The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of injuries in amateur football players during a University Sport South Africa Football tournament and the factors associated with these injuries. A prospective study design to describe football injuries during the University Sport South Africa Football Championships was ...
Full Text Available Prosperity of athlete football professional or employees is the right of every employees. The responsibility of the organization of professional football clubs to occupational with their health and safety. Organization of professional football clubs have full responsibility in this regard. With normative legal research. The result obtained there is no correlation between positive of law in Unity State Republic of Indonesia and the statuten made by FIFA. Organization of professional football clubs have not been absolutly run in Law of Republic of Indonesia No. 13 of 2003, Article 87 on labour in which every company must implement a health and safety of management system integrated working with the health management system. As a suggestion, require the rule of law which is in sync with the regulations made by FIFA, PSSI respected to the regulations in Indonesia related to sports that do not event of contradiction before publish the statuten of the organization so that no event of resignation athlete professional football in the future, they shall take into account the contennt of their contract, the public take an active role in infraction notice made by PSSI or other organizations professional football clubs on the regulation of professional football athlete contract that have been made, and the researchers of science of law are examining the country’s sovereignty and the sovereignty of FIFA.
Silva, MPME; Morato, MP; Bilzon, JLJ; Duarte, E
The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes...
Metzl, J D
There are over 1.5 million males playing American football at all levels in the United States. American football is the most common participant sport among high-school-aged males. Owing to its high rate of injury per exposure hour, American football injuries are commonly treated in the emergency department during the autumn sports season. This article will review the history, epidemiology, and specific injury patterns seen in American football, with a focus on head and shoulder injuries.
Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan
Introduction The national football and sports elite unions in Denmark urge young football talents to complete upper secondary education while they are building football careers. The football culture has a magnetic attraction on young football players. Yet, attempting a professional career...... in football involves great mental and physical strains that profoundly affect the future lives of the young talents. Aims The study aimed to examine young (aged 15-19) male football players´ subjective experience and biographic memories of life as a football talent. An emphasis was placed on daily life...... experiences, especially the difficulties of submitting to the demands of both football training and education. Methods The study was a qualitative inquiry into the young football players´ subjective experiences of balancing football and education. The study used focus group interviews with 6-8 players from 4...
Hocquet , Alexandre
International audience; Football Manager is one of the most popular sports management video games. For twenty years now, it has been a best seller in all the countries of the world where football is culturally important. Its purpose is to simulate a manager's career with an emphasis on data analysis and number crunching, especially the football match scenario and the football players' quantified characteristics. The claimed realism of the game is therefore based, among other things, on the re...
Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E
The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (psports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Brink, Michel S.; Kuyvenhoven, Jurian P.; Toering, Tynke; Jordet, Geir; Frencken, Wouter G. P.
Sport science can contribute to the body of knowledge that influences practice and performance. Despite this, knowledge transfer from sport science to football coaches needs further improvement. The present study's purpose is to gain insight in current sport science needs and perceived barriers
Brink, Michel S.; Kuyvenhoven, Jurian P.; Toering, Tynke; Jordet, Geir; Frencken, Wouter G. P.
Sport science can contribute to the body of knowledge that influences practice and performance. Despite this, knowledge transfer from sport science to football coaches needs further improvement. The present study's purpose is to gain insight in current sport science needs and perceived barriers
We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.
Koltai, Miklós; Wallner, Dietmar; Gusztafik, Ádám; Sáfár, Zoltán; Dancs, Henriette; Simi, Helmut; Hagenauer, Marcel; Buchgraber, Anna Maria
The Institute of Sport Science at the University of West-Hungary, and the FH-Joanneum – together with students majoring in sport science – started a collaborative international research aimed at assessing the sport-specific skills of football players. The study closely monitored football players – from leagues at different levels – in terms of choice reaction time, short and long pass skills and agility skills with and without a ball. The most modern device available, the SmartSpeed – a photo...
Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Duong, Jenny; McLeod, Colin
Using Australian Football League (AFL) matches as a case study, we investigated the frequency, length and content of marketing strategies for sports betting during two specific settings: 1) at stadiums during four live matches; and 2) during eight televised broadcasts of matches. Census of sports betting marketing during Round 12 of the 2011 AFL premiership season. Per match, there was an average of 58.5 episodes (median 49.5, s.d 27.8) and 341.1 minutes (median 324.1 minutes and s.d 44.5) of sports betting marketing at stadiums, and 50.5 episodes (median 53.5, s.d 45.2) and 4.8 minutes (median 5.0 minutes, s.d 4.0) during televised broadcasts. A diverse range of marketing techniques were used to: a) embed sports betting within the game; b) align sports betting with fans' overall experience of the game; and c) encourage individuals to bet live during the game. There were very few visible or audible messages (such as responsible gambling or Gambler's Help messages) to counter-frame the overwhelmingly positive messages that individuals received about sports betting during the match. This study raises important questions about the impacts of saturation, integrated and impulse gambling marketing strategies in sporting matches. Future research should explore: 1) how wagering industry marketing strategies may affect the attitudes and behaviours of community sub-groups (e.g. young male sports fans, and children); and 2) which public health and policy strategies, including regulation and harm minimisation messaging, will be effective in responding to wagering industry marketing strategies during sporting matches. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
D.Phil. (Sport Science) Socialisation is an interactive reciprocal process that shapes the way individuals think, act and make decisions. Through the sport socialisation process, over time individuals acquire beliefs and behaviours that affect other areas of their life, including education, family relations and peer interactions. Socialisation affects the lives of the participant’s significant others and socialising agents, who demonstrate changes in the way they view women’s football, int...
(English) This disetation describes progress of football as a sport in the first half of the 20th century, including his position in society during both World Wars Keywords: football competition, number of fans and their culture, football in World Wars, women football, football clubs, organisation of football, football and the media
Love, Jessica; Walker, Abby
Can the topic of a conversation, when heavily associated with a particular dialect region, influence how a speaker realizes a linguistic variable? We interviewed fans of English Premier League soccer at a pub in Columbus, Ohio. Nine speakers of British English and eleven speakers of American English were interviewed about their favorite American football and English soccer teams. We present evidence that the soccer fans in this speech community produce variants more consistent with Standard American English when talking about American football than English soccer. Specifically, speakers were overall more /r/-ful (F3 values were lower in rhotic environments) when talking about their favorite American football team. Numeric trends in the data also suggest that exposure to both American and British English, being a fan of both sports, and task may mediate these effects.
Møller, Peter Mindegaard
A brief story of Danish football has been attempted, describing new patterns of time and location. The examples that have been chosen aim to show that football, as body culture, must be understood in connection with societal changes. Yet what do we learn by analysing these tendencies? Football...... of European sports culture. Such writing reduces football to a different concept: "soccer", that is, a hierarchical and competitive sport. This soccer paradigm does not recognise the diversity and pluralism of football as it exists today and as it has always existed. Football is a multiplicity...... of configurations, including not just elite and professional soccer, but also a game of the people, "grassroots football"....
Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan
Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.
ervine bangor ac uk, j.
This paper will examine ways in which football video games, such as Football Manager and FIFA, are re- shaping the sport of football and re-defining the relationship between fans and the sport. In so doing, it will explore ways in which football video games have been portrayed in both the UK and France through close study of the press, academic literature, the press and popular culture.To begin with, it will be argued that dismissive attitudes of some journalists and football managers towards...
Frick, Bernd; Wicker, Pamela
Given the uncertainty of outcome in sport, predicting the outcome of sporting contests is a major topic in sport sciences. This study examines the accuracy of expert predictions in the German Bundesliga and compares their predictions to those of sports economists. Prior to the start of each season, a set of distinguished experts (head coaches and players) express their subjective evaluations of the teams in school grades. While experts may be driven by irrational sentiments and may therefore systematically over- or underestimate specific teams, sports economists use observable characteristics to predict season outcomes. The latter typically use team wage bills given the positive pay-performance relationship as well as other factors (average team age, tenure, appearances on national team, and attendance). Using data from 15 consecutive Bundesliga seasons, the predictive accuracy of expert evaluations and sports economists is analysed. The results of separate estimations show that relative grade and relative wage bill significantly affect relative points, while age, tenure, appearances, and attendance are insignificant. In a joint model, relative grade and relative wage bill are still statistically significant, suggesting that the two types of predictions are complements rather than substitutes. Consequently, football experts and sports economists seem to rely on completely different sources of information when making their predictions.
Robert OROSZ; Ferenc MEZO
This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N=425 football-players of the First Division Men’s Junior and Adolescent Football Championships of the Hungarian Football League, and their coaches (N=21). The app...
Full Text Available (a Purpose: This study seeks to investigate the importance of facilities and staff for football fans in Greece. (b Design/methodology/approach: A survey was carried out during two matches of Superleague games with a convenience sample of 312 spectators. A structured questionnaire was used with scales based on previous research. (c Findings: Factor analysis revealed four reliable factor dimensions: facilities design; staff; facilities maintenance, and quick & easy access. Staff and quick & easy access are shown to be the most important dimensions for respondents followed by the other two. Results also indicated that there are significant differences in the importance assigned to these 4 factor dimensions among different levels of age; education; income, and marital status. (d Research limitations/implications: This study is limited to one sport and on a convenience sample of football fans. Future research can validate further these findings and increase their generalisability. (e Practical implications: The results of this study challenge sport managers to manage effectively the design of the stadium; the processes of entry and exit of fans; the environment of the game; and the quality of stadium facilities.
Women’s football (soccer in the US) does not reach the same overall popularity levels as men’s football measured on a variety of factors, i.e. league attendances, participants, media attention, fan engagement or strength of business models as it translates into brand equity and revenue generation....... This article investigates how a new sports product, i.e. a new football (soccer ball) labelled ‘Sensational 1’, and its interaction with positive participation numbers concerning women’s football in Denmark can enhance the brand equity of women’s football in Denmark and exploit the associated commercial...... opportunities. In doing so, the article discusses how this development relates to factors like winning and success, passion and the business of sports, accountability and role models, brand articulation and marketability in the context of women’s football in Denmark....
Donaldson, Alex; Finch, Caroline F
First-aid is a recommended injury prevention and risk management strategy in community sport; however, little is known about the sport-specific competencies required by first-aid providers. To achieve expert consensus on the competencies required by community Australian Football (community-AF) sports trainers. A three-round online Delphi process. Community-AF. 16 Australian sports first-aid and community-AF experts. Rating of competencies as either 'essential', 'expected', 'ideal' or 'not required'. Results After Round 3, 47 of the 77 (61%) competencies were endorsed as 'essential' or 'expected' for a sports trainer to effectively perform the activities required to the standards expected at a community-AF club by ≥75% of experts. These competencies covered: the role of the sports trainer; the responsibilities of the sports trainer; emergency management; injury and illness assessment and immediate management; taping; and injury prevention and risk management. Four competencies (5%) were endorsed as 'ideal' or 'not required' by ≥85% of experts and were excluded from further consideration. The 26 competencies where consensus was not reached were retained as second-tier, optional competencies. Sports trainers are important members of on-field first-aid teams, providing support to both injured players and other sports medicine professionals. The competencies identified in this study provide the basis of a proposed two-tiered community-AF-specific sports trainer education structure that can be implemented by the peak sports body. This includes six mandatory modules, relating to the 'required' competencies, and a further six optional modules covering competencies on which consensus was not reached.
David, Matthew; Millward, Peter
This article critically utilizes the work of Manuel Castells to discuss the issue of parallel imported broadcasts (specifically including live-streams) in football. This is of crucial importance to sport because the English Premier League is premised upon the sale of television rights broadcasts to domestic and overseas markets, and yet cheaper alternative broadcasts endanger the price of such rights. Evidence is drawn from qualitative fieldwork and library/Internet sources to explore the practices of supporters and the politics involved in the generation of alternative broadcasts. This enables us to clarify the core sociological themes of 'milieu of innovation' and 'locale' within today's digitally networked global society. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.
Hickey, Christopher; Kelly, Peter
In the commercialised and professionalised world of elite sport, issues associated with career pathways and post sporting career options have a particular resonance. In various football codes, an unexpected knock, twist, bend or break can profoundly impact a player's career. In this high risk and high consequence environment, a number of sports…
Vallerand, Robert J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Philippe, Frederick L; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Carbonneau, Noémie; Bonneville, Arielle; Lagacé-Labonté, Camille; Maliha, Gabrielle
The purpose of the present research was to test the applicability of the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) to being a sport (football) fan. Three studies provided support for this dualistic conceptualization of passion. Study 1 showed that harmonious passion was positively associated with adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory), whereas obsessive passion was positively associated with maladaptive behaviours (e.g. risking losing one's job to go to a game). Study 2 used a short Passion Scale and showed that harmonious passion was positively related to the positive affective life of fans during the 2006 FIFA World Cup, psychological health (self-esteem and life satisfaction), and public displays of adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory into the streets), whereas obsessive passion was predictive of maladaptive affective life (e.g. hating opposing teams' fans) and behaviours (e.g. mocking opposing teams' fans). Finally, Study 3 examined the role of obsessive passion as a predictor of partner's conflict that in turn undermined partner's relationship satisfaction. Overall, the present results provided support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. The conceptual and applied implications of the findings are discussed.
Aleksandar Marjanović; Marijana Mladenović
In accordance with the conceptual framework of self-determination theory, sports motivation in this research was operationalized as intrinsic motivation (to know, to accomplish and to experience stimulation), extrinsic motivation (by identification, introjection and external regulation) and amotivation for sport (Deci & Ryan, 2000). The aim of this exploratory research was to test such concept of sports motivation on a sample of young football players from different countries (Russia, Serbia,...
Juan Bautista Branz
Full Text Available The article seeks a cultural analysis of women and their participation in the space of football. Proposes a reflective journey on the complex institutionalization of male and female within the sports field, and tries to point out the historical continuity of relationships and unbalanced to be crystallized as natural and are constructed from the places of domination (and therefore dominated in the constitution of hegemony within the football: female subordinate to the male
Orosz, Robert; Mezo, Ferenc
This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N = 425…
Full Text Available Given the importance of brand management of sport teams, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of relationship marketing dimensions, including team attachment, team trust, team involvement, and team selfexpression on team loyalty of fans of sport teams participating in Iran Azadeghan Football League. Sample size of this study included 480 fans of football teams, and structural equation modeling was used for analysis of data using Lisrel software. The results confirmed all hypotheses, except one hypothesis. Therefore, there is significant relationship between team self-expression and team attachment among football sport teams in Azadeghan Football League of Iran. The results show the importance of paying attention to fans of sports teams and use of their high potential and capacity that sports teams brand managers must pay particular attention to this enormous capacity. Regarding sports teams, the impact of relationship marketing, particularly dimensions of self-expression and team involvement was investigated for the first time in Iran.
Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew
Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.
This is an exploratory study of racism in a genre of children's literature that has been largely overlooked by research and teaching in multicultural children's literature: sports biographies and, in particular, the biographies of African American professional football players. By examining the race bias of this genre of children's literature, the…
van Bottenburg, Maarten
This article discusses the cultural insignificance of football in Europe despite the receptiveness of Europeans to American popular culture in general. It is argued that this anomaly can be explained by a sociohistorical perspective on the differential popularization of sports and the changing
Drs. Maarten van Bottenburg
This article dilates on the culturally insignificance of football in Europe in spite of the receptiveness of Europeans to American popular culture in general. It is argued that this anomaly can be explained by a sociohistorical perspective on the differential popularization of sports and the
Malhotra, Aneil; Dhutia, Harshil; Gati, Sabiha; Yeo, Tee-Joo; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Keteepe-Arachi, Tracey; Richards, Thomas; Walker, Mike; Birt, Robin; Stuckey, David; Robinson, Laurence; Tome, Maite; Beasley, Ian; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay
To assess the emergency response planning and prevention strategies for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) across a wide range of professional football clubs in England. A written survey was sent to all professional clubs in the English football league, namely the Premiership, Championship, League 1 and League 2. Outcomes included: (1) number of clubs performing cardiac screening and frequency of screening; (2) emergency planning and documentation; (3) automated external defibrillator (AED) training and availability; and (4) provision of emergency services at sporting venues. 79 clubs (86%) responded to the survey. 100% clubs participated in cardiac screening. All clubs had AEDs available on match days and during training sessions. 100% Premiership clubs provided AED training to designated staff. In contrast, 30% of lower division clubs with AEDs available did not provide formal training. Most clubs (n=66; 83%) reported the existence of an emergency action plan for SCA but formal documentation was variable. All clubs in the Premiership and League 1 provided an ambulance equipped for medical emergencies on match days compared with 75% of clubs in the Championship and 66% in League 2. The majority of football clubs in England have satisfactory prevention strategies and emergency response planning in line with European recommendations. Additional improvements such as increasing awareness of European guidelines for emergency planning, AED training and mentorship with financial support to lower division clubs are necessary to further enhance cardiovascular safety of athletes and spectators and close the gap between the highest and lower divisions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Europe’s elite football clubs are a small group of about 30 clubs mostly originating from the Big Five leagues in England, Italy, Spain, Germany, and France. These clubs top Deloitte’s Football Money League ranking Europe’s top football clubs by revenues. They also win the vast majority of national and European football competitions, and account for the major share of FIFA World Cup appearances. Nevertheless, empirical analyses studying the antecedents of financial success of this peculiar sample are rare. This paper extends previous research by building an empirical model of financial performance and applying it to a unique, high-quality dataset of the top 30 EU football clubs by club revenues analyzed over ten consecutive seasons from 2004 to 2013. Fixed effects models are performed to account for time trends and club fixed effects. The results show that financial success is driven by national and international sporting success, as well as brand value; sporting success is driven by team investments, and team investments tend to be driven by (foreign private majority investors.
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to gain relevant knowledge about significant differences in some anthropometric measures among female footballers and girls who are not involved in any sport at all. The sample comprised 107 female subjects. They were divided into two groups - female footballers and girls who are not involved in any sport. The selected group of female footballers (54 average age, 16,3 years represents the girls from various clubs in Vojvodina and Serbia (representatives of Vojvodina and Western Serbia. The group of girls who are not involved in any sport (53 average age, 16, 9 years consists of students of secondary school 'Svetozar Miletic' in Novi Sad. The sample of variables comprised 12 anthropometrical measures that defined longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the skeleton, volume and body mass, and subcutaneous fat (in accordance with the International Biological Programme. Both multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA were performed in order to determine the significant differences at the multivariate and univariate level. Based on the results, it was concluded that 8 variables out of 12 applied variables, showed significant differences between the groups. The following variables did not show any differences: knee diameter, weight, maximum volume of the lower leg and calf skin fold, while the following variables showed statistical significance in favor of the girls who are not involved in any sport: height, foot length, pelvic width, shoulder width and maximum thigh circumference.
Charbonneau, Rebecca M E; McVeigh, Sonja A; Thompson, Kara
The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the incidence of brachial neuropraxia (stingers) among varsity football players during the 2010 season; (2) to determine if associations exist between sustaining a stinger and previous history of stingers, years played, equipment, age, body mass index (BMI), and conditioning; and (3) to provide descriptive statistics regarding stingers and position played, symptoms, activity during injury, mechanism of tackling, and reporting of stingers. Retrospective. Canadian Atlantic University Sport football league. Two hundred forty-four players. Two written questionnaires. Number of players experiencing stingers that occurred during the 2010 season. The incidence was 26% (64 of 244). A multivariate analysis revealed that previous history of a stinger (P football and are underreported to medical staff. Education of players at increased risk is needed.
Full Text Available Allowed stimulating means of recovery are considered substances and physiological processes that act through the increase in performance athletes and to more efficient recovery and improvement of sports results, which are very difficult to achieve the usual training methods of training, and it can be considered useful until used as a supplement to training. If the rational use, it significantly increases the resistance of the organism in Training athletes and competition loads and favorably affect the elimination of general and local fatigue. The aim of the research consists of testing and analyzing the attitudes of different sports experience on the allowed means of stimulating recovery. The sample of examinees consists of 120 footballers of different sports experience (I group (62 – 4-8 years of sports experience, II group (58 – 9-14 years of sports experience. The sample of variables consists of the system of 10 attitudes (claims, and each attitude (claim consists of 5 verbal categories (marked from -2 to +2. To determine multivariate and univariate significance of differences between footballers of different competition ranks multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA have been applied. Generally it can be concluded that players with less experience attach less importance to some of the allowed recovery stimulus, and that the level of information increases with sports experience.
Sadek Drevel Khalaf
Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate ways of increase of Iraq football players’ training process effectiveness, depending on calendar of events. Material: analysis of technical-tactic actions was conducted by quantitative and qualitative characteristics of football players in every match. The analysis was presented by mean indicators of matches of the first (n=15 and second (n=15 rounds of championships of Iraq premier league 2011-2014. Results: we realized conception of periodization of Iraq elite football players’ sport training. Specific conditions of periodization of Iraq sportsmen’s training have been worked out and substantiated. Scientific-methodic basis of perfection of Iraq football players’ training process management has been formed. On the base of heuristic simulation we formulated algorithm of realization of Iraq premier league football players’ year cycle training. It is recommended to use higher and more significant loads with correlation 50% and 30% from total scope of training sessions. Conclusions: On principles of rational combination we built hierarchy of macro-cycles’ structural components, combined in single, formed year cycle during long term competition season.
Ibikundle, P.O.; Ani, U.K.; Useh, U.; Akosile, C.O.
Football is an impact collision sport, with injuries occurring in both contact and non-contact situations. Injuries may be caused by complex interactions between internal and external risk factors. The internal factors such as age, sex, and body compositions may influence the risk of sustaining injuries, predisposing the player to injury, and are therefore by definitions risk factors. The main purpose of this study was to review articles and draw attention to the prevalence, severity and mech...
Baena Graciá, Verónica
This chapter provides a better understanding of the impact that the Internet and mobile sports marketing are having on a business's ability to achieve customer engagement. To achieve this goal, the case of Real Madrid football team is analyzed, as it is calculated to have over 200 million supporters worldwide. Information about Real Madrid was gathered from September 2012 to March 2013 by repeatedly browsing the team's Website, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and apps. Data from interviews of R...
Full Text Available Purpose: determine the content and sequence of the use of mobile and educational games in the process of sports training for young football players. Material & Methods: analysis, synthesis and generalization of scientific information on the problem of research, educational and methodological literature and Internet sources, pedagogical observations. Results: it is established that the effectiveness of the use of mobile and educational games should be ensured not only through their appropriate selection in accordance with the pedagogical conditions and due organizational and methodical decision, but also by determining the optimal sequence of their implementation in the training process, adapting their content and structure to the contingent students and a specific pedagogical situation. The generalized sequence of application of these games in the process of sports training of young football players is considered, on a specific example their approximate content is revealed. Conclusion: the content and sequence of the use of mobile and educational games are determined by methodological provisions that provide for the primary solution of the tasks of the individual side of the training of young football players with the subsequent resolution of interrelations in its limits. After that, those tasks of a certain side of sports training that can be solved by means of another are realized. In the future, the relationship and integration of two or more parties of long-term training is carried out in control games and official competitions.
Full Text Available Sports practices have been emphasised in social policy as a means of responding to social problems. In this article we analyse a sports-based social intervention performed in a “socially vulnerable” area in Sweden. We examine the formation of includable citizens in this project, based on interviews with representatives involved in the project. The material is analysed from a governmentality perspective, focusing on how problems and solutions are constructed as being constitutive of each other. The focus of the analysis is on social solidarity and inclusion as contemporary challenges, and how sport, specifically football, is highlighted as a way of creating social solidarity through a pedagogic rationality—football as a means of fostering citizens according to specific ideals of solidarity and inclusion. The formation of solidarity appears not as a mutual process whereby an integrated social collective is created, but rather as a process whereby those affected by exclusion are given the opportunity to individually adapt to a set of Swedish norms, and to linguistic and cultural skills, as a means of reaching the “inside”. Inclusion seems to be possible as long as the “excluded” adapt to the “inside”, which is made possible by the sports-based pedagogy. In conclusion, social problems and social tensions are spatially located in “the Area” of “the City”, whose social policy, of which this sports-based intervention is a part, maintains rather than reforms the social order that creates these very tensions.
with any combination of physical, cognitive, emotional and sleep- related symptom ... depressed affect, fatigue and drowsiness. The last 8 years ... vulnerability, making the brain less able to respond adequately to a second injury .... Decisions regarding returning to sport will be made taking into consideration your individual ...
Hildingsson, Malin; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie
Compliance with a rehabilitation program is significant among athletes following a sports injury. It is also one of the main factors that influence the rehabilitation process; moreover, the outcome is also influenced by the athlete's motivation. It is primarily an autonomous motivation, resulting in rehabilitation adherence. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived motivation of female football players during rehabilitation after a sports injury and the extent to which these motivating factors were autonomous. Qualitative interviews, based on a semistructured interview guide with injured female football players undergoing rehabilitation, were analyzed using content analysis. The motivational factors that were described were their set goals, social support as well as external and internal pressures during rehabilitation. The perceived autonomy varied somewhat but overall, they experienced external motivation; therefore, the behavior was not entirely self-determined. Results are expected to provide a better understanding of women football players' motivation in relation to their rehabilitation; hence, physiotherapists and coaches who are part of the rehabilitation process can contribute by increasing the autonomous motivation, thus, improving the compliance and outcome of the rehabilitation.
Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Gardner, Ryan M; Kuhn, Andrew W; Solomon, Gary S; Bonfield, Christopher M; Zuckerman, Scott L
The risk of sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a major public health concern. In rare instances, sport-related head injuries can be even more severe, such as subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, or malignant cerebral edema. Unlike SRCs, sport-related structural brain injury (SRSBI) is rare, may require neurosurgical intervention, and can lead to permanent neurologic deficit or death. Data characterizing SRSBI are limited, and many have recognized the need to better understand these catastrophic brain injuries. The goal of the current series is to describe, in detail, the presentation, management, and outcomes of examples of these rare injuries. During the fall of 2015, three high school football players presented with acute subdural hemorrhages following in-game collisions and were treated at our institution within a span of 2 months. For the 2 athletes who required surgical intervention, a previous SRC was sustained within 4 weeks before the catastrophic event. One year after injury, 2 players have returned to school, though with persistent deficits. One patient remains nonverbal and wheelchair bound. None of the athletes has returned to sports. Acute subdural hemorrhage resultant from an in-game football collision is rare. The temporal proximity of the reported SRSBIs to recent SRCs emphasizes the importance of return-to-play protocols and raises questions regarding the possibility of second impact syndrome. Although epidemiologic conclusions cannot be drawn from this small sample, these cases provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the presentation, management, and long-term outcomes of SRSBI in American high school football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.
Full Text Available The present article is focusing on hegemonic masculinity represented and expressed by the professional footballers. Based on the empirical study using text analysis of leading articles published in central Romanian sport newspapers I draw the ideal-typical picture of the normative model of Romanian hegemonic masculinity in which the domestic coaches play a determinant role. Their personal-individual and collective-professional features like determination, steadiness, honesty, pride, mutual respect, knowledge, tenaciousness, sense of vocation, solidarity, spirit of fighting are the corner points of the constructed Romanian manhood, or hegemonic masculinity during social change. The manliness is traced along the inner characteristic of the coaches but in strong contradiction with the foreign trainers. In this respect I can state that football is connected not only with masculinity but in some respect also with the national characteristics embodied by the Romanian coaches especially those working home.
Full Text Available This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N=425 football-players of the First Division Men’s Junior and Adolescent Football Championships of the Hungarian Football League, and their coaches (N=21. The applied instruments were: Sporting Background Questionnaire, The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS – Hungarian version, Psychological Immune Competence Inventory (PICI, Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, Co-Player Questionnaire, and Coach Questionnaire. As a result, significant differences were found between talented and control groups in the case of 27 variables out of 48 (6 scales of the SBQ, 5 scales of the ACSI-28, 9 scales of the PISI, 5 subscales and the Total self-concept scale of the TSCS, and in APM. More talented players showed more favourable values in each of the 27 intra-, and interpersonal dimensions. According to our results, the development of psychological factors (e.g. concentration, lack of anxiety, self-confidence, coping skills, and social skills within an integrative approach can enhance personal efficiency in developing football giftedness.
Güllich, Arne; Kovar, Peter; Zart, Sebastian; Reimann, Ansgar
This study examined contributions of different types of sport activities to the development of elite youth soccer performance. Match-play performance of 44 German male players was assessed by expert coaches twice, 24 months apart (age 11.1-13.1 years), based on videotaped 5v5 matches. Player pairs were matched by identical age and initial performance at t 1 . Each player was assigned to a group of either "Strong" or "Weak Responders" based on a higher or lower subsequent performance improvement at t 2 within each pair (mean Δperformance 29% vs. 7%). A questionnaire recorded current and earlier amounts of organised practice/training and non-organised sporting play, in soccer and other sports, respectively. Group comparison revealed that "Strong Responders" accumulated more non-organised soccer play and organised practice/training in other sports, but not more organised soccer practice/training. Subsequent multivariate analyses (multiple linear regression analyses (MLR)) highlighted that higher resultant match-play performance at t 2 was accounted for R 2 adj = 0.65 by performance at t 1 , together with more non-organised soccer play and organised engagement in other sports, respectively, and greater current, but less earlier volume of organised soccer. The findings suggest that variable early sporting experience facilitates subsequent soccer performance development in German elite youth footballers.
Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Rowland, Bosco C; Gillham, Karen E; Kennedy, Vanessa J; Ramsden, Robyn L; Colbran, Richard W; Weir, Sarah; Wiggers, John H
Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted 'happy hour' promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs.
Frederick W. Stander
Full Text Available Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth. Research design, approach and method: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables. Main findings: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning through the motivation for sport consumption (individual – and game related factors was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a related to and b associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African
Tsushima, William T; Siu, Andrea M; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Chang, Bolin L; Murata, Nathan M
This study was designed to determine concussion incidence, risk, and relative risk among middle and high school athletes participating in various sports. Data were retrospectively obtained from 10,334 athletes of 12 different sports in Hawaii. In addition to determining the overall concussion incidence, comparisons of incidence, risk, and relative risk were made according to age, sex, concussion history, sport, and football position. The overall incidence of concussion among youth athletes was 1,250 (12.1%). The relative risk for a concussion was almost two times greater in 18-year olds than in 13-year-old athletes. In comparable sports, girls had a 1.5 times higher concussion risk than boys. Athletes with a prior concussion had 3-5 times greater risk to sustain a concussion than those with no history of a concussion. Among varied sports, wrestling and martial arts had the highest relative risk of a concussion, followed by cheerleading, football, and track and field. No differences in concussion risks were found among the football players in different positions. Older youths, females, those with a history of concussion, and those participating in high contact sports were found to have higher risks of sustaining a concussion. The findings increase awareness of concussion patterns in young athletes and raise concerns regarding protective strategies and concussion management in youth sports.
Waquet, Arnaud; Vincent, Joris
The First World War is traditionally considered in history as a temporary halt for cultural and sporting activities. If the Olympic Games and the Tour de France were actually cancelled, football and rugby were in fact stimulated by the circumstances of war. Indeed, the gathering of allied nations behind the Western Front emerged as the main factor in the development of these two sports. Reading the sporting press and military archives shows that international sporting exchanges were stimulated during the Great War. To be specific, France benefited from the golden opportunity provided by the presence of the masters of the game to strengthen its practices and affirm its status as a sporting nation. Inter-allied sporting exchanges were primarily characterised by informal encounters between military selections. Then, following the recognition of these sports by the military authorities, the number of exchanges increased. At the end of 1917, the official status acquired by sport within the military forces created the conditions for the structuring of the French sporting elite. From that point, we can witness the birth of the first French military rugby and football teams, as they demonstrate, through their good performances during the demobilisation period, the progressive build-up of the international dimension of French sport during the war years.
Kemp, Joanne L; Newton, Joshua D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F
While guidelines outlining the appropriate management of sport-related concussion have been developed and adapted for use within community sport, it remains unknown how they are experienced by those responsible for implementing them. Longitudinal study. 111 coaches and sports trainers from community-level Australian Football and Rugby League teams completed pre- and post-season surveys assessing their attitudes towards using concussion guidelines. Participants also provided post-season feedback regarding their experiences in using the guidelines. 71% of participants reported using the guidelines in the preceding season. Post-season attitude was related to pre-season attitude (p=0.002), football code (p=0.015), and team role (p=0.045). An interaction between team role and guideline use (p=0.012) was also found, with coaches who had used the guidelines, and sports trainers who had not, reporting more positive post-season attitudes towards using the concussion guidelines. Implementation challenges included disputing of decisions about return-to-play by players, parents, and coaches, and a perceived lack of time. Recommendations for improved guideline materials included using larger fonts and providing for witnessing of advice given to players. This is the first study to examine the implementation of concussion guidelines in community sport. Training of coaches/sports trainers needs enhancement. In addition, new education should be developed for parents/players about the importance of the return-to-play advice given to them by those who follow these guidelines. Information provided by those who attempted to use the guidelines will assist the refinement of implementation and dissemination processes around concussion guidelines across sports. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne
organised as small-sided games is highly beneficial for enhancing overall fitness. In addition, studies indicate that team sports such as football may have an advantage over individual sports when it comes to personal development and the development of social capital. The aim of this paper is to explore...... a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework...... in a Danish context. Key words: Football Fitness, Health, Sports clubs, Sports Organisations, Path dependency...
Póvoas, Susana C A; Castagna, Carlo; Soares, José M C
The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of three age-adapted Yo-Yo intermittent tests in football players aged 9-16 years (n = 70) and in age-matched non-sports active boys (n = 72). Within 7 days, each participant performed two repetitions...... performances and HRpeak are reliable for 9- to 16-year-old footballers and non-sports active boys. Additionally, performances of the three Yo-Yo tests were seemingly better for football-trained than for non-sports active boys, providing evidence of construct validity....
Buckley, Katie L; O'Halloran, Paul D; Oates, Jennifer M
To explore the occupational voice use and vocal health of elite football coaches. This pilot study explored coaches' voice use patterns and vocal demands across workplace environments. Each coach's experiences of voice symptoms and voice problems were also investigated. Twelve Australian professional football coaches participated in a mixed-methods data collection approach. Data were collected through acoustic voice measurement (Ambulatory Phonation Monitor), semistructured interviews, and a voice symptom questionnaire (Voice Capabilities Questionnaire). Acoustic measures suggested heavy vocal loads for coaches during player training. All participants reported experiencing voice symptoms. They also suggested that the structure of their working week, workplace tasks, and vocal demands impacted on their voices. Despite this, participants reported little previous reflection or awareness of what impacted on their voices. Coaches typically did not consider how to support their voices during daily work and discussed experiencing voice symptoms as an inevitable part of their jobs. This study demonstrates that occupational vocal demands may negatively impact on sports coaches' vocal health. This is particularly important, considering coaches' heavy vocal loads across coaching tasks and reported negative occupational vocal health experience. Furthermore, coaches' limited insight into voice use and vocal health management may impact on their vocal performance and health. Given the exploratory nature of this study, further research into coaches' occupational vocal health is warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schlechter, Chelsey R; Guagliano, Justin M; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Milliken, George A; Dzewaltowski, David A
Youth sport (YS) reaches a large number of children world-wide and contributes substantially to children's daily physical activity (PA), yet less than half of YS time has been shown to be spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Physical activity during practice is likely to vary depending on practice structure that changes across YS time, therefore the purpose of this study was 1) to describe the type and frequency of segments of time, defined by contextual characteristics of practice structure, during YS practices and 2) determine the influence of these segments on PA. Research assistants video-recorded the full duration of 28 practices from 14 boys' flag football teams (2 practices/team) while children concurrently (N = 111, aged 5-11 years, mean 7.9 ± 1.2 years) wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers to measure PA. Observers divided videos of each practice into continuous context time segments (N = 204; mean-segments-per-practice = 7.3, SD = 2.5) using start/stop points defined by change in context characteristics, and assigned a value for task (e.g., management, gameplay, etc.), member arrangement (e.g., small group, whole group, etc.), and setting demand (i.e., fosters participation, fosters exclusion). Segments were then paired with accelerometer data. Data were analyzed using a multilevel model with segment as unit of analysis. Whole practices averaged 34 ± 2.4% of time spent in MVPA. Free-play (51.5 ± 5.5%), gameplay (53.6 ± 3.7%), and warm-up (53.9 ± 3.6%) segments had greater percentage of time (%time) in MVPA compared to fitness (36.8 ± 4.4%) segments (p ≤ .01). Greater %time was spent in MVPA during free-play segments compared to scrimmage (30.2 ± 4.6%), strategy (30.6 ± 3.2%), and sport-skill (31.6 ± 3.1%) segments (p ≤ .01), and in segments that fostered participation (36.1 ± 2.7%) than segments that fostered exclusion (29.1 ± 3.0%; p ≤ .01
Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr
Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…
Full Text Available Social media is likely the marketing and communication channel which grew fastest from "unique and modern" to "mandatory". Presented as a solution for the future, usage of media channels has already become a key part of any brand promoting campaign or business expansion effort. And football clubs line up with this trend. Development of the new media elements solves two fundamental needs for business units specialized in sports: the need for faster and more efficient communication with fans - a true two-way relationship - and the need to expand the base of supporters using marketing tools. This paper presents the usage of social media networks in European club football industry, the mix of channels used and the increase of digital supporters for the top teams. This academic approach also examines the correlation between the digital reach of the richest clubs in the world and their sports and financial results. This study shows the growing importance that social media plays in the sports industry, initiating a debate on the relationship between the digital expansion of a football club and its sports and financials indicators.
Full Text Available Introduction: The general objective of this research is to determine how much influence the length of sports engagement has on anaerobic endurance of the football players, as well as on the maximum sprint ability of the players. In addition to the primary objective, the research seeks to determine the maximum power, minimum power, average power and fatigue index in players of cadet age group. Methods: The total sample of respondents in this study is made of 60 players of cadet age group (14-16 years of age, divided in relation to length of their sports engagement, into groups of up to 5 years (11 respondents, 6-7 years (21 respondents and from 8 to 10 years (28 respondents. The study used field RAST test. The RAST test was designed for sports where running is a basic form of movement. According to the protocol of the test respondents have ten minutes to warm up and five minutes to recover. That is followed by the performance of the test, which is composed of six 35-meter sprints at maximum speed. Between sprints respondent is allowed to pause for 10 seconds, intended primarily for turning and preparing for the next section. Based on the obtained time results from six 35-meter sprints, power is calculated for each run and then the following parameters are determined: maximum power (the highest value; minimum power (the lowest value ; average power (the sum of all six values/six and fatigue index which indicates the extent to which strength decreases for each respondent. This paper shall present a descriptive parameters, mean, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as measure of asymmetry, kurtosis as measure of flatness and value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Multivariate procedures MANOVA and discriminant analysis shall be used. Out of univariate procedures ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. Results: Results obtained by multivariate analysis of
Opoku-Okrah, Clement; Sam, Daniel Kwasi; Nkum, Bernard; Dogbe, Elliot Eli; Antwi-Boateng, Lilian; Sackey, Benedict; Gyamfi, Daniel; Danquah, Kwabena Owusu
Sports anaemia is a physiological activity that occurs amongst footballers and may be due to poor diet, over-training, as well as an increase in plasma volume in endurance training activities. High plasma volume leads to changes in haematological parameters that may impact on endurance of footballers. The objective of the study was to determine the correlation between haematological and an-thropometric indices and their role in sports anaemia in a tropical setting. Venous blood was taken into EDTA for 12 soccer players of KNUST soccer team before training and after training for the first (W1) and fifth (W5) weeks of training sessions. Complete blood count analysis was done for each blood sample and anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, body mass index, body fat percent and lean body mass were also measured. Cross-tabulations with mean and standard deviation or median and range were computed. Paired t-test & and Mann-Whitney test for parametric and non-parametric data computations were carried out and a p-value ≤ 0.05 was taken to rep-resent significant difference between data groups. There was significant reduction in haemoglobin (p = 0.003), haematocrit (p = 0.002), mean cell volume (MCV) (p = 0.034) and red blood cell (RBC) count (p = 0.011) as a result of a significant expansion of plasma volume (p= 0.006). Neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts were reduced significantly (p= 0.043, 0.001 and 0.007, respectively) after the training at W5. Lean body mass (LBM) inversely correlated with haemoglobin (r = -0.787, p = 0.002) and haematocrit (r = -0.588, p = 0.044). Body fat percentage (BFP) also negatively correlated with lymphocyte count (r = -0.700, p = 0.011). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and plasma volume change after the training programme (r = 0.689, p = 0.013). The results suggest that sports anaemia was induced by an increase in plasma volume that resulted in changes in haematological
Wroble, R R; Moxley, D R
In this study, football players (N = 57) in grades 9-11 from 3 high schools chose to participate in 1 of 2 groups. Group WC (N = 39) participated in off-season strength training only. Group SP (N = 18) participated in both a winter sport (either wrestling or basketball) and an identical strength training program. All participants were tested at the close of football season (Pre) and at the end of the winter sports season (Post), a period of 4 months. Body composition (weight [W] and body fat percentage [BF]), strength (calculated 1RM [1 repetition maximum] max for barbell bench press [BP] and squat [SQ]), power (vertical jump [VJ] and seated shot put [UP]), and agility (18.3-m agility run [AG]) were measured. Both groups WC and SP increased significantly in W and BF and improved significantly in BP and VJ (p training.
Social media is likely the marketing and communication channel which grew fastest from "unique and modern" to "mandatory". Presented as a solution for the future, usage of media channels has already become a key part of any brand promoting campaign or business expansion effort. And football clubs line up with this trend. Development of the new media elements solves two fundamental needs for business units specialized in sports: the need for faster and more efficient communication with fans - ...
Full Text Available In the context of demands by the European feminist movement at the beginning of the 20th century, in Spain women’s sport flagged up aspirations to what were considered to be male practices. The first experiences of women in football stand out because of their use of the media to appear as a symbol of social transformation to modernity in the 20th century. It was not in vain that women’s football highlighted the demands of the feminist movements, although it did come up against male disapproval from an opposing group. The research sets out from a bibliographical and media review of specialist press and sports news of the time. Other current studies have also been considered in order to place it in a social and historical focus on sport. This has enabled us to highlight that football in Spain was established as an unequivocal space for (re producing male hegemony where women were relegated to the representation of a symbolic ritual in a scenario of accessory and condescension.
Full Text Available Football is very popular game all over the world and in SCG as well.Every year in Yugoslavia girls and women are from 7 to 40 years take part in the game of football as a sport as well as a sort of recreation. Technically and tactically this game more and more resembles the male football. The process of training is close to the very edge of female abilities, so we have dynamic game full of duel, long shots and spectacular goals.The aim of this research is to confirm differences of developing characteristics and functional abilities female football players and women who don't train any sport actively.The research encircled 20 female football players members of football club Masinac (winner of 2003 competition. The control group consisted of 20 female students who didn't go in for any sport actively.The results show that the average height of female football players is 166.85 ± 5.47 cm and average height of control group is 166.11 ± 5.6 cm. Relative values of maximal oxygen up take is 63.14 ± 8.11 ml/min/kg and 55.43 ± 7.25 for control group. This result show that bought group have aerobic abilities higher than one of average women (30-40 ml/min/kg.
Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Ivarsson, Andreas; Nilstad, Agnethe; Solstad, Bård Erlend; Steffen, Kathrin
The relationship between specific types of stressors (eg, teammates, coach) and acute versus overuse injuries is not well understood. To examine the roles of different types of stressors as well as the effect of motivational climate on the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries. Players in the Norwegian elite female football league (n=193 players from 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests prior to the 2009 competitive football season. As part of the screening, we included the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Norwegian short version). Acute and overuse time-loss injuries and exposure to training and matches were recorded prospectively in the football season using weekly text messaging. Data were analysed with Bayesian logistic regression analyses. Using Bayesian logistic regression analyses, we showed that perceived negative life event stress from teammates was associated with an increased risk of acute injuries (OR=1.23, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.48)). There was a credible positive association between perceived negative life event stress from the coach and the risk of overuse injuries (OR=1.21, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.45)). Players who report teammates as a source of stress have a greater risk of sustaining an acute injury, while players reporting the coach as a source of stress are at greater risk of sustaining an overuse injury. Motivational climate did not relate to increased injury occurrence.
Wright, Mathew J; Woo, Ellen; Birath, J Brandon; Siders, Craig A; Kelly, Daniel F; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Romero, Elizabeth; Kernan, Claudia; Cantu, Robert C; Guskiewicz, Kevin
Various concussion characteristics and personal factors are associated with cognitive recovery in athletes. We developed an index based on concussion frequency, severity, and timeframe, as well as cognitive reserve (CR), and we assessed its predictive power regarding cognitive ability in retired professional football players. Data from 40 retired professional American football players were used in the current study. On average, participants had been retired from football for 20 years. Current neuropsychological performances, indicators of CR, concussion history, and play data were used to create an index for predicting cognitive outcome. The sample displayed a range of concussions, concussion severities, seasons played, CR, and cognitive ability. Many of the participants demonstrated cognitive deficits. The index strongly predicted global cognitive ability (R(2) = .31). The index also predicted the number of areas of neuropsychological deficit, which varied as a function of the deficit classification system used (Heaton: R(2) = .15; Wechsler: R(2) = .28). The current study demonstrated that a unique combination of CR, sports concussion, and game-related data can predict cognitive outcomes in participants who had been retired from professional American football for an average of 20 years. Such indices may prove to be useful for clinical decision making and research.
Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter
is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...
Hildingsson, Malin; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie
Compliance with a rehabilitation program is significant among athletes following a sports injury. It is also one of the main factors that influence the rehabilitation process; moreover, the outcome is also influenced by the athlete’s motivation. It is primarily an autonomous motivation, resulting in rehabilitation adherence. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived motivation of female football players during rehabilitation after a sports injury and the extent to which these motivating factors were autonomous. Qualitative interviews, based on a semistructured interview guide with injured female football players undergoing rehabilitation, were analyzed using content analysis. The motivational factors that were described were their set goals, social support as well as external and internal pressures during rehabilitation. The perceived autonomy varied somewhat but overall, they experienced external motivation; therefore, the behavior was not entirely self-determined. Results are expected to provide a better understanding of women football players’ motivation in relation to their rehabilitation; hence, physiotherapists and coaches who are part of the rehabilitation process can contribute by increasing the autonomous motivation, thus, improving the compliance and outcome of the rehabilitation. PMID:29740552
Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan
Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how youn...... of completing a youth education is manifest and associated with significant personal concerns, lower examinations results, stress, drop-out and mental breakdown....
McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M. Alison
Background The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. Purpose To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players’ demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. Results A total of 2081 players (grades 9–12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%–11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%–11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%–12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20–2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. PMID:25060072
Footballers Essomba and Ashu, team manager Kalla and spiritual adviser Zé are the key characters in this anthropological study of football in Cameroon, which is based on research carried out in 2003. It might seem that a well-organized club with professional executives, a team of talented players
Watson, A W
School football injuries were studied over the seven months of one season on 150 males aged 16.94 +/- 0.82 years. Training averaged 4.13 +/- 1.47 hours per week and matches 1.84 +/- 0.60 hours per week. Mean time injured was: 0.51 +/- 1.7 days in hospital, 34.27 +/- 37.08 days off sport and 13.98 +/- 5.22 days of restricted activity. There were 136 match and 63 training injuries giving 175.98 injuries per 10000 hours of matches and 31.06 injuries per 10000 hours of training. Injuries were treated as follows: hospital 83, general practitioners 51, physiotherapists 28, no treatment 38. The most common injuries were: ankle sprain (11.6% of the total), hamstring strain (6.5%), contusion (6.5%) back strain (6%) knee sprain (5.0%), finger sprain (5.0%), other muscle strains (5.0%), fracture of the wrist (5.0%), dislocation of the finger (4.5%), overuse injury of the back (4.0%), tenosynovitis (3.5%), fracture of the ankle (3.0%). Thirteen injuries were to goal-keepers, 85 to backs, 31 to mid-field players and 70 to forwards. In 34.83% of the injuries foul play was given as the major cause. This was followed by "Lack of fitness", "Poor kit or boots" and "Previous injury" (all 11.24%). The most common minor cause was "Poor state of the pitch" (17.42% of injuries).
Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco C; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen E; Dodds, Pennie; Sidey, Maree N; Rogerson, John C; McElduff, Patrick; Crundall, Ian; Wiggers, John H
An increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm has been reported for members of sporting groups and at sporting venues compared with non-sporting populations. While sports clubs and venues represent opportune settings to implement strategies to reduce such risks, no controlled trials have been reported. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an alcohol management intervention in reducing risky alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related harm among community football club members. A cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention was undertaken with non-elite, community football clubs and their members in New South Wales, Australia. Risky alcohol consumption (5+ drinks) at the club and risk of alcohol-related harm using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were measured at baseline and postintervention. Eighty-eight clubs participated in the trial (n=43, INTERVENTION; n=45, CONTROL) and separate cross-sectional samples of club members completed the baseline (N=1411) and postintervention (N=1143) surveys. Postintervention, a significantly lower proportion of intervention club members reported: risky alcohol consumption at the club ( 19%; 24%; OR: 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.00); p=0.05); risk of alcohol-related harm ( 38%; 45%; OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); psports officiating, enhancing club-based alcohol management interventions could make a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of alcohol misuse in communities. ACTRN12609000224224. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Rossi, Anthony M; Claiborne, Tina L; Thompson, Gregory B; Todaro, Stacey
The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Helmets with different finishes and different football jersey fabrics. The coefficient of friction was determined for 2 helmet samples (glossy and matte), 3 football jerseys (collegiate, high school, and youth), and 3 types of jersey numbers (silkscreened, sublimated, and stitched on) using the TAPPI T 815 standard method. These measurements determined which helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-jersey number, and helmet-to-jersey material combination resulted in the least amount of static friction. The glossy helmet versus glossy helmet combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other 2 helmet combinations (P = .013). The glossy helmet versus collegiate jersey combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey material combinations (P < .01). The glossy helmet versus silkscreened numbers combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey number combinations (P < .01). The force of static friction experienced during collisions can be clinically relevant. Conditions with higher coefficients of static friction result in greater forces. In this study, the highest coefficient of friction (glossy helmet versus silkscreened number) could increase the forces on the player's helmet by 3553.88 N when compared with other helmet-to-jersey combinations. Our results indicate that the makeup of helmet and uniform materials may affect sport safety.
Kleef, van R.H.C.
Supporters’ misconduct is an unfortunate phenomenon connected to the most popular sport in the world. Despite many legislative efforts, incidents keep occurring, often resulting in damage. The difficulty in addressing the misbehaving individuals directly has led to the idea of addressing football
Elliott, Sam; Velardo, Stefania; Drummond, Murray; Drummond, Claire
There is a widely held belief that sport participation inherently enhances health among youth. Such a perception often motivates parents to encourage children's initial and ongoing involvement in organised sport and physical activity. While sport certainly comprises an important vehicle for accruing physical activity, the sport environment may not…
Delahunt, Eamonn; Fitzpatrick, Helen; Blake, Catherine
To determine if pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale scores can identify Gaelic football players at risk of developing groin injury. Prospective study. Senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Fifty-five male elite Gaelic football players (age = 24.0 ± 2.8 years, body mass = 84.48 ± 7.67 kg, height = 1.85 ± 0.06 m, BMI = 24.70 ± 1.77 kg/m 2 ) from a single senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Occurrence of groin injury during the season. Ten time-loss groin injuries were registered representing 13% of all injuries. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season adductor squeeze test score was below 225 mmHg, was 7.78. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale score was football players at risk of developing groin injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The study aims to examine brand management model in Iran's professional Football League (2011-2012) with emphasis on brand image. The study was descriptive-survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911) responded 4 items questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM) test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loya...
Ottesen, Laila; Bennike, Søren
are received and adapted in the Danish sports organizations and associations. The Danish Football Association has launched a new concept called "Football Fitness" with a focus on the health dimension of football, both of physiological, psychological and social nature, rather than a focus on the competition...... opportunity to access the knowledge of how the concept “football fitness” is organized, implemented and adapted in the participating clubs. This knowledge will be of great importance in relation to welfare policy, where the project can contribute with knowledge of possible changes to the Danish voluntary...... methods for the gathering and analysis of data. Key words: Football Fitness, Health promotion, Implementation, Sports clubs, Sports Organizations....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Football (soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football, and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson, controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%. Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Billieux, Joël; Bizzini, Lucio; Monney, Grégoire; Fresard, Emmanuelle; Thorens, Gabriel; Bondolfi, Guido; El-Guebaly, Nady; Zullino, Daniele; Khan, Riaz
Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of "illusion of control." The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the "illusion of control." Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.
Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest
Carter, Mary-Ann; Signal, Louise; Edwards, Richard; Hoek, Janet; Maher, Anthony
High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest policies that restrict sponsorship of
... re important for sports such as football , hockey, baseball, softball, biking, skateboarding, inline skating, skiing , and snowboarding — to ... in sports such as football, ice hockey , and softball and baseball when batting. Goggles are often worn ...
Carter Mary-Ann; Signal Louise; Edwards Richard; Hoek Janet; Maher Anthony
Abstract Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages do...
Full Text Available The study aims to examine brand management model in Iran's professional Football League (2011-2012 with emphasis on brand image. The study was descriptive-survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911 responded 4 items questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. According to Results, brand image play a pivotal role between Iranian fans brand loyalty. Create an attractive and desirable brand image in the fans mind increases brand loyalty. And due to, revenue and profits increase through ticket sales and products of club and also attract more sponsors
Wood, Zach C.; Garn, Alex C.
Coed sport environments can be paradoxical settings where pre-existing gender biases influence participants' enjoyment and success. Furthermore, gendered messages and stereotypes as well as low expectations for females within coed sports can create participation barriers by reducing feelings of confidence and performance. Within university…
Guiliano, Traci A.; Popp, Kathryn E.; Knight, Jennifer L.
Examined the extent to which women's childhood play activities predicted future sport participation. College athletes and nonathletes completed a survey on childhood play and adult sports experiences. Playing with masculine toys and games, playing in predominantly male or mixed groups, and being a tomboy characterized women who later became…
Full Text Available Abstract Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target
Full Text Available The subject sample of 240 boys aged 7-14 was divided to two subsamples of 120 boys each (active participants of “ЯMR Vojvodina” football school since the age of 7, and boys involved in sports, who regularly attended classes of physical education at school. The sample was subjected to 11 tests for evaluation of specific–motor abilities. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are or there are not any differences in specific- motor abilities of subjects of the same age depending whether they play any sport or not. Analysis of results processed by discriminative analysis showed that the boys who attended football school achieved much better results in tests for evaluation of specific motor abilities than the boys who did not. At the age of 7-8, the differences can be attributed to efficient selection rather than the program contents due to the fact that they are beginners, whereas at older ages, these differences, being even higher in boys doing sports, can be attributed to the effects of program contents in the football school.
Shamonin Andrey Valentinovich
Full Text Available Increase of sports-technical skill in sports occurs on the basis of last achievements of the theory and physical training and sports practice. Development of football isn't possible without search and introduction in training process of optimum pedagogical models of perfection of physical and technical readiness of football players. Such pedagogical models should be applied, as in groups of initial preparation, so at the subsequent grade levels, including in student's football. Modern training process (pedagogical model, should be under construction on objective indicators of physical, technical and special readiness (so-called feedback. However, the estimation of sports-technical readiness at sports schools on football is reduced only to testing of speed, jumps, juggling, dribbling and a shoot for goal. The same criteria are applied and in student's football. Unfortunately, the given control exercises not in a condition to the full to reflect level of physical and technical readiness of the football player. For more objective estimation of special readiness it is necessary to use the test tasks revealing a level of development of coordination abilities of game structure game and competitive activity (game in football. It will allow trainers to have fuller picture of readiness of the football player, in respect of its professional (football skills. As a result coach have possibility to trace level of a condition of the various parties of sports readiness (physical, technical and coordination student's youth engaged in football at each stage of long-term preparation.
Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hr recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and subelite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, subelite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and subelite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > .05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r 2 = .051, p = .039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.
The researcher reviewed relevant primary and secondary literature relating to women’s football, female football consumption and identity dynamics in a European perspective. Between March and August 2013, 31 semi-structured interviews with Danish women aged between 24 and 60 years were conducted following......Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...
Full Text Available The study aims to examine brand management model in Iran's professional Football League (2011-2012 with emphasis on brand image. The study was descriptive-survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911 responded 4 items questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. According to Results, brand image play a pivotal role between Iranian fans brand loyalty. Create an attractive and desirable brand image in the fans mind increases brand loyalty. And due to, revenue and profits increase through ticket sales and products of club and also attract more sponsors.
Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 265 ... FIFA Medical Officer and Honorary Part-time Lecturer, Wits Centre for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Johannesburg .... Management of a collapsed player does not.
Full Text Available Football, by tradition is a popular sport, a mass sport, both for those who 32ractici it and for the audience. The game of football becomes the only sport that can be 32racticin by everybody. Its simplicity is expressed by a regulation set which includes few basic rules, logical rules and relatively easy to understand. Football is a game that develops basic motor skills: speed, strength, stamina, specific skills. Use of means specific to the football game in physical education classes at the secondary level aims to improve motor skills and streamline the educational process. The means specific to the football game that are used are simple, clear, suitable for both girls and boys, in order to achieve outstanding results in physical education classes
Niemann, A.; van den Brand, A.
Since the mid-1990s EU institutions and EU policy-making outcomes have had a considerably more noticeable bearing on the regulation and subsequent development of sport than in the first four decades of European integration. While the developments at European level are relatively well documented, the
González-Víllora, Sixto; Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Pastor-Vicedo, Juan Carlos; da Costa, Israel Teoldo
For sports assessment to be comprehensive, it must address all variables of sports development, such as psychological, social-emotional, physical and physiological, technical and tactical. Tactical assessment has been a neglected variable until the 1980s or 1990s. In the last two decades (1995-2015), the evolution of tactical assessment has grown considerably, given its importance in game performance. The aim of this paper is to compile and analyze different tactical measuring tools in team sports, particularly in soccer, through a bibliographical review. Six tools have been selected on five different criteria: (1) Instruments which assess tactics, (2) The studies have an evolution approach related to the tactical principles, (3) With a valid and reliable method, (4) The existence of publications mentioning the tool in the method, v. Applicable in different sports contexts. All six tools are structured around seven headings: introduction, objective(s), tactical principles, materials, procedures, instructions/rules of the game and published studies. In conclusion, the teaching-learning processes more tactical oriented have useful tactical assessment instrument in the literature. The selection of one or another depends some context information, like age and level of expertise of the players.
Football is a sport mainly comprised of walking and jogging, with intermittent bouts .... injury and concussion occur 2 - 3 times more often in ... mechanisms, risk factors and management. Br J. Sports ... injuries in female youth football – a cluster.
McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M Alison
The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players' demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. A total of 2081 players (grades 9-12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%-11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%-11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%-12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20-2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. © 2014 The Author(s).
Fältström, A; Hägglund, M; Kvist, J
This study investigated whether player-related factors (demographic, personality, or psychological factors) or the characteristics of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury were associated with the return to playing football in females after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). We also compared current knee function, knee related quality of life and readiness to return to sport between females who returned to football and those who had not returned. Females who sustained a primary ACL rupture while playing football and underwent ACLR 6-36 months ago were eligible. Of the 460 contacted, 274 (60%) completed a battery of questionnaires, and 182 were included a median of 18 months (IQR 13) after ACLR. Of these, 94 (52%) returned to football and were currently playing, and 88 (48%) had not returned. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two factors associated with returning to football: short time between injury and ACLR (0-3 months, OR 5.6; 3-12 months OR 4.7 vs reference group > 12 months) and high motivation. Current players showed higher ratings for current knee function, knee-related quality of life, and psychological readiness to return to sport (P football after ACLR. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jones, Willis A.
Does fielding a Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) program help an institution of higher education obtain aid in the form of state appropriations? Two published studies have found some evidence of a positive correlation between having an FBS-level football program and the amount of appropriations received by public universities. This study looked to…
other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change. The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.
American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Purpose Performance analysis (PA) in football is considered to be an integral component of understanding the requirements for optimal performance. Despite vast amounts of research in this area key gaps remain, including what comprises PA in football, and methods to minimise research-practitioner gaps. The aim of this study was to develop a model of the football match system in order to better describe and understand the components of football performance. Such a model could inform the design of new PA methods. Method Eight elite level football Subject Method Experts (SME’s) participated in two workshops to develop a systems model of the football match system. The model was developed using a first-of-its-kind application of Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) in football. CWA has been used in many other non-sporting domains to analyse and understand complex systems. Result Using CWA, a model of the football match ‘system’ was developed. The model enabled identification of several PA measures not currently utilised, including communication between team members, adaptability of teams, playing at the appropriate tempo, as well as attacking and defending related measures. Conclusion The results indicate that football is characteristic of a complex sociotechnical system, and revealed potential new and unique PA measures regarded as important by SME’s, yet not currently measured. Importantly, these results have identified a gap between the current PA research and the information that is meaningful to football coaches and practitioners. PMID:28212392
The researcher reviewed relevant primary and secondary literature relating to women’s football, female football consumption and identity dynamics in a European perspective. Between March and August 2013, 31 semi-structured interviews with Danish women aged between 24 and 60 years were conducted following......Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...
Mannings, Carol; Kalynych, Colleen; Joseph, Madeline Matar; Smotherman, Carmen; Kraemer, Dale F
Sports-related concussion among professional, collegiate, and, more recently, high school athletes has received much attention from the media and medical community. To our knowledge, there is a paucity of research regarding parental knowledge of sports-related concussion. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental knowledge of concussion in young children who participated in recreational tackle football. Parents of children aged 5 years to 15 years attending recreational tackle football games were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports Quiz. The parents were asked about their level of agreement regarding statements that represent definition, symptoms, and treatment of concussion. A total of 310 of 369 parents (84% response rate) voluntarily completed the questionnaire, with 94% believing that their child had never had a concussion. However, only 13% (n = 41) could correctly identify all seven statements. Most did not identify that a concussion is considered a mild traumatic brain injury and can be achieved from something other than a direct blow to the head. Race, sex, and zip code had no significant association with correctly answering statements. Education (r = 0.24, p child played (r = 0.11, p = 0.049) had a small association. Fifty-three percent and 58% of the parents reported that someone had discussed the definition and the symptoms of concussion with them, respectively, with only about half reporting that information came from their health care provider. No parent was able to classify all symptoms listed as correctly related or not related to concussion. However, identification of correct concussion statements correlated with identification of correct symptoms (r = 0.25, p < 0.001). While most parents of young athletes demonstrated some knowledge regarding concussion, important misconceptions remain regarding the definition, symptoms, and treatment of
Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank
Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and brain injuries for football players of
Jéssica Natuline Ianof
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.
Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...
On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…
Atmosukarto, Indriyati; Ghanem, Bernard; Nasef Saadalla, Mohamed Magdy Mohamed; Ahuja, Narendra
Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. Despite being the most popular sport in the United States, most American football game analysis is still done manually. Line
Full Text Available This study investigated the correlation between investment, financial results and sport results achieved and to evaluate the relative efficiency of Serbian football clubs. In this regard, two postulations were examined: firstly, investments in football clubs produce better sports results; secondly, investments in football clubs result in a stronger financial position. A correlation analysis and Data Envelopment Analysis (CCR model were applied. Thirteen football clubs were included in the analysis, which represents eighty per cent of the Serbian Football League First Division Clubs. The study was conducted in the period 2009-2011that includes football seasons 2009-2010, 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. A strong positive correlation between investment and sport results was found only for the top football clubs, while the econometric regression did not show any correlation. The findings also show that there is no relation between investment and net income. The analysis of technical efficiency confirmed these findings, which revealed that the best football clubs are usually the farthest away from the efficiency frontier.
Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits.
Gray, Cindy M; Hunt, Kate; Mutrie, Nanette; Anderson, Annie S; Leishman, Jim; Dalgarno, Lindsay; Wyke, Sally
The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the development and optimization of the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) programme, which aims to help overweight men (many of them football supporters) lose weight through becoming more active and adopting healthier eating habits. The MRC Framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide programme development in two phases. In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary working group developed the pilot programme (p-FFIT) and used a scoping review to summarize previous research and identify the target population. Phase 2 involved a process evaluation of p-FFIT in 11 Scottish Premier League (SPL) clubs. Participant and coach feedback, focus group discussions and interviews explored the utility/acceptability of programme components and suggestions for changes. Programme session observations identified examples of good practice and problems/issues with delivery. Together, these findings informed redevelopment of the optimized programme (FFIT), whose components were mapped onto specific behaviour change techniques using an evidence-based taxonomy. p-FFIT comprised 12, weekly, gender-sensitised, group-based weight management classroom and 'pitch-side' physical activity sessions. These in-stadia sessions were complemented by an incremental, pedometer-based walking programme. p-FFIT was targeted at men aged 35-65 years with body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m(2). Phase 2 demonstrated that participants in p-FFIT were enthusiastic about both the classroom and physical activity components, and valued the camaraderie and peer-support offered by the programme. Coaches appreciated the simplicity of the key healthy eating and physical activity messages. Suggestions for improvements that
Full Text Available Football may be a physical and sport activities able to improve motor and cognitive growth in children. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times.Forty-six children with chronological age of ~9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=24 attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n=22 was composed of sedentary children.Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a natural and enjoyable tool to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.
M. Phil. (Sport Management) Youth football development has developed into an important, integral part of professional football world-wide. Countries such as Spain, Brazil and the Netherlands have proven that an investment in youth football development has resulted in them becoming the world’s best football playing countries as ranked by International Football Association (FIFA). The investment in youth football development by these countries has resulted in sustained football success. The ...
Webborn, Nick; Cushman, Daniel; Blauwet, Cheri A; Emery, Carolyn; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Willick, Stuart E
The epidemiology of injury in Paralympic football has received little attention. A study of all sports at the London 2012 Paralympic Games identified football 5-a-side as the sport with the highest injury rate, meriting further detailed analysis, which may facilitate the development of strategies to prevent injuries. To examine the injury rates and risk factors associated with injury in Paralympic football. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of injuries to football 5-a-side and football 7-a-side athletes. London 2012 Paralympic Games. Participants included 70 football 5-a-side athletes and 96 football 7-a-side athletes. Athletes from all but one country chose to participate in this study. The Paralympic Injury and Illness Surveillance System was used to track injuries during the Games, with data entered by medical staff. Injury incidence rate (IR) and injury incidence proportion (IP). The overall IR for football 5-a-side was 22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.1-33.8) with an IP of 31.4 injuries per 100 athletes (95% CI, 20.9-43.6). In 5-a-side competition, 62.5% of injuries were associated with foul play. The overall IR for football 7-a-side was 10.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days (95% CI, 5.4-15.5), with an IP of 14.6 injuries per 100 athletes (95% CI, 7.5-21.6). The most commonly injured body region in both sports was the lower extremity. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine IR and risk factors associated with injury in Paralympic football. Future studies are needed to determine mechanisms of injury and independent risk factors for injury, thus informing prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thorborg, Kristian; Krommes, Kasper Kühn; Esteve, Ernest
Objective To investigate the effect of FIFA injury prevention programmes in football (FIFA 11 and FIFA 11+). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials comparing the FIFA injury prevention programmes with a control (no or sham...... intervention) among football players. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via Ebsco, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 2004 to 14 March 2016. Results 6 cluster-randomised controlled trials had assessed the effect of FIFA injury prevention...... programmes compared with controls on the overall football injury incidence in recreational/subelite football. These studies included 2 specific exercise-based injury prevention programmes: FIFA 11 (2 studies) and FIFA 11+ (4 studies). The primary analysis showed a reduction in the overall injury risk ratio...
Osborne Hamish R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ≥ 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N to 202 N (p Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications.
Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard
This essay aims to describe how actions in the football field relate to the different national teams’ and countries’ cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Inspired by Edgar Schein’s framework of culture, the Brazilian...... and Italian national team football cultures were examined. The basis of the analysis was both document and video analysis. The documents were mostly research studies and popular books on the national football cultures, while the video analysis included all matches including Italy and Brazil from the World Cup...... in 2010 and 2014. The cultural analysis showed some coherence between the national football cultures and the national teams, which suggested a national dialect with the language of the game. Each national dialect seemed to be based on different basic assumptions and to some extent specific symbolic...
Introduction. – 1. Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports. – 2. Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports. – 3. Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence . – 4. Some concluding remarks.
Introduction - 1 Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports - 2 Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports - 3 Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence - 4. Concluding remarks
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine which sports are most popular among parents of pupils of primary school in Serbia, in order to determine which sports would be advisable to introduce in the classes of physical education. The sample included 5865 parents. Most parents would like to introduce as an optional sport swimming, football, basketball, volleyball and at last parents would like to introduce acrobatics, wrestling, orienteering and rowing. Obtained were statistically significant differences according to gender (fathers would like to be introduced football and mothers would like swimming and according to educational level (parents with higher educational level would most like to be introduced swimming and volleyball; while parents with the lowest educational level prefered football. The results indicates that with enlargement of educational level of parents comes higher level of interest for other sports, like skiing and basketball and decrease level interest for bicycling, football and karate.
Spaaij, R.; Anderson, A.
The article examines the socialization of children into identification with a sports team. It presents a sociological approach which extends the insights obtained from research into psychological aspects of sports team identification. A conceptual model is presented which proffers an explanation of
Eroglu, Yeser; Özsoy, Selami
This study is conducted to reveal the role of gender in attending leisure time activities and to determine gender perceptions about sports branches. For this purpose, an application was performed with the participation of 7 female students from Abant Izzet Baysal University School of Physical Education and Sport. For 8 weeks, volunteer…
Järvinen, Laura; Sutela, Kristina
In the last century football has become the most popular sport in the world. As of 2006 there were over 200 million players worldwide, including athletes of both genders, and all ages. According to the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) the number of youth players had increased by seven percent from 2000 to 2006. With the increase of youth players, many junior football coaches are parents or volunteers from the community. They often lack the proper training to ensure opt...
Zebis, Mette K.; Thorborg, Kristian; Andersen, Lars L.
BACKGROUND: The high injury incidence during match-play in female adolescent football is a major concern. In football, males and females play matches with the same football size. No studies have investigated the effect of football size on injury incidence in female adolescent football. Thus......, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of introducing a lighter, smaller football on the injury pattern in female adolescent football. METHODS We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial including 26 football teams representing 346 adolescent female football players (age...... 15-18 years). The teams were randomized to a new lighter, smaller football (INT, N.=12 teams) or a traditional FIFA size 5 football (CON, N.=14 teams) during a full match-season. Acute time-loss injuries and football-exposure during match-play were reported weekly by text-message questions...
Bennike, Søren; Wikman, Johan Michael; Ottesen, Laila Susanne
This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second...... by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities...
Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)
It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)
Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G
It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.
Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G.; Unsell, Bryan J.
It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)
A Gaussian mixture clustering model for characterizing football players using the EA Sports' FIFA video game system. [Modelo basado en agrupamiento de mixturas Gaussianas para caracterizar futbolistas utilizando el sistema de videojuegos FIFA de EA Sports].
Full Text Available The generation and availability of football data has increased considerably last decades, mostly due to its popularity and also because of technological advances. Gaussian mixture clustering models represents a novel approach to exploring and analyzing performance data in sports. In this paper, we use principal components analysis in conjunction with a model-based Gaussian clustering method with the purpose of characterizing professional football players. Our model approach is tested using 40 attributes from EA Sports' FIFA video game series system, corresponding to 7705 European players. Clustering results reveal a clear distinction among different performance indicators, representing four different roles in the team. Players were labeled according to these roles and a gradient tree boosting model was used for ranking attributes regarding to its importance. We found that the dribbling skill is the most discriminating variable among the different clustered players’ profiles. Resumen En las últimas décadas se ha visto un incremento considerable en la generación y disponibilidad de datos de fútbol, esto se debe fundamentalmente a la popularidad de este deporte así como a los avances tecnológicos realizados en este campo. Los modelos de agrupamiento basados en mixturas Gaussianas representan un enfoque novedoso para explorar y analizar datos de desempeño deportivo. En el presente trabajo, se lleva a cabo una caracterización de jugadores profesionales de fútbol utilizando técnicas de análisis de componentes principales y agrupamiento basados en mixturas Gaussianas. El modelo presentado es comprobado utilizando datos del sistema de videojuegos FIFA de EA Sports, dichos datos representan 40 atributos correspondientes a 7705 futbolistas europeos. Los resultados del agrupamiento revelan una clara distinción entre algunos indicadores de desempeño, los cuales corresponden a cuatro roles diferentes en el equipo. Consecuentemente, los
Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity
Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter
Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. PMID:25878072
Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria
Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.
Full Text Available Anthropological interest in football has been on the rise since the beginning of the century, which can be attested to by the rising number of studies, papers, collective publications and scientific conferences on the topic. Seeing as anthropology is no longer the study of the culturally bizarre and exotic, it is clear that the first anthropological studies of football as a cultural phenomenon are linked to those environments in which football figures as an important cultural trait, which is the reason why this sub discipline thrived in Europe or in places where football was treated as an esoteric phenomenon and where there as a longer tradition of anthropological study of native cultures. From the first analogies between the game of football and its rules with rituals of so called primitive cultures, the anthropological study of football developed into a relatively encompassing approach which includes interest in all the actors who establish the game as a public, cultural good – players, experts, supporters, journalists, organizers etc. – as well as its various cultural manifestations, in the form of a tool for the construction of identity and cultural symbol, a leisure activity with ties to economy, to a specific apotheosis of the concepts of globalization and commodification of culture. Anthropological studies of football are present in Serbia as well, and their subject matter corresponds to the role and position held by football, as a cultural artefact, in Serbian society and other countries in the region.
Wacker, F.; Koenig, H.; Felsenberg, D.; Wolf, K.J.
In a prospective study, the right knee of 21 symptom free juvenile footballers was examined by MRT (group I) and the results were compared with 12 juveniles of similar age but who did not take part in any special sorting activities (group II). A 1.5 Tesla Magnetome with an extremity coil was used. There were no abnormal changes in either group in the cruciate ligaments. The hyaline cartilage medially was about 10% thicker than laterally in both groups but in group I it was, on average, 24.8% thicker than in group II. Increased signals in the centre of the menisci were observed in 8 members of group I and two in group II. 5 on the 8 in group I, but none in group II, also showed an increase in the joint fluid. (orig.) [de
This thesis focuses on enumeration of the essential psychosocial determinants affecting performance of the footballers. These determinants are divided into three sections. Personality of athlete as a key factor influencing his performance is discussed in the chapter one. Social and cultural environment are the subjects of the second chapter. Specifics and partial aspects of sports environments are presented in the third chapter. Definition of performance in football and the possibility of its...
Christer Ericsson; Bjorn Horgby
The great interest in Asia for European, male football is an expression of globalised sports. Here globalisation and processes of globalisation stands for the economical, social and cultural processes, which link and affect globally. Global capitalism created a world hegemony. As a consequence the hegemonic power of the western world (including Japan) until now will be the norm of interpretation. A precondition for the development of globalised sports as an industry of entertainment is the de...
Clayton, Ben; Humberstone, Barbara
This paper explores the implications and affects of a level two compulsory module concerned with "gender, difference and leisure" on a predominantly male student group studying for sports-related degrees. Participant observation was undertaken by a male and female lecturer who were delivering the module. A cohort of male football…
Williams, Jean; Hess, Rob
Special edition of the International Journal of the History of Sport The papers in this collection, however, have their focus on developments related to women and football that occur outside the locus of established scholarship. In particular, the studies concentrate on the geographic locations of New Zealand, Australia and the USA, and, unique for such a collection, the papers cover four major football codes. The investigations are also not limited to women playing football, but female sp...
GENERAL ! ARTICLE. The Football. 1. From Euclid to Soccer it is ... ARRao. A football is a 3-dimensional convex polyhedron with each face a regular pentagon or a regular hexagon and with at least one hexagonal face. This article is in two parts. In this first part, we will prove that a football exists and is unique and in the.
Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John
An estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States, and many are related to football. This has generated much discussion in the media on the perceived safety of the sport. In the current study, researchers asked 230 individuals various questions about attitudes toward safety in football. Approximately 92.6% of participants indicated they would allow their child to play football; these participants were more likely to be female (χ(2) = 5.23, p > .05), were slightly younger (t= -2.52, p football, and future studies are needed to clarify factors that inform this opinion.
Rossing, N N; Nielsen, A B; Elbe, A-M; Karbing, D S
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the place of early development in a sample of Danish male elite and youth handball and football players. The sample included 366 handball and football players from the elite Danish league in the season 2011-2012 and a comparison sample of youth players under the age of 12 from 2003, including 147,221 football and 26,290 handball players. Odds ratio analysis showed that both population size and density significantly affected the proportional number of youth players per community and the odds of athletes reaching an elite level in football and handball. The odds for youth player registrations in both handball and football increased in rural in contrast to urban communities. However, elite football players primarily came from communities of high density (>1000 pop./km(2)), whereas elite handball players primarily came from less densely populated communities (100 to <250 pop./km(2)). Furthermore, there seems to be a relation between representation of elite and talent clubs in different communities and the probability of becoming an elite player in both sports. The limited number of elite players in both sports from rural communities may be due to national talent development strategies that do not incorporate development support for clubs in rural areas. Additionally, the results of the study clearly suggest the need to include the youth player population to advance research findings in birthplace effect studies.
Full Text Available Today the government ownership of the professional football clubs is absolutely illogical view point. Most of sports clubs are conducted by private sector using different models of ownership all over the world. In Iran, government credits benefit was main reason that the professional sport was firstly developed by government firms and organizations. Therefore, the sports team ownership is without the professionalization standards. The present comparative study was to examine the different football club ownership structures of the top leagues and the current condition of Iran football pro league ownership and then present a suitable ownership structure of Iran football clubs to leave behind the government club ownership. Among the initial 120 scientific texts, the thirty two cases including papers, books and reports were found relevant to this study. We studied the ownership prominence and several football club models of ownership focused on stock listing model of ownership, private investor model of ownership, supporter trust model of ownership and Japan partnership model of ownership; theoretical concepts, empirical studies, main findings, strengths and weaknesses were covered in analysis procedure. According to various models of ownership in leagues and the models’ productivity in football clubs, each model of ownership considering national environmental, economic, social conditions has strengths and weaknesses. So, we cannot present a definite model of ownership for Iran football pro league clubs due to different micro-environments of Iran clubs. We need a big planning to provide a supporter-investor mixed model of ownership to Iranian clubs. Considering strengths and weaknesses in the models of ownership as well as the micro and macro environment of Iran football clubs, German model and Japan partnership model are offered as suitable ones to probable new model of ownership in Iran pro league clubs. Consequently, more studies are required
Brosch, Jared R; Golomb, Meredith R
Three adolescent football players who had ischemic stroke associated with football practice and play are described. The literature on stroke associated with childhood sports and football in particular is reviewed, and the multiple mechanisms by which football can contribute to ischemic stroke are discussed.
Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Lu?s; Davids, Keith; Ara?jo, Duarte; Garganta, J?lio
Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data ...
Olmedilla-Zafra, Aurelio; Rubio, Victor J; Ortega, Enrique; García-Mas, Alexandre
Several attempts to reduce the incidence of sport injuries using psychosocial interventions produced fruitful, although inconclusive results. This paper presents the effectiveness and implementation issues of a pilot 3-month stress-management and muscle relaxation program aimed at reducing sport injury incidence. Pre-post treatment-non treatment group comparison. The program was administered by a trained psychologist on a once-a-week, 1-h session basis. Seventy-four male soccer players from four National Youth league teams voluntarily participated. Teams were randomly assigned to either treatment/non-treatment group. Injury protocol, Self-monitoring cards, Athletes' satisfaction and commitment survey, Coaches' interview. Group main effect and Time-Group interaction effect were both statistically significant, F(1,60) = 8.30, p = 0.005, η 2 p = 0.121, with the average number of injuries larger in the post-treatment phase of non-treatment group (p = 0.005, η 2 p = 0.077). There was a significant decrease in the average number of injuries for the intervention group before and after implementing the program (p youth soccer sport injuries, with a high level of satisfaction and commitment from the athletes, as well as high acceptance from the coaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin
Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.
may be called upon to intervene medically when a football player succumbs to a severe ... including safety and security services, emergency and primary health care medical ..... of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines 2005.
Full Text Available Although far behind association football, futsal is the second most played variant of football in the world. Both sports have comparable global expansion strategies; but with different roots and outcomes. Futsal, which originated in South America, has experienced a more limited geographic expansion. Its recent integration into the FIFA is progressively changing its geographic presence. Consequently, futsal has become an increasingly global sport.
Malcolm, Dominic; Scott-Bell, Andrea; Waddington, Ivan
To compare the current methods of appointment, qualifications and occupational experience of club doctors and physiotherapists in English professional football with (i) those outlined in a study published in 1999, and (ii) Football Association (FA) medical regulations. Qualitative. Postal questionnaire survey of (head) doctors and physiotherapists at each of the clubs in the English Premiership, Championship and Football Leagues 1 and 2. Response rates of 35.8% and 45.6% respectively were obtained. The majority of football club doctors are GPs who have sports medicine qualifications and relevant occupational experience. Time commitments vary from full time to a few hours per week. Most are appointed through personal contacts rather than job advertisements and/or interview. Almost all football clubs have a chartered physiotherapist, many of whom have a postgraduate qualification. They work full time and long hours. Most are appointed through personal contacts rather than job advertisements. They are frequently interviewed but not always by someone qualified to judge their professional expertise. Football club medical provision has become more extensive and increasingly professional over the last 10-20years, with better qualified, more career-oriented and more formally contracted staff. It is likely that clinical autonomy has subsequently increased. However recruitment procedures still need to be improved, especially in relation to advertising vacancies, interviewing candidates, and including medical personnel on interview panels. In two aspects clubs appear not to be compliant with current FA medical regulations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raúl Fustes Ross
Full Text Available The football is the most universal phenomenon, in evidence of it, the IFFA, the governing organization for this sport, has more countries than UNO and unit to Vatican, are considered among the most powerful organizations in the World and the more social members brings together. Its most negative part is the player’s professionalism, them received fabulous payments by her clubs; this clubs considered them like a goods from to transfer –buy –sell. These foot ball players signed the most lucrative contract; they forget the social spirit of this sport activity and at her community or nation.
Fitzharris, Nigel; Jones, Ashley; Francis, Peter
Objectives Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of League of Ireland (semiprofessional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months, 28 games). Methods A total of 140 semiprofessional League of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data were collected in accordance with the international consensus on football injury epidemiology. Results The injury rate was 9.2/1000 hour exposure to football (95% CI 6.2 to 12.9, pLeague of Ireland football is similar to that of European professional football, although the incidence of injury is higher. The incidence of injury is in line with that of Dutch amateur football. PMID:29071112
Sarmento, Hugo; Anguera, M Teresa; Pereira, Antonino; Araújo, Duarte
Expertise has been extensively studied in several sports over recent years. The specificities of how excellence is achieved in Association Football, a sport practiced worldwide, are being repeatedly investigated by many researchers through a variety of approaches and scientific disciplines. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise the most significant literature addressing talent identification and development in football. We identified the most frequently researched topics and characterised their methodologies. A systematic review of Web of Science™ Core Collection and Scopus databases was performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. The following keywords were used: "football" and "soccer". Each word was associated with the terms "talent", "expert*", "elite", "elite athlete", "identification", "career transition" or "career progression". The selection was for the original articles in English containing relevant data about talent development/identification on male footballers. The search returned 2944 records. After screening against set criteria, a total of 70 manuscripts were fully reviewed. The quality of the evidence reviewed was generally excellent. The most common topics of analysis were (1) task constraints: (a) specificity and volume of practice; (2) performers' constraints: (a) psychological factors; (b) technical and tactical skills; (c) anthropometric and physiological factors; (3) environmental constraints: (a) relative age effect; (b) socio-cultural influences; and (4) multidimensional analysis. Results indicate that the most successful players present technical, tactical, anthropometric, physiological and psychological advantages that change non-linearly with age, maturational status and playing positions. These findings should be carefully considered by those involved in the identification and development of football players. This review highlights the need for coaches
Tunås, Paula; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among female elite football and handball players to a matched non-professional active control group. The participants were requested to answer a questionnaire based on standardized Nordic questionnaires for musculoskeletal symptoms to assess the prevalence of LBP. Included participants were elite female football (n = 277) and handball players (n = 190), and a randomly selected control group from the Norwegian population (n = 167). Fifty-seven percentage of the football players, 59 % of the handball players and 60 % of the control group had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no significant group differences in the prevalence of LBP ever (p = 0.62), the previous year (p = 0.85) or the previous 7 days (p = 0.63). For both sports, there was a significant increase in prevalence of LBP from the resting period to the competitive periods of the season (p ≤ 0.001). Seventy percent of the goalkeepers in both football and handball had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no difference in LBP among female elite football and handball players compared with the control group. However, female elite athletes in football and handball reported a high prevalence of LBP compared to previous studies. The variations in LBP and playing positions indicate that specific field positions, in football and handball, is a risk factor for developing LBP.
Injuries to the Collateral Ligaments of the Metacarpophalangeal Joint of the Thumb, Including Simultaneous Combined Thumb Ulnar and Radial Collateral Ligament Injuries, in National Football League Athletes.
Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F; Hotchkiss, Robert N
Thumb collateral ligament injuries occur frequently in the National Football League (NFL). In the general population or in recreational athletes, pure metacarpophalangeal (MCP) abduction or adduction mechanisms yield isolated ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and radial collateral ligament (RCL) tears, respectively, while NFL athletes may sustain combined mechanism injury patterns. To evaluate the incidence of simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tears among all thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries in NFL athletes on a single team. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of all thumb injuries on a single NFL team from 1991 to 2014 was performed. All players with a thumb MCP collateral ligament injury were included. Collateral ligament injuries were confirmed by review of both physical examination findings and magnetic resonance imaging. Player demographics, surgical details, and return-to-play data were obtained from the team electronic medical record and surgeons' records. A total of 36 thumbs in 32 NFL players were included in the study, yielding an incidence of 1.6 thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these, 9 thumbs (25%) had a simultaneous combined UCL and RCL tear injury pattern confirmed on both physical examination and MRI. The remaining 27 thumbs (75%) were isolated UCL injuries. All combined UCL/RCL injuries required surgery due to dysfunction from instability; 63.0% of isolated UCL injuries required surgical repair ( P = .032) due to continued pain and dysfunction from instability. Repair, when required, was delayed until the end of the season. All players with combined UCL/RCL injuries and isolated UCL injuries returned to play professional football the following season. Simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tear is a previously undescribed injury pattern that occurred in 25% of thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries on a single NFL team over a 23-year period. All players with combined thumb UCL
Deshpande, Sameer K; Hasegawa, Raiden B; Rabinowitz, Amanda R; Whyte, John; Roan, Carol L; Tabatabaei, Andrew; Baiocchi, Michael; Karlawish, Jason H; Master, Christina L; Small, Dylan S
American football is the largest participation sport in US high schools and is a leading cause of concussion among adolescents. Little is known about the long-term cognitive and mental health consequences of exposure to football-related head trauma at the high school level. To estimate the association of playing high school football with cognitive impairment and depression at 65 years of age. A representative sample of male high school students who graduated from high school in Wisconsin in 1957 was studied. In this cohort study using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, football players were matched between March 1 and July 1, 2017, with controls along several baseline covariates such as adolescent IQ, family background, and educational level. For robustness, 3 versions of the control condition were considered: all controls, those who played a noncollision sport, and those who did not play any sport. Athletic participation in high school football. A composite cognition measure of verbal fluency and memory and attention constructed from results of cognitive assessments administered at 65 years of age. A modified Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale score was used to measure depression. Secondary outcomes include results of individual cognitive tests, anger, anxiety, hostility, and heavy use of alcohol. Among the 3904 men (mean [SD] age, 64.4 [0.8] years at time of primary outcome measurement) in the study, after matching and model-based covariate adjustment, compared with each control condition, there was no statistically significant harmful association of playing football with a reduced composite cognition score (-0.04 reduction in cognition vs all controls; 97.5% CI, -0.14 to 0.05) or an increased modified Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale depression score (-1.75 reduction vs all controls; 97.5% CI, -3.24 to -0.26). After adjustment for multiple testing, playing football did not have a significant adverse association with
Elzinga, Kate E; Chung, Kevin C
Football and rugby athletes are at increased risk of finger injuries given the full-contact nature of these sports. Some players may return to play early with protective taping, splinting, and casting. Others require a longer rehabilitation period and prolonged time away from the field. The treating hand surgeon must weigh the benefits of early return to play for the current season and future playing career against the risks of reinjury and long-term morbidity, including post-traumatic arthritis and decreased range of motion and strength. Each player must be comprehensively assessed and managed with an individualized treatment plan. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kos, John J.
A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries
Full Text Available Urpose : The purpose of this research was to determine the requirements for privatization of Iran Pro League (IPL football clubs. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and distributed among a sample of IPL coaches, executives (senior executives from the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports and the Privatization Organization, and faculty members (public and private universities. Descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for data analysis. Besides, AHP was used in Expert Choice software to weight and rank the items. Results: The results showed that the most important factors were fighting corruption and rent-seeking during and after biddings (political, improving public perception of privatization of football clubs (sociocultural, increasing revenues from ticket sales (economic, transparency in laws regarding football club privatization (legal, and the changing structure and role of the government from exclusive ownership to oversight (structural. Conclusion: Given the results of this research, the most important requirements for privatization of IPL football clubs include offering television broadcast rights, advertisement rights, and ticket sale rights to the clubs, and these and other factors discussed earlier are likely to accelerate privatization of football clubs.
Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro
Although growing awareness about the potential long-term deleterious effects of sport-related concussion has led to increased attention to the risks of collision sports, calls to ban these sports, such as American football, might be premature. Collision sports have a relatively high incidence of concussions, but participation in these sports also confers a host of benefits. In addition, the associated risks of participation, including concussion, have not been definitively shown to outweigh the benefits they provide, and the risk-benefit ratio might vary among individuals. The risks of concussion and repetitive concussions associated with collision sports are unknown in the general population and not well characterized even in elite athlete populations. In this article, we discuss current knowledge on sports-related concussion, its neurological consequences, and implications for regulation of the practice of collision sports.
... but kids can play sports like gymnastics or football without going to extremes to lose or gain ... that you'd need to go to the emergency department for treatment. Drinking before, during, and after ...
ASCERI is the Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes and aims to contribute to a united Europe through regular sports meetings, bringing together members of public Research Institutes at European level. The Association's members come from over 42 Research Institutes spanning 15 countries. The association was born from the German "Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe" (KfK) football team who had the idea to play against other teams from institutes also involved in nuclear research. Therefore, six teams from different German centres were invited to take part in a "Reaktoren Fußballturnier" in Karlsruhe on 2 July 1966. Ever since, The Winter-ATOMIADE has taken place every three years and alternating with the Summer-ATOMIADE and a Mini Atomiade in between with numerous sports and leisure activities including football, skiing, golf, athletics, tennis, volleyball to name a few. CERN has been a regular participant ...
Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity
Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri
Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a healthpromoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised...... controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications...... in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence...
Spaaij, R.; Testa, A.; Hughson, J.; Moore, K.; Spaaij, R.; Maguire, J.
Introduction Hooliganism has been among the most popular topics in football studies for decades. To some observers, the issue is well and truly over-researched (Moorhouse, 2000) and has ‘unreasonably biased research into football, so that issues such as the administration of the game and its
Morris, Kevin; Simon, Janet E; Grooms, Dustin R; Starkey, Chad; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y
High-intensity sport training at the youth level has led to increased concern for overuse conditions. Few researchers have examined overuse conditions in youth sports. To examine the rates, risks, and distributions of overuse conditions between youth and high school football players. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Youth and high school football teams. The Youth Football Safety Study (YFSS) investigated youth football athletes from age 5 to 14 years. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) focused on high school football athletes 14 to 18 years old. The YFSS data consisted of 210 team-seasons, and the NATION data consisted of 138 team-seasons. Athletic trainers collected football injury and exposure data during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Injury rates, risks, and distributions were calculated, with injury rate ratios, risk ratios, and injury proportion ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing youth and high school football players. The YFSS reported 1488 injuries, of which 53 (3.6%) were overuse conditions. The NATION reported 12 013 injuries, of which 339 (2.8%) were overuse conditions. The overuse condition rate did not differ between high school and youth football (3.93 versus 3.72/10 000 athlete-exposures; injury rate ratio = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.79, 1.41). However, the 1-season risk of overuse condition was higher in high school than in youth football players (2.66% versus 1.05%; risk ratio = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.84, 3.47). Compared with high school football players, youth football players had greater proportions of overuse conditions that were nontime loss (ie, football players. However, differences existed between the 2 levels of competition. Although additional research on the incidence of overuse conditions across all youth and high school sports is needed, these findings may highlight the need for programming that is specific to competition level.
Marcelo Machado de Freitas
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS, Palmeiras (SP and Vasco (RJ, were not efficient in any period under analysis. Others, such as Guarani (SP and Guaratinguetá (SP, were efficient in all of years under consideration. With the Tobit regression model, we were able to determine that winning titles and the elite status of a given club are decisive factors in achieving efficiency. Included among the strategies that allow for greater efficiency in Brazilian clubs are the better utilization of stadiums and club assets, maximization of the financial worth of player popularity, and joining these with titles and a place in the A Series. Finally, the results of this study contribute to the strategic development of the football business, highlighting the positive effects that efficiency yields for clubs, thus supporting the growing body of research on sports management in Brazilian academia.
Margolis, Lewis H; Canty, Greg; Halstead, Mark; Lantos, John D
A pediatrician is asked by her local school board to help them decide whether to discontinue their high school football program. She reviews the available evidence on the risks of football and finds it hopelessly contradictory. Some scholars claim that football is clearly more dangerous than other sports. Others suggest that the risks of football are comparable to other sports, such as lacrosse, ice hockey, or soccer. She finds very little data on the long-term sequelae of concussions. She sees claims that good coaching and a school culture that prioritizes the health of athletes over winning can reduce morbidity from sports injuries. In this paper, 3 experts also review the evidence about sports risks and discuss what is known and not known about the science and the ethics of high school football. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Alosco, M L; Kasimis, A B; Stamm, J M; Chua, A S; Baugh, C M; Daneshvar, D H; Robbins, C A; Mariani, M; Hayden, J; Conneely, S; Au, R; Torres, A; McClean, M D; McKee, A C; Cantu, R C; Mez, J; Nowinski, C J; Martin, B M; Chaisson, C E; Tripodis, Y; Stern, R A
Previous research suggests that age of first exposure (AFE) to football before age 12 may have long-term clinical implications; however, this relationship has only been examined in small samples of former professional football players. We examined the association between AFE to football and behavior, mood and cognition in a large cohort of former amateur and professional football players. The sample included 214 former football players without other contact sport history. Participants completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT), and self-reported measures of executive function and behavioral regulation (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Metacognition Index (MI), Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI)), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) and apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES)). Outcomes were continuous and dichotomized as clinically impaired. AFE was dichotomized into football before age 12 corresponded with >2 × increased odds for clinically impaired scores on all measures but BTACT: (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): BRI, 2.16,1.19–3.91; MI, 2.10,1.17–3.76; CES-D, 3.08,1.65–5.76; AES, 2.39,1.32–4.32). Younger AFE predicted increased odds for clinical impairment on the AES (OR, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.76–0.97) and CES-D (OR, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.74–0.97). There was no interaction between AFE and highest level of play. Younger AFE to football, before age 12 in particular, was associated with increased odds for impairment in self-reported neuropsychiatric and executive function in 214 former American football players. Longitudinal studies will inform youth football policy and safety decisions. PMID:28926003
Alosco, M L; Kasimis, A B; Stamm, J M; Chua, A S; Baugh, C M; Daneshvar, D H; Robbins, C A; Mariani, M; Hayden, J; Conneely, S; Au, R; Torres, A; McClean, M D; McKee, A C; Cantu, R C; Mez, J; Nowinski, C J; Martin, B M; Chaisson, C E; Tripodis, Y; Stern, R A
Previous research suggests that age of first exposure (AFE) to football before age 12 may have long-term clinical implications; however, this relationship has only been examined in small samples of former professional football players. We examined the association between AFE to football and behavior, mood and cognition in a large cohort of former amateur and professional football players. The sample included 214 former football players without other contact sport history. Participants completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT), and self-reported measures of executive function and behavioral regulation (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Metacognition Index (MI), Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI)), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) and apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES)). Outcomes were continuous and dichotomized as clinically impaired. AFE was dichotomized into football before age 12 corresponded with >2 × increased odds for clinically impaired scores on all measures but BTACT: (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): BRI, 2.16,1.19-3.91; MI, 2.10,1.17-3.76; CES-D, 3.08,1.65-5.76; AES, 2.39,1.32-4.32). Younger AFE predicted increased odds for clinical impairment on the AES (OR, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.76-0.97) and CES-D (OR, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.74-0.97). There was no interaction between AFE and highest level of play. Younger AFE to football, before age 12 in particular, was associated with increased odds for impairment in self-reported neuropsychiatric and executive function in 214 former American football players. Longitudinal studies will inform youth football policy and safety decisions.
Brus, Anne Birgitte; Trangbæk, Else
In 1970 the Danish Football club Boldklubben Femina (BK Femina) became unofficial world champions. The success of BK Femina women's football team was not a coincidence and should be placed in the context of a ten-year struggle to have football accepted as a sport for women in Denmark. This essay...... examines three consecutive periods in Danish women's football: the establishment of women's football in Denmark before 1970; the time of women's admission to the Danish Football Association (DBU) in 1970–72; and finally, the development of women's football in the DBU from 1972 to 2002....
Sharp, N C Craig
Hugh Montgomery's discovery of the first of more than 239 fitness genes together with rapid advances in human gene therapy have created a prospect of using genes, genetic elements, and cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This brief overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and predicts a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Menendez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier
The present study aimed to explore the impact of the combination of two pedagogical models, Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility, for learners with disabilities experiencing a contactless kickboxing learning unit. Twelve secondary education students agreed to participate. Five had disabilities (intellectual and…
VanDyke, Roger R.
The premise that "sports builds character" is scrutinized through a discussion of several contact sports--boxing, hockey, and football. The fine line between assertiveness and aggression is explored, and the interrelationship between society and sports is investigated. (JN)
Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A.; Coughlin, Michael J.; Anderson, Robert B.
Background: Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Conclusion: Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces. PMID:28151702
Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B
Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.
Full Text Available Progress is constantly being made and new applications are constantly coming out in the area of field robotics. In this paper, a promising application of field robotics in football playing fields is introduced. An algorithmic approach for generating the way points required for the guidance of a GPS-based field robotic through a football playing field to automatically carry out periodical tasks such as cutting the grass field, pitch and line marking illustrations and lawn striping is represented. The manual operation of these tasks requires very skilful personnel able to work for long hours with very high concentration for the football yard to be compatible with standards of Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA. In the other side, a GPS-based guided vehicle or robot with three implements; grass mower, lawn stripping roller and track marking illustrator is capable of working 24 h a day, in most weather and in harsh soil conditions without loss of quality. The proposed approach for the automatic operation of football playing fields requires no or very limited human intervention and therefore it saves numerous working hours and free a worker to focus on other tasks. An economic feasibility study showed that the proposed method is economically superimposing the current manual practices.
Full Text Available Although many British historians claim that English football in the post–World War II period was substantially the passion of working-class men, oral history accounts also reveal a largely hidden history of active female sports fans, women who keenly followed football. These female fans often faced opposition from fellow supporters and from other women. In many ways, academic research on sports fandom has worked to omit serious discussion of the role of women. Taken from a wider project aimed at making more visible the historical experiences of female spectators in sport in Britain, this paper draws on interviews with 16 older female fans of the Leicester City football club based in the East Midlands in England. It explores their experiences in the so-called golden age of the game with regard to the football stadium, styles of female support, and relationships with and perceptions of football players. Via oral history research, the paper offers a wider context for understanding the sporting experiences of female fans. But it also analyzes and explicates the meaning of sport in the lives of female fans during a period when football players were paradoxically glamorous and unobtainable local figures, but also, in some contexts, still accessible, ordinary members of local communities.
Smith, Patrick J; Hollins, Anthony M; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Spence, David D; Outlaw, Shane; Kelly, Derek M
As a collision sport, football carries a significant risk of injury, as indicated by the large number of pediatric football-related injuries seen in emergency departments. There is little information in the medical literature focusing on the age-related injury patterns of this sport. Our purpose was to evaluate the types of football-related injuries that occur in children and adolescents and assess which patient characteristics, if any, affect injury pattern. Retrospective chart review was performed of football-related injuries treated at a level 1 pediatric referral hospital emergency department and surrounding urgent care clinics between January 2010 and January 2014. Patients with e-codes for tackle football selected from the electronic medical record were divided into 4 age groups: younger than 8 years old, 8 to 11, 12 to 14, and 15 to 18 years. Data collected included diagnosis codes, procedure codes, and hospital admission status. Review identified 1494 patients with 1664 football-related injuries, including 596 appendicular skeleton fractures, 310 sprains, 335 contusions, 170 closed head injuries, 62 dislocations, 9 spinal cord injuries, and 14 solid organ injuries. There were 646 (43.2%) athletes with upper extremity injuries and 487 (32.6%) with injuries to the lower extremity. Hospital admissions were required in 109 (7.3%) patients. Fracture was the most common injury in all four patient age groups, but occurred at a lower rate in the 15 to 18 years old age group. The rate of soft tissue injury was higher in the 15 to 18 years old age group. The rate of closed head injury, which included concussions, was highest in the younger than 8 years old age group. Age does influence the rates of certain football-related injuries in children and adolescents. Fractures decrease with increasing age, while the rate of soft tissue trauma increases with increasing age. Younger patients (younger than 8 y old) trended toward higher rates of closed head injury compared
Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner
The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... threaten the internal logic of sport. If as an example very efficient hail cartridges were allowed for use in double trap shooting it would reduce the skills required to excel at that discipline reducing its value for participants and spectators alike. The use of forbidden performance enhancing substances...
Fällman, Emma; Öhman, André
Parental involvement is known to be important for children in organized sports. However, parents can with their involvement both have negative and positive influence on children according to some studies. Few studies have investigated parents´ influence in sport, mostly studies have been focused on the parental involvement in sport. The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions among parents about their influences on children´s sport environment. A part of the purpose was to investigat...
Boden, Barry P
Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.
Evaluation and treatment of a football player who has sustained life-threatening injuries is a rare but significant challenge for the sports medicine team. Early recognition and intervention in these injuries is crucial. Helmets and shoulder pads complicate management of these patients. In this article, I present a rapid and simple assessment method used by paramedics for trauma patients. Treatment focuses on when football equipment should be removed and how the equipment complicates Advanced...
Title: The club development of american football in the Czech Republic In the first part of this thesis American football is introduced, explaining basic game principles and describing the game so that the reader can imagine what the sport is all about. The second part then focuses on examining the emergence of particular American football clubs in the Czech Republic. The whole period is divided into several stages, with a strong focus on finding a common denominator of individual events. The...
Full Text Available Although sports fandom and fan fiction are often thought of as different worlds, in the contemporary media environment, this is not the case. Sport is a popular source text for fan fiction, and high-level European football, one of the world's most watched sports, has long had an online fan fiction presence. In a study of the LiveJournal community Footballslash over the 2011–12 European football season, I investigate what makes football a suitable source text for fan fiction, especially slash fan fiction; what fan fiction authors are doing with football; and what this suggests about how football and fan fiction are used in the present day. I present a new understanding of football as a media text to be transformed as well as provide an in-depth look into how this type of real person slash is developed and thought of by its practitioners. In doing so, I show what happens when fandoms and fan practices converge in the 21st century.
Schmied, Christian; Drezner, Jonathan; Kramer, Efraim; Dvorak, Jiri
The incidence and outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and global strategies for prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in football are not known. The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of cardiac events in football and to investigate the preventive measures taken among the Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) member associations internationally. A questionnaire was sent to the member associations of FIFA. The first section addressed the previous events of SCA, SCD or unexplained sports-related sudden death within the last 10 years. Further questions focused on football player medical screening strategies and SCA resuscitation response protocols on the field. 126 of 170 questionnaires were returned (response rate 74.1%), and 103 questionnaires (60.6%) were completed sufficiently to include in further analysis. Overall, 107 cases of SCA/SCD and 5 unexplained football-associated sudden deaths were reported. These events occurred in 52 of 103 responding associations (50.5%). 23 of 112 (20.5%) footballers survived. 12 of 22 (54.5%) players treated with an available automated external defibrillators (AED) on the pitch survived. A national registry to monitor cardiac events was established in only 18.4% of the associations. Most associations (85.4%) provide regular cardiac screening for their national teams while 75% screen teams of the national leagues. An AED is available at all official matches in 68% of associations. National registries to accurately measure SCA/SCD in football are rare and greatly needed. Deficiencies in emergency preparations, undersupply of AEDs on the field during matches, and variability in resuscitation response protocols and training of team-staff members should be addressed to effectively prevent SCD in football.
Giulianotti, Richard; Robertson, Roland
Sport, in particular football, constitutes one of the most dynamic, sociologically illuminating domains of globalization. This paper examines the globalization of football with particular reference to Robertson's theorizations of global processes. We examine football's cultural globalization through the concept of 'glocalization', which highlights the interdependence of local and global processes within the game's identities and institutions. We address economic globalization in football by considering the world's leading clubs as 'glocal' transnational corporations. We assess the political globalization of football with reference to the possible enhancement of democracy within the game's international governance. We conclude by affirming the utility of sport in advancing our empirical and theoretical understanding of globalization processes.
Full Text Available Talent identification (TID is a major part of top-level football. Even so, most studies of talented players are skewed towards exploring the work of coaches who are already dealing with pre-defined “talented performers” and not a broader range of players, such as high school students in sport specialisation programs (SSP and elite sport specialisation programs (ESSP. In this study, we explore which skills high school players find most important, how they assess their own skills compared to their schoolmates and which skills their school and club coaches find most important, comparing: girls and boys, an SSP and an ESSP school and players playing top-level versus low-level football. Included in this study were 111 high school football players (81 boys and 30 girls representing one SSP and one ESSP. The results showed that the players ranked mental and tactical skills as most important compared to the school and club coach who ranked, respectively, technical and physical, and tactical and technical skills as most important. Girls considered both tactical and physical skills significantly (<0.01 more important than boys. Players from SSP considered mental skills as significantly more important, while the ESSP players considered the tactical skills as significantly more important. Furthermore, the top-level players considered technical and mental skills as significantly more important. These results could indicate that gender, school type and playing level could affect the players’ perception of the most important skills in TID.
The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Methods Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29 or control group (n = 30, being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months. The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition. Results After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051 and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051. The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025. There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v14, χ2:1.12, p = 0.29 and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, χ2:2.66, p = 0.10. A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, χ2:6.70, p = 0.01. Conclusions This study
Chrzavzez, G; Chrzavzez, J P; D'Erceville, T; Kharrat, N; Barbillon, C; Pilz, F
Of 249 patients with facial injuries admitted to the Department of Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hôpital Bel Air, Thionville, France, between 1981 and 1982, 45 (18%) were cases of injury from sporting activities. The particular characteristics of the latter lesions were their predominance in males, their increased seasonal frequency in spring and early summer, the high incidence of damage to the nasal pyramid and maxillomalar complex, and the fact that the most implicated sport was football (71% of cases). Whereas most accidents resulted in relatively minor lesions, three cases--including two from riding--involved severe, complex injuries comparable to those seen in certain car accidents. Findings in this series confirm the natural "bumper" property of the face. Emphasis is placed on the importance of well-conducted training, and the need to eliminate consideration of sport as a means for expressing aggressiveness that is not always possible in daily life.
Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F
In recent reports, Australian football has outranked other team sports in the frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) presentations. Understanding the profile of these and other "medical-attention" injuries is vital for developing preventive strategies that can reduce health costs. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency and profile of Australian football injuries presenting for medical attention. A systematic search was carried out to identify peer-reviewed articles and reports presenting original data about Australian football injuries from treatment sources (hospitals, EDs, and health-care clinics). Data extracted included injury frequency and rate, body region, and nature and mechanism of injury. Following literature search and review, 12 publications were included. In most studies, Australian football contributed the greatest number of injuries out of any sport or recreation activity. Hospitals and EDs reported a higher proportion of upper limb than lower limb injuries, whereas the opposite was true for sports medicine clinics. In hospitals, fractures and dislocations were most prevalent out of all injuries. In EDs and clinics, sprains/strains were most common in adults and superficial injuries were predominant in children. Most injuries resulted from contact with other players or falling. The upper limb was the most commonly injured body region for Australian football presentations to hospitals and EDs. Strategies to prevent upper limb injuries could reduce associated public health costs. However, to understand the full extent of the injury problem in football, treatment source surveillance systems should be supplemented with other datasets, including community club-based collections.
Full Text Available The football is the most popular sport in the Word and the economics interests have been fundamentals in his increase and expansion; this idea is confirmed by the numerous competitions for even sexes with categories from National Championships to regional events, continentals, intercontinental, Olympic Games and World Cup from majors, the most important event where showed the most expensive and important merchandise: the players. All this sport mechanism is capitalized by the owners clubs, business trade associations and greats corporations in the host cities, the nations participating also those without participation but with many fans. Each and every one are customers, is a chance for increase the sales.
Johnson, L. Syd M.
Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…
edge iff they are centres of adjacent faces of the cube, .... 'proof' for the preceding lemma does not work always: .... wants to play football with a solid with sharp edges and ... This will be needed later in part ... no two of these arcs meeting each other except at the ... vertex in any other component by travelling along edges.
Miroslav Smajić; Dejan Javorac; Slavko Molnar; Aleksandar Huba Barašić; Bogdan Tomić
Introduction: Football as a complete sport that is rich in a wide variety of possible movements classified in polistructural, sports complex. To be a football player was able to perform tasks football has, among other things, and have the necessary level of motor abilities that can be achieved only through systematic implementation of training physical training. The aim of this research was to determine the differences in some of the motor abilities between the two researched groups. Methods:...
Football is arguably the world's most popular and globalised sport, and it has been implicated in the continuing efforts in social science disciplines to understand current globalisation processes. Electronic colonialism, the metonym for the dominance of global mediascape by transnational media corporations like Sky and Fox has combined with the ongoing commodification of football to create a complex world-wide web of football authorities, clubs, players and agents, sport equipment makers, sp...
Romat, E.; Ostroverh, S.
This article was told about methods of classification of professional football clubs in the system of sportive marketing in the total commercial conditions of the most popular kind sport, football. Also was told about importance of brand in the professional football club as an active method of increasing trade value multi-functional enterprise in the sport area, which works on business model. The criterions where proposed and also was told about essence of the classification, which is used to...
Price, Mark D.; Rossy, William H.; Sanchez, George; McHale, Kevin Jude; Logan, Catherine; Provencher, Matthew T.
Objectives: Normal At the annual National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine, the medical staff of each NFL franchise performs a comprehensive medical evaluation of all athletes potentially entering the NFL. Currently, little is known regarding the overall epidemiology of injuries identified at the Combine and their impact on NFL performance. The purpose of this study is to determine the epidemiology of injuries identified at the Combine and their impact on future NFL performance. Methods: All previous musculoskeletal injuries identified at the NFL combine (2009-2015) were retrospectively reviewed. Medical records and imaging reports were examined. Game statistics for the first two seasons of NFL play were obtained for all players from 2009 to 2013. Analysis of injury prevalence and overall impact on draft status and position-specific performance metrics of each injury was performed and compared versus a position-matched control group with no history of injury and surgery. Results: A total of 2,203 athletes over seven years were evaluated, including 1,490 (67.6%) drafted athletes and 1,040 (47.2%) who ultimately played at least two years in the NFL. The most common sites of injury were the ankle (1160, 52.7%), shoulder (1143, 51.9%), knee (1128, 51.2%), spine (785, 35.6%), and hand (739, 33.5%). Odds ratios (OR) demonstrated quarterbacks were most at risk of shoulder injury (OR 2.78, p=0.001) while running backs most commonly sustained ankle (OR 1.49, p=0.038) and shoulder injuries (OR 1.55, p=0.022). Ultimately, defensive players demonstrated a more negative impact than offensive players following injury with multiple performance metrics impacted for each defensive position analyzed whereas skilled offensive players (i.e. quarterbacks, running backs) demonstrated only one metric affected at each position. Conclusion: The most common sites of injury identified at the Combine were: (1) ankle, (2) shoulder, (3) knee, (4) spine, and (5) hand. Overall, performance
Adams, Jean; Coleman, James; White, Martin
Alcohol marketing includes sponsorship of individuals, organisations and sporting events. Football (soccer) is one of the most popular spectator sports worldwide. No previous studies have quantified the frequency of alcohol marketing in a high profile international football tournament. The aims were to determine: the frequency and nature of visual references to alcohol in a representative sample of EURO2012 matches broadcast in the UK; and if frequency or nature varied between matches broadcast on public service and commercial channels, or between matches that did and did not feature England. Eight matches selected by stratified random sampling were recorded. All visual references to alcohol were identified using a tool with high inter-rater reliability. 1846 visual references to alcohol were identified over 1487 minutes of broadcast--an average of 1.24 references per minute. The mean number of references per minute was higher in matches that did vs did not feature England (p = 0.004), but did not differ between matches broadcast on public service vs commercial channels (p = 0.92). The frequency of visual references to alcohol was universally high and higher in matches featuring the only UK home team--England--suggesting that there may be targeting of particularly highly viewed matches. References were embedded in broadcasts, and not particular to commercial channels including paid-for advertising. New UK codes-of-conduct on alcohol marketing at sporting events will not reduce the level of marketing reported here.
Hypermasculinity may impact elite football players' willingness to seek help for mental health problems. This quantitative study sought to identify what set of characteristics, including hypermasculinity, best predicts elite football players' mental health attitudes. The Attitude Scale for Mental Illness, Inventory of Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services, and Athlete's Perception of Masculinity Scale were self-administered to 112 football players from the NFLPA and the Washington, DC metro area. Canonical correlation analysis was used to develop a regression model that best predicts elite football players' mental health attitudes. This study found that though the athletes have high levels of hypermasculinity (x = 19.66, SD = 7.43), other factors, including marital status and sport level lessen the effects of hypermasculinity and facilitate positive perceptions of mental illness and receptivity to help. Predictors suggest that therapeutic efforts targeted toward family and support networks, as well as intervention strategies for decreasing mental illness stigma are essential to encourage positive mental health attitudes in elite football players.
Full Text Available The number of scientific investigations on women's football specific to the topics of player characteristics and demands of the game has considerably increased in recent years due to the increased popularity of the women's game worldwide, although they are not yet as numerous as in the case of men's football. To date, only two scientific publications have attempted to review the main findings of studies published in this area. However, one of them was published about 20 years ago, when women's football was still in its infancy and there were only a few studies to report on. The other review was more recent. Nonetheless, its main focus was on the game and training demands of senior elite female players. Thus, information on female footballers of lower competitive levels and younger age groups was not included. Consequently, an updated review is needed in this area. The present article therefore aims to provide an overview of a series of studies that have been published so far on the specific characteristics of female football players and the demands of match-play. Mean values reported in the literature for age (12–27 years, body height (155–174 cm, body mass (48–72 kg, percent body fat (13%–29%, maximal oxygen uptake (45.1–55.5 mL/kg/min, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (780–1379 m, maximum heart rate (189–202 bpm, 30 m sprint times (4.34–4.96 s, and counter-movement jump or vertical jump (28–50 cm vary mostly according to the players' competitive level and positional role. There are also some special considerations that coaches and other practitioners should be aware of when working with female athletes such as the menstrual cycle, potential pregnancy and lactation, common injury risks (particularly knee and head injuries and health concerns (e.g., female athlete triad, iron deficiency, and anemia that may affect players' football performance, health or return to play. Reported mean values for total distance
Jordan Rappaport; Chad R. Wilkerson
Over the last few decades the number of U.S. metropolitan areas large enough to host a franchise from one of the four major professional sports leagues has soared. Even as major league baseball, football, basketball and hockey have expanded to include more franchises, demand by metro areas continues to exceed supply. Metro areas have thus been forced to compete with each other to retain and attract franchises. ; The resulting large public spending on new sports facilities has been quite contr...
Seichepine, Daniel R.; Stamm, Julie M.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Baugh, Christine M.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.
Abstract Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745
Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE.
Eddie T. C. Lam
Full Text Available Hong Kong is well-known for its beautiful natural harbor, vibrant nightlife, as well as tremendous entertainment and shopping opportunities. It is a paradise for outdoor activities such as golfing, hiking, fishing, and water sports. Throughout the city, there are extensive hiking trails that are over 30 miles long and navigate through beautiful scenic areas and parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the sport culture of Hong Kong, including the development and administration of sports and sporting events. After a thorough review on the sports development of Hong Kong, it was found that the following three main themes would guide the direction of future sports development: (a promoting “Sports for All,” (b fostering high performance sports, and (c equipping Hong Kong to host international sports events. In this regard, the Hong Kong Government provides a wide range of sports facilities and funding to support the development of sports. In addition, sport development is also supported by the business sector in Hong Kong. Among those different departments, the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD takes an active role in promoting sports in the community and administers funding support for relevant organizations under the established sports policy. The LCSD not only develops and manages a wide range of sports and recreational facilities for use by the general public, but also supports and organizes sports and recreational programs for the community. For instance, the most exciting projects people cannot wait to see their completion are the HK$19.7 billion Kai Tak Sports Complex and the Tseung Kwan O Football Training Centre that is supported with a grant of HK$133 million from the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.
Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr
Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...
Kontos, Anthony P; Braithwaite, Rock; Chrisman, Sara P D; McAllister-Deitrick, Jamie; Symington, Larissa; Reeves, Valerie L; Collins, Michael W
The objective of this study was to provide a meta-analysis examining the effects of football heading. Meta-analytical review on football heading effects on neurocognitive performance, cognition and symptom reports. Combinations of the key terms were entered into the following electronic database search engines: Cochrane Libraries, PyscARTICLE, PyscINFO, PubMed, ProQuest, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science on 7 July 2016. The following inclusion criteria were used to determine eligibility for studies: (1) the study examined and reported on soccer athletes; (2) the population's age, sex and sport position was described; (3) cognitive function, symptoms, balance or other outcomes were quantitatively measured; (4) football heading exposure was quantitatively measured between at least two groups and (5) the study was written in the English language after December 1979. The literature search process identified 467 unique studies. After applying exclusion criteria, 28 studies remained. Included studies had a total of 2288 participants (female participants =933, male participants =1355), aged 13-70 years. The overall results of random effects modelling of football heading were found to be inconclusive across all outcomes, groups and time points. No moderating variables related to methodological, sample or study characteristics were supported in the analysis; age was a potential moderating variable. We provide the first meta-analytical review of football heading effects aggregated from multiple studies and extended findings from a recent systematic review of the effects of football heading. Our analysis indicates no overall effect for heading a football on adverse outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila
. As the voluntary based sport is heavily state funded, the non-governmental sports organizations representing the voluntary sports clubs e.g. in a political manner, feel they have to position the role of sport to legitimize their existence. In this quest the connection of sport and health plays a huge role. The way......The voluntary based sports system is challenged by societal changes. Firstly the latest years have shown a transformation in the sport activity pattern, whereas still more are involved with sport in a self-organized or commercial form and secondly the state’s overall financial ability is reduced...... in which the role of sports for enhancing health has progressed from a passive and symbolic approach to one that is more explicit, ambitious and organized, is fairly new. In Denmark the Football Association has launched a concept called Football Fitness, which is a football based concept for health...
This talk discusses a series of one-minute physics lectures given to the ˜ 8 x 10^4 fans that attend the University of Nebraska home football games. The lecture topics range from gyroscopic motion to ionizing collisions between linebackers and I-backs. The problem of simultaneous edification and amusement of the fan in the stands is considered. Several physics tips for the Vols will be proffered.
A study was conducted among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine. One hundred football players and thirteen team doctors were involved in the study. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data in an ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family context is considered to be an important phenomenon influencing life-span sports careers. In spite of this fact,the role of family as related to different historical changes is rarely investigated. The research concept of the study is based on the "theory of transition" (early sports socialization and on the principle of "generation transfer" (parent-child interaction within various micro (family and macro (socio-economic contexts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the presented study is to find out the relationship between family context and early sports socialization in families of national football team players in the Czech Republic in three different socio-economic periods. METHODS: Three generations of national football team players were investigated. The research sample P (n = 69 was made up of subsamples: P1 (n = 23 - the current generation of national football team players from the year 1991, P2 (n = 23 - the generation playing in the years 1981-2001 and P3 (n = 23 - the generation playing in the years 1965-1987. Data were gained by means of semistructured interview oriented to family background in the period of the players' early sports socialization. Responses were analysed and classified on a categorical scale (5 domains per 4 categories, then processed using descriptive statistics. Comparisons of selected categories were processed using the non-parametric Chi-Square test at a significance level of p RESULTS: The equal role of fathers was found in all three generations in equal categories (type of education, involvement in football, the motivation approach. The role of mothers became different related to the progress in women's emancipation, but was supportive for sports career development of the children. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasized the importance of early sports socialization in the family, the importance of generation transfer, the function of the father, mother and siblings as motivators, regardless of participation
Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L
Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed
Storm, Rasmus K.
This paper deals with European and Danish soccer and its commercialization focusing on the Danish male first tier clubs. Based on the systems theoretical argument that sport serves as a mirror system in (late-) modern society, the Danish football clubs are measured against a simple matrix of main...
This document contains nine essays on the sociology and social psychology of team dynamics, including methodological and epistemological issues involved in such study. Essay titles are: (1) Conflict and Achievement in Top Athletic Teams--Sociometric Structures of Racing Eight Oar Crews; (2) Top Performance Despite Internal Conflict--An Antithesis…
Huberfeld, Ronen; Gersner, Roman; Rosenberg, Oded; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas N
Football (soccer) betting, as a strategic form of betting, became one of the favorite wagers for pathological gamblers. Previous studies demonstrated the psychological and biological significance of the 'illusion of control' (personal control) and 'near miss' results in gambling. In our study, we explored whether knowledge and expertise of pathological sports gamblers can ensure a successful bet. Participants were divided into three groups of individuals - pathological gamblers, amateurs and laypersons - and were asked to predict in advance the general result and the exact result of football matches in the European Champions League Round of 16. The 165 participants included 53 pathological sports gamblers (52 males and 1 female), 78 laypersons (45 females and 33 males) and 34 amateurs (all males). After a thorough statistical analysis, we found no significant differences between the groups, no matter what kind of previous knowledge they had acquired. This study demonstrates that the 'illusion of control' of pathological gamblers, attained by knowledge of the game and its latest data and information (especially in a strategic gamble as football betting), has no factual background. Moreover, our study demonstrates without a doubt that there is no significant difference between the male pathological sports gamblers group and the male/female laypersons group. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Newton, Joshua D; White, Peta E; Ewing, Michael T; Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin A; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Seward, Hugh; Finch, Caroline F
Sporting bodies have developed guidelines for managing community-level players with suspected concussion in response to international consensus statements on concussion in sport. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence the intended use of concussion guidelines among community-level coaches and sports trainers from two popular football codes in Australia: Australian football and rugby league. Cross-sectional survey. The survey, based on an extended theory of planned behaviour model, was completed by 183 Australian football coaches, 121 Australian football sports trainers, 171 rugby league coaches, and 142 rugby league sports trainers. Personal norms and self-efficacy were significant predictors of intention to use concussion guidelines, although the relationship between self-efficacy and intention was stronger among Australian football coaches than rugby league coaches. Analysis of the salient beliefs that underpin self-efficacy found that coaches, irrespective of football code, felt less familiar (χ(2)=25.70, psports trainers in using the concussion guidelines. At the same time, Australian football personnel, irrespective of their team role, felt that they had insufficient time (χ(2)=8.04, psport concussion guidelines should focus on enhancing self-efficacy and leveraging personal norms. Increasing coaches' familiarity and experience in using the concussion guidelines would also be warranted, as would finding ways to overcome the perceived time and resource constraints identified among Australian football personnel. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mamta Sharma; Gagandeep Kaur
Music therapy is increasingly used in sports for enhancing sport performance. It provides a mean of improving mental strength among sportspersons. The purpose of this study is to enhance intrinsic motivation, physical self-efficacy and performance of female football players through music therapy. For this purpose, twenty two female football players, in the age group of 21-26 were screened on the basis of their scores on Sport Motivation Scale and Physical Self-Efficacy Scale. Then, they were ...
Ekinci, Ezgi Samar; Beyleroglu, Malik; Ulukan, Hasan; Konuklar, Ercan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Erbay, Adem
In this study, it's to aim for comparison of some physical and physiological parameters of footballers at "The Erenler Sport Team" and "Didim Municipality Sport Team". Thirty volunteers sportsman from each two teams joined to this research. It measured the values of age, weight, length, flexibility, balance, power of left-right…
İlhan, Erol; Çelik, Elçin
Football is one of thegreatest phenomena in the world which has mass audiences and increasingly got popular during the the 20thand 21st centuries both in Turkey and World wide. Sports has become a globalindustry with its developing structures. Sports (soccer), media is the dominantfactor reach the audiences. On the other hand Sports journalism is a field thatconnected to football and media, which is followed by the people who shows a greatinterest to this field (area). Recently sports journa...
Laudner, Kevin G
Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.
Zerguini, Yacine; Ahmed, Qanta A; Dvorak, Jiri
Islam is a monotheistic Abrahamic faith characterised by devotional orthopraxy. The actions expected of followers of Islam are closely prescribed in the Qur'an. Muslims understand Ramadan as a mandatory requirement, excused only in the event of illness, infirmity or extremes of age. Due to the increasing popularity of football among Muslims, more and more Muslim football players of all levels make the decision to follow the Ramadan fast while they need to practise and compete. Sports medicine clinicians and scientists have the responsibility to provide them with the knowledge and evidence on how exactly Ramadan fasting impacts on their performance and how to optimise their eating, drinking and sleeping in order to minimise negative effects of their religious practice, should any have been demonstrated. The first International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA) Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) study concluded that biochemical, nutritional, subjective well-being and performance variables were not adversely affected in young male national level players who followed Ramadan fasting in a controlled environment. Match performance was however not measured and the study did not include elite level players, leading to the Ramadan consensus meeting in order to answer the remaining questions. The conclusions and recommendations published in this supplement suggest that the best coping strategies will remain individual - as is the choice to fast.
Göksu, Ömer Can; Yüksek, Selami; Ölmez, Cengiz
This study was conducted to examine the effects of sports activities other than soccer on 10-15-year-old soccer players' motor skills. The sample included 146 registered soccer players in the U category (U10-U15) of the Turkish Football Federation's Aslantepe, Çeliktepe and Seyrantepe clubs. The players participated in this study on a voluntary…
Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Johnson, Daniel J; Zuckerman, Scott L; Solomon, Gary S
Significant attention has been directed toward the immediate and long-term effects of sport-related concussions on athletes participating in contact sports, particularly football. The highest level of football, the National Football League (NFL), has received significant attention and criticism regarding player management and safety after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several review articles have reported data related to concussion in the NFL, but a succinct review and synthesis of data regarding NFL concussions is currently lacking. To (1) review systematically the published data regarding concussion in the NFL and assess limitations of the studies, (2) elucidate areas where further research is needed, and (3) identify methods to improve future investigations of concussion in the NFL. Systematic review of literature. English-language titles and abstracts published between 1900 and September 2014 were searched systematically across electronic databases, and a review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed journal articles were included if they contained NFL concussion data with or without additional associated long-term effects. Reviews, editorials, letters to the editor, and comments were not included. Of the 344 records screened for review, 88 articles were assessed for eligibility. There were 31 studies that met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the evidence synthesis. Included in the current review were 8 case-control studies (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine evidence level 3b), 6 descriptive epidemiological studies (level 4), 6 cross-sectional studies (level 4), 6 cohort studies (level 2b), and 5 case series (level 4). The study of concussions in the NFL has been limited by lack of recent empirical data, reliance on self-reported concussion history, and ascertainment bias of brains donated for autopsy studies. The scientific community
Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C
performed in Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: Seven trials were included: six on football players (four male and two female populations) and one on male handball players. In total there were 4191 participants with a total of 157 injuries. The primary analysis, including all participants, did not show...... a significant reduction in the number of groin injuries after completing a groin injury prevention programme (relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.09). Subgroup analysis based on type of sports, gender and type of prevention programme showed similar non-significant estimates with RR ranging from 0.48 to 0......BACKGROUND/AIM: Groin injuries are common in football and ice hockey, and previous groin injury is a strong risk factor for future groin injuries, which calls for primary prevention. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of specific groin-injury prevention programmes...
Ryan, Allan J.
The modern history of sports medicine is chronicled in a discussion of the first writings in English on sports medicine. What may have been the first writing in English is a section on first aid in the ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SPORT, published in England in 1898. It describes injuries commonly sustained in angling, boxing, cricket, cycling, football,…
Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Plant, Katherine L; Read, Gemma J M; Mclean, Scott; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M
As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management. Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) were searched for the dates 01 January 1990 to 01 August 2017, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers. Reported analyses were underpinned by a recognised systems ergonomics method, and study aims were related to the optimisation of sports performance (e.g. communication, playing style, technique, tactics, or equipment), and/or the management of sports injury (i.e. identification, prevention, or treatment). A total of seven articles were identified. Two articles were focussed on understanding and optimising sports performance, whereas five examined sports injury management. The methods used were the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork, Cognitive Work Analysis (the Work Domain Analysis Abstraction Hierarchy), Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Processes method. The individual sport application was distance running, whereas the team sports contexts examined were cycling, football, Australian Football League, and rugby union. The included systems ergonomics applications were highly flexible, covering both amateur and elite sports contexts. The studies were rated as valuable, providing descriptions of injury controls and causation, the factors influencing injury management, the allocation of responsibilities for injury prevention, as well as the factors and their interactions underpinning sports performance. Implications and future
Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin
The objectives of the study were to assess the relationship between various player and game factors and risk of concussion; and to assess the reliability of video analysis for mechanistic assessment of concussion in Australian football. Prospective cohort study. All impacts and collisions resulting in concussion were identified during the 2011 Australian Football League season. An extensive list of factors for assessment was created based upon previous analysis of concussion in Australian Football League and expert opinions. The authors independently reviewed the video clips and correlation for each factor was examined. A total of 82 concussions were reported in 194 games (rate: 8.7 concussions per 1000 match hours; 95% confidence interval: 6.9-10.5). Player demographics and game variables such as venue, timing of the game (day, night or twilight), quarter, travel status (home or interstate) or score margin did not demonstrate a significant relationship with risk of concussion; although a higher percentage of concussions occurred in the first 5min of game time of the quarter (36.6%), when compared to the last 5min (20.7%). Variables with good inter-rater agreement included position on the ground, circumstances of the injury and cause of the impact. The remainder of the variables assessed had fair-poor inter-rater agreement. Common problems included insufficient or poor quality video and interpretation issues related to the definitions used. Clear definitions and good quality video from multiple camera angles are required to improve the utility of video analysis for concussion surveillance in Australian football. Copyright Â© 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne
Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports.
Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike
In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.
determining the winner in rain-affected international cricket matches, has been a regular attendee since 1996 and once again presented his latest views on fairer scoring systems in cricket. It was also great to see Professor John Norman from Sheffield University appear again, as he was at the first conference in 1992, and he presented his work on Naismith's rule as it applies to competitive mountain trekking.The MathSport community appreciated His Worship the Gold Coast Mayor and former world record holder over middle distances, Ron Clarke, for giving up some of his valuable time to officially open the conference. His opening remarks both inspired the audience and put the science of sport into a practical context through him relating his experiences in athletics. In addition, we were fortunate to have two prominent sports scientists as keynote speakers in Roger Bartlett (Professor of Sports Science at the University of Otago and Dr Stuart Morgan (Sports Scientist - Victorian Institute of Sport who delivered their keynote addresses "Artificial Intelligence in Sports Biomechanics: New dawn or false hope?" and "Synergy in Sport: directions, convergence and opportunity in high performance sport".The first 17 papers in this issue provide an array of topics that typified the broad range of presentations at the conference. These include papers covering research methodologies that span across mathematical modelling and real-time computer analysis of movement through to biomechanical and performance analysis. These analyses were applied to a variety of sports such as football, tennis, cricket and swimming through to lawn bowls and gymnastics.The editors are grateful for the assistance given by the reviewers of these papers, particularly Dr Keith Lyons (Australian Institute of Sport and Associate Professor Hugh Morton (Massey University, who were independent of the conference participants.
Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus
European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...
Osborne, Hamish R; Quinlan, John F; Allison, Garry T
Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footba...
Feddersen, Arne; Rott, Armin
This study analyzes all 216 broadcasts of the German national football team from January 1993 to June 2008 to identify which factors ensure the success of televised sport broadcasts. The results reveal that demand depends mostly on the type of match and its importance in a tournament context. Vie...... rights agencies, advertisers, and media planners in determining the value of a particular broadcast....
Judge, Lawrence W; Kumley, Roberta F; Bellar, David M; Pike, Kim L; Pierson, Eric E; Weidner, Thomas; Pearson, David; Friesen, Carol A
Judge, LW, Kumley, RF, Bellar, DM, Pike, KL, Pierson, EE, Weidner, T, Pearson, D, and Friesen, CA. Hydration and fluid replacement knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American football players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2972-2978, 2016-Hydration is an important part of athletic performance, and understanding athletes' hydration knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors is critical for sport practitioners. The aim of this study was to assess National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 (D1) American football players, with regard to hydration and fluid intake before, during, and after exercise, and to apply this assessment to their overall hydration practice. The sample consisted of 100 student-athletes from 2 different NCAA D1 universities, who participated in voluntary summer football conditioning. Participants completed a survey to identify the fluid and hydration knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, demographic data, primary football position, previous nutrition education, and barriers to adequate fluid consumption. The average Hydration Knowledge Score (HKS) for the participants in the present study was 11.8 ± 1.9 (69.4% correct), with scores ranging from 42 to 100% correct. Four key misunderstandings regarding hydration, specifically related to intervals of hydration habits among the study subjects, were revealed. Only 24% of the players reported drinking enough fluids before, during, immediately after, and 2 hours after practice. Generalized linear model analysis predicted the outcome variable HKS (χ = 28.001, p = 0.045), with nutrition education (Wald χ = 8.250, p = 0.041) and position on the football team (χ = 9.361, p = 0.025) being significant predictors. "Backs" (e.g., quarterbacks, running backs, and defensive backs) demonstrated significantly higher hydration knowledge than "Linemen" (p = 0.014). Findings indicated that if changes are not made to increase hydration awareness levels among football teams
Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 400 million men and women. In addition to the wide range of sport-specific technical and tactical skills needed, several physical components have been shown to be necessary to perform at a high level. The present PhD thesis is based...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... systematic differences between the playing positions can be detected. Lately, field tests have become more frequently used in football than the laboratory tests used in Study I. Study II therefore aims to assess the validity of one of them, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Along...
McKee, Ann C; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Alvarez, Victor E; Stein, Thor D
The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing dementia, and impedes neurodegeneration. Nonetheless, the play of sports is associated with risks, including a risk for mild TBI (mTBI) and, rarely, catastrophic traumatic injury and death. There is also growing awareness that repetitive mTBIs, such as concussion and subconcussion, can occasionally produce persistent cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems as well as lead to the development of a neurodegeneration, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In this review, we summarize the beneficial aspects of sports participation on psychological, emotional, physical and cognitive health, and specifically analyze some of the less common adverse neuropathological outcomes, including concussion, second-impact syndrome, juvenile head trauma syndrome, catastrophic sudden death, and CTE. CTE is a latent neurodegeneration clinically associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction and cognitive impairments, and pathologically characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, neuronal and axonal loss, and abnormal deposits of paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and 43 kDa TAR deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding protein (TDP-43). CTE often occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including motor neuron disease (CTE-MND). Although the incidence and prevalence of CTE are not known, CTE has been reported most frequently in American football players and boxers. Other sports associated with CTE include ice hockey, professional
Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak
Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.
Mello, Michael J; Myers, Richard; Christian, Jennifer B; Palmisciano, Lynne; Linakis, James G
Limited research exists describing youth football injuries, and many of these are confined to specific regions or communities. The authors describe U.S. pediatric football injury patterns receiving emergency department (ED) evaluation and compare injury patterns between the younger and older youth football participants. A retrospective analysis of ED data on football injuries was performed using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program. Injury risk estimates were calculated over a 5-year period (2001-2005) using participation data from the National Sporting Goods Association. Injury types are described for young (7-11 years) and adolescent (12-17 years) male football participants. There were an estimated total of 1,060,823 visits to U.S. EDs for males with football-related injuries. The most common diagnoses in the younger group (7-11 years) were fracture/dislocation (29%), sprain/strain (27%), and contusion (27%). In the older group (ages 12-17 years), diagnoses included sprain/strain (31%), fracture/dislocation (29%), and contusion (23%). Older participants had a significantly higher injury risk of injury over the 5-year study period: 11.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.2 to 12.8) versus 6.1 (95% CI = 4.8 to 7.3) per 1,000 participants/year. Older participants had a higher injury risk across all categories, with the greatest disparity being with traumatic brain injury (TBI), 0.8 (95% CI = 0.6 to 1.0) versus 0.3 (95% CI = 0.2 to 0.4) per 1,000 participants/year. National youth football injury patterns are similar to those previously reported in community and cohort studies. Older participants have a significantly higher injury risk, especially with TBI.
Brackenridge, CH; Bringer, JD; Cockburn, C; Nutt, G; Pawlaczek, Z; Pitchford, A; Russell, K
In common with most sport organisations, the English Football Association has come relatively recently to the issue of child protection. Abuses of various kinds have been known about in the sport for many years but, until the late 1990s, very little systematic work was undertaken to address this. The launch of a Child Protection Strategy by the Engalish FA in May 2000 reflected recognition by those in authority within the sport that child abuse and protection were properly the subject of foot...
The purpose of this descriptive research is to present what kind of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities English football clubs are implementing. The paper was designed by approaching the examples of the twenty clubs playing in the 2010-2011 season of the Premier League. A key finding is that football clubs are not only interested in the sporting outcome on the field, but they are also aware of their social status. An implication of this research would be to encourage academics to...
Salgado, Paulo Jorge Castro Faria; Ruão, Teresa
Football clubs, as any type of organization, have a reputation to be managed. More than a sport, football is a business activity that generates high revenues, attracts considerable investments and extreme media exposure. Therefore, reputation management might be considered a key function, when it comes to shape the perceptions of a club’s constituents. As Fombrun (1996) noted, reputations are partly a reflection of the organization’s identity and also their efforts to develop a favorable imag...
Constandt, Bram; De Waegeneer, Els; Willem, Annick
As football (soccer) clubs are facing different ethical challenges, many clubs are turning to ethical codes to counteract unethical behaviour. However, both in- and outside the sport field, uncertainty remains about the effectiveness of these ethical codes. For the first time, a longitudinal study design was adopted to evaluate code effectiveness. Specifically, a sample of non-professional football clubs formed the subject of our inquiry. Ethical code effectiveness was...
Hertbert F. Moorhouse
The paper aims to provoke discussion about two issues. Firstly, how do economic ideas, concepts, theories, principles and information enter into the discourse of the owners and controllers of Europe’s most popular sport – football – and into political discussion about the game? It stresses the role management consultants have created for themselves in the new football 'industry'. Secondly, as a specific example of the general concern, the paper considers the role of the Deloitte company in Eu...
Chu, J; McNally, S; Bruyninckx, F; Neuhauser, D
Autonomous twitch elicitation at myofascial trigger points from spondylotic radiculopathies-induced denervation supersensitivity can provide favourable pain relief using electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ETOIMS). To provide objective evidence that ETOIMS is safe and efficacious in migraine and persistent pain management due to decades-old injuries to head and spine from paediatric American football. An 83-year-old mildly hypertensive patient with 25-year history of refractory migraine and persistent pain self-selected to regularly receive fee-for-service ETOIMS 2/week over 20 months. He had 180 sessions of ETOIMS. Pain levels, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate/pulse were recorded before and immediately after each treatment alongside highest level of clinically elicitable twitch forces/session, session duration and intervals between treatments. Twitch force grades recorded were from 1 to 5, grade 5 twitch force being strongest. Initially, there was hypersensitivity to electrical stimulation with low stimulus parameters (500 µs pulse-width, 30 mA stimulus intensity, frequency 1.3 Hz). This resolved with gradual stimulus increments as tolerated during successive treatments. By treatment 27, autonomous twitches were noted. Spearman's correlation coefficients showed that pain levels are negatively related to twitch force, number of treatments, treatment session duration and directly related to BP and heart rate/pulse. Treatment numbers and session durations directly influence twitch force. At end of study, headaches and quality of life improved, hypertension resolved and antihypertensive medication had been discontinued. Using statistical process control methodology in an individual patient, we showed long-term safety and effectiveness of ETOIMS in simultaneous diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of migraine and persistent pain in real time obviating necessity for randomised controlled studies.
Cláudio Vicente di Gioia F. Silva
Full Text Available World sport has been seen as a growing industry, generating revenues of roughly US$ 1 trillion a year. Playing a major role in this industry, football (soccer is accountable for an annual turnover of approximately US$ 250 billion – Brazil’s share being approximately 1% of that amount. The growing marketing and globalization of football has brought up new topics such as: the risks associated with competitiveness; the need for professional management; creating corporate teams; sports strategies and marketing; accounting; accountability.This paper aims at: i understanding the risks associated with the competitiveness of football leagues; ii comparing the competitive balance in the five largest European football markets (Germany, Spain, France, England and Italy in relation with Brazilian football and; iii interpreting these results in view of the literature concerning sports administration.
Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit M; Lee, Michael J; Chapman, Jens R
Cervical spondylolysis (CS) is a rare condition and is even more uncommon in pediatric patients. It is characterized by a disruption of the articular mass at the junction of the superior and inferior facet joints and often is diagnosed incidentally. The C6 level is most commonly involved, and the cause of CS remains unknown. There are no recommendations in the literature regarding activity modification in patients with CS and no discussion as to risks of participation in American football or other contact sports. To report a case of C6 bilateral cervical spondylolysis with bicuspid spinous process and to discuss radiographic/clinical findings and issues related to participation in contact sports and minimizing the risk of spinal cord injury. Case report with 6 months clinical/radiographic follow-up Radiographic description, clinical findings, and current review of the literature. A pediatric patient presented with a bilateral C6 cervical spondylolysis and bicuspid spinous process after an American football-related minor cervical spine trauma. Findings on radiographs indicated that the spondylolysis appeared to be chronic in nature, without evidence of instability. The patient and his family were educated on ways to decrease the risk of spinal cord injury with contact sports, after which the patient was allowed to participate fully in sports without restrictions or adverse events. Pediatric cervical spondylolysis is a rare condition, the cause of which remains debated. Although there is theoretical risk, more than 1.5 million youth participate in American football annually, and there have been no reported cases of significant spinal cord injury in patients with CS from football or other contact sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar
Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840
Full Text Available This article focuses on the experiences of a group of women footballers growing up in England. It specifically looks at their similarities and differences in relation to how they entered the world of football and whether gender relations continue to impact on both their access to and opportunities in sport. The discussion draws on information from nine semi structured interviews with women of varying ages and mixed abilities who have grown up and played football in England. The interview data highlights the prevalence of early male influence within the game and what effect the school education system has on young girls. What emerges from the interviews is that male figures tend to be the most influential in encouraging girls to play football. Developments seem to be being made at primary school level as girls’ access to football is improving. However, whatever strides are gained becomes lost as soon as the girls commence secondary school, due to the absence of football from the curriculum. As the girls reach adulthood the traditional feminine values are more highly sort after, so ‘tomboyish’ behaviours are considered unsuitable and unnatural. There are entrenched cultural attitudes towards the women’s game, which are proving hard to break down. These along with the physical barriers make women’s involvement in sport very difficult, even more so with football.
PANAGIOTIS E. DIMITROPOULOS
Full Text Available The year 1979 was a cornerstone for the football in Greece, since it practically meant the transformation of the sport’s organization from amateurism to professionalism, establishing new rules and conditions to the management of football clubs. The increased popularity of this sport and the evolutions that took place in Europe and worldwide, forced the Greek government to establish a legislative framework for the successful management of football clubs. These interventions lead to changes in many aspects of football management such as organizational and financial. The new legal environment of football management, required the organization of this sport into a more stable and professional base, following the financial standards of other corporations operating within the Greek state. By these means the government wanted to create a fair economic framework under which the football clubs would operate with common organizational, financial and tax administration rules. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of the new «capital form» establishment of the football clubs (Societe Anonyme, the main financial frame under which the new establishment has to operate and the tax obligations that originate from the aforementioned legal form.
Full Text Available Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old were divided into one experiment (n = 13 and one control group (n = 14. Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale, history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28 in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14 = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study, to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given
Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; Bailes, Julian; McCrea, Michael; Harding, Herndon P; Matthews, Amy; Mihalik, Johna Register; Cantu, Robert C
The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between prior head injury and the likelihood of being diagnosed with clinical depression among retired professional football players with prior head injury exposure. A general health questionnaire, including information about prior injuries, the SF-36 (Short Form 36), and other markers for depression, was completed by 2552 retired professional football players with an average age of 53.8 (+/-13.4) yr and an average professional football-playing career of 6.6 (+/-3.6) yr. A second questionnaire focusing on mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-related issues was completed by a subset of 758 retired professional football players (50 yr and older). Two hundred sixty-nine (11.1%) of all respondents reported having prior or current diagnosis of clinical depression. There was an association between recurrent concussion and diagnosis of lifetime depression (chi2=71.21, df=2, Pdiabetes. Our findings suggest a possible link between recurrent sport-related concussion and increased risk of clinical depression. The findings emphasize the importance of understanding potential neurological consequences of recurrent concussion.
Bruno Bonnechere, Benoit Beyer, Marcel Rooze, Jan Serge Van Sint
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of three different sprint start patterns to determine the safest position in term of neck injury and Sport-Related Concussion (SRC. The second objective was to collect data on the learning process effect between football players and non-players. Three different sprint initial positions adopted by football players were studied (i.e., 4-, 3- and 2-point positions. Twenty five young healthy males, including 12 football players, participated to this study. A stereophotogrammetric system (i.e., Vicon was used to record motion patterns and body segments positions. Various measurements related to head and trunk orientation, and player field-of-view were obtained (e.g., head height, trunk bending, time to reach upright position, head speed (vertical direction and body speed (horizontal direction. Learning process was found to have no influence on studied parameters. Head redress is also delayed when adopting a 4-point position leading to a reduce field-of-view during the start and increasing therefore the probability of collision. Concerning the three different positions, the 4-point position seems to be the more dangerous because leading to higher kinetic energy than the 2- and 3-point start positions. This study proposes a first biomechanical approach to understand risk/benefit balance for athletes for those three different start positions. Results suggested that the 4-point position is the most risky for football players.
Krustrup, P; Dvorak, J; Junge, A; Bangsbo, J
The present special issue of Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports deals with health and fitness benefits of regular participation in small-sided football games. One review article and 13 original articles were the result of a 2-year multi-center study in Copenhagen and Zurich and include studies of different age groups analyzed from a physiological, medical, social and psychological perspective. The main groups investigated were middle-aged, former untrained, healthy men and women who were followed for up to 16 months. In addition, elderly, children and hypertensive patients were studied. A summary and interpretations of the main findings divided into an analysis of the physical demands during training of various groups and the effect of a period of training on performance, muscle adaptations and health profile follow. In addition, social and psychological effects on participation in recreational football are considered, the comparison of football training and endurance running is summarized and the effects of football practice on the elderly and children and youngsters are presented.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8% of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29 and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8% were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8% by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3% with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction.
Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn
manufacturers and models. Overall, for new and reconditioned football helmets, the most common helmet manufacturers and models on the market today appear to provide high school football players with similar protection against concussions. Concussions can have serious acute and long-term effects. An understanding of concussion patterns in high school athletes can drive targeted preventive measures, including improvements to and/or better use of protective equipment, to reduce the incidence and/or severity of sports-related concussions. © 2016 The Author(s).
Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el descenso de la violencia permitida y ejercida en el terreno de juego a principios de la década de los noventa en el fútbol profesional español. Para ello se ha procedido a desarrollar una investigación cualitativa que incluye 31 entrevistas, que incluyen a once futbolistas profesionales, once entrenadores, cinco periodistas y tres árbitros en activo en el periodo estudiado y un historiador. La selección de la muestra se llevó a cabo a través de un muestreo de conveniencia y una técnica de captación de bola de nieve. Estas entrevistas muestran que la violencia era parte de la ética profesional y que su reducción se llevó a cabo a través de una doble coerción, el aumento del rigor disciplinario y la denuncia de los medios de comunicación. Esta pacificación formó parte de la imposición del nuevo discurso hegemónico del fútbol espectáculo ligado a los cambios en el modelo de negocio. En consecuencia, la identidad de los futbolistas estuvo menos ligada a una masculinidad tradicional, y debieron desarrollar nuevas habilidades de mayor peso cognitivo para adaptarse. Abstract The objective of this article is to analyze how exerted and allowed violence was reduced in Spanish professional football in the nineties decade. In order to do so, a qualitative research was undertaken carrying on 31 in-depth interviews, including eleven footballers, eleven football managers, five journalists and three referees, all active during the period under study, and one historian. A theoretical sample was designed, and participants recruited through a snow ball technique. The interviews show that violence was part of the professional ethics, and that its reduction was made possible through the hardening of the discipline and the pressure from the media. This pacification was part of a new discourse of show business linked to the commodification process in place. Footballers’ identity was in turn less
Sharp, N C Craig
Since Hugh Montgomery discovered the first of what are now nearly 200 "fitness genes", together with rapid advances in human gene therapy, there is now a real prospect of the use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and suggests a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport.
Smart, Blair J; Haring, R Sterling; Asemota, Anthony O; Scott, John W; Canner, Joseph K; Nejim, Besma J; George, Benjamin P; Alsulaim, Hatim; Kirsch, Thomas D; Schneider, Eric B
American tackle football is the most popular high-energy impact sport in the United States, with approximately 9 million participants competing annually. Previous epidemiologic studies of football-related injuries have generally focused on specific geographic areas or pediatric age groups. Our study sought to examine patient characteristics and outcomes, including hospital charges, among athletes presenting for emergency department (ED) treatment of football-related injury across all age groups in a large nationally representative data set. Patients presenting for ED treatment of injuries sustained playing American tackle football (identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code E007.0) from 2010 to 2011 were studied in the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Patient-specific injuries were identified using the primary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code and categorized by type and anatomical region. Standard descriptive methods examined patient demographics, diagnosis categories, and ED and inpatient outcomes and charges. During the study period 397363 football players presented for ED treatment, 95.8% of whom were male. Sprains/strains (25.6%), limb fractures (20.7%), and head injuries (including traumatic brain injury; 17.5%) represented the most presenting injuries. Overall, 97.9% of patients underwent routine ED discharge with 1.1% admitted directly and fewer than 11 patients in the 2-year study period dying prior to discharge. The proportion of admitted patients who required surgical interventions was 15.7%, of which 89.9% were orthopedic, 4.7% neurologic, and 2.6% abdominal. Among individuals admitted to inpatient care, mean hospital length of stay was 2.4days (95% confidence interval, 2.2-2.6) and 95.6% underwent routine discharge home. The mean total charge for all patients was $1941 (95% confidence interval, $1890-$1992) with substantial
We must point out that the results of football games affect the competitive balance degree. In other words, the calculations we made in the score table at the end of the season give us a degree of competitive balance. The degree on which the concept of competitiveness is based is cited as competitive balance in football. Sports economics can be…
Hutton, Michael James; McGuire, Robert A.; Dunn, Robert; Williams, Richard; Robertson, Peter; Twaddle, Bruce; Kiely, Patrick; Clarke, Andrew; Mazda, Keyvan; Davies, Paul; Pagarigan, Krystle T.; Dettori, Joseph R.
Study Design Systematic review. Objectives To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby (n = 10), American football (n = 3), and Irish hurling (n = 1). Among Rugby Union players, incidence of CCSI was 4.1 per 100,000 player-hours. Among National Football League players, the CCSI rate was 0.6 per 100,000 player-exposures. At the collegiate level, the CCSI rate ranged from 1.1 to 4.7 per 100,000 player-years. Mixed populations of elite and recreational rugby players in four studies report a CCSI rate of 1.4 to 7.2 per 100,000 player-years. In this same population, the scrum accounted for 30 to 51% of total reported CCSIs in Rugby Union versus 0 to 4% in Rugby League. The tackle accounted for 29 to 39% of injuries in Rugby Union and 78 to 100% of injuries in Rugby League. Making a tackle was responsible for 29 to 80% of injuries in American football. Conclusion CCSIs are infrequent among elite athletes. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effect of protective gear (e.g., helmets, padding) on CCSI incidence. Scrum and tackle in rugby and tackling in American football account for the majority of CCSIs in each respective sport. PMID:27781193
Hutton, Michael James; McGuire, Robert A; Dunn, Robert; Williams, Richard; Robertson, Peter; Twaddle, Bruce; Kiely, Patrick; Clarke, Andrew; Mazda, Keyvan; Davies, Paul; Pagarigan, Krystle T; Dettori, Joseph R
Study Design Systematic review. Objectives To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby ( n = 10), American football ( n = 3), and Irish hurling ( n = 1). Among Rugby Union players, incidence of CCSI was 4.1 per 100,000 player-hours. Among National Football League players, the CCSI rate was 0.6 per 100,000 player-exposures. At the collegiate level, the CCSI rate ranged from 1.1 to 4.7 per 100,000 player-years. Mixed populations of elite and recreational rugby players in four studies report a CCSI rate of 1.4 to 7.2 per 100,000 player-years. In this same population, the scrum accounted for 30 to 51% of total reported CCSIs in Rugby Union versus 0 to 4% in Rugby League. The tackle accounted for 29 to 39% of injuries in Rugby Union and 78 to 100% of injuries in Rugby League. Making a tackle was responsible for 29 to 80% of injuries in American football. Conclusion CCSIs are infrequent among elite athletes. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effect of protective gear (e.g., helmets, padding) on CCSI incidence. Scrum and tackle in rugby and tackling in American football account for the majority of CCSIs in each respective sport.
Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. Despite being the most popular sport in the United States, most American football game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takesmanyman hours per week. These two statistics are the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this chapter, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67%accuracy in classifying the offensive team’s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison.
Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E
Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game
Lindsay B. Baker
Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before
Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard
levels (Schein, 2004) in which each player and his actions can be considered an artefact - a concrete symbol in motion embedded in espoused values and basic assumptions. Therefore, the actions of each dialect are strongly connected to the underlying understanding of football. By document and video......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...
Li, Baoxin; Errico, James; Pan, Hao; Sezan, M. Ibrahim
One of the major challenges facing current media management systems and the related applications is the so-called "semantic gap" between the rich meaning that a user desires and the shallowness of the content descriptions that are automatically extracted from the media. In this paper, we address the problem of bridging this gap in the sports domain. We propose a general framework for indexing and summarizing sports broadcast programs. The framework is based on a high-level model of sports broadcast video using the concept of an event, defined according to domain-specific knowledge for different types of sports. Within this general framework, we develop automatic event detection algorithms that are based on automatic analysis of the visual and aural signals in the media. We have successfully applied the event detection algorithms to different types of sports including American football, baseball, Japanese sumo wrestling, and soccer. Event modeling and detection contribute to the reduction of the semantic gap by providing rudimentary semantic information obtained through media analysis. We further propose a novel approach, which makes use of independently generated rich textual metadata, to fill the gap completely through synchronization of the information-laden textual data with the basic event segments. An MPEG-7 compliant prototype browsing system has been implemented to demonstrate semantic retrieval and summarization of sports video.
Full Text Available Purpose. One of the keys to identifying health problems from the holistic perspective is the knowledge of Type D personality (distressed personality. Diagnosing this personality disorder among female football players may help sports psychologists, coaches, parents/caregivers, and all those engaged in training new sports entrants develop guidelines on how to resolve the problem. Methods. The study involved female footballers representing a Polish Ekstraliga football club, AZS-PSW Biała Podlaska, and was conducted with the use of the Polish adaptation of the DS14 scale. Results. In a group of 21 footballers, 7 (33.3% were diagnosed with Type D personality. Besides, a negative correlation was noted between the level of satisfaction with playing football and one of the dimensions of Type D personality - negative emotionality. Conclusions. The results of the study may be applicable in formulating practical recommendations while preparing mental training programmes.
This volume comprises scientific contributions in the context of the 5th annual conference of the European Association of Sports Economics (ESEA), which took place in September 2013 in Esbjerg, Denmark. It contains five articles on UEFA’s financial fair play regulation in European football, written...... by internationally renowned sports economists like Stefan Szymanski, Joel Maxcy and Sean Hamil. Moreover, a further three chapters deal with football topics like the dismissal of coaches or competitive balance. Furthermore, the economics of sports events – the Olympics as well as local events – are analyzed by well......-known scholars like Wladimir Andreff and Plácido Rodríguez. Next to team sports, new developments of the economics of individual sports like cycling, ski-jumping and motor-racing are explored....
Christensen, Mette Krogh
Exploring Biographical Learning In Danish Elite Football Coaching Mette Krogh Christensen Abstract for EASS 2011(300 words) Background: There is a growing body of studies in sports coaching cultures, comprising research focusing on the individual learning processes and life histories of elite...... football coaches (n=8) about their pathways in elite sport. Using Kvale’s recommendations, thematic analysis was conducted by the use of meaning coding. In addition, a theoretical reading of the interview was conducted on the background of Alheit’s concept of biographicity and Werthner and Trudel...
Monroe, Kathy W; Thrash, Chris; Sorrentino, Annalise; King, William D
Participation in sports is a popular activity for children across the country. Prevention of sports-related injuries can be improved if details of injuries are documented and studied. A retrospective medical record review of injuries that occurred as a direct result of sports participation (both organized and non-organized play) from November 2006 to November 2007. Because the vast majority of injuries were a result of participation in football or basketball, these injuries were focused upon. The injuries specifically examined were closed head injury (CHI), lacerations and fractures. There were 350 football and 196 basketball injuries (total 546). Comparing injuries between the two groups fractures were found to be more prevalent in football compared to basketball (z = 2.14; p = 0.03; 95%CI (0.01, 0.16)). Lacerations were found to be less prevalent among helmeted patients than those without helmets. (z = 2.39; p = 0.02; 95%CI (-0.17,-0.03)). CHI was more prevalent among organized play compared to non-organized (z = 3.9; pfootball related visits, organized play had a higher prevalence of injury compared to non-organized play (z = 2.87; p = 0.004; 95%CI (0.04.0.21)). No differences in fracture or laceration prevalence were found between organized and non-organized play. Football and basketball related injuries are common complaints in a pediatric Emergency Department. Frequently seen injuries include CHI, fractures and lacerations. In our institution, fractures were more prevalent among football players and CHI was more prevalent among organized sports participants.
Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John
Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited
Beasley, Kevin J
Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4-5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5-7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted.
Patricios, Jon S; Hislop, Michael David; Aubry, Mark; Bloomfield, Paul; Broderick, Carolyn; Clifton, Patrick; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Falvey, Éanna Cian; Grand, Julie; Hack, Dallas; Harcourt, Peter Rex; Hughes, David; McGuirk, Nathan; Meeuwisse, Willem; Miller, Jeffrey; Parsons, John T; Richiger, Simona; Sills, Allen; Moran, Kevin B; Shute, Jenny; Raftery, Martin
The 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement provides a global summary of best practice in concussion prevention, diagnosis and management, underpinned by systematic reviews and expert consensus. Due to their different settings and rules, individual sports need to adapt concussion guidelines according to their specific regulatory environment. At the same time, consistent application of the Berlin Consensus Statement’s themes across sporting codes is likely to facilitate superior and uniform diagnosis and management, improve concussion education and highlight collaborative research opportunities. This document summarises the approaches discussed by medical representatives from the governing bodies of 10 different contact and collision sports in Dublin, Ireland in July 2017. Those sports are: American football, Australian football, basketball, cricket, equestrian sports, football/soccer, ice hockey, rugby league, rugby union and skiing. This document had been endorsed by 11 sport governing bodies/national federations at the time of being published. PMID:29500252
Veli Ozan ÇAKIR
Full Text Available Music as a fact which surrounds human being in all fields of life has been used as a tool for healing, communication, entertainment and also used in production wi th focusing function, in warfare with encouraging function and in sports with motivating function. (Colombe, 2006:34; Aydoğan, 2001:23. Shortly it can be claimed that music that is always in previous of movement is in relation with sports which is compose d by moving. The cheerings in sports culture are initially considered as very easy and si mple. However it can be claimed that they provide a deep and complex structure on behalf of the social events of their era. Cheerings as a part of intangible sports legacy provide the contiunity of tradition and incentive of creativity as an oral traditional form. The emotions are coming around and the memories are remembered through stimulating by music. Football always keep the attention alive therefore it gets a place in the society as a tool which entertains masses and unifies them through the same goal. The industralised structure of football is accepted as a tool of social engineering with the help of media which provides the power to create and change the agendum. In this meaning it is mentioned that football indicates the life styles, be liefs and values. In our study we will search the cheerings of spectators on the content of their relations with social conditions since 20th century in which modern football has been initially played in organised forms. In this context it is purposed to contribute into sociological analysis of modern football throughout the social meanings of football matches in different eras and socio - economic conditions and the relations between societies and football. There will be performed a theoretical research based on literature search.
Chan, Christie Wl; Eng, Janice J; Tator, Charles H; Krassioukov, Andrei
Despite the recognition of sports as a significant contributor in the etiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), no studies have systematically explored the epidemiology of SCI caused by sports. This paper aims to give a systematic overview of the epidemiology of sport-related spinal cord injury around the world. A systematic review was conducted to identify published literature reporting the epidemiology of SCI caused by sports. The literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Sportdiscus with date limits 1980 through to July 2015. Data from 54 studies covering 25 countries was extracted and collated. Important findings include identification of 6 countries in which sports accounts for over 13% of SCI (highest to lowest: Russia, Fiji, New Zealand, Iceland, France and Canada); individual sports with high risk for SCI (diving, skiing, rugby, and horseback riding); and the most common level of injury for various sports (almost entirely cervical for hockey, skiing, diving and American football, while over half of horseback riding and snowboarding injuries are thoracic or lumbosacral). This paper identifies countries and sports with higher rates of sport-related SCIs where implementation of prevention programs and reporting systems to track SCI epidemiology may be helpful, and highlights gaps in our current knowledge for further investigation. The comparison of SCI occurrence for each sport across countries, as well as examination of the specific characteristics of SCI incurred for individual sports will assist in directing efforts for prevention.
This article reviews developments in the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in sports biomechanics over the last decade. It outlines possible uses of Expert Systems as diagnostic tools for evaluating faults in sports movements ('techniques') and presents some example knowledge rules for such an expert system. It then compares the analysis of sports techniques, in which Expert Systems have found little place to date, with gait analysis, in which they are routinely used. Consideration is then given to the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in sports biomechanics, focusing on Kohonen self-organizing maps, which have been the most widely used in technique analysis, and multi-layer networks, which have been far more widely used in biomechanics in general. Examples of the use of ANNs in sports biomechanics are presented for javelin and discus throwing, shot putting and football kicking. I also present an example of the use of Evolutionary Computation in movement optimization in the soccer throw in, which predicted an optimal technique close to that in the coaching literature. After briefly overviewing the use of AI in both sports science and biomechanics in general, the article concludes with some speculations about future uses of AI in sports biomechanics. Key PointsExpert Systems remain almost unused in sports biomechanics, unlike in the similar discipline of gait analysis.Artificial Neural Networks, particularly Kohonen Maps, have been used, although their full value remains unclear.Other AI applications, including Evolutionary Computation, have received little attention.
Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R
American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of
Full Text Available Physical preparation of young footballers significantly difers from that of adult footballers. Young footballers,while growing and maturing,go through sensitive phases,namely periods, when it is the most convenient to influence on the development of certain characteristics and abilities. Physical abilities include motor and functional abilities. Motor abilities are:strength, speed, endurance, elacticity and coordination. Functional abilities include aerobic and anaerobic organism capacity. Football technique is the basic instrument of organising the football game. Technique has individual character. Technical preparation mainly covers training and improvement of basic football game techniques, namely, moving with and without ball and bringing technique to perfection
Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Jurga, Paulina; Piontek, Tomasz; Jakubowska, Honorata; Kotwicki, Tomasz
Female football is becoming an increasingly popular women's team sports discipline around the world. The Women's Football Committee in Polish Football Association (WFC_PFA) has developed a long-term strategic plan to popularize the discipline across the country and enhance girls' participation. On one hand, it is postulated to increase the number of female footballers, and on the other hand it is crucial to decrease the number of girls quitting football prematurely. To find the reasons for sports career termination among female football players. cross-sectional with retrospective information about reasons of career termination. On-line questionnaire was filled out by on-line access. Ninety-three former female footballers. factors leading to career termination. Participants completed the on-line questionnaire. The analysis was performed referring to two groups: "injury group" - in which the injury was the main reason for quitting football, and "other group" - in which the female player stopped playing football due to all other factors. Thirty percent of former Polish female football players terminated their career due to a long-term treatment for an injury. Over 27 percent (27.7%) females had ended their careers because they were not able to reconcile sports with work/studying. Over 10 percent (10.8%) of former football players reported that becoming a wife and/or mother was the reason for career termination. Losing motivation and interest in sport was reported by 9.2%(n=6) of present study participants who decided to terminate the career due to non-injury reasons. The results clearly show that more effort is needed to support female football players, especially after an injury, so that they do not quit the sport voluntarily.
Full Text Available Brazil has become the center of the spotlight of the whole world recently, amongst many other reasons, one of them was because it was chosen to host a series of mega sporting events - Pan American Games in 2007, Confederations Football Cup in 2013, Fifa Football World Cup 2014 Games and 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016. However, little is known about the country's administrative governmental structure focused on sport policy. The available studies focus their analysis on the sport policies content, but not on the arrangement of its structural decision-making. The main aim of this article is indeed to describe, based on official documentation, the evolution and the current arrangements of the government responsible for the administrative structure for the planning and implementation of sports policies in Brazil. Thus, we tried to list the main problems arising from the organization of the Brazilian sports' management. These problems are: (1 inappropriate institutional structure in terms of human resources and obstacles to participation by other social actors beyond the officials (parliament and members of the Ministry of Sports in the sports policy; (2 disarticulation between public institutions generating redundancies and conflicts of jurisdiction due to the poor division of labor between bureaucracy agencies; and (3 inadequate planning proved by the lack of organization of some institutions, and by the lack of assessment and continuity of public policies over time. Therefore, we must emphasize those problems from above, and due to these administrative arrangements, Brazilian sports' policy has big challenges in the sport development in this country, which includes the creation of a national "system" for sports and a priority investment in sport education.
Chung, Kevin C; Lark, Meghan E; Cederna, Paul S
Although football is one of the most popular sports in America, its high injury incidence places concern on the injury prevention and safety of its players. This article investigates the perspectives of two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 football coaches on promoting injury management and player safety while maintaining a highly competitive team. Through obtaining their coaching philosophy team management topics, effective strategies that contribute to a team culture prioritizing player well-being were identified. Interactions of football coaches with physicians and medical specialists are explored to highlight strengths that can optimize the care and treatment of football athletes. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Broman, Daniel; Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Tscholl, Philippe M; Weiler, Richard
Individuals with an impairment comprise more than 15% of the world's population, many of whom can benefit greatly from participation in sport. The provision of medical services in disability sport is a challenging area with a lack of scientific evidence. Given the positive impact that sport can have on the people with an impairment, it is vital that measures are taken to better understand the medical issues posed by disability sport. It is well established that medications and supplements are overused in sport, particularly within professional football, but there is no current evidence on medication or supplement use in elite disability football. To examine and describe the use of medication and supplements in disability football, before and during international tournaments, and to identify the profile of substances used by category. Prospective, descriptive, cohort study. International Blind Sport Association Football World Cup 2015 and the International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football World Cup 2015. Two hundred forty-two elite-level disability footballers, classified with B1 visual impairment or cerebral palsy. Team clinicians were asked to document all medication and supplements taken in the 48 hours before each match. This study recorded the use of 1648 substances in 242 players, with more than one half (53.1%) classified as supplements. There was an overall rate of 1.26 substances used per player per match and a medication use rate of 0.59 medications per player per match. Seventy percent (170/242) of players reported using at least one substance per tournament, with 57.9% (140/242) using at least one prescribed medication (63.6% of players at International Blind Sports Association World Games and 57.7% of players at International Federation of Cerebral Palsy World Cup). The most commonly prescribed category of medications was nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, representing 39.3% of all reported medications. This study highlights the potential
Gábor László Kovács
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the possible impact of multiple mild head traumas sustained during a long-term football career on the presence of central hypogonadism and growth hormone (GH deficiency. Methods: Twenty-seven retired, former professional male football players were investigated. All subjects were assessed for serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, luteinizing hormone (LH and total testosterone (TT. Quality of life was quantified using the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (QoL-AGHDA questionnaire. Results: Subjects had a median age of 48.0 (42.0 – 53.0 years and a median football career of 29.0 years (22.0 – 32.0. One subject had central hypogonadism and none had growth hormone deficiency. Nine subjects reported sport-related head injuries. We found a negative correlation between sport-related head injuries and serum LH (p = -0.459, P = 0.016. Subjects with a history of sport-related head injury had a median LH of 3.3 U/L (2.7 – 3.6, while those without a history of sport-related head injury had a median LH of 4.1 (U/L (3.6 – 5.7, P = 0.017. However, there were no differences in other hormones between the two groups. Moreover, we did not find any correlation between the duration of the player’s career nor their field position with hormone profiles or QoL-AGHDA. Conclusion: Although retired footfall players with a history of sport-related head injury had lower LH levels, we did not find strong evidence of an increased prevalence of central hypogonadism or GH deficiency in these patients. Our results suggest that a long-term football career, which includes headings and repetitive mild head traumas, does not damage the most vulnerable anterior pituitary cells.
Waldén, M; Hägglund, M; Bengtsson, H; Ekstrand, J
The high injury rate among men's professional football players is well-known. Therefore, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) launched an injury study already in 2001. This study, the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study (ECIS), currently includes data from a total of 51 clubs from 18 European countries with more than 14,000 registered injuries. With the 21 st World Cup (WC) in Russia just around the corner, we have from our study identified a higher match injury rate and a higher proportion of severe injuries in the European Championships compared to the preceding club competitive seasons. Moreover, we have also recently showed that the muscle injury rate is higher when players are given a recovery window of five days or less between two matches. Considering the congested match schedule of the upcoming WC, it is therefore likely that injuries and fatigue once again will be a topic of discussion this summer.
Webner, David; Iverson, Grant L
To examine publicly-available information on all identified cases of suicide in active or former American professional football players between 1920 and the spring of 2015. Retrospective cohort study. Professional American Football in the US. A cohort of 26 702 athletes who had died, retired or were currently playing in the NFL from nfl.com since 1920 was identified. Internet queries identifying 26 professional football players who completed suicide. Obituaries and news reports were reviewed. The primary outcome measures included mortality, demographic characteristics and life circumstances in professional American football players completing suicide. From 1920-2015, the median age of the 26 men who completed suicide was 39.5 years (range = 23-85). The median number of years after retirement was 6.5 (range = 0-63). Most of the deaths since 1920 have occurred in the past 15 years (58.7%) and a large percentage have occurred since 2009 (42.3%). Most of the men suffered from multiple life stressors prior to their deaths, such as retirement from sport, loss of steady income, divorce, failed business ventures, estrangement from family members and medical, psychiatric and/or substance abuse problems. A disproportionate number of completed suicides in current and former professional football players have occurred since 2009 (42.3%). It is well established in the literature that the causes of depression and suicidality are diverse, often multifactorial and treatable. Providing at-risk retired athletes with mental health treatment will likely reduce their suffering and improve their quality-of-life.
Woods, Carl T; Keller, Brad S; McKeown, Ian; Robertson, Sam
Woods, CT, Keller, BS, McKeown, I, and Robertson, S. A comparison of athletic movement among talent-identified juniors from different football codes in Australia: implications for talent development. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2440-2445, 2016-This study aimed to compare the athletic movement skill of talent-identified (TID) junior Australian Rules football (ARF) and soccer players. The athletic movement skill of 17 TID junior ARF players (17.5-18.3 years) was compared against 17 TID junior soccer players (17.9-18.7 years). Players in both groups were members of an elite junior talent development program within their respective football codes. All players performed an athletic movement assessment that included an overhead squat, double lunge, single-leg Romanian deadlift (both movements performed on right and left legs), a push-up, and a chin-up. Each movement was scored across 3 essential assessment criteria using a 3-point scale. The total score for each movement (maximum of 9) and the overall total score (maximum of 63) were used as the criterion variables for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of football code (2 levels) on the criterion variables, whereas a 1-way analysis of variance identified where differences occurred. A significant effect was noted, with the TID junior ARF players outscoring their soccer counterparts when performing the overhead squat and push-up. No other criterions significantly differed according to the main effect. Practitioners should be aware that specific sporting requirements may incur slight differences in athletic movement skill among TID juniors from different football codes. However, given the low athletic movement skill noted in both football codes, developmental coaches should address the underlying movement skill capabilities of juniors when prescribing physical training in both codes.
Vriend, Ingrid; Valkenberg, Huib; Schoots, Wim; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; van der Meulen, Wout J; Backx, Frank J G
The majority of football injuries are caused by trauma to the lower extremities. Shinguards are considered an important measure in preventing lower leg impact abrasions, contusions and fractures. Given these benefits, Fédération Internationale de Football Association introduced the shinguard law in 1990, which made wearing shinguards during matches mandatory. This study evaluated the effect of the introduction of the shinguard law for amateur players in the Netherlands in the 1999/2000-football season on the incidence of lower leg injuries. Time trend analyses on injury data covering 25 years of continuous registration (1986-2010). Data were retrieved from a system that records all emergency department treatments in a random, representative sample of Dutch hospitals. All injuries sustained in football by patients aged 6-65 years were included, except for injuries of the Achilles tendon and Weber fractures. Time trends were analysed with multiple regression analyses; a model was fitted consisting of multiple straight lines, each representing a 5-year period. Patients were predominantly males (92%) and treated for fractures (48%) or abrasions/contusions (52%) to the lower leg. The incidence of lower leg football injuries decreased significantly following the introduction of the shinguard law (1996-2000: -20%; 2001-2005: -25%), whereas the incidence of all other football injuries did not. This effect was more prominent at weekends/match days. No gender differences were found. The results significantly show a preventive effect of the shinguard law underlining the relevance of rule changes as a preventive measure and wearing shinguards during both matches and training sessions. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marcelo Machado de Freitas; Rafael Araújo Sousa Farias; Leonardo Flach
The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS), Palmeiras (SP) and Vasco (RJ), were not efficie...
White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua
Background Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players’ views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. Methods 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Results Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players’ rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players’ desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Conclusions Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport. PMID:28890801
Full Text Available In this paper attention is given to the mutual synergy between sports, commercials and alcohol. Therefore, we approach the research topic specified in the title with regards to the cultural history of football and beer, the functioning of the commercial industry within consumer culture and the structural practices of consuming football and beer trough which, at specific places and in special occasions, masculinity is performed. This research relies primarily on discourse analysis of football-beer commercials. For the purpose of enriching the insights gained by this method, a semi-structured interview was conducted with a market expert specialized in branding and an autoethnographic approach is present. The central part of the study is based on a corpus of advertisements that were broadcast on national television programs in the last ten years and that have emerged as part of a market designed advertising campaigns for major breweries during the World and European football championships. For the most of them, the common denominator is putting football fans in the forefront, whether in stadiums, bars, town squares or at home. Also, in most cases, they exclusively present male protagonists during their leisure time, united by their passion for football and beer, as well as their desire for relaxed socialization and fun. Apart from gender, the national context is essential, since these commercials usually visually, audibly and textually refer to the national football team of Croatia.
Hertbert F. Moorhouse
Full Text Available The paper aims to provoke discussion about two issues. Firstly, how do economic ideas, concepts, theories, principles and information enter into the discourse of the owners and controllers of Europe’s most popular sport – football – and into political discussion about the game? It stresses the role management consultants have created for themselves in the new football 'industry'. Secondly, as a specific example of the general concern, the paper considers the role of the Deloitte company in European football. Its publications – especially the Annual Reviews of Football Finance – have been very influential and the company has acted as consultants for UEFA on many of the key issues in contemporary football. The paper critically assesses the approach Deloitte has adopted to the commercialisation of football, and explores difficulties in the way it has analysed some of the key issues in European football. It suggests that some countervailing forces need to be created to limit the authority and influence Deloitte currently exercise.
This paper addresses the phenomenon of globalization, which has also spread to sports, in terms of its economic, social and cultural aspects; while discussing the concept based on examples from the discipline of football in the premier league of Turkey. In this framework, sports labor emigration mobility is handled, and sponsorship and the effects…
Thing, Lone Friis; Hybholt, Maria Gliemann; Ottesen, Laila
recreational football activities and the ‘Football Fitness’ concept are experienced from a participant perspective is examined. We investigate how the implementation is actually carried out in the local football clubs and identify constraining and enabling possibilities for the management of leisure time. We......The aim of the paper is to generate empirically based sociological knowledge about a ‘Football Fitness’ intervention carried out in associative sport clubs. There is an increased pressure on the voluntary sector, e.g. the sport clubs, to embrace new segments of users and to meet social and health......, and inspired by them, we have chosen to analyse Football Fitness as part of a spare-time spectrum. How do grown up women make sense of their new ‘football lives’?...
Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per; Nybo, L
The present review addresses the physiological demands during recreational football training and the effects on central health variables that influence the risk of life-style diseases of young and middle-aged men. Recent studies have established that recreational football, carried out as small......-sided games can be characterized as having a high aerobic component with mean heart rates of 80-85% of maximum heart rate, which is similar to values observed for elite football players. In addition, the training includes multiple high-speed runs, sprints, turns, jumps and tackles, which provide a high impact...... on muscles and bones. Recreational football training in untrained men results in marked improvements in maximum aerobic power, blood pressure, muscle capillarization and intermittent exercise performance, and those effects are similar to interval training and more pronounced than moderate...
Slobounov, Semyon M; Walter, Alexa; Breiter, Hans C; Zhu, David C; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Bream, Tim; Seidenberg, Peter; Mao, Xianglun; Johnson, Brian; Talavage, Thomas M
The cumulative effect of repetitive subconcussive collisions on the structural and functional integrity of the brain remains largely unknown. Athletes in collision sports, like football, experience a large number of impacts across a single season of play. The majority of these impacts, however, are generally overlooked, and their long-term consequences remain poorly understood. This study sought to examine the effects of repetitive collisions across a single competitive season in NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision athletes using advanced neuroimaging approaches. Players were evaluated before and after the season using multiple MRI sequences, including T 1 -weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin labeling (ASL), resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). While no significant differences were found between pre- and post-season for DTI metrics or cortical volumes, seed-based analysis of rs-fMRI revealed significant ( p Football Bowl Subdivision, even in the absence of clinical symptoms or a diagnosis of concussion. Whether these changes reflect compensatory adaptation to cumulative head impacts or more lasting alteration of brain integrity remains to be further explored.
Hoskin, Annette K; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Hanman, Kate; Lam, Geoffrey; Mackey, David A
To identify the causes of sports-related eye and adnexal injuries in children in Perth, Western Australia, to determine which sporting activities pose the highest risk of eye and adnexal injury to children. We performed a 12-year retrospective review of children admitted to hospital from 2002 to 2013 with sports-related ocular and adnexal eye injuries. The main outcome measures were the cause and type of ocular and adnexal injuries, age and gender risk factors. A total of 93 cases of sports-related ocular and adnexal injury were identified in the 12-year time period. A peak in injuries occurred for 12- to 14-year-olds with a second peak in 6- to 8-year-olds; the median age was 8.82 years (range = 1.59-16.47). Cycling, football (including soccer and Australian Rules Football), tennis, trampolining, fishing and swimming were the sports responsible for the greatest number of injuries, a total of 63%. More than one-third (35%) of injuries resulted from being struck by a blunt object, and more than a quarter (26%) were as a result of contact with a blunt projectile. Serious ocular and adnexal injuries have occurred in children as a result of participating in sports, with cycling and football being the largest contributors in the 12-year period we assessed. As we continue to encourage children to spend more time participating in sports and recreational activities, identifying associated risk factors will help us develop injury prevention strategies to promote eye safety for children. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This research applied the motivation for sport consumption theory to evaluate the directand indirect relationship between the fundamental psychological motives for sport consumption and buying behaviours of football fans. Subsequently, the direct- and indirect effects of sport fan identity with team to this relationship were ...
Murolo, Nancy Maurer; Schmelkin, Liora Pedhazur
This study investigates the relationship between sexual harassment and participation in "manly" sports (i.e., football, baseball, basketball, soccer, and wrestling) at the high school level. Manly sports are defined as those sports that celebrate values of dominance, aggression, male solidarity, and female exclusion. Participants were 353 11th-…
Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J
All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit.
Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, Jan; Witvrouw, Erik
To characterize the epidemiology of injuries in post-high school male and female athletes in the rapidly growing international sport of contact flag football. Prospective injury-observational study. Kraft Stadium, Jerusalem, Israel. A total of 1492 players, consisting of men (n = 1252, mean age, 20.49 ± 5.11) and women (n = 240, mean age, 21.32 ± 8.95 years), participated in 1028 games over a 2-season period (2007-2009). All time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions were recorded by the off-the-field medical personnel and followed up by a more detailed phone injury surveillance questionnaire. One hundred sixty-three injuries were reported, comprising 1 533 776 athletic exposures (AEs). The incidence rate was 0.11 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09-0.12] per 1000 AEs, and incidence proportion was 10.66% (95% CI, 9.10-12.22). Seventy-six percent of the injuries were extrinsic in nature. Thirty percent of the injuries were to the fingers, thumb, and wrist, 17% to the knee, 17% to the head/face, 13% to the ankle, and 11% to the shoulder. Contact flag football results in a significant amount of moderate to severe injuries. These data may be used in the development of a formal American flag football injury database and in the development and implementation of a high-quality, randomized, prospective injury prevention study. This study should include the enforcement of the no-pocket rule, appropriate headgear, self-fitting mouth guards, the use of ankle braces, and changing the blocking rules of the game.
Panara, Kush; Masterson, John M; Savio, Luis F; Ramasamy, Ranjith
Male factor infertility plays a significant role in infertility. Many factors have been associated with male infertility; however, the link between many sports and recreational factors and male reproduction remains poorly characterized. To evaluate the current literature regarding the impact of many common sports and recreational factors on male reproduction. A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search for relevant articles published between 1970 and 2017 was performed by combining the following search terms: male, sports (including individual sports), traumatic brain injury, sauna, hot tub, fertility, erectile dysfunction, varicocele, environment, cell phone, and laptop computer. Hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction can be associated with sports with high rates of head injuries, such as American football. Although early reports linked other sports, such as bicycling, to erectile dysfunction, subsequent studies isolated these associations to sports cycling rather than recreational cycling. Certain sports (football, basketball, handball, and volleyball) were linked to increasing prevalence and severity of varicocele, offering a potential link to male infertility. In addition, recreational activities such as sauna, hot tubs, Jacuzzis, heated car seats, and laptop use were associated with high testicular temperature, which can impair spermatogenesis. Radio frequency electromagnetic waves from cell phones and laptops have also been shown to have deleterious effects on sperm viability and motility. Many common sports and daily activities represent potential sources of male infertility. Clinicians should be aware of these associations in explaining idiopathic infertility in males. Male infertility is an often overlooked component of a couple's inability to conceive. We outline many common and often overlooked sports and recreational exposures that have been associated with male infertility. Copyright © 2018 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All
Full Text Available Today, sports activities with increasing levels of traceability have become an economic sector on a large scale. Especially the process of going public of sports clubs, including football, the results of these companies competition contribution to the economies of the club moved to a size that attracts the attention of researchers. The aim of this study is to determine whether sports clubs’ stock price is affected by the results of football matches. For this purpose, whether the matches results of sports organizations of Besiktaş, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray and Trabzonspor Inc. that are traded in Istanbul Stock Exchange in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons in Super League, Turkey Cup and European Cups are causing the abnormal return will investigated.
Appleson, Robert R.
Barely a week passes without the "Chronicle of Higher Education" or another periodical decrying the perverse influence of college football on academic quality. Faculty keep saying (justifiably) that sports advocates care more about athletic prowess than about student learning, that even assistant coaches make more money than tenured faculty, and…
Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven
Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…
This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…
Gouttebarge, V.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
In common with elite athletes from other sport disciplines, severe or recurrent injuries in professional footballers are considered to be major physical and psychosocial stressors, which may predispose to mental health problems during and after their career. To determine the prevalence of mental
This study aimedto verifythe network of contacts resulting from the collective behaviour of professional football teams through the centroid method and networks as well, therebyproviding detailed information about the match to coaches and sport analysts. For this purpose, 999 collective attacking actions from twoteams were ...
The girls are also influential in socialising their households and impacting the way significant others interact and view women's football. In terms of this reciprocal sport socialisation, four types of changes emerged namely: household dynamics and relationships, emotional responses and beliefs, social recognition and pride, ...
Igor José Siquieri Savenhago
Full Text Available The first broadcast of a World Cup footballon television, to Brazil was in 1970, via Embratel. Before that, the people followed the games of the Brazilian team on the radio. Gradually, the owners of television networks realized that football could generate good financial results, with the exposing of advertisements during the broadcasts, similar to what was already done on the radio. Thus, the television, focused on the growth of audience and number of advertisers, covered football with a language of entertainment. The narration of the matches, in which the figure of the narrator is more like that of an entertainer, and improvement of the transmission technologies that improve the image quality every day, take away from football the characteristic of being just a sport to occupy the place of an entertainment. In this context, the sport becomes an article of purchase and sale. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how this entertainment language was made up on Brazilian television, based on the broadcast sports, especially football, and like the television, which represented a technological leapin the country over the radio, assumed of the sport, country’s most popular as a commodity, interfering with the dynamics of Brazilian society. Finally, an attempt to understand how the researches that allow a technological development change behaviors and vice versa, that is, how the demands of society lead to a race to develop new technologies.
The football program at DeMatha High School in Hyattsville (Maryland), illustrates ways in which a sports program can build unity and racial tolerance among students. The shared team effort carries over into schoolwork and life outside of school. (SLD)
Flag or touch football is a popular activity unit in American secondary physical education curricula. However, unlike other sports its stigmatization as a masculine-typed activity and frequent inequitable distribution of game play opportunities at the skill positions (e.g., receiver, quarterback) results in the marginalization of female…
European Football Club Newspapers in Nigeria: Gratifications or Media Imperialism. ... The implication is that even in Nigeria; news of foreign leagues is published by Nigerian citizens to draw readers away from local league, a development which is bound to affect negatively the nations sporting culture. The conclusion is ...
Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Comstock, R Dawn; Casa, Douglas J
The 5-year period of 2005-2009 saw more exertional heat stroke-related deaths in organized sports than any other 5-year period in the past 35 years. The risk of exertional heat stroke appears highest in football, particularly during the preseason. To estimate the incidence of exertional heat stroke events and assess the utilization of exertional heat stroke management strategies during the 2011 preseason in United States high school football programs. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A self-administered online questionnaire addressing the incidence of exertional heat stroke events and utilization of exertional heat stroke management strategies (eg, removing athlete's football equipment, calling Emergency Medical Services [EMS]) was completed in May to June 2012 by 1142 (18.0%) athletic trainers providing care to high school football athletes during the 2011 preseason. Among all respondents, 20.3% reported treating at least 1 exertional heat stroke event. An average of 0.50 ± 1.37 preseason exertional heat stroke events were treated per program. Athletic trainers responding to exertional heat stroke reported using an average of 6.6 ± 1.8 management strategies. The most common management strategies were low-level therapeutic interventions such as removing the athlete's football equipment (98.2%) and clothing (77.8%) and moving the athlete to a shaded area (91.6%). Few athletic trainers reported active management strategies such as calling EMS (29.3%) or using a rectal thermometer to check core body temperature (0.9%). Athletic trainers in states with mandated preseason heat acclimatization guidelines reported a higher utilization of management strategies such as cooling the athlete through air conditioning (90.1% vs 65.0%, respectively; P football programs. The standard of care is (and should be) to treat proactively; therefore, treatment is not a perfect proxy for incidence. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need for improved education and awareness of
Full Text Available This study measured and compared the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts sustained by junior and adult Australian football players, respectively, and between player positions over a season of games. Twelve junior and twelve adult players were tracked using a skin-mounted impact sensor. Head impact exposure, including frequency, magnitude, and location of impacts, was quantified using previously established methods. Over the collection period, there were no significant differences in the impact frequency between junior and adult players. However, there was a significant increase in the frequency of head impacts for midfielders in both grades once we accounted for player position. A comparable amount of head impacts in both junior and adult players has implications for Australian football regarding player safety and medical coverage as younger players sustained similar impact levels as adult players. The other implication of a higher impact profile within midfielders is that, by targeting education and prevention strategies, a decrease in the incidence of sports-related concussion may result.
Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, Jan; Witvrouw, Erik
American flag football is a non-tackle, contact sport with many moderate to severe contact-type injuries reported. A previous prospective injury surveillance study by the authors revealed a high incidence of injuries to the fingers, face, knee, shoulder and ankle. The objectives of the study were to conduct a pilot-prospective injury prevention study in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries as compared to a historical cohort, as well as to provide recommendations for a future prospective injury prevention study. A prospective injury prevention study was conducted involving 724 amateur male (mean age: 20.0 ± 3.1 years) and 114 female (mean age: 21.2 ± 7.2 years) players. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. An injury surveillance questionnaire was administered to record all time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of injured players, the number of finger/hand injuries, the incidence rate and the incidence proportion between the two cohorts (p football. Prevention strategies for a longer, prospective, randomised-controlled injury prevention study should include the strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, appropriate head gear, the use of comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards, and changing the blocking rules of the game.
Storm, Rasmus K.
Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....
swimming and basketball.1 In 2001 it was reported to have injury rates of 1 000 times ... knee injury in football are the age of the player, a previous injury and the ligamentous .... football is possible, although the success rates may vary from ...
Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip
of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...
Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.
Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, Pfootball athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829
... harmful objects. Examples include baseball, basketball, hockey, football, soccer, rugby, and lacrosse. Outdoor cycling, fencing, tennis, and ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...
Saito, Carlos Hiroo
The Brazilian Ministry of Sports organized a system of volunteers to receive the visitors during the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Football World Cup. The instructional material to capacitate these volunteers focused on environment and sustainability issues and it was developed in an integrative systemic framework…
Szulc Adam Michał
Full Text Available Purpose. The First U21 European Deaf Football Championship Men was played in August 2016 in Wroclaw, Poland. No studies have documented or analysed sporting events for deaf players at the elite level. The aim of the study was to bring deaf football closer to the reader and analyse selected offensive actions recorded during the U21 Championship.
In Madagascar, adult female football exists at the embryonic stage, while it has only appeared recently in some Western countries, and is practiced by a minority in such countries. Such appearance of female football draws curiosity in an international context dominated by sports and politics, which promotes parity while ...
Full Text Available Uniting Edson Arantes do Nascimento's (Pele's "the beautiful game" with David Beckham's "bending the ball" (talented players apply the laws of physics to the ball is the major motivation of the 6th.World Congress on Science and Football. From Chinese tsu chu to today's modern football games, science was and will be an important part of this excellent sport (http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0606/feature1/index.html.The congress encourages all scientific aspects of football including soccer (1848 including Australian rules (1866, Rugby (1845, American football (1876, Gaelic football (1884 and Canadian football (1882. Issues such as Biomechanics, Nutrition, Psychology, Academies, Talent identification, Medical aspects, Injuries, Special Population, Coaching, Physiology, Testing, Referee, Fair play, Hooliganism, Management, Economics and Skill learning will be discussed during this congress.Research is as significant as the coach, team and player in competition. Any player can aspire to become a superstar. Encouraging all participants and steak holders will take them to new places where no one has ever dreamt of. Are we close to these dreams? The answer to this question depends on what and how much we sacrifice for science and education. From science and education information should flow into the field. The decisive elements of the game are the referees, trainers, players and supporters. Their approach creates the "climate". They can end or start a war. Football is the sport that leads. It's no miracle but it promotes passion and love. If you are committed, you may even change the world. Football encompasses millions of players, coaches, scientists, administrators, physical education teachers, politicians and inevitably parents of young players. This "simple" game that requires a ball and a goal is not only the game of heroes but also of those who bear a childish enthusiasm that makes dreams come true. Skills include heading, tapping, passing
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. ... of parents, children and coaches of 9-a-side football in an under-8 competition ... and goals scored in soccer matches: Implications for coaching and training ...
Kaeding, Christopher C; Borchers, James; Oman, Janine; Pedroza, Angela
Medical expenses for collegiate athletics include providing a training room with its supplies, equipment, personnel costs, and insurance coverage. Additional expenses beyond the training room include imaging, diagnostic testing, specialty consultations, and surgeries. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in average expenses or number of claims between male and female athletes over a 5-year period. Prospective patient cohort. A sports medicine center serving athletes in Big 10 Conference intercollegiate sports. All medical claims and charges for 36 varsity teams were analyzed from 2005 to 2010. The teams were categorized into 3 groups: female-only teams, male-only teams, and coed teams. Analysis of sports with corresponding male and female teams was also performed. Claims and charges for medical care for 36 intercollegiate athletic teams over 5 years. Individual team claims and charges were stable over the study period. In 11 of the 14 sex-matched sports, the female teams had higher average annual charges. After normalizing for roster size in the sex-matched sports, females had 0.97 more average annual claims (P sports with the highest average annual charges per athlete were softball, women's diving, men's basketball, wrestling, and men's gymnastics. Charges per claim were similar between the sex-matched sports, but the female sports had a higher number of annual claims per athlete and thus higher total charges per athlete/year. Football had the highest average annual total charges as a team, but when normalized for roster size football charges per athlete/year were similar to those of other sports.
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
Mert Kerem Zelyurt
Full Text Available In 2016 it was seen that the “quota rule” (age restriction which was put into practice in 2009 for the 3. League football teams in order to enable young players to have a better chance in squads and bring these players to the national teams have been changed because of not getting the desired results. In the study, the effects of 2009 quota rule which was established as a legal obligation to the football teams were examined in the extent of players, coaches, and the club managers (dramatis personae. The study was designed as “Semi-structured in-depth interview” (Qualitative Method method. According to “Theoretical Sampling Method” the sample of the study was formed through 6 players, 4 club managers and 5 coaches all of which are active in the third football league. The interviews recorded in February 2017 and May 2017, which vary from 6 minutes to 29 minutes in length according to the samples, were converted into text and categorized under 4 themes in findings section. The themes are: 1. being dropped out of squad 2. Problems relating the squads and the quality of the football 3.The problem of player training in the third league for the national team and transfer mobility to upper leagues 4. The fall in wages, the problem of becoming unemployed and being obliged to play in the amateur football league. As it can be concluded from the themes which frame the narrations by the samples including different experiences considering their status and roles in terms of quota rule practice; some outcomes during the period in which the rule had been practiced (particularly due to the version before the change were witnessed such as the deterioration in the quality of football, technical problems relating squads, the problem of vertical and horizontal professional mobility of the players and the fall in wages. In the last instance; it can be concluded that it is necessary to analyze legal sanctions relating a multivariate and intricate field such
Cairns, J A
On the premise that weather should have an effect on spectator attendance at sports events in outdoor settings (a topic which has received surprisingly little formalized study), the author examined the record of home attendances for three football teams in Scotland. In general, it was found that the greater the rainfall on the day of the match the lower the attendance. Dividing spectators into different groups, it was further found that an additional hour of sunshine was associated 162 more adults attending Aberdeen matches, while high temperatures appeared to increase juvenile attendance (by 57 for ever 1 deg. C. rise in temperature). Weather disruption of football games is attended by a number of costs, both direct and indirect. Quantifying the impact of weather can shed substantial light on the problem of scheduling for the season. For example, since certain periods are, on average, wetter than others, rescheduling to drier periods might encourage greater attendance.
Pope, Stacey; Kirk, David
The experiences of female sports fans have been largely marginalised in academic research to date and little research has examined the formative sporting experiences of female spectators. This article draws on 51 semi-structured interviews with three generations of female fans of one (men's) professional football club (Leicester City), to consider…
Maitland, Alison; Gervis, Misia
Background: Goal-setting is not always the simple motivational technique when used in an applied sport setting especially in relation to the meaning of achievement in competitive sport. Goal-setting needs to be examined in a broader context than goal-setting theory, such as provided by social cognitive theories of motivation. In football, the…
Full Text Available The outcome of football games, as well as matches of most other popular team sports, depends on a combination of the skills of players and coaches and a number of external factors which, due to their complex nature, are presumably best viewed as random. Such parameters include the unpredictabilities of playing the ball, the players' shape of the day or environmental conditions such as the weather and the behavior of the audience. Under such circumstances, it appears worthwhile to analyze football score data with the toolbox of mathematical statistics in order to separate deterministic from stochastic effects and see what impact the cooperative and social nature of the "agents" of the system has on the resulting stochastic observables. Considering the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams, it turns out that especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. On the contrary, some more specific probability densities such as those discussed in the context of extreme-value statistics or the so-called negative binomial distribution fit these data rather well. There seemed to be no good argument to date, however, why the simplest Poissonian model fails and, instead, the latter distributions should be observed. To fill this gap, we introduced a number of microscopic models for the scoring behavior, resulting in a Bernoulli random process with a simple component of self-affirmation. These models allow us to represent the observed probability distributions surprisingly well, and the phenomenological distributions used earlier can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the "FIFA World Cup" series, and found the proposed models to be applicable in
Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Pizzari, Tania
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of competitive football match congestion on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility. DESIGN: Repeated measures. SETTING: Elite male youth football. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen male elite youth football players from the national football association centre of ....... CONCLUSION: Isometric hamstring strength and pain can be considered for inclusion in-season to monitor player's post-match hamstring recovery characteristics during congested match fixtures.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of competitive football match congestion on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility. DESIGN: Repeated measures. SETTING: Elite male youth football. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen male elite youth football players from the national football association centre...... of excellence were included (age = 15.81 ±0.65 years, height = 171.95 ±6.89 cm, weight = 65.93 ±7.53 kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hamstring strength and pain, ankle dorsiflexion, hip extension, knee extension and flexion range of motion. RESULTS: Hamstring strength was highest at baseline and significantly...
Janssen, Pieter H H; Mandrekar, Jay; Mielke, Michelle M; Ahlskog, J Eric; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith; Savica, Rodolfo
To assess whether athletes who played American varsity high school football between 1956 and 1970 have an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases later in life. We identified all male varsity football players between 1956 and 1970 in the public high schools of Rochester, Minnesota, and non-football-playing male varsity swimmers, wrestlers, and basketball players. Using the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we ascertained the incidence of late-life neurodegenerative diseases: dementia, parkinsonism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We also recorded medical record-documented head trauma during high school years. We identified 296 varsity football players and 190 athletes engaging in other sports. Football players had an increased risk of medically documented head trauma, especially if they played football for more than 1 year. Compared with nonfootball athletes, football players did not have an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease overall or of the individual conditions of dementia, parkinsonism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this community-based study, varsity high school football players from 1956 to 1970 did not have an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases compared with athletes engaged in other varsity sports. This was from an era when there was a generally nihilistic view of concussion dangers, less protective equipment, and no prohibition of spearing (head-first tackling). However, the size and strength of players from previous eras may not be comparable with that of current high school athletes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Janssen, Pieter HH; Mandrekar, Jay; Mielke, Michelle M; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith; Savica, Rodolfo
BACKGROUND Repeated head trauma has been associated with risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Few studies have evaluated the long-term risk of neurodegenerative diseases in collision sports like football. OBJECTIVE To assess whether athletes who played American varsity high-school football between 1956 and 1970 have an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases later in life. PATIENTS AND METHODS We identified all male varsity football players between 1956 and 1970 in the public high schools of Rochester, Minnesota, compared to non-football-playing male varsity swimmers, wrestlers or basketball players. Using the records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we ascertained the incidence of late-life neurodegenerative diseases: dementia, parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We also recorded medical record-documented head trauma during high school years. RESULTS We identified 296 varsity football players and 190 athletes engaging in other sports. Football players had an increased risk of medically documented head trauma, especially if they played football for more than one year. Compared to non-football athletes, football players did not have an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease overall, nor the individual conditions of dementia, parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. CONCLUSION In this community based study, varsity high school football players from 1956 to 1970 did not have an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases compared with athletes engaged in other varsity sports. This was from an era where there was a generally nihilistic view of concussion dangers, less protective equipment and without prohibition of spearing (head-first tackling). However, size and strength of players from prior eras may not be comparable to current high-school athletes. PMID:27979411
Full Text Available Introduction: In this research the authors used a questionnaire of 8 questions of closed type, and 2 questions of open type. The basic aim of the research is to understand what young football players feel about their coach, team-mates and football as a sports game. Methods: The research involved 54 male football players who have active trainings in football clubs FC “2 korrik” in Prishtina. They are at the age between 14 and 16 and have active training experience of 2 years at least. After explaining the point of the research to the respondents, the inquiry that was of an anonymous type began. Answers to the questions in the questionnaire are presented basic statistic indexes: central and dominant value. Opinions of the respondents are represented through frequencies by chi-square test. Results: The results of the answers are represented in 2 tables and for better exposition they are presented in 8 graphics. The received answers indicate that it is the positive feeling that prevails among the football players with regard to their coach, team-mates and the football game. Particularly interesting answers are given to the two questions of open type. Discussion: On the base of the obtained answers, the results of this research show that the inquired football players have a positive opinion about the coach – his regularity, professional work and proper treatment of the players. Their opinion is positive towards their team-mates as well (coming on time for training, collaboration and friendship. In addition, the football players have a positive attitude towards football – desire for training, contests and expectation for a high success. References: Creswell JW (2009. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method Approaches. Sage. Miller TI, Miller KM (2000. Ankete za gra¬đa¬ne: Kako anketirati građane, kako se služiti anketama i što one znače. ICMA, Wash¬ing¬ton. Murphy-Black T (2000. Questionnaire. The Research Process
Full Text Available Football is the most popular sport in the world. Like any contact sport it is susceptible to various kinds of injuries. It is referred the link between methodology of training and the prevention of overuse injuries in youth as it relates to maladaptive sport programs. There is an increasing awareness to growth related conditions and the relation of musculoskeletal development and the onset of youth related conditions. This article examines one specific injury sustained by children and adolescents who play football, Osgood Schlatter disease, and the main mechanisms whereby such injury occur. The aethology is complex and the risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.
L. M. Makarov
Full Text Available The article presents data on contemporary views of the prevalence, causes, circumstances of sudden cardiac death, and its prevention measures in children and adolescents during sports activity. It notes a difficulty in defining the epidemiology of the above condition because the data are primarily based upon mass media news coverage. The incidence of sudden cardiac death is approximately 1 per 100,000 young athletes; more than 90% boys die. The sports, during which sudden cardiac death often occurs, include (both American and European football, basketball, and hockey. Sudden cardiac death due to cоmmоtio cordis (life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias resulting from a blow with a blunt instrument to the area of the heart during the vulnerable phase of the cardiac cycle is considered separately. Children who die suddenly during sports are frequently detected to have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or myocarditis; but no changes are found in more than 50% of cases at autopsy, which is suggestive of primary arrhythmogenic death. The basis for prevention is the early detection of diseases that can cause sudden death during sports, regular examination, knowledge of ECG characteristics in athletes, and first aid techniques, including the use of automated external defibrillators.
Treme, Gehron; Diduch, David R; Hart, Jennifer; Romness, Mark J; Kwon, Michael S; Hart, Joseph M
Substantial literature exists regarding recommendations for the on-field treatment and subsequent transportation of adult collision-sport athletes with a suspected injury to the cervical spine. To develop an evidence-based recommendation for transportation of suspected spine-injured youth football players. Descriptive laboratory study. Three lateral radiographs were obtained in supine to include the occiput to the cervical thoracic junction from 31 youth football players (8-14 years). Each child was imaged while wearing helmet and shoulder pads, without equipment, and with shoulder pads only. Two independent observers measured cervical spine angulation as Cobb angle from C1 to C7 and subaxial angulation from C2 to C7. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver reliability analysis and compared Cobb and C2 to C7 angles between equipment conditions with t tests. Interobserver analysis showed excellent reliability among measurements. Cobb and subaxial angle measurements indicated significantly greater cervical lordosis while children wore shoulder pads only, compared with the other 2 conditions (no equipment and helmet and shoulder pads) (P .05). Equipment removal for the youth football athlete with suspected cervical spine injury should abide by the "all or none" policy that has been widely accepted for adult athletes. Helmet and shoulder pads should be left in place during emergency transport of the suspected spine-injured youth athlete. Despite differences in head to torso size ratios between youth and adult players, helmet removal alone is not recommended for either during emergency transportation.
Brevers, Damien; Herremans, Sarah C; He, Qinghua; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Petieau, Mathieu; Verdonck, Dimitri; Poppa, Tasha; De Witte, Sara; Kornreich, Charles; Bechara, Antoine; Baeken, Chris
Nowadays, sports betting has become increasingly available and easy to engage in. Here we examined the neural responses to stimuli that represent sporting events available for betting as compared to sporting events without a gambling opportunity. We used a cue exposure task in which football (soccer) fans (N = 42) viewed cues depicting scheduled football games that would occur shortly after the scanning session. In the "betting" condition, participants were instructed to choose, at the end of each block, the game (and the team) they wanted to bet on. In the "watching" condition, participants chose the game they would prefer to watch. After the scanning session, participants completed posttask rating questionnaires assessing, for each cue, their level of confidence about the team they believed would win and how much they would enjoy watching the game. We found that stimuli representing sport events available for betting elicited higher fronto-striatal activation, as well as higher insular cortex activity and functional connectivity, than sport events without a gambling opportunity. Moreover, games rated with more confidence towards the winning team resulted in greater brain activations within regions involved in affective decision-making (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), cognitive inhibitory control (medial and superior frontal gyri) and reward processing (ventral and dorsal striatum). Altogether, these novel findings offer a sensible simulation of how the high availability of sports betting in today's environment impacts on the reward and cognitive control systems. Future studies are needed to extend the present findings to a sample of football fans that includes a samilar proportion of female and male participants.
Full Text Available Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8% had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005, lower age (p < 0.001, attending a local derby (p < 0.001, alcohol use prior to having entered the arena (p < 0.001, attending a weekend match (p < 0.001, and being a spectator at supporter sections (p < 0.001. About half of all spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.
van de Sandt, Femke; Umans, Victor
The incidence of acute cardiac events - including out-of-hospital cardiac arrest - may be increased in visitors of large sports stadiums when compared with the general population. This study sought to investigate the incidence of acute cardiac events inside large Dutch football stadiums, as well as the emergency response systems deployed in these stadiums and the success rate for in-stadium resuscitation. Retrospective cohort study using a questionnaire sent to the 20 Dutch stadiums that hosted professional matches during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 football seasons. Stadium capacity ranged from 3600 to 51 600 spectators. Nearly 13 million spectators attended 686 'Eredivisie' (Honorary Division) and European football matches. All stadiums distribute multiple emergency medical teams among the spectators. Eighty-five percent of the stadiums have an ambulance standby during matches, 95% of the stadiums were equipped with automated external defibrillators (AEDs) during the study period. On an average, one AED was available for every 7576 spectators (range 1800-29 600). Ninety-three cardiac events were reported (7.3 per 1 million spectators). An AED was used 22 times (1.7 per 1 million spectators). Resuscitation was successful in 18 cases (82%, 95% confidence interval: 61-93). The incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest inside large football stadiums in the Netherlands, albeit increased when compared with the general population, is low. The success rate for in-stadium resuscitation by medical teams equipped with AEDs is high. Dutch stadiums appear vigilant in regard to acute cardiac events. This report highlights the importance of adequate emergency medical response systems (including AEDs) in large sports venues.
Reducing the frequency and severity of concussions from sport is an important issue in public health currently addressed by a multifaceted approach. Given the large number of participants and the comparatively high risk of injury, American football is an important sport to consider when examining concussion management practices. Focusing on American football at the collegiate level, this manuscript describes current research regarding concussion epidemiology, policy, implementation of clinical diagnosis, management and return-to-play standards and athlete concussion education. Although American collegiate sports leagues have put forth concussion-related policies in recent years, the implementation of these policies and related effects on athlete concussion education, clinical management of concussion and ultimately athlete health outcomes are not well understood. Additional research is needed. PMID:27064258
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...
Harcourt, Peter R; Unglik, Harry; Cook, Jill L
Background The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prescribes that drug testing is conducted in sports competitions to detect drug use in athletes. This testing includes performance-enhancing drugs as well as illicit substances such as marijuana, amphetamines and cocaine. Illicit drugs are tested for on match days but not on non-match days. Some athletes are known to use illicit substances for recreational purposes, away from competition times and this poses a serious health and welfare issue not addressed by the usual sport drug testing regimes. This paper reports the results of the first 7 years of an illicit drug-testing programme that included non-match day testing in the elite Australian Football competition, the Australian Football League (AFL). Methods Players in the AFL were tested for illicit drugs both in-competition and out-of-competition. Players were selected for illicit substance tests either randomly or targeted based on previous test history or time since previous test. The number of tests conducted was increased each year from 2005 to 2011 and testing was focused on high-risk times during non-competition periods. Results There were no positive match day tests. There was a significant reduction in positive tests (19–6) for illicit drugs during non-competition periods over the 7 years (psport's WADA compliant Anti-Doping Code. PMID:22893512
Compared to security surveillance and military applications, where automated action analysis is prevalent, the sports domain is extremely under-served. Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. American football is the most popular sport in the United States, however most game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takes many man hours per week. These two statistics are also the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67% accuracy in classifying the offensive team\\'s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison. © 2013 IEEE.
Ekegren, C L; Gabbe, B J; Finch, C F
A lack of available injury data on community sports participants has hampered the development of informed preventive strategies for the broad-base of sports participation. In community sports settings, sports trainers or first-aiders are well-placed to carry out injury surveillance, but few studies have evaluated their ability to do so. The aim of this study was to investigate the reporting rate and completeness of sports trainers' injury records and agreement between sports trainers' and players' reports of injury in community Australian football. Throughout the football season, one sports trainer from each of four clubs recorded players' injuries. To validate these data, we collected self-reported injury data from players via short message service (SMS). In total, 210 discrete injuries were recorded for 139 players, 21% by sports trainers only, 59% by players via SMS only, and 21% by both. Completeness of injury records ranged from 95% to 100%. Agreement between sports trainers and players ranged from K = 0.32 (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.37) for date of return to football to K = 1.00 for activity when injured. Injury data collected by sports trainers may be of adequate quality for providing an understanding of the profile of injuries. However, data are likely to underestimate injury rates and should be interpreted with caution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Durrieu, Geneviève; Gorsse, Elisabeth; Montastruc, Jean-Louis
To study the coverage by French newspapers of doping in sports, we performed a systematic review of articles appearing between January and March 2003 on the following French websites: L'Equipe, Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération, La Dépêche du Midi and Agence France-Presse (AFP). We recorded a total of 58 articles about doping. Among them, 48 (83%) were collected from the AFP news. L'Equipe, a French sports newspaper, published seven articles (12%). Most of the recorded data reported results of worldwide antidoping control (71%). No information about new drugs was found. The analysis of the selected articles pointed out the following: (i) the seriousness of observations related to doping since, during this 3-month period, we noted two deaths of athletes; (ii) the risks associated with the use of dietary supplements, particularly products including amphetamine derivatives; (iii) the interest in judicial investigation as an information source about doping in sports (investigation of suspicious deaths of Italian football players); and (iv) identification of the sports involved in doping (cycling, but also athletics, football, rugby). Systematic analysis of newspaper reports can be considered as a relevant method for monitoring the pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology of doping in sports.
Boufous, Soufiane; Finch, Caroline; Bauman, Adrian
To examine the extent to which parents and carers perceive injury and safety risks as serious enough to prevent or discourage their children, aged 5-12 years, from participating in sports/physical activity and to identify factors that influence these perceptions. An analysis of the 2001 New South Wales Child Health Survey. More than one-quarter of parents/ carers of active children aged 5-12 years reported discouraging or preventing children from playing a particular sport (34.7% for boys and 16.6% for girls) because of injury and safety concerns. In boys, the most frequently discouraged sport was rugby league (23.2%), followed by rugby union (7.5%) and Australian rules football (2.8%). Among girls, the most frequently discouraged activities were rollerblading (2.7%), rugby league (2.3%) and soccer (2.1%). Multivariate analysis shows that factors independently associated with parents' decision to prevent/discourage their child from engaging in sport/physical activity include their child's age and gender, language spoken at home, presence of disability, and the respondent's relation to the child. Efforts need to be made to modify some sports/ activities, such as football codes, in order to minimise injury and to ensure that children continue enjoying their favourite activity well into adulthood. Guidelines designed to promote physical activity among children and young adolescents need to take into account parental concerns regarding the associated risk of injury.
What is intriguing about women’s football as a cultural phenomenon is that unlike men’s football the finances and media interest for the game are sparse. Nevertheless we have found that migration of female football players is growing steadily and women’s football is becoming global in nature....... The question is then what drives this globalization process? According to our study of women’s football migration into Scandinavia, one of the centers of women’s football, transnational networks play a crucial role in mobilizing global migratory moves. Using the concept of friends-of-friends networks from Bale...
Aughey, Robert J
Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.
Johansen, Stine Liv
Media and mediatization must be seen as a prerequisite for children’s play today. Children’s fan cultures cover a wide range of topics; yet, football is a field with specific explanatory power due to its structural and cultural specificities. In this chapter, football is seen as a specific play...... practice, carried out both physically and through engagements with a diverse range of traditional and new media. The chapter draws on empirical fieldwork among Danish children aged 8 to 13, describing football kids as active users of media, active play practitioners, and active performers of identity...... projects in relation to friends and family. For these children, football as a mediatized play practice is their point of departure, forming the grounds of their everyday practices....
ultimately on the performance of the teams on the playing field and not so much ... However, travelling with a football team presents the team physician .... physician to determine the nutritional ..... diarrhoea in elite athletes: an audit of one team.
Full Text Available n this paper, we have made a brief analysis on how to make decisions in betting on European football with the help of data mining techniques. Whether you refer to betting a few days in advance of the sporting event or live betting, both options have been taken into consideration. By using a clustering algorithm for analyzing both the database containing events from football matches and the odds given by bookmakers, we have obtained graphs indicating the probabilities associated with analyzed events. Given the purely informative aspect of the current paper, we have only analyzed the number of corners from a match.
Norberta Elisa Fernandes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.
Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others
Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…
Gabbett, Tim J
games is low. Collaborative research among the various sport science disciplines is required to identify strategies to reduce the incidence of injury and enhance the performance of rugby league players. An understanding of the movement patterns and physiological demands of different positions at all standards of competition would allow the development of strength and conditioning programmes to meet the precise requirements of these positions. Finally, studies investigating the impact of improvements in physiological capacities (including the effect of different strength and conditioning programmes) on rugby league playing performance are warranted.
Broglio, Steven P; Williams, Richelle M; O'Connor, Kathryn L; Goldstick, Jason
Sporting organizations limit full-contact football practices to reduce concussion risk and based on speculation that repeated head impacts may result in long-term neurodegeneration. To directly compare head-impact exposure in high school football players before and after a statewide restriction on full-contact practices. Cross-sectional study. High school football field. Participants were varsity football athletes from a single high school. Before the rule change, 26 athletes (age = 16.2 ± 0.8 years, height = 179.6 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 81.9 ± 13.1 kg) participated. After the rule change, 24 athletes (age = 15.9 ± 0.8 years, height = 178.3 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 76.2 ± 11.6 kg) participated. Nine athletes participated in both years of the investigation. Head-impact exposure was monitored using the Head Impact Telemetry System while the athletes participated in football games and practices in the seasons before and after the rule change. Head-impact frequency, location, and magnitude (ie, linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and Head Impact Telemetry severity profile [HITsp], respectively) were measured. A total of 15 398 impacts (592 impacts per player per season) were captured before the rule change and 8269 impacts (345 impacts per player per season) after the change. An average 42% decline in impact exposure occurred across all players, with practice-exposure declines occurring among linemen (46% decline); receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (41% decline); and tight ends, running backs (including fullbacks), and linebackers (39% decline). Impact magnitudes remained largely unchanged between the years. A rule change limiting full-contact high school football practices appears to have been effective in reducing head-impact exposure across all players, with the largest reduction occurring among linemen. This finding is likely associated with the rule modification, particularly because the coaching staff and offensive scheme remained consistent, yet how
Full Text Available During the last few decades, coaches and athletes from a wide variety of sports have begun to realize the importance of the mental side of athletic performance. Sport specialists agree that athletic performance is influenced not only by physical skills but also by psychological ones. In order to achieve peak performance athletes need a “total package” including physical skills, psychological skills, fitness and injury prevention (Singh 2011. Study was aimed to examine the effect of Positive Self-Talk training on the Competition anxiety and self-confidence of junior level football players. 36 junior level football players, aged 18.7 ± 2.8 years, were randomly assigned into experimental group and control group. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 was used to assess cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence. Positive Self-Talk training was given to the experimental group for 8 weeks. Results of ANOVA revealed significant difference between the pre- test and post test scores of cognitive and somatic anxiety and self- confidence in the experimental group while no significant difference in the control group.
Full Text Available People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination are good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination.
Grundstein, Andrew J; Hosokawa, Yuri; Casa, Douglas J
Weather-based activity modification in athletics is an important way to minimize heat illnesses. However, many commonly used heat-safety guidelines include a uniform set of heat-stress thresholds that do not account for geographic differences in acclimatization. To determine if heat-related fatalities among American football players occurred on days with unusually stressful weather conditions based on the local climate and to assess the need for regional heat-safety guidelines. Cross-sectional study. Data from incidents of fatal exertional heat stroke (EHS) in American football players were obtained from the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research and the Korey Stringer Institute. Sixty-one American football players at all levels of competition with fatal EHSs from 1980 to 2014. We used the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and a z-score WBGT standardized to local climate conditions from 1991 to 2010 to assess the absolute and relative magnitudes of heat stress, respectively. We observed a poleward decrease in exposure WBGTs during fatal EHSs. In milder climates, 80% of cases occurred at above-average WBGTs, and 50% occurred at WBGTs greater than 1 standard deviation from the long-term mean; however, in hotter climates, half of the cases occurred at near average or below average WBGTs. The combination of lower exposure WBGTs and frequent extreme climatic values in milder climates during fatal EHSs indicates the need for regional activity-modification guidelines with lower, climatically appropriate weather-based thresholds. Established activity-modification guidelines, such as those from the American College of Sports Medicine, work well in the hotter climates, such as the southern United States, where hot and humid weather conditions are common.
Blegen, Mark D; Stenson, Matthew R; Micek, Dani M; Matthews, Tracey D
Reasons for participation in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III athletics vary greatly. The purpose of this study was to investigate if differences in motivational climate existed between championship and non-championship-level NCAA Division III football teams, and differences in player status (starter vs. nonstarter). Players (N = 224) from 3 NCAA Division III football programs (1 championship level and 2 non-championship level) were recruited as participants. All players completed the Sport Motivation Scale, and the results were analyzed using a 2 × 2 multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to examine differences among the motivation variables for starter vs. nonstarter and championship vs. non-championship teams. A 1-way MANOVA was used to examine differences across year in school. Dependent variables included internal motivation to experience stimulation, internal motivation for accomplishment, internal motivation for knowledge, external motivation for identification regulation, external motivation for introjection regulation, external motivation for external regulation, and amotivation. The interaction between starter status and team was not significant (Λ = 0.996, p > 0.40). Additionally, there were no significant differences in the mean vector scores for starter vs. nonstarter (Λ = 0.965, p = 0.378). For team type, however, differences did exist across dependent variables (Λ = 0.898, p = 0.002). For all variables except amotivation, the championship-level team had significantly higher scores than the non-championship-level teams. Members of NCAA Division III championship-level football teams have higher motivation to participate in their sport compared with members of non-championship teams. These results could have an impact on player morale, coaching strategies, and future success in athletic-related activities.
Sérgio Settoni Giglio
Full Text Available This article presents a map of the brazilian production about football over the last twenty years, based on theses and dissertations, and papers in academic journals that have published dossiers about football and/or sport. This survey allows us to infer that while the academic research of the issue has to be meaningful, there is still a greater exchange of information among researchers and universities to further strengthen this subject of study in Brazil
Lanzotti, A.; Costabile, G.; Annino, G.; Amodeo, G.; Odenwald, S.
The risk of injury following a player's impact with objects in sport facilities is a growing problem, as shown by serious accidents that happen when players have head impacts with obstacles and barriers installed around the play area. At present, no experimental data are available about the kinematics of football (soccer) players during a running-out of playing areas scenario. Experimental tests on a sample of 14 skilled football players, aged between 17 and 19 years, were conducted to invest...
Full Text Available The ways of description and interpretation of such socially meaningful event as the World Football Championship 2014 are considered in this article. The author justifies the importance of choosing a sports topic and in particular football in the modern world, showing that first of all the sports discourse is a journalistic discourse.That is why the ways of the representation and description of sports events are the basic means for creating its concept.The author has chosen one day of the World Football Championship 2014 for the analysis to show that not the sports events, but the acts of violence accompanying them are becoming the basic subject matter of the description. In relation to this, the author suggests to speak about a special type of sports discourse: a discourse of sports aggression. Its main features are: special lexical stock phrases, inaccuracy in the supply of information, lack of logic in the description of events, and expressiveness of the means used to describe the acts of violence. The author comes to the conclusion that it is difficult to make the precise cognitive diagram of the sport event reading due to the additional information, as the reader’s attention in such messages is focused only on the description of the details, which are connected with the facts of aggression that occurred in the sport action. The modern sports appear as the catalyst of aggressive actions instead of initiating the peace.
Zebis, Mette K; Thorborg, Kristian; Andersen, Lars L; Møller, Merete; Christensen, Karl B; Clausen, Mikkel B; Hölmich, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Andersen, Thomas B; Krustrup, Peter
The high injury incidence during match-play in female adolescent football is a major concern. In football, males and females play matches with the same football size. No studies have investigated the effect of football size on injury incidence in female adolescent football. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of introducing a lighter, smaller football on the injury pattern in female adolescent football. We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial including 26 football teams representing 346 adolescent female football players (age 15-18 years). The teams were randomized to a new lighter, smaller football (INT, N.=12 teams) or a traditional FIFA size 5 football (CON, N.=14 teams) during a full match-season. Acute time-loss injuries and football-exposure during match-play were reported weekly by text-message questions and verified subsequently by telephone interview. In total, 46 acute time-loss injuries were registered (5 severe injuries), yielding an incidence rate of 15.2 injuries per 1000 hours of match-play (95% CI: 8.5-27.2) in INT and 18.6 injuries per 1000 hours of match-play (95% CI: 14.0-24.8) in CON. The estimated 22% greater injury incidence rate risk (IRR: 1.22 [95% CI: 0.64-2.35]) in the CON group was not significant. With an IRR of 1.22, a future RCT main study would need to observe 793 acute time-loss injuries during match-play, in order to have a power of 80%. A large-scaled RCT is required to definitively test for beneficial or harmful effects of a lighter, smaller football in adolescent female football.
Moore, John W.
important is that young people (and the young at heart who come back to school to learn more) bring with them a vitality whose vicarious effect is to energize teachers and everyone else around them. A school or campus full of students is a far different place from one populated by faculty alone. Perhaps the best reason to get excited about a new semester is that I really don't think we are Charlie Browns kicking footballs. That's why this editorial's title includes a question mark. We teachers have a much greater effect on students than we seem to think. Inured as we are to the process of grading, correcting, and finding faults and problems that students should avoid, we often concentrate on what is wrong or imperfect about what we do. Thus we run the risk of losing sight of the big pictureour overall success. Even a student who achieves a poor grade comes out of a chemistry course knowing far more than someone who has not taken chemistry at all. Most students have learned a great deal, though few have learned as much as we would have liked. As Marie Curie put it, "One never notices what has been done; one can only see what remains to be done." We should savor those moments when former students tell us that what they learned in our courses was of great value subsequentlyeven if they hadn't thought it would be. And we should multiply by a large factor the number of such moments, based on the likelihood that there are lots more students out there who did not think to tell us. The magnitude of intellectual growth that can occur in a year was driven home to me a long time ago when I taught physical chemistry in two successive years. The first year was the first time I had taught the course, and it went very well. This was largely due to the great group of students I had. At the beginning of the second year I missed that first group of students, thinking the new class to be far inferior. However, by the end of the second year the new class had matured intellectually in
Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.
Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.
Full Text Available Football is currently the most popular sport in the world. The competitive nature of the sport makes it prone to injuries with the estimated frequency being 10 to 35 per 1000 playing hours (Dvorak and Junge, 2000. The aim of this study was to identify the injury patterns and rehabilitation periods with specific injuries in a premiership football club. Player injuries were retrospectively analysed from a local database (Microsoft Access 2000 at the Blackburn Rovers Football Club, UK from December 1998 to March 2004. The club physiotherapist and physician recorded details of all injuries sustained during both training and matches during that period. Clear distinctions were made between acute and overuse injuries and rehabilitation times for each injury were noted (Arnason et al., 2004. Data was analysed using SPSS (Chicago, Illinois, USA. Differences between the groups were assessed using the independent samples t-test. P values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. There were 483 injuries in 91 players. Of these 133 injuries occurred as a result of overuse and 350 as a result of direct trauma. 440 injuries were treated conservatively while 43 were treated operatively. Table 1 shows the range and number of injuries, which occurred during this period along with the average rehabilitation time for each injury. Injuries grouped as "Other" in table 1 accounted for less than 1% of all injuries and could not always be directly attributed to football even though this appeared to be the precipitating factor in all cases. There was no statistical difference between rehabilitation times for acute injuries (18 days, standard deviation 30 as compared to overuse injuries (20 days, standard deviation 39 (p = 0.640. The mean rehabilitation time however for injuries treated conservatively (15 days , standard deviation 24 as compared to injuries treated surgically (61 days, standard deviation 67 was found to be statistically significant (p = 0
Riepenhof, H; Del Vescovo, R; Droste, J-N; McAleer, S; Pietsch, A
Muscle injuries are common in professional sports, especially in football. Recent epidemiological studies showed that muscle injuries account for more than 30% of professional football injuries (1.8-2.2/1000 h exposure); however, even though there are significant differences within a European comparison, a single professional football team diagnosed on average 12 muscle injuries per season, corresponding to more than 300 availability days lost. The aim of this work is to present the diagnosis, general treatment and comprehensive management of muscle injuries in professional football. The present work is based on current scientific findings, experiences of the authors and examples from routine practice in the management of muscle injuries in a professional sports environment. The authors present a model of gradual progression for the treatment of muscular injuries and their rehabilitation. Due to the time-pressured nature of the professional sports environment, often promoted by coaches and media, this model could help lead players to recover as quickly as possible and return to competitive sports without relapse or sequel injury. This model integrates the player into the treatment plan. The progression sequences in the rehabilitation should be made clear to players and other parties involved, which are crucial for optimal healing. Even if absolute certainty cannot be achieved, i.e. the occurrence of re-injury or secondary injury, this model attempts to minimize the level of risk involved for the returning athlete. Since it is hardly possible to act strictly in line with more conservative guidelines due to the particular circumstances of the professional sport environment, the experiences of the authors are presented in the sense of best practice in order to support future decision-making processes.
Rasool Hemayat TALAB
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate home advantage in Iranian Football Super League. Methods: The information regarding wins, losses, goals for, goals against, yellow cards, red cards and gained points in matches at home and away of Super League teams of Iran was obtained using the internet website www.Soccerway.com and was analyzed. Results: The results showed that the mean of wins, goals for and points gained from matches in the home have been more than matches away, but in matches away, the mean of losses, yellow cards, red cards and goals against have been higher. Also, the percentage of home advantage in Iranian Football Super League was close to international norms. Conclusion: According to the results, sport psychologist, coaches and people who are involved in football are recommended to pay more attention to this advantage and make short and long term plans to do psychological readiness and competitive performance.
Brolinson, P Gunnar; Manoogian, Sarah; McNeely, David; Goforth, Mike; Greenwald, Richard; Duma, Stefan
Sports-related concussions result in 300,000 brain injuries in the United States each year. We conducted a study utilizing an in-helmet system that measures and records linear head accelerations to analyze head impacts in collegiate football. The Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System is an in-helmet system with six spring-mounted accelerometers and an antenna that transmits data via radio frequency to a sideline receiver and laptop computer system. A total of 11,604 head impacts were recorded from the Virginia Tech football team throughout the 2003 and 2004 football seasons during 22 games and 62 practices from a total of 52 players. Although the incidence of injury data are limited, this study presents an extremely large data set from human head impacts that provides valuable insight into the lower limits of head acceleration that cause mild traumatic brain injuries.
Sylvester, Jillian E; Belval, Luke N; Casa, Douglas J; O'Connor, Francis G
Football is recognized as a leading contributor to sports injury secondary to the contact collision nature of the endeavor. While direct deaths from head and spine injury remain a significant contributor to the number of catastrophic injuries, indirect deaths (systemic failure) predominate. Exertional heat stroke has emerged as one of the leading indirect causes of death in high school and collegiate football. This review details for the team physician the unique challenge of exercising in the heat to the football player, and the prevention, diagnosis, management, and return-to-play issues pertinent to exertional heat illnesses.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...
Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper I argue that football plays a questionable role in promoting two potentially problematic activities, namely drinking alcohol and gambling. Gambling and alcohol companies sponsor clubs and competitions and also pay to advertise their products at the stadia and during television coverage. Consequently millions of fans, including children, are exposed to the marketing of these restricted products. The latter are exposed despite regulations that prohibit such advertising and promotion in other contexts. The promotion of these activities to children and to adults increases levels of consumption which in turn increases the number of problem drinkers and gamblers in society. High-profile footballers play a further role in normalising drinking and gambling. They are role models whose actions influence others. Their excessive drinking and gambling activities provide poor examples for football fans, young and old.
Bekkers, J.E.J.; de Windt, Th.S.; Brittberg, M.
The prevalence of focal articular cartilage lesions among athletes is higher than in the general population. Treatment goals differ considerably between the professional and recreational athlete. High financial stakes and the short duration of a professional career influence the treatment selection for the professional athlete, while such parameters weigh differently in recreational sports. This article describes our investigation of the relation between sports and a high prevalence of focal cartilage lesions. In addition, we provide a critical review of the best available evidence for cartilage surgery and treatment selection, evaluate specific patient profiles for professional and recreational athletes, and propose a treatment algorithm for the treatment of focal cartilage lesions in football (soccer) players. PMID:26069606
Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Wasserman, Erin B; Covassin, Tracey; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P
To our knowledge, little research has examined concussion across the youth/adolescent spectrum and even less has examined concussion-related outcomes (ie, symptoms and return to play). To examine and compare sport-related concussion outcomes (symptoms and return to play) in youth, high school, and collegiate football athletes. Athletic trainers attended each practice and game during the 2012 to 2014 seasons and reported injuries. For this descriptive, epidemiological study, data were collected from youth, high school, and collegiate football teams, and the analysis of the data was conducted between July 2015 and September 2015. The Youth Football Surveillance System included more than 3000 youth football athletes aged 5 to 14 years from 118 teams, providing 310 team seasons (ie, 1 team providing 1 season of data). The National Athletic Treatment, Injury, and Outcomes Network Program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 184 team seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 34 college football programs, providing 71 team seasons. We calculated the mean number of symptoms, prevalence of each symptom, and the proportion of patients with concussions that had long return-to-play time (ie, required participation restriction of at least 30 days). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences among competition levels in the mean number of reported symptoms. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of return to play at less than 24 hours and at least 30 days. Overall, 1429 sports-related concussions were reported among youth, high school, and college-level football athletes with a mean (SD) of 5.48 (3.06) symptoms. Across all levels, 15.3% resulted return to play at least 30 days after the concussion and 3.1% resulted in return to play less than 24 hours after the concussion. Compared with youth, a higher number of concussion symptoms were reported in high school athletes (β = 1.39; 95
Bennike, Søren; Storm, Rasmus K.; Wikman, Johan Michael
Football in Denmark stands as a very popular game engaging men and women of all ages. Most of them are playing under the wings of the Danish Football Association (DFA). This paper provides a description and understanding of the organisation of football, with a specific focus on the DFA. We ask; how...... is club based football organised in Denmark and how does it reflect state policy? Our study is grounded in an analysis of 21 documents selected due to their importance to the organisation of football. Moreover, an online questionnaire survey was sent to the chairpersons of 1247 grassroots football clubs...... (N:475). To deeper understand the development of and organisations involved in Danish football we include the understanding of society formed by four basic social orders viewed upon as ideal types; civil society, market, state and associations (Pestoff). Our findings show that the organisation...
Ditte Marie Bruun
Full Text Available As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Epidemiological evidence points to a positive effect of regular physical activity on all-cause and prostate cancer mortality and current clinical evidence supports the use of exercise in cancer rehabilitation. However, the external validity of existing exercise studies is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport environments, the study offers a novel approach in the strive towards sustained physical activity adherence and accessibility in prostate cancer survivors.
Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter; Brasso, Klaus; Johansen, Christoffer; Rørth, Mikael; Midtgaard, Julie
As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Epidemiological evidence points to a positive effect of regular physical activity on all-cause and prostate cancer mortality and current clinical evidence supports the use of exercise in cancer rehabilitation. However, the external validity of existing exercise studies is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport environments, the study offers a novel approach in the strive towards sustained physical activity adherence and accessibility in prostate cancer survivors. PMID:24865394
Worldwide more and more money is being invested in sports teams and professional sports leagues. There are numerous sports that are popular in different parts of the world. In the United States, its American Football, in Europe and UK it is Football (soccer); in the Indian sub-continent and Australia it is Cricket that attracts the largest crowds. If we study the professional sporting leagues around the world usually there is only one major/premier league in every sport. Smaller leagues e...
Gouttebarge, V; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
In common with elite athletes from other sport disciplines, severe or recurrent injuries in professional footballers are considered to be major physical and psychosocial stressors, which may predispose to mental health problems during and after their career. To determine the prevalence of mental health problems and psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers, and to explore the association between psychosocial stressors and the health conditions studied. Based on validated scales, a paper and electronic questionnaire was developed for current and former professional footballers and distributed by the World Footballers' Union (FIFPro) and players' unions in six countries. Prevalence was calculated and cross-sectional analyses were conducted. The response rate was 29% with 253 responses available for analysis. The prevalence of mental health complaints ranged from 5% (burnout) to 26% (anxiety/depression) in 149 current players and from 16% (burnout) to 39% (anxiety/depression) in 104 former footballers. The prevalence of psychosocial problems ranged from 3% (low self-esteem) to 26% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in current players and from 5% (low self-esteem) to 42% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in former footballers. In both current and former players, mental health problems were significantly associated with low social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1) and recent life events (OR = 1.4-1.6). In former players, previous surgery was significantly associated with smoking (OR = 1.9). The prevalence of mental health problems and/or psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers was found to be high. The presence of mental health problems was associated with low social support and recent life events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Harcourt, Peter R; Unglik, Harry; Cook, Jill L
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prescribes that drug testing is conducted in sports competitions to detect drug use in athletes. This testing includes performance-enhancing drugs as well as illicit substances such as marijuana, amphetamines and cocaine. Illicit drugs are tested for on match days but not on non-match days. Some athletes are known to use illicit substances for recreational purposes, away from competition times and this poses a serious health and welfare issue not addressed by the usual sport drug testing regimes. This paper reports the results of the first 7 years of an illicit drug-testing programme that included non-match day testing in the elite Australian Football competition, the Australian Football League (AFL). Players in the AFL were tested for illicit drugs both in-competition and out-of-competition. Players were selected for illicit substance tests either randomly or targeted based on previous test history or time since previous test. The number of tests conducted was increased each year from 2005 to 2011 and testing was focused on high-risk times during non-competition periods. There were no positive match day tests. There was a significant reduction in positive tests (19-6) for illicit drugs during non-competition periods over the 7 years (p<0.0001). The reduction in positive tests may be related to player education, the greater number of tests conducted and the harm minimisation approach of the illicit drug policy. An illicit drugs programme using a harm minimisation strategy can work effectively alongside a sport's WADA compliant Anti-Doping Code.
Malinauskas, Romualdas K.; Juodsnukis, Dalius R.
Research aim was to analyze peculiarities of education of social responsibility among football sports school students. We hypothesized that after the educational program sport school students will have more developed social responsibility. The total sample comprised 52 male students. Experimental group consisted of 26 and the control group of 26…
Bloom, Paul N.; And Others
Surveys of adolescents examined the link between sports promotion and advertising of alcohol and tobacco and teen smoking and drinking behaviors. Data analysis found an association between exposure to sporting events and cigarette use and beer consumption. Watching stock car racing was related to cigarette use; football and basketball to beer use.…
Full Text Available L'analyse de la distribution géographique de 4 223 équipes dans cinq sports collectifs (football, rugby, basket-ball, hand-ball, volley-ball accuse les disparités de l'espace régional. Le football reste le plus populaire, les sports en salle sont les plus significatifs des pratiques citadines. Mais deux tiers des communes échappent à une quelconque pratique des sports référencés et les villes «pèsent» moins qu'on ne pouvait le penser.
McCluskey, John Michael
American college football features an enormous amount of music woven into the fabric of the event, with selections accompanying approximately two-thirds of a game's plays. Musical selections are controlled by a number of forces, including audio and video technicians, university marketing departments, financial sponsors, and wind bands. These blend…
van der Have, Pieter J.
Examines the planning, renovation and enlargement, and funding of a new University of Utah football stadium that would also be used in the 2002 Winter Olympics. Contractor selection, solutions to construction challenges, and the steps taken to minimize risk and guarantee success of the projects are discussed, including the fact that the stadium is…
Camiré, Martin; Trundel, Pierre
In Canada, adolescent boys have been shown to have a higher high school dropout rate compared to girls. This situation is particularly evident in the country's second largest province by population, Quebec. The sport of Canadian football has recently gained in popularity in Quebec as many people believe that the sport can be used to promote both…
Hana Válková; Jaromír Votík
BACKGROUND: Family context is considered to be an important phenomenon influencing life-span sports careers. In spite of this fact,the role of family as related to different historical changes is rarely investigated. The research concept of the study is based on the "theory of transition" (early sports socialization) and on the principle of "generation transfer" (parent-child interaction) within various micro (family) and macro (socio-economic) contexts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the presented st...
Briscoe, J H
A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football played at Eton--Rugby, Association and Eton--showed Rugby football to be the most dangerous and Eton football the safest game. Advice on the management and prevention of injury is given.
Full Text Available The Football World Cup tournament ranks amongst the largest international sports events, captivating vast live and television audiences. A key characteristic of football can be seen in its community-building function. Football provides opportunities for identification, strengthening local and national bonds. But does this also apply to the still vague category of Europe? Does the televised coverage of the Football World Cup hold the potential to foster a European identity? This paper employs a quantitative content analysis of the German and British live-commentaries of the 2010 World Cup matches between European and non-European teams. It analyzes and compares the description and evaluation of European and non-European participants. TV-commentaries have proven an ability to influence the audiences´ perception of the match. It is therefore assumed that the commentaries contribute to a feeling of European identity and unity – if they make the European category salient. The analysis reveals some differences in the portrayal of European and non-European participants with the commentators paying more attention to participants from European countries. Whereas the evaluation of the European and non-European teams differs, the evaluation of the individual football players is well-balanced. In regard to the analyzed criteria, British and German commentaries tend to be very similar.
Conclusion: Impact sports (football, basketball, and handball and low-impact sports (swimming provide an appropriate development of lean mass in growing girls. We can conclude that people practicing sports at early ages ensure a lower fat mass and higher lean mass compared to those who do not practice. These results may be useful as a preventive method of adult obesity.
Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija; Popovic, Tamara; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Cubrilo, Dejan; Ahmetovic, Zlatko; Peric, Dusan; Borozan, Suncica; Djuric, Dragan; Barudzic, Nevena; Jakovljevic, Vladimir
The aim of the present study was to analyze changes in redox balance throughout parameters of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in elite female water polo (N.=15) and football players (N.=19) aged between 20 and 23. Fourteen age-matched sedentary women were also included in the study. Blood sampling was performed to measure levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide anion radical (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), nitrites, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and glutathione-peroxidase activity (GPx). Levels of MDA, TAS, GSSG and H2O2 were significantly higher in athletes than in the control women. Football players had higher levels of O2- than the other two groups. Activity of SOD was higher in water polo players when compared with the football and control groups, CAT was increased in all athletes, while GPx did not differ among groups. Therefore, prolonged intensive training markedly increases oxidative stress in women, which depends on the type of sport. Lower concentration of O2- and increased activity of SOD in water polo players compared to football players suggest that mechanisms of adaptation of antioxidative defense are related to the type of exercise.
Yuzawa, Itsuki; Miyake, Yasufumi; Aruga, Tohru
We described Characteristic of the heat stroke in the sports activity in Japan. It was common in teenage men, and 15 years old had a peak with a man, the woman. Most patients did not need specific treatment. Many happened from the end of July on the outdoors around 3:00 p.m. in mid-August. There are many in order of baseball, football, tennis, and a basketball. Running and cycling had high severity of illness. Probably, grasp of an environmental condition, suitable sportswear, suitable hydration, and condition management are the best things as preventive measures.
All football injuries requiring medical attention (including stiffness, strains, contusions and sprains) and/or the removal from a session, leading to training restriction, were .... This was a descriptive pilot study based on the results of the high-.
This paper identifies three historical events, listed in the title, representing key changes in the business structure of American college football and then tests to see whether these events are associated with changes in competitive balance. The analysis shows that balance has been relatively stable despite these alterations. The significant effects that are uncovered are confined to single conferences suggesting these events are not tied to widespread changes in balance throughout the sport...
Cummins, Cloe; Orr, Rhonda; O'Connor, Helen; West, Cameron
Use of Global positioning system (GPS) technology in team sport permits measurement of player position, velocity, and movement patterns. GPS provides scope for better understanding of the specific and positional physiological demands of team sport and can be used to design training programs that adequately prepare athletes for competition with the aim of optimizing on-field performance. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the depth and scope of reported GPS and microtechnology measures used within individual sports in order to present the contemporary and emerging themes of GPS application within team sports. A systematic review of the application of GPS technology in team sports was conducted. We systematically searched electronic databases from earliest record to June 2012. Permutations of key words included GPS; male and female; age 12-50 years; able-bodied; and recreational to elite competitive team sports. The 35 manuscripts meeting the eligibility criteria included 1,276 participants (age 11.2-31.5 years; 95 % males; 53.8 % elite adult athletes). The majority of manuscripts reported on GPS use in various football codes: Australian football league (AFL; n = 8), soccer (n = 7), rugby union (n = 6), and rugby league (n = 6), with limited representation in other team sports: cricket (n = 3), hockey (n = 3), lacrosse (n = 1), and netball (n = 1). Of the included manuscripts, 34 (97 %) detailed work rate patterns such as distance, relative distance, speed, and accelerations, with only five (14.3 %) reporting on impact variables. Activity profiles characterizing positional play and competitive levels were also described. Work rate patterns were typically categorized into six speed zones, ranging from 0 to 36.0 km·h⁻¹, with descriptors ranging from walking to sprinting used to identify the type of activity mainly performed in each zone. With the exception of cricket, no standardized speed zones or definitions were observed within or
Bragaru, Mihail; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U
impossible. In general, sports were associated with a beneficial effect on the cardiopulmonary system, psychological well-being, social reintegration and physical functioning. Younger individuals with unilateral transtibial amputations achieve better athletic performance and encounter fewer problems when participating in sports compared with older individuals with bilateral transfemoral amputations. Regardless of their amputation level, individuals with limb amputations participate in a wide range of recreational activities. The majority of them were not aware of the sport facilities in their area and were not informed about available recreational activities. Sport prosthetic devices were used mostly by competitive athletes. For football, the injury rate and pattern of the players with an amputation were similar to those of able-bodied players. Individuals with limb amputations appear to benefit both physically and psychologically from participation in sports and/or regular physical activity. Therefore, sports should be included in rehabilitation programmes, and individuals with limb amputations should be encouraged to pursue a physically active life following hospital discharge.
In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…
on boys who gained popularity and status at school through their investment in football, not only .... My view of race is that race is a social and cultural construction rather than a scientific term which ..... Martin's (2011) research on young boys and girls at play at an elementary school in London ..... Bloemfontein: SUN MEDIA.
Christensen, Mette Krogh
dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those......Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...
Objectives: Athlete’s nutritional habits and knowledge can directly affect their performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional habits and knowledge of the Division I collegiate football player. Methods: The participants of this study are male Division I college football players at Utah State University. The athletes included 45 players ranging from 18-26 and include freshman through seniors. Results: Over eighty six percent of the athletes were unaware that a ...
This article examines community sport as a site where refugee youth negotiate belonging, which is conceptualised as a dynamic dialectic of ‘seeking’ and ‘granting’. Drawing on three years of ethnographic fieldwork among Somali Australian youth at community football (soccer) clubs in Melbourne, the
Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…
Chenoweth, Karin; Evelyn, Jamilah
Announces the Sports Scholars Awards for 1998. One male and one female college athlete are profiled, and others are named for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, riflery, bowling, football, wrestling, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, swimming/diving, gymnastics, crew, tennis, golf, volleyball, track/field, cross country, downhill skiing, and…
Tak, Igor; Weir, Adam; Langhout, Rob; Waarsing, Jan Hendrik; Stubbe, Janine; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Agricola, Rintje
Cam deformity (CD) is likely a bony adaptation in response to high-impact sports practice during skeletal growth. We ascertained whether a dose-response relationship exists between the frequency of football practice during skeletal growth and the presence of a CD in adulthood, and if the age at
Chambers, Ryan; Gabbett, Tim J; Cole, Michael H; Beard, Adam
Microtechnology has allowed sport scientists to understand the locomotor demands of various sports. While wearable global positioning technology has been used to quantify the locomotor demands of sporting activities, microsensors (i.e. accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers) embedded within the units also have the capability to detect sport-specific movements. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which microsensors (also referred to as inertial measurement units and microelectromechanical sensors) have been utilised in quantifying sport-specific movements. A systematic review of the use of microsensors and associated terms to evaluate sport-specific movements was conducted; permutations of the terms used included alternate names of the various technologies used, their applications and different applied environments. Studies for this review were published between 2008 and 2014 and were identified through a systematic search of six electronic databases: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Articles were required to have used athlete-mounted sensors to detect sport-specific movements (e.g. rugby union tackle) rather than sensors mounted to equipment and monitoring generic movement patterns. A total of 2395 studies were initially retrieved from the six databases and 737 results were removed as they were duplicates, review articles or conference abstracts. After screening titles and abstracts of the remaining papers, the full text of 47 papers was reviewed, resulting in the inclusion of 28 articles that met the set criteria around the application of microsensors for detecting sport-specific movements. Eight articles addressed the use of microsensors within individual sports, team sports provided seven results, water sports provided eight articles, and five articles addressed the use of microsensors in snow sports. All articles provided evidence of the ability of microsensors to detect sport
Williams, Sean; Hume, Patria A; Kara, Stephen
Football codes (rugby union, soccer, American football) train and play matches on natural and artificial turfs. A review of injuries on different turfs was needed to inform practitioners and sporting bodies on turf-related injury mechanisms and risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this review was to compare the incidence, nature and mechanisms of injuries sustained on newer generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. Electronic databases were searched using the keywords 'artificial turf', 'natural turf', 'grass' and 'inj*'. Delimitation of 120 articles sourced to those addressing injuries in football codes and those using third and fourth generation artificial turfs or natural turfs resulted in 11 experimental papers. These 11 papers provided 20 cohorts that could be assessed using magnitude-based inferences for injury incidence rate ratio calculations pertaining to differences between surfaces. Analysis showed that 16 of the 20 cohorts showed trivial effects for overall incidence rate ratios between surfaces. There was increased risk of ankle injury playing on artificial turf in eight cohorts, with incidence rate ratios from 0.7 to 5.2. Evidence concerning risk of knee injuries on the two surfaces was inconsistent, with incidence rate ratios from 0.4 to 2.8. Two cohorts showed beneficial inferences over the 90% likelihood value for effects of artificial surface on muscle injuries for soccer players; however, there were also two harmful, four unclear and five trivial inferences across the three football codes. Inferences relating to injury severity were inconsistent, with the exception that artificial turf was very likely to have harmful effects for minor injuries in rugby union training and severe injuries in young female soccer players. No clear differences between surfaces were evident in relation to training versus match injuries. Potential mechanisms for differing injury patterns on artificial turf compared with natural turf include increased peak torque and
Ireland, Robin; Watkins, Francine
Although there is growing awareness of the impact of diet on health, little attention has been given to the food available in our sports stadia. We used a football club (Citygrene FC) - Citygrene is a fictional name - in the English Premier League as a case study to examine the attitudes of male and female football supporters to the food and drink available at their home stadium (Citygrene Stadium). The research design used five focus groups of male and female fans. The discourse was audiotaped, transcribed, coded and analysed for themes. A football stadium in the English Premier League, England. The participants were season ticket holders drawn from two stands at Citygrene Stadium. The research showed a high level of dissatisfaction with the food and drink supplied. There were key differences in the views of the male and female participants in the focus groups, with the women more concerned about wider issues such as the lack of healthy food. Both men and women were aware of their role as consumers and felt that there was an opportunity for Citygrene to improve their catering profits, if they provided a better selection of food and drink and an improved service. The study shows that there is a demand for healthier food options (and a wider choice of food and drink in general), which may provide an economic opportunity for stadium and catering managers. In addition, a stadium may be considered a potential 'healthy setting', which can serve as a supportive environment for healthier food choices.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...
Tiago Fernandes Maranhao
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.
Fridman, Liraz; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica L; McFaull, Steven R; Macpherson, Alison K
Although injuries related to sports and recreation represent a significant burden to children and youth, few studies have examined the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injury since 2005, and some sports such as ringette have not been evaluated to date. The primary purpose of this study was to provide the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injuries treated in emergency departments for children and youth aged 5 - 19. A retrospective data analysis was performed using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program [CHIRPP] from fiscal years (April - March) 2007/08 to 2009/10. CHIRPP is a computerized information system designed by the Public Health Agency of Canada that collects information about injuries to people evaluated in emergency departments across 11 pediatric hospitals and 5 general hospitals in Canada. Thirteen sports or activities were analyzed (baseball, basketball, cycling, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, ringette, rugby, skiing, sledding, snowboarding, soccer, and volleyball). Descriptive statistics, including frequency by sport, age and sex, as well as the percent of concussions within each sport were calculated. Out of a total of 56, 691 reported sports and recreational injuries, soccer accounted for the largest proportion of injuries with 11,941 reported cases over the 3 year time period. Of these, approximately 30% were fractures. The 10 - 14 year age group reported the greatest proportion of injuries in 10 out of the 13 sports analyzed. In addition, males reported a greater number of overall injuries than females in 11 out of the 13 sports analyzed. The largest percentage of concussions was reported in ringette; these injuries accounted for 17.1% of overall injuries within this sport. Injury prevention programs in Canada should focus on improving evidence-based programs to reduce the burden of injuries in all sports.
Willigenburg, Nienke W; Borchers, James R; Quincy, Richard; Kaeding, Christopher C; Hewett, Timothy E
American football and rugby players are at substantial risk of injury because of the full-contact nature of these sports. Methodological differences between previous epidemiological studies hamper an accurate comparison of injury rates between American football and rugby. To directly compare injury rates in American collegiate football and rugby, specified by location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, as reported by licensed medical professionals. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Licensed medical professionals (athletic trainer or physician) associated with the football and rugby teams of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university reported attendance and injury details over 3 autumn seasons. Injuries were categorized by the location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, and the injury rate was calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Injury rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare overall, game, and practice injury rates within and between sports. The overall injury rate was 4.9/1000 AEs in football versus 15.2/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 3.1 (95% CI, 2.3-4.2). Game injury rates were higher than practice injury rates: IRR = 6.5 (95% CI, 4.5-9.3) in football and IRR = 5.1 (95% CI, 3.0-8.6) in rugby. Injury rates for the shoulder, wrist/hand, and lower leg and for sprains, fractures, and contusions in rugby were >4 times as high as those in football (all P ≤ 0.006). Concussion rates were 1.0/1000 AEs in football versus 2.5/1000 AEs in rugby. Most injuries occurred via direct player contact, especially during games. The rate of season-ending injuries (>3 months of time loss) was 0.8/1000 AEs in football versus 1.0/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 1.3 (95% CI, 0.4-3.4). Overall injury rates were substantially higher in collegiate rugby compared with football. Similarities between sports were observed in the most common injury types (sprains and concussions), locations (lower extremity and head), and mechanisms (direct player contact
Erlanger, David M
Current characterizations of chronic traumatic brain injury (CTBI) in boxing, football and other sports are reviewed in the context of the history of research on sub-concussive brain trauma in athletes. The utility of exposure models for understanding CTBI in boxers is examined and concerns regarding the paucity of findings supportive of an exposure model for CTBI in football players are discussed. Recommendations for development of exposure models for sport-specific phenotypic characterizations of CTBI are presented.
Full Text Available Physical capacity of athletes is an important element of success in sports achievements. Aerobic capacity has been accepted as its major component. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max has been regarded by majority of authors as the best indicator of aerobic capacity of an organism, and at the same time, the best indicator of an athlete’s physical capacity. The aim of the investigation was to analyze the aerobic capacity as an indicator of physical capacity of athletes, differences in their aerobic capacity with regard to the kind of sport they are practicing, as well as the differences obtained when compared to physically inactive subjects. The investigation included the determination of absolute and relative VO2max in the total of 66 male examinees. The examinees were divided into two groups of active athletes (football players (n=22 and volleyball players (n=18 of different profiles, while the third group of non-athletes served as control group. Maximal oxygen uptake was determined by performing the Astrand 6 minute cycle test. Peak values of VO2 max were recorded in the group of football players (4,25±0,27 l/min, and they were statistically significantly higher (p<0,001 compared to other examined groups. In the group of volleyball players the oxygen uptake was 3,95±0,18 l/min, while statistically significantly lower values were reported in the group of non-athletes compared to the groups of athletes (p<0,01. A similar ratio of VO2 max values was also shown by the analysis of values expressed in relative units. Our results showed that peak values of VO2 max were obtained in football players, and that football as a sport requires higher degree of endurance compared to volleyball. Having considered the morphological and functional changes which are the consequence of the training process, it can be concluded that VO2 max values are statistically significantly higher in the groups of athletes compared to the group of non-athletes.
Werner, Brian C; Hadeed, Michael M; Lyons, Matthew L; Gluck, Joshua S; Diduch, David R; Chhabra, A Bobby
To evaluate return to play after complete thumb ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury treated with suture anchor repair for both skill position and non-skill position collegiate football athletes and report minimum 2-year clinical outcomes in this population. For this retrospective study, inclusion criteria were complete rupture of the thumb UCL and suture anchor repair in a collegiate football athlete performed by a single surgeon who used an identical technique for all patients. Data collection included chart review, determination of return to play, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) outcomes. A total of 18 collegiate football athletes were identified, all of whom were evaluated for follow-up by telephone, e-mail, or regular mail at an average 6-year follow-up. Nine were skill position players; the remaining 9 played in nonskill positions. All players returned to at least the same level of play. The average QuickDASH score for the entire cohort was 1 out of 100; QuickDASH work score, 0 out of 100; and sport score, 1 out of 100. Average time to surgery for skill position players was 12 days compared with 43 for non-skill position players. Average return to play for skill position players was 7 weeks postoperatively compared with 4 weeks for non-skill position players. There was no difference in average QuickDASH overall scores or subgroup scores between cohorts. Collegiate football athletes treated for thumb UCL injuries with suture anchor repair had quick return to play, reliable return to the same level of activity, and excellent long-term clinical outcomes. Skill position players had surgery sooner after injury and returned to play later than non-skill position players, with no differences in final level of play or clinical outcomes. Management of thumb UCL injuries in collegiate football athletes can be safely and effectively tailored according to the demands of the player's football position. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014
Ponseti Verdaguer, Francisco Javier
The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudes towards fair play, playing foul/hard, and the acceptability of teams' antisocial behaviour, such as cheating and gamesmanship, in the context of grassroots sports teams. The sample included 48 teams of basket, football, handball, volleyball and rugby, including 1333 adolescents (1013 boys and 320 girls) with a mean age of 12.50 years (Range: 10-15; SD = 2.09 years). In order to study these psychological variables, the athletes answered the Pr...
Nation, Adam D; Nelson, Nicolas G; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn; McKenzie, Lara B
Football is one of the most popular youth sports in the United States despite the high rate of injuries. Previously published studies have investigated football-related injuries that occurred in organized play but have excluded those that occurred during unorganized play. Through use of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database, cases of football-related injuries were identified for analysis. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates. An estimated 5 252 721 children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old were treated in US emergency departments for football-related injuries. The annual number of cases increased by 26.5% over the 18-year study period. The 12- to 17-year-old age group accounted for 77.8% of all injuries and had nearly twice the odds of sustaining a concussion. The findings suggest the need for increased prevention efforts to lower the risk of football-related injury in children and adolescents.
Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits
Gray, C.M.; Hunt, K.; Mutrie, N.; Anderson, A.S.; Leishman, J.; Dalgarno, L.; Wyke, S.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the
Xavier Ginesta Portet
Full Text Available El deporte ejerce mucha influencia en nuestra sociedad; y, sobre todo, entre los más jóvenes, quienes consumen deporte no sólo en las escuelas, sino también a través de los medios de comunicación. En algunos casos, los valores que los maestros y entrenadores intentan transmitir a sus alumnos o deportistas son diferentes que los valores que transmite el deporte-espectáculo consumido en directo o a través de los medios. En este artículo se relata, a partir del derbi de fútbol Barça-Madrid, una experiencia para intentar desarrollar la capacidad crítica del alumno respecto al deporte. Sport is very influential in our societies; above all, on youngsters. Young consumers are exposed to sport, not only at school, but also through the mass media. Sometimes, the values that teachers and coaches instil in their young pupils, sportsmen and sportswomen, are not the same values which they receive when they watch sport-entertainment events, through mass media or live. In this paper, we analyse an experience, a Barça-Madrid derby, to try to develop the critical capability of students regarding sport.
Müller, Oliver; Simons, Alexander; Weinmann, Markus
concern. Market values can be understood as estimates of transfer fees—that is, prices that could be paid for a player on the football market—so they play an important role in transfer negotiations. These values have traditionally been estimated by football experts, but crowdsourcing has emerged......Association football is a popular sport, but it is also a big business. From a managerial perspective, the most important decisions that team managers make concern player transfers, so issues related to player valuation, especially the determination of transfer fees and market values, are of major......’ market values using multilevel regression analysis. The regression results suggest that data-driven estimates of market value can overcome several of the crowd's practical limitations while producing comparably accurate numbers. Our results have important implications for football managers and scouts...
Chung, Kevin C.; Lark, Meghan E.; Cederna, Paul S.
Synopsis Although football is one of the most popular sports in America, its high injury incidence places concern on the injury prevention and safety of its players. This article investigates the perspectives of two National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 football coaches on promoting injury management and player safety while maintaining a highly competitive team. Through obtaining their coaching philosophy on a wide range of team management topics, effective strategies that contribute to a team culture prioritizing player well-being were identified. Furthermore, the interactions of football coaches with physicians and medical specialists are explored to highlight collaborative strengths that can be used to optimize the care and treatment of football athletes. PMID:27886827
Harrison, Emily A
In the early 21st century, sports concussion has become a prominent public health problem, popularly labeled "The Concussion Crisis." Football-related concussion contributes much of the epidemiological burden and inspires much of the public awareness. Though often cast as a recent phenomenon, the crisis in fact began more than a century ago, as concussions were identified among footballers in the game's first decades. This early concussion crisis subsided-allowing the problem to proliferate-because work was done by football's supporters to reshape public acceptance of risk. They appealed to an American culture that permitted violence, shifted attention to reforms addressing more visible injuries, and legitimized football within morally reputable institutions. Meanwhile, changing demands on the medical profession made practitioners reluctant to take a definitive stance. Drawing on scientific journals, public newspapers, and personal letters of players and coaches, this history of the early crisis raises critical questions about solutions being negotiated at present.
The Ladies Gaelic Football Association has a playing population of 150,000 of which 33% are adults. A number of studies have been published on rates of injury among male athletes but none on female athletes in Gaelic football. A retrospective review of insurance claims, submitted under the Gaelic Athletic Association Player Insurance Injury Scheme. 405 injuries were recorded, 248 [107 (70%) male, 141 (58%) female] to the lower limb, 91 [33 (21%) male, 58 (23%) female] to the upper limb. The majority of lower limb injuries [56 (52%) male, 56 (40%) female] were to muscle. Almost a third of upper limb injuries were fractures [10 (30.3%) male, 33 (57%) female]. injuries\\/1000 hours playing was 8.25 for men and 2.4 for women. The injury rate in ladies Gaelic football was found to be significantly lower than in men\\'s Gaelic football. Lower limb injuries accounted for the majority of injuries in both sports.
Kroshus, Emily; Kerr, Zachary Y; Lee, Joseph G L
USA Football has made the Heads Up Football (HUF) concussion education program available for coaches of youth football players. Existing evidence about the effectiveness of the HUF coach education program is equivocal. For HUF and other programs, there is growing concern that even effective interventions can increase inequalities if there is different uptake or impact by SES or other demographic factors. Understanding how adoption is patterned along these lines is important for understanding equity issues in youth football. This study tested the hypothesis that there will be lower adoption of HUF among coaches of youth football players in lower-SES communities. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of the association between community-level characteristics and number of USA Football youth league coaches who have completed HUF. Data were collected in 2014 and analyzed in 2015-2016. Implementation of the HUF program was patterned by community-level socioeconomic characteristics. Leagues located in communities with a higher percentage of families with children aged football, it is important to consider not just the effectiveness of these interventions, but also whether they reduce or exacerbate health inequities. These results suggest that relying on voluntary adoption of coach education may result in inequitable implementation. Further study is required to identify and remedy organizational and contextual barriers to implementation of coach education in youth sport. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kramer, Efraim Benjamin; Dvorak, J; Schmied, C; Meyer, T
Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of unnatural death in football. To prevent and urgently manage sudden cardiac arrest on the football field-of-play, F-MARC (FIFA Medical and Research Centre) has been fully committed to a programme of research, education, standardisation and practical implementation. This strategy has detected football players at medical risk during mandatory precompetition medical assessments. Additionally, FIFA has (1) sponsored internationally accepted guidelines for the interpretation of an athlete's ECG, (2) developed field-of-play-specific protocols for the recognition, response, resuscitation and removal of a football player having sudden cardiac arrest and (3) introduced and distributed the FIFA medical emergency bag which has already resulted in the successful resuscitation of a football player who had a sudden cardiac arrest on the field-of-play. Recently FIFA, in association with the Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine in Saarbrücken, Germany, established a worldwide Sudden Death Registry with a view to documenting fatal events on the football field-of-play. These activities by F-MARC are testimony to FIFA's continued commitment to minimising sudden cardiac arrest while playing football. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...
Gruppen, Tonia; Smith, Molly; Ganss, Andrea
In the National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement, "Acute Management of the Cervical Spine-Injured Athlete," the technique recommended for face-mask (FM) removal is one that "creates the least head and neck motion, is performed most quickly, is the least difficult, and carries the least chance of failure." Industrial and technological advances in football helmet design and FM attachment systems might influence the efficacy of emergency FM removal. To examine the removal times and success rates of the Quick Release (QR) Face Guard Attachment System (Riddell Sports, Inc, Elyria, OH) throughout and at the conclusion of 1 season of play by a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III football team competing in the Midwest. Controlled laboratory study. College laboratory. A total of 69 randomly selected Revolution IQ (Riddell Sports, Inc) football helmets fitted with the QR system were used. Each helmet was secured to a spine board, and investigators attempted to remove both of the QR side clips from the helmet with the Riddell insertion tool. Dependent variables included total time for removal of both QR side clips from the FM and success rate for removal of both side clips. The overall success rate for removal of both clips was 94.8% (164/173), whereas the mean times for removal of both clips ranged from 9.92 ± 12.06 seconds to 16.65 ± 20.97 seconds over 4 trial sessions. We found no differences among mean times for trial sessions throughout the season of play among the same helmets or among different helmets (P > .05). Removal time and success rate of the Riddell QR were satisfactory during and after 1 season of play despite use in various temperatures and precipitation.
Gruppen, Tonia; Smith, Molly; Ganss, Andrea
Context In the National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement, “Acute Management of the Cervical Spine-Injured Athlete,” the technique recommended for face-mask (FM) removal is one that “creates the least head and neck motion, is performed most quickly, is the least difficult, and carries the least chance of failure.” Industrial and technological advances in football helmet design and FM attachment systems might influence the efficacy of emergency FM removal. Objective To examine the removal times and success rates of the Quick Release (QR) Face Guard Attachment System (Riddell Sports, Inc, Elyria, OH) throughout and at the conclusion of 1 season of play by a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III football team competing in the Midwest. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting College laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 69 randomly selected Revolution IQ (Riddell Sports, Inc) football helmets fitted with the QR system were used. Intervention(s) Each helmet was secured to a spine board, and investigators attempted to remove both of the QR side clips from the helmet with the Riddell insertion tool. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables included total time for removal of both QR side clips from the FM and success rate for removal of both side clips. Results The overall success rate for removal of both clips was 94.8% (164/173), whereas the mean times for removal of both clips ranged from 9.92 ± 12.06 seconds to 16.65 ± 20.97 seconds over 4 trial sessions. We found no differences among mean times for trial sessions throughout the season of play among the same helmets or among different helmets (P > .05). Conclusions Removal time and success rate of the Riddell QR were satisfactory during and after 1 season of play despite use in various temperatures and precipitation. PMID:22889658
Baptista, António Manuel Gonçalves; Serra, Pedro M; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T
Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual
Full Text Available An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football (or soccer. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the same way as in dialogical logic, but it should also present truth-values in an alternative sense of speech-acts occurring in a dialogue. The relativity of truth-values is focused by this way, thereby leading to an additional way of logical pluralism.
Abel Merino Orozco; Ana Arraiz Pérez; Fernando Sabirón Sierra
Under 6s football competition is a school sport that has inherent educational implications. Moreover, it is a booming non-formal socio-educational framework where families and children lay training expectations and dreams. The aim is to comprehend the emerging learning processes promoted in this environment for 6 years-old children, when the child starts the institutionalization process in the ruled sport. The research uses a case study design, the ethnographic mode, through participant obser...
Full Text Available The National Football League (NFL has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other football related injuries have brought the sport under increased scrutiny. By comparing mortality rates of the general population to mortality rates of players using publically available data from the 1970 and 1994 NFL seasons, we test whether participation in football is significantly harmful to the longevity of the players. We conclude that, in total, players in the NFL have lower mortality rates than the general population. However, there is evidence that line players have higher mortality rates than other players and that those who played more games have higher mortality rates than those who played fewer games.
Spaaij, R.; Mastrogiannakis, D.; Dorville, C.
An advanced security assemblage is now at the permanent disposal of authorities in their quest to pre-empt and manage risk at football matches. This chapter proposes the ‘football stadia-as-laboratories’ metaphor as an analytical lens through which to examine the security and risk management
Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda
Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT
Andersen, Tem Frank
This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...
Clumpner, Roy A.
This book, which is primarily for secondary physical education teachers, presents a sequential approach to teaching skills that are essential to eight sports. The activities and lead-up games included in the book put beginning students directly into game-like situations where they can practice skills. Each chapter begins with a background of the…
Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila
three crucial interconnected factors influencing interorganisational implementation behaviour and representing complications for the successful implementation of Football Fitness: (1) The implementation is being carried out by multiple actors with different implementation tasks. These actors operate......This article explores the role of the interorganisational implementation behaviour of the relevant actors in the implementation of Football Fitness, a Danish football-based, health-related activity. Football Fitness was designed by the Danish Football Association in 2010 and introduced in several...... volunteer football clubs in 2011. Today, around 200 of ∼1,600 potential clubs are involved. The analysis deployed a qualitative approach, including document analysis, individual interviews and focus group interviews. The theoretical framework is rooted in policy implementation theory. The findings reveal...
Elliott, Marcus C C W; Zarins, Bertram; Powell, John W; Kenyon, Charles D
Investigations into hamstring strain injuries at the elite level exist in sports such as Australian Rules football, rugby, and soccer, but no large-scale study exists on the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Injury rates will vary between different player positions, times in the season, and across different playing situations. Descriptive epidemiology study. Between 1989 and 1998, injury data were prospectively collected by athletic trainers for every NFL team and recorded in the NFL's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected included team, date of injury, activity the player was engaged in at the time of injury, injury severity, position played, mechanism of injury, and history of previous injury. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). An athlete-exposure was defined as 1 athlete participating in either 1 practice or 1 game. Over the 10-year study period 1716 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.77 per 1000 A-E. More than half (51.3%) of hamstring strains occurred during the 7-week preseason. The preseason practice IR was significantly elevated compared with the regular-season practice IR (0.82/1000 A-E and 0.18/1000 A-E, respectively). The most commonly injured positions were the defensive secondary, accounting for 23.1% of the injuries; the wide receivers, accounting for 20.8%; and special teams, constituting 13.0% of the injuries in the study. Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in football, with the majority of injuries occurring during the short preseason. In particular, the speed position players, such as the wide receivers and defensive secondary, as well as players on the special teams units, are at elevated risk for injury. These positions and situations with a higher risk of injury provide foci for preventative interventions.
Full Text Available Training exercises of recovery of sportsmen include both exercises implying hig- her level of training and exercises of optimal recovery of sportsmen. In order to use training exercises of recovery best way it is necessary to know how they react to the body of a sportsman concerning their character and length. It is also necessary to take into consideration the fact that human body adapts equally both to burden and adequ- ate recovery exercises. To increase the efficiency of training exercises of recovery it is inevitable to use different exercises and methods changing their use, that is, they should be applied in a complex way considering their change depending on sport activities and structure of training process. The aim of the study is to check and analyse attitudes of fooyball players of different ranks towards training exercises of recovery. The sample of examinees consists of 120 footballers of different ranks (super league of Serbia = 43, the first league of Serbia = 40 and Serbian league = 37. The sample of variables consists of the system of 10 attitudes (claims, and each attitude (claim consists of 5 verbal ca- tegories (marked from -2 to +2. To determine multivariate and univariate significance of differences between footballers of different competition ranks multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA have been ap- plied. Concerning the attitudes of training exercises of recovery statistically significant differences were got between the groups where 7 out of 10 attitudes were different. Con- cerning the correlation two types of attitudes were noticed. Footballers of different competition ranks do not have the same attitudes towards training exercises of recovery.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Mihalik, Jason P; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Comstock, R Dawn
Little research has examined concussion outcomes in terms of impact location (ie, the area on the head in which the impact occurred). This study describes the epidemiology of concussions resulting from player-to-player collision in high school football by impact location. National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study data (2008/2009-2012/2013) were analyzed to calculate rates and describe circumstances of football concussion (eg, symptomology, symptom resolution time, return to play) resulting from player-to-player collisions by impact location (ie, front-, back-, side-, and top-of-the-head). Most concussions resulting from player-to-player collisions occurred from front-of-the-head (44.7%) and side-of-the-head (22.3%) impacts. Number of symptoms reported, prevalence of reported symptoms, symptom resolution time, and length of time to return to play were not associated with impact location. However, a larger proportion of football players sustaining concussions from top-of-the-head impacts experienced loss of consciousness (8.0%) than those sustaining concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (3.5%) (injury proportion ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.2; P = .008). Players had their head down at the time of impact in a higher proportion of concussions caused by top-of-the-head impacts (86.4%) than concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (24.0%) (injury proportion ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 3.2-4.0; P impact location. Recommended strategies for reducing the proportion of top-of-the-head impacts include improved education regarding tackling with proper "head-up" technique. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Krustrup, Peter; Dvorak, J.; Junge, A.
The present special issue of Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports deals with health and fitness benefits of regular participation in small-sided football games. One review article and 13 original articles were the result of a 2-year multi-center study in Copenhagen and Zurich...... and include studies of different age groups analyzed from a physiological, medical, social and psychological perspective. The main groups investigated were middle-aged, former untrained, healthy men and women who were followed for up to 16 months. In addition, elderly, children and hypertensive patients were...... studied. A summary and interpretations of the main findings divided into an analysis of the physical demands during training of various groups and the effect of a period of training on performance, muscle adaptations and health profile follow. In addition, social and psychological effects on participation...
Robertson, Sam; Woods, Carl; Gastin, Paul
To develop a physiological performance and anthropometric attribute model to predict Australian Football League draft selection. Cross-sectional observational. Data was obtained (n=4902) from three Under-18 Australian football competitions between 2010 and 2013. Players were allocated into one of the three groups, based on their highest level of selection in their final year of junior football (Australian Football League Drafted, n=292; National Championship, n=293; State-level club, n=4317). Physiological performance (vertical jumps, agility, speed and running endurance) and anthropometric (body mass and height) data were obtained. Hedge's effect sizes were calculated to assess the influence of selection-level and competition on these physical attributes, with logistic regression models constructed to discriminate Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players. Rule induction analysis was undertaken to determine a set of rules for discriminating selection-level. Effect size comparisons revealed a range of small to moderate differences between State-level club players and both other groups for all attributes, with trivial to small differences between Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players noted. Logistic regression models showed multistage fitness test, height and 20 m sprint time as the most important attributes in predicting Draft success. Rule induction analysis showed that players displaying multistage fitness test scores of >14.01 and/or 20 m sprint times of football players being recruited to the highest level of the sport. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haxhiu, Bekim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Zahiti, Bedri; Shalaj, Ismet; Sllamniku, Sabit
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.
Tai, Sharayah S. M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.
With concussion rates on the rise for football players, there is a need for further research to increase skills and decrease injuries. Behavioral skills training is effective in teaching a wide variety of skills but has yet to be studied in the sports setting. We evaluated behavioral skills training to teach safer tackling techniques to six…
Ekstrand, Jan; van Dijk, C. Niek
There is little information about Metatarsal Five (MT-5) fractures for specific sports. To study the occurrence, the imaging characteristics, the lay-off times and healing problems of MT-5 fractures among male footballers. Sixty-four European elite teams were monitored from 2001 to 2012. x-Rays were
Lifschitz, Arik; Sauder, Michael; Stevens, Mitchell L.
Sociologists have focused almost exclusively on academic aspects of status in higher education, despite the prominence of nonacademic activities, specifically athletics, in U.S. colleges and universities. We use the case of football to investigate whether intercollegiate sports influence the distribution of status in U.S. higher education.…
Grünke, Matthias; Ropohl, Benedikt; Semmling, Holger
Young people with learning disorders often remain on the fringes of society, feeling that they do not fit in. Sharing hobbies with other members of their community can help them to become part of a mainstream group. Football (which is called "soccer" in the US and parts of Canada) is a popular sport, especially among men. Identifying as…
Trading cards for various sports and a range of other subjects such as architecture, animals, hobbies, and war have been in existence since the late nineteenth century and still enjoy great popularity. Two of the most prominent examples are baseball cards in the U.S. and football cards in Europe. Three strategies for collecting European football…
Background. Groin injuries are common in football. This can be attributed to the nature of the sport involving rapid accelerations, decelerations, abrupt directional changes and kicking. Groin injuries require lengthy rehabilitation times and predispose players to further injuries. Previous groin injury is a risk factor for future ...
Football is arguably the world's most popular and globalised sport, and it has been implicated in the continuing efforts in social science disciplines to understand current globalisation processes. Electronic colonialism, the metonym for the dominance of global mediascape by transnational media
Fortington, Lauren V; Bekker, Sheree; Finch, Caroline F
While deaths in sports settings are rare, they do occur. To develop an understanding of the sports and people most at risk, and to identify opportunities for prevention, routine and systematic data detailing the occurrence of these fatalities is required. There is currently no routine reporting of data of this nature in Australia. As there is often strong community interest in these incidents, the media offers an opportunity for surveillance. However before this can occur, understanding of the terminology used by the media is required. The aim of this study was to identify the terminology most frequently used in online Australian news media coverage of football-related deaths. Retrospective review of online news media. Three databases were searched for online news media reports of people who died while participating in football (all football codes) in Australia. A descriptive analysis of terminology was undertaken to identify the common language applied. Thirty-four football-related fatalities in Australia were identified between 2010-2016, via 149 separate articles. The most frequent terms identified in the media items were: Family; Club; Rugby; Football; Player; League; Died; Game; Death; Life; Loved; Hospital; Match; Young; Community; Playing; Friends; Sport; Heart; AFL [Australian Football League]. This study identified terminology used in reporting football-related fatalities in Australia, identifying common reference to terms relating to 'death' as metaphors and the frequent celebration of 'life.' The findings suggest that a reliance on researcher-generated terminology will be insufficient to reflect media discourse in prospective monitoring of sports deaths for surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
Braun, Hans; von Andrian-Werburg, Judith; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario
To investigate energy intake, energy expenditure, and the nutritional status of young female elite football players using 7-day food and activity records and blood parameters. A total of 56 female elite football players [14.8 (0.7) y] completed the requested food and activity protocols. Misreporting was assessed by the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure. The food records were analyzed concerning energy and macronutrient and micronutrient intakes, and energy expenditure was calculated using predictive equations. Hematological data and 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations were determined. Mean energy intake was 2262 (368) kcal/d [40.5 (7.0) kcal/kg/d] and estimated EE averaged 2403 (195) kcal/d. Fifty-three percent of the players exhibited an energy availability nutrition status of some young female football players. As a consequence, strategies have to be developed for a better information and application of sport nutrition practice among young female football players.
Nadielli Maria dos Santos Galvão
Full Text Available This study investigates how Brazilian football clubs highlight the value of their athletes in the accounting reports. The study looked at the degree of disclosure of the value of athletes of items such as depreciation, impairment, measurement basis, transfer of athletes in formation for the account of athletes formed among others. This study takes as its starting point the Brazilian standard accounting ITG 2003 created to establish specific criteria and procedures for assessment, recording and structuring of the financial statements of professional sports entities. This research included documentary analysis of the financial statements of 25 clubs that participated in the series A and B of the Brazilian Football Championship 2013. This study shows that of the 25 investigated clubs, 20 show the athletes as ITG 2003. The clubs that show more information on the value of their athletes were Sao Paulo and Botafogo. Regarding the participation of athletes in equity value of the clubs, it was found that this variable is around 16.5%. Finally, correspondence analysis (ANACOR and the Spearman correlation test, aiming to test whether there is a relationship between the degree of disclosure of the value of athletes and their participation in equity. The results show that there is a possibility that these two variables are related.
Forrest, David; Pérez, Levi
Football pools were an antecedent to lotto in providing a long-odds, high-prize gambling opportunity for a mass market in Europe. Even after lotto has become well established, pools games continue to occupy a significant niche in the gaming market in several jurisdictions, most notably Spain. This paper employs 23 years of sales data from the national pools game in Spain to investigate similarities between the behaviour of lotto players and pools players. It observes similar phenomena as have been noted in lotto sales studies, including strong sensitivity of sales to the size of jackpot on offer, significant habit effects, a halo effect whereby there is some short-term persistence in increased sales whenever a high jackpot is offered (even after jackpot size has returned to normal), and a tendency to jackpot fatigue (over time, the size of the jackpot has to be increased to more than before to stimulate the same increase in sales). Notwithstanding that the football pools are marketed as based on knowledge and understanding of sport whereas lotto is a pure numbers game, modelling sales of the pools therefore yields findings very similar to those reported in the literature on lotto. This suggests that both sets of players share common psychological and cognitive traits and economic motivation. Those responsible for promoting pools should therefore be able to draw on findings from the much more extensive literature on lotto when formulating strategy in terms of game design and marketing.
Casanova, Natalina; Palmeira-DE-Oliveira, Ana; Pereira, Ana; Crisóstomo, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Costa, Aldo M
Endogenous hormones are essential on the control of physiological reactions and adaptations during sport performance. This study aims to compare the mood state and the salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone during an official female association football tournament. Twenty female football players (22.85±4.2 years) from the Portuguese women's national team were included in the study. Mood, salivary cortisol and testosterone levels were examined in five moments over the championship (M1, neutral measures; M2-M5, on every match day). Saliva samples were collected before breakfast and immediately after each match. Mood was measured by the profile of mood states questionnaire (POMS); hormone levels were measure by immunoassay methods. Iceberg Profiles of POMS were observed during all the moments of evaluation (M2-M5), showing a decrease in vigor and an increase in tension and depression in both team defeats (M2 and M5). There is no relationship between the hormones levels and the outcome of the competition, once cortisol and testosterone decrease from pre-match to post-match in both wins (M2 and M5) and defeats (M3 and M4). For testosterone the observed decrease is significantly different (Pfootball players training systematically and regularly seem to be very well adapted to competition stress effect.
Sørensen, Søren Nørgaard; Rasmussen, John
We develop and use an advanced numerical model to investigate the window of opportunity of free kicks in association football. The planar multibody forward dynamics model comprises a two segment leg model with joint actuations, a football, a wall and the turf. Contact mechanics is defined to model...
Rokosz, Francis M.
The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…
Garvey, J F W; Hazard, H
Chronic groin pain (athletic pubalgia) is a common problem in sports such as football, hockey, cricket, baseball and athletics. Multiple co-existing pathologies are often present which commonly include posterior inguinal canal wall deficiency, conjoint tendinopathy, adductor tendinopathy, osteitis pubis and peripheral nerve entrapment. The mechanism of injury remains unclear but sports that involve either pivoting on a single leg (e.g. kicking) or a sudden change in direction at speed are most often associated with athletic pubalgia. These manoeuvres place large forces across the bony pelvis and its soft tissue supports, accounting for the usual clinical presentation of multiple symptomatic abnormalities forming one pattern of injury. The diagnoses encountered in this series of 100 patients included rectus abdominis muscle atrophy/asymmetry (22), conjoint tendinopathy (16), sports (occult, incipient) hernia (16), groin disruption injury (16), classical hernia (11) traumatic osteitis pubis (5), and avulsion fracture of the pubic bone (4). Surgical management was generally undertaken only after failed conservative therapy of 3-6 months, but some professionals who have physiotherapy during the football season went directly to surgery at the end of the football season. A variety of operations were performed including groin reconstruction (15), open hernia repair with or without mesh (11), sports hernia repair (Gilmore) (7) laparoscopic repair (3), conjoint tendon repair (3) and adductor tenotomy (3). Sixty-six patients were available for follow at an average of 13 years after initial consultation and the combined success rate for both conservative treatment and surgery was 94%. The authors believe that athletic pubalgia or sports hernia should be considered as a 'groin disruption injury', the result of functional instability of the pelvis. The surgical approach is aimed at strengthening the anterior pelvic soft tissues that support and stabilise the symphysis pubis.
Gabbett, Tim J
The physical demands of rugby league, rugby union, and American football are significantly increased through the large number of collisions players are required to perform during match play. Because of the labor-intensive nature of coding collisions from video recordings, manufacturers of wearable microsensor (e.g., global positioning system [GPS]) units have refined the technology to automatically detect collisions, with several sport scientists attempting to use these microsensors to quantify the physical demands of collision sports. However, a question remains over the validity of these microtechnology units to quantify the contact demands of collision sports. Indeed, recent evidence has shown significant differences in the number of "impacts" recorded by microtechnology units (GPSports) and the actual number of collisions coded from video. However, a separate study investigated the validity of a different microtechnology unit (minimaxX; Catapult Sports) that included GPS and triaxial accelerometers, and also a gyroscope and magnetometer, to quantify collisions. Collisions detected by the minimaxX unit were compared with video-based coding of the actual events. No significant differences were detected in the number of mild, moderate, and heavy collisions detected via the minimaxX units and those coded from video recordings of the actual event. Furthermore, a strong correlation (r = 0.96, p sports. Until such validation research is completed, sport scientists should be circumspect of the ability of other units to perform similar functions.
Bruun, D M; Krustrup, Peter; Hornstrup, Therese
Evidence is accumulating that exercise-based rehabilitation improves physical capacity and quality of life in cancer survivors. However, recruitment and persistence of male cancer patients in rehabilitation and physical activity are low and novel health promotion strategies are warranted. The pur......Evidence is accumulating that exercise-based rehabilitation improves physical capacity and quality of life in cancer survivors. However, recruitment and persistence of male cancer patients in rehabilitation and physical activity are low and novel health promotion strategies are warranted....... The two data sets were analyzed using framework analysis. The analysis produced 11 subthemes that were structured into three overarching themes: (a) motivational drivers; (b) united in sport; and (c) confirmation of own capacity. The findings indicated that participants regarded football as a welcome...... of masculine ideals, may be a potent and unique strategy for increasing recruitment and adherence to physical activity in prostate cancer patients....
Ramasamy, Mouli; Harbaugh, Robert E.; Varadan, Vijay K.
Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.
Briscoe, J H
A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football...
Miró, O; Sánchez, M; Borrás, A; Millá, J
To know the influence of televised football on the use of emergency department (ED). We assessed the number, demographic characteristics and acuity of patients attended during the broadcast of football matches played by FC Barcelona during Champions' League (n = 12), and they were compared with days without televised football (n = 12). Televised football was associated with a decrease in visits to ED (-18%; p = 0.002). Such a decrease was observed for all ED units, but only for traumatology unit reached statistical significance (-28%; p = 0.006). Decay of ED visits were mainly due to a decrease of low-acuity consults (-30%; p = 0.04). There is a significant decrease on ED use associated with televised football.
Feigenbaum, Luis A; Kaplan, Lee D; Musto, Tony; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; Gailey, Robert S; Kelley, William P; Alemi, Timothy J; Espinosa, Braulio; Mandler, Eli; Scavo, Vincent A; West, Dustin C
Multiple rehabilitation factors including overall wellness need to be considered when an athlete returns to sport after an injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe a multidisciplinary approach for return to sport of a Division I collegiate football player following a traumatic ankle fracture requiring surgical repair. The assessment and treatment approach included the use of a performance-based physical therapy outcome measure, self-reported functional abilities, body composition assessments, and nutritional counseling. A 21 year-old running back fractured his lateral malleolus due to a mechanism of injury of excessive eversion with external rotation of the ankle. Surgical intervention included an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of the fibula and syndesmosis. In addition to six months of rehabilitation, the patient received consultations from the team sports nutritionist specialist to provide dietary counseling and body composition testing. The Comprehensive High-level Activity Mobility Predictor-Sport (CHAMP-S), a performance-based outcome measure, self-report on the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI-ADL, FADI-S), and body composition testing using whole body densitometry (BOD POD®), were administered throughout rehabilitation. The subject was successfully rehabilitated, returned to his starting role, and subsequently was drafted by a National Football League (NFL) franchise. High-level mobility returned to above pre-injury values, achieving 105% of his preseason CHAMP-S score at discharge. Self-reported function on the FADI-ADL and FADI-Sport improved to 100% at discharge. Body fat percentages decreased (13.3% to 11.9%) and fat mass decreased (12.0 kg to 11.0kg). Lean body mass (78.1 kg to 81.5 kg) and lbm/in increased (1.14 kg/in to 1.19 kg/in). His BMI changed from 29.8 kg/m(2) to 30.6 kg/m(2). This case report illustrates the positive effects of a multidisciplinary approach where combining physical therapy and
Kaplan, Lee D.; Musto, Tony; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A.; Gailey, Robert S.; Kelley, William P.; Alemi, Timothy J.; Espinosa, Braulio; Mandler, Eli; Scavo, Vincent A.; West, Dustin C.
ABSTRACT Background and Purpose Multiple rehabilitation factors including overall wellness need to be considered when an athlete returns to sport after an injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe a multidisciplinary approach for return to sport of a Division I collegiate football player following a traumatic ankle fracture requiring surgical repair. The assessment and treatment approach included the use of a performance-based physical therapy outcome measure, self-reported functional abilities, body composition assessments, and nutritional counseling. Case Description A 21 year-old running back fractured his lateral malleolus due to a mechanism of injury of excessive eversion with external rotation of the ankle. Surgical intervention included an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of the fibula and syndesmosis. In addition to six months of rehabilitation, the patient received consultations from the team sports nutritionist specialist to provide dietary counseling and body composition testing. The Comprehensive High-level Activity Mobility Predictor-Sport (CHAMP-S), a performance-based outcome measure, self-report on the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI-ADL, FADI-S), and body composition testing using whole body densitometry (BOD POD®), were administered throughout rehabilitation. Outcomes The subject was successfully rehabilitated, returned to his starting role, and subsequently was drafted by a National Football League (NFL) franchise. High-level mobility returned to above pre-injury values, achieving 105% of his preseason CHAMP-S score at discharge. Self-reported function on the FADI-ADL and FADI-Sport improved to 100% at discharge. Body fat percentages decreased (13.3% to 11.9%) and fat mass decreased (12.0 kg to 11.0kg). Lean body mass (78.1 kg to 81.5 kg) and lbm/in increased (1.14 kg/in to 1.19 kg/in). His BMI changed from 29.8 kg/m2 to 30.6 kg/m2. Discussion This case report illustrates the positive effects of a
Tan, Kar Fai
The sports industry in Malaysia is an industry which is full of potential as it is considered young in this country. The most popular sports in Malaysia are football (soccer) and badminton. Other sports such as squash, cycling, hockey are also quite popular due to our national representative success in the international arena. The purpose of this study is to determine the strategy taken by firms operating in indoor sports industry in Malaysia and to know their competitive advantage. The me...
Haller, Nils; Helmig, Susanne; Taenny, Pascal; Petry, Julian; Schmidt, Sebastian; Simon, Perikles
Background Attempts to establish a biomarker reflecting individual player load in intermittent sports such as football have failed so far. Increases in circulating DNA (cfDNA) have been demonstrated in various endurance sports settings. While it has been proposed that cfDNA could be a suitable marker for player load in intermittent sports, the effects on cfDNA of repeated sprinting as an essential feature in intermittent sports are unknown. For the first time, we assessed both alterations of ...
David R. Mottram
Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for
Dickens, Jonathan F; Owens, Brett D; Cameron, Kenneth L; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Masini, Brendan D; Peck, Karen Y; Svoboda, Steven J
There is no consensus on the optimal method of stabilization (arthroscopic or open) in collision athletes with anterior shoulder instability. To examine the effect of "subcritical" bone loss and football-specific exposure on the rate of recurrent shoulder instability after arthroscopic stabilization in an intercollegiate American football population. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty intercollegiate football players underwent primary arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability and returned to football for at least a single season. Preoperatively, 32 patients experienced recurrent subluxations, and 18 patients experienced a single or recurrent dislocation. Shoulders with glenoid bone loss >20%, an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion, an off-track lesion, and concomitant rotator cuff repair were excluded from the study. The primary outcome of interest was the ability to return to football without subsequent instability. Patients were followed for time to a subsequent instability event after return to play using days of exposure to football and total follow-up time after arthroscopic stabilization. Fifty consecutive patients returned to American football for a mean 1.5 seasons (range, 1-3) after arthroscopic stabilization. Three of 50 (6%; 95% CI, 1.3%-16.5%) patients experienced recurrent instability. There were no subsequent instability events after a mean 3.2 years of military service. All shoulders with glenoid bone loss >13.5% (n = 3) that underwent arthroscopic stabilization experienced recurrent instability upon returning to sport, while none of the shoulders with football ( X 2 = 15.80, P 13.5% glenoid bone loss had an incidence rate of 5.31 cases of recurrent instability per 1000 athlete-exposures of football. In 72,000 athlete-exposures to football with football players with <13.5% glenoid bone loss provides reliable outcomes and low recurrence rates.
Laverty, David; Garnham, Neal
Historians have almost universally seen association football in the north of Ireland as a divisive influence. The impacts of sectarian and political tensions on the game have been stressed, alongside the extent to which this sport supposedly feeds into existing divisions. Much of the work carried out has concentrated on the last four decades, though even studies outside this period of widespread civil disorder have highlighted these problems. This paper uses the surviving records of the Ballymena Football and Athletic Club, the local press, census returns and other records to consider aspects of one particular Northern Irish club in the 1920s and 1930s. This short consideration of the players, supporters and shareholders suggests that at least in this case football was successful in bringing together and developing cooperation between men of widely differing political and religious views. While the club was a not a financial success, it was a social and sporting one. The evidence available suggests there was little exhibition of sectarian tension at any level.
Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin
Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study included 60 young football players aged 10 and 11 years with the aim to examine the influence of motor skills on a specific accuracy in football. The following tests for assessment of motoric abilities were used: Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test, figure „8“ with bending; Flexibility: forward bend-standing upper-body rotation-touch, the splits, side-stepping with a baton; Balance: standing on one leg along the balance bench, standing on one leg with eyes closed, flamingo test. Tests for specific accuracy in football included: elevational accuracy by foot - vertical target, elevational accuracy by foot - horizontal target, linear accuracy by foot - vertical target, the hits of ball by foot on the wall after it rebounces from the surface, elevational accuracy by head - vertical target and elevational accuracy by head - horizontal target. Results obtained by processing the data applying canonical correlation and regression analysis indicated the indisputable influence of motor abilities of young football players on the majority of specific accuracy tests.
MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W
Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.
Müller, L P; Rudig, L; Kreitner, K F; Degreif, J
Repetitive blunt trauma or single severe trauma to the hypothenar region may lead to traumatic thrombosis of the distal ulnar artery (hypothenar hammer syndrome, HHS). In the sports-related literature we found and analysed isolated cases attributed to injuries sustained during sporting activities such as baseball, badminton, handball, football, frisbee, softball, karate, weight-lifting and hockey. Further, we report the case of an amateur golf player with ischaemic symptoms of his left hand, where angiography revealed filling defects in the digital arteries associated with a corkscrew-like configuration of the distal ulnar artery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan demonstrated, at the level of the hamulus ossis hamati, accessory fibres of m. palmaris brevis forming a sling around the ulnar artery. Treatment by resection of the thrombosed a. ulnaris segment and replacement with an autologous vein graft resulted in complete relief of symptoms. Histological sections revealed partially organized thrombi adherent to the intimal surface with fragmentation of the internal elastic membrane, indicating a traumatic genesis. As the mechanism of injury, we suspected intensive golf playing with the grip style and subsequent motions leading to pressure injury of the hypothenar area and the underlying ulnar artery. Contraction of the anomalous muscle belly may have additionally compressed the artery, slowing down the arterial flow and promoting thrombosis. In most reported cases including our own, it took a relatively long time until the cause of the disease as traumatic was found and accepted. The initial repetitive blunt or single severe trauma initiating the HHS can easily be overlooked or ignored. After intimal damage of a. ulnaris, the beginning of symptoms may be prolonged and mislead one into thinking the cause is a collagen or vasospastic disease.
Patricios, Jon S; Ardern, Clare L; Hislop, Michael David; Aubry, Mark; Bloomfield, Paul; Broderick, Carolyn; Clifton, Patrick; Echemendia, Ruben J; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Falvey, Éanna Cian; Fuller, Gordon Ward; Grand, Julie; Hack, Dallas; Harcourt, Peter Rex; Hughes, David; McGuirk, Nathan; Meeuwisse, Willem; Miller, Jeffrey; Parsons, John T; Richiger, Simona; Sills, Allen; Moran, Kevin B; Shute, Jenny; Raftery, Martin
The 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement provides a global summary of best practice in concussion prevention, diagnosis and management, underpinned by systematic reviews and expert consensus. Due to their different settings and rules, individual sports need to adapt concussion guidelines according to their specific regulatory environment. At the same time, consistent application of the Berlin Consensus Statement's themes across sporting codes is likely to facilitate superior and uniform diagnosis and management, improve concussion education and highlight collaborative research opportunities. This document summarises the approaches discussed by medical representatives from the governing bodies of 10 different contact and collision sports in Dublin, Ireland in July 2017. Those sports are: American football, Australian football, basketball, cricket, equestrian sports, football/soccer, ice hockey, rugby league, rugby union and skiing. This document had been endorsed by 11 sport governing bodies/national federations at the time of being published. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....
This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....
Kerr, Zachary Y; Littleton, Ashley C; Cox, Leah M; DeFreese, J D; Varangis, Eleanna; Lynall, Robert C; Schmidt, Julianne D; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M
Over the past decade, there has been significant debate regarding the effect of cumulative subconcussive head impacts on short and long-term neurological impairment. This debate remains unresolved, because valid epidemiological estimates of athletes' total contact exposure are lacking. We present a measure to estimate the total hours of contact exposure in football over the majority of an athlete's lifespan. Through a structured oral interview, former football players provided information related to primary position played and participation in games and practice contacts during the pre-season, regular season, and post-season of each year of their high school, college, and professional football careers. Spring football for college was also included. We calculated contact exposure estimates for 64 former football players (n = 32 college football only, n = 32 professional and college football). The head impact exposure estimate (HIEE) discriminated between individuals who stopped after college football, and individuals who played professional football (p < 0.001). The HIEE measure was independent of concussion history (p = 0.82). Estimating total hours of contact exposure may allow for the detection of differences between individuals with variation in subconcussive impacts, regardless of concussion history. This measure is valuable for the surveillance of subconcussive impacts and their associated potential negative effects.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Esser, Stephen
Tennis may be considered a static and dynamic form of exercise with many well-demonstrated health benefits. Tennis has similar rates of injury to other individual recreational sports and junior competitive sports, without the catastrophic risk of contact/collision sports. Classifying tennis players into junior and elite categories versus adult recreational players may help in outlining volume of play recommendations, exposure risk, and types of injuries. Junior and elite players tend to tolerate higher volumes, have more acute and lower extremity injuries, and have more serious overuse stress injuries. Adult recreational players tend to tolerate lower volumes, have more overuse and upper extremity injuries, and more conditions that are degenerative. Many tennis players also develop asymmetric musculoskeletal adaptations, which may increase risk of specific injury. Tennis-specific evaluations may identify these at-risk segments, help guide preventive strategies including technical errors, and assist in developing return-to-play recommendations. Other racket sports such as squash, badminton, and racquetball have less data available but report both acute and traumatic injuries less commonly seen in tennis.
MRT of the knee joint of juvenile footballers. Are there early changes in the knee due to competitive sport?; MRT der Kniegelenke jugendlicher Fussballspieler. Gibt es Fruehveraenderungen von Kniebinnenstrukturen durch Leistungssport?
Wacker, F. [Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum Steglitz, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Koenig, H. [Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum Steglitz, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Felsenberg, D. [Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum Steglitz, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Wolf, K.J. [Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum Steglitz, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)
In a prospective study, the right knee of 21 symptom free juvenile footballers was examined by MRT (group I) and the results were compared with 12 juveniles of similar age but who did not take part in any special sorting activities (group II). A 1.5 Tesla Magnetome with an extremity coil was used. There were no abnormal changes in either group in the cruciate ligaments. The hyaline cartilage medially was about 10% thicker than laterally in both groups but in group I it was, on average, 24.8% thicker than in group II. Increased signals in the centre of the menisci were observed in 8 members of group I and two in group II. 5 on the 8 in group I, but none in group II, also showed an increase in the joint fluid. (orig.) [Deutsch] In einer retrospektiven Studie wurde das rechte Kniegelenk von 21 beschwerdefreien, jungendlichen Fussballspielern (Gruppe I) sowie von 12 altersgleichen Jungendlichen ohne spezielle sportliche Aktivitaeten (Gruppe II) magnetresonanztomographisch untersucht. Die Messungen erfolgten an einem 1,5-Tesla-Magnetom unter Anwendung einer Extremitaetenspule. Keine pathologischen Veraenderungen ergaben sich bei beiden Gruppen im Bereich der Kreuzbaender. Der hyaline Gelenkknorpel zeigte bei beiden Gruppen am medialen Femurkondylus eine um etwa 10% hoehere Dicke als lateral und erweis sich bei Gruppe I im Mittel um 24,8% dicker als bei Gruppe II. Zentrale Meniskus-Signalvermehrungen konnten bei 8 Jugendlichen der Gruppe I sowie bei zwei der Gruppe II nachgewiesen werden. Dabei wiesen 5/8 der Gruppe I, aber keiner der Gruppe II begleitend eine Gelenkfluessigkeitsvermehrung auf. (orig.)
Full Text Available There is incerasing emphasis on clubs to detect players and nurture and guide them throught the talent identification proces. More over, different factors may contribute to performance prediction at different ages. Thus any such model would need to be agespecific (Reilly et al, 2000. The aim of this paper was to determine essential principles of proces talent identification and determine antropometric, physiological and psychological profile and football-specifc skills that could be used for talent identification in players aged 10-12 years.
Erikstad, Martin K; Høigaard, Rune; Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Haugen, Tommy
Childhood sport participation is argued to be important to understand differences in self-regulation and performance level in adolescence. This study sought to investigate if football-specific activities in childhood (6-12 years of age) is related to self-regulatory skills and national under 14- and 15-team selection in Norwegian elite youth football. Data of practice histories and self-regulatory skills of 515 youth football players selected at Norwegian regional level were collected and further analysed using multilevel analyses. The results revealed that high self-regulated players were more likely to be selected for national initiatives, and increased their involvement in peer-led football practice and adult-led football practice during childhood, compared to players with lower levels of self-regulation. While national level players reported higher levels of peer-led football play in childhood, the interaction effect suggest that the regional level players increased their involvement in peer-led play during childhood compared to national level players. In conclusion, the findings indicate that childhood sport participation may contribute to later differences in self-regulation, and highlights the importance of childhood engagement in football-specific play and practice in the development of Norwegian youth football players.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...
Gerbino, Peter G; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A
Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is exceedingly common. Whether any specific activity increases the likelihood of developing degenerative disc disease (DDD) or facet degeneration (FD) has enormous implications. Within the field of occupational medicine there are specific activities, occupations, and morphologic characteristics that have been related to low back pain. Several specific risk factors have been conclusively linked to low back pain, and in particular DDD and FD. Within the sport of American football, there has long been the feeling that many athletes have or will develop low back pain, DDD, and FD. Proving that certain risk factors present in football will predictably lead to an increase in LBP, DDD, and FD is more difficult. At this time, it can be said that football players, in general, increase their risk of developing low back pain, DDD, and FD as their years of involvement with their sport increase. Because specific spine injuries like fracture, disc herniation, and spondylolysis are more frequent in football players, the resulting DDD and FD are greater than that of the general population. The weightlifting and violent hyperextension that are part of American football are independent risk factors for degenerative spine disease.
Full Text Available With the development of football in the interwar period, when this sport became an important part of everyday life for many people in Yugoslavia, it also led to the rise of the phenomenon which followed football around the world: commercialization, professionalism, social stratification, but also the phenomenon of sports fandom. This paper aims to give a brief overview of the history of football fans in Yugoslavia during the interwar period, to determine the basis for further research, to try to explain the causes of the emergence of fan movement (if it can even be considered a movement, how football fandom manifested, how was it perceived by its contemporaries, and what were the fandom rivalries (local, regional, national and political. Since the early history of Yugoslav football fans was scarcely studied in historiography and other social sciences, one of the main purposes of this paper is to serve as an introduction of sorts to further research of this fascinating subject. The paper was written on the basis of available archival material, relevant literature, available press clippings and preserved memories, memoirs and diaries.
Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...
Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M.; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Coleman, Michael J.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A.; Shenton, Martha E.
Abstract Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE. Future research is needed to investigate the pathomechanism underlying the development of CSP after repetitive head impacts, and its potential association with neuropathologically confirmed CTE. PMID:26414478
Anderson, Brit L; Gittelman, Michael A; Mann, Jessica K; Cyriac, RoseAnn L; Pomerantz, Wendy J
To assess high school (HS) football players' knowledge of concussions and to determine whether increased knowledge is correlated with better attitudes toward reporting concussion symptoms and abstaining from play. Two survey tools were used to assess athletes' knowledge and attitudes about concussions. Surveys collected information about demographics, knowledge about concussions, and attitudes about playing sports after a concussion. All athletes present completed one of the 2 surveys. A knowledge and attitude score for each survey was calculated. Frequencies and mean values were used to characterize the population; regression analysis, analysis of variance, and t tests were used to look for associations. A football camp for HS athletes in the Cincinnati area. Male HS football players from competitive football programs in the Cincinnati area. None. Scores on knowledge and attitude sections; responses to individual questions. One hundred twenty (100%) athletes were enrolled although not every athlete responded to every question. Thirty (25%) reported history of a concussion; 82 (70%) reported receiving prior concussion education. More than 75% correctly recognized all concussion symptoms that were asked, except "feeling in a fog" [n = 63 (53%)]. One hundred nine (92%) recognized a risk of serious injury if they return to play too quickly. Sixty-four (54%) athletes would report symptoms of a concussion to their coach; 62 (53%) would continue to play with a headache from an injury. There was no association between knowledge score and attitude score (P = 0.08). Despite having knowledge about the symptoms and danger of concussions, many HS football athletes in our sample did not have a positive attitude toward reporting symptoms or abstaining from play after a concussion. Physicians should be aware that young athletes may not report concussion symptoms.
Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran D; Doran, Dominic A
Malone, S, Solan, B, Collins, KD, and Doran, DA. Positional match running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2292-2298, 2016-There is currently limited information available on match running performance in Gaelic football. The objective of the current study was to report on the match running profile of elite male Gaelic football and assess positional running performance. In this observational study, 50 elite male Gaelic football players wore 4-Hz global positioning systems units (VX Sports) across 30 competitive games with a total of 215 full game data sets collected. Activity was classed according to total distance, high-speed distance (≥17 km·h), sprint distance (≥22 km·h), mean velocity (km·h), peak velocity (km·h), and number of accelerations. The average match distance was 8,160 ± 1,482 m, reflective of a relative distance of 116 ± 21 m·min, with 1,731 ± 659 m covered at high speed, which is reflective of a relative high-speed distance of 25 ± 9 m·min. The observed sprint distance was 445 ± 169 m distributed across 44 sprint actions. The peak velocity was 30.3 ± 1.8 km·h with a mean velocity of 6.5 ± 1.2 km·h. Players completed 184 ± 40 accelerations, which represent 2.6 ± 0.5 accelerations per minute. There were significant differences between positional groups for both total running distance, high-speed running distance, and sprint distance, with midfielders covering more total and high-speed running distance, compared with other positions (p football match play.
Engebretsen, Lars; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Budgett, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri; Jegathesan, Manikavasagam; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Mountjoy, Margo; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Vanhegan, Ivor; Renström, Per A
The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages all stakeholders to ensure that sport is practised without danger to the health of the athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games of the XXX Olympiad, held in London in 2012. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games' (LOCOG) medical staff. In total, 10 568 athletes (4676 women and 5892 men) from 204 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and LOCOG medical staff reported 1361 injuries and 758 illnesses, equalling incidences of 128.8 injuries and 71.7 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Altogether, 11% and 7% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The risk of an athlete being injured was the highest in taekwondo, football, BMX, handball, mountain bike, athletics, weightlifting, hockey and badminton, and the lowest in archery, canoe slalom and sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian. 35% of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating during competition or training. Women suffered 60% more illnesses than men (86.0 vs 53.3 illnesses per 1000 athletes). The rate of illness was the highest in athletics, beach volleyball, football, sailing, synchronised swimming and taekwondo. A total of 310 illnesses (41%) affected the respiratory system and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=347, 46%). At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games and 7% of the athletes' an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among sports. Future initiatives should include the development of preventive measures tailored for each specific sport and the
Seabra, André; Serra, Hugo; Seabra, Ana
, consisting of four weekly 60-90 min sessions with mean heart rate > 80%HRmax [football group (FG)]. A control group (CG) included eight boys of equivalent age from an obesity clinic located in the same area as the school. Both groups participated in two sessions of 45-90 min physical education per week......Introduction: Physical activity is an important medium for improving bone mass and physical fitness of children, and as such is often emphasized in intervention programs with overweight/obesity children. Only few studies have examined the impact of a specific team sport intervention on the bone...... at school. Bone mass indicators included whole-boy and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). Physical fitness tests included 5- and 30-m sprints, countermovement jump (CMJ), and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1). Body composition was evaluated using dual...