Leser, Roland; Baca, Arnold; Ogris, Georg
Position data of players and athletes are widely used in sports performance analysis for measuring the amounts of physical activities as well as for tactical assessments in game sports. However, positioning sensing systems are applied in sports as tools to gain objective information of sports behavior rather than as components of intelligent spaces (IS). The paper outlines the idea of IS for the sports context with special focus to game sports and how intelligent sports feedback systems can benefit from IS. Henceforth, the most common location sensing techniques used in sports and their practical application are reviewed, as location is among the most important enabling techniques for IS. Furthermore, the article exemplifies the idea of IS in sports on two applications.
Leser, Roland; Baca, Arnold; Ogris, Georg
Position data of players and athletes are widely used in sports performance analysis for measuring the amounts of physical activities as well as for tactical assessments in game sports. However, positioning sensing systems are applied in sports as tools to gain objective information of sports behavior rather than as components of intelligent spaces (IS). The paper outlines the idea of IS for the sports context with special focus to game sports and how intelligent sports feedback systems can benefit from IS. Henceforth, the most common location sensing techniques used in sports and their practical application are reviewed, as location is among the most important enabling techniques for IS. Furthermore, the article exemplifies the idea of IS in sports on two applications. PMID:22163725
Filip, Diane; Lindegaard, Hanne
The Object Game is an exploratory design game and an experiment of developing a tangible object that can spark dialogue and retrospection between collaborative partners and act as a boundary object. The objective of this article is to show and elaborate on the development of the Object Game......, and to provide case examples of the game in action. The Object Game has two parts – Story-building and Co-rating of objects – with the aim of stimulating a collaborative reflection on knowledge sharing with different objects. In Story-building, the participants visualize their knowledge sharing process...... these facilitated knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange, knowledge generation, and knowledge integration. The participants collaborative reflected on their use of different objects for knowledge sharing and learn which objects have been effective (and which have not been effective) in their collaborative...
Surdam, David G.
Students in sports economics courses might better learn the basic concepts by running their own franchise. A simple game, based on the card game War, is easy and inexpensive to implement. Students quickly grasp the importance of weighing marginal benefits, both in terms of team record and marginal revenue, against the costs of improving their…
Full Text Available The question concerning such a person who is forced to work in the conditions of increased stress and about work safety still is a psycho-physiological part of a broader problem. Referees of sports games can also be added to this group as this occupation has become their profession. Today, there is a situation that in order to enroll the most suitable individuals in this job position it is necessary to select the candidates for sports game referees according to strictly worked-out criteria. The aim of the study was to investigate the abilities characterizing high quality sports game referees. 18 international level referees of sports games in Latvia were selected as subjects of the research. To state the subjects' physical ability, functional state, psychological peculiarities the following were applied: a computerized testing device “Omega” was used to assess the functional state of the body; situation alertness, psycho-emotional stability, self-regulation ability and motivation were stated with the help of tests used in sport psychology; simple reactions and the quickness of alternative reaction were measured using the computer system Vienna Test System. 16 parameters of each subject were obtained, and they were processed using Factor analysis – closed variant of the main components with the following turning of the referent axis according to the Varimax criterion. With the Factor analysis nine main factors were obtained characterizing sports game referees. Their contribution in the common dispersion is 93.7%. Seven factors of higher value were interpreted, and they were as follows: choice reaction time, its contribution in the dispersion 30.31%; functional state of the body and readiness (17.92%; correctness of the answers in choice reaction time test (the quality of the decisions made 15.40%; the simple reaction time (9.02%; IQ coefficient (7.20%; psychological preparedness (5.01% and the ability to concentrate (4.80%. The quickness of
Lennartsson, Jan; Lidstr?m, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl
We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies.
Lennartsson, Jan; Lidström, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl
We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies.
Hurling in Cornwall, la soule in Britanny, Shrovetide football in England: Popular games have normally been treated as forerunners of modern sport, sport having regulated the space and the time of the game, the (non-) violence of behaviour, the control of results, the planning, strategy, tactics...... of modern sport, as it was established in the nineteenth century, a culture of laughter disappeared. This study tries to counter this mainstream by a phenomenology of laughter in popular games. A contrasting attention is turned towards the seriousness of sporting competition, the smile in modern sport...
Lennartsson, Jan; Lidström, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl
We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies. PMID:25970581
Engerman, Jason A.; Hein, Robert J.
Digital gaming communities are nuanced and developing. The eSports community has advanced in noticeable ways and represents the highest form of online competitive play for digital gaming environments. Due to the high stakes nature of eSports, its participants sit on the very edge of strategic planning boundaries and push the ceiling of…
Conclusion: The use of AVGs as a play-based intervention may not provide enough opportunity for children to perform the correct movement patterns to influence skill. However, play of such games may influence perceptions of skill ability in children with ASD, which could improve motivation to participate in physical activities.
Holowchak, M Andrew
Much has been written in the secondary literature on Freud's aggression-release perspective vis-à-vis competitive sports. Very little has been written, however, on Freud's own explicit contribution to play, games, and sport. That is likely the result of Freud's reluctance to take up them--especially from the gamesman's and sportsman's points of view. One can, however, tease out the development of Freud's thoughts on games, play, and sport through a careful examination of his corpus over time. In doing so, one finds an early view of play and games, where the drives behind those activities are self- and other-preservative, and a later view, where Freud introduces his death drive. The article ends with some notions on what Freud might have said on the fanaticism that accompanies competitive sport, had he expressly taken up the issue.
Design and production of trophies for games and sports particularly in a form of metal art has been in existence for so many years. Presently they are practiced with much improvement and modern technology as compared to the ancient times where leaves, horns and other objects were used as trophies to award warriors ...
It is a new development concept for the current food marketing to promote the enterprise's food marketing by means of mass sports games. In this study, with an overview of the sports marketing, it analyzes the present situation and the existed questions of Chinese sports nutrition food marketing, putting forward the implementation strategy of food marketing and management of mass sports games.
Heo, Jimmoo; King, Carina
Stebbins (1992) defined serious leisure as the systematic pursuit of amateur, hobbyist, or volunteer activity that is substantial and interesting for the participants involved. This study investigated associations between serious leisure and sport tourism using Indiana Senior Games participants. This study used a self-report questionnaire to…
Fijat Ljiljana M.
Full Text Available Sport is firmly connected to politics in the whole world, the Republic of Serbia being no exception. Pronounced motives of profit in sport led to the appearance of new problems, like money laundering and business and moral unreliability of the participants. Some of anomalies are connected with politically exposed persons (PEP. Offering services within the banking industry, especially considering the private banking, entails a higher degree of discretion and confidentiality in comparison with the ordinary clients. Misuse of these business relationships by PEP has been identified. This paper surveys the statistically significant differences between domestic banks and the domestic banks with the foreign capital in relation to the groups of procedures concerning PEP based on the Recommendation 6 of the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering - FATF. Although the domestic banks with the foreign capital were obliged to apply the procedures related to the FATF's Recommendations to the same extent as the Main Office, significant differences between domestic and foreign banks were not found, in terms of Recommendation 6. Inadequacy of regulations and lack of enforcement procedures jeopardize the program of reforms, threatening, the privatisation in sports.
Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan
Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.
Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Greg; Elbe, Anne-Marie
The objective of this study was to explore how sport psychology consultants perceive the challenges they face at the Olympic Games. Post-Olympics semistructured interviews with 11 experienced sport psychology consultants who worked at the London Games were conducted. The interviews were transcribed...... the Olympics (e.g., negotiating one’s role) and Challenges During the Olympics (e.g., dealing with the media). The challenges the sport psychology consultants perceived as important validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions that exist in the literature. The findings extend the knowledge on sport...... psychology consultancy at the Olympic Games by showing individual contextual differences between the consultants’ perceptions and by identifying four SPC roles at the Olympic Games....
Maidelín Díaz Miranda
Full Text Available The games are the fundamental activity in the children by means of which you/they are developed physical and intellectually, of here the motivation of investigating on the application of several of them in the sport for all, specifically with the project badminton. Keeping in mind the few games that are used to contribute to the development of the abilities in this sport, is that we think about to structure pre-sport games with that purpose and to improve this way the assimilation of the dexterities of the children that practice this discipline in the Sport for All". For it, besides the theoretical methods, empiric methods were used as the observation and the interview. The work shows the assimilation of the abilities and technical basic of the badminton, through games, jointly with aspects on the sport for all, besides being presented 8 structured games, which contribute to the learning of the basic abilities of the badminton.
Peng, Hongzhi; Yang, Lingbin; Deng, Meirong; Han, Yongshun
With the development of internet and such info-technologies as, Information Superhighway, Computer Technology, Remote Sensing(RS), Global Positioning System(GPS), Digital Communication and National Information Network(NIN),etc. Geographic Information System (GIS) becomes more and more popular in fields of science and industries. It is not only feasible but also necessary to apply GIS to large-scale sport games. This paper firstly discussed GIS technology and its application, then elaborated on the frame and content of Sport-Games Geography Information System(SG-GIS) with the function of gathering, storing, processing, sharing, exchanging and utilizing all kind of spatial-temporal information about sport games, and lastly designed and developed a public service GIS for the 6th Asian Winter Games in Changchun, China(CAWGIS). The application of CAWGIS showed that the established SG-GIS was feasible and GIS-based sport games information system was able to effectively process a large amount of sport-games information and provide the real-time sport games service for governors, athletes and the public.
Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Grønbæk, Kaj
and reflected upon. Based on the experiences gained from the design and development process, as well as examples from the existing field and skill acquisition theory, we present three areas of interest to consider for interactive sport-training game designers: Context Characteristics, Movement Patterns...... and Perceptual Reaction. From a discussion of these areas, we derive eight design sensitivities that emphasize issues, challenges and opportunities, important for the design, development and analysis of interactive sport-training games in general....
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research was to record and the evolution of the winter paralympic games and sports since 1976 until 2010. The history of the Winter Paralympic Games is relatively recent compared to that one of the Olympic Games. The first Games were held in 1976 in Ornskoldsvik, Sweden and the most recent, 38 years later in 2014, in Sochi, Russia. This article will examine the Winter Paralympic Games up until the ones in 2010 in Vancouver, Canada. During these years, there have been many changes in relation to the Games itself, the governing body of the Paralympic Movement, the sports’ facilities, the sports involved and sports’ categories. The motivation for writing this paper was the need to record and gather all of these items in one paper. Gathering information for the Winter Paralympic Games will be an important theoretical background. This information will create a database for the structure of the governing body of the Paralympic Games, for the organization of the Games [Local Organizing Committee (LOC, venues and equipment], for the evolution of the Winter Paralympic Sports and the categories of the athletes, as well as the evolution of the athletes’ and sports’ participation. Material : The research material that was used was mainly from the bibliography and records of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC, from the Official Post Games Reports and the Internet, while the research method that was used was descriptive. Moreover, the use of diagrams will depict the distribution of the participation of athletes and countries in each Games. Results : The participation of countries grew continuously and steadily from 16 to 44, during the years of 1976 to 2010 respectively. Regarding the athletes’ participation, starting in the first Games with 198 athletes, they reached the number of 502 in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. The participation percentages of the athletes coming from Europe constituted the bulk
Wallhead, Tristan L.; Garn, Alex C.; Vidoni, Carla; Youngberg, Charli
Sport Education has embedded pedagogical strategies proposed to reduce the prevalence of amotivation in physical education. The purpose of this study was to provide an examination of the game play participation rates of amotivated students within a Sport Education season. A sample of 395 high school students participated in a season of team…
Farias, Cláudio; Valério, Carla; Mesquita, Isabel
The teaching and learning of games and sport-based activities has historically been the dominant form of the physical education curricula. With an interest in providing to students meaningful and culturally situated sporting experiences, Sport Education is probably the most implemented and researched pedagogical model worldwide. However, although there is considerable evidence that the model as a curriculum approach can benefit the development of social goals and healthy sport behaviors, not a single study as to date examined students' game-play development beyond participation in single and isolated teaching units. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine students' development of Game Performance and Game Involvement during participation in three consecutive Sport Education seasons of invasion games. The participants were an experienced physical education teacher and one seventh-grade class totaling 26 students (10 girls and 16 boys). Using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (Oslin et al., 1998), pre-test to post-tests measures of students' Game Performance and Game Involvement were collected during their participation in basketball (20 lessons), handball (16 lessons), and football (18 lessons) units. Inter-group differences and pre-test to post-test improvements within each season were analyzed through 2 (time) x group (sport) repeated measures ANOVA tests. There were found significant pre-test to post-test improvements in Game Performance and Game Involvement in the second (handball) and third (football) seasons, but not in the first season (basketball). Students' Game Performance and Involvement scores of handball and football were significantly higher than their scores while playing basketball. The opportunity for an extended engagement in game-play activities and prolonged membership of students in the same teams throughout three consecutive seasons of Sport Education were key to the outcomes found. The specific configurations of the game
Cláudio Farias, Carla Valério, Isabel Mesquita
Full Text Available The teaching and learning of games and sport-based activities has historically been the dominant form of the physical education curricula. With an interest in providing to students meaningful and culturally situated sporting experiences, Sport Education is probably the most implemented and researched pedagogical model worldwide. However, although there is considerable evidence that the model as a curriculum approach can benefit the development of social goals and healthy sport behaviors, not a single study as to date examined students’ game-play development beyond participation in single and isolated teaching units. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine students’ development of Game Performance and Game Involvement during participation in three consecutive Sport Education seasons of invasion games. The participants were an experienced physical education teacher and one seventh-grade class totaling 26 students (10 girls and 16 boys. Using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (Oslin et al., 1998, pre-test to post-tests measures of students’ Game Performance and Game Involvement were collected during their participation in basketball (20 lessons, handball (16 lessons, and football (18 lessons units. Inter-group differences and pre-test to post-test improvements within each season were analyzed through 2 (time x group (sport repeated measures ANOVA tests. There were found significant pre-test to post-test improvements in Game Performance and Game Involvement in the second (handball and third (football seasons, but not in the first season (basketball. Students’ Game Performance and Involvement scores of handball and football were significantly higher than their scores while playing basketball. The opportunity for an extended engagement in game-play activities and prolonged membership of students in the same teams throughout three consecutive seasons of Sport Education were key to the outcomes found. The specific
Arie Pratama Sutiono
Full Text Available This paper explores a mathematical model of game progress. We claim that a realistic model of the game progress during the in-game period is not linear but exponential. The second derivative value, i.e., acceleration in the sense of dynamics, is derived from the model and we propose to use the value as a measure of game refinement. T his i s b ecause a cceleration o f g ame p rogress s hould b e r elated t o t he e motional impact i n our minds, as thrill or engagement in games. We also evaluate well known games using our theory like sport games, that would further be classified by the rule to finish the game. It is expected that the game refinement theory will be widely used as a tool to assess the quality of various types of games as a new game theory.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2016
By bringing together the national German sports game community and an international scientific community in a joint conference, the 6th International Teaching Games for Understanding Conference (TGfU) Meets the 10th German Sports Games Symposium of the German Association of Sport Science (DVS), held July 25-27, 2016, at the German Sport University…
Ana Paula Salles da Silva
Full Text Available Electronic games have been one of the main ways of access of young to technology in Brazil, leading to new experiences in social practices.The objective of this study is to identify the perception of young people on the experience of electronic games of movement with sports theme. Methodology: 24 young elementary school students were investigated, divided into 3 groups. Each group participated in 10 sessions with electronic games of movement of 3 hours each. During the sessions the speeches of the young people were recorded in a field diary. Results: departing from the speeches of young people the experiment with electronic games of movement emerges as a mediated and unique experience. It is mediated because it interposes itself between subject and object and it is unique because the way is the experience itself.Conclusions: the perception of the young people indicates a conceptual enlargement in which the comprehension of sports is expanded by the experiences with technology.
Manley, A; Whitaker, L; Patterson, L
Objective: To extend recent research examining the impact of game-based activities on the learning experience of undergraduate psychology students. Design: A counterbalanced repeated measures design was employed to evaluate students’ learning experiences following their involvement in active game-based learning activities. Method: Students on a Level 5 sport psychology module (N=134) were asked to participate in four practical classes demonstrating the impact of psychological factors (e.g. an...
Full Text Available The main goal of study is extension of information about combining psychological, athlete's physical and sports fitness qualification in playing sports in training process while studying in university. This study took place on 24 athletes, boys 18 - 21 years of different skills (the candidate for the master of sports - 9, first-class sportsman - 12, second-class sportsman - 3. It is proved that the effectiveness of sports and gaming activities in team sports will then be productive when there be a switch in the relationship between leading and famous players from the "subject - object" to "subject -subjective ". It was determined that the main precondition for the effectiveness of competitive activity is before head identification and formation of leadership behavior in teams players of team sports, where leadership is behavioral interaction process for individuals or teams to achieve established goals.
Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Grønbæk, Kaj
and reflected upon. Based on the experiences gained from the design and development process, as well as examples from the existing field and skill acquisition theory, we present three areas of interest to consider for interactive sport-training game designers: Context Characteristics, Movement Patterns......This paper presents the design and development process of an interactive football-training game that aims to improve players' ball-handling skills, and their ability to simultaneously survey the playing field. A small-scale experiment was conducted to test the game, and the results are presented...... and Perceptual Reaction. From a discussion of these areas, we derive eight design sensitivities that emphasize issues, challenges and opportunities, important for the design, development and analysis of interactive sport-training games in general....
International audience; Football Manager is one of the most popular sports management video games. For twenty years now, it has been a best seller in all the countries of the world where football is culturally important. Its purpose is to simulate a manager's career with an emphasis on data analysis and number crunching, especially the football match scenario and the football players' quantified characteristics. The claimed realism of the game is therefore based, among other things, on the re...
Renson, Roland, Ed.; And Others
This is a compilation of papers presented at an international seminar on the subject of the status of the history of sport and physical education. It is divided into four major sections. In part one the topic of sports, games, and culture is discussed including the anthropological and ethnological aspects of sports, sports and games in antiquity,…
Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri
Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.
Wiemeyer, Josef; Schneider, Philipp
Considering the wide use of Serious Games in application fields like cognitive learning, health education and rehabilitation and the recent developments of sensor and interface technology it is surprising that applications to motor learning in sport are rare. The aim of this study is to examine whether a specific learning effect can be elicited by…
Getz, Malcolm; Siegfried, John J.
In recent years, when a university may earn well over $10 million per year from fees for sports-broadcast rights, half of the teams still lose. Collegiate athletic competition is a zero sum game: The number of winners equals the number of losers. So why do universities spend growing sums of scarce resources on an activity when the odds of winning…
Gubacs-Collins, Klara; Olsen, Edward B.
This article discusses the challenges encountered by a middle school practitioner over a five-year period when implementing the tactical games approach within the sport education model. Included are genuine quotes (extracted from video tapes and written records) from the students, the principal at the practitioner's school, a guidance counselor,…
Lawrence, Sue; De Silva, Mary; Henley, Robert
Traumatic experiences evoke emotions such as fear, anxiety and distress and may encourage avoidance of similar situations in the future. For a proportion of those exposed to a traumatic event, this emotional reaction becomes uncontrollable and can develop into Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Breslau 2001). Most of those diagnosed with PTSD fully recover while a small proportion develop a chronic PTSD a year after the event (First 2004). Sports and games may be able to alleviate symptoms of PTSD. 1. To assess the effectiveness of sports, and games in alleviating and/or diminishing the symptoms of PTSD when compared to usual care or other interventions. 2. To assess the effectiveness of different types of sports and games in alleviating and/or diminishing symptoms of PTSD. The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Registers (CCDAN-CTR) were searched up to June 2008.The following databases were searched up to June 2008: the Cochrane Central registry of Controlled Trials; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; PsycINFO. Reference lists of relevant papers were searched and experts in the field were contacted to determine if other studies were available. To be included, participants had to be diagnosed with PTSD using criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM IV) and/or ICD criteria. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that considered one or more well-specified sports or games for alleviating and/or diminishing symptoms of PTSD were included.Sports, and games were defined as any organized physical activity done alone or with a group and non-physical activities such as computer games and card games done alone or with a group. Psychological interventions such as music therapy, art therapy and play therapy and behavioural therapy were excluded. Two reviewers (SL and MD) separately checked the titles and abstracts of the search results to determine which studies met the pre-determined inclusion criteria
Full Text Available The philosophy of sport is traditionally concerned with three topics: the problem of finding appropriate definitions of the main concepts (e.g. sport, game, play and rules, ethical problems (e.g. values, fair-play and performance enhancement, and the aesthetic characteristics of sport. The author briefly presents the influential Suits’ analysis of the notion of game, but her main interest lies in connecting sport with cognitive science, particularly cognitive philosophy. She contrasts classical cognitivism with the so-called embodied and situated cognition approach. She argues that sport is a good laboratory for testing different approaches and ideas in cognitive science, and stresses two major points. First, sport is an activity where skills are of the utmost importance which helps to shed light on the weaknesses of classical cognitivism. Second, the personal experiences and feelings of athletes play an important role and cannot be dismissed. Both features emphasize the need to treat mental processes as embodied and situated in the environment. The author concludes that we have to broaden the philosophy of sport with topics borrowed from the philosophy of cognitive science and phenomenology of sport.
Mikołajec, Kazimierz; Maszczyk, Adam; Zając, Tomasz
The main goal of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best determine sports level in the National Basketball Association (NBA) league. The research material consisted of all NBA game statistics at the turn of eight seasons (2003-11) and included 52 performance variables. Through detailed analysis the variables with high influence on game effectiveness were selected for final procedures. It has been proven that a limited number of factors, mostly offensive, determines sports performance in the NBA. The most critical indicators are: Win%, Offensive EFF, 3rd Quarter PPG, Win% CG, Avg Fauls and Avg Steals. In practical applications these results connected with top teams and elite players may help coaches to design better training programs.
Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Risi, Ahmed; Al-Mawali, Suleiman
Prevention of sport injuries and illnesses is a focus for epidemiological surveillance. To record and analyse all sports injuries and illnesses registered during the second Asian Beach Games. A descriptive epidemiological study using the International Olympic Committee Surveillance system to register injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games. The second Asian Beach Games hosted 1132 athletes from 43 countries competing in 14 beach sports. All National Olympic Committees' physicians of the participating teams were invited to report all injuries and illnesses. In addition, medical officers at the different Olympic venues and the main Olympic village reported injuries and illnesses treated at the clinics on a daily basis. A total of 177 injuries were reported equating to an incidence rate of 156.4 per 1000 registered athletes. Tent pegging recorded the highest incidence of injuries with 357 per 1000 registered athletes. The most prevalent injuries were in the foot/toe with 14.1% of all reported injuries. The majority of injuries were incurred during competition (75.4%). In addition, the most common mechanism of injury was contact with another athlete (n=42, 23.7%) and combined sudden and gradual overuse contributed to 30% of the total injury burden. Furthermore, 118 illnesses were reported resulting in an incidence rate of 104.2 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. The most affected system was the respiratory tract (39.1%) with infection being the most common cause (n=33, 38.0%). The incidence of injury and illness differed significantly among the 14 sports. The data indicate that the risk of injury from beach games is sport dependant. This means that any preventive measures have to be tailored for each discipline. Furthermore, the study showed that respiratory infections are the commonest illness in beach sports and therefore, event organisers should focus improving public health measures and hygiene awareness.
The Turkish educational system entered into the process of a compulsory 12 years of school education starting from the 2012-2013 academic year. In this process, the name of the physical education lesson has been changed to "games and physical activities" in the primary schools that offer education for 4 years. The aim of the present…
Zafer Y I L D I Z
Full Text Available Tourism sector is one of the sectors that gain momentum and importance with the globalization. One of the important sub branches of the tourism that attracts attention with 1 - 1 - 5 billion people and approximately 2 trillion world incomes is sport tourism. The first tourism movement is the start of Olympics in Ancient Greek and movement of people who want to watch these games. Due to the fact that this tourism type that emerges thanks to the sports activities, contributes the economic and social structure of that region, states carry out significant lobbying activities to host Olympics. The mass of the number of the sportsmen to attend to the sport activity and audience that come to watch these games and more importantly live s treams from the place of the games contribute significantly to the promotion of that region. While eating and drinking, traveling, souvenirs expenses are direct incomes; it significantly contributes to the transportation and carriage sector. The appearance of before and after of the Olympic regions show great difference. One of the most important examples is the province of Mersin that hosts the latest Mediterranean games. While infrastructure and supra structure investments made for the preparation of city to the games in a brief time change the appearance of the city, national and international promotions significantly change the province. Olympic causes important development beyond measure. The objective of this study is to specify social and economic con tributions of tourism type emerged by the sport activities on the region and raise awareness for its contribution to country promotion. The study bases significantly on the literature review. The study will have a solid structure by making use of the dome stic and international statistical data. The scope of the study is Olympics in general and Mediterranean games in Mersin Province in particular.
Johnson, Tara M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Hulteen, Ryan M; Mellecker, Robin R; Barnett, Lisa M
Actual and perceived object control (commonly ball) skill proficiency is associated with higher physical activity in children and adolescents. Active video games (AVGs) encourage whole body movement to control/play the electronic gaming system and therefore provide an opportunity for screen time to become more active. The purpose of this study was to determine whether playing sports AVGs has a positive influence on young children's actual and perceived object control skills. Two group pre/post experimental design study. Thirty-six children aged 6-10 years old from one school were randomly allocated to a control or intervention condition. The Test of Gross Motor Development-3 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence for Young Children assessed perceived object control skill. The intervention consisted of 6×50min lunchtime AVG sessions on the Xbox Kinect. Two to three sport games were chosen for participants to play each session. General linear models with either perceived object control or actual object control skill as the outcome variables were conducted. Each base model adjusted for intervention status and pre-score of the respective outcome variable. Additional models adjusted for potential confounding variables (sex of child and game at home). No significant differences between the control and intervention groups were observed for both outcomes. This study found that playing the Xbox Kinect does not significantly influence children's perceived or actual object control skills, suggesting that the utility of the Xbox Kinect for developing perceived and actual object control skill competence is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
José A Morales
Full Text Available Abstract Many complex phenomena, from trait selection in biological systems to hierarchy formation in social and economic entities, show signs of competition and heterogeneous performance in the temporal evolution of their components, which may eventually lead to stratified structures such as the worldwide wealth distribution. However, it is still unclear whether the road to hierarchical complexity is determined by the particularities of each phenomena, or if there are generic mechanisms of stratification common to many systems. Human sports and games, with their (varied but simple rules of competition and measures of performance, serve as an ideal test-bed to look for universal features of hierarchy formation. With this goal in mind, we analyse here the behaviour of performance rankings over time of players and teams for several sports and games, and find statistical regularities in the dynamics of ranks. Specifically the rank diversity, a measure of the number of elements occupying a given rank over a length of time, has the same functional form in sports and games as in languages, another system where competition is determined by the use or disuse of grammatical structures. We use a Gaussian random walk model to reproduce the rank diversity of the studied sports and games. We also discuss the relation between rank diversity and the cumulative rank distribution. Our results support the notion that hierarchical phenomena may be driven by the same underlying mechanisms of rank formation, regardless of the nature of their components. Moreover, such regularities can in principle be used to predict lifetimes of rank occupancy, thus increasing our ability to forecast stratification in the presence of competition.
Henchoz, Yves; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Baggio, Stéphanie; Gmel, Gerhard
Among the negative consequences of video gaming disorder, decreased participation in sport and exercise has received little attention. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise in emerging adult men. A questionnaire was completed at baseline and 15-month follow-up by a representative national sample of 4,933 respondents. The seven items of the Game Addiction Scale were used to construct a latent variable representing video gaming disorder. Level of sport and exercise was also self-reported. Cross-lagged path modeling indicated a reciprocal causality between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise, even after adjusting for a large set of confounders. These findings support the need for better promotion of sport and exercise among emerging adults in order to contribute to the prevention of video gaming disorder, and to raise the level of sport and exercise activity in addicted gamers.
Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter; Pereira, Cristiana
The purpose of this study was to examine a hybrid combination of sport education and the step-game-approach (SGA) on students' gameplay performance in volleyball, taking into account their sex and skill-level. Seventeen seventh-grade students (seven girls, 10 boys, average age 11.8) participated in a 25-lesson volleyball season, in which the…
This article examines the ascendance of team sports as tools of "character building" in British Victorian public schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. The focus of this enquiry is the commonly overlooked pedagogical innovation underlying this process--the utilisation of "organised games" as educational tools.…
representation as research instrument of the Game Object Model (GOM) are explored from a Cultural Historical Activity Theory perspective. The aim of the paper is to develop insights into the design, integration, evaluation and use of video games ...
Svetislav G. Popović
Full Text Available This paper presents the analytical research of spatial facilities for games and sport in Montenegro with comparative indicators of solutions for these in the area of Europe. The categories of the following activities have been included through the typology – classification: children's games, games and sport in schools, free activities of extracurricular youths and adults, top sports and activities and exercises for medical therapeutic purposes.
Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike
Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter
Henriksen, Thomas Duus
This paper addresses the question on how learning games can be used to meet with the different levels in Bloom’s and the SOLO taxonomy, which are commonly used for evaluating the learning outcome of educational activities. The paper discusses the quality of game-based learning outcomes based...... on a case study of the learning game 6Styles....
Junge, Astrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo L; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Renström, Per A F H; Aubry, Mark John; Dvorak, Jiri
Standardized assessment of sports injuries provides important epidemiological information and also directions for injury prevention. To analyze the frequency, characteristics, and causes of injuries incurred during the Summer Olympic Games 2008. Descriptive epidemiology study. The chief physicians and/or chief medical officers of the national teams were asked to report daily all injuries newly incurred during the Olympic Games on a standardized injury report form. In addition, injuries were reported daily by the physicians at the medical stations at the different Olympic venues and at the polyclinic in the Olympic Village. Physicians and/or therapists of 92 national teams covering 88% of the 10,977 registered athletes took part in the study. In total, 1055 injuries were reported, resulting in an incidence of 96.1 injuries per 1000 registered athletes. Half of the injuries (49.6%) were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. The most prevalent diagnoses were ankle sprains and thigh strains. The majority (72.5%) of injuries were incurred in competition. One third of the injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by overuse (22%) and noncontact incidences (20%). Injuries were reported from all sports, but their incidence and characteristics varied substantially. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in soccer, taekwondo, hockey, handball, weightlifting, and boxing (all >or=15% of the athletes) and lowest for sailing, canoeing/kayaking, rowing, synchronized swimming, diving, fencing, and swimming. The data indicate that the injury surveillance system covered almost all of the participating athletes, and the results highlight areas of high risk for sport injury such as the in-competition period, the ankle and thigh, and specific sports. The identification of these factors should stimulate future research and subsequent policy change to prevent injury in
Jensen, Mads Møller
Advancements in wearable and ubiquitous computing technologies have radically increased the possibilities for designing full-body human-computer interactions. Among this multitude of new bodily interaction possibilities are sports training technologies and bodily games. In terms of sports training...... activity as a control mechanism or the core game mechanic. While sports training technologies and bodily games build upon similar technologies and emanate from sports, they do not share focus. One focuses on measuring, monitoring and skill acquisition, while the other focuses on motivation, engagement...... and enjoyment. Thus, despite being two coexisting research areas, they do not extend or contribute to one another per se. However, bridging this gap by combining skill acquisition knowledge from sports training technologies with motivational game mechanics from bodily games holds great potential for designing...
Full Text Available Video games create a virtual space that can be inhabited in various ways by the players. Despite the controversies in which they are constantly included, electronic games bear witness to the modus operandi in our contemporary cognition permeated by technical objects. By focusing the know-how instead of a declarative experience the games open questions in the field of new literacies and problematize the use of technology in teaching practices. From the development of a locative game at the Botanical Garden of Porto Alegre, this article discussed some, methodological, political and theoretical implications arising from the research with video games in the field of cognitive studies. We discuss, finally, three theoretical / methodological implications the practice with video games forces us to think: research the video game through the process of its operation, questioning cognitive policies that organize our everyday and map the complex web of practices that supports the use of technical objects.
Chang Huh; Byoung Kwan Lee; Euidong Yoo
The purpose of this study was to explore the commodification process of extreme sports. Specifically, this study is to investigate how X-Games as a sport event has been spread among the teenagers by ESPN in order to use extreme sports commercially. The diffusion theory was utilized as a theoretical framework to explain this process because the diffusion theory is a...
Hurling in Cornwall, la soule in Britanny, Shrovetide football in England: Popular games have normally been treated as forerunners of modern sport, sport having regulated the space and the time of the game, the (non-) violence of behaviour, the control of results, the planning, strategy, tactics, techniques and evaluation of the competitive action. This is told as a story of social improvement and progress--and about turning unhealthy wildness into civilized 'healthy' sport activity. What sociological analysis of game-playing tended to ignore was the laughter of the participants. With the seriousness of modern sport, as it was established in the nineteenth century, a culture of laughter disappeared. This study tries to counter this mainstream by a phenomenology of laughter in popular games. A contrasting attention is turned towards the seriousness of sporting competition, the smile in modern sport and fitness, and the 'underground' dimension of laughter in modern sports. By comparative analysis, laughter reveals as a bodily discourse about the imperfect human being. It tells an oppositional story about the perfectionism in the order of Western thinking--in sports as well as in health. The bodily 'physiology' of laughter, the exploding psychical energy, and the inter-bodily social relations in laughter and play and game point towards the multi-dimensionality of health, as it was formulated by WHO: as "physical, mental, and social well-being".
Grehaigne, Jean-Francis; Caty, Didier; Godbout, Paul
Background: Sport Education and "Tactical decision learning model" (TDLM) are two curriculum models used by physical education teachers in France to help students in the development of a tactical intelligence of game play in the didactics of team sports. Purpose: Identify prototypic configurations of play in the sense that they represent…
The convergence of digital technologies, sport, and gambling industry has multiplied the possible combinations of products that, having originated in one field, have evolved into something different. This article briefly examines eSports and gambling, as well as a brief examination of the convergence between professional gambling and professional video game playing.
Stolz, Steven; Pill, Shane
Over 30 years ago the original teaching games for understanding (TGfU) proposition was published in a special edition of the Bulletin of Physical Education (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). In that time TGfU has attracted significant attention from a theoretical and pedagogical perspective as an improved approach to games and sport teaching in physical…
Full Text Available Implementation of scientific management in sport applied to the sport event is very significant because of connection between theory and practice. Management of a sport event is complex, because it is necessary to supervise the event itself, from the beginning till the end. „The Mini Olympic Games – Zemun 2004.“ are the sport event which was successfully organized in June 2004. by the Faculty of Management in Sport. The aim of this project was to establish interaction of cultural, business and friendly relations between Greece and Serbia, as well as to promote the Faculty of Management in Sport, University „Braća Karić“. The realization of this sport event was based on application of all the principles of general management. This striking example could be a very useful for future practical work in order to perceive extremely important syncretism of scientific management and sport events.
Zhang, Weishan; Han, Dong; Kunz, Thomas
Mobile games are one of the primary entertainment applications at present. Limited by scarce resources, such as memory, CPU, input and output, etc, mobile game development is more difficult than desktop application development, with performance as one of the top critical requirements. As object...... for the development of mobile device applications (but normal for usual desktop applications). We then apply some optimization strategies along the way of structural programming. The experiment shows that the total jar file size of these five optimized games decreases 71%, the lines of codes decreases 59......-oriented technology is the prevalent programming paradigm, most of the current mobile games are developed with object-orientation (OO) technologies. Intuitively OO is not a perfect paradigm for embedded software. Questions remain such as how OO and to what degree OO will affect the performance, executable file size...
Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie
The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...
Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie
The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...
Astrid Novita Putri
Full Text Available Game are activity most structure, one that ordinary is done in fun and also education tool and help to develop practical skill, as training, education, simulation or psychological. On its developing current game have until 3D. In one game, include in First Person Shutter necessary scoring one that intent to motivate that player is more terpacu to solve game until all through, on scoring Super Mario's game Boss, Compass does count scoring haven't utilized Artifical Intelligent so so chanted, while player meet with supporting objects example ammor ability really guns directly dead, so is so easy win. Therefore at needs a count scoring interesting so more motivated in finishing problem Scoring accounting point for First Person Shutter's game .This modelling as interesting daring in one game, since model scoring one that effective gets to motivate that player is more terpacu in plays and keep player for back plays. Besides model scoring can assign value that bound up with game zoom.On Research hits scoring this game will make scoring bases some criterion which is health Point, Attack point, Defence point, And Magic what do at have supporting objects ,then in this research do compare two method are methodic statistic and Fuzzy. Result of this research 83,4 % on testing's examination and on eventually gets to be concluded that fuzzy's method in trouble finish time more long time but will player more challenging to railroad.
The idea of digital game-based learning (DGBL) is that students (or players) learn something by playing a computer or video game and that an educator can employ digital games to assist and boost both formal and informal learning. There is game software that is not specifically produced for educational use but which is nonetheless regularly…
Alexander V. Morozov
Full Text Available The paper deals with the psychological issues of the Russian sport in general (including internal and external, objective and subjective ones. The attitudes of the most authoritative sports experts are analyzed. Various media discuss the performance of Russians in the Olympics of the third Millennium, the role and importance of psychology in modern sport and also in preparation of elite sport athletes for such important tournaments as the Olympic Games. The paper discusses fundamental differences of psychological preparation of the Russian and foreign athletes, comparative analysis of national team performances of Russia in the summer Olympics and Paralympic Games over the past 20 years, i.e. in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012. The paper analyses the strongest team performances on the global level in the latest Summer Olympic games and the probabilistic prediction of the performance results in the Summer Olympics in Brazil in reference with November doping scandal in the Russian Athletics Federation associated with charges of the Russian athletes in the mass doping followed by a loud dismissal of a number of sports officials and coaches, with two Russian athletes to be disqualified and stripped of their medals of London Olympics-2012, and also a RAF member in the IAAF to be suspended, which puts into question the possibility of Russian national athletics team participating in the next Olympics. The paper outlines current problematic issues the solution of which is urgent for the 21st Summer Olympics 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and should contribute to a fundamental change in the psychological, spiritual, moral atmosphere not only of an individual athlete, but for all Russian sport in general.
Full Text Available This paper applies philosopher Graham Harman's object-oriented theory of "vicarious causation" to an analysis of the multi-modal media phenomenon known as "Game of Thrones." Examining the manner in which George R.R. Martin's best-selling series of fantasy novels has been adapted into a board game, a video game, and a hit HBO television series, it uses the changes entailed by these processes to trace the contours of vicariously generative relations. In the course of the resulting analysis, it provides new suggestions concerning the eidetic dimensions of Harman's causal model, particularly with regard to causation in linear networks and in differing types of game systems.
Full Text Available This is not a history project. Nor is it about video games and the people who play them. Instead, this project focuses on the cultural discourse surrounding digital games as they have been refracted by the lenses of American film and television. This study considers a broad cross-section of Hollywood’s depictions of games, tracing their evolution from objects of fascination and technological possibility in the 1970s and 1980s to catalysts for antisocial behavior in the 1990s and 2000s. This evolution maps revealingly onto the changing economic circumstances of the games industry, describing a direct correlation between the economic viability of the industry and its critical depiction in Hollywood.
Full Text Available Specialized Training of Children and Youngsters in Selected Sports Games The study has two principal goals. The first one is the analysis of personal characteristics of coaches, who function with teams of youth in clubs participating in the top and second to top competitions of adults in handball, tennis and volleyball. Analysis brakes data down following criteria of age, level of education reached and gender. The second goal of our study is the analysis of the sport preparation of children and youth in mentioned sports games on their observation of federations’ recommendations about the content of training in respective age groups, including detection of their opinions on the beginning of specialized training for respective playing functions. Research sample was created all-together by 234 coaches (102 volleyball, 69 tennis, 63 handball, who responded to sent non-standard questionnaire with closed and halfopened queries (total rate of return was 67%. Used questionnaire contained eight identifying and five factual questions. Quantitative characteristics were expressed in absolute and relative frequencies, for synoptic presentation of results we have used graphical illustration of responses. Questions concerned players participating in competitions of age groups from about 8 to 19 years. As far as personal composition concerns, the prevailing part of observed sample is created by coaches of age category 30–40 years, out of which about 1/4 are women. We have found significant differences among respective games in the educational sphere. While in tennis and volleyball the university educated coaches creates simple majority (65% and 76% respectively, their portion in handball is only about 40%. The representation of P.E. teachers among respective sports games is similarly different – 83% and 76% respectively in tennis and volleyball, on the contrary to 29% in handball. Tennis possesses very low portion of coaches working with category of
Full Text Available ICT cause and accelerate the processes of getting and developing knowledge, facilitate the process of modernization of education. Active video games, which involve physical movement of the player’s body, are used to increase the efficiency of perception of the educational material connected with motor activity and to raise the level of motor activity of young people Active video games which require the display of strength, coordination and flexibility are included into the curriculum of physical education, combining physical education with a game. These games use the player’s body movements as a controller, thus providing an alternative to static games and helping to preserve health. The study is the analysis of publications on the use of ICT, namely active video games (exergames in the field of physical culture and sports. The study has found that the use of active video games in educational and training process promotes physical qualities, improves cognitive functions, improves socialization and motivation to exercise. It has been proved that the use of exergames motivation increases motor activity of students and adults. Specially selected exergames help to familiarize students with various types of sports activities, such as those that are difficult to practice in the gym. Rational use of active video games in the classroom optimizes the educational process. Modern mobile exergames on one platform include several sports and can be used outside sports facilities, encouraging more people to exercise. Exergames personalize elements of the game, the level of difficulty, type of physical activity, have a system of evaluation of changes in the user’s preparedness, increase motivation to exercise.
This article presents an account of the development of the Kladruby Games in Czechoslovakia from 1948, which in 2017 celebrate their 100th edition, in order to bring to light some of the hidden history of disability sport. We might be led to speculate on how the Kladruby Games might have developed from these very promising beginnings, had Srdečný received earlier support from the authorities, and the impetus to consider Olympic connections. Such speculations we consider to be fruitless, given the very different conceptions of disability sport at work here. Srdečný’s continuing commitment was to seeing the Kladruby Games as an impetus to the rehabilitative and recreational benefits of sport, rather than the contradictions experienced by the Paralympics in balancing elite performance values with its other aims.
Full Text Available Currently, it is widely known that sports, exercise and recreational physical activities have benefits for human and social development as well as for their establishment as a human right within different legal activities. This right to sport and recreational game during childhood is made explicit in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN, 1989, and the National Education Act, and the Integral Protection Act (Law 26.061. The aim of this article is to analyze the implementation of public policies through a case study in La Matanza, in three socio-residential areas of slums or urban settlements, with children from 4 to 14 years old as the target population. Adopting qualitative perspectives, we carried out the analysis of the theoretical and methodological approach together with objective field practices. The results show that programs oriented towards sport as a social practice have limitations when it comes to translating the essence of human development from a rights approach into concrete practice, as well as covering, constructing and implementing educational offers in the field of game and recreational sport.
ervine bangor ac uk, j.
This paper will examine ways in which football video games, such as Football Manager and FIFA, are re- shaping the sport of football and re-defining the relationship between fans and the sport. In so doing, it will explore ways in which football video games have been portrayed in both the UK and France through close study of the press, academic literature, the press and popular culture.To begin with, it will be argued that dismissive attitudes of some journalists and football managers towards...
Paula A White
Full Text Available Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014, this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.
Kobierecki Michał Marcin
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to investigate the issue of positive sports diplomacy directed at bringing countries closer and deepening cooperation between them. Generally, sports diplomacy is a broader term and may include various ways of utilizing sport, both negative and positive, even for the sake of nation-branding. Positive sports diplomacy most commonly refers to bringing hostile states closer together, but it may also be used to deepen political alliances or foster friendship and cooperation between states that are not mutually hostile. The research focuses on the latter form of positive sports diplomacy. The investigation is a case study concerning the Commonwealth Games, a sports event that is held once every four years and gathers countries and territories that used to belong to the former British Empire. The research therefore aims to determine whether this event, the second largest multisport event in the world, is significant from political and diplomatic perspectives. A second research question concerns whether the Commonwealth Games should be seen as an attempt by Great Britain to maintain influence in its former colonies. The research attempts to test the hypothesis that the Commonwealth Games are an important contributor to sustaining ties between states of the former British Empire.
Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena
Given the extreme popularity of video games among older adolescents and emerging adults, the investigation of positive outcomes of video game play during these developmental periods is crucial. An important direction for research in this area is the investigation of a link between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports among youth. Yet, this association has not been examined in the long-term among older adolescents and emerging adults, and thus represents an exciting new area for discovery. The primary goal of the current study, therefore, was to examine the long-term association between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports clubs among older adolescents and emerging adults. In addition, we examined whether self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this longitudinal association. We surveyed older adolescents and emerging adults (N = 1132; 70.6 % female; M age = 19.06 years, range of 17-25 years at the first assessment) annually over 3 years about their video game play, self-esteem, and involvement in real-life sports. We found a long-term predictive effect of sports video game play on increased involvement in real-life sports over the 3 years. Furthermore, we demonstrated that self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this long-term association. Our findings make an important contribution to an emerging body of literature on the positive outcomes of video game play, as they suggest that sports video game play may be an effective tool to promote real-life sports participation and physical activity among older adolescents and emerging adults.
Elliott, Samuel Kim; Drummond, Murray J. N.
Characteristic issues surrounding parents in youth sport include examples of negative verbal and non-verbal behaviour demonstrated during competition. Numerous studies have done well to highlight while parents possess a great potential for positively influencing the sport experience, they can also exert a considerable negative influence by…
degree contradictory? Several languages use “play” and “game” in a differentiated way: Animals play, but do not engage in games – and the Olympic Games are not Olympic Play. Beneath this dualism, the relation becomes more complex and less dualistic, as Danish, Basque, and Korean languages show. We have...
Deutsch, Judith E; Brettler, Arielle; Smith, Caroline; Welsh, Jamie; John, Roshan; Guarrera-Bowlby, Phyllis; Kafri, Michal
Interactive video gaming has become ubiquitous in the practice of rehabilitation. The Nintendo Wii is one such system. Interactive gaming can promote intensive task-based therapy in a manner that is motivating for the user. Widespread enthusiasm for consoles and their games prompted us to analyze the games for their rehabilitation elements related to improving balance and mobility for individuals poststroke. The purpose of this article is to provide a game analysis for clinical application and evaluation of the game elements for research on interactive video gaming. Using a team of game players and raters, 5 tables (1 for the Wii Sports and 4 for the Wii Fit) were developed and validated. The tables consist of 3 categories: game description, impairments targeted (strength, endurance, balance, and coordination), and feedback provided (knowledge of performance [KP] and knowledge of results [KR]). Two domain content experts established face validity. Construct validity was performed by 2 therapist-raters who had more than 15 years' clinical experience and postgraduate training in motor learning. Observations about the games including the fidelity of the interfaces, the nature of the feedback, and some of the challenges to adapting the games for rehabilitation are presented. An 80% agreement between raters set as the criterion for establishing the construct validity was met for feedback evaluation. There was 100% agreement on impairment ratings. Games provide a greater amount of KR compared with KP. Given the preponderance of KR, therapists will need to monitor motor performance. Adaptation of interactive video consoles for rehabilitation requires careful evaluation of the games' attributes using relevant rehabilitation construits.
Laoruengthana, Artit; Poosamsai, Paisan; Fangsanau, Tharinee; Supanpaiboon, Pattrawan; Tungkasamesamran, Kasame
Prevention of injury among athletes is of paramount importance for sport events. The incidence of injury differs depending on many factors, such as level of competition, type of sport, and standard of surveillance systems. It is our purpose to provide a descriptive epidemiology of a national level competition multi-sports event. During the 2008 Thailand National "Phitsanulok" Games, official medical teams of the various sports completed a report form after each match or competition. The demographic data, type of sport, details of injury or illness, diagnosis, and treatment were collected from the PLKGames 2008 program and analyzed by the Medical Surveillance Committee. There were 14,429 athletes and staff participating in the "Phitsanulok" games. A total of 496 injuries were reported during the competition, of which 300 male and 196 female athletes sustained injuries, resulting in an incidence rate of 4.1 injuries per 100 registered athletes. For all sports, 71, 50 and 38 injuries occurred during Rugby, Handball and Basketball, respectively, which accounted for 32% of all injuries. No injury was reported from many sports, such as table tennis, shooting, dancing, and golf The most common diagnoses were sprains and strains. About half of injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by noncontact (28.6%) and limited-contact incidences (27.6%). According to the number of athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in Pencak Silat, handball, basketball, and rugby football. About half of injuries affected lower extremities, while 135, 53, and 49 injuries involved upper extremity, head & neck, and axial body parts, respectively. The knee and ankle were the most common sites of injury. The data demonstrates a potential risk of injury occurring predominately in full-contact sports and limited-contact sports. The data is potentially useful in developing injury surveillance systems for future sporting events.
Pettigrew, Simone; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Lisa
It is likely that there are substantial subconscious effects of organizations’ efforts to associate their products with sport via sponsorships, but most research methods are unable to capture these effects. The present study employed a novel projective technique to explore children's implicit associations between popular sports and a range of sports sponsors. Children participated in an activity using magnets bearing the logos of numerous sports and sponsors. They were invited to arrange the magnets on a whiteboard without being advised that the activity related to sponsorship. Perth, Western Australia. Children (n 164) aged 5–12 years. Three-quarters (76 %) of the children aligned at least one correct sponsor magnet with the relevant sport. Just over half the children (54 %) correctly matched the most popular sport (an Australian Football League team) with its relevant sponsor (a fast-food chain). Given the unstructured nature of the projective task, the results provide some support for the argument that sports sponsorship can effectively reach child audiences. This is of concern given the current extent of sponsorship by alcohol and fast-food companies.
Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla; Sundal, Jacqueline; Colquit, Gavin
Physical education teachers are faced with a decision when teaching physical activities in schools. What type of instructional model should be used, and should classes be coeducational or single gender? The current study had two purposes. The first purpose investigated the effectiveness of the sport education tactical model (SETM) during game play…
Foster, Wayne K.
Examines benefits to individuals and society of cooperative--as opposed to competitive--interpersonal relationships. Discusses children's sports, games, and play as means to promote cooperation and reviews research showing positive effects of children's cooperative play. Provides standards for a cooperative philosophy that would promote positive…
Full Text Available Purpose: determine the content and sequence of the use of mobile and educational games in the process of sports training for young football players. Material & Methods: analysis, synthesis and generalization of scientific information on the problem of research, educational and methodological literature and Internet sources, pedagogical observations. Results: it is established that the effectiveness of the use of mobile and educational games should be ensured not only through their appropriate selection in accordance with the pedagogical conditions and due organizational and methodical decision, but also by determining the optimal sequence of their implementation in the training process, adapting their content and structure to the contingent students and a specific pedagogical situation. The generalized sequence of application of these games in the process of sports training of young football players is considered, on a specific example their approximate content is revealed. Conclusion: the content and sequence of the use of mobile and educational games are determined by methodological provisions that provide for the primary solution of the tasks of the individual side of the training of young football players with the subsequent resolution of interrelations in its limits. After that, those tasks of a certain side of sports training that can be solved by means of another are realized. In the future, the relationship and integration of two or more parties of long-term training is carried out in control games and official competitions.
Tichy, Walter F.
Dave Schrader, known to his friends as Dr. Dave, worked for 24 years in advanced development and marketing at Teradata, a major data warehouse vendor. He actively gives talks on business analytics, and since retiring has spent time exploring the field of sports analytics. In this interview, Schrader discusses how analytics is playing a significant role in professional sports--from Major League Soccer to the NBA.
Jaramillo, Jeffrey P; Johanson, M Elise; Kiratli, B Jenny
Video gaming as a therapeutic tool has largely been studied within the stroke population with some benefits reported in upper limb motor performance, balance, coordination, and cardiovascular status. To date, muscle activation of upper limb muscles in persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has not been studied during video game play. In this paper, we provide descriptive and comparative data for muscle activation and strength during gaming for players with tetraplegia and paraplegia, as well as, compare these results with data from traditional arm exercises (ie, biceps curl and shoulder press) with light weights which are commonly prescribed for a home program. Fourteen individuals with chronic SCI (9 tetraplegia, 5 paraplegia). We measured upper limb muscle activation with surface electromyography (EMG) during Wii Sports video game play. Muscle activation was recorded from the playing arm during 4 selected games and normalized to a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Heart rate and upper limb motion were recorded simultaneously with EMG. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze differences in muscle activation between participants with paraplegia versus tetraplegia and compare gaming with traditional arm exercises with light weights. A Friedman 2-way analysis of variance identified key muscle groups active during game play. Overall muscle activation across the games was not different between those with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Heart rate during video game play for tennis and boxing were on average 10 to 20 beats/minute above resting heart rate. The magnitude of EMG was relatively greater for traditional arm exercises with light weights compared with game play. The selected Wii games were able to elicit upper extremity muscle activation and elevated heart rates for individuals with SCI that may be used to target therapeutic outcomes.
Full Text Available This article supports the idea of modifying traditional games and sports in order to provide students with significant educational experiences. First, a structural-functional analysis of traditional games is presented. Second, a teaching strategy to enhance their potential in physical education classes is introduced. Third, an approach to make traditional games more vivid for students is offered. The structure of each of the traditional games’ categories is revised, and a few changes are introduced bearing in mind the children’s characteristics and the school context’s limitations. Finally, homemade materials are presented as a perfect tool for these changes, and to foster children’s participation and motivation on traditional games
Mesquita, Isabel; Farias, Claudio; Hastie, Peter
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a hybrid Sport Education-Invasion Games Competence Model (SE-IGCM) unit application on students' improvements in decision making, skill execution and overall game performance, during a soccer season. Twenty-six fifth-grade students from a Portuguese public elementary school participated in a…
Ozturk Ozden Tepekoylu
Full Text Available In Recent studies underline the fact that adolescents are, at many times, likely to experience serious communication problems with their families and close environments. So, the aim of this study is to determine positive impact of sport-related games, which are performed as extracurricular activities, on high school students’ communication skills. In the study, pre, & post-tests was utilized with the control group’s experimental patterns. Two participant groups were made up of totally 30 high school students, 15 of whom would be in the experimental group and the rest of whom were in the control group. The former group was given sport- related 20 applications for 10 weeks during which the latter group would not deal with any extracurricular activities. Meanwhile, before and after the applications, data was collected by means of “The Communication Skills Scale” which was developed by Korkut (1996 and then analysed through “two-way ANCOVA” test techniques. Results clarify that the considerable gap in scores of the students’ pre, & post-tests perception concerning their communication skills are clearly attributed to sport-related games and it was also established that scores of the students in the experimental group were meaningfully higher than ones in the control group. However, perception of communication skills in the both groups was not significantly different by sex of the students. Moreover, the common effect of sex and participation on sport- related games was not found statistically meaningful in terms of communication skills. Consequently, it could be said that sport-related games impact positively communication skills.
Kang, Sang-Jo; Kang, Minsoo
In many countries, an athlete's performance at sporting competitions is often used as part of the selection criteria for entry into college. These criteria could be biased depending upon the procedures utilized by the authorities in a particular country. The purpose of this study was to calibrate, by using the Rasch rating scale model, the…
Giza, Christopher C; Prins, Mayumi L; Hovda, David A
Few items grab the public's attention like sports, from extremes of great victory to injury and defeat. No injury currently arouses stronger interest than concussion. Giza et al., discuss how neuroscience can provide balance between physical activity and TBI, and guide thoughtful discourse and policy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Descriptive and Experimental Research meth- ods based on the qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed. The De- scriptive method of research is necessary be- cause trophies existing at the Sports Section of. KNUST had to be documented, described and analysed before coming out with a design ...
Full Text Available The study of sport – its social, political, cultural and economic aspects – is a well-established academic field, scholars widely acknowledging its significance in understanding how a society is organized and understood. As Perkin (1992:211 puts it: The history of societies is reflected more vividly in the way they spend their leisure than in their politics or their work […] the history of sport gives a unique insight into the way a society changes and impacts on other societies it comes into contact with and, conversely, the way those societies react back to it. Sport has a particular resonance in considerations of the emergence of modern nation-states out of colonialism, given the connections between the diffusion of modern sports around the world and the colonial experience. Although virtually all societies played games of various kinds, competitive, rule-based sports are essentially modern, western phenomena, dating back no further than the nineteenth century. Their spread through the world coincided with, and in many respects was an inherent part of, the expansion of western colonialism. In the British Empire in particular, sport was seen as reflecting the essential values and characteristics of the British race which justified the existence of colonialism. Wherever the British went, they took their sports with them, together with the social mores they represented.
Macnamara, Brooke N; Hambrick, David Z; Oswald, Frederick L
More than 20 years ago, researchers proposed that individual differences in performance in such domains as music, sports, and games largely reflect individual differences in amount of deliberate practice, which was defined as engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain. This view is a frequent topic of popular-science writing-but is it supported by empirical evidence? To answer this question, we conducted a meta-analysis covering all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated. We found that deliberate practice explained 26% of the variance in performance for games, 21% for music, 18% for sports, 4% for education, and less than 1% for professions. We conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued. © The Author(s) 2014.
Reidsma, Dennis; Reidsma, D.; Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.
Video game consoles that enable gamers to use active body movements are becoming increasingly popular. Yet, little is known about the influence of movement on how gamers experience such games. This study takes an exploratory approach, using different data collection methods. A theory about the
...] Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking Program...) announces the availability of the final EIR/EIS for the California Department of Fish and Game's (CDFG) Fish... pleasure craft; the portion of gasoline tax attributable to motorboats and small engines; and interest on...
Llinás, Paulo José; Serrano, Rafael Fernando; Quintero Barrera, Laureano; Quiceno Noguera, Juan Carlos; Martinez Cano, Juan Pablo
The World Games is a multisport event, second in importance only to the Olympic Games. Systematic surveillance of injuries and ill-health episodes is an essential part of modern integral healthcare given to athletes. To describe and analyse injuries and ill-health episodes affecting competitors during the Cali World Games 2013. This is a cross-sectional study of injuries and ill-health episodes suffered by competing athletes. Entries to the registry were systematically recorded by official doctors and medical staff at the Games, and included attention to emergencies at the sport venues and data of reports received from health facilities around the city. In all, 2824 athletes, 1216 women and 1608 men, participated in the 2013 Cali World Games. There were 88 injuries and 29 ill-health episodes, for an overall incidence of 31.2 injuries and 10.3 ill-health episodes per 1000 athletes, over an 11 day period. The highest incidence of sport associated injuries affected jiu-jitsu athletes. Hands were the most common site of injury. Injury rates for men and women were 35.5 and 25.5/1000 athletes, respectively, (RR=1.41, 95% CI 0.90 to 2.19, p=0.066). National delegations with less than 25 athletes suffered more injuries compared to larger delegations, with 40.9 vs 29.2 injuries per 1000 athletes (RR 1.4, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.30, p=0.12). The gastrointestinal system was the most affected by illness. The sport where most competitors suffered ill-health episodes was softball. The rate of ill-health episodes in women was 15/1000, and for men 6.8/1000 athletes (RR=2.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.56, p=0.038). 3.1% of the athletes had sport-related injuries, and 1% had at least one episode of ill health. These are low numbers compared to other multisport events such as the Olympic Games. Men had a higher incidence of injuries, and women a higher incidence of episodes of ill health. Future World Games should improve data-collection strategies and develop preventive measures accordingly.
Engebretsen, Lars; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Budgett, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri; Jegathesan, Manikavasagam; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Mountjoy, Margo; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Vanhegan, Ivor; Renström, Per A
The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages all stakeholders to ensure that sport is practised without danger to the health of the athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games of the XXX Olympiad, held in London in 2012. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games' (LOCOG) medical staff. In total, 10 568 athletes (4676 women and 5892 men) from 204 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and LOCOG medical staff reported 1361 injuries and 758 illnesses, equalling incidences of 128.8 injuries and 71.7 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Altogether, 11% and 7% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The risk of an athlete being injured was the highest in taekwondo, football, BMX, handball, mountain bike, athletics, weightlifting, hockey and badminton, and the lowest in archery, canoe slalom and sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian. 35% of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating during competition or training. Women suffered 60% more illnesses than men (86.0 vs 53.3 illnesses per 1000 athletes). The rate of illness was the highest in athletics, beach volleyball, football, sailing, synchronised swimming and taekwondo. A total of 310 illnesses (41%) affected the respiratory system and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=347, 46%). At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games and 7% of the athletes' an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among sports. Future initiatives should include the development of preventive measures tailored for each specific sport and the
Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A; O'Donovan, Toni
The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher's peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches' instruction, and the students' gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion games (basketball, handball, and soccer). The research involved 3 action research cycles, 1 per season, and each cycle included the processes of planning, acting and monitoring, reflecting, and fact finding. Data collection consisted of videotape and audiotape records of all 47 lessons, a reflective field diary kept by the first author in the role of teacher-researcher, and a total of 24 semistructured focus-group interviews. Trustworthiness criteria for assuring the quality of qualitative research included extensive data triangulation, stakeholders' crosschecking, and collaborative interpretational analysis. Through the application of systematic preparation strategies, student-coaches were able to successfully conduct team instruction that resulted in students' tactical development and improved performance. Aspects such as the study of predominant configurations of players' gameplay and similar tactical principles across games within the same category prevented a setback in the complexity of the learning content addressed at the beginning of each season. Players also showed an increasing ability to adapt gameplay to game conditions. While sport education has the capacity to develop competent players, different levels of teacher guidance and learners' instructional responsibility are necessary when teaching tactics.
Informal roles are roles that are not formally prescribed by a group or organization and are being established through group interaction that takes place among group members. Previous literature has identified twelve roles within traditional sport, however to date limited research has been done within the field of role development within competitive computer gaming (eSports). The purpose of the present study was to explore the informal roles within the eSport setting and i...
Yde, J; Nielsen, A B
In a prospective study of 302 adolescent players in three ball games (soccer, handball and basketball), 119 incurred injuries. The injury incidence (number of injuries per 1000 playing hours) was 5.6 in soccer, 4.1 in handball and 3.0 in basketball. Ankle sprains accounted for 25 per cent of the injuries, finger sprains 32 per cent, strains in the thigh and leg 10 per cent, and tendinitis/apophysitis 12 per cent. The most serious injuries were four fractures, one anterior cruciate ligament ru...
Full Text Available Purpose : considered the use of an integrated program of sports in physical education of children in pre-school educational institution. Material and methods : the experiment was attended with parental permission children 5-6 years. In the control group sessions were conducted with additional recreational gymnastic oriented. In the four experimental groups – mini-basketball, mini-handball and futsal. Results : the substantiation of the integrated use of sports games during physical education classes with children. The main starting points for the development of the methodology are: analysis of questionnaires on physical education specialists in preschool educational institutions, educators and parents considering the opinion and the results of previous studies of the level of physical development and physical readiness of preschool children, and analysis of test results to the success of children's possession of the ball. The results of the pedagogical experiment and given their analysis in terms of the influence of physical education classes through the use of sports games on physical development, physical fitness and functional status of children. The data that characterize the rate of growth results in the pedagogical experiment. Conclusions : it was established that the systematic use of sports complex will help to eliminate the deficit movements, balance maturation, children form healthy lifestyle habits.
Full Text Available Model building in game sports should maintain the constitutive feature of this group of sports, the dynamic interaction process between the two parties. For single net/wall games relative phase is suggested to describe the positional interaction between the two players. 30 baseline rallies in tennis were examined and relative phase was calculated by Hilbert transform from the two time-series of lateral displacement and trajectory in the court respectively. Results showed that relative phase indicates some aspects of the tactical interaction in tennis. At a more abstract level the interaction between two teams in handball was studied by examining the relationship of the two scoring processes. Each process can be conceived as a random walk. Moving averages of the scoring probabilities indicate something like a momentary strength. A moving correlation (length = 20 ball possessions describes the momentary relationship between the teams' strength. Evidence was found that this correlation is heavily time-dependent, in almost every single game among the 40 examined ones we found phases with a significant positive as well as significant negative relationship. This underlines the importance of a dynamic view on the interaction in these games.
Halouani, Jamel; Chtourou, Hamdi; Gabbett, Tim; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim
Small-sided games (SSGs) incorporating skills, sport-specific movements, at intensities sufficient to promote aerobic adaptations, are being increasingly implemented in professional team sport environments. Small-sided games are often employed by coaches based on the premise that the greatest training benefits occur when training simulates the specific movement patterns and physiological demands of the sport. At present, there is relatively little information regarding how SSG can best be used to improve physical capacities and technical and tactical skills in team sports. It is possible that with some modifications (e.g., number of players, pitch size, coach encouragement, and wrestling), such games may be physiologically beneficial for athletes with relatively high initial aerobic fitness levels. For instance, it has been shown that 3-a-side soccer SSG resulted in higher intensity (i.e., greater overall distance, less jogging and walking, higher heart rate, and more tackling, dribbling, goal attempts, and passes) than 5-a-side SSG. Likewise, when player numbers were kept constant, a larger playing area increased the intensity of the SSG with a smaller playing area having the opposite effect. It has also been demonstrated that energy expenditure was similar between badminton and volleyball courts, but lower than that obtained in a basketball court. Moreover, it has been demonstrated in rugby that wrestling can increase the physical demands of SSG. Consistent coach encouragement can also increase training intensity, although most rule changes have trivial or no effect on exercise intensity. Further research is required to examine the optimal periodization strategies of SSG training for the long-term development of physiological capacity, technical skill, and tactical proficiency, while also minimizing the associated risk of injuries.
Leeka, Justin; Schwartz, Bryan G; Kloner, Robert A
Physiologic and clinical triggers, including mental stress, anxiety, and anger, often precipitate acute myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. Sporting events can acutely increase cardiovascular event and death rates. A greater impact is observed in patients with known coronary artery disease and when stressful features are present, including a passionate fan, a high-stakes game, a high-intensity game, a loss, and a loss played at home. Sporting events affect cardiovascular health through neuroendocrine responses and possibly an increase in high-risk behaviors. Acute mental stress increases the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system while impairing vagal tone and endothelial function. Collectively, these mechanisms increase myocardial oxygen demand and decrease myocardial oxygen supply while also increasing the risk of arrhythmias and thrombosis. Measures can be taken to reduce cardiovascular risk, including the use of beta-blockers and aspirin, stress management, transcendental meditation, and avoidance of high-risk activities, such as smoking, eating fatty foods, overeating, and abusing alcohol and illicit drugs. Sporting events have the potential to adversely affect spectators' cardiovascular health, and protective measures should be considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peter, Samuel C; Li, Qian; Pfund, Rory A; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W
The negative psychological effects of public stigma on disordered gamblers have been well documented. Public stigma deters treatment-seeking and other help-seeking behaviors, and negatively impacts individuals' view of themselves. Different types of disordered gambling activities may attract different degrees of stigma. One increasingly popular form of gambling involves placing bets on the outcomes of competitive video games, also called eSports gambling. This activity shares characteristics with Internet gaming and gambling. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of public stigma held towards traditional casino gamblers, eSports gamblers, and Internet gamers, as compared to an individual experiencing comparable levels of impairment and distress due to a financial crisis. Using an experimental between-groups vignette study design, we found that all three types of behavioral addictions were more heavily stigmatized than the control condition. The three behavioral addictions were seen as being highly controllable, engendered a significant amount of anger and blame, and resulted in higher levels of desired social distance. Traditional casino gamblers were seen as significantly more dangerous to be around and created a higher level of desired social distance than the Internet gamer. Differences between the Internet gamer and eSports better were less pronounced. These findings underscore the importance of reducing public stigma for gambling and other behavioral addictions, and provide information that can be used when developing interventions to impact stigma.
Lyudmila N. Voloshina
Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the children's readiness (in the age of 5-7 years old to interact with peers and adults in the elementary sports and gaming activities. The study was carried out within the framework of the pilot program of the Russian Academy of Education, based on the pre-school educational institutions in the city of Belgorod. To study the relationship in the children's team we used observation, sociometric technique, and diagnostic game situation. The analysis of results obtained showed the presence of problems of readiness to interact with peers and the formation of a communicative component of social experience in children in the age of 5-7 years old. Namely: insufficient level of children's independence, limited ideas about the possibility of using the sports and gaming activities in their own experience, low level of social and normative behavior. The results of the study confirmed the data previously presented in the publications on the growth in the number of preschool children not capable to interpersonal interaction.
Aarseth, Espen J.; Calleja, Gordon
In this paper we address the problem of defining games formally, following Wittgenstein's dictum that games cannot be defined adequately as a formal category. Several influential attempts at definitions will be evaluated and shown to be inadequate. As an alternative, we propose a descriptive mode...
Written as a practical and engaging tutorial, this book guides you through the development of your own exciting, fully featured, games.If you are a beginner and an enthusiast who dreams about creating games and is in need of some additional inspiration and knowledge, then this book is for you. No programming experience is expected.
Mercado Peña, Mario Alberto
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the frequency of early clinical symptoms of the overtraining syndrome (OTS, in Antioquia´s athletes in the pre-competitive period prior to the Na-tional Sports Games, Colombia 2012. Materials and methods: The Sports Medicine French Society (SMFS questionnaire was administered to 153 highly trained athletes, belonging to 28 sports disciplines. Results: Mean age of the studied athletes was 23.5 ± 5.5 years; 56.9% were men. Fre-quency of OTS early symptoms was 24.8%. The affected athletes had a greater volume of sport training (24.3 ± 10.3 vs. 19.7 ± 9.4 hours/week; p = 0.018; more commonly belonged to an individual sports discipline (81.6% vs. 55.7%; p = 0.017; more often they were studying (76.3% vs. 56.5%; p = 0.030 or in exams period (42.1 vs. 21.2%; p = 0.029 and perceived more stressful situations in the last month (62.1% vs. 16.2%; p < 0.01. Conclusions: a high frequency of early manifestations of OTS was found. It was higher in women than in men. Several individual factors, related to training and the type of sport, might be associated with these manifestations.
Elbæk, Lars; Friis, Jørgen Jakob
into innovative practice requires abilities best formed in a creative learning environment that also contains a production space, where physical prototypes creates realizations and insights. Learning is optimally done in project-based setups, and close contact with co-learners and mentors plays a central role...... an active lifestyle. Such digitally supported movement promote health and underlines a need for students to understand that movement design incorporates many aspects: technology, gamification, motivation and understanding of health. To support this, a movement innovation program was needed at our sports...... science and health education. We therefore ask: Which learning approach and educational factors does a learning model need to provide, in order to establish the best foundation for learning innovation and the design of game-based movement solutions within sport and health education? This paper suggests...
Elbæk, Lars; Friis, Jørgen Jakob
an active lifestyle. Such digitally supported movement promote health and underlines a need for students to understand that movement design incorporates many aspects: technology, gamification, motivation and understanding of health. To support this, a movement innovation program was needed at our sports...... science and health education. We therefore ask: Which learning approach and educational factors does a learning model need to provide, in order to establish the best foundation for learning innovation and the design of game-based movement solutions within sport and health education? This paper suggests...... a model that covers three approaches; design ‘for’, ‘with’ and ‘of’ movement. From an innovation perspective, it is essential to sense needs and identify future opportunities. This includes understanding technologies and the lives of potential users. Being able to transform core knowledge and insights...
Moh. Aries Syufagi
Full Text Available Nowadays, serious games and game technology are poised to transform the way of educating and training students at all levels. However, pedagogical value in games do not help novice students learn, too many memorizing and reduce learning process due to no information of player’s ability. To asses the cognitive level of player ability, we propose a Cognitive Skill Game (CSG. CSG improves this cognitive concept to monitor how players interact with the game. This game employs Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ for optimizing the cognitive skill input classification of the player. CSG is using teacher’s data to obtain the neuron vector of cognitive skill pattern supervise. Three clusters multi objective target will be classified as; trial and error, carefully and, expert cognitive skill. In the game play experiments using 33 respondent players demonstrates that 61% of players have high trial and error cognitive skill, 21% have high carefully cognitive skill, and 18% have high expert cognitive skill. CSG may provide information to game engine when a player needs help or when wanting a formidable challenge. The game engine will provide the appropriate tasks according to players’ ability. CSG will help balance the emotions of players, so players do not get bored and frustrated. Players have a high interest to finish the game if the player is emotionally stable. Interests in the players strongly support the procedural learning in a serious game.
Full Text Available This study has been prepared to determine attitudes of students studying in Coaching and Sport Management departments towards playing game including physcical activity. The sample of study consists of 388 students having sudied in Gaziantep University Coaching and Sport Management Department in 2014-2015 academic year.So as to determine the attitudes of students, the’’Playfulnessscale" was used. Statistical analysis of the data obtained in this study was made by using the SPSS 22.0 software packages. While evaluating the data for statistical analyzes, for frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and comparison of two independent groups the t-test was used and for comparison of more than two independent groups ANOVA and LSD multiple comparison tests were used. According to results of study, It seems that statistically there is no significant difference between student’s genders,ages and their attitudes towards palying game including physical activity and according to their departments there is no significant difference among their attitudes but there is a significant difference between the fundimension and social cohesion dimension.
The article reveals and analyses external and internal (nation-wide and regional) factors which have affected the holding of the First Russian Olympic Games of 1913 in Kiev and the Second Russian Olympic Games of 1914 in Riga are analyzed. It was determined that sports activity in the state was considerably stirred up during 1913–1914 years. It was found that the first Russian Olympic Games directly affected development of governmental-public structure of physical training and sports, creatio...
Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Munir, Fehmidah
A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n = 28 participants) or control (n = 20 participants) groups. The team sport sessions were underpinned by psychological behaviour change theory and consisted of weekly 1-h team sport sessions for 12 weeks. Measures of aerobic fitness, physical activity behaviour, group cohesion, interaction and communication, psychological wellbeing, health, anthropometrics and workplace experiences were recorded pre- and post-intervention. Data were analysed using a series of mixed ANOVAs. After 12 weeks significant improvements were observed in VO 2 max (+ 4.5 ± 5.8 ml/min kg, P intervention group. A significant (P intervention group. Participation in team sport may be an effective method to improve the aerobic fitness and physical activity behaviour of employees, and promote interpersonal communication between colleagues. Individual health outcomes and social interactions have the capacity to influence the health of the organisation. The extent of which these findings are replicable across a scope of organisations should be examined objectively over the long term.
Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Aubry, Mark; Grant, Marie-Elaine; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars
Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the XXII Olympic Winter Games, held in Sochi in 2014. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the Sochi 2014 medical staff. NOC and Sochi 2014 medical staff reported 391 injuries and 249 illnesses among 2780 athletes from 88 NOCs, equalling incidences of 14 injuries and 8.9 illnesses per 100 athletes over an 18-day period of time. Altogether, 12% and 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The percentage of athletes injured was highest in aerial skiing, snowboard slopestyle, snowboard cross, slopestyle skiing, halfpipe skiing, moguls skiing, alpine skiing, and snowboard halfpipe. Thirty-nine per cent of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. Women suffered 50% more illnesses than men. The rate of illness was highest in skeleton, short track, curling, cross-country skiing, figure skating, bobsleigh and aerial skiing. A total of 159 illnesses (64%) affected the respiratory system, and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=145, 58%). Overall, 12% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the games, and 8% an illness, which is similar to prior Olympic Games. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Games have been introduced as a means for studying cross-cultural differences and societies. This paper presents a case study in analogous games played by children in two different countries with two different cultures - Iran and the United States. Four examples are presented to demonstrate that games played by Iranian children are subject to less objectivity in their rules. Therefore, nonobjectivity may be a phenomenon that has roots in the society and the many differences between the two societies may very well be the results of this fundamental difference. If the presence of objectivity in childhood game rules could be, in actuality, indicative of objectivity in social and civil interactions in the everyday lives of the people, the direction of causality remains to be established. In other words, it remains unclear whether the games influence the culture or are influenced by the mandates of the society.
Melero, Javier; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia
Multiple evidences in the Technology-Enhanced Learning domain indicate that Game-Based Learning can lead to positive effects in students' performance and motivation. Educational games can be completely virtual or can combine the use of physical objects or spaces in the real world. However, the potential effectiveness of these approaches…
Hussain, Ijaz; Shoukry, Alaa Mohamd
We consider the problem of multivariate multi-objective allocation where no or limited information is available within the stratum variance. Results show that a game theoretic approach (based on weighted goal programming) can be applied to sample size allocation problems. We use simulation technique to determine payoff matrix and to solve a minimax game. PMID:27936039
Moh. Aries Syufagi
Full Text Available Nowadays, serious games and game technology are poised to transform the way of educating and training students at all levels. However, pedagogical value in games do not help novice students learn, too many memorizing and reduce learning process due to no information of player’s ability. To asses the cognitive level of player ability, we propose a Cognitive Skill Game (CSG. CSG improves this cognitive concept to monitor how players interact with the game. This game employs Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ for optimizing the cognitive skill input classification of the player. CSG is using teacher’s data to obtain the neuron vector of cognitive skill pattern supervise. Three clusters multi objective XE "multi objective" target will be classified as; trial and error, carefully and, expert cognitive skill. In the game play experiments employ 33 respondent players demonstrates that 61% of players have high trial and error, 21% have high carefully, and 18% have high expert cognitive skill. CSG may provide information to game engine when a player needs help or when wanting a formidable challenge. The game engine will provide the appropriate tasks according to players’ ability. CSG will help balance the emotions of players, so players do not get bored and frustrated.
Cameron, Brian; Dwyer, Francis
Online and computer-based instructional gaming is becoming a viable instructional strategy at all levels of education. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of (a) gaming, (b) gaming plus embedded questions, and (c) gaming plus questions plus feedback on delayed retention of different types of educational objectives for students…
Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E
The aim of this study was to quantify the physiological responses, time-motion characteristics, and technical executions associated with a novel non-sport-specific small-sided game (SSG) in young team sport players. On 6 separate occasions, 12 young male team sport athletes (mean ± SD: age, 13.0 ± 0.3 years; height, 157.4 ± 4.9 cm; body mass, 47.0 ± 5.0 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 55.1 ± 4.6 ml·kg·min) completed various "bucketball" SSG formats (i.e., 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4, and 6 vs. 6) twice each. Heart rate (HR) was measured during each SSG at 5-second intervals. Time-motion characteristics were measured using global positioning systems. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded immediately after the SSGs using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Technical skill executions were measured using a high-speed digital video camera. Analysis revealed a tendency for the 3 vs. 3 games to elicit higher HRs (88.3 ± 4.3) than either 4 vs. 4 (85.9 ± 4.9) or 6 vs. 6 formats (85.9 ± 3.2). Total distance traveled at 13-17.9 km·h was more during 6 vs. 6 than 3 vs. 3 games (very likely substantial true difference, 97%), and total possessions and number of catches, passes, and shots were all higher in 3 vs. 3 compared with 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 games. There was no difference in RPE between the game formats. The results of this study indicate that 3 vs. 3 non-sport-specific SSGs provide higher stimulus for aerobic fitness adaptation and technical improvement than 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 formats, and their use for training young team sport athletes is recommended.
Parrott, Scott D.; Mehlhorn, Joey; Davidson, Kelly
Online simulation and training games were used in two undergraduate courses in agribusiness to help improve student understanding and course objectives. Students responded positively to the teaching activities. The activities also extended the out of class learning environment.
Aughey, Robert J; Falloon, Cameron
Real-time (RT) GPS is used to monitor performance during Australian Football matches. Typically athlete targets monitored in RT are set from post-game (PG) data. The validity of RT compared to PG data is not yet known. This study compared RT data for key parameters to those obtained PG, using MinimaxX GPS. RT was different to PG for jog 4.2-5.0, run 5.0-6.9, sprint 6.9-10.0 m s(-1), and total distance (CV=6.4-19.6%). The signal to noise ratio was low for jog and run distance. For sprint noise exceeded the signal, with the opposite true for total distance. Caution must be applied if using RT data to monitor performance, especially if targets are set for players using PG data. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stanula, Arkadiusz; Roczniok, Robert; Gabryś, Tomasz; Szmatlan-Gabryś, Urszula; Maszczyk, Adam; Pietraszewski, Przemysław
This study characterizes the athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in terms of body height, body mass and BMI. The studied sample consisted of athletes in the top 20 places of each of 14 sports disciplines (1460 cases). Data on the athletes' age, height, body mass, and sports specialization were obtained from the Olympic Games' official website and from the International Ski Federation. The sampled athletes were grouped according to the predominant type of energy metabolism during competition. The anaerobic-glycolytic disciplines, such as cross-country sprint, figure skating, short track, and speed skating (500, 1000 and 1500 m), were found to have the youngest female athletes: 25.0 yr. (SD = 4.7). In the endurance sports (aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic), the female athletes were the oldest, being respectively 28.6 yr. (SD = 4.9) and 28.1 yr. (SD = 4.5) old. In the speed disciplines (anaerobic-alactic), the female athletes were the tallest (M = 172 cm; SD = 8.3). The male athletes in the anaerobic-alactic sports were the tallest (M = 181.8 cm, SD = 6.7) and those in the anaerobic-glycolytic sports were the shortest (M = 179.2 cm, SD = 6.7). The large differences in body mass among the groups of athletes, which appear to be related to the predominant type of metabolism during competition, show that this parameter is partly correlated with the level of sports competence, but only in disciplines where the athletes need larger muscle mass. The largest average values of BMI were found for males and females in the anaerobic-alactic group.
Owoeye Oluwatoyosi BA
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009. It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4% followed by ligament sprains (22.9%. The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment
Hoffmann, James J; Reed, Jacob P; Leiting, Keith; Chiang, Chieh-Ying; Stone, Michael H
Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.
Zhou, Guangwei; Brodsky, Jacob R
To conduct objective assessment of children with balance and vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions and identify the underlying deficits by analyzing laboratory test outcomes. Case series with chart review. Pediatric tertiary care facility. Medical records were reviewed of 42 pediatric patients with balance and/or vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions who underwent comprehensive laboratory testing on their balance and vestibular function. Patients' characteristics were summarized and results analyzed. More than 90% of the children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion had at least 1 abnormal finding from the comprehensive balance and vestibular evaluation. The most frequent deficit was found in dynamic visual acuity test, followed by Sensory Organization Test and rotational test. Patient's balance problem associated with concussion seemed to be primarily instigated by vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, semicircular canal dysfunction was involved more often than dysfunction of otolith organs. Yet, sports-related concussion. Vestibular impairment is common among children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion. Our study demonstrated that proper and thorough evaluation is imperative to identify these underlying deficits and laboratory tests were helpful in the diagnosis and recommendation of following rehabilitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Full Text Available Background As a conscious activity of an individual, physical activity (PA constitutes an element of the free-time dimension. The type of goal allows us to distinguish between sport and PA: sport performance vs. psychophysical health. Drawing on the theory of the motivational function of an objective, this study examined the motivational function of an objective in physical activity and sport. Participants and procedures The sample consisted of 2141 individuals: 1163 women aged 16-64 years (M = 23.90, SD = 8.30 and 978 men aged 16-66 years (M = 24.50, SD = 9.40 who completed the Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives (IPAO, which includes the following scales: 1 motivational value, 2 time management, 3 persistence in action, and 4 motivational conflict. There are also questions that allow one to control for variables such as the variety of forms, duration, and frequency of PA, and socio-demographic variables. Results Males presented different motives of physical activity than females. Motives related to shapely body and health were more important for females. The most important motives for males were physical fitness and shapely body. The gender of participants moderates the motivational value of the specific objectives of physical activity and persistence in action. Conclusions With knowledge about the purposefulness of actions, it is possible to support and shape additional motivation experienced by an individual, by setting new, realistic objectives.
Full Text Available The Pareto-Nash equilibrium set (PNES is described as intersection of graphs of efficient response mappings. The problem of PNES computing in finite multi-objective mixed-strategy games (Pareto-Nash games is considered. A method for PNES computing is studied. Mathematics Subject Classification 2010: 91A05, 91A06, 91A10, 91A43, 91A44.
Thevis, Mario; Hemmersbach, Peter; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm
Activities concerning the fight against doping with regard to the Paralympic Games have been initiated in 1984, when first doping controls were conducted. The foundation of the International Paralympic Committee exactly 20 years ago (1989) considerably supported systematic sports drug-testing programs specifically designed to meet the particular challenges related to disabled sports, which yielded a variety of adverse analytical findings (e.g., with anabolic steroids, diuretics, corticosteroids, and stimulants) especially at Paralympic Summer Games. In Germany, doping controls for handicapped athletes were established in 1992 and have been conducted since by the National Paralympic Committee Germany and the National Anti-Doping Agency. Also here, various analogies in terms of antidoping rule violations were found in comparison to doping controls of nondisabled athletes. In the present article, available numbers of samples analyzed at Paralympic Summer and Winter Games as well as within the doping control program for disabled sports in Germany are summarized, and particularities concerning sample collection and the doping method termed boosting are presented.
Poltavski, Dmitri; Biberdorf, David
Abstract In the growing field of sports vision little is still known about unique attributes of visual processing in ice hockey and what role visual processing plays in the overall athlete's performance. In the present study we evaluated whether visual, perceptual and cognitive/motor variables collected using the Nike SPARQ Sensory Training Station have significant relevance to the real game statistics of 38 Division I collegiate male and female hockey players. The results demonstrated that 69% of variance in the goals made by forwards in 2011-2013 could be predicted by their faster reaction time to a visual stimulus, better visual memory, better visual discrimination and a faster ability to shift focus between near and far objects. Approximately 33% of variance in game points was significantly related to better discrimination among competing visual stimuli. In addition, reaction time to a visual stimulus as well as stereoptic quickness significantly accounted for 24% of variance in the mean duration of the player's penalty time. This is one of the first studies to show that some of the visual skills that state-of-the-art generalised sports vision programmes are purported to target may indeed be important for hockey players' actual performance on the ice.
Raphael Bastos de Almeida
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate to what extent does a Fantasy Sports Game (FSG brand community’s members Identification and Engagement influence their Membership Continuance Intention as well as their perception of the brand equity of the FSG’s sponsor. The Consumer Culture Theory – CCT CITATION Arn05 \\l 1046 (Arnould & Thompson, 2005 was used as the theoretical framework for this study, more specifically situated in the brand community group of CCT studies. The ‘Social Influence of Brand Communities’ model CITATION Alg05 \\l 1046 (Algesheimer, Dholakia, & Herrmann, 2005 was used as the basis for the development of the conceptual model of this study, which focused on the players of Cartola FC, the most important Brazilian football (soccer FSG. A non-probabilistic judgment sample was collected through a web survey focusing on the Cartola FC’s official Facebook fan page members resulting in 3,710 valid responses. The constructs’ reliability, as well as their convergent, discriminant and nomological validities were assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to test the substantive hypotheses of this study. Five of the six substantive hypotheses were empirically supported. The results suggest that the sponsor’s consumer based brand equity is positively influenced by the brand communities members engagement and membership continuance intention.
Manuel Hernández Vázquez
kingdoms, being made notice in customs like the game. In addition, it is necessary to review that the rnoriscas populations based in the geographic spaces conquered by the Christian kingdoms, during long lime, maintained their customs, diversions and games, reason why the study of the sport game in Muslim Spain cannot be fitted exclusively only to the time of Muslim dominion, but that it has to include the different historical times, where the hispanomusulmana population maintained its cultural characteristics and therefore its influence in diverse aspects of the culture and the daily life, That includes a long period of time that goes at least, from century VIII to XVII (1609, date of the expulsion of the moriscos.
Deelen, Ineke; Jansen, Marijke; Dogterom, Nico J.; Kamphuis, Carlijn B.M.; Ettema, Dick
Background: The number of sports facilities, sports clubs, or city parks in a residential neighbourhood may affect the likelihood that people participate in sports and their preferences for a certain sports location. This study aimed to assess whether objective physical and socio-spatial
Reed, K E; Parry, D A; Sandercock, G R H
Few studies have investigated whether relative age effects (RAEs) exist in school sport. None have sought to test the competing maturational and social-agent hypotheses proposed to explain the RAE. We aimed to determine the presence of RAEs in multiple school sports and examine the contribution of maturational and social factors in commonplace school sports. We analyzed birth dates of n=10645 competitors (11-18 years) in the 2013 London Youth Games annual inter-school multisport competition and calculated odds ratio (OR) for students competing based on their yearly birth quarter (Q1-Q4). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relative contribution of constituent year (Grade) and relative age in netball and football which used multiyear age groupings. In girls, RAEs were present in the team sports including hockey, netball, rugby union, cricket and volleyball but not football. In boys, RAEs were stronger in common team sports (football, basketball cricket) as well as athletics and rowing. In netball and football teams with players from two constituent years, birth quarter better-predicted selection than did constituent year. Relatively older players (Q1) from lower constituent years were overrepresented compared with players from Q3 and Q4 of the upper constituent years. RAEs are present in the many sports commonplace in English schools. Selection of relatively older players ahead of chronologically older students born later in the selection year suggests social agents contribute to RAEs in school sports. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The main objective of the study is to determine the economic impacts of XVII. Mediterranean Games‟ which hosted in Mersin in 2013. Local residents in Mersin are surveyed to determine the economic impacts of the Games. In the summer of 2013 a total of 32 branches in the Mediterranean Games in Mersin, Mega Event Impact Scale whi ch developed Jie and Yan (2010 is used to collect data. In study, with local residents‟ in Mersin perceptions of economic aspects (Economic Benefits and Economic Costs of XVII. Mediterranean Games between their individual characteristics status of differ ences are studied. Inside the identified universe as the local residents in Mersin selected with the simple random sampling method are surveyed (44,9 % of 203 women (55,1 % and 249 men total of 452 residents. The t test and one - way analysis of variance ( ANOVA is used to determine local residents‟ between individual characteristics with perceptions of mega event impact scale‟s economic benefits and economic costs aspects. According to the analysis results, there are not any statistically significant diffe rences with perceptions of aspects of organizations‟ economic benefits between local residents‟ gender and age status, occupation (F=5.352; p0.05. As a result, officers and students in Mersin think more positive than other professional groups about organization; the people who have between 2001 - 3000 TL income level detects more positive organizations‟ economic benefits aspect than the people who have between 1001 - 2000 TL income level and local residents‟ economic benefits aspect detects more positive when decreases years of accommodation in Mersin.
Lins, Isis Didier; Rêgo, Leandro Chaves; Moura, Márcio das Chagas
This work analyzes the strategic interaction between a defender and an intelligent attacker by means of a game and reliability framework involving a multi-objective approach and imperfect information so as to support decision-makers in choosing efficiently designed security systems. A multi-objective genetic algorithm is used to determine the optimal security system's configurations representing the tradeoff between the probability of a successful defense and the acquisition and operational costs. Games with imperfect information are considered, in which the attacker has limited knowledge about the actual security system. The types of security alternatives are readily observable, but the number of redundancies actually implemented in each security subsystem is not known. The proposed methodology is applied to an illustrative example considering power transmission lines in the Northeast of Brazil, which are often targets for attackers who aims at selling the aluminum conductors. The empirical results show that the framework succeeds in handling this sort of strategic interaction. -- Highlights: ► Security components must have feasible costs and must be reliable. ► The optimal design of security systems considers a multi-objective approach. ► Games of imperfect information enable the choice of non-dominated configurations. ► MOGA, reliability and games support the entire defender's decision process. ► The selection of effective security systems may discourage attacker's actions
The research for basketball has been focused upon the color effect on the team shirts by means of sports and colors. University basketball club members and university students (who did not belong to the university basketball club members) participated in this study. Colors of team shirts were analyzed by A.H. Munsell's method (Hue, Value, Chroma). To each of four games were given four different color conditions: The first is on condition that players of both teams wore different five-colored team shirts (white, red, blue, green, orange).The second is on condition that all players of both teams wore white team shirts. The third is on condition that all players of the one team wore red team shirts and the others wore orange. The fourth is on condition that all players of the one team wore blue team shirts and the others wore green. The questionnaire, the number of shots, and passes were analyzed of statistics (x2 :1 X m contingency table) on the above mentioned conditions. The results were as follows: (1) The number of successful shots that university basketball club members made were higher than university students. (2) The number of unsuccessful passes that university students made were higher than university basketball club members. (3) Analyzed by statistics (x2:1 X contingency table), the apparent distinction of the color effect was not found. These results could be due to players requirements of momentary judgement such as their recognition of the other players face or voice. This seems to depend upon different factors of the subject himself on a physical strength level as well as on a technical level.
Sport is an increasingly important area of society both inside and outside of the school environment although this has not always been the case. Greater interest in sports policy is also emerging at both a European and International level with the prospective of a "Rights" based approach developing. The safety of those playing sport is…
Game Sense is an exciting and innovative approach to coaching and physical education that places the "game" at the heart of the session. It encourages the player to develop skills in a realistic context, to become more tactically aware, to make better decisions and to have more fun. "Game Sense" is a comprehensive,…
This study focuses on the development of a multi-objective game-theory model (MOGM) for balancing economic and environmental concerns in reservoir watershed management and for assistance in decision. Game theory is used as an alternative tool for analyzing strategic interaction between economic development (land use and development) and environmental protection (water-quality protection and eutrophication control). Geographic information system is used to concisely illustrate and calculate the areas of various land use types. The MOGM methodology is illustrated in a case study of multi-objective watershed management in the Tseng-Wen reservoir, Taiwan. The innovation and advantages of MOGM can be seen in the results, which balance economic and environmental concerns in watershed management and which can be interpreted easily by decision makers. For comparison, the decision-making process using conventional multi-objective method to produce many alternatives was found to be more difficult. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deelen, Ineke; Jansen, Marijke; Dogterom, Nico J; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Ettema, Dick
The number of sports facilities, sports clubs, or city parks in a residential neighbourhood may affect the likelihood that people participate in sports and their preferences for a certain sports location. This study aimed to assess whether objective physical and socio-spatial neighbourhood characteristics relate to sports participation and preferences for sports locations. Data from Dutch adults (N = 1201) on sports participation, their most-used sports location, and socio-demographic characteristics were collected using an online survey. Objective land-use data and the number of sports facilities were gathered for each participant using a 2000-m buffer around their home locations, whereas socio-spatial neighbourhood characteristics (i.e., density, socio-economic status, and safety) were determined at the neighbourhood level. A discrete choice-modelling framework (multinomial probit model) was used to model the associations between neighbourhood characteristics and sports participation and location. Higher proportions of green space, blue space, and the number of sports facilities were positively associated with sports participation in public space, at sports clubs, and at other sports facilities. Higher degrees of urbanization were negatively associated with sports participation at public spaces, sports clubs, and other sports facilities. Those with more green space, blue space or sports facilities in their residential neighbourhood were more likely to participate in sports, but these factors did not affect their preference for a certain sports location. Longitudinal study designs are necessary to assess causality: do active people choose to live in sports-facilitating neighbourhoods, or do neighbourhood characteristics affect sports participation?
Gudde, Harmen B; Griffiths, Debra; Coventry, Kenny R
The memory game paradigm is a behavioral procedure to explore the relationship between language, spatial memory, and object knowledge. Using two different versions of the paradigm, spatial language use and memory for object location are tested under different, experimentally manipulated conditions. This allows us to tease apart proposed models explaining the influence of object knowledge on spatial language (e.g., spatial demonstratives), and spatial memory, as well as understanding the parameters that affect demonstrative choice and spatial memory more broadly. Key to the development of the method was the need to collect data on language use (e.g., spatial demonstratives: "this/that") and spatial memory data under strictly controlled conditions, while retaining a degree of ecological validity. The language version (section 3.1) of the memory game tests how conditions affect language use. Participants refer verbally to objects placed at different locations (e.g., using spatial demonstratives: "this/that red circle"). Different parameters can be experimentally manipulated: the distance from the participant, the position of a conspecific, and for example whether the participant owns, knows, or sees the object while referring to it. The same parameters can be manipulated in the memory version of the memory game (section 3.2). This version tests the effects of the different conditions on object-location memory. Following object placement, participants get 10 seconds to memorize the object's location. After the object and location cues are removed, participants verbally direct the experimenter to move a stick to indicate where the object was. The difference between the memorized and the actual location shows the direction and strength of the memory error, allowing comparisons between the influences of the respective parameters.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the potential understanding of the concept of BUSINESS in terms of the concepts of GAME and SPORT with the examples of Business English idioms (idiomatic expressions. Namely, in the light of the cognitive linguistics, meaning is considered to be not only a linguistic phenomenon, but a conceptual phenomenon as well. Such vantage point enables a lexico-semantic interpretation of linguistic units from a conceptual perspective, which includes the forming of correspondences between two concepts, with one concept being understood in terms of the other. The analysis includes 24 Business English idioms which stem from the conceptual domain of GAME/SPORT and is aimed at establishing the conceptual mapping (primarily via a cognitive mechanism known as the conceptual metaphor between the above stated source and the target domains, which prove a potential understanding of the concept of BUSINESS on the basis of the concepts of SPORT and GAME.
In ancient times games played an integral role in society. Whilst in today’s hyperlinked world, games have evolved into complex, sophisticated mechanisms that enthral millions. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/the-school-of-games/
Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.
With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…
Full Text Available Upon the results of research it is possible to conclude that high level of influence of basic motor abilities and conotive criterion for successive results of sports games. Dominative predictions of values had conatice characteristic (A1,L17 and one test for judgment of explosiveness of lower extremities. For above mentioned results of this research, first of all, main values of defining hypothesis for further research, as well as promotion of education-teaching process of sports games in high schools.
Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Munir, Fehmidah
Background A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. Methods A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n?=?28 participants) or control (n?=?20 participants) grou...
Using qualitative research methods involving observations and interviews with four students, their families and friends, this paper examines six ways that student involvement in sports promoted student success: structuring schedules, creating incentives, building confidence, developing positive adult and peer role models, and its role in getting students to develop future aspirations. It then turns to consider how students use their involvement with sports to negotiate the challenges they faced in adopting a successful student identity. Participation in school sports became a powerful justification for successful school performance for the participating students in this study. Finally, this paper ends with several policy implications for considering sports programming in urban schools.
Patience, Marcia A.; Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Sun, Haichun; Flory, Sara B.; Watterson, Thomas A.
Background: Research suggests participation in sports is an important contributor to overall adolescent physical activity (PA). Sports play has become increasingly important in physical education (PE) classes as a means for promoting healthful and enjoyable PA. Research is needed that investigates physiological and perceptual responses to sport…
Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.; O'Donovan, Toni
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher's peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches' instruction, and the students' gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Method: Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion…
Objectives. Research examining the phenomenon of home advantage in international multi-sport competitions is limited to the Olympic Games. This paper investigates the prevalence of home advantage in the Commonwealth Games. The paper also explores the relative impact of travel on performance in the ...
Full Text Available Words and concepts may change in time, and this has certainly been the case with the term handicap. From the establishment of modern sports in the middle of the 19th century and up until the middle of the 20th century, handicap had an entirely different meaning within sports. Thus, handicap was understood as a disadvantage imposed on talented contestants to make the competition more equal in sports. Later the term handicap became much closer related to the concepts invalid and crippled than to concept originally employed within sports, With the gradual introduction of the welfare state measures to the political agenda the politicians in Denmark also started to take an interest in invalids and cripples and in 1925 the National Association of the Crippled and Maimed was founded. By the end of the 20 century the term crippled was seen by many as outdated and in 1988 the name was changed to the Danish Association for the Disabled (Dansk Handicap Forbund and already in 1971 this organization helped to found The Danish Disabled Sports Association (Dansk Handicap Idræts-Forbund. The article tells the story of how the concept of handicap, which originally was an aim to provide equal opportunities, today has become a synonym for disability, while in the Paralympics and competitive disability sports, the original sports term handicap has been replaced by classification.
Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...
Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.
The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…
This transdiciplinary work, at the intersection of motor praxeology, the sociology of sports and game studies, seeks to understand the phenomenon of “electronic sport” (Wagner, 2006; Taylor, 2012), using the fighting game Mortal Kombat X as its primary focus. The first chapter of this dissertation examines the competitive video gaming practice under four objective and operational criteria commonly used to define a sport: the physicality, the organization of competitions, the regulatory system...
Sports offer so many benefits to kids, from fun and fitness to responsibility and teamwork skills. With sports also come bumps and bruises--and one type of injury requires much more than an ice pack or a band-aid. Head trauma is one of the most common injuries sustained by young athletes, with more than 60,000 concussions occurring each year in…
Full Text Available Sports related ocular injury is one of the most important reasons of morbidity, blindness and labor loss. Especially children and those who play paintball, basketball and ice hockey are at high risk. Sports can be classified as high risk group, moderate risk group and low risk group according to the risk of these injuries. The extent of the trauma to the eye depends on the shape, velocity and rigidity of the trauma object. Physician can have an opinion about the severity of the trauma by having a carefully taken anamnesis and physical examination. In this manner, sports physicians should do the first aid procedures to the injury and should know in which cases decide not to continue the game. The most important feature of sports-related ocular injury is 90% of these injuries can be preventable in nature. Protective eyeglasses usage and taking simple precautions substantially protects player from serious ocular injuries.
"Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…
Original games, like traditional games, can be an integral part of the total games curriculum for children and are a continuation of the progression in skill development and conception of the rules governing formally organized sports. (JD)
Shimatani, Naotaka; Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Nakamura, Yuuki; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Yamagishi, Takuya; Matsui, Tamano; Kawano, Masashi; Watase, Hirotoshi; Morikawa, Yukiko; Oishi, Kazunori
Enhanced surveillance was conducted during the Sports Festival in Tokyo 2013 (September 28-October 14, 2013) for early detection of outbreaks of infectious diseases and other health emergencies. Through this enhanced surveillance, 15 cases were found that required additional gathering of information outside the routine process of creating/evaluating the Daily Report. However, none of these was assessed as critical. Through the enhanced surveillance, we structured a framework that allows for earlier response when detecting aberrations. It includes the role of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in communications and contacts with relevant parties such as public health centers, as well as in monitoring of surveillance data. However, some issues need to be further considered toward the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games, such as establishing the criteria for additional response steps, increasing the number of participating bodies in syndromic surveillance, and strengthening of cooperation with related departments, including those for crisis management assuming potential biological/chemical terrorism.
Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.
Jorge Cuadrado Reyes
Full Text Available Abstract This research developed a logarithms for calculating the maximum heart rate (max. HR for players in team sports in game situations. The sample was made of thirteen players (aged 24 ± 3 to a Division Two Handball team. HR was initially measured by Course Navette test. Later, twenty one training sessions were conducted in which HR and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE, were continuously monitored, in each task. A lineal regression analysis was done to help find a max. HR prediction equation from the max. HR of the three highest intensity sessions. Results from this equation correlate significantly with data obtained in the Course Navette test and with those obtained by other indirect methods. The conclusion of this research is that this equation provides a very useful and easy way to measure the max. HR in real game situations, avoiding non-specific analytical tests and, therefore laboratory testing.. Key words: workout control, functional evaluation, prediction equation.
Li, Ting; Ma, Junhai
This paper considers dual-channel game model with bounded rationality, using the theory of bifurcations of dynamical system. The business objectives of retailers are assumed to be different, which is closer to reality than previous studies. We study the local stable region of Nash equilibrium point and find that business objectives can expand the stable region and play an important role in price strategy. One interesting finding is that a fiercer competition tends to stabilize the Nash equilibrium. Simulation shows the complex behavior of two dimensional dynamic system, we find period doubling bifurcation and chaos phenomenon. We measure performances of the model in different period by using the index of average profit. The results show that unstable behavior in economic system is often an unfavorable outcome. So this paper discusses the application of adaptive adjustment mechanism when the model exhibits chaotic behavior and then allows the retailers to eliminate the negative effects.
Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall
Background Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. Aim To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Methods The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Results Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. Conclusions The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. PMID:25425714
O'connor, Justen; Alfrey, Laura; Payne, Phillip
Acknowledging the performative sporting discourses which continue to dominate physical education, and the emerging focus on disease prevention within this context, this paper presents a socio-ecological framework for physical education that aims to shift the focus towards more multidimensional understandings of what it means to be "physically…
It documents the history of a previously disadvantaged populationes and/or black peoplees (specifically AmaXhosa of the then Cape Colony in the 19th and the 20th centuries and the Cape Province following the unification of South Africa in 1910) sport (cricket and rugby union) and way of life. The history and the ...
Samalot-Rivera, Amaury; Vidoni, Carla
Social interventions during physical education classes can help students increase their appropriate behaviors and decrease inappropriate ones. Many educators assume that students develop appropriate social skills as a byproduct of participating in physical education and sport. However, the physical education literature shows that appropriate…
Jenny, Seth E.; Manning, R. Douglas; Keiper, Margaret C.; Olrich, Tracy W.
Electronic sports, cybersports, gaming, competitive computer gaming, and virtual sports are all synonyms for the term eSports. Regardless of the term used, eSports is now becoming more accepted as a "sport" and gamers are being identified as "athletes" within society today. eSports has even infiltrated higher education in the…
Fletcher, Alice C.
This volume describes and gives instructions for Native American dances and games as gathered by, and in some cases adapted by, an anthropologist working among native peoples at the beginning of the 20th Century. Part I contains dances and songs. The first is called "The Life of the Corn," a drama in five dances. Also included are three…
Burkhart, S J; Pelly, F E
Although registered sports dietitians commonly assist athletes with training and competition nutrition advice, an emerging area of practice is focused around food provision and nutrition support provided at major competition events. The present study aimed, first, to identify the dietetic skills and scope of practice that dietitians may require to work in this environment as determined by the occasions of service provided by dietitians at a nutrition kiosk located in the dining hall at a major competition event and, second, to investigate athletes' opinion and usage of the nutrition services and the association with their type of sport and previous source of nutrition information. Dietitians based at a nutrition kiosk recorded all enquiries (n = 383) and consultations (n = 60) from 23 September to 14 October 2010. A questionnaire was also distributed to athletes in the main dining hall over this period to investigate their opinion and use of nutrition support, as well as their previous source of nutrition information. Although athletes from Western regions made up the majority of the enquiries regarding food provision and special/therapeutic dietary requirements (predominately food allergy and intolerance), athletes from non-Western regions, and those in weight category sports, had more sports nutrition enquiries and were more likely to request a consultation. A number of athletes (32%) reported no previous or one source of nutrition information, whereas only eight of 52 athletes who requested a consultation had prior nutrition assistance. In addition to sport nutrition knowledge and experience, dietitians working in this environment are likely to require an understanding of cultural eating styles, food beliefs and customs, large-scale food service operation, and local food availability. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects on the everyday world of actual Augmented Reality games which introduce digital objects in our surroundings from a phenomenological point of view. Augmented Reality is a new technology aiming to merge digital and real objects, and it is becoming
Emerging evidence concerning the nature of expertise in sport shows that, regardless of innate talent, genetic limitations, and hereditary predispositions, elite skill levels cannot be attained without many years of focused, dedicated, and deliberate practice (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesh-Romer, 1993; Starkes, 2000; Starkes, Helson, & Jack, 2001). Through this ‘immersive’ environment players acquire the appropriate perceptual, cognitive, and social skills needed to optimise anticipation a...
Over the last two decades a relatively new sort of board gaming has emerged which you might not have heard about. ‘Hobby’ or ‘modern’ board gaming is sweeping across the world. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/rise-of-the-ancients/
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M; Browne, Matthew
Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline) to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting) would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1) determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2) compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs ( n = 98), race betting ( n = 291) or sports betting ( n = 181) as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months ( n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively), using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M.; Browne, Matthew
Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline) to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting) would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1) determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2) compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs (n = 98), race betting (n = 291) or sports betting (n = 181) as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months (n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively), using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for
Luis Javier Ruiz Cazorla
Full Text Available In the present work we analyzed the social function of the Physical Education and the sport with respect to the elderly people. One is a relation hyped by the social representations that the implied agents own on the old age, the body, the health and the sport, nonfree of stereotypes and prejudices that condition their social practices. It constitutes a social problem and simultaneously a challenge for institutions to eradicate the social practices of exclusion to that they give rise. For it two steps are essential. In the first place to denounce the contents of the social representations on the sport old age and activities physical that favor the social exclusion, especially from the Educative System and mass media. Secondly to promote the average materials and necessary structural conditions for the social change.
The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects on the everyday world of actual Augmented Reality games which introduce digital objects in our surroundings from a phenomenological point of view. Augmented Reality is a new technology aiming to merge digital and real objects, and it is becoming pervasively used thanks to the application for mobile devices Pokémon Go by Niantic. We will study this game and other similar applications to shed light on their possible effects on our lives and on our...
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify and compare body composition (BC variables in elite female athletes (age ± years: volleyball (27.4 ± 4.1, softball (23.6 ± 4.9, basketball (25.9 ± 4.2, soccer (23.2 ± 4.2 and handball (24.0 ± 3.5 players. Fat-free mass (FFM, fat mass, percentage of fat mass (FMP, body cell mass (BCM, extracellular mass (ECM, their ratio, the percentage of BCM in FFM, the phase angle (α, and total body water, with a distinction between extracellular (ECW and intracellular water, were measured using bioimpedance analysis. MANOVA showed significant differences in BC variables for athletes in different sports (F60.256 = 2.93, p 0.05. Significant changes in other BC variables were found in analyses when sport was used as an independent variable. Soccer players exhibited the most distinct BC, differing from players of other sports in 8 out of 10 variables. In contrast, the athletes with the most similar BC were volleyball and basketball players, who did not differ in any of the compared variables. Discriminant analysis revealed two significant functions (p < 0.01. The first discriminant function primarily represented differences based on the FFM proportion (volleyball, basketball vs. softball, soccer. The second discriminant function represented differences based on the ECW proportion (softball vs. soccer. Although all of the members of the studied groups competed at elite professional levels, significant differences in the selected BC variables were found. The results of the present study may serve as normative values for comparison or target values for training purposes.
The goal of GameOn! is to develop a serious video game. The object: to develop a serious game that aims to change behavior through awareness. The setup A multidisciplinary group which unites expertise from didactic and game production backgrounds produces an educational game for an international
Full Text Available Distribution of resources is at the core of politics. Although this activity is primarily economic in nature, the existing research shows that political representatives often use the allocation of public money to reward their allies at the expense of their rivals. This paper analyses a 2015 governmental programme of local sport grants in Slovakia that aimed to build sport facilities for children and young people. In order to avoid any political bias, the programme was established as a neutral mechanism with an anonymous evaluation of grant requests. The results of analysis, however, provide substantial evidence that the subsidies were given primarily to towns with closer political ties to the government while municipalities led by mayors from the opposition were nearly fully ignored. In addition, the presented social and economic aims of the funding programme were not effectively pursued. The paper thus represents a valuable contribution to the discussion of distributive politics, in general, as it shows that, despite the respective legal framework, the allocation of resources may still end up as a process fuelled by partisan interests.
Kim, Jun Won; Park, Doo Byung; Min, Kyung Joon; Na, Churl; Won, Su Kyung; Park, Ga Na
Objective Psychobiological traits may be associated with excessive Internet use. This study assessed the relationships between biogenetic traits, the amount of time spent in online game playing, and the genre of the online game being played. Methods Five hundred sixty five students who enjoyed one of the four types of games included in this study were recruited. The types of games examined included role playing games (RPG), real-time strategy games (RTS), first person shooting games (FPS), and sports games. Behavioral patterns of game play, academic performance, and player biogenetic characteristics were assessed. Results The amount of time that the participants spent playing online games was significantly greater on weekends than on weekdays. On weekends, the types of games with the largest numbers of participants who played games for more than three hours were ranked as follows: RPG and FPS, RTS, and sports games. The Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS)score for the RPG group was the highest among the groups of the four types of game players. The time that participants spent playing games on weekdays was negatively associated with academic performance, especially for the RPG and FPS groups. Compared with the other groups, the RPG and RTS groups had higher novelty seeking (NS) scores and self-directedness (SD) scores, respectively. Additionally, the sports game group had higher reward dependency scores than the other groups. Conclusion These results suggest that RPGs may have specific factors that are attractive to latent game addicts with higher NS scores. Additionally, excessive playing of online games is related to impaired academic performance. PMID:20396428
Ryba, Tatiana V.; Wright, Handel Kashope
This paper explores the implications of a cultural studies as praxis heuristic "model: for transforming sport psychology". It provides a brief introduction to both cultural studies and sport psychology and discusses a cultural studies intersection with sport studies and sport psychology. Cultural studies, it asserts, provides one of several…
Pelly, Fiona; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni; Burkhart, Sarah J; Burke, Louise M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of post-competition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.
Nwulu, Nnamdi I.; Xia, Xiaohua
Highlights: • In this work, a game theory based DR program is integrated into the DEED problem. • Objectives are to minimize fuel and emissions costs and maximize the DR benefit. • Optimal generator output, customer load and customer incentive are determined. • Developed model is tested with two different scenarios. • Model provides superior results than independent optimization of DR or DEED. - Abstract: The dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED) of electric power generation is a multi-objective mathematical optimization problem with two objective functions. The first objective is to minimize all the fuel costs of the generators in the power system, whilst the second objective seeks to minimize the emissions cost. Both objective functions are subject to constraints such as load demand constraint, ramp rate constraint, amongst other constraints. In this work, we integrate a game theory based demand response program into the DEED problem. The game theory based demand response program determines the optimal hourly incentive to be offered to customers who sign up for load curtailment. The game theory model has in built mechanisms to ensure that the incentive offered the customers is greater than the cost of interruption while simultaneously being beneficial to the utility. The combined DEED and game theoretic demand response model presented in this work, minimizes fuel and emissions costs and simultaneously determines the optimal incentive and load curtailment customers have to perform for maximal power system relief. The developed model is tested on two test systems with industrial customers and obtained results indicate the practical benefits of the proposed model
Hammami, Amri; Gabbett, Tim J; Slimani, Maamer; Bouhlel, Ezdine
This paper aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the training effects of small-sided games (SSG) on physical fitness and specific skills related to team sport according to the level of play and the period of the season. The search covered the following electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect). The publications' search period ranged from 2000 to 2016. The terms (small- sided game, training, skill-based game, aerobic fitness, sprint, agility, jump and team sports) were used either singularly or combined in a systematic sequence. Appraisal of 16 articles (15 were meta-analysed) was performed after the application of exclusion criteria and quality assurance processes and the standardized mean effects were measured using random effects. The results revealed that SSG training had a large beneficial effect on maximal oxygen uptake VO2max (effect size 1.94; 95 % CL 0.15, 3.74; I2 = 94 %), agility (-1.49; 95% CL -2.27, -0.71; I2 = 80%), and repeated sprint ability (-1.19; 95% CL - 2.17, -0.21; I2= 53%).There was a moderate beneficial effect on 10- and 20-m sprint performance (-0.89; 95 % CL -1.7, -0.07; I2 =88%), jump height (0.68; 95% CL 0.03, 1.33; I2= 79%), and intermittent endurance (0.61; 95% CL 0.17, 1.05; I2= 0%). The results also showed greater positive effects on specific skills (specific endurance and agility tests and techniques) after SSG when compared with generic or agility training. Small-sided games may represent an effective strategy of multicomponent training that can induce greater positive effects on specific skills tasks when compared with interval or agility training and moderate to large improvements in team sport-related physical fitness.
Zhang, Weishan; Han, Dong; Kunz, Thomas
will affect the performance, executable file size, and how optimization strategies can improve the qualities of mobile game software. In this paper we investigate these questions within the mobile Role-Playing-Game (RPG) domain using five industrial mobile games developed with OO. We re-implemented these five...... RPGs with a structural programming style, by reducing the inheritance relationships, removing excessive classes and interfaces. Some additional optimizations are also applied during the re-implementation, such as the tackling of performance bottleneck methods, using more efficient algorithms. New games...... after optimizations run on average almost 25% faster than the corresponding original games, with a maximum of 34.62% improvement; the memory usage is decreased by more than 10% on average and 17.56% as a maximum; we also achieved a 59% code reduction and a 71% Jar file decrease after optimization...
Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin P; Jordaan, Esme; Runciman, Phoebe; Blauwet, Cheri; Webborn, Nick; Lexell, Jan; Van de Vliet, Peter; Tuakli-Wosornu, Yetsa; Kissick, James; Stomphorst, Jaap
To describe the epidemiology of illness at the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. A total of 3657 athletes from 78 countries, representing 83.5% of all athletes at the Games, were monitored on the web-based injury and illness surveillance system (WEB-IISS) over 51 198 athlete days during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. Illness data were obtained daily from teams with their own medical support through the WEB-IISS electronic data capturing systems. The total number of illnesses was 511, with an illness incidence rate (IR) of 10.0 per 1000 athlete days (12.4%). The highest IRs were reported for wheelchair fencing (14.9), para swimming (12.6) and wheelchair basketball (12.5) (pParalympic Games; (2) the sports with the highest risk were wheelchair fencing, para swimming and wheelchair basketball; (3) female and older athletes (35-75 years) were at increased risk of illness; and (4) the respiratory system, skin and subcutaneous system and digestive system were most affected by illness. These results allow for comparison at future Games. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Duke, Richard D
Als Richard Duke sein Buch ""Gaming: The Future's Language"" 1974 veröffentlichte, war er ein Pionier für die Entwicklung und Anwendung von Planspielen in Politik, Strategieentwicklung und Management. Das Buch wurde zu einem viel zitierten Standardwerk. 2014 feiert die von Richard D. Duke gegründete International Simulation and Gaming Association (ISAGA) ihr 45-jähriges Bestehen. Gleichzeitig legt Richard D. Duke eine überarbeitete Auflage seines Klassikers vor. Inhaltsverzeichnis TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgments Preface SECTION I1. The ProblemSECTION II2. Modes of Human Communication3. Mode
van Bottenburg, Maarten
Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and
Marco Benoit Carbone
Full Text Available Over the last decade, a new narrative has emerged in favour of the medium of the video game. Games are now being described as a series of practices which improve our mental and physical skills (see Johnson, 2005, or the marketing and reception of Nintendo’s 2007 game Wii Fit; they are targeted to a mature audience, and are no more associated with antisocial teenagers (see Prensky, 2006; they are capable of unprecedented aesthetic achievements (see the reception of games like Rockstar Games’ 2011 L.A. Noire; and their consumption allegedly reveals a seemingly never-ending user growth, making them a globalized, pivotal media for the solution of social and political issues on the scale of the whole planet (McGonigal, 2011.
Zebas, Carole J., Ed.; Groppel, Jack L., Ed.
In six articles on racquet sports, the origins of the games are traced, methods for teaching skills such as footwork, racquetball strategy, and badminton techniques are discussed, and the biomechanics of the one- and two-handed backhand in tennis are reviewed. Information about paddle tennis is included. (PP)
Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian; Batterham, Marijka; Boydell, Katherine M; Eckermann, Simon; Fogarty, Andrea; Hurley, Diarmuid; Liddle, Sarah K; Lonsdale, Chris; Miller, Andrew; Noetel, Michael; Okely, Anthony D; Sanders, Taren; Telenta, Joanne; Deane, Frank P
There is a recognised need for targeted community-wide mental health strategies and interventions aimed specifically at prevention and early intervention in promoting mental health. Young males are a high need group who hold particularly negative attitudes towards mental health services, and these views are detrimental for early intervention and help-seeking. Organised sports provide a promising context to deliver community-wide mental health strategies and interventions to adolescent males. The aim of the Ahead of the Game program is to test the effectiveness of a multi-component, community-sport based program targeting prevention, promotion and early intervention for mental health among adolescent males. The Ahead of the Game program will be implemented within a sample drawn from community sporting clubs and evaluated using a sample drawn from a matched control community. Four programs are proposed, including two targeting adolescents, one for parents, and one for sports coaches. One adolescent program aims to increase mental health literacy, intentions to seek and/or provide help for mental health, and to decrease stigmatising attitudes. The second adolescent program aims to increase resilience. The goal of the parent program is to increase parental mental health literacy and confidence to provide help. The coach program is intended to increase coaches' supportive behaviours (e.g., autonomy supportive behaviours), and in turn facilitate high-quality motivation and wellbeing among adolescents. Programs will be complemented by a messaging campaign aimed at adolescents to enhance mental health literacy. The effects of the program on adolescent males' psychological distress and wellbeing will also be explored. Organised sports represent a potentially engaging avenue to promote mental health and prevent the onset of mental health problems among adolescent males. The community-based design, with samples drawn from an intervention and a matched control community
Vishnyakov Nikolay Vladimirovich
Full Text Available The article demonstrates the recreational potential of the major middle-sized rivers of Volgograd region. There are around 200 rivers of different size in this area. They mostly belong to the basins of the Caspian and the Azov seas, to the Precaspian and the Sarpinskiy closed basins. Middle-sized river is a river with a basin of about 2000–50000 km2 within one geographic zone. Middle-sized rivers of Volgograd region are the Akhtuba, the Ilovlya, the Buzuluk, the Tsymla, the Elan, the Medveditsa, the Chir and some others. The author thoroughly analyses the terminological base of the research, the presence of different types of recreation in the studied area, compares morphological and physical characteristics of some middle-sized rivers suitable for tourist-sports recreation. The suitability criteria of the rivers for water trips are also developed in the study. The results of this research can be used at the planning stage of scientific expeditions and water trips or for other recreational purposes.
Green, C. S.; Bavelier, D.
Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects' ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop…
Daniliauskaite, Kristina; Magnusdottir, Agusta; Bjørkå, Henrik Birke
, by relying on visual cues, taking therefore advantage of sensory substitution (no haptic feedback device is actually present). The interdependency between presence and a pseudo-haptic feedback is investigated by building avirtual bowling game. Results indicate that there is a significant correlation between...
Magnusson, Lars V
Game logic and game rules exists in all computer games, but they are created di erently for all game engines. This game engine dependency exists because of how the internal object model is implemented in the engine, as a place where game logic data is intermingled with the data needed by the low- level subsystems. This thesis propose a game object model design, based on existing theory, that removes this dependency and establish a general game logic framework. The thesis the...
Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Los Arcos, Asier; Yanci, Javier
The aim of the present study was to analyse the training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games and determine the relationship between heart rate (HR)-based training load and perceived exertion (RPE)-based training load methods among small-sided games bouts. HR-based measurements of training load included Edwards' training load and Stagno's training impulses (TRIMP MOD ) while RPE-based training load measurements included cardiopulmonary (session RPEres) and muscular (session RPEmus) values. Data were collected from 12 wheelchair basketball players during five consecutive weeks. The total load for the small-sided games sessions was 67.5 ± 6.7 and 55.3 ± 12.5 AU in HR-based training load (Edwards' training load and TRIMP MOD ), while the RPE-based training loads were 99.3 ± 26.9 (session RPEres) and 100.8 ± 31.2 AU (session RPEmus). Bout-to-bout analysis identified greater session RPEmus in the third [P training loads. It is suggested that HR-based and RPE-based training loads provide different information, but these two methods could be complementary because one method could help us to understand the limitations of the other.
Parry, Ingrid; Carbullido, Clarissa; Kawada, Jason; Bagley, Anita; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David; Palmieri, Tina
Commercially available interactive video games are commonly used in rehabilitation to aide in physical recovery from a variety of conditions and injuries, including burns. Most video games were not originally designed for rehabilitation purposes and although some games have shown therapeutic potential in burn rehabilitation, the physical demands of more recently released video games, such as Microsoft Xbox Kinect™ (Kinect) and Sony PlayStation 3 Move™ (PS Move), have not been objectively evaluated. Video game technology is constantly evolving and demonstrating different immersive qualities and interactive demands that may or may not have therapeutic potential for patients recovering from burns. This study analyzed the upper extremity motion demands of Kinect and PS Move using three-dimensional motion analysis to determine their applicability in burn rehabilitation. Thirty normal children played each video game while real-time movement of their upper extremities was measured to determine maximal excursion and amount of elevation time. Maximal shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction and elbow flexion range of motion were significantly greater while playing Kinect than the PS Move (p≤0.01). Elevation time of the arms above 120° was also significantly longer with Kinect (pvideo games show therapeutic potential in burn rehabilitation. Objectively quantifying the physical demands of video games commonly used in rehabilitation aides clinicians in the integration of them into practice and lays the framework for further research on their efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Sport is social and, in martial arts and combat sports, sociology and philosophy, at pair with other sciences, contribute to the theoretical core of sport science studies. Wushu, Wrestling, Taekwondo, Sumo, Sambo, Muaythai, Kickboxing, Kendō, Karate, Judō, Ju-jitsu, Fencing, Boxing and Aikidō are sports integrated in GAISF. A large part of them became institutionalized in Asian countries during end of XIX century and earlier XX century, leaded by Japan with Budō and Sumo. Other ones came f...
Judge, Lawrence W.; Kantzidou, Eleni D.; Bellar, David; Peterson, Jeffrey; Gilreath, Erin; Surber, Karin
One of the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) objectives is to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of adolescents who have become increasingly overweight and inactive. In an effort to accomplish this objective, the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) were created, and the inaugural event was held in the summer of 2010. The…
Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah E; Gallucci, Andrew R
College students experience higher rates of gambling-related problems than most other population segments, including the general population. Although Division I (D1) athletes often have more at stake than the average student if and when they gamble (e.g., the potential to lose their athletic eligibility), relatively few studies have assessed the gambling behavior of this population and none have specifically assessed fantasy sports gambling. We conducted a study to examine gambling behavior (past-year gambling, gambling-related problems, and fantasy sport gambling) among a sample (N = 692) of college students at a private religiously affiliated university in the Southwest US. The sample for our study was unique in that approximately 30 % of the participants were D1 athletes. We compared the gambling behavior among three groups based on the athlete status: D1 athletes, club/intramural/recreational (CIR) athletes, and non-athletes (NAs). Compared to females in our sample, males observed higher rates of past year gambling, fantasy sports participation, fantasy sports gambling, and gambling-related problems. Among males, we found that CIR athletes observed the highest rates of past year gambling and fantasy sports participation and D1 athletes observed higher rates than NAs. We did not find differences in fantasy sport gambling and past year gambling-related problems based on athlete status in males or females.
Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla
Two popular instructional models in middle and high school are the sport education model (SEM) and the tactical games model (TGM). The SEM prepares students to become competent, literate, and enthusiastic sportspersons. The TGM prepares students to be able to play games using a tactical approach. Combining the models to form a sport education…
Sorokowski, Piotr; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Niemczyk, Agnieszka; Marczak, Michalina; Huanca, Tomas; Velasco, Esther C; Sorokowska, Agnieszka
The dictator game (DG) is one of the most popular methods for measuring sharing behaviors. However, the matter of goods used in the game has rarely been examined and discussed. We conducted a study in which all participants played standard version of DG in one of the three versions - "money," "food," or "daily life objects" sharing. Further, we wanted to expand the generalizability of our findings by investigating whether patterns in sharing various goods are independent of culture and the level of market integration. Thus, the study was conducted among people who function daily under the conditions of low market integration (109 Tsimane' - forager-horticulturists from Bolivian Amazon) and in a society highly integrated with the market-based economy (85 Polish people). We observed that among both Polish and Tsimane' people the participants were equally likely to share money, food and small, daily life objects with an unknown partner, which implies that generosity might not be related with the type of possessed resources. However, regardless of the kind of goods given, Tsimane' people were less eager to share with anonymous others than Polish people. We present several implications of our findings for studies on generosity and altruism.
van Hilvoorde, I.M.
Digital technology plays an important role in the everyday lives of people. New types of ‘digital sports’, (sport) gaming, exergaming, cybersport and eSports increase in popularity all over the world and are even challenging the modern and hegemonic concept of sport. Modern games can hardly be
Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Palmer, Debbie; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Lopes, Alexandre Dias; Dvorak, Jiri; Grant, Marie-Elaine; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Salmina, Natalia; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars
To describe the pattern of injuries and illnesses sustained during the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, hosted by Rio de Janeiro from 5 to 21 August 2016. We recorded the daily incidence of athlete injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the Rio 2016 medical staff. In total, 11 274 athletes (5089 women, 45%; 6185 men, 55%) from 207 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and Rio 2016 medical staff reported 1101 injuries and 651 illnesses, equalling 9.8 injuries and 5.4 illnesses per 100 athletes over the 17-day period. Altogether, 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury and 5% at least one illness. The injury incidence was highest in BMX cycling (38% of the athletes injured), boxing (30%), mountain bike cycling (24%), taekwondo (24%), water polo (19%) and rugby (19%), and lowest in canoe slalom, rowing, shooting, archery, swimming, golf and table tennis (0%-3%). Of the 1101 injuries recorded, 40% and 20% were estimated to lead to ≥1 and >7 days of absence from sport, respectively. Women suffered 40% more illnesses than men. Illness was generally less common than injury, with the highest incidence recorded in diving (12%), open-water marathon (12%), sailing (12%), canoe slalom (11%), equestrian (11%) and synchronised swimming (10%). Illnesses were also less severe; 18% were expected to result in time loss. Of the illnesses, 47% affected the respiratory system and 21% the gastrointestinal system. The anticipated problem of infections in the Rio Olympic Games did not materialise, as the proportion of athletes with infectious diseases mirrored that of recent Olympic Games (3%). Overall, 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the Olympic Games, and 5% an illness, which is slightly lower than in the Olympic Summer Games of 2008 and 2012. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All
Chai, Runqi; Savvaris, Al; Tsourdos, Antonios; Chai, Senchun
Highly constrained trajectory optimization for Space Manoeuvre Vehicles (SMV) is a challenging problem. In practice, this problem becomes more difficult when multiple mission requirements are taken into account. Because of the nonlinearity in the dynamic model and even the objectives, it is usually hard for designers to generate a compromised trajectory without violating strict path and box constraints. In this paper, a new multi-objective SMV optimal control model is formulated and parameterized using combined shooting-collocation technique. A modified game theory approach, coupled with an adaptive differential evolution algorithm, is designed in order to generate the pareto front of the multi-objective trajectory optimization problem. In addition, to improve the quality of obtained solutions, a control logic is embedded in the framework of the proposed approach. Several existing multi-objective evolutionary algorithms are studied and compared with the proposed method. Simulation results indicate that without driving the solution out of the feasible region, the proposed method can perform better in terms of convergence ability and convergence speed than its counterparts. Moreover, the quality of the pareto set generated using the proposed method is higher than other multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, which means the newly proposed algorithm is more attractive for solving multi-criteria SMV trajectory planning problem.
Sorokowski, Piotr; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Niemczyk, Agnieszka; Marczak, Michalina; Huanca, Tomas; Velasco, Esther C.; Sorokowska, Agnieszka
The dictator game (DG) is one of the most popular methods for measuring sharing behaviors. However, the matter of goods used in the game has rarely been examined and discussed. We conducted a study in which all participants played standard version of DG in one of the three versions – “money,” “food,” or “daily life objects” sharing. Further, we wanted to expand the generalizability of our findings by investigating whether patterns in sharing various goods are independent of culture and the level of market integration. Thus, the study was conducted among people who function daily under the conditions of low market integration (109 Tsimane’ – forager-horticulturists from Bolivian Amazon) and in a society highly integrated with the market-based economy (85 Polish people). We observed that among both Polish and Tsimane’ people the participants were equally likely to share money, food and small, daily life objects with an unknown partner, which implies that generosity might not be related with the type of possessed resources. However, regardless of the kind of goods given, Tsimane’ people were less eager to share with anonymous others than Polish people. We present several implications of our findings for studies on generosity and altruism. PMID:28446888
Full Text Available Communicology theoreticians, sociologists, and sports experts strive to explain significance of sport, power and influence of media (TV in particular and sports journalism through analysis of media and viewers. Phenomena observed on number of football (soccer and Olympic games through a prism of media research of the Television of Montenegro.
Chiwaridzo, Matthew; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M
Scientific focus on rugby has increased over the recent years, providing evidence of the physical or physiological characteristics and game-specific skills needed in the sport. Identification of tests commonly used to measure these characteristics is important for the development of test batteries, which in turn may be used for talent identification and injury prevention programmes. Although there are a number of tests available in the literature to measure physical or physiological variables and game-specific skills, there is limited information available on the psychometric properties of the tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to systematically review the literature for tests commonly used in rugby to measure physical or physiological characteristics and rugby-specific skills, documenting evidence of reliability and validity of the identified tests. A systematic review will be conducted. Electronic databases such as Scopus, MEDLINE via EBSCOhost and PubMed, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL and Africa-Wide Information via EBSCOhost will be searched for original research articles published in English from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2015, using a pre-defined search strategy. The principal investigator will select potentially relevant articles from titles and abstracts. To minimise bias, full text of titles and abstracts deemed potentially relevant will be retrieved and reviewed by two independent reviewers based on the inclusion criteria. Data extraction will be conducted by the principal investigator and verified by two independent reviewers. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist will be used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Choosing an appropriate test to be included in the screening test battery should be based on sound psychometric properties of the test available. This systematic review will provide an overview of the tests commonly used in rugby union
Full Text Available Purpose: to consider the development of volunteer activity in relation to the Olympic Games. Material & Methods: theoretical scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists on the development of volunteer activities regarding their participation in the Olympic Games are analyzed, considered the main legal documents relating to the Olympic sport. Results: Statistical indicators of participation of volunteers in the Winter and Summer Olympics Games are analyzed and presented. The role and significance of volunteers' activity in the organization and holding of the Olympic Games are revealed. Conclusion: evolution of the volunteer movement, with reference to the Olympic Games, originates from the first games that took place in 1896 in Athens. To date, volunteers are an integral part of the organization and holding of the Olympic Games, their activities help to solve a number of organizational issues, the creation of a corresponding atmosphere and image at a sporting event, largely determine the success of games.
İbrahim Kubilay TÜRKAY
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the intent of making sport of individuals to the sports center. The study of 441 women and 808 men in 2007 - 2013 to the fitness center for a total of 1,250 people participated. The purpose of sports participants, Body Mass Index (BMI, by age and sex were examined. Obtained from the study for the Chi - square test was used for statistical analysis. %66,8 participants of the order to lose weight,%15,7in order to take the weight,%17,5 Tighter to the sports they have been identified. Participants "why sports are you doing?" The answer to the question they differ according to BMI was observed (p <0.01. Those whoare obese%99,5, those who are fat %98,7 exercise in order to lose weight, where as the rate of 0% is seen as weak and emerges with patients with normal %4 2,1. The age of participants in the sport with the aim of making a connection to a statistically significant difference (p <0.01. Again, the purpose of gender of the participants with a statistically significant link between sports (p < 0.01. In a recent study in Turkey of the population above the age of 15 and 16.9% obese, 33% fat was found (are over weight. (TSI, NO: 220 YEAR: 27.11.2011. The World Health Organization (WHO physical activity, "health is not just protection from disease and germs as a whole, the physical, mental and social well - being" is defined as (Ozer, 2006. As a result, a large portion of the participants exercise in order to lose weight was observed. BMI affects the purpose of sports, with increasing age, "to lose weight" sport in creased the proportion of those who have been identified.Our society is increasingly associated with obesity on the importance of sport habits of highly groups of subjects participated in this study, is a beautiful declaratory.
Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M; Bressler, Shannon; Macphee, Fiona L; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Greiner, Andrew R; Coxe, Stefany; Raiker, Joseph S; Coles, Erika; Pelham, William E
The current study examined the relative efficacy of behavioral sports training, medication, and their combination in improving sports competence among youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 73 youth (74% male; 81% Hispanic) between the ages of 5 and 12 diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) ADHD enrolled in a Summer Treatment Program (STP). The study consisted of a 2 (medication: methylphenidate, placebo) × 2 (sports training: instruction and practice, recreational play) between-groups design and was conducted over a 3-week period during the STP. Sports training was conducted with a novel sport, badminton, to limit previous sport knowledge and to differentiate it from concurrent sports training that occurred within the STP. Objective and subjective measures of sports skills, knowledge, and behavior were collected. Results indicated that, relative to recreational play, brief sports training improved observed and counselor-rated measures of sports competence including sports skills, knowledge, game awareness, effort, frustration, and enjoyment. During sports training, medication incrementally improved children's observed rule following behavior and counselor-rated sportsmanship relative to placebo. In the absence of sports training, medication improved behavior, effort, and sport knowledge. Training in sports skills and rules produced the largest magnitude effects on sports-related outcomes. Therefore, skills training, rather than medication alone, should be used in conjunction with behavioral intervention to teach sports to youth with ADHD. It is recommended that medication be used only as an adjunct to highly structured sports skills training for youth who display high rates of negative behavior during sports activities.
This sports e-guide contains the most up-to-date information about the sports events, venues and services that have been prepared to support all NOC team officials during Games time at Lillehammer 2016.
Funk, Jeanne B.
Surveyed 357 seventh and eighth graders about video game play and preference. Found that approximately 64% of boys and 56% of girls played one to two hours of video games per week at home; and that, among five categories of video games, those most preferred by the students were games that involved fantasy violence and sports games. (BC)
The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)
Xiong, Shuo; Iida, Hiroyuki
Game refinement idea is a unique theory that has been proposed based on the uncertainty of game outcome. A game refinement measure was derived from the game information progress model and has been applied in the domains such as board games and sports games. The present challenge is to apply the game refinement theory in the domain of RTS games. To do so, we use StarCraft II as a testbed and introduce a concept of strategy tree in order to construct a game tree of a RTS game. Then, game refine...
Sports are more than fun and games; they also provide work for many people. Sports workers earn wages in leagues across the nation. Organized sports include a variety of individual and team events, which require the efforts of many workers in different occupations. Many people are particularly attracted to the sports occupations that are closest…
A Gaussian mixture clustering model for characterizing football players using the EA Sports' FIFA video game system. [Modelo basado en agrupamiento de mixturas Gaussianas para caracterizar futbolistas utilizando el sistema de videojuegos FIFA de EA Sports].
Full Text Available The generation and availability of football data has increased considerably last decades, mostly due to its popularity and also because of technological advances. Gaussian mixture clustering models represents a novel approach to exploring and analyzing performance data in sports. In this paper, we use principal components analysis in conjunction with a model-based Gaussian clustering method with the purpose of characterizing professional football players. Our model approach is tested using 40 attributes from EA Sports' FIFA video game series system, corresponding to 7705 European players. Clustering results reveal a clear distinction among different performance indicators, representing four different roles in the team. Players were labeled according to these roles and a gradient tree boosting model was used for ranking attributes regarding to its importance. We found that the dribbling skill is the most discriminating variable among the different clustered players’ profiles. Resumen En las últimas décadas se ha visto un incremento considerable en la generación y disponibilidad de datos de fútbol, esto se debe fundamentalmente a la popularidad de este deporte así como a los avances tecnológicos realizados en este campo. Los modelos de agrupamiento basados en mixturas Gaussianas representan un enfoque novedoso para explorar y analizar datos de desempeño deportivo. En el presente trabajo, se lleva a cabo una caracterización de jugadores profesionales de fútbol utilizando técnicas de análisis de componentes principales y agrupamiento basados en mixturas Gaussianas. El modelo presentado es comprobado utilizando datos del sistema de videojuegos FIFA de EA Sports, dichos datos representan 40 atributos correspondientes a 7705 futbolistas europeos. Los resultados del agrupamiento revelan una clara distinción entre algunos indicadores de desempeño, los cuales corresponden a cuatro roles diferentes en el equipo. Consecuentemente, los
Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner
The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... has long been a heated topic and with gene technology waiting around the corner the relationship between sport and technology has become strained and is more and more often viewed as problematic rather than benign. In this chapter we follow up on this trend by exposing what we consider a tendency...
Reed, P. M.; Kasprzyk, J.; Characklis, G.; Kirsch, B.
This study explores the uncertainty and tradeoffs associated with up to six conflicting water supply portfolio planning objectives. A ten-year Monte Carlo simulation model is used to evaluate water supply portfolios blending permanent rights, adaptive options contracts, and spot leases for a single city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Historical records of reservoir mass balance, lease pricing, and demand serve as the source data for the Monte Carlo simulation. Portfolio planning decisions include the initial volume and annual increases of permanent rights, thresholds for an adaptive options contract, and anticipatory decision rules for purchasing leases and exercising options. Our work distinguishes three cases: (1) permanent rights as the sole source of supply, (2) permanent rights and adaptive options, and (3) a combination of permanent rights, adaptive options, and leases. The problems have been formulated such that cases 1 and 2 are sub-spaces of the six objective formulation used for case 3. Our solution sets provide the tradeoff surfaces between portfolios' expected values for cost, cost variability, reliability, frequency of purchasing permanent rights increases, frequency of using leases, and dropped (or unused) transfers of water. The tradeoff surfaces for the three cases show that options and leases have a dramatic impact on the marginal costs associated with improving the efficiency and reliability of urban water supplies. Moreover, our many-objective analysis permits the discovery of a broad range of high quality portfolio strategies. We differentiate the value of adaptive options versus leases by testing a representative subset of optimal portfolios' abilities to effectively address regional increases in demand during drought periods. These results provide insights into the tradeoffs inherent to a more flexible, portfolio-style approach to urban water resources management, an approach that should become increasingly attractive in an environment of
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...
Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M
Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dimou, Stefan; Lagopoulos, Jim
Abstract Sports-related concussion is an issue that has piqued the public's attention of late as concerns surrounding potential long-term sequelae as well as new methods of characterizing the effects of this form of injury continue to develop. For the most part, diagnosis of concussion is based on subjective clinical measures and thus is prone to under-reporting. In the current environment, where conventional imaging modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are unable to elucidate the degree of white matter damage and neurometabolic change, a discussion of two advanced imaging techniques-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-is undertaken with a view to highlighting their potential utility. Our aim is to outline a variety of the approaches to concussion research that have been employed, with special attention given to the clinical considerations and acute complications attributed to concussive injury. DTI and MRS have been at the forefront of research as a result of their noninvasiveness and ease of acquisition, and hence it is thought that the use of these neuroimaging modalities has the potential to aid clinical decision making and management, including guiding return-to-play protocols.
Katiuscia Mello Figuerôa
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to describe the scenery of the Brazilian sport, mainly in the sphere of the high performance sport, in the context of the preparation and organization of the Olympic and Paralympic Games 2016 through the planning, actions and the funding for sport in this period and the appreciation of similar experiences that allow us to point out some paths so that the main proposed objectives are achieved. After covering the indicated scenery, we verified the main proposals and planning for the Brazilian sport in the surrounding context for this study and we outlined some suggestions for achieving the expected improvements to the area, mainly in the high performance sport’s sphere.
Burgess, Darren J; Naughton, Geraldine A
Traditional talent development pathways for adolescents in team sports follow talent identification procedures based on subjective games ratings and isolated athletic assessment. Most talent development models are exclusive rather than inclusive in nature. Subsequently, talent identification may result in discontentment, premature stratification, or dropout from team sports. Understanding the multidimensional differences among the requirements of adolescent and elite adult athletes could provide more realistic goals for potential talented players. Coach education should include adolescent development, and rewards for team success at the adolescent level should reflect the needs of long-term player development. Effective talent development needs to incorporate physical and psychological maturity, the relative age effect, objective measures of game sense, and athletic prowess. The influences of media and culture on the individual, and the competing time demands between various competitions for player training time should be monitored and mediated where appropriate. Despite the complexity, talent development is a worthy investment in professional team sport.
Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...
Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally allocation algorithm athletes in groups to form a tactical tasks in team sports game using methods of multivariate analysis. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Analyzed the results of testing and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : An algorithm for distribution by groups of athletes for the formation of tactical tasks. The algorithm consists of the following steps: 1 - testing of athletes; 2 - A hierarchical cluster analysis performance testing; 3 - Distribution of sportsmen groups, analysis of the characteristics of athletes, the formation of tactical tasks. Found higher rates of reaction rate at the offensive players. We pivot revealed a higher level of absolute strength. The defenders found a higher frequency of movement and jumping. Conclusions : The algorithm is the basis for determining the best options mutual combination players in the development and implementation of tactical combinations, the selection of partners when working in pairs and triples in training.
Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.
Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent
Energy parity games are infinite two-player turn-based games played on weighted graphs. The objective of the game combines a (qualitative) parity condition with the (quantitative) requirement that the sum of the weights (i.e., the level of energy in the game) must remain positive. Beside their own interest in the design and synthesis of resource-constrained omega-regular specifications, energy parity games provide one of the simplest model of games with combined qualitative and quantitative o...
Lake, M J
To reduce the risk of injury associated with foot-ground interaction during sporting activities, there is a need for adequate assessment of the protective function of sports footwear. The present objectives are to review the typical biomechanical approaches used to identify protection offered by sports footwear during dynamic activities and to outline some of the recent methodological approaches aimed at improving this characterization. Attention is focused on biomechanical techniques that have been shown to best differentiate safety features of footwear. It was determined that subject tests would be used in combination with standard mechanical techniques to evaluate footwear protection. Impact attenuation characteristics of footwear during sporting activities were most distinguished by analysis of tibial shock signals in the frequency and joint time-frequency domains. It has been argued that lateral stability and traction properties of footwear are better assessed using game-like manoeuvres of subjects on the actual sporting surface. Furthermore, the ability of such tests to discriminate between shoes has been improved through methods aimed at reducing or accounting for variability in individual execution of dynamic manoeuvres. Advances in tools allowing measurement of dynamic foot function inside the shoe also aid our assessment of shoe protective performance. In combination, these newer approaches should provide more information for the design of safer sports footwear.
Full Text Available ... up with sports drinks or food eaten after exercise. Ditch Dehydration Speaking of dehydration , water is just ... game power as food. When you sweat during exercise, it's easy to become overheated, headachy, and worn ...
Full Text Available ... teen athletes need extra fuel, it's usually a bad idea to diet. Athletes in sports where weight ... your game for the long haul, it's a bad idea to focus on only one type of ...
Full Text Available ... needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may need more protein than less-active ... is just as important to unlocking your game power as food. When you sweat during exercise, it's ...
Full Text Available ... to maintain hydration. Any salt you lose in sweat can usually be made up with sports drinks ... unlocking your game power as food. When you sweat during exercise, it's easy to become overheated, headachy, ...
An authoritative and quantitative approach to modern game theory with applications from diverse areas including economics, political science, military science, and finance. Explores areas which are not covered in current game theory texts, including a thorough examination of zero-sum game.Provides introductory material to game theory, including bargaining, parlour games, sport, networking games and dynamic games.Explores Bargaining models, discussing new result such as resource distributions, buyer-seller instructions and reputation in bargaining models.Theoretical results are presented along
Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff
Recently self-referentiality have occurred as a trend among game designers and have also enjoyed sporadic attention in academia. However, in academia, discussions of self-referential games often rest on proceduralist arguments and a too exclusive focus on the game object. This paper draws...... on the typology of meta-pictures developed by art historian J.W.T. Mitchell. Based on this typology, this paper discusses the notion of meta-games and suggest a broad conception of such games that includes not only the game object, but also the player and the discourse in which it is interpreted....
What could a sport coach or sport teacher within physical education learn from digital game design and the way digital games capture, sustain, and maintain children's attention? Would the physical education learning experience be different if physical educators designed and enacted sport teaching by attempting to accommodate the learning needs and…
Smith, Brian; Sharma, Priya; Hooper, Paula
This paper describes the forms of knowledge used by players of fantasy sports, games where players create ideal sports teams and compete to accumulate points based on professional athletes' statistical performances. Messages from a discussion forum associated with a popular fantasy basketball game were analyzed to understand how players described…
Pavlović Ratko B.
Full Text Available The problem of the use of banned substances (doping in sport has been, is and will be an ongoing problem that undermines the very spirit of sport, beauty and pleasure, and very often the health of athletes. Therefore, it is essential to solve this problem, if possible, permanently, although it is sometimes simply impossible to do. It is this research that is designed to gain a real insight, express attitudes and perceptions of students on the use of doping in sport that is the information on this sports phenomenon of the modern age. The study included a total of 141 high school students (Gymnasium and Touristic technicians from Pale, male, aged 15-19 +/- 0.5 years. The main objective of the study was to test the level of knowledge and identify students' attitudes about the use of prohibited substances in sport. To collect the necessary information has been used an anonymous questionnaire with 13 clearly defined questions (11 closed questions and two open-ended questions that are related to specific knowledge, attitudes about doping in sport. The obtained results are relevant to the global indicator of awareness, knowledge and attitudes of the population of high school students about the problem of today's modern sport which is called doping. As many as 75% of the students the athletics, cycling and sports games marked as sports that are most marked by doping scandals, and 56% were tennis, golf games stated as a sport with the least number of doping scandals.
In 2013 the systematic degradation of Belarusian sports continued, which was most vivid in the mass and most popular kinds of sports – soccer, hockey, track and field athletics, and also in the traditional Olympic disciplines – cycling, boxing, weight-lifting. The national ice hockey team lost the qualification tournament and failed to get to the Olympic Games in Sochi. The football national team took the last place in the qualifying group tournament at the 2014 World Cup. At the World Forum ...
Shamonin Andrey Valentinovich
Full Text Available Increase of sports-technical skill in sports occurs on the basis of last achievements of the theory and physical training and sports practice. Development of football isn't possible without search and introduction in training process of optimum pedagogical models of perfection of physical and technical readiness of football players. Such pedagogical models should be applied, as in groups of initial preparation, so at the subsequent grade levels, including in student's football. Modern training process (pedagogical model, should be under construction on objective indicators of physical, technical and special readiness (so-called feedback. However, the estimation of sports-technical readiness at sports schools on football is reduced only to testing of speed, jumps, juggling, dribbling and a shoot for goal. The same criteria are applied and in student's football. Unfortunately, the given control exercises not in a condition to the full to reflect level of physical and technical readiness of the football player. For more objective estimation of special readiness it is necessary to use the test tasks revealing a level of development of coordination abilities of game structure game and competitive activity (game in football. It will allow trainers to have fuller picture of readiness of the football player, in respect of its professional (football skills. As a result coach have possibility to trace level of a condition of the various parties of sports readiness (physical, technical and coordination student's youth engaged in football at each stage of long-term preparation.
Perry, Susan K.
Presents suggestions for creative game changing that will even the odds for family members of unequal ability who want to play various games and sports together. The special privileges and tips include handicapping, retaking moves, and creating noncompetitive rules. (SM)
The London 2012 Paralympic Games Classification Guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Paralympic Sport Federations (IPSFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the London 2012 Paralympic Games.
In 1948, Sir Ludwig Guttmann organised a sports competition involving World War II veterans with spinal cord injuries in Stoke Mandeville, England. Dr Guttmann worked towards rehabilitating World War II soldiers by involving them in competitive sports. Four years later, competitors from the Netherlands joined the games ...
Tepfer, Amanda T. S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.
The Paralympic Games are the second largest sport event in the world. They occur two weeks after the Olympic Games in the same geographic location and sport venues. Despite the Paralympic Games' longevity, many Americans do not even know they exist. One way to meaningfully share information about this event with people of all ages is to infuse a…
Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu
We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...
Light, Richard L.; Harvey, Stephen
The literature suggests that, despite some challenges in their implementation, player/athlete-centred, inquiry-based approaches to teaching games and coaching team sport can improve game playing ability, increase player/athlete motivation and provide positive affective experiences of learning. A range of these approaches, including Teaching Games…
Thompson, K M; Haninger, K
Children's exposure to violence, alcohol, tobacco and other substances, and sexual messages in the media are a source of public health concern; however, content in video games commonly played by children has not been quantified. To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence, alcohol, tobacco and other substances, and sex in video games rated E (for "Everyone"), analogous to the G rating of films, which suggests suitability for all audiences. We created a database of all existing E-rated video games available for rent or sale in the United States by April 1, 2001, to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors associated with these games. We played and assessed the content of a convenience sample of 55 E-rated video games released for major home video game consoles between 1985 and 2000. Game genre; duration of violence; number of fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; depiction of alcohol, tobacco and other substances; and sexual content. Based on analysis of the 672 current E-rated video games played on home consoles, 77% were in sports, racing, or action genres and 57% did not receive any content descriptors. We found that 35 of the 55 games we played (64%) involved intentional violence for an average of 30.7% of game play (range, 1.5%-91.2%), and we noted significant differences in the amount of violence among game genres. Injuring characters was rewarded or required for advancement in 33 games (60%). The presence of any content descriptor for violence (n = 23 games) was significantly correlated with the presence of intentional violence in the game (at a 5% significance level based on a 2-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum test, t(53) = 2.59). Notably, 14 of 32 games (44%) that did not receive a content descriptor for violence contained acts of violence. Action and shooting games led to the largest numbers of
Sorokowski, Piotr; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Niemczyk, Agnieszka; Marczak, Michalina; Huanca, Tomas; Velasco, Esther C.; Sorokowska, Agnieszka
The dictator game (DG) is one of the most popular methods for measuring sharing behaviors. However, the matter of goods used in the game has rarely been examined and discussed. We conducted a study in which all participants played standard version of DG in one of the three versions – “money,” “food,” or “daily life objects” sharing. Further, we wanted to expand the generalizability of our findings by investigating whether patterns in sharing various goods are independent of culture and the le...
Junge, A; Engebretsen, L; Alonso, J M; Renström, P; Mountjoy, M; Aubry, M; Dvorak, J
The protection of athletes' health by preventing injuries is an important task for international sports federations. Standardised injury surveillance provides not only important epidemiological information, but also directions for injury prevention, and the opportunity for monitoring long-term changes in the frequency and circumstances of injury. Numerous studies have evaluated sports injuries during the season, but few have focused on injuries during major sport events such as World Championships, World Cups or the Olympic Games. To provide an injury surveillance system for multi-sports tournaments, using the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing as an example. A group of experienced researchers reviewed existing injury report systems and developed a scientific sound and concise injury surveillance system for large multi-sport events. The injury report system for multi-sport events is based on an established system for team sports tournaments and has proved feasible for individual sports during the International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2007. The most important principles and advantages of the system are comprehensive definition of injury, injury report by the physician responsible for the athlete, a single-page report of all injuries, and daily report irrespective of whether or not an injury occurred. Implementation of the injury surveillance system, all definitions, the report form, and the analysis of data are described in detail to enable other researchers to implement the injury surveillance system in any sports tournament. The injury surveillance system has been accepted by experienced team physicians and shown to be feasible for single-sport and multi-sport events. It can be modified depending on the specific objectives of a certain sport or research question; however, a standardised use of injury definition, report forms and methodology will ensure the comparability of results.
Akl, Elie A; Kairouz, Victor F; Sackett, Kay M; Erdley, William S; Mustafa, Reem A; Fiander, Michelle; Gabriel, Carolynne; Schünemann, Holger
The use of games as an educational strategy has the potential to improve health professionals' performance (e.g. adherence to standards of care) through improving their knowledge, skills and attitudes. The objective was to assess the effect of educational games on health professionals' performance, knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction, and on patient outcomes. We searched the following databases in January 2012: MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Database of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, EPOC Register, ERIC, Proquest Dissertations & Theses Database, and PsycINFO. Related reviews were sought in DARE and the above named databases. Database searches identified 1546 citations. We also screened the reference lists of included studies in relevant reviews, contacted authors of relevant papers and reviews, and searched ISI Web of Science for papers citing studies included in the review. These search methods identified an additional 62 unique citations for a total of 1608 for this update. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), controlled before and after (CBA) and interrupted time-series analysis (ITS). Study participants were qualified health professionals or in postgraduate training. The intervention was an educational game with "a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules". Using a standardized data form we extracted data on methodological quality, participants, interventions and outcomes of interest that included patient outcomes, professional behavior (process of care outcomes), and professional's knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction. The search strategy identified a total of 2079 unique citations. Out of 84 potentially eligible citations, we included two RCTs. The game evaluated in the first study used as a reinforcement technique, was based on the television game show "Family Feud" and focused on infection control. The study did not assess any patient or process of care outcomes. The
Neto, Joao Pedro
User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.
Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common in depression and may persist following the resolution of affective symptoms. However, therapeutic strategies that successfully target cognitive impairments are lacking. Recent work has demonstrated that playing action video games leads to improvements in cognition, in particular executive function, in healthy individuals. We therefore set out to test whether playing video games can reduce symptoms associated with depression. We focussed on depressive symptoms and on rumination, since rumination is a good predictor of depression and may contribute to triggering depression. We recruited 68 clinically depressed individuals (mean age: 46 years, 47 females that were randomized into the training group playing a fast paced action video game for 6 weeks or a waitlist control group. Before and after training participants completed online questionnaires and a neuropsychological test battery. Only participants who actually played the game were included in the analysis. The final sample consisted of n = 21 training group and n = 29 waitlist control group. The training group showed significantly higher subjective cognitive ability, as well as lower self-reported rumination at posttest in contrast to the control group (although these findings do not survive Bonferroni correction. On a subsample with cognitive performance data (n = 19 we detected an improvement in executive function (Trail Making Task A and B in the training compared with the control group. The results show that the fast paced action video game employed in the present study improved Trail Making performance and may reduce rumination and enhance subjective cognitive ability. Future research may focus on the investigation of the precise cognitive profile of effects.
Kühn, Simone; Berna, Fabrice; Lüdtke, Thies; Gallinat, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen
Cognitive deficits are common in depression and may persist following the resolution of affective symptoms. However, therapeutic strategies that successfully target cognitive impairments are lacking. Recent work has demonstrated that playing action video games leads to improvements in cognition, in particular executive function, in healthy individuals. We therefore set out to test whether playing video games can reduce symptoms associated with depression. We focussed on depressive symptoms and on rumination, since rumination is a good predictor of depression and may contribute to triggering depression. We recruited 68 clinically depressed individuals (mean age: 46 years, 47 females) that were randomized into the training group playing a fast paced action video game for 6 weeks or a waitlist control group. Before and after training participants completed online questionnaires and a neuropsychological test battery. Only participants who actually played the game were included in the analysis. The final sample consisted of n = 21 training group and n = 29 waitlist control group. The training group showed significantly higher subjective cognitive ability, as well as lower self-reported rumination at posttest in contrast to the control group (although these findings do not survive Bonferroni correction). On a subsample with cognitive performance data ( n = 19) we detected an improvement in executive function (Trail Making Task A and B) in the training compared with the control group. The results show that the fast paced action video game employed in the present study improved Trail Making performance and may reduce rumination and enhance subjective cognitive ability. Future research may focus on the investigation of the precise cognitive profile of effects.
Kühn, Simone; Berna, Fabrice; Lüdtke, Thies; Gallinat, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen
Cognitive deficits are common in depression and may persist following the resolution of affective symptoms. However, therapeutic strategies that successfully target cognitive impairments are lacking. Recent work has demonstrated that playing action video games leads to improvements in cognition, in particular executive function, in healthy individuals. We therefore set out to test whether playing video games can reduce symptoms associated with depression. We focussed on depressive symptoms and on rumination, since rumination is a good predictor of depression and may contribute to triggering depression. We recruited 68 clinically depressed individuals (mean age: 46 years, 47 females) that were randomized into the training group playing a fast paced action video game for 6 weeks or a waitlist control group. Before and after training participants completed online questionnaires and a neuropsychological test battery. Only participants who actually played the game were included in the analysis. The final sample consisted of n = 21 training group and n = 29 waitlist control group. The training group showed significantly higher subjective cognitive ability, as well as lower self-reported rumination at posttest in contrast to the control group (although these findings do not survive Bonferroni correction). On a subsample with cognitive performance data (n = 19) we detected an improvement in executive function (Trail Making Task A and B) in the training compared with the control group. The results show that the fast paced action video game employed in the present study improved Trail Making performance and may reduce rumination and enhance subjective cognitive ability. Future research may focus on the investigation of the precise cognitive profile of effects. PMID:29483888
Webborn, Nick; Willick, Stuart; Emery, Carolyn A
The objective of this study was to examine incidence proportion and the characteristics of athlete injuries sustained during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. Descriptive epidemiological study. All medical venues at the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games, Canada. A total of 505 athletes from 44 National Paralympic Committees participating in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. Baseline covariates included sport specificity (ie, ice sledge hockey, alpine skiing, Nordic skiing, wheelchair curling), gender, age, and disability classification. All injuries that occurred during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. "Injury" was defined as any sport-related musculoskeletal complaint that caused the athlete to seek medical attention during the study period, regardless of the athlete's ability to continue with training or competition. The Injury Surveillance System identified a total of 120 injuries among 505 athletes [incidence proportion = 23.8% (95% confidence interval, 20.11-27.7)] participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. There was a similar injury incidence proportion among male (22.8%) and female (26.6%) athletes [incidence rate ratio = 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.7)]. Medical encounters for musculoskeletal complaints were generated in 34% of all sledge hockey athletes, 22% of alpine ski racers, 19% of Nordic skiers, and 18% of wheelchair curling athletes. The Injury Surveillance System identified sport injuries in 24% of all athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. The injury risk was significantly higher than during the 2002 (9.4%) and 2006 (8.4%) Winter Paralympic Games. This may reflect improved data collection systems but also highlights the high risk of acute injury in alpine skiing and ice sledge hockey at Paralympic Games. These data will assist future Organizing Committees with the delivery of medical care to athletes with a disability and guide future injury prevention research.
Evett, Lindsay; Ridley, Allan; Keating, Liz; Merritt, Liz; Merritt, Patrick; Shopland, Nick; Brown, David
Serious games are effective and engaging learning resources for people with disabilities, and guidelines exist to make games accessible to people with disabilities. During research into designing accessible interfaces and games, it was noted that people who are blind often report enjoying playing Wii Sports. These games are pick-upand- play games…
Hartley, Dr Hazel
This international conference was hosted by the National Sport Law Institute (http://law.marquette.edu/jw/nsli) at Marquette University Law School, in conjunction with the 9th International Association of Sports Law Conference (www.iasl.org). It was sponsored by American Appraisal Associates, the law firm of Foley and Lardner and sports facility development organisations College Town LLC and SheerGame Sports Development LLC. The National Sports Law Institute provides a Sports Law Certificate ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID
A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...
Xiong , Shuo; Tiwary , Parth ,; Iida , Hiroyuki
Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; A mathematical model of game refinement was proposed based on uncertainty of game outcome. This model has been shown to be useful in measuring the entertainment element in the domains such as boardgames and sport games. However, game refinement theory has not been able to explain the correlation between the popularity of a game and the game refinement value. This paper introduces another aspect in the study of game entertainment, the concept of “a...
Mahtani, Kamal Ram; Protheroe, Joanne; Slight, Sarah Patricia; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Blakeman, Thomas; Barton, Christopher A; Brijnath, Bianca; Roberts, Nia
Objective To examine if there is an increased participation in physical or sporting activities following an Olympic or Paralympic games. Design Overview of systematic reviews. Methods We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane, DARE, SportDISCUS and Web of Knowledge databases. In addition, we searched for ‘grey literature’ in Google, Google scholar and on the International Olympic Committee websites. We restricted our search to those reviews published in English. We used the AMSTAR tool to assess the methodological quality of those systematic reviews included. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was evidence for an increased participation in physical or sporting activities. Secondary outcomes included public perceptions of sport during and after an Olympic games, barriers to increased sports participation and any other non-sporting health benefits. Results Our systematic search revealed 844 citations, of which only two matched our inclusion criteria. The quality of these two reviews was assessed by three independent reviewers as ‘good’ using the AMSTAR tool for quality appraisal. Both reviews reported little evidence of an increased uptake of sporting activity following an Olympic Games event. Other effects on health, for example, changes in hospital admissions, suicide rates and drug use, were cited although there was insufficient evidence to see an overall effect. Conclusion There is a paucity of evidence to support the notion that hosting an Olympic games leads to an increased participation in physical or sporting activities for host countries. We also found little evidence to suggest other health benefits. We conclude that the true success of these and future games should be evaluated by high-quality, evidence-based studies that have been commissioned before, during and following the completion of the event. Only then can the true success and legacy of the games be established. PMID:23299112
American Games , Olympic Games , and other authorized national and international sports competitions (to include qualifying and preparatory events) as long...concerning the participation of Armed Forces personnel in Armed Forces, national, and international sports competitions ; establishes a Senior Military Sports ...program is to ensure that the U.S. Armed Forces are appropriately represented in national and international sports competitions . 3. The purpose of this
S. Schmidt Zipp (Sarah)
markdownabstractThe field of sport for development and peace (SDP) has flourished in recent decades, with development programmes around the world using sport as a mechanism to support social, economic and health-related development efforts. However, the academic literature on SDP is limited in
Araújo, Rui Manuel Flores; Hastie, Peter Andrew; de Assunção Bessa Pereira, Cristiana Helena; Mesquita, Isabel Maria Ribeiro
Background: One of the essential elements within Sport Education is the inclusion of student roles and responsibilities. While previous research has examined students' performance in officiating tasks, the examination of student-coaches' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) within peer-assisted tasks of Sport Education has been scarce. Indeed, the…
David R. Mottram
Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for
Pablo Martín Prieto
Full Text Available En el presente artículo se pasa revista a algunos de los ejemplos más característicos y significativos de juegos competitivos de actividad física que se celebraban en las ciudades del centro y norte de Italia en tiempos medievales. Se contempla si tales juegos pueden ser considerados como «deportes» en el sentido más general y habitual del término (en su acepción contemporánea, así como se examina su relación con las festividades tradicionales y prácticas de entrenamiento militar ciudadano en el contexto de la vida urbana de la Italia de aquel tiempo. Una breve descripción de algunos de dichos juegos marciales ilustra su importancia social y cultural dentro de este contexto.This study examines some of the most characteristic and significant examples of competitive physical games that took place in the cities of the centre and the north of Italy in the Middle Ages. The article assesses if these games can be considered sport in the general sense of the term (according to modern usage, as well as consider its relationship with traditional festivities and military training activities in the context of urban life in the Italy of that time. A brief description of certain martial games will demonstrate its social and cultural importance in this context.
1999). Multiplayer games are built around the same concept of electronically linking participants and displaying them together in the same...simulations, quests and adventures, sports games , war games , puzzles, educational games , and computer role playing games (Ju & Wagner, 1997). According to...include fun, play, competition , goals, rules, and winning. 3 Gredler (1996) points to three key differences between simulations and games . First
Ulione, M S
Simulation games can be used in nursing education to promote problem solving or to impart information. Most games focus upon one of the two areas: cognitive knowledge or affective knowledge. We call these types of games content games and process games, respectively. Simulation games of both types are used in nursing education. Since simulation gaming in nursing education is a relatively new teaching strategy much of its use has been haphazard. In order for a simulation game to be an effective teaching strategy; there must be a "fit" between the game and the instructional objectives. The game operator should analyze the components of each game used prior to playing the game, so he will be able to use the game appropriately. One disadvantage of gaming is that there is a risk of experiencing untoward reactions in the gaming experience. For this reason, the operator should support all the participants throughout the game. Finally, the game operator should assess the effectiveness of the gaming process through the debriefing session and through research. To extend our knowledge of the effects of simulation games, game operators can research the effect of simulation gaming on student motivation, cognitive learning, and affective learning.
DePauw, Karen P.
Athletes with disabilities are more visible in the 21st century than they used to be, including in the world of sport. Today, one hears about the Paralympic Games, can find media coverage of them, can read about athletes who compete in the Paralympics and about advancements in sport prosthetic devices in science and sport magazines, and can even…
Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; Tøllefsen, T.
Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion. PMID:23616865
Hayes, Elizabeth; Silberman, Lauren
Contrary to common belief, several studies have found no relationship between video gaming and obesity or physical inactivity. In fact, video gaming is an untapped resource for enhancing young people's motivation and ability to participate in sports and other movement-based activities. Many popular video games offer sophisticated and engaging…
When force is applied by an athlete to sports equipment resonances can occur. Just a few examples are: the ringing of a spiked volleyball, the strumming of a golf club shaft during a swing, and multiple modes induced in an aluminum baseball bat when striking a ball. Resonances produce acoustic waves which, if conditions are favorable, can be detected off the playing field. This can provide a means to evaluate athletic performance during game conditions. Results are given from the use of a simple hand-held acoustic detector - by a spectator sitting in the stands - to determine how hard volleyballs were spiked during college and high school games.
Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Tom; Hong, S Lee; Buday, Richard; Thompson, Debbe; Beltran, Alicia; Dadabhoy, Hafza Razak; Chen, Tzu-An
Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influence behaviors. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a narrative would motivate increased AVG play, though a feasibility study that investigated the motivational effect of adding a previously developed narrative cutscene to an originally nonnarrative AVG, Nintendo Wii Sports Resort: Swordplay Showdown. A total of 40 overweight and obese 8- to 11-year-olds equally divided by sex played the AVG. Half (n=20) were randomly assigned to a narrative group that watched the narrative cutscene before game play. The other half played the game without watching it. Children in the narrative group had significantly (Pnarrative induced increased physical activity. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which narrative increases physical activity during AVG game play.
Becker, Jack M; Rogers, James; Rossini, Gregory; Mirchandani, Haresh; D'Alonzo, Gilbert E
Asthma mortality and the mortality of athletes during sports have been described separately in detail in the medical literature. However, asthma has not been reported as a cause of death in competitive athletes. The object of this study was to raise the awareness of physicians, coaches, trainers, and parents that children and adults can have fatal asthma exacerbations during and immediately after participating in sports. The Temple Sports Asthma Research Center identified athletes from 1993 until 2000 who died during or after sporting activity by using the nationwide Burrell's Information Service. Once a possible asthma-related sports death was identified, the autopsy report was requested from the coroner or medical examiner, and an attempt was made to contact the family. Contact with the family was limited to information about the death, medical history, sports involvement, and any medication usage by the person who had died. Secondary sources, including news reports, were used to confirm whether the subject died of asthma during or immediately after a sporting activity. Two hundred sixty-three possible cases were identified. Sixty-one deaths met the criteria for study inclusion. White deaths outnumbered black deaths by 2 to 1. Deaths among male subjects predominated. Most subjects were younger than the age of 20 years, with the most prevalent age group being between 10 to 14 years old. Fifty-one percent (18 of 35) of the competitive athletes had their fatal event while participating in organized sport, 14 in a practice situation and 4 deaths during a game or meet setting. Basketball and track were the 2 most frequent activities performed at the time of the fatal event. The subjects who had fatal asthma exacerbations were usually white male subjects between the ages of 10 and 20 years. Mild intermittent or persistent asthma by history was commonly identified. Sudden fatal asthma exacerbations occur in both competitive and recreational athletes and can be
Les nouvelles frontières des Jeux Anthropologiques de Saint-Louis The new frontiers of the St. Louis Anthropological Games: sport and the racialization of the American nation at the onset of the twentieth century
Full Text Available En 1904, à Saint-Louis, les compétitions olympiques furent perdues dans le chaos d’une exposition universelle, la Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Les Jeux olympiques ne purent échapper à la montée des idéologies racistes du début du xxe siècle et ils contribuèrent à discuter du mérite athlétique des différentes races. Malgré l’esprit universel qu’on voulait y voir présider, Saint-Louis refléta longtemps les préjugés raciaux de leurs organisateurs. Ces derniers mirent aussi sur pied des compétitions spéciales, appelées pour l’occasion « journées anthropologiques », réservées à ceux que l’Amérique ségrégationniste du moment considérait comme des sous-hommes. À partir de ces faits, nous essaierons de montrer comment les sciences du sport et l’anthropologie naissante se mirent ensemble au service de causes aussi discutables que la hiérarchisation raciale et le droit à la colonisation et contribuèrent grandement à la naissance d’une nation américaine mettant le sport au cœur de sa constitution. L’impact des race studies sur les façons de penser le sport ne furent pas, contrairement à ce que s’efforcèrent de faire croire les différents présidents du C.I.O. au cours des décennies suivantes, qu’un simple avatar du mouvement olympique. Enfin, nous verrons l’influence de ce spectacle athlétique interracial en dehors des États-Unis qui a assurément permis d’élaborer une certaine perception de l’altérité et limiter l’insertion des peuples autochtones dans le tissu sportif mondial.In 1904, in St. Louis, the Olympic competitions were lost in the chaos of a World Fair called the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The Olympic Games could not escape the rise in the racist ideologies of the 20th century and they contributed to the discussing of the athletic merit of the different races. In spite of the universal spirit that was expected to prevail, the Games of St. Louis showed the racial
Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn
Paralympic sports have seen an exponential increase in participation since 16 patients took part in the first Stoke Mandeville Games on the opening day of the 1948 London Olympic Games. More than 4,000 athletes took part in the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Few sporting events have seen such rapid evolution. This rapid pace of change also has meant challenges for understanding the injury risks of participation, not only because of the variety of sports, impairment types, the evolution of adapted equipment but also because of the inclusion of additional impairment types and development of new sports over time. Early studies were limited in scope but patterns of injuries are slowly emerging within Winter and Summer Paralympic sports. The IPC's London 2012 study is the largest to date with a prospective cohort study involving 49,910 athlete-days. The results identified large differences across sports and highlighted the need for longitudinal sport specific studies rather than solely games-time studies. This will require collaboration with international sports federations to examine injury patterns and risk factors for injury in this population to appropriately inform injury prevention strategies. Further studies will also need to address the impact of sporting participation, injury, and future health. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... and the ability to understand and recall sports strategies. These children are typically ready to take on ... to determine his or her attitude toward the game. How much does each child play and how ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...
... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...
Corbin, Sandra J.
Board games called Games of Rapport are being developed at the University of Alberta. The first, "Angels and Devils," is designed for play by nursing home residents. Results of a study involving "Angels and Devils" show that board games are useful in communicating rehabilitative objectives and sources of conflict. (Author/BEF)
The visual quality of game worlds increased massively in the last three decades. However, the closer game worlds depict reality, the more noticeable it is for gamers when objects do not behave accordingly. An important problem is that the data of a game world is often scattered across different
Sport tourism is one specific type of travel and tourism. The goal of this article is to introduce the definition and importance of sport tourism to academic and sports professionals. At present, sport tourism is a diverse social, economic and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique interaction of activity, people and place. The second part of this article reports about sports events as an important part of sport tourism.
Brox, E; Fernandez-Luque, L; Tøllefsen, T
There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion.
This investigation is derived from an earlier project that dealt with sport and games in the prisoner-of-war camps during the Anglo-Boer War. Against all expectations, the findings revealed that the "Burghers" in the concentration camps did amuse themselves with a variety of sports and games, like football, track and field ...
Collins, C L; Fields, S K; Comstock, R D
To compare sport and gender differences in injury rates and proportions of injuries related to illegal activity and to describe the epidemiology of injuries related to illegal activity. Descriptive epidemiology study. 100 US high schools. Athletes participating in nine sports: boys' football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, and baseball plus girls' soccer, volleyball, basketball, and softball. Illegal activity-related injuries were analyzed using data from the 2005-06 and 2006-07 National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. Nationally, an estimated 98 066 injuries were directly related to an action that was ruled illegal activity by a referee/official or disciplinary committee, giving an injury rate of 0.24 injuries per 1000 athletic competition-exposures. Boys' and girls' soccer had the highest rates of injuries related to illegal activity, and girls' volleyball, girls' softball, and boys' baseball had the lowest. Overall, 6.4% of all high school sports-related injuries were related to illegal activity, with the highest proportion in girls' basketball (14.0%), girls' soccer (11.9%), and boys' soccer (11.4%). A greater proportion of injuries related to illegal activity were to the head/face (32.3%) and were concussions (25.4%) than injuries not related to illegal activity (13.8% (injury proportion ratio 2.35; 95% CI 1.82 to 3.04; preferees/officials may reduce sports-related injuries.
Full Text Available Change is ubiquitous, but its degree and rate often affords detection of emerging patterns and establishing behavioral dynamics based on expected regularities. Match analysis capitalizes on such regularities, capturing information relevant for enhancing structure and reducing improvisation to a minimum. However, what if a game phase is only loosely regular, defying pattern systematization? Is it still possible to unfold principles of behavior capable of abstracting over-arching patterns? Our research focused on analysis of complex IV (KIV or attack coverage in volleyball. Fourteen matches from the 2013 Volleyball Women’s World Grand Champions Cup were analyzed. Results showed the occurrence of KIV corresponded to fewer than 5% of the total number of actions, and plays where a team successfully conquered a point after attack coverage was circa 1%, meaning this game complex will only make a difference in balanced matches. Overall, twenty-nine attack coverage structures emerged, denoting very high organizational variability. Attack coverage therefore provides an example of principle-based and not structured-based game phase. Associative analysis showed that quick attack tempos constrain the emergence of more complex attack coverage structures. The search for principle-based instead of structure-based game phases may provide useful insights for comprehension of game dynamics and for informing training processes.
Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto
A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem. -- Highlights: → Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process. → The rate of entropy increase, derived from statistical physics of open systems, is identified as the payoff function. → Entropy as the payoff function also clarifies motives of collaboration and subjective nature of decision making. → Evolutionary equation of motion that accounts for the course of a game is inherently unpredictable.
Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the different standpoints and different approaches in regard to the sport performance preparation and achievement prediction. Sports researchers are concerned more directly with learning about scientific sports prediction. Their involvement in the sport sciences focuses on understanding how sports organized and how changes in that organization might influence sports experiences for both athletes and coaches. The goal of these scholars is often to improve sport experiences and performance prediction for current participants and make sport participation more attractive and accessible for those who do not currently play sports, prospective athletes. They also may want to help athletes improve their performance, help coaches work effectively with athletes and win more games. Sports researchers intention is also to assist and help sport organizations grow and operate more efficiently and profitably, and improve sport achievement prediction.
Lee, Jung Woo
On the 50th anniversary of the ISSA and IRSS, an increasingly influential Korean scholar in the sociology of sport, Jung Woo Lee, considers the development of and challenges for the sociology of sport in Korea. While the sociology of sport was first introduced to South Korea in the late 1960s, growing academic interest was fuelled by the Asian Games and Olympic Games in Seoul in the 1980s. Key volumes, such as Lim’s introduction to the field and an influential edited volume on sport and socia...
Soccer, or football as it is called in the rest of the world, is the most popular and fastest-growing global sport, with an estimated 240 million people regularly playing what Brazilian star Pele called "the beautiful game." Millions, worldwide, watch it on television. In 2006, the average viewership for each match of the month-long World Cup was…
In recent years, there has been some dispute over the appropriate way to model decision making in professional sports leagues. In particular, Szymanski and Kesenne (2004) argue that formulating the decision-making problem in a noncooperative game leads to radically different conclusions about the nature of competition in sports leagues. The author…
This paper begins with a discussion of terminology and of the distinctions between bodybuilding, powerlifting, and weightlifting. Weightlifting is presented as the only weight training-associated sport in the Olympic Games. The overhead movements and bodyweight classes involved in the sport are described, and advantages of free weight training are…
The Paralympic games began as a way for World War II veterans to take part in elite-level competition. Thanks to various disability-sport organizations, men and women who have served in the military are still using sport as a form of rehabilitation and a way to transition into their new life.
Práxedes, Alba; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luis; Pizarro, David; Del Villar, Fernando
Abstract The Relative Age Effect (RAE) in sport has been targeted by many research studies. The objective of this study was to analyze, in amateur clubs, the RAE of soccer players, according to the sport expertise level of the team (e.g., A, B, C and subsequent) that they belong to within the same game category. 1,098 soccer players in formative stages took part in the study, with ages varying between 6 and 18 years old (U8 to U19 categories). All of them were members of 4 Spanish federated c...
Full Text Available This Research aimed to examine the effect of game implementation on improving motor skills and student learning motivation in PSHE learning in Seventh grade of 2nd semester student on SMPN 4 Lamongan.. This research used quantitative approach with research type of quasy experiment and using matching-only design. In this method the subject of research used two classes namely the seventh grade F, amounting to 28 students as an experimental group and the seventh grade I, amounting to 27 students as a control group. The data collection process was done by pretest and posttest stage using barrow motor ability test to measure motor ability and questionnaire to measure student’s learning motivation. The result of the research showed that there was a significant influence on the role of the game on the improvement of motor ability (7,56% and there was a significant effect on the improvement of student’s learning motivation (8,28% seen from t-test result. In addition there were differences in influence through the ANOVA test, as well as the role of the game was more influential than the control group in improving motor skills and student learning motivation. Based on the results of data analysis, it was concluded that learning by applying the game more effectively to improve motor skills and student learning motivation in learning PSHE but still need further development in subsequent research.
Ohazulike, Anthony; Brands, T.
Genetic algorithms (GAs) are widely accepted by researchers as a method of solving multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs), at least for listing a high quality approximation of the Pareto front of a MOP. In traffic management, it has been long established that tolls can be used to optimally
Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter
Abstract Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen staan centraal in deze toekomstverkenning over sport die werd uitgevoerd door het RIVM en het SCP, op verzoek van het ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport (VWS). In de Sport Toekomstverken...
Full Text Available Sport and politic are two big appearance and human activities which have as difference so the same segments. New society, democratic society necessity cultivate realization of sport-politic.We could say they are dominates phenomens of modern society. Like this they are manifestationed on the different necessity ways and have different roles. They are sa different as same. Everybody who take part in one or other sphere know from society from sociolog aspect how are two society components connected and reservationed beetwen. Why I am telling it: because the future of sportsmen depend from the future of politics will. Its needed to show how politic manage or give s the hope for development and animate possibility that young people during their evolution can do sport. Politic also depend from sports instutitions on creation mood of young people that their cadres got general and society dope. These two concepts can be near define. Sport as activity and as a appeal represent specific sights orientation of young people in aim curing knight games and evervthing in aim of health formation and effort of results, but they are not only meanings, through the sport can progress and big number acquaintance, friendship and intimacy, through sport ali cultural heredity can be keeping and the lands vvhich belong. Sport sociological looking is important element society life people. Second concept-politic, according to the famous politicians we can definite as a action that direct with another activities and business. Politic is substance, process of manifestation, manner, and it mean that politic has its subject activities vvhich is consist on behavour other social groups.
Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.
Sport events are big business, attracting not only a large number of participants, spectators and sponsorships, but also wide media coverage. The hosting of sport events have led to increased rivalry between nations, regions and cities. Sport events range from mega events, such as the Olympic Games and the FIFA Soccer ...
Light, Richard Lawrence; Robert, John Evans
Background: Recent developments in games and sport teaching such as that of Teaching Games for Understanding, Play Practice and Game Sense suggest that they can make a significant contribution toward the development of tactical understanding, ability to read the game, decision-making and a general "sense of the game", yet empirical…
María de la Caridad Veloso Pérez
Full Text Available The proposal to the problematic solution dealt with in the present investigation is constituted by competitive sport activities, which respond to its totality to the integral diagnosis and therefore, to the individual and group characteristics of the selected students as it is shown, being of this form in the heat of correspondence with their real necessities. This activities were developed during the partaking sport time and three stages framed during the course to the competitions. Its organization was based on the same principles on which the Program of the Special Olympic Games is fomented, extracting from the quarries of the base sport the sport talent, it is for that reason so important the work of preparation and participation in the bases, as from the whole scale practice it is that the quality is obtained or the sport talent within the ample range of sport disciplines. The work's objective is to apply competitive sport activities to improve the participation of late mental development children in the systematic training. These activities, proposed as solution, were very effective, since it was obtained a favorable atmosphere in all the school in students, teachers, specialists, family, community, making possible these children to improved their participation in the systematic training, their technical level improved a lot and, mainly, they demonstrated that the sport is one of the fundamental routes to the formation of values in this population group. The results thrown by the investigation are considered valuable since it is the base for the profit of good results in the competence.
This manuscript shares experiences and methods used when consulting as a sport psychologist in Botswana. Authors used notes and observations made by the first author when he consulted with athletes and their entourages at three major games/championships (Olympic Games, Africa Games, and Africa Senior Track ...
Recently, the market size of online game has been increasing astonishingly fast, and so does the importance of good game design. In online games, usually a human user competes with others, so the fairness of the game system to all users is of great importance not to lose interests of users on the game. Furthermore, the emergence and success of electronic sports (e-sports) and professional gaming which specially talented gamers compete with others draws more attention on whether they are compe...
Kerr, Aphra; Ivory, James D.
When we agreed to edit the theme on online games for this Encyclopedia our first question was, “What is meant by online games?” Scholars of games distinguish between nondigital games (such as board games) and digital games, rather than between online and offline games. With networked consoles and smartphones it is becoming harder and harder to find players in the wealthy industrialized countries who play “offline” digital games. Most games developers now include ...
Li, Ming; And Others
Reports a study that examined the characteristics that enable graduate sport management programs to achieve their objectives. Surveys of sport management educators found they agreed on 11 characteristics that indicated a sport management program's effectiveness. Respondents believed an effective program should produce sport managers, not…
Matthews, D; Sukeik, M; Haddad, F
Amputation in athletes has a substantial impact on lifestyle and sporting activity, as well as self-perception and quality of life. The impact of limb loss on athletic ability will vary depending on the cause of amputation and the anatomical location of the amputation. The use of sporting activity for rehabilitation of amputees was first introduced in 1944 at Stoke Mandeville Hospital. The first international paralympic games were founded in 1960. Following these events the opportunity to participate in sport following limb loss has increased significantly. Sport participation has been aided by the development of sporting prostheses, however multiple factors will determine the exact prosthesis used. These include the nature of the sporting activity as well as the level of the amputation. The biomechanics involved in walking and running are altered following the loss of a limb or part thereof. This can cause subsequent degenerative changes within the remaining joints on the amputated limb as well as the contralateral limb. Factors affecting return to sporting activity are multivariate and inter-related, including patient factors, surgical factors, nature and level of the sporting activity and prosthetic factors. The authors review current literature, detail predictive factors of return to sport and the physical and psychosocial impact on patients following limb amputation.
Vazquez, Federico; Ben-Naim, Eli; Redner, Sidney
What is the most interesting team sport? We answer this question via an extensive statistical survey of game scores, consisting of more than 1/4 million games in over a century. We propose the likelihood of upsets as a measure of competitiveness. We demonstrate the utility of this measure via a comparative analysis of several popular team sports including soccer, baseball, hockey, basketball, and football. We also develop a mathematical model, in which the stronger team is favored to win a game. This model allows to us conveniently estimate the likelihood of upsets from the more easily-accessible standings data.
McGreevy, A; Millar, L; Murphy, B; Davison, G W; Brown, R; O'Donnell, M E
Previous studies have reported a conflicting relationship between the effect of live and televised sporting events on attendance rates to emergency departments (ED). The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship of major sporting events on emergency department attendance rates and to determine the potential effects of such events on service provision. A retrospective analysis of ED attendances to a district general hospital (DGH) and subsequent admissions over a 24-h period following live and televised sporting activities was performed over a 5-year period. Data were compiled from the hospital's emergency record books including the number of attendances, patient demographics, clinical complaint and outcome. Review patients were excluded. Analysis of sporting events was compiled for live local, regional and national events as well as world-wide televised sporting broadcasts. A total of 137,668 (80,445 men) patients attended from April 2002 to July 2007. Mean attendance rate per day was 80 patients (men = 47). Mean admission rate was 13.6 patients per day. Major sporting events during the study period included; Soccer: 4 FA Cup and 1 World Cup (WC) finals; Rugby: 47 Six Nations, 25 Six nations games involving Ireland, 1 WC final, 2 WC semi-finals, 2 WC quarter-finals and 4 WC games involving Ireland; and Gaelic Football [Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA)]: 5 All-Ireland finals, 11 semi-finals, 11 quarter-finals and 5 provincial finals. There was a significantly higher patient admission rate during the soccer FA Cup final, Rugby Six Nations and games involving Ireland and for GAA semi- and quarter-final games (p = 0.001-0.01). There was no difference identified in total attendance or non-admission rates for sporting events throughout the study period. Although there was no correlation identified between any of these sporting events and total emergency department attendances (r 0.07), multinomial logistic regression demonstrated that FA Cup final (p
Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For ... Ditch Dehydration Caffeine Game-Day Eats Print en español Guía de alimentación para deportistas Eat Extra for ...
Full Text Available ... for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to ... can boost your performance even more by paying attention to the food you eat on game day. ...
Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.
We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline...
Tamburro, Robert F; Gordon, Patricia L; D'Apolito, James P; Howard, Scott C
Injuries are the leading cause of death in children, and media exposure seems to increase children's risk-taking behavior. Televised sports are commonly viewed by children. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of commercials that depict violence or other unsafe behavior during major televised sporting events that are aired before 9:00 pm. We obtained a list of the 50 sports programs that were most highly rated by Nielsen Media Research and that were televised between September 1, 2001, and September 1, 2002. These 50 programs included Winter Olympics events (n = 15), National Football League (NFL) regular season games (n = 14), NFL playoff games (n = 10), Major League Baseball World Series and playoff games (n = 7), the NFL Super Bowl (n = 1), the National Basketball Association Western Conference Final Game (n = 1), the College Football Rose Bowl (n = 1), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association Basketball Championship game (n = 1). Two other events were reviewed as well: the final round of the Masters Golf Championship, because it was the only sporting event rated in the top 50 of the previous year that was not represented by a similar sporting event in the study year, and the Daytona 500 National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing race, because it was the only event rated among the top 75 of the study year that was not represented by a similar event (ie, there were no other golfing or auto racing events reviewed). These events were included because different sporting events may attract different viewers and different advertisements; thus, their inclusion provides a more comprehensive evaluation of the topic. For sporting events with >3 programs in the top 50 (NFL regular season games, NFL playoff games, Winter Olympic events, and Major League Baseball World Series), representative samples of events were assessed. Surrogate events were analyzed for programs that were aired after 9:00 PM (Eastern Time) to control for the reduced
The literature concerning links between sport knowledge, sport performance and academic ability is reviewed and related to empirical evidence obtained from a GCSE examination in Physical Education, together with GCSE Mathematics and GCSE English grades. For most sports examined, there was a small but significant positive correlation between sport performance and GCSE Mathematics and English grades, confirming the findings of most previous research. Using a multilevel multivariate model, average sport performance, academic ability and sex were important explanatory variables for sport knowledge, yet only academic ability was an important explanatory variable for the concept of physical education knowledge. Ability in game sports, rather than athletics, were related to sport knowledge. Males scored higher for sport knowledge than females, after taking into account sport performance and academic ability. The effects of sport performance and academic ability on sport knowledge were stable across schools, but there was some evidence that the effect of sex varied across schools. These findings support theories of a role for sport knowledge in sport performance; that such a role should be greater in game sports; that academic ability is important for gaining such knowledge; and they highlight differences in sport knowledge between the sexes.
Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.
Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and two-person Cournot games.
Full Text Available An analysis is conducted scientific and to scientifically-methodical literatures on issue of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiads. Conception of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiad is developed 2022 (Ukraine, Carpathians. It was offered, that ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of Olympiad had an ecological motto «Olympic sport for the maintainance of nature». Strategy included the ways of decision of problem of negative influence of global change of climate on the olympic winter types of sport. The problems of providing of ecological safety of sporting activity are considered in relation to a man and wild-life. Solution is offered questions of the ecological marketing, management and ecological inlightening. The ecological ground of choice of Lvov is conducted as a city of organizer of winter Olympiad 2022. As a mountain-skier center a mountain-skier complex Borzhava, located in the area Carpathians of Ukraine, is offered.
This thesis was conducted for a startup game company called Kaamos Games Oy. The company specializes in the development of mobile games, and was looking to expand their expertise and list of developed games. The aim of this thesis was to develop a mobile game for Kaamos Games. The thesis introduces concepts which are relevant to mobile game development and the game development process. The general stages of a game development process are explained and the activities that went into this de...
Jung, Loretta Welk
Index cards, masking tape, pizza shells, golf tees, and empty soda bottles can be used to make manipulative objects to be used in children's mathematics games. Twenty-two games that provide practice in number drills and problem solving are described, along with instructions for making objects needed for the games. (PP)
Full Text Available Background: There are many mobile applications being developed to promote healthy lifestyles. Some use gamification as well as psychological behaviour change techniques (BCTs to increase engagement and potential impact on health behaviours. Despite growing research in this area, there is little evidence of game-based apps being rigorously evaluated ‘in the wild’ to explore the mechanisms through which they can achieve widespread user-engagement and health behaviour change. MyCity: Glasgow is a mobile app-based game that aims to use BCTs (self-monitoring of physical activity with daily goal setting and feedback, gamification principles (self-expression, achievement (e.g., quizzes, status and competition and GPS-based features (e.g., challenge trails to encourage users to physically visit locations around Glasgow to increase physical activity (PA and engagement with Glasgow during the period of the 2014 Commonwealth Games. Aim: To use an ‘in the wild’ evaluation to explore the potential and mechanisms of action of a mobile app-based game to increase users’ PA and engagement with their local area. Methods: MyCity: Glasgow was released on Google Play and Apple App Stores in early summer 2014, and real-time usage data logged for 3 months. A mixed-methods approach used quantitative android phone-logged data, an online user experience survey (N=56 and qualitative user interviews (n=11 to investigate uptake, use of behaviour change and gamification features, and impact on physical activity. Results: The app was downloaded 1096 times (android N=673; iOS N=423. Most users were aged 12-25 years (43.1% or 26-40 years (32.6%, with uptake declining with age; over half (51.5% described themselves as physically inactive at baseline. Almost a quarter (24.3% of daily activity goals were achieved; 3,907 quiz questions were attempted, over 72% of which were answered correctly. Survey respondents and interview participants endorsed the self-monitoring and
Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip
In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools.
Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip
In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580
Vazha M. Devishvili
Full Text Available Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The paper also considered the phenomenon of the emergence of the aggregate subject in the process of joint activity. when the participants feel themselves as a whole and experience feelings of satisfaction and a surge of energy. Objective. The main objective of the work is to investigate the relationship between the level of team cohesion and subjective feelings of unity of its players. As additional variables in the study there is a sport (football and volleyball and team level (amateur and professional. To test the assumptions. two methods were used (the Sport Team Cohesion Questionnaire and the Subject Unity Index. which allow not only to determine the overall level of cohesion and unity. but also to reveal the structure of both phenomena. The study involved two men’s volleyball and two men’s football teams of different ages: 8-9 years (39 athletes; 12-14 years (24 athletes and 18-25 years (41 athletes. Design. For amateur groups represented by children’s and teenage sports teams. significant correlations between unity and unity were obtained (r = 0.618. p <0.01; r = 0.477. p <0.05. For professional teams. no significant correlations were found. Influence of the sport on cohesion is also different for amateur and professional teams. In the first case. the cohesion is higher for football players (U = 118. p <0.05. and in the second case for volleyball players (U = 124. p <0.05. Results. The findings indicate that the professional level of players affects group
Full Text Available Realisation of sport activities always demanded certain conditions. Among those, sports facilities are certainly necessary. Since there were important changes in the process of training itself and successful performance, as well as, the results achieved by the sportsmen; there is a need for adequate sports facilities, that include whole variety of systems,equipment and necessities. Nowadays, Sport facilities are not only “the place of event”, but also a condition/necessity in achieving best sport results. It is demanded that these facilities are comfortable, absolutely secure and that they can accommodate transmissions: an opening, the course of sports activities and the announcement of the winner. The kind of sport activity, age, sex; so the “sports level” of the competitors is emphasising the specific demands to wards sports facilities.
Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.
Marchand, Dawn Marie
Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…
Andersen, Christian Ulrik
The correspondence between game and reality is usually regarded as a representational relationship. Discussing the correspondence, one must, however, also look into the relation between game and player: The interests of the player and the staging of the player in the game. Games can be consumer...... software for private entertainment (looking/feeling real) or they can be pragmatic software used for training of professionals (affecting soldiers’, pilots’, etc. perception of the real). A third, and less debated game-reality relationship, based on public awareness and typically a socio-political agenda...... seem to be emerging in the field of gaming. The presentation focuses on this new correspondence, describes its different appearances, elaborates various historical traces and argues that user access to a textual, constitutive level of the game seems intrinsically linked to the genre....
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...
Keogh, Justin W L
The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. The overall purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that the field of sports biomechanics specifically (and sports science in general) may play in improving performance in various summer Paralympic sports through research and consultancy. To achieve this broad aim, this review provides some history and background on the Summer Paralympic Games, discusses the eligibility and classification rules, describes the potential for the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to inform practice and research in this area, and reviews selected studies examining the biomechanics of the primary forms of Paralympic locomotion. Some recommendations on how sports biomechanics can help facilitate improvements in Paralympic athletic performance through applied research and consultancy are provided, along with commentary on what may be some of the most important issues addressing Paralympic sport.
provide. 1. Agnostic games are those that have competition as their main feature (e.g., sports and athletic events). These types of games stretch the...levels. Journal of Management Development, 8(2), 58-66. Fisher, J. E . (1976). Competition and gaming : An experimental study. Simulation & Games , 7(3), 321...33 Other Issues in Instructional Gaming ... ........................................ 37 Types of Competition in a
Brandstätter , Ulrich; Sommerer , Christa
Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; Video games can be appropriated for productive purposes. Commercial games and game engines are often used for video productions, and game development companies provide development kits and modding environments to gaming communities and independent developers. With gamification, game principles are deployed in non-game contexts for benefits beyond pure entertainment. Most approaches are more focused on using games and their design elements rather t...
Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović
Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...
: they contribute something new or different to the field of sport and exercise psychology, for example, a new epistemological understanding, a new theoretical approach, a new research method or a new perspective on the applicability of sport psychology to different settings in the domain of sport, games......This book contains articles based on selected presentations at the 11th European Congress of Sport Psychology, a congress arranged by the Danish Forum of Sport Psychology and the Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, between 22 and 27 July 2003 in Copenhagen, Denmark.1......) The intention of this publication is to introduce the reader to a selection of articles which the editors would like to summarize under the title New Approaches to Sport and Exercise Psychology. Despite the diversity in content and form, all the articles have been selected on the basis of one common orientation...
This book contains articles based on selected presentations at the 11th European Congress of Sport Psychology, a congress arranged by the Danish Forum of Sport Psychology and the Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, between 22 and 27 July 2003 in Copenhagen, Denmark.1......) The intention of this publication is to introduce the reader to a selection of articles which the editors would like to summarize under the title New Approaches to Sport and Exercise Psychology. Despite the diversity in content and form, all the articles have been selected on the basis of one common orientation......: they contribute something new or different to the field of sport and exercise psychology, for example, a new epistemological understanding, a new theoretical approach, a new research method or a new perspective on the applicability of sport psychology to different settings in the domain of sport, games...
Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.
If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…
Aoki, Raquel YS; Assuncao, Renato M; de Melo, Pedro OS Vaz
Predicting the outcome of sports events is a hard task. We quantify this difficulty with a coefficient that measures the distance between the observed final results of sports leagues and idealized perfectly balanced competitions in terms of skill. This indicates the relative presence of luck and skill. We collected and analyzed all games from 198 sports leagues comprising 1503 seasons from 84 countries of 4 different sports: basketball, soccer, volleyball and handball. We measured the competi...
Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Phan, Hao
E-sports nowadays are considered as a billion dollars industry. Indeed, playing video gaming step by step become a worthy occupation and would bring decent furture for any person who have talented and determination. This thesis describes how e-sports organizations in Finland are structured. Also, it identifies the common characteristics of professional e-sports players in this coun-try. Related on interviews with persons who already have experiences by involve in E-sports, the resuls of t...
Chanaron Jean Jacques
Full Text Available Mega-sport events such as Olympic Games or Football World Cup are always presented as providing the hosting nation and/or city with huge benefits. Supporters of such events quote economic, social and cultural impacts for the region as well as contributions to scientific and technological progress and innovation. obviously, they need to politically justify the impressive and growing financial investment required by organizing Olympic Games or World Cup. The article aims at looking at a quite abundant academic literature with the objectives of defining the various potential impacts and the methods used for their assessment. It concludes that there is no universal and scientifically valid model for evaluating the benefits of mega-sport events and that organizers should be very cautious when arguing in favor of deciding to host such events.
The present study aimed to examine how players’ positional data can be used to assess the transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports (basketball, football and rugby) in early specialized and diversified sport careers. Thirty-four college students were divided into early specialization and early diversification groups, according to information provided by a questionnaire designed to obtain detailed information about their sports career. In-game derived variables were calculated based on ...
Na, Euihyeon; Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Taek-Ho; Lee, Hyeseon; Rho, Mi Jung; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Dai-Jin
Background and aims Although Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been investigated in detail, minimal research has been conducted regarding the influence of different game genres on IGD. The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics of members of game genre-specific groups with IGD and to identify factors associated with IGD status in each group in a large sample of adults. Methods Internet games were categorized into four genres: real-time strategy games, massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), sport games, and first-person shooter (FPS) games. Participants (n = 2,923) who usually played one of these games completed an anonymous online survey that collected sociodemographic, game usage pattern, and psychopathological assessment data. Results MMORPG and FPS game players more frequently met the criteria for IGD than participants in the other two groups. Differences between the IGD-suspected gamers within the genre-specific groups were observed for a few items, such as average game-playing time and the subscales of the behavioral activation system; however, the factors that contributed to the development of IGD within each game genre-specific group were found to be considerably different. Discussion and conclusions The findings of this study suggest that IGD is a stable psychiatric diagnosis encompassing users of a broad range of game genres. In addition, the development of strategies for the prevention of and early intervention on individuals at high risk for developing IGD may require consideration of the distinct characteristics identified as effective predictors of IGD in users of each game genre.
All over the world sport plays a prominent role in society: as a leisure activity for many, as an ingredient of culture, as a business and as a matter of national prestige in such major events as the World Cup in soccer or the Olympic Games. Hence, it is not surprising that science has entered the realm of sports, and, in particular, that computer simulation has become highly relevant in recent years. This is explored in this book by choosing five different sports as examples, demonstrating that computational science and engineering (CSE) can make essential contributions to research on sports topics on both the fundamental level and, eventually, by supporting athletes’ performance.
This conceptual paper on issues and challenges experienced by human resources in sport organisations focuses on two human resources, namely the sport coach and volunteers who play a crucial role in assisting the sport organisation achieve its objectives. With regard to the sport coach the focus is on sport coaching, ...
Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.
Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and
Lange, B; Flynn, Sheryl M; Rizzo, A A
This article summarizes the recent accomplishments and current challenges facing game-based virtual reality (VR) telerehabilitation. Specifically this article addresses accomplishments relative to realistic practice scenarios, part to whole practice, objective measurement of performance and progress, motivation, low cost, interaction devices and game design. Furthermore, a description of the current challenges facing game based telerehabilitation including the packaging, internet capabilities and access, data management, technical support, privacy protection, seizures, distance trials, scientific scrutiny and support from insurance companies.
Keogh, Justin W L; Winwood, Paul W
Weight-training sports, including weightlifting, powerlifting, bodybuilding, strongman, Highland Games, and CrossFit, are weight-training sports that have separate divisions for males and females of a variety of ages, competitive standards, and bodyweight classes. These sports may be considered dangerous because of the heavy loads commonly used in training and competition. Our objective was to systematically review the injury epidemiology of these weight-training sports, and, where possible, gain some insight into whether this may be affected by age, sex, competitive standard, and bodyweight class. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Embase for injury epidemiology studies involving competitive athletes in these weight-training sports. Eligible studies included peer-reviewed journal articles only, with no limit placed on date or language of publication. We assessed the risk of bias in all studies using an adaption of the musculoskeletal injury review method. Only five of the 20 eligible studies had a risk of bias score ≥75 %, meaning the risk of bias in these five studies was considered low. While 14 of the studies had sample sizes >100 participants, only four studies utilized a prospective design. Bodybuilding had the lowest injury rates (0.12-0.7 injuries per lifter per year; 0.24-1 injury per 1000 h), with strongman (4.5-6.1 injuries per 1000 h) and Highland Games (7.5 injuries per 1000 h) reporting the highest rates. The shoulder, lower back, knee, elbow, and wrist/hand were generally the most commonly injured anatomical locations; strains, tendinitis, and sprains were the most common injury type. Very few significant differences in any of the injury outcomes were observed as a function of age, sex, competitive standard, or bodyweight class. While the majority of the research we reviewed utilized retrospective designs, the weight-training sports appear to have relatively low rates of injury compared with common team
often been framed as pertaining to cognitive problem-solving & literacy (Steinkuehler and Duncan, 2008), social skills & cultural capital (e.g. Chen, 2009) or sports & professionalism (Taylor, 2012). However, this is not a paper about literacy, social skills, professional gamers or even expert gamers...... (Butler, 2005; Butler, 2004). This calls attention to conceptual and critical questions around the values, qualities and activities increasingly claimed and collated with gaming expertise: Who, or what, is a digital game expert and what is evident in the name of expertise? Who can claim to be an expert...
In the diploma thesis I present ball games and how they are popular among children of 4th and 5th form of primary school. Sport activities play an important role when growing up and it is up to adults to provide children a certain amount of exercise in the pre-school period and during their schooling. It is important that one considers child's age and that the activities are represented through playing. Ball games are included in the curriculum in one of the sets in the first three years. In ...
Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform a survey about the prevalence, type and location of the injuries occurred in athletes of different modalities during the 53th Regional Games held in 2009. A total of 182 injured athletes being treated at the physical therapy clinic were included. Physical Therapy evaluation was performed to determine the anatomic location and type of injury, as well the sport modality. The results showed that mean age, height, weight and BMI were 23 years (±5.9, 1.73 m (±0.11, 71 kg (±14.22 and 24 kg/m² (±4 respectively. Proportionality to the number of athletes, handball athletes presented with higher number of injuries (4.25%, followed by indoor soccer players (3.7%, basketball (2.48%, volleyball (1.72% and soccer (1.63%. The most common type of injury were sprains with 29.7% of cases (n=54 and mostly from soccer players; followed by contracture - 26.9% (n=49, mostly from basketball players; and contusion -25.8% (n=47, mostly from handball and indoor soccer players. The type of injury showed a significant association with the sports modality (p=0.0016. The lower limbs accounted for 71.4% of all injuries including knee (23.1%, ankle (18.1%, thigh (17.0%, leg (10.4% and spine (9.9%. Preventive actions to avoid athletes' injury should be implemented in order to reduce the number of injuries in sports competitions such as in the Regional Games.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a prevalência, tipo e localização anatômica das lesões nos atletas durante os 53os Jogos Regionais de 2009. No total, 182 atletas participaram do estudo. A avaliação fisioterápica incluiu dados como local e tipo de lesão e modalidade esportiva. Os resultados mostraram que a média de idade, altura, peso e IMC foram respectivamente 23 anos (±5,9, 1,73 m (±0,11, 71 kg (±14,22 e 24 kg/m² (±4. Proporcionalmente ao número de atletas, o handball foi a modalidade esportiva que apresentou maior número de lesões (4
Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo
To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and 'real life' activities. Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill.
Lisa M. Barnett
Full Text Available Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control and time (pre and post and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no. Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95 participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006 but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913 between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835. A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406 or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill.
Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Petersson, Eva
This pilot study investigated gesture-based control of video games to promote and motivate self-driven home-based aerobic exercise (AE) training regimes to improve pain threshold associated to fibromyalgia. 10 patients were randomized to 10 sessions each led by a non-medical ‘game-savvy’ Ph...... was used with a sports compilation game ‘Sports Resort’ with the Wiimote MotionPlus Accessory to increase accuracy of gesture. Facilitator in vivo noted observations and the doctors’ research were supplemented by multiple angle (3) video cameras synchronized to the game play for correlation analysis...... therapist students replacing the Medialogy student as session facilitator. Three game platforms were studied: the MS Kinect, Sony MOVE, and Nintendo Wii, with 5 game sessions of one hour being played by each patient in regular lab visits (=15 sessions each). This is reported separately with preliminary...
David Sánchez-Mora Moreno
Full Text Available In the past three decades teaching sports has changed from a traditional technique-oriented model to teaching games for understanding model characterized by the use of modified games. Despite the number of proposals, research has not empirically justified the use of them depending on the specific teaching-learning context of the practitioners. This way, what function has the modified game as a methodological resource in sports teaching? In this regard, we noted that modified games could be a suitable and efficient tool for development and evaluation of knowledge and game performance of young players, and also for the development of other dimensions of learning. However, there are no guidelines in modified games planning, which is why we stress the importance of continued research in this line.
Full Text Available Digital games are an increasingly prominent media form but are consistently ignored in critical communication scholarship. Several voices in the field of game studies have advocated the application of communication and rhetorical theory to the study of games, but this effort to cross-pollinate game studies and communication studies has not been reciprocated. This article addresses this lacunae, making the case for critical studies of communication to take up the study of digital games. I argue that digital games are both ready objects of inquiry well-suited for rhetorical methods and generative sites with the potential to stimulate thinking about communication processes in general and rhetoric in particular.
Smith, Maia P; Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger
Physical activity (PA) protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target. PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys) from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis. 8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic). 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%). Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma) and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis) were no less active. We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation.
Full Text Available The article concentrates on the important aspect of image in a country’s political and economic objectives and deals with the role of sports in managing countries as brands. Analyzing the biggest sporting events in the world, such as the Olympic Games, football (soccer championships and others, authors attempt to detect and display their economic and promotional potential for host cities and countries as well as for participating nations. Special focus is on global media, which are essential in "creating" the events, transferring images and communicating impressions of the host city/country to the global public. The authors conclude that the most important role is that of the organizers, whose creativity and capabilities will for the most part determine the promotional and economic contribution of hosting such a sporting event. Activities prior to the main event and those following the event are also of great importance for the host country.
Titles: Sport competitions of Water rescue service Objectives: The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarize and describe the historical process of Water rescue service and the formation of Water rescue sport. Furthermore, the thesis introduces the rules of this sport and it's disciplines competitions all over the world. Methods: The analyse of available sources was used for this work. Results: The Overview of Water rescue service history and it's competitions in Czech republic and the rest...
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.
van Damme, E.E.C.; Wright, J.
We describe noncooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing......Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...
This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest
Molnes, Torje Nedland
This master thesis was an initiative of the Lillehammer Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee administration, represented by Tomas Holmestad and Magne Vikøren.The main research question is:Which environmental certification systems can be relevant and applicable to large sports events like the Youth Olympic Games?The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) is an initiative by the International Olympic Committee. The vision of the YOG is to inspire young people, between 15 and 18 years old, around the wor...
Sixto González Víllora
Full Text Available TIn this paper a wide analysis of bibliography related to the definition of sport initiation in the last decades is presented for this reason we have carried out a new view of the concept of games teaching in the early years from three points of view. First, teaching methods that have focused now on product, rather than on results. Second, teaching games concept has evolved from vertical to thematic approaches. Third, the context where sport is carried out, outlining leisure-health, education and competition-high performance. Finally we state that coexist as a result of linking this three points of view. One is more traditional, focusing games teaching on product, one sport and, in a certain way, on performance. On the other hand, second perspective is more focused on process, on thematic approaches and educational or leisure goals.
Background: Sport tourism plays an important role in the tourism industry and consequently in the economy. Sport tourism centres as providers of sport services need to be familiar with the basic needs of their customers and tailor their services accordingly. Objectives: The aim of the paper is to determine the models for customizing sport tourism services to address the needs specific for an individual sport. Methods/Approach: A questionnaire has been created and sent electronically or physic...
Full Text Available This paper analyses the social field of sports within the general frame of social dramaturgy, by using three metaphors that are grounded on Goffman’s conceptual field: sport as play, sport as game and sport as ritual. After discussing “what”, “how” and “to what extent” can Goffman’s concepts be re-contextualized in understanding the dynamics of the sport acts, I went further and integrated the three metaphors into a more comprehensive analytic model. The multidimensional model of sport dramaturgy that I have built around Goffman’s hard-core concepts covers: the dramaturgical dimension, the strategic dimension and the ritual dimension of sport acting as complementary elements that can provide an integrative perspective upon the sport dynamics. Every dimension of this interactional model implies a specific definition for the competitive situation, for the sport actor and for his dispositional orientation when faced with a competitive situation
Teodor, Norén; Emanuel, Palm
As live streaming of video games has become easier, electronic sports have grown quickly and they are still increasing as tournaments grow in viewers and prizes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory Metagame Bounds by applying it to League of Legends and Dota 2, to see if it is a valid way of looking at character balance in the Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game genre. The main mode of both games consist of matches played on a map where a team of five players is up against ano...
Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.
Brânzei, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.; Tijs, S.H.
In this paper we provide characterizations of convex games and total clan games by using properties of their corresponding marginal games.We show that a "dualize and restrict" procedure transforms total clan games with zero worth for the clan into monotonic convex games.Furthermore, each monotonic
Brânzei, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.; Tijs, S.H.
In this paper we provide characterizations of convex games and total clan games by using properties of their corresponding marginal games. We show that a "dualize and restrict" procedure transforms total clan games with zero worth for the clan into monotonic convex games. Furthermore, each monotonic
Adams, Ernest; Dormans, Joris
Game Mechanics is aimed at game design students and industry professionals who want to improve their understanding of how to design, build, and test the mechanics of a game. Game Mechanics will show you how to design, test, and tune the core mechanics of a game—any game, from a huge role-playing
Full Text Available In literature, the term adapted sport indicates sports activities, modified and adapted to persons with disabilities. In spite of their highly prominent values, combat sports are underrepresented among persons with disabilities in Serbia. The benefits of combat sports practicing are numerous, and at some international hospitals, martial sports and arts already have an important role in the treatment of traumatized and disabled persons. Currently, the programme of Paralympic Games includes only two sports, these are fencing and judo, in male and female competition. Almost certainly, karate will also be included in the programme of Paralympic Games, and there are similar ambitions in the case of taekwondo as well. In addition to these sports, some martial arts, especially aikido, thai-chi-chuan and qigong, have obtained significant representation and interest among persons with disabilities. The reasons for weaker interest in other martial sports and arts, should be sought in the fact that they are underrepresented among this population, and that these persons are not offered the possibility of organized practice of such sports. Orientation towards a combat sport brings great refreshment and powerful emotional experience to each practitioner, and this fact has special significance to persons with disabilities. In Serbia, combat sports are not widely represented among persons with disabilities, and only the wrestlers with impaired hearing have achieved significant success on the international stage. On the other hand, the popularity of combat sports among persons with disabilities in the world is significantly growing. It is necessary to take concrete steps to make it so in Serbia as well.
Maia P Smith
Full Text Available Physical activity (PA protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target.PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis.8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic. 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%. Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis were no less active.We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation.
Cavadenti , Olivier; Codocedo , Victor; Boulicaut , Jean-François; Kaytoue , Mehdi
International audience; Video game is a very lucrative industry, unleashed by the ubiquity of gaming devices, multi-player networks and live broadcasting platforms. Games generate large amounts of behavioural data which are valuable to face the new challenges of video game analytics such as detecting balance issues, bugs and cheaters. In electronic sports (e-sports), cyberathletes conceal their online training using different aliases or avatars (virtual identities), which allow them not being...
Johnson, Karen M., Ed.; Fritz, Harry, Ed.
A collection of articles is offered that examines the history and current status of women in the Olympic Games. Included is a brief historical account of women's participation, criteria for adding sports, examination of women's status, and an explanation of rhythmic gymnastics which was recently added for women. (DF)
The relationship between educational theories, game design and game development are used to develop models for the creation of complex learning environments. The Game Object Model (GOM), that marries educational theory and game design, forms the basis for the development of the Persona Outlining Model (POM) ...
Clauset, A.; Kogan, M.; Redner, S.
We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size L and game time t . Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40 000 games across four professional or semiprofessional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.
Adam C Oei
Full Text Available Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands.We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours. Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training.Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be attributed to near-transfer effects.
Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D
Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch) for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours). Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be attributed to near-transfer effects.
Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.
Background Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. Methodology/Principal Findings We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch) for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours). Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. Conclusion/Significance Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be
Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others
Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen
Rogers, L.F.; Braunstein, E.M.; DeSmet, A.A.; Helms, C.A.; Pavlov, H.; Sukaer, J.R.; Torg, J.S.
All Star Sports Panel cases are selected to test the mettle of the panelists and familiarize the audience with injuries peculiar to participation in a variety of sports. Match wits with the experts on the field. Gear up for the big game by previewing the clinical histories and initial radiographic examinations. Diagnosis requires familiarity with stresses incurred in the performance of various athletic pursuits, knowledge of specific radiographic findings, and awareness of imaging techniques that best demonstrate underlying injury
Texier, Baptiste Darbois; Cohen, Caroline; Clanet, Christophe; Dupeux, Guillaume; Quéré, David
The size of sports fields considerably varies from a few meters for table tennis to hundreds of meters for golf. We first show that this size is mainly fixed by the range of the projectile, that is, by the aerodynamic properties of the ball (mass, surface, drag coefficient) and its maximal velocity in the game. This allows us to propose general classifications for sports played with a ball. (paper)
Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Cohen, Caroline; Dupeux, Guillaume; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe
The size of sports fields considerably varies from a few meters for table tennis to hundreds of meters for golf. We first show that this size is mainly fixed by the range of the projectile, that is, by the aerodynamic properties of the ball (mass, surface, drag coefficient) and its maximal velocity in the game. This allows us to propose general classifications for sports played with a ball.
Wheeler, Robert F.
Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.
The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and
The Paralympic Games have an interesting history that began after World War II. The Games and movement have been impacted by and have had an impact on society and the larger able-bodied sport system. The future of the Games and movement is also further impacted by larger cultural shifts, and the Games themselves have potentially left lasting legacies for the host cities and persons with impairment worldwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Balmer, N J; Nevill, A M; Williams, A M
Home advantage in team games is well proven and the influence of the crowd upon officials' decisions has been identified as a plausible cause. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of home advantage for five event groups selected from the Summer Olympic Games between 1896 and 1996, and put home advantage in team games in context with other sports. The five event groups were athletics and weightlifting (predominantly objectively judged), boxing and gymnastics (predominantly subjectively judged) and team games (involving subjective decisions). The proportion of points won was analysed as a binomial response variable using generalized linear interactive modelling. Preliminary exploration of the data highlighted the need to control for the proportion of competitors entered and to split the analysis pre- and post-war. Highly significant home advantage was found in event groups that were either subjectively judged or rely on subjective decisions. In contrast, little or no home advantage (and even away advantage) was observed for the two objectively judged groups. Officiating system was vital to both the existence and extent of home advantage. Our findings suggest that crowd noise has a greater influence upon officials' decisions than players' performances, as events with greater officiating input enjoyed significantly greater home advantage.
Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena
The frequency of involvement in sports often has been concurrently and longitudinally associated with higher self-esteem. The interpretation of this association consistently has been framed as involvement in sports leading to higher levels of self-esteem over time (i.e., socialization effect), although no studies have tested whether higher levels of self-esteem lead to increased involvement in sports over time (i.e., selection effect). Another important aspect of involvement in sports that may be related to self-esteem is the degree to which youth enjoy sports. However, this aspect has received much less attention. To address these gaps in the literature, we first examined the bidirectional effects between self-esteem and the frequency of involvement in sports with 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female; 92.4 % Canadian-born) over 4 years. Higher levels of self-esteem predicted greater involvement in sports over time, but greater involvement in sports did not predict higher levels of self-esteem over time, offering support only for selection effects. We then tested the bidirectional effects between the enjoyment of sports and self-esteem and found evidence of both socialization and selection effects. Specifically, greater enjoyment of sports predicted higher self-esteem over time, and higher self-esteem predicted greater enjoyment of sports over time. These novel findings suggest that adolescents with higher self-esteem play sports more frequently and enjoy sports more than adolescents with lower self-esteem. In addition, the degree to which adolescents enjoy sports may be more important for increasing self-esteem than the frequency with which adolescents play sports.
Du Boullay, C T; Bardier, M; Cheneau, J; Bortolasso, J; Gaubert, J
Among 49 000 cases of infantile emergencies which were received in the BUCI (Bloc d'urgence chirurgical infantile: surgical infantile emergency unit), 5 546 were sport traumas. At an early age, they were caused by outdoor plays; during adolescence, the main cases were caused by team sports. Males are predominant. The number of cases has been regularly progressing, particularly since 1976. The fashion in sports is influenced by médias (i.e. skate board), and can be opposed to the continuous practice of popular sports (swimming, ball games, bycicle. There are winter, summer, school timed sports (the latter being influenced by the sportive scholar associations). The most frequent sports are cycling, football playing, swimming and horse riding, athleticism skating, Other are occasionnal. Changes in sport fashions, female increasing participation, such as horse riding and skating, democratisation (skiing, riding), the worsening of traumas; the pathology concerning bystanders, are described. Cranial and peripheric pathology are dominant. Trunk traumas are scarce but severe. Each sport has an elective pathologic localisation. Injury mechanisms are found, such as stirrup, saddle, ski baton pathology. There is traumatologic similarities; skate board and roller skating; judo and atheleticism; cycling and horse riding. Sport in children is not a replica of the one among adults. Riding a bike is not cycling. Some sports are dangerous: cycling, horse riding, rugby. A traumatological outline is revealed. Preventive measures should be taken. The socio-economical cost is heavy.
Full Text Available The text presents and analyses manifestations of modernity and postmodernity in the field of competitive and recreational sport, physical education, leisure, and tourism. The paper builds upon an extensive literature survey and presents the concept and key features of postmodern societies and the modernity-postmodernity debate in sports with reference to postmodern tendencies in tourism. We have attempted to determine the proportions of tradition, modernity, and postmodernity in contemporary sport and tourism, keeping in mind that, similarly to contemporary societies as a whole, sport is undoubtedly a mixture of traditional, modern, and Fordist elements with postmodern and post-Fordist features. We present and discuss the prevailing belief that the key elements of leisure sport are mostly postmodern and focused on the notion of individualisation and freedom expressed especially in alternative sports, while commercialised mainstream sport follows the regular mass-media show-business development path, maintaining a significant amount of modern concepts, such as the importance of national identities. Special attention is also paid to the Olympic Games as a specific and very efficient mixture of modernity and postmodernity. More so than at any point in the past, and despite the actual proportions of modernity and postmodernity that it contains, contemporary sport has become an integral part of postmodern societies and their lifestyle, with technology-determined individualisation of sport consumption and leisure sport participation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most fundamental question about sport is what is sport, what is its origin and its essence? Because sport is connected with the human being (there is no sport without human beings different anthropological visions of human being result in different understandings of sport. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to present and explain an anthropological vision of the human being and society as was developed by René Girard. In his view mimetic desire and the scapegoat mechanism have a central role in any culture, religion or other secular institutions. The explanatory power of his theory is presented when it is applied to the world of sport. METHODS: Our methodology is philosophical, involving conceptual analysis and the application of the outcomes to sport. RESULTS: In the paper we show that mimetic desire can be recognized as one of the important origins of recreational and competitive sports. When people recognize what other people are able to do or accomplish in sport this invokes the mimetic desire as a result of which motivation for sport and competiveness can arise. But mimetic rivalry leads to an unstable situation. Therefore a second element is needed: Scapegoating in sport is presented as a mean to preserve the good reputation of sport, to keep peace in sport as well as in society as a whole. Finally, the attempt to overcome mimetic desire and scapegoating in sport is presented and the question if this is worth trying at all is opened. CONCLUSIONS: The theories of mimetic desire and scapegoat mechanism have great explanatory power when they are applied to the field of sport. They could reveal us some hidden motives and forces which drive athletes and sport as a whole. Moreover, they exceed the world of sport and reveal the influence of sport on the whole of society.
Dennis J. Caine
Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to
Männikkö, Niko; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Myllymäki, Laura; Miettunen, Jouko; Kääriäinen, Maria
Multiplatform digital media use and gaming have been increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine associations between sociodemographics and digital gaming behavior characteristics (i.e., gaming time, medium, and genres) with problematic gaming behavior in adolescents. A convenience sample of Finnish junior high school students (n = 560; mean age 14 years, ranging from 12 to 16 years) participated in the cross-sectional survey, of which, 83% (n = 465) reported having played digital games regularly. Sociodemographic data, different forms of digital media use, gaming behavior characteristics and problematic gaming behavior was assessed. Study participants spent on average one hour per day playing digital games; casual games (23.9%), shooting games (19.8%), and sport games (12.9%), were the most popular games among participants. By using regression analysis, a blended family structure and gaming time related positively to problematic gaming behavior. Preferences for game genres such as solo, Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing and strategy-management games were also positively associated with problematic use of digital games. These findings provide knowledge that can be utilized in the prevention of the possible negative consequences of digital gaming.
Park, Jeong Ha; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Lee, Young-Sik
Objective Recent studies of online game addiction have suggested that social interaction and impulsivity are critical factors for the etiology and progress of online game addiction. We hypothesized that the genre of the online game is associated with impulsivity and sociality in individuals with online game addictions. Methods In total, 212 patients with problematic online game playing were divided into four groups by game genre: 1) massive multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), 2) re...
Johnson, Crystal A.; Gilbert, Jenelle N.
Most athletes can benefit from practicing and using mental skills within a sport context, but budgets do not always allow the hiring of a Sport Psychologists to implement a mental skills training program. With guidance, however, dedicated coaches can help athletes develop the mental side of their game by providing basic psychological skills. A…
Kim, Jun Won; Han, Doug Hyun; Park, Doo Byung; Min, Kyung Joon; Na, Churl; Won, Su Kyung; Park, Ga Na
Psychobiological traits may be associated with excessive Internet use. This study assessed the relationships between biogenetic traits, the amount of time spent in online game playing, and the genre of the online game being played. Five hundred sixty five students who enjoyed one of the four types of games included in this study were recruited. The types of games examined included role playing games (RPG), real-time strategy games (RTS), first person shooting games (FPS), and sports games. Behavioral patterns of game play, academic performance, and player biogenetic characteristics were assessed. The amount of time that the participants spent playing online games was significantly greater on weekends than on weekdays. On weekends, the types of games with the largest numbers of participants who played games for more than three hours were ranked as follows: RPG and FPS, RTS, and sports games. The Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS)score for the RPG group was the highest among the groups of the four types of game players. The time that participants spent playing games on weekdays was negatively associated with academic performance, especially for the RPG and FPS groups. Compared with the other groups, the RPG and RTS groups had higher novelty seeking (NS) scores and self-directedness (SD) scores, respectively. Additionally, the sports game group had higher reward dependency scores than the other groups. These results suggest that RPGs may have specific factors that are attractive to latent game addicts with higher NS scores. Additionally, excessive playing of online games is related to impaired academic performance.
Objective. To determine the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of talented young athletes residing in Gauteng regarding prohibited performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and anti-doping rules and regulations. Methods. This was a survey study using a quantitative research approach. South African TuksSport academy ...
Spaaij, R.; Burleson, C.
Sport and peacemaking have evolved. It is no longer the case that the Olympic Games and war games exist in isolation from each other. Increasingly, policymakers, peacekeepers, athletes, development workers, presidents of nations and others combine forces in an "integrated" approach towards peace.
Bakkes, S.; Tan, C.T.; Pisan, Y.
This article focuses on personalised games, which we define as games that utilise player models for the purpose of tailoring the game experience to the individual player. The main contribution of the article is a motivation for personalised gaming, supported by an extensive overview of scientific
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
Hendricks, Vincent F.
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
This entry describes game studies as a dynamic interdisciplinary field of academic study and research that focuses on digital games and play in a wide variety of social and cultural contexts. It examines the history of game studies from its prehistory, when games were looked at as part of other
Varaiya, P. P.
General discussion of the theory of differential games with two players and zero sum. Games starting at a fixed initial state and ending at a fixed final time are analyzed. Strategies for the games are defined. The existence of saddle values and saddle points is considered. A stochastic version of a differential game is used to examine the synthesis problem.
Dan H Lim
Full Text Available This paper describes and discusses the rationale, background, design, and implementation of Flash learning games. The paper explains why Macromedia Flash has been selected as the authoring tool in the development of highly interactive learning games for online learning. The background evolutionary process of developing the learning games points out why it has been a daunting task to create compelling learning games that impact learning. Designing learning game objects that allow other educators to customize game content is the core of this paper. The author envisions this academic gaming project will evolve into an academic gaming portal, developed in conjunction with other major institutional partners.
Connolly, Walter C.
Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)
With the rapid development of mobile games, more rich and colorful mobile games are demanded. While during the development of mobile games, a good mobile game engine is a key technology, since it can integrate some important functions in a framework. In my thesis, the objective is to design the framework of 3D mobile game engine. For completing the research, I put forward specific three research questions, and through understanding and learning the knowledge of professional technologies and t...
Krotee, March L.
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger
Bakkes, S.; Tan, C.T.; Pisan, Y.
This article focuses on personalised games, which we define as games that utilise player models for the purpose of tailoring the game experience to the individual player. The main contribution of the article is a motivation for personalised gaming, supported by an extensive overview of scientific literature. The motivation concerns (a) the psychological foundation, (b) the effect on player satisfaction, (c) the contribution to game development, and (d) the requirement for achieving ambitions....
Kevin Curran; Paul Canning; Martin Laughlin; Ciarán McGowan; Rory Carlin
Computer gaming is a medium by which we can entertain ourselves, a medium that has expanded to the online worldwide market as part as globalization. The growth of online gaming has close ties with the use of broadband, as a good online gaming experience requires a broadband connection. Through online gaming, people can play and communicate with each other freely in almost any country, at any given time. This paper examines the phenomenon of online gaming.
Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.
... engagement (international to national and local) by stakeholders, form different configurations to allow space within physical education and school sport practices for sport mega-event educational legacy programmes. Keywords: Educational legacy; Olympic Games; Olympism; Sport-for-development; Physical education.
This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.
Bowles, Richard; O'Sullivan, Mary
Background: Extra-curricular sport is an important aspect of life in Irish primary schools. Team invasion games hold a dominant position and, within this category, Gaelic games are extremely popular. Teachers have, historically, played a significant role in the promotion of Gaelic games through the organization of inter-school competitions. The…
Full Text Available Game assets are portable between games. The games themselves are, however, dependent on the game engine they were developed on. Middleware has attempted to address this by, for instance, separating out the AI from the core game engine. Our work takes this further by separating the game from the game engine, and making it portable between game engines. The game elements that we make portable are the game logic, the object model, and the game state, which represent the game's brain, and which we collectively refer to as the game factor, or G-factor. We achieve this using an architecture based around a service-oriented approach. We present an overview of this architecture and its use in developing games. The evaluation demonstrates that the architecture does not affect performance unduly, adds little development overhead, is scaleable, and supports modifiability.
Cummings, Hope M.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.
Objective To examine the notion that playing video games is negatively related to the time adolescents spend in more developmentally appropriate activities. Design Nonexperimental study. Setting Survey data collected during the 2002–2003 school year. Participants A nationally representative sample of 1491 children aged 10 to 19 years. Main Outcome Measure Twenty-four–hour time-use diaries were collected on 1 weekday and 1 weekend day, both randomly chosen. Time-use diaries were used to determine adolescents’ time spent playing video games, with parents and friends, reading and doing homework, and in sports and active leisure. Results Differences in time spent between game players and nonplayers as well as the magnitude of the relationships among game time and activity time among adolescent game players were assessed. Thirty-six percent of adolescents (80% of boys and 20% of girls) played video games. On average, gamers played for an hour on the weekdays and an hour and a half on the weekends. Compared with nongamers, adolescent gamers spent 30% less time reading and 34% less time doing homework. Among gamers (both genders), time spent playing video games without parents or friends was negatively related to time spent with parents and friends in other activities. Conclusions Although gamers and nongamers did not differ in the amount of time they spent interacting with family and friends, concerns regarding gamers’ neglect of school responsibilities (reading and homework) are warranted. Although only a small percentage of girls played video games, our findings suggest that playing video games may have different social implications for girls than for boys. PMID:17606832
Of all sports, ice hockey is possibly the one with the widest array of physics elements in it. The game provides many examples that can bring physics to life in the classroom. Ice hockey (or just "hockey" as many Canadians would say) sees athletes sliding on ice at high speeds and in various ways, shooting and slapping pucks, and…
Gréhaigne, Jean-Francis; Godbout, Paul
This article examines the theory of dynamic systems and its use in the domains of the study and coaching of team sports. The two teams involved in a match are looked at as two interacting systems in movement, where opposition is paramount. A key element for the observation of game play is the notion of configuration of play and its ever-changing…
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the role of sport in American society against the background of a very important—for many reasons—period of great social transformation in the United States, one which visibly gathered pace in the 1920s. The author presents different aspects of popular culture, which was in full bloom on account of the following factors: the joy after World War I, a sense of optimism, the development of the economy and industry, the growth of big cities, and the greater affluence of the citizens. The analysis of that unusual decade corroborates the role of sport and its great power of influence on society. In an age when technology and mass production had robbed experiences and objects of their uniqueness, sports provided some of the unpredictability and drama that people craved when looking for romance and adventure. The reasons for the popularity of sport in the USA are presented, as well as the major sports diciplines and heroes of American sport who, in a time when mass production seemed to be making individuals less significant, met with a favorable response—people clung to the heroic personalities of sports figures. The analysis of the beginnings of professionalism in sport, the beginnings of organized support, and sports broadcasting, leaves no doubt as to the significance of the period. As the article demonstrates, it was a time of rapid and profound transformation in the realm of sport. Every serious examination of phenomena in contemporary American sport—and this is also true in the case of other countries—without a knowledge of the specificity of sport in the 1920s, would be far from perfect.
Full Text Available Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid running out of energy. We study average-energy games, where the goal is to optimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. We show that this objective arises naturally in several applications, and that it yields interesting connections with previous concepts in the literature. We prove that deciding the winner in such games is in NP inter coNP and at least as hard as solving mean-payoff games, and we establish that memoryless strategies suffice to win. We also consider the case where the system has to minimize the average-energy while maintaining the accumulated energy within predefined bounds at all times: this corresponds to operating with a finite-capacity storage for energy. We give results for one-player and two-player games, and establish complexity bounds and memory requirements.
Kretchmar, R. Scott
The article investigates several ways in which creating, entering, and playing games requires uniquely human levels of intelligence. It examines an element of our evolutionary heritage and the possibility that games (particularly in the form of sport) were among the first elements of culture. It describes sport as a "way of knowing," a…
Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M
Children's exposure to violence in the media remains a source of public health concern; however, violence in video games rated T (for "Teen") by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) has not been quantified. To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence and blood in T-rated video games. According to the ESRB, T-rated video games may be suitable for persons aged 13 years and older and may contain violence, mild or strong language, and/or suggestive themes. We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001 to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors for violence and blood assigned to these games. We randomly sampled 80 game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, and quantitatively assessed the content. Given the release of 2 new video game consoles, Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, and a significant number of T-rated video games released after we drew our random sample, we played and assessed 9 additional games for these consoles. Finally, we assessed the content of 2 R-rated films, The Matrix and The Matrix: Reloaded, associated with the T-rated video game Enter the Matrix. Game genre; percentage of game play depicting violence; depiction of injury; depiction of blood; number of human and nonhuman fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters, killing characters, or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; and content that may raise concerns about marketing T-rated video games to children. Based on analysis of the 396 T-rated video game titles, 93 game titles (23%) received content descriptors for both violence and blood, 280 game titles (71%) received only a content descriptor for violence, 9 game titles (2%) received only a content descriptor for blood, and 14 game titles
Barron, E N
A fundamental introduction to modern game theory from a mathematical viewpoint. Game theory arises in almost every fact of human and inhuman interaction since oftentimes during these communications objectives are opposed or cooperation is viewed as an option. From economics and finance to biology and computer science, researchers and practitioners are often put in complex decision-making scenarios, whether they are interacting with each other or working with evolving technology and artificial intelligence. Acknowledging the role of mathematics in making logical and advantageous decisions, Game
Elizabeth J. Lyons; Deborah F. Tate; Dianne S. Ward; Kurt M. Ribisl; J. Michael Bowling; Sriram Kalyanaraman
Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0....
Willick, Stuart E; Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn; Blauwet, Cheri A; Pit-Grosheide, Pia; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Patino Marques, Norma Angelica; Martinez-Ferrer, J Oriol; Jordaan, Esmè; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin
The characteristics and incidence of injuries at the Summer Paralympic Games have not previously been reported. A better understanding of injuries improves the medical care of athletes and informs future injury prevention strategies. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to characterise the incidence and nature of injuries during the London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury information was obtained from two databases. One database was populated from medical encounter forms completed by providers at the time of assessment in one of the medical stations operated by the Organising Committee. The second database was populated daily with information provided by team medical personnel who completed a comprehensive, web-based injury survey. The overall injury incidence rate was 12.7 injuries/1000 athlete-days. Injury rates were similar in male and female athletes. The precompetition injury rates in women were higher than those in the competition period. Higher injury rates were found in older athletes and certain sports such as football 5-a-side (22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days). Overall, 51.5% of injuries were new onset acute traumatic injuries. The most commonly injured region (percentage of all injuries) was the shoulder (17.7%), followed by the wrist/hand (11.4%), elbow (8.8%) and knee (7.9%). This is the largest and most comprehensive epidemiological report examining injuries in Paralympic athletes. Injury rates differ according to age and sport. Upper limb injuries are common. The knowledge gained from this study will inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies in Paralympic sport. The Epidemiology of Injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.
Objective: To determine the aetiology, prevalence and types of oro-facial injuries in a sports festival in Nigeria Materials and Methods: A data form was designed to collect among others, information on age, gender, state of origin, sporting event and types of injury. All consecutive patients who sustained oro-facial sports- ...
Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin
Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.
O'Donovan, C; Hussey, J
To examine the energy expenditure and heart rate response while playing active video games, and the effect of gaming experience on energy expenditure. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-eight healthy participants (18 male, age 19 to 27 years) played either Wii Sports Boxing, Tennis and Baseball, or Wii Sports Boxing and Wii Fit Free Jogging. Percentage maximal heart rate (%HRmax) and metabolic equivalents (METs) were measured during 15 minutes of rest and during each game. Mean %HRmax and METs while playing each of the four games were as follows: Wii Fit Free Jogging 71% [standard deviation (SD) 13%], 5.9 (SD 1.8); Wii Sports Boxing 58% (SD 13%), 3.2 (SD 1.1); Wii Sports Baseball 42% (SD 6%), 2.0 (SD 0.5); and Wii Sports Tennis 42% (SD 7%), 2.0 (SD 0.4). Subjects with gaming experience achieved a lower heart rate playing Wii Sports Tennis compared with subjects without gaming experience. Wii Sports Boxing, Tennis and Baseball are light-intensity activities, and Wii Fit Free Jogging is a moderate-intensity activity. Experience of gaming may affect the exercise intensity of games requiring controller skill. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Marketing developed close relation with sponsorship since the beginnings of the industrial era of sports. The relation has transformed in a stable relation, the two forces – the sponsor and the sponsored – transforming into two companions of journey. The effort undertaken in this work was focused on analyzing the modern aspects of the partnership generated through sports sponsorship.The current issue and sport sponsorship has come a long way since the first action of its kind until now. Based on the presentation of new concepts on the development efforts in sport sponsorship, content provides a detailed analysis of the actual specifics of this type of activity. Analysis of influence vectors sponsorship process gives us a picture of the forces that can act on this. At the end of our research we focused attention on elements that empowers sports portfolio in terms of corporate interest, the potentiation commercial message and image association. This technique of promotional community for and through sports is maybe the one that manifests the most “laic” status among the promotional forms. This epithet implies a metaphorical approach given by the possibility of accomplishing some objectives that can have some more obvious “corporality” than in the case of the other forms of promotion used in the sports industry. Sports sponsorship has been an early ally of sports, and has remained a basic communicational technique. This fact is due to some determination in double sense: on the one hand, sport has adapted permanently to the dynamics of the range of sponsorship techniques and, on the other hand, the sponsorship tried to use the chameleon-like offer of the sports potential.
... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...
Üçler, N; Engin, G Onkal; Köçken, H G; Öncel, M S
In this study, game theory and fuzzy programming approaches were used to balance economic and environmental impacts in the Namazgah reservoir, Turkey. The main goals identified were to maximize economic benefits of land use and to protect water quality of reservoir and land resources. Total phosphorous load (kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and economic income (USD ha(-1) year(-1)) from land use were determined as environmental value and economic value, respectively. The surface area of existing land use types, which are grouped under 10 headings according to the investigations on the watershed area, and the constraint values for the watershed were calculated using aerial photos, master plans, and basin slope map. The results of fuzzy programming approach were found to be very close to the results of the game theory model. It was concluded that the amount of fertilizer used in the current situation presents a danger to the reservoir and, therefore, unnecessary fertilizer use should be prevented. Additionally, nuts, fruit, and vegetable cultivation, instead of wheat and corn cultivation, was found to be more suitable due to their high economic income and low total phosphorus (TP) load. Apart from agricultural activities, livestock farming should also be considered in the area as a second source of income. It is believed that the results obtained in this study will help decision makers to identify possible problems of the watershed.
Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Duong, Jenny; McLeod, Colin
Using Australian Football League (AFL) matches as a case study, we investigated the frequency, length and content of marketing strategies for sports betting during two specific settings: 1) at stadiums during four live matches; and 2) during eight televised broadcasts of matches. Census of sports betting marketing during Round 12 of the 2011 AFL premiership season. Per match, there was an average of 58.5 episodes (median 49.5, s.d 27.8) and 341.1 minutes (median 324.1 minutes and s.d 44.5) of sports betting marketing at stadiums, and 50.5 episodes (median 53.5, s.d 45.2) and 4.8 minutes (median 5.0 minutes, s.d 4.0) during televised broadcasts. A diverse range of marketing techniques were used to: a) embed sports betting within the game; b) align sports betting with fans' overall experience of the game; and c) encourage individuals to bet live during the game. There were very few visible or audible messages (such as responsible gambling or Gambler's Help messages) to counter-frame the overwhelmingly positive messages that individuals received about sports betting during the match. This study raises important questions about the impacts of saturation, integrated and impulse gambling marketing strategies in sporting matches. Future research should explore: 1) how wagering industry marketing strategies may affect the attitudes and behaviours of community sub-groups (e.g. young male sports fans, and children); and 2) which public health and policy strategies, including regulation and harm minimisation messaging, will be effective in responding to wagering industry marketing strategies during sporting matches. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
“play” and “game” are, and of their social as well as political significance. At the municipal level, the city of Odense – “city of Hans Christian Andersen” – is branding itself as “city of play”. On the international level, Danish play-related products have expanded on the world market. In the field...... of sport, Danish sport is not just elite sport, but also organized in local associations. People meet in mass summer festivals of popular sport. Folk Academies develop sport as personal development, often in an experimental way. Street sports, parkour, play and games are promoted. Civil society is a basis...... for the play foray of market and state. These empirical phenomena lead to some more theoretical questions. One question concerns the connection between play and Danishness. How are patterns of play and cultural identity related to each other? Other questions concern the relation between play and production...
Baranowski, Tom; Hong, S Lee; Buday, Richard; Thompson, Debbe; Beltran, Alicia; Dadabhoy, Hafza Razak; Chen, Tzu-An
Background Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children’s AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influence behaviors. Objective The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a narrative would motivate increased AVG play, though a feasibility study that investigated the motivational effect of adding a previously developed narrative cutscene to an originally nonnarrative AVG, Nintendo Wii Sports Resort: Swordplay Showdown. Methods A total of 40 overweight and obese 8- to 11-year-olds equally divided by sex played the AVG. Half (n=20) were randomly assigned to a narrative group that watched the narrative cutscene before game play. The other half played the game without watching it. Results Children in the narrative group had significantly (Pgame play compared with the nonnarrative group (10-second period: mean 2.7, SD 0.7; overall: mean 366, SD 172). Conclusions The AVG with narrative induced increased physical activity. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which narrative increases physical activity during AVG game play. PMID:27742605
Full Text Available This article contends that a new research avenue is open to comparative economics which is the economic comparison between American (closed and European (open professional team sports leagues. It starts with sketching the major institutional differences between the two leagues systems. Then it surveys the American modelling of competitive balance in these sports leagues that objects pro-competitive balance regulation as being non Walrasian when (American teams are profit maximising. A next step is to cover how the Walrasian model has been adapted to European open leagues and their regulation of win maximising clubs under a hard budget constraint. Such approach has recently been outdated by models where win maximising clubs operate with a flexible supply of talent in a non cooperative game, given the globalization of the labour market for sporting talent (namely after the Bosman case. Finally, the article ploughs into a new research path advocating for a disequilibrium model where clubs would have a "soft" budget constraint rooted in their weak governance, and empirically tests a vicious circle between TV rights revenues and wages in French football that may explain the aforementioned disequilibrium.
Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj
In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however......, it is unclear how balancing mechanisms should be applied in exertion games, where physical and digital elements are fused. In this paper, we present an exertion game and three approaches for balancing it; a physical, an explicit-digital and an implicit-digital balancing approach. A user study that compares...... these three approaches is used to investigate the qualities and challenges within each approach and explore how the player experience is affected by them. Based on these findings, we suggest four design strategies for balancing exertion games, so that players will stay engaged in the game and contain...
Hansen, Ole Ertløv
Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states....
Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective National data for the U.S. show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults ages 20–34. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviors associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviors, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviors, sleep patterns, and substance use. Setting Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998–1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Subjects The sample consisted of 2,287 participants (55% female, mean age=25.3). Results Results showed 31.0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18.8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use, and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (pEnergy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviors, trouble sleeping, and substance use among men and women (psports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviors in the design of programs and services for young adults. PMID:25683863
Weiler, Richard; Van Mechelen, Willem; Fuller, Colin; Verhagen, Evert
Background Fifteen percent of the world?s population live with disability, and many of these individuals choose to play sport. There are barriers to sport participation for athletes with disability and sports injury can greatly impact on daily life, which makes sports injury prevention additionally important. Objective The purpose of this review is to systematically review the definitions, methodologies and injury rates in disability sport, which should assist future identification of risk fa...
Theoretical training is an important factor in terms of sports development of scientific research, specific to combat sports for achieving specific performance objectives set. Theoretical knowledge is theoretical science which the trainer teaches the lesson of training for understanding and integrating sporting content in sporting life. Thought the theoretical preparation, the athlete acknowledges the educational value of sports training. Theoretical preparation includes a rich content issues...
, called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness...
Jaime Prieto Bermejo
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the home advantage effect in Spanish handball and rugby, as contact sports where physical contact and aggressiveness is present in the game. The research objectives were: 1 To study home advantage in professional Spanish handball and rugby leagues; 2 To compare the results obtained between the two leagues, to know whether there are differences between them; 3 To study whether team ability influence home advantage, and if so, whether there are differences between best and worst teams. Nine seasons in both leagues were examined, from 2002-03 to 2010-11. Home advantage values were higher than 50% in both leagues, with significantly higher values in the rugby league (65.12% compared to 59.65%. The greater importance of physical contact and aggressiveness in the game actions in rugby can be a factor to be considered in the higher home advantage values found in the rugby league. The results showed the influence of team ability in home advantage in the two leagues, with no differences between the teams.Keywords: home advantage, contact sports, team sports, handball, rugby.
Jaime Prieto Bermejo
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the home advantage effect in Spanish handball and rugby, as contact sports where physical contact and aggressiveness is present in the game. The research objectives were: 1 To study home advantage in professional Spanish handball and rugby leagues; 2 To compare the results obtained between the two leagues, to know whether there are differences between them; 3 To study whether team ability influence home advantage, and if so, whether there are differences between best and worst teams. Nine seasons in both leagues were examined, from 2002-03 to 2010-11. Home advantage values were higher than 50% in both leagues, with significantly higher values in the rugby league (65.12% compared to 59.65%. The greater importance of physical contact and aggressiveness in the game actions in rugby can be a factor to be considered in the higher home advantage values found in the rugby league. The results showed the influence of team ability in home advantage in the two leagues, with no differences between the teams. Keywords: home advantage, contact sports, team sports, handball, rugby.
Full Text Available A learning game has been developed which allows learners to study and learn about the significance of three important variables in human physiology (lactate, glycogen, and hydration and their influence on sports performance during running. The player can control the speed of the runner, and as a consequence the resulting physiological processes are simulated in real-time. The performance degradation of the runner due to these processes requires that different strategies for pacing the running speed are applied by the player, depending on the total length of the run. The game has been positively evaluated in a real learning context of academic physiology teaching.
Moch Fahmi Abdulaziz
Full Text Available Physical education, health and sports is an integral part of the overall education, aiming to develop physical fitness, skills of motion, critical thinking skills, social skills, reasoning, emotional stability, moral action, aspects of healthy living patterns and the introduction of clean environment through physical activity, sport and health selected planned systematically in order to achieve the goals of national education. Physical education, health and sports are the attempts to embody the whole person in the school, either from a basic to intermediate education level.Table tennis is one of the Physical education learning material taught in elementary school. However, the reality in the learning process has not been implemented optimally because the table was not proportional to the number of students. Thus the need to win and the modifications to the game, make students more actively in learning. The problems that plagued the school made teacher’s creativity in developing models of learning a new, yet fun and in accordance with the objectives of the learning that has been set. Modification of the learning game of ping-pong was one of the efforts that must be realized. Learning the ping-pong game through the happy bouncing ball game was expected to make children more actively engaged in a variety of pleasant situations and conditions, while following the learning of table tennis game.
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…
This review describes and classifies the trajectories of sports projectiles that have spherical symmetry, cylindrical symmetry, or (almost) no symmetry. This classification allows us to discuss the large diversity observed in the paths of spherical balls, the flip properties of shuttlecocks, and the optimal position and stability of ski jumpers.
Andersen, Tem Frank
This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...
... motivator. Physically, you need strength and endurance. Your training will vary with your sport. You would not train the same way for pole vaulting as for swimming. You might, however, cross train. Cross training simply means that you include a variety of ...
Ekaterina P. Rusakova
Full Text Available In this article author analyzes the activities of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency. Author considers the goals, objectives and procedure for dealing with disputes relating to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes. Author study the regulation of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency, to resolve disputes relating to the use of doping, as well as the procedure for application and acceptance of its agency, the choice of arbitrators, counterclaim, protection of evidence.
Ekaterina P. Rusakova
In this article author analyzes the activities of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency. Author considers the goals, objectives and procedure for dealing with disputes relating to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes. Author study the regulation of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency, to resolve disputes relating to the use of doping, as well as the procedure for application and acceptance of its agency, the choice of arbitrators, counterclaim, protection of evidence.
Background: Sports talent in the Czech Republic is generally viewed as a static, stable phenomena. It stands in contrast with widespread praxis carried out in Anglo-Saxon countries that emphasise its fluctuant nature. This is reflected in the current models describing its development. Objectives: The aim is to introduce current models of talent development in sport. Methods: Comparison and analysing of the following models: Balyi - Long term athlete development model, Côté - Developmen...
Santiago Patiño Giraldo
Full Text Available Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100 games. The great variability among the incidence rates may be explained by differences among sports, countries, competitive levels, ages and methodology used in the studies. Sports injuries have been defined as those occurring when athletes are practicing sports and that result in tissue alterations or damages, affecting the operation of the corresponding structures. Contact sports such as soccer, rugby, martial arts, basketball, handball and hockey generate greater risk of injuries. The probability of lesions is higher during competition than in training. El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes
Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that the implementation of innovation that reinvigorates the teaching ofgames and sports in Australian schools has faced considerable barriers (Alexander, 2008; Light & Georgakis,2005; Pill, 2009. One example of an innovation to enhance sport teaching and learning is Teaching Games forUnderstanding-Game Sense (den Dun, 1996, 1997a. This paper presents the findings from a survey of physicaleducation teachers’ in one Australian state and the degree of engagement with TGfU-GS curriculum design andenactment. Sixty Four teachers participated in a web survey investigating the penetration of TGfU-GScurriculum. The data was treated as qualitative and the surveys were analysed by comparative systematicinterpretation to reveal recurring themes. The analysis indicated that TGfU- GS was thought to be mostapplicable for senior years (Years 11-12 physical education. Teachers recognised the use of small-sidedmodified games and ‘questioning as pedagogy’ as common practice and not distinctive to a TGfU-GS approach.However, the use of questioning was generally not planned for in teacher lesson preparation and lesson planningdid not utilise TGfU-GS game categories to thematically develop game understanding systematically acrosssport specific units of work. While elements of TGfU-GS pedagogy are evidenced in the design and enactmentof sport and sport related games teachers TGfU-GS was yet to be fully understood and implemented by themajority of teachers.
Vazha M. Devishvili; Marina O. Mdivani; Daria S. Elgina
Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The pape...
Gerling, Kathrin; Mandryk, Regan; Miller, Matthew; Kalyn, Mike; Birk, Max; Smeddinck, Jan
People using wheelchairs have access to fewer sports and other physically stimulating leisure activities than nondisabled persons, and often lead sedentary lifestyles that negatively influence their health. While motion- based video games have demonstrated great potential of encouraging physical activity among nondisabled players, the accessibility of motion-based games is limited for persons with mobility disabilities, thus also limiting access to the potential health benefits of playing the...
Pöyhtäri, A. (Aleksi)
Abstract The purpose of this thesis is to provide a clearer picture of how gamers view gaming as a social construct and how social interaction changes the gaming experience. Social interaction in games brings people together. Online games have been researched from many points of view. However, the research done from social perspective is relatively new and this is why I wanted to write my thesis from the social interaction ...
Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jensen, Rune Dall; Christiansen, Ask Vest; Henriksen, Kristoffer
As a multi-sport event that only takes place every four years and is accompanied by intense media coverage, the Olympic Games are often described by athletes as a defining moment in their careers. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to describe differences in expectations of Olympic...... the goals and expectations of the elite sport system and those of the individual athletes. Data was collected through a qualitative interview study with a pre- and post-Olympic competition design. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed 14 Danish Olympic debutants about their Olympic goals...... are caught in a very real dilemma between the Olympics as the ―most important competition of their athletic careers‖ and ―the Olympics as the experience of a lifetime.‖ This dilemma is linked to a wide rift between the perspectives and goals of the sport organization and those of the athletes....
Boyack, K.W.; Berman, M.
Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the University Prosperity Game conducted under the sponsorship of the Anderson Schools of Management at the University of New Mexico. This Prosperity Game was initially designed for the roadmap making effort of the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI) of the Electronics Subcommittee of the Civilian Industrial Technology Committee under the aegis of the National Science and Technology Council. The game was modified to support course material in MGT 508, Ethical, Political, and Social Environment of Business. Thirty-five students participated as role players. In this educational context the game`s main objectives were to: (1) introduce and teach global competitiveness and business cultures in an experiential classroom setting; (2) explore ethical, political, and social issues and address them in the context of global markets and competition; and (3) obtain non-government views regarding the technical and non-technical (i.e., policy) issues developed in the NEMI roadmap-making endeavor. The negotiations and agreements made during the game, along with the student journals detailing the players feelings and reactions to the gaming experience, provide valuable insight into the benefits of simulation as an advanced learning tool in higher education.
The RAGE project (Realising an Applied Gaming Ecosystem, http://rageproject.eu/) is an ongoing initiative that aims to offer an ecosystem to support serious games’ development and use. Its two main objectives are to provide technologies for computer game-based pedagogy and learning and to establish
Leino, Olli Tapio
Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...
Guilherme S. Nunes
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The risk of injuries related to physical activity and sports may increase if there is predisposition, inappropriate training and/or coach guidance, and absence of sports medicine follow-up. Objective: To assess the frequency of injuries in athletes treated at a physiotherapy center specialized in sports. Methods: For the data collection was carried out the survey of injuries in records of athletes treated in eight years of activities. The data collected included: characteristics of patients, sport, injury kind, injury characteristics and affected body part. Results: From 1090 patient/athlete records, the average age was 25 years old, the athletes were spread across 44 different sports modalities, being the great majority men (75%. The most common type of injury was joint injury, followed by muscular and bone injuries. Chronic injury was the most frequent (47%, while the most common body part injured was the knee, followed by ankle and shoulder. Among all the sports, soccer, futsal, and track and field presented the highest number of injured athletes, respectively. Conclusion: Soccer was the most common sport among the injured athletes, injury kind most frequent was joint injuries and knee was the body part most injured. Chronic injuries were the most common.
Ingalls, Joan S.
This article describes five improvisational theater games for building "teams" in the classroom and on the sports field. Particular attention is given to understanding how teams must challenge the hyper-individuality of modern culture. Improvisational theater games for team building are designed to help participants find a balance…
Vealey, Robin S.
What often seems intuitive and well-meaning as a mental game strategy may be ineffective or detrimental to athletes, based on the evolution of knowledge in sport psychology. This article describes three popular ideas about the mental game and identifies them as myths, based on experience and research. These myths are (1) mental training should…
Cramer, Stanley J.
To be successful in game play requires students to do more than merely execute sport-specific movement skills well. Students should be learning how to read specific game situations while not in possession of the ball, respond appropriately with movements to reposition themselves to gain an advantage for their team or self, react to produce…
Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish
There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.
This paper reports on research framed as a strengths-based appreciative inquiry (AI) into the use of a game sense (GS) approach for sport and games teaching in physical education (PE). The aim of this research was to find the elements which sustain teachers in the use of a GS approach. This is particularly pertinent given strong advocacy for GS as…
Building on the definition of cinematography (Soanes and Stevenson, Oxford dictionary of English. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, 2005), game cinematography can be defined as the art of visualizing the content of a computer game. The relationship between game cinematography and its...... traditional counterpart is extremely tight as, in both cases, the aim of cinematography is to control the viewer’s perspective and affect his or her perception of the events represented. However, game events are not necessarily pre-scripted and player interaction has a major role on the quality of a game...... experience; therefore, the role of the camera and the challenges connected to it are different in game cinematography as the virtual camera has to both dynamically react to unexpected events to correctly convey the game story and take into consideration player actions and desires to support her interaction...
Hansen, Lisa; Sanders, Stephen W.
Active gaming is growing in popularity and the idea of increasing children's physical activity by using technology is largely accepted by physical educators. Teachers nationwide have been providing active gaming equipment such as virtual bikes, rhythmic dance machines, virtual sporting games, martial arts simulators, balance boards, and other…
Full Text Available Attempts to establish a biomarker reflecting individual player load in intermittent sports such as football have failed so far. Increases in circulating DNA (cfDNA have been demonstrated in various endurance sports settings. While it has been proposed that cfDNA could be a suitable marker for player load in intermittent sports, the effects on cfDNA of repeated sprinting as an essential feature in intermittent sports are unknown. For the first time, we assessed both alterations of cfDNA due to repeated maximal sprints and due to a professional football game.Nine participants were subjected to a standardised sprint training session with cross-over design of five maximal sprints of 40 meters with either "short" (1 minute or "long" pauses (5 minutes. Capillary cfDNA and lactate were measured after every sprint and venous cfDNA before and after each series of sprints. Moreover, capillary cfDNA and lactate values were taken in 23 professional football players before and after incremental exercise testing, during the course of a training week at rest (baseline and in all 17 enrolled players following a season game.Lactate and venous cfDNA increased more pronounced during "short" compared to "long" (1.4-fold, p = 0.032 and 1.7-fold, p = 0.016 and cfDNA correlated significantly with lactate (r = 0.69; p<0.001. Incremental exercise testing increased cfDNA 7.0-fold (p<0.001. The season game increased cfDNA 22.7-fold (p<0.0001, while lactate showed a 2.0-fold (p = 0.09 increase compared to baseline. Fold-changes in cfDNA correlated with distance covered during game (spearman's r = 0.87, p = 0.0012, while no correlation between lactate and the tracking data could be found.We show for the first time that cfDNA could be an objective marker for distance covered in elite intermittent sports. In contrast to the potential of more established blood-based markers like IL-6, CK, or CRP, cfDNA shows by far the strongest fold-change and a high correlation with a
People with disabilities often depend on assistive devices to enable activities of daily living as well as to compete in sport. Technological developments in sport can be controversial. To review, identify and describe current technological developments in assistive devices used in the summer Paralympic Games; and to prepare for the London 2012 Games, the future challenges and the role of technology are debated. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature and personal observations of technological developments at the Athens (2004) and Beijing (2008) Paralympic Games was conducted. Standard assistive devices can inhibit the Paralympians' abilities to perform the strenuous activities of their sports. Although many Paralympic sports only require technology similar to their Olympic counterparts, several unique technological modifications have been made in prosthetic and wheelchair devices. Technology is essential for the Paralympic athlete, and the potential technological advantage for a Paralympian, when competing against an Olympian, is unclear. Technology must match the individual requirements of the athlete with the sport in order for Paralympians to safely maximise their performance. Within the 'performance enhancement or essential for performance?' debate, any potential increase in mechanical performance from an assistive device must be considered holistically with the compensatory consequences the disability creates. To avoid potential technology controversies at the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games, the role of technology in sport must be clarified.
Morris, G. S. Don
This book presents the thesis that the structure of games must be analyzed in terms of the specific behavioral objectives sought in their activity. It asks teachers to look at games before using them in the classroom, rather than attaching unwarranted values to games as justification for their use. It also demonstrates how one can structure games…
Full Text Available We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels.
Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O
OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.
Nakandala, Supun; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Su, Norman Makoto; Ahn, Yong-Yeol
Online social media and games are increasingly replacing offline social activities. Social media is now an indispensable mode of communication; online gaming is not only a genuine social activity but also a popular spectator sport. With support for anonymity and larger audiences, online interaction shrinks social and geographical barriers. Despite such benefits, social disparities such as gender inequality persist in online social media. In particular, online gaming communities have been crit...
Bosc, Guillaume; Kaytoue, Mehdi; Raïssi, Chedy; Boulicaut, Jean-François; Tan, Philip
International audience; The video game industry has grown enormously over the last twenty years, bringing new challenges to the artificial intelli-gence and data analysis communities. We tackle here the problem of automatic discovery of strategies in real-time strategy games through pattern mining. Such patterns are the basic units for many tasks such as automated agent design, but also to build tools for the profession-ally played video games in the electronic sports scene. Our formal-izatio...
Mac Namee, Brian; Beaney, David; Dong, Qingqing
The next generation of Augmented Reality (AR) games will require real and virtual objects to coexist in motion in immersive game environments. This will require the illusion that real and virtual objects interact physically together in a plausible way. The Motion in Augmented Reality Games (MARG) engine described in this paper has been developed to allow these kinds of game environments. The paper describes the design and implementation of the MARG engine and presents two pr...
Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon; Song, Hyoung-Seok; Kwon, Ku-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Soo; Nam, Min; Jung, In-Kwa
As the number of internet users increases, a new game genre using the internet as a networking tool is emerging. Some game genres are regarded as having greater addiction potentials than others. Games and the internet are closely related. We investigated games frequently used by adolescents and classified each of them with the help of game professionals. We also examined internet use patterns to identify relationships between game genre and internet use patterns. 627 middle school and high school students (male 488, female 139) completed questionnaires concerning computer and game use patterns and Korean internet addiction scales. Game genres were divided into eight criteria (simulation, role playing game, web board, community, action, adventure, shooting, and sports). Using Korean internet addiction scales, 627 participants were divided into a normal group (474), a potential risk group (128), and a high-risk group (25). Each group showed significant differences in total internet addiction scores. We classified players into specific game users based upon the game types they most prefer. Role playing game users showed significantly higher internet addiction scores than web board and sports game users. Game and internet addictions are also connected with interpersonal relationship patterns. We suggest that users of some game genre have unique psychological addiction potentials that are different from others and that this influences both game selection and internet use.
Lindsay B. Baker
and during a game seems to have the greatest impact on intermittent sports performance towards the end of the game.
Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E
Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game
Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.
game seems to have the greatest impact on intermittent sports performance towards the end of the game. PMID:26184303
Myer, Gregory D; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kiefer, Adam W; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J
Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Clinical review. Level 4. Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. B. © 2015 The Author(s).
Christensen, Mette Krogh
Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...
Aukrust Avemo, Jonas
E-sports is growing and the price pools in e-sports tournaments are increasing, Valves video game DotA 2 is one of the bigger e-sports. As professional gamers train to increase their skill, new tools to help the training might become very important. Eye tracking can give an extra training dimension for the gamer. The aim of this master thesis is to develop a Visual Attention Index for DotA 2, that is, a number that reflects the player’s visual attention during a game. Interviews with gamers c...
Robertson, Greg A. J.; Wood, Alexander M.
Context: Acute tibial shaft fractures represent one of the most severe injuries in sports. Return rates and return-to-sport times after these injuries are limited, particularly with regard to the outcomes of different treatment methods. Objective: To determine the current evidence for the treatment of and return to sport after tibial shaft fractures. Data Sources: OVID/MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration Database, Web of Science, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Google Sch...
"Sport Guts" in Japanese anime developed not only to strengthen mentality but also to challenge for objectives. This paper helps to understand the development of Japanese girl anime, and its philosophical concepts of Japanese amine. This paper focuses on girls' sport anime "Sport Guts,", which is the major philosophy of Japanese girl anime and centers on a girl who is enthusiastic about volleyball and makes an effort to compete in the World Series by focusing on girl anime b...