren Pedersen, Lise; Trangbæk, Else
In 2005, Copenhagen municipality decided to develop and implement a sport and movement profile at a local elementary school. The overall development is discussed as are specific results and consequences of the decision. The role of physical education and teachers in relation to a health discourse......, sport and school sports viewed as an arena for talent identification and development will be discussed. In addition, a question of inequality raised, as a group of talented athletes are accepted into specific sports classes, focusing on cultural capital and the possibility of the educational system...... as reproducing or as an arena for social mobility. Finally a discussion of the possibilities for either sports policy development or school policy development through single initiatives is presented....
Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.
Marketing research, which provide the data and the information for the decision making process, are essential for organizers of sport events, especially to the organizers of the most significant ones. The mentioned marketing research involves: research of the local market, visitors satisfaction research, evaluation of sponsorship effectiveness, research of the sport events economic influence on the local community or host cities, event host attitudes examination-local population and so on. Th...
Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F
Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.
determining the winner in rain-affected international cricket matches, has been a regular attendee since 1996 and once again presented his latest views on fairer scoring systems in cricket. It was also great to see Professor John Norman from Sheffield University appear again, as he was at the first conference in 1992, and he presented his work on Naismith's rule as it applies to competitive mountain trekking.The MathSport community appreciated His Worship the Gold Coast Mayor and former world record holder over middle distances, Ron Clarke, for giving up some of his valuable time to officially open the conference. His opening remarks both inspired the audience and put the science of sport into a practical context through him relating his experiences in athletics. In addition, we were fortunate to have two prominent sports scientists as keynote speakers in Roger Bartlett (Professor of Sports Science at the University of Otago and Dr Stuart Morgan (Sports Scientist - Victorian Institute of Sport who delivered their keynote addresses "Artificial Intelligence in Sports Biomechanics: New dawn or false hope?" and "Synergy in Sport: directions, convergence and opportunity in high performance sport".The first 17 papers in this issue provide an array of topics that typified the broad range of presentations at the conference. These include papers covering research methodologies that span across mathematical modelling and real-time computer analysis of movement through to biomechanical and performance analysis. These analyses were applied to a variety of sports such as football, tennis, cricket and swimming through to lawn bowls and gymnastics.The editors are grateful for the assistance given by the reviewers of these papers, particularly Dr Keith Lyons (Australian Institute of Sport and Associate Professor Hugh Morton (Massey University, who were independent of the conference participants.
Cantu, R C
Injuries to the head and neck are the most frequent catastrophic sports injury, and head injuries are the most common direct athletic cause of death. Although direct compressive forces may injure the brain, neural tissue is particularly susceptible to injury from shearing stresses, which are most likely to occur when rotational forces are applied to the head. The most common athletic head injury is concussion, which may very widely in severity. Intracranial haemorrhage is the leading cause of head injury death in sports, making rapid initial assessment and appropriate follow up mandatory after a head injury. Diffuse cerebral swelling is another serious condition that may be found in the child or adolescent athlete, and the second impact syndrome is a major concern in adult athletes. Many head injuries in athletes are the result of improper playing techniques and can be reduced by teaching proper skills and enforcing safety promoting rules. Improved conditioning (particularly of the neck), protective headgear, and careful medical supervision of athletes will also minimise this type of injury.
Canfield, Caitlin; Angove, Rebekah; Boselovic, Joseph; Brown, Lisanne F; Gauthe, Sharon; Bui, Tap; Gauthe, David; Bogen, Donald; Denham, Stacey; Nguyen, Tuan; Lichtveld, Maureen Y
The Transdisciplinary Research Consortium for Gulf Resilience on Women's Health (GROWH) addresses reproductive health disparities in the Gulf Coast by linking communities and scientists through community-engaged research. Funded by the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, GROWH's Community Outreach and Dissemination Core (CODC) seeks to utilize community-based participatory research (CBPR) and other community-centered outreach strategies to strengthen resilience in vulnerable Gulf Coast populations. The CODC is an academic-community partnership comprised of Tulane University, Mary Queen of Vietnam Community Development Corporation, Bayou Interfaith Shared Community Organizing, and the Louisiana Public Health Institute (LPHI). Alongside its CODC partners, LPHI collaboratively developed, piloted and evaluated an innovative CBPR curriculum. In addition to helping with curriculum design, the CODC's community and academic partners participated in the pilot. The curriculum was designed to impart applied, practical knowledge to community-based organizations and academic researchers on the successful formulation, execution and sustaining of CBPR projects and partnerships within the context of environmental health research. The curriculum resulted in increased knowledge about CBPR methods among both community and academic partners as well as improved relationships within the GROWH CODC partnership. The efforts of the GROWH partnership and curriculum were successful. This curriculum may serve as an anchor for future GROWH efforts including: competency development, translation of the curriculum into education and training products, community development of a CBPR curriculum for academic partners, community practice of CBPR, and future environmental health work.
Full Text Available The book is a user-friendly, highly accessible text for the students to understand the basic concepts of sport skills acquisition. Each chapter covers important theoretical background and shows how this theory can be applied through practical examples from the world of sport. The book also examines the ways in which skills can be most effectively and addresses issues such as: characteristics and classifications of abilities and skills in sport, information processing in sport, motor programmes and motor control, phases of learning and presentation of skills and practices. PURPOSE This textbook aims to help readers develop an understanding of the basic concepts of motor skills in sport, dealing initially with the technical terms and then on focusing on the theories related to the learning of these skills. AUDIENCE A valuable resource for students and teachers in physical education, sport studies and sports science courses as well as for coaches who want to develop their theoretical knowledge. FEATURES The book guides the readers through the science that underlies sport skills, using practical examples to explain the concepts discussed. It is composed of 9 chapters which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Characteristics and classification of skills in sport, 2. Characteristics and classification of abilities in sport, 3. Information processing in sport, 4. Motor programmes and motor control, 5. Individual differences, 6. Theories of learning, 7. Phase of learning and learning curves, 8. Presentation of skills and practices, 10. Guidance, teaching and learning styles. ASSESSMENT This is an excellent book for the students in the field. Clearly written and illustrated throughout, with questions to test knowledge and understanding, this is an ideal introductory text for students of physical education, sport, human movement science and kinesiology, as well as
Blodgett, D. L.
Recent prolonged droughts, catastrophic flooding, and the need to protect and restore aquatic ecosystems, has increased the emphasis on information sharing in the water resources science and engineering domains. Internationally the joint World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG) has been working toward a comprehensive system of standards and best practices for the Hydrology Domain. In the U.S. the multi-agency led and open to all U.S. Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI) was tasked to implement an Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI), "that will integrate currently fragmented water information into a connected, national water data framework". The status of both will be presented with focus on a community hydrologic geospatial fabric. Hydrology observations data standardization was the emphasis of the first 5 years of the HDWG. This work included WaterML 2.0 parts 1 - timeseries and part 2 - ratings and gagings. In 2016, the first of two new hydrographic feature models, GroundwaterML2, was completed and the second, for surface water features, was in active development. The WMO Commission for Hydrology is considering adoption of all these standards and their adoption is central to the U.S. OWDI. OWDI participants have produced a special collection in the Journal of American Water Resources Association and several initiative working groups have concluded their activities. One early deliverable from the OWDI was a new easier to use structure for the NHDPlus dataset. Building on this, a project to create a national Network Linked Data Index (NLDI) is being undertaken as an open-source community endeavor. The NLDI centralizes river network data, network navigation tools, crawlers that index data to the network, and utilities to register or remove data from the network. Research that informed the design of the NLDI will be presented along with recent development and findings of the project
Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...
Priest, Naomi; Armstrong, Rebecca; Doyle, Jodie; Waters, Elizabeth
traditional or existing programs, for example club or association-initiated rule modification programs; provision of activities beyond traditional or existing programs, for example 'Come and Try' initiatives (teaser or taster programs); skill improvement programs; volunteer encouragement programs. Uncontrolled studies which met other inclusion criteria were to be reported in an annex to the review. We assessed whether identified citations met the inclusion criteria. Two review authors independently inspected abstracts (NP, RA). We obtained full papers where necessary. As we located no controlled evaluation studies, we did not undertake data collection or analysis. We found no uncontrolled studies meeting other inclusion criteria, and therefore present no annex to the review. Despite a thorough review of the published and unpublished literature, we found no rigorous studies evaluating the effects of interventions organised through sporting organisations to increase participation in sport. There is an absence of high quality evidence to support interventions designed and delivered by sporting organisations to increase participation in sport. Interventions funded and conducted in this area must be linked to a rigorous evaluation strategy in order to examine overall effectiveness, socio-demographic differentials in participation and cost-effectiveness of these strategies.
David R. Mottram
Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for
When detailed product information is not available to consumers inferences are made using product cues to reduce uncertainty and to form perceptions of products. Advertisers can make use of sport sponsorship and sport celebrity endorsement as extrinsic cues to influence consumers\\' pre-purchase attitudes. These cues ...
Sport is themost effective and common social institute of modern societies. The mostimportant element of societies is individual. Societies in which individualshealthy, well educated, social and cultured could be thought as modern basicaim of sport is to support the development of human in terms of physical mentaland social. And also sport is very effective phenomenon to create a modernsociety. In addition personel benefits and missions sport has very importantsocial effects. In this age, it ...
This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...
Rogers, L.F.; Braunstein, E.M.; DeSmet, A.A.; Helms, C.A.; Pavlov, H.; Sukaer, J.R.; Torg, J.S.
All Star Sports Panel cases are selected to test the mettle of the panelists and familiarize the audience with injuries peculiar to participation in a variety of sports. Match wits with the experts on the field. Gear up for the big game by previewing the clinical histories and initial radiographic examinations. Diagnosis requires familiarity with stresses incurred in the performance of various athletic pursuits, knowledge of specific radiographic findings, and awareness of imaging techniques that best demonstrate underlying injury
Full Text Available The ways of description and interpretation of such socially meaningful event as the World Football Championship 2014 are considered in this article. The author justifies the importance of choosing a sports topic and in particular football in the modern world, showing that first of all the sports discourse is a journalistic discourse.That is why the ways of the representation and description of sports events are the basic means for creating its concept.The author has chosen one day of the World Football Championship 2014 for the analysis to show that not the sports events, but the acts of violence accompanying them are becoming the basic subject matter of the description. In relation to this, the author suggests to speak about a special type of sports discourse: a discourse of sports aggression. Its main features are: special lexical stock phrases, inaccuracy in the supply of information, lack of logic in the description of events, and expressiveness of the means used to describe the acts of violence. The author comes to the conclusion that it is difficult to make the precise cognitive diagram of the sport event reading due to the additional information, as the reader’s attention in such messages is focused only on the description of the details, which are connected with the facts of aggression that occurred in the sport action. The modern sports appear as the catalyst of aggressive actions instead of initiating the peace.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although expected to act as gate-keeping primary care providers, as community health service (CHS facilities are severely under-utilized; Chinese people in both rural and urban areas used predominantly higher-tier facilities for primary care purpose, with significant financial and outcome consequences. This study intends to explore the determinants of initial utilization of CHS among patients with major non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs in order to understand the care-seeking behavior among urban and rural residents in South China. METHODS: A multi-stage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to create a sample of 19,466 adults with NCDs from 7,970 urban households and 32,035 adults with NCDs from 3,860 rural households in Guangdong, China. Interviews and physical examinations were conducted in 2010 to collect data on patient characteristics, medical conditions, and awareness and utilization of healthcare. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to study utilization patterns and the factors associated with the patterns. RESULTS: Prevalence of major NCDs in urban areas was significantly higher than that in rural areas (12.55% vs. 8.70%; p<0.001. Second-tier district hospitals were most preferred for initial consultation (46.05% in rural areas vs. 45.32% in urban areas; p<0.001, followed by tertiary general or specialized hospitals (28.39% in rural areas vs. 33.89% in urban areas; p<0.001. The proportion of patients who had initial use of CHS was relatively low (25.56% in rural areas vs. 20.79% in urban areas; p<0.001. Awareness of self-care and the presence of medical insurance were leading factors associated with first contact of CHS facilities in both urban and rural areas. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that CHS facilities are not often used as the first contact for patients in both rural and urban areas in south China. Much effect must be made to enhance the gatekeeper system and improve
Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld
Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 5,000 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. These clubs and commercial providers
Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.
Nixon, Howard L., II
Sport is examined in relation to a number of basic aspects of social organization. Each of the seven sections includes a brief clarification of the key sociological concepts used for analysis, a consideration of various applications of those concepts to sport, and a review and discussion of what is known about specific aspects of sport in relation…
The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...... irreconcilable functions, high adaptability and the fact that they often make use of urban residual areas....
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...
... Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Sports and Your Eyes Gear up! If you play sports, you know they can be a lot of ... the right safety gear. Think about your favorite sport. Do you wear anything to protect your eyes, ...
International audience; A typology of sport corruption differentiates petty corruption, barter corruption, corruption at the level of sport governing bodies, betting scandals and point-shaving. A deeper analysis goes further as regards match fixing-related bets and global online fraudulent sport betting networks and suggests new tools for combatting match fixing.
Pill, Shane; Hastie, Peter
In order to plan and enact appropriate learning environments in physical education (PE) teachers are increasingly directed to models based practice. The Sport Education model is one of these models for PE curriculum and teaching design that informs the content and pedagogical direction of sport teaching in PE. Despite Sport Education being well…
More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more
Loboda, Tatiana V.
Arctic regions have experienced and will continue to experience the greatest rates of warming compared to any other region of the world. The people living in the Arctic are considered among most vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change ranging from decline in natural resources to increasing mental health concerns (IPCC 2014 Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). A meta-analysis study by Ford et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 104005) has assessed the volume, scope and geographic distribution of reported in the English language peer-reviewed literature initiatives for adaptation to climate change in the Arctic. Their analysis highlights the reactive nature of the adopted policies with a strong emphasis on local and community-level policies mostly targeting indigenous population in Canada and Alaska. The study raises concerns about the lack of monitoring and evaluation mechanism to track the success rate of the existing policies and the need for long-term strategic planning in adaption policies spanning international boundaries and including all groups of population.
Speakman, Elizabeth M; Shafi, Ahmad; Sondorp, Egbert; Atta, Nooria; Howard, Natasha
Political transition in Afghanistan enabled reconstruction of the destroyed health system. Maternal health was prioritised due to political will and historically high mortality. However, severe shortages of skilled birth attendants--particularly in rural areas--hampered safe motherhood initiatives. The Community Midwifery Education (CME) programme began training rural midwives in 2002, scaling-up nationally in 2005. This case study analyses CME development and implementation to help determine successes and challenges. Data were collected through documentary review and key informant interviews. Content analysis was informed by Walt and Gilson's policy triangle framework. The CME programme has contributed to consistently positive indicators, including up to a 1273/100,000 reduction in maternal mortality ratios, up to a 28% increase in skilled deliveries, and a six-fold increase in qualified midwives since 2002. Begun as a small pilot, CME has gained support of international donors, the Afghan government, and civil society. CME is considered by stakeholders to be a positive model for promoting women's education, employment, and health. However, its future is threatened by insecurity, corruption, lack of regulation, and funding uncertainties. Strategic planning and resource mobilisation are required for it to achieve its potential of transforming maternal healthcare in Afghanistan.
Cormier, Catherine Y.; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Zuo, Dongmei; Hu, Yanhui; Rolfs, Andreas; Kramer, Jason; Taycher, Elena; Kelley, Fontina; Fiacco, Michael; Turnbull, Greggory; LaBaer, Joshua
The Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository (PSI-MR; http://psimr.asu.edu) provides centralized storage and distribution for the protein expression plasmids created by PSI researchers. These plasmids are a resource that allows the research community to dissect the biological function of proteins whose structures have been identified by the PSI. The plasmid annotation, which includes the full length sequence, vector information and associated publications, is stored in a freely available, searchable database called DNASU (http://dnasu.asu.edu). Each PSI plasmid is also linked to a variety of additional resources, which facilitates cross-referencing of a particular plasmid to protein annotations and experimental data. Plasmid samples can be requested directly through the website. We have also developed a novel strategy to avoid the most common concern encountered when distributing plasmids namely, the complexity of material transfer agreement (MTA) processing and the resulting delays this causes. The Expedited Process MTA, in which we created a network of institutions that agree to the terms of transfer in advance of a material request, eliminates these delays. Our hope is that by creating a repository of expression-ready plasmids and expediting the process for receiving these plasmids, we will help accelerate the accessibility and pace of scientific discovery. PMID:19906724
Giza, Christopher C; Kutcher, Jeffrey S
Concussions are a major public health issue, and particularly so in the setting of sports. Millions of athletes of all ages may face the risks of concussion and repeat concussion. This article introduces the terminology, epidemiology, and underlying pathophysiology associated with concussion, focused on sports-related injuries. Concussion is a clinical syndrome of symptoms and signs occurring after biomechanical force is imparted to the brain. Because of the subjective nature of symptom reporting, definitions of concussion differ slightly in different guidelines. Concussion nomenclature also includes mild traumatic brain injury, postconcussion symptoms, postconcussion syndrome, chronic neurocognitive impairment, subconcussive injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Between 1.6 and 3.8 million sports-related concussions are estimated in the United States annually, particularly in youth athletes. Rates of concussion are higher in sports such as football, rugby, ice hockey, and wrestling in males, and soccer and basketball in females. The underlying pathophysiology of concussion centers on membrane leakage, ionic flux, indiscriminate glutamate release, and energy crisis. These initial events then trigger ongoing metabolic impairment, vulnerability to second injury, altered neural activation, and axonal dysfunction. While the linkage between acute neurobiology and chronic deficits remains to be elucidated, activation of cell death pathways, ongoing inflammation, persistent metabolic problems, and accumulation of abnormal or toxic proteins have all been implicated. Concussion is a biomechanically induced syndrome of neural dysfunction. Millions of concussions occur annually, many of them related to sports. Biologically, a complex sequence of events occurs from initial ionic flux, glutamate release, and axonal damage, resulting in vulnerability to second injury and possibly to longer-term neurodegeneration.
Dennis Coates; Brad R. Humphreys
Local political and community leaders and the owners of professional sports teams frequently claim that professional sports facilities and franchises are important engines of economic development in urban areas. These structures and teams allegedly contribute millions of dollars of net new spending annually and create hundreds of new jobs, and provide justification for hundreds of millions of dollars of public subsidies for the construction of many new professional sports facilities in the Un...
Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.
The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...
Norberta Elisa Fernandes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.
Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Stewart, Catherine; Robbins, Regina; Riggs, Cara; Mayberger, Susan; Cervantes, Alberto; Huang, Terry T-K
Childhood obesity rates in minority populations continue to rise despite leveling national trends. Although interventions that address social and environmental factors exist, processes that create demand for policy and environmental change within communities have not been identified. We developed a pilot program in South Omaha, a Nebraska Latino community, based on the community readiness model (CRM), called SaludableOmaha. We used CRM to explore the potential of youth advocacy to shift individual and community norms regarding obesity prevention in South Omaha and to advocate for health-promoting community environments. We used CRM to assess supply and demand for health programs, engage the community, determine the community's baseline readiness to address childhood obesity, and guide youth advocacy program development. We conducted our project in 2 phases. In the first, we trained a cohort of youth. In the second, the youth cohort created and launched a Latino health movement, branded as SaludableOmaha. A third phase, which is currently under way, is directed at institutionalizing youth advocacy in communities. At baseline, the community studied was at a low stage of readiness for change. Our program generated infrastructure and materials to support the growth and institutionalization of youth advocacy as a means of increasing community readiness for addressing obesity prevention. CRM is an important tool for addressing issues such as childhood obesity in underserved communities because it provides a framework for matching interventions to the community. Community partnerships such as SaludableOmaha can aid the adoption of obesity prevention programs.
Rinawan, F. R.; Dewi, I. P. P.; Haifa, G. Z.; Suharno, K. D.; Oktavinus, K.; Lyn, P. S.
Green architecture still has risk to dengue disease when trees cover house roofs’ gutter. This study was aimed to continue a geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) study on roofs factor association with dengue disease by initiating community movement in applyingmosquito net on house ventilations to cut the disease transmission and mosquito breeding sites inside house. Our methods was an operational research in which improvement of interventions, policies and regulations towards dengue disease prevention is our intended endpoint. Several steps were conducted such as: (1) research problems formulation from GIS-RS analysis from previous phase research in Bandung city, (2) informal and formal approach to community leaders and primary healthcare centre (Puskesmas), (3) Video education and focus group discussion (FGD), (4) initial application of mosquito nets on house in communities; and (5) advocacy to Mayor of Bandung city (was on progress).Our study resulted several supports: one of sub-city leaders (Camat) in the city, village leaders (Lurah), and sub-village leaders (Ketua RW) of 5 villages (kelurahan), one kelurahan which mainly comprised formal settlements needed more efforts, which was experts on dengue disease from university to directly explain the mosquito nets application to its community. Informal leaders in all kelurahan’s community suggested only mothers movement was not enough, thus, youths in community was mentioned to help the community movement on the mosquito nets application.
Lewis, Heather; Kunkel, Jan; Axten, David; Dalton, Jane; Gardner, Hayley; Tippett, Andrew; Wynne, Stephanie; Wilkinson, Mandie; Foster, Graham R
Chronic hepatitis C is common in people who inject drugs (PWID) and this population serves as a reservoir for infection. Treatment levels are low among this group, ranging from 1 to 19%. We explored whether a nurse-initiated community treatment model increased uptake of and adherence to interferon-based therapies. This was a cluster randomized trial of nurse-initiated versus physician-initiated antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for hepatitis C virus in community clinics (trial registration: ISRCTN07774040). The proportion of participants initiating treatment during follow-up was 10% with nurse-initiated (6/62) and 9% with physician-initiated (6/76) therapy. Adherence was similar in both groups, with only one patient in each arm not adhering to therapy. There were no serious adverse events, but interferon-related side effects were common. Drug and alcohol use did not change during therapy. Despite easy access to antiviral therapy, uptake of treatment was poor, with no significant difference between the groups. Nurse-led initiation of interferon-based antiviral therapy in PWID did not lead to increased uptake of, response to or adherence with treatment. Further service improvement is unlikely to increase the proportion of PWID undergoing antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus and early adoption of interferon-free regimens may increase the proportion initiating and completing treatment.
Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a
Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R
There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a form of leisure time PA for children
Full Text Available Sport and economy, as science and practice are connected and interdependant in whole hzman history. Mentioned interdependancy in contemporary age is confirmed with new contents and funkctional lines. First of all, economic principles are important in all aspects and content of social life, including sport. In same time, sport activities on all levels are faced with economic limitations. Key force in sport activities is competition of human capacities and knowledge. But, in same time, competition is key force of developement of contemporary societies, besed on market economy. There are two most important aspects of sport as economic activities – sport as direct economic activity, and sport as initiator of lot of other economic activities.
Daniel L. Lindner; Rimvydas Vasaitis; Ariana Kubartova; Johan Allmer; Hanna Johannesson; Mark T. Banik; Jan. Stenlid
Picea abies logs were inoculated with Resinicium bicolor, Fomitopsis pinicola or left un-inoculated and placed in an old-growth boreal forest. Mass loss and fungal community data were collected after 6 yr to test whether simplification of the fungal community via inoculation affects mass loss and fungal community development. Three...
A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...
Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin
Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juan Núñez Pomar
Full Text Available The perceived service quality in sport venues is an important factor that helps the manager of sports centers to understand and improve the way they work in their own sports venues and the efficiency of service that they offer. Therefore, it is essential to have valid and reliable tools for measuring users' perceived quality.The aim of the paper is to provide an exploratory study about service quality in three private sports venues that offer aquatic and floor activities.For this purpose, the perceived quality and the consumer satisfaction adapting the tridimensional quality service model is analyzed.Through an exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency is concluded that the adaptation of the scale performed shows a high coefficient of reliability and validity for future application in sport venues with similar characteristics.Key Words: Perceived quality, sport management, private sport services.La calidad de servicio percibida es un factor importante que puede ayudar a los gestores de centros deportivos a entender y mejorar su trabajo así como a mejorar la eficacia del servicio que ofrecen. Por esto, se hace imprescindible disponer de herramientas válidas y fiables que permitan medir la calidad percibida por los usuarios.El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar una adaptación del modelo tridimensional de calidad de servicio a centros deportivos de carácter privado. Para ello, se analiza la calidad percibida por los usuarios con la aplicación del modelo tridimensional de calidad de servicio. Mediante análisis factorial exploratorio y de consistencia interna, se concluye que la adaptación realizada de la escala muestra buenos índices de fiabilidad y validez para su posterior aplicación en centros deportivos de similares características.Palabras Clave: Calidad percibida, gestión del deporte, servicios deportivos privados.
Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović
Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...
Dain, Stephen J
Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.
the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...... who do not.Furthermore, it investigates the role of the coach-created sporting environment in the acculturation process within those participating in sport. The results revealed significant differences regarding the level of acculturative stress with migrant participants engaging in sports scoring...... multiculturalism. Sport is considered to be a vehicle for bringing people together, and recently there has been an increasing policy interest in the use of sport as a venue for promoting social integration and intercultural dialogue. Regardless of its political significance, research on the integrative role...
José Luis Pérez Triviño
Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.
Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner
The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... has long been a heated topic and with gene technology waiting around the corner the relationship between sport and technology has become strained and is more and more often viewed as problematic rather than benign. In this chapter we follow up on this trend by exposing what we consider a tendency...
Yazicioglu, Kamil; Yavuz, Ferdi; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim; Tan, Arif Kenan
The lack of controlled trials in the relationship between participation in adapted sports, and quality of life (QoL) and life satisfaction in people with physical disabilities encouraged us to consider conducting this study. The aim of this study was to compare the QoL and life satisfaction scores between people with physical disabilities who participated in adapted sports and those who did not participate in any adapted sports. This cross-sectional controlled study included 60 individuals with physical disabilities (paraplegia and amputee). Participants were divided into two groups based on sports participation and non-sports participation. Group one included 30 disabled elite athletes who participated in adapted sports. The control group included 30 disabled individuals not involved in any adapted sports. We compared scores on the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Scale (WHOQoL-BREF) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) between the two groups. Participation in the community and QoL was examined as a reflection of participant's priority on sports participation. We found that WHOQoL-BREF physical, psychological, and social domain scores were significantly higher in group one than in the control group (p sports had significantly higher QoL and life satisfaction scores compared to people with physical disabilities not involved in any adapted sports. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Informed by research studies that demonstrate a positive relationship between parent engagement and student academic attainment, state and national parent outreach initiatives have aimed to bridge the gap between Latina/o parents and schools. Such was the case with the Latina/o Family, School and Community "Avanzando" Project, which…
Cem Sinan Aslan
Full Text Available It is believed by the community that physical education and sports school (PES's students are always selected among successful athletes. However, especially in recent years, this belief has been losing value because of arrangements done by Higher Education Institutions (YÖK following Undergraduate Placement Examination (LYS scores and secondary school achievement scores affecting Physical Education and Sports entrance exam score nearly % 67. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of doing sport and their sport branches of students of PES in a university of Turkey. In this study, 285 (113 women and 172 man Physical Education students participated as volunteers. It was requested to fill out a questionnaire including demographic information as "age, gender, educational department, sport branches and training year" from the participants. For analysis of the obtained data, "Descriptive Statistics" section of SPSS (Ver.22 package program was used. Results showed that 62,1% (177 people have done sports but the 37,9% (108 people of all students have never done any sport competitive. Football was the highest preferred sport branch among students with the proportion of 25,3%, the lowest ones were karate, skiing, and cycling with 0,4%.
Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.
Participation in sporting activities carries an injury risk. Conversely, the increased awareness that physical inactivity is a major risk factor for disease has led government agencies and the medical community to encourage increased levels of physical activity. Many people will achieve this through participation in sport.
Bodey, Kimberly J.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Hoover, Jonathan V.
We live in the age of the performance ethic. Youth sport, a highly visible and valued activity in communities across the nation, is a proving ground for children and parents alike. Fun sometimes equates to being a better athlete. The sport experience is assessed in terms of enhanced technical skill development and competitive ranking (Coakley,…
A historical overview of his contribution provides historians with an insight into the development of these codes in racially marginalized communities between 1949 and 1979. Henderson's life story brings personal and place names, sport facilities and events to the fore that have eluded sport historians till the present.
Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in motivation to participate in sport activities among sports students from three different countries. On a sample of 390 sports students from Slovenia, Croatia and Germany we studied what motivates an interest in being sports active. The sample was stratified across the choice to attend table tennis lessons at all three institutions and all students have completed the Participation Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ. The results revealed that the latent structure of the types of sports students' motives consisted of six factors (sport action with friend, popularity, fitness & health, social status, sports events, relaxation through sports. We also found significant sex differences in motivation to participate in sport activities for all sports students from the three different countries. We did not find relevant age-based differences among the students, and this is the only initial hypothesis that we can reject.
Strahle, Jennifer; Geh, Ndi; Selzer, Béla J; Bower, Regina; Himedan, Mai; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Wetjen, Nicholas M; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O
OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with Chiari I malformation (CM-I). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with the imaging finding of CM-I. METHODS A prospective survey was administered to 503 CM-I patients at 2 sites over a 46-month period. Data were gathered on imaging characteristics, treatment, sports participation, and any sport-related injuries. Additionally, 81 patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry and were included in a prospective group, with a mean prospective follow-up period of 11 months. RESULTS Of the 503 CM-I patients, 328 participated in sports for a cumulative duration of 4641 seasons; 205 of these patients participated in contact sports. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. One patient had temporary extremity paresthesias that resolved within hours, and this was not definitely considered to be related to the CM-I. In the prospective cohort, there were no permanent neurological injuries. CONCLUSIONS No permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries were observed in CM-I patients participating in athletic activities. The authors believe that the risk of such injuries is low and that, in most cases, sports participation by children with CM-I is safe.
Full Text Available Modern social structures of Montenegro exist in a hypercomplex and very dynamic environment. The complexity and dynamism are, in part, a consequence of the general characteristics of the modern age, and in part, of the transition processes which have affected the Montenegrin society. The transition processes are taking place at all levels and subsystems of the community, and its sociological milieu is facing inevitability of adaptation and immersion in such processes and trends. There is no more positive promotion for a country than a sports promotion. There is no expert team, public relations agency or a lawyer than can win Montenegro a front page. We can talk about the importance of sports for the promotion of Montenegro from another point of view. If we compare the number of occurrences of names of the selected Montenegrin athletes with that of politicians, scientists or artists in different internet search engines, we will realize how great is the capacity of marketing potential that lies in Montenegrin sports and top athletes as representatives of the products and services with the label - Made in Montenegro. In addition to the success of the Montenegrin athletes globally, the promotion of Montenegro through sports is directly contributed by the major sporting events and contests, on account of which Montenegro presented itself not only as an excellent host and organizer, but also demonstrated the remarkable state and marketing capabilities and competencies. Reputation (image is not achieved overnight. Its semiological and symbolic charge includes all (visual, vocal, environmental, personal, active inputs, which need to be channelled and created. Indeed, continual work in creating and maintaining the image of Montenegro is a public relations function. With efficiently and professionally developed media and PR strategy, the modern state of Montenegro may expect to favourably position its image at the international scene, and to present its
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...
Langford, Barbara Hanson
Noting the importance of good nutrition to out-of-school time programs serving children, this strategy brief provides an overview of the major sources of federal food and nutrition funds that can support out-of-school time and community school programs. The brief then highlights five strategies that community leaders and program developers can…
Full Text Available Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primarily an economical process of connecting production (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. It can be seen in the fact besides promoting sport it conducts certain (limited productive activity (exchange of sport equipment, exchange of sport requisites and material goods that create sport clubs through competitions.
Finnoff, Jonathan T; Berkoff, David; Brennan, Fred; DiFiori, John; Hall, Mederic M; Harmon, Kimberly; Lavallee, Mark; Martin, Sean; Smith, Jay; Stovak, Mark
The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) developed a musculoskeletal ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships in 2010. As the use of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound in sports medicine has evolved, it became clear that the curriculum needed to be updated. Furthermore, the name 'musculoskeletal ultrasound' was changed to 'sports ultrasound' (SPORTS US) to reflect the broad range of diagnostic and interventional applications of ultrasound in sports medicine. This document was created to outline the core competencies of SPORTS US and to provide sports medicine fellowship directors and others interested in SPORTS US education with a guide to create a SPORTS US curriculum. By completing this SPORTS US curriculum, sports medicine fellows and physicians can attain proficiency in the core competencies of SPORTS US required for the practice of sports medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport psychology. Introduction. The Academy for Girls' Leadership and ..... context by means of age-appropriate stories and metaphors according to the Sport. Psychology principle of visualisation (cf.
Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.
With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…
Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…
Harris, Stewart B; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Yale, Jean-François; Berard, Lori; Stewart, John; Webster-Bogaert, Susan; Tompkins, Jordan W
Limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of external diabetes support provided by diabetes specialists and community retail pharmacists to facilitate insulin-prescribing in family practice. A stratified, parallel group, randomized control study was conducted in 15 sites across Canada. Family physicians received insulin initiation/titration education, a physician-specific 'report card' on the characteristics of their type 2 diabetes (T2DM) population, and a registry of insulin-eligible patients at a workshop. Intervention physicians in addition received: (1) diabetes specialist/educator consultation support (active diabetes specialist/educator consultation support for 2 months [the educator initiated contact every 2 weeks] and passive consultation support for 10 months [family physician initiated as needed]); and (2) community retail pharmacist support (option to refer patients to the pharmacist(s) for a 1-hour insulin-initiation session). The primary outcome was the insulin prescribing rate (IPR) per physician defined as the number of insulin starts of insulin-eligible patients during the 12-month strategy. Consenting, eligible physicians (n = 151) participated with 15 specialist sites and 107 community pharmacists providing the intervention. Most physicians were male (74%), and had an average of 81 patients with T2DM. Few (9%) routinely initiated patients on insulin. Physicians were randomly allocated to usual care (n = 78) or the intervention (n = 73). Intervention physicians had a mean (SE) IPR of 2.28 (0.27) compared to 2.29 (0.25) for control physicians, with an estimated adjusted RR (95% CI) of 0.99 (0.80 to 1.24), p = 0.96. An insulin support program utilizing diabetes experts and community retail pharmacists to enhance insulin prescribing in family practice was not successful. Too few physicians are appropriately intensifying diabetes management through insulin initiation, and aggressive therapeutic treatment is lacking.
Harris Stewart B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of external diabetes support provided by diabetes specialists and community retail pharmacists to facilitate insulin-prescribing in family practice. Methods A stratified, parallel group, randomized control study was conducted in 15 sites across Canada. Family physicians received insulin initiation/titration education, a physician-specific ‘report card’ on the characteristics of their type 2 diabetes (T2DM population, and a registry of insulin-eligible patients at a workshop. Intervention physicians in addition received: (1 diabetes specialist/educator consultation support (active diabetes specialist/educator consultation support for 2 months [the educator initiated contact every 2 weeks] and passive consultation support for 10 months [family physician initiated as needed]; and (2 community retail pharmacist support (option to refer patients to the pharmacist(s for a 1-hour insulin-initiation session. The primary outcome was the insulin prescribing rate (IPR per physician defined as the number of insulin starts of insulin-eligible patients during the 12-month strategy. Results Consenting, eligible physicians (n = 151 participated with 15 specialist sites and 107 community pharmacists providing the intervention. Most physicians were male (74%, and had an average of 81 patients with T2DM. Few (9% routinely initiated patients on insulin. Physicians were randomly allocated to usual care (n = 78 or the intervention (n = 73. Intervention physicians had a mean (SE IPR of 2.28 (0.27 compared to 2.29 (0.25 for control physicians, with an estimated adjusted RR (95% CI of 0.99 (0.80 to 1.24, p = 0.96. Conclusions An insulin support program utilizing diabetes experts and community retail pharmacists to enhance insulin prescribing in family practice was not successful. Too few physicians are appropriately intensifying diabetes management through insulin initiation, and
Proschek, D; Rehart, S
Sport is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Due to the changing age spectrum with a greater number of elderly and substantially more active people, an increasing number of people with underlying orthopedic diseases are becoming interested in participating in sport. This article deals with the possibilities and effects of sporting activities for people with rheumatoid arthritis within the framework of a conservative therapy. A literature search was carried out using medical search engines, in particular PubMed, and also via the recommendations of specialist societies and patient help groups. The quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis consists of physical, mental and social components. Sport as a means of rehabilitation influences all of these components. Sport should be comprehended as a form of therapy and be adapted to the needs of the individual patient. The willingness to actively participate in sport should always be highly rated and encouraged. Sport is therefore an important pillar of therapy in a conservative total concept. The main aspects of sport therapeutic activities are functional, pedagogical and experience-oriented aspects. The clinical symptoms, extent of damage and physical impairment must, however, be evaluated and taken into consideration for the therapeutic concept. The amount of data on the complex topic of sport and rheumatoid arthritis is low and is mainly dealt with as retrospective reviews. A prospective randomized study basis is lacking. The aim must therefore be to confirm the currently available recommendations for various types of sport in controlled studies.
Williams, Vernon B
Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.
Koller, Dionne L
The recognition of sports medicine and promulgation of practice guidelines for team physicians will push general medical malpractice standards to evolve into a more specialized standard of care for those who practice in this area. To the extent that practicing medicine in the sports context involves calculations that do not arise in typical medical practice, the sports medicine community can help elucidate those issues and create appropriate guidelines that can serve to inform athlete-patients and educate courts. Doing so will help best set the terms by which those who practice sports medicine are judged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benson, A J; Evans, M B; Eys, M A
Socialization tactics are often used to manage initial group member interactions in a way that facilitates transition experiences. Although this process is heavily researched in organizational contexts, we sought to extend this line of inquiry to sport by examining the nature of socialization tactics used to integrate new members into existing teams. Interviews were conducted with 12 coaches and 12 athletes from several Canadian Interuniversity Sport teams to explore the nature of socialization and the circumstances underscoring why certain approaches are taken over others. A key process involved establishing congruency of role expectations between incoming athletes and group leaders, and socialization processes balanced expectations of conformity with encouragement of individual personalities within the group. A conceptual basis to examine socialization into team sport environments is discussed in relation to the extant organizational theories, and the practical implications of delineating sport socialization tactics are forwarded. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Aires, Luisa; Seabra, Andre; Ribeiro, Jose; Welk, Gregory; Mota, Jorge
In Portugal, two sports systems exist, one through schools and the other in community clubs. The purpose was to determine the impact of extra-curricular sports (EC sports) on boys' and girls' moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). 208 adolescents (79 boys and 129 girls), between 12 and 18 years old, wore an accelerometer over seven days.…
"I Love Fruit But I Can't Afford It": Using Participatory Action Research to Develop Community-Based Initiatives to Mitigate Challenges to Chronic Disease Management in an African American Community Living in Public Housing.
Rogers, Courtney; Johnson, Joy; Nueslein, Brianne; Edmunds, David; Valdez, Rupa S
As chronic conditions are on the rise in the USA, management initiatives outside of the inpatient setting should be explored to reduce associated cost and access disparities. Chronic conditions disproportionately affect African American public housing residents due to the effects of historical marginalization on the manifestation of economic and social problems exacerbating health disparities and outcomes. Informed by participatory research action tenets, this study focused on identifying the challenges to management of chronic conditions and developing community-envisioned initiatives to address these challenges in a predominantly African American public housing community. Two focus groups were conducted with former and current public housing residents and were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Physical activity, the cost associated with healthy eating, and lack of information were noted as challenges to chronic disease management. Initiatives discussed were the formation of a walking partner's program to promote physical activity, a shopper's club to exchange coupons and learn how to prepare healthy meals, and a natural remedy's book to share information intergenerationally about management tactics. Challenges identified existed predominantly on the individual and the system level, while the initiatives generated target engaging interpersonal and community relationships. These community-envisioned approaches should be explored to facilitate chronic disease management in public housing neighborhoods.
Full Text Available Today we are very often faced with the appearance of the violence in sport field and fighting places and for that reason there are some demands that it can be studied from a social aspect. This is not only a problem of a personal nature but also a problem of a wider social community. There are some firm attitudes that sport serves the man in many cases and it has a goal to increase the social aspect that means coming close to the people. However, attitudes like that have remained only in paper. The day that the professionalism has taken the domination in sport, everything went around in the opposite direction because the result is important in realization of planned professionalism. Going to that goal, trainers who are often autocratic, compel the sportsman on doing the task no matter what, taking him the possibility to freely express his individuality. The sport bureaucracy is being formed around the player, sportsman, who is than capable to manage even the managerial stuff. The even chase between the sport commercialization and professionalism has brought to that that it becomes very profitable job in which you can earn a lot. That is why we are more and more distanced from the real value of the sport. In return, we got sport competitions which are more presented with violence and brutality. The rules of behavior are being neglected which causes more violent behavior. Cruel behavior towards the athletes is more intensive and so it is one of the most shown sights of violence in sport which are shown through the training duration. We are often the witnesses that all the efforts overlook even the physiological bounds. Doping consumation has shown the brutal violence towards the athletes which hasn’t missed our country. One of the symptoms of violence in sport is connected with the trainings and competitions of the little children. Sport stadiums have, unfortunately, become the place of those people who, using the conditions and ambient, often
de Wit, Liesbeth; Fenenga, Christine; Giammarchi, Cinzia; di Furia, Lucia; Hutter, Inge; de Winter, Andrea; Meijering, Louise
Background: Critical health literacy enables older adults to make informed health decisions and take actions for the health and wellbeing of themselves and their community, within their own social and cultural context. A community-based approach has the potential to improve the critical health
Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...
Jéssica Natuline Ianof
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.
Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.
Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P
Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.
DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN
Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy.
Grauer, Kit, Ed.
Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…
長岡, 雅美; 赤松, 喜久; Masami, Nagaoka; Yoshihisa, Akamatsu
The purpose of this study is to clarify the concept of Guidance and Support on community sports and to specify the directionality of organization and support for achievement of the sports society through life. The authors have stressed that it is necessary for achievement of the society for longlife sports，to cooperate with other groups and to construct a consistent support system. This study is also to explore the condition of community sports club management through analyzing the Japan Juni...
Kreuzer, H.; Moran, J.; Ehrhardt, C.; Melville, A.; Kranz, A.; Inskeep, W. P.
Beowulf Springs are acidic, sulfidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The relatively rapid sulfur and iron oxide deposition rates in this spring suggests the processes are microbially mediated (since, for instance, abiotic iron oxidation is kinetically slow at this temperature and pH) and previous diversity studies identify microbial communities consistent with the observed metabolic products (namely sulfur and iron oxide). While the energetics of sulfide and iron oxidation are sufficient for supporting microbial activity, a suitable carbon source remains undocumented. The temperatures in Beowulf approach 80 °C, which is above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the spring itself. Observed potential carbon sources in Beowulf include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. With thorough analysis we hope to identify both the major carbon stores in the system and track how they are transferred between microbial components in Beowulf. Initial stable isotope measurements focused on bulk isotope analysis of major carbon pools; both directly in the spring and in surrounding areas that may affect the spring water through runoff or ground water migration. We are analyzing bulk carbon isotopes of different microbial groups in the spring, the dissolved organic and inorganic carbon in the spring, and surrounding soils and potential plant inputs. Isotopic similarity between dissolved organic carbon and soil organic carbon is consistent with a common carbon source (local vegetation) but has not yet been confirmed as such. Correlation between δ13C of microbial biomass and dissolved organic carbon are suggestive
Injuries among children during sporting activities are common. This study is a one year study including children between five and fourteen years of age who sustained their injuries during sporting activities and were treated at Trondheim Regional and University Hospital. Sport accidents account for 27 per cent of all childhood accidents in this age group. Fifty-three per cent of the injured were boys, and 47 per cent were girls. The boys sustained more severe injuries than the girls. Soccer c...
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID