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Sample records for sports drinks energy

  1. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? ... ingredients they contain and how they measure up: Sports Drinks Sports drinks may be beneficial for kids ...

  2. Sports/energy drinks consumption among young athletes in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Athletes who had 'ever' tried a sport drink were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those who had 'never' tasted the drink. Main reasons for using such drinks for regular users varied across the selected groups of athletes and included obtaining energy and boosting performance while doing sport. Most athletes claimed to be ...

  3. Energy and sports drinks in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Catherine M; Blair, Becky

    2017-10-01

    Sports drinks and caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) are commonly consumed by youth. Both sports drinks and CEDs pose potential risks for the health of children and adolescents and may contribute to obesity. Sports drinks are generally unnecessary for children engaged in routine or play-based physical activity. CEDs may affect children and adolescents more than adults because they weigh less and thus experience greater exposure to stimulant ingredients per kilogram of body weight. Paediatricians need to recognize and educate patients and families on the differences between sport drinks and CEDs. Screening for the consumption of CEDs, especially when mixed with alcohol, should be done routinely. The combination of CEDs and alcohol may be a marker for higher risk of substance use or abuse and for other health-compromising behaviours.

  4. Sports drinks and energy drinks for children and adolescents: are they appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Sports and energy drinks are being marketed to children and adolescents for a wide variety of inappropriate uses. Sports drinks and energy drinks are significantly different products, and the terms should not be used interchangeably. The primary objectives of this clinical report are to define the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorize the similarities and differences between the products, and discuss misuses and abuses. Secondary objectives are to encourage screening during annual physical examinations for sports and energy drink use, to understand the reasons why youth consumption is widespread, and to improve education aimed at decreasing or eliminating the inappropriate use of these beverages by children and adolescents. Rigorous review and analysis of the literature reveal that caffeine and other stimulant substances contained in energy drinks have no place in the diet of children and adolescents. Furthermore, frequent or excessive intake of caloric sports drinks can substantially increase the risk for overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. Discussion regarding the appropriate use of sports drinks in the youth athlete who participates regularly in endurance or high-intensity sports and vigorous physical activity is beyond the scope of this report.

  5. Selecting and Effectively Using Sports Drinks, Carbohydrate Gels and Energy Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Effectively Using Sports Drinks, Carbohydrate Gels and Energy Bars Depending upon the length of your workout ... can hinder performance. Sports drinks, carbohydrate gels and energy bars can help restore your body’s fluids and ...

  6. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI.We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption.Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20 who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms.Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed.Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1 reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months. Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers.TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol

  7. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol mixed with

  8. A comparison of sports and energy drinks--Physiochemical properties and enamel dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Poonam; Hall-May, Emily; Golabek, Kristi; Agustin, Ma Zenia

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of sports and energy drinks by children and adolescents has increased at an alarming rate in recent years. It is essential for dental professionals to be informed about the physiochemical properties of these drinks and their effects on enamel. The present study measured the fluoride levels, pH, and titratable acidity of multiple popular, commercially available brands of sports and energy drinks. Enamel dissolution was measured as weight loss using an in vitro multiple exposure model consisting of repeated short exposures to these drinks, alternating with exposure to artificial saliva. The relationship between enamel dissolution and fluoride levels, pH, and titratable acidity was also examined. There was a statistically significant difference between the fluoride levels (p = 0.034) and pH (p = 0.04) of the sports and energy drinks studied. The titratable acidity of energy drinks (11.78) was found to be significantly higher than that of sports drinks (3.58) (p energy drinks (Red Bull Sugar Free, Monster Assault, Von Dutch, Rockstar, and 5-Hour Energy) were found to have the highest titratable acidity values among the brands studied. Enamel weight loss after exposure to energy drinks was significantly higher than it was after exposure to sports drinks. The effect of titratable acidity on enamel weight loss was found to vary inversely with the pH of the drinks. The findings indicated that energy drinks have significantly higher titratable acidity and enamel dissolution associated with them than sports drinks. Enamel weight loss after exposure to energy drinks was more than two times higher than it was after exposure to sports drinks. Titratable acidity is a significant predictor of enamel dissolution, and its effect on enamel weight loss varies inversely with the pH of the drink. The data from the current study can be used to educate patients about the differences between sports and energy drinks and the effects of these drinks on tooth enamel.

  9. Does Sport-Drink Use During Exercise Promote an Acute Positive Energy Balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragusin, Iulian B; Horswill, Craig A

    2016-10-01

    Sports drinks have been implicated in contributing to obesity and chronic diseases by providing surplus calories and excess sugars. Using existing literature we compared energy intake from sports drinks consumed during exercise with the exercise-induced calorie expenditure to determine whether sports drink use might eliminate the energy deficit and jeopardize conditions for improved metabolic fitness. We identified 11 published studies that compared sport drink consumption to placebo during exercise with a primary focused on the effect of sport drinks or total carbohydrate content on enhancing physical performance. Energy expenditure (EE) was calculated using VO 2 , RER, and exercise duration for the exercise protocol. Energy ingestion (EI) was determined using the carbohydrate dosing regimen administered before and during the exercise protocol. A two-tailed t test was used to test whether the energy balance (EI-EE) was different from zero (alpha level = 0.05). Sport drink consumption during aerobic exercise of sufficient duration (≥ 60 min) did not abolish the energy deficit (p sports drinks to enhance performance did not abolish the caloric deficit of aerobic exercise. Sports drinks can be used in accordance with research protocols that typically provide 30-60 g of carbohydrate per hour when exercising at adequate durations for moderate to high intensity and still maintain a substantive caloric deficit.

  10. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9

  11. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED or energy shots (ES. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and

  12. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin; La Bounty, Paul; Taylor, Lem; Nelson, Mike T; Greenwood, Mike; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Schmitz, Stephen; Collins, Rick; Kalman, Doug S; Antonio, Jose; Kreider, Richard B

    2013-01-03

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9

  13. In Vitro Effects of Sports and Energy Drinks on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, LaQuia A; Goodlett, Amy K; Huang, Ruijie; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    2017-09-15

    Sports and energy drinks are being increasingly consumed and contain large amounts of sugars, which are known to increase Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of sports and energy drinks on S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. S. mutans UA159 was cultured with and without a dilution (1:3 ratio) of a variety of sports and energy drinks in bacterial media for 24 hours. The biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained. Biofilm growth was evaluated by reading absorbance of the crystal violet. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured by the biofilm-reducing XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Espresso Energy were found to significantly increase biofilm (30-fold and 22-fold, respectively) and metabolic activity (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively). However, most of the remaining drinks significantly inhibited biofilm growth and metabolic activity. Several sports and energy drinks, with sugars or sugar substitutes as their main ingredients inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. Among the drinks evaluated, Gatorade Protein Recovery Chocolate Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Energy appear to have cariogenic potential since they increased the biofilm formation and metabolic activity of S. mutans.

  14. SPORT DRINKS WITH DIFFERENT OSMOLALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the assortment sport drinks’ extending possibility is represented. The juice component compositions for sport drinks with different osmolality were designed. The feasibility of adding into the drink calcium lactate as a source of quick body energy renovation and as calcium deficiency’s reducer were proved.

  15. Sports and energy drink consumption among a population-based sample of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Objective National data for the U.S. show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults ages 20–34. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviors associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviors, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviors, sleep patterns, and substance use. Setting Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998–1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Subjects The sample consisted of 2,287 participants (55% female, mean age=25.3). Results Results showed 31.0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18.8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use, and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (pEnergy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviors, trouble sleeping, and substance use among men and women (psports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviors in the design of programs and services for young adults. PMID:25683863

  16. Sports and energy drink consumption are linked to health-risk behaviours among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    National data for the USA show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults aged 20-34 years. The present study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health-risk behaviours associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviours, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviours, sleep patterns and substance use. Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998-1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, USA and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008-2009. The sample consisted of 2287 participants (55% female, mean age 25·3 years). Results showed 31·0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18·8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (P≤0·01). Energy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviours, trouble sleeping and substance use among men and women (Psports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviours in the design of programmes and services for young adults.

  17. Characteristics associated with consumption of sports and energy drinks among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in

  18. How can we restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children? A proposal for a World Health Organization-sponsored framework convention to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, G

    2017-12-01

    High-sugar drinks, including fruit drinks, soft drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks, are of no nutritional value and contribute to the burden of dental disease in all age groups. The manufacturers of sports and energy drinks have elected to target children in their marketing campaigns and promote a misleading association between their products, healthy lifestyles and sporting prowess. The World Health Organization (WHO) has acknowledged that strategies aimed at prevention of dental disease are the only economically viable options for managing the oral health of children in low- and middle-income countries. Developed nations will also be advantaged by preventive programmes given that the cost of providing dental care to those who cannot pay draws valuable resources away from more pressing health issues. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) obligates governments to develop legislation to protect the health of children. A framework convention modelled on the existing Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, supported by the WHO, would assist governments to proactively legislate to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children. This article will consider how a framework convention would be an advantage with reference to the strategies used by sports and energy drink manufacturers in Australia. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks by High School Athletes in the United States: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Fields

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports and energy (S/E drinks are commonly used by high school (HS athletes, yet little is known about this population’s consumption patterns or the drinks’ side-effects. The objectives of this pilot study were to survey HS athletes about their use of S/E drinks and assess potential side-effects. One hundred American HS athletes (72 were female; 27 were male; one did not identify gender were part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey. The mean age of the athletes was 16.0 ± 1.1 years. The athletes self-reported S/E consumption patterns, motivations for consumption, and drink side-effects. Nearly two-thirds (59.5% of athletes surveyed were at least occasional users of sports drinks, and more than one-third (37.3% were at least occasional users of energy drinks. Of the athletes who had ever drunk an S/E drink, 49.5% drank their first sport drink at ≤ 8 years and 41.3% consumed their first energy drink ≤ 11–12 years of age. The most common motivation for consumption of sports drinks was to rehydrate (84.1% and of energy drinks was to gain energy (61.8%. Side effects of S/E drinks were frequently reported; 25.3% of energy drink users reporting being nervous/jittery after consumption. Thus HS athletes should be cautioned about consumption of S/E drinks until more is understood about their short- and long-term side-effects.

  20. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Nan; Wethington, Holly; Onufrak, Stephen; Belay, Brook

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs), energy drinks (EDs), or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for characteristics independently associated with SED counseling. Results. Overall, 34% of health care providers regularly counseled on both SEDs, with 41% regularly counseling on SDs and 55% regularly counseling on EDs. On adjusted modeling regular SED counseling was associated with the female sex (aOR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.07-1.93]), high fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.54-2.73]), family/general practitioners (aOR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.41-0.82]) and internists (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20-0.70]) versus pediatricians, and group versus individual practices (aOR: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.42-0.84]). Modeling for SD- and ED-specific counseling found similar associations with provider characteristics. Conclusion. The prevalence of regular SED counseling is low overall and varies. Provider education on the significance of SED counseling and consumption is important.

  1. Antibacterial protection by enterocin AS-48 in sport and energy drinks with less acidic pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martinez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    The low pH and acid content found in sports and energy drinks are a matter of concern in dental health. Raising the pH may solve this problem, but at the same time increase the risks of spoilage or presence of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, commercial energy drinks were adjusted to pH 5.0 and challenged with Listeria monocytogenes (drinks A to F), Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus licheniformis (drink A) during storage at 37 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was able to grow in drink A and survived in drinks D and F for at least 2 days. Addition of enterocin AS-48 (1 microg/ml final concentration) rapidly inactivated L. monocytogenes in all drinks tested. S. aureus and B. cereus also survived quite well in drink A, and were completely inactivated by 12.5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 25 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. B. licheniformis was able to multiply in drink A, but it was completely inactivated by 5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 12.5 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. Results from the present study suggest that enterocin AS-48 could be used as a natural preservative against these target bacteria in less acidic sport and energy drinks.

  2. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Salinero, J.J.; Lara, B; Abián-Vicen, J.; González-Millán, C.; Areces, F.; Gallo-Salazar, C.; Ruiz-Vicente, D.; Del Coso, J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in th...

  3. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs, energy drinks (EDs, or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR for characteristics independently associated with SED counseling. Results. Overall, 34% of health care providers regularly counseled on both SEDs, with 41% regularly counseling on SDs and 55% regularly counseling on EDs. On adjusted modeling regular SED counseling was associated with the female sex (aOR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.07–1.93], high fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.54–2.73], family/general practitioners (aOR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.41–0.82] and internists (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20–0.70] versus pediatricians, and group versus individual practices (aOR: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.42–0.84]. Modeling for SD- and ED-specific counseling found similar associations with provider characteristics. Conclusion. The prevalence of regular SED counseling is low overall and varies. Provider education on the significance of SED counseling and consumption is important.

  4. Sports drinks and dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Warden H; Donovan, Terence E; Geissberger, Marc

    2011-04-01

    Sports drinks were originally developed to improve hydration and performance in athletes taking part in intense or endurance sporting events. These drinks contain relatively high amounts of carbohydrates (sugars), salt, and citric acid. These ingredients create the potential for dental ramifications and overall public health consequences such as obesity and diabetes. High intake of sports drinks during exercise, coupled with xerostomia from dehydration, may lead to the possibility of erosive damage to teeth.

  5. Surface hardness of different restorative materials after long-term immersion in sports and energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ugur; Yildiz, Esra; Eren, Meltem Mert; Ozel, Sevda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different restorative materials over a 6-month period. Forty-two disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each of the four restorative materials tested: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise. Specimens were immersed for 2 min daily, up to 6 months, in six storage solutions (n=7 per material for each solution): distilled water, Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull. Surface hardness was measured at baseline, after 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months. Data were analyzed statistically using repeated measures ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons (α=0.05). Surface hardness of the restorative materials was significantly affected by both immersion solution and immersion period (p<0.001). All tested solutions induced significant reduction in surface hardness of the restorative materials over a 6-month immersion period.

  6. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; Penergy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants.

  7. Impact of sport drinks on sweat composition

    OpenAIRE

    Muraro, Marcela; Zuliani, Claudio; Nesterenko, Ekaterina; Coyle, Shirley; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Warrington, Giles; Matzeu, Giusy; Costa, Ernane; Diamond, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In sport science it is well known that individual diet has an important role in affecting a person’s performance [1]. In this regard, in the last 10-20 years energy and sport drinks have become increasingly popular among elite and amateur athletes. The worldwide consumption of energy drinks increased in 2006 to 906 million gallons [2]. Just in Brazil, from 2008 to 2010, the production of energy drinks doubled [3]. A possible reason for their popularity is that they claim to help...

  8. Effect of Caffeine Contained in Sports Drink on Hormones Producing Energy Following Sprint Test Performance in Male Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fayiz Abumoh'd

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of caffeine contained in sports drink on hormones producing energy and sprint test performance in male soccer players. Twelve participants (25.97 ± 2.70 y performed the test under thre e conditions (one week apart: caffeine with sports drink (SD-CAF, sports drink (SD, and placebo (PLA. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover protocol, participants performed SD-CAF trial (5 mg/kg of caffeine contained in 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test (7 × 30 m, SD trial (solely 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test, or placebo. Blood analysis indicated significantly higher level of free thyroxine in SD-CAF (21.450 ± 3.048 compared to SD (18.742 ± 1.151 and PLA (16.983 ± 1.783. Similar findings existed regarding insulin (P 0.05. No significant differences were observed between trials in first–fourth repetitions (P > 0.05. Time of fifth-seventh repetitions were significantly lower in SD-CAF compared to SD and PLA (P < 0.05, and were significantly lower in SD than that in PLA (P < 0.05. The time of 7th repetition was (4.331 ± 0.210, 4.610 ± 0.197, 4.81 6 ± 0.171 s for SD-CAF, SD, and PLA, respectively; P < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine interferes hormones that are responsible for producing energy which in turn have a positive effect on repeated sprint bouts.

  9. Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks by High School Athletes in the United States: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah K. Fields; James MacDonald; Allan M. Joseph; Loren E. Wold; Christy L. Collins; R. Dawn Comstock

    2015-01-01

    Sports and energy (S/E) drinks are commonly used by high school (HS) athletes, yet little is known about this population’s consumption patterns or the drinks’ side-effects. The objectives of this pilot study were to survey HS athletes about their use of S/E drinks and assess potential side-effects. One hundred American HS athletes (72 were female; 27 were male; one did not identify gender) were part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey. The mean age of the athletes was 16.0 ± 1.1 years...

  10. Sports drinks hazard to teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental hazards associated with sports supplement drinks by investigating the chemicophysical properties of eight brands of sports drinks. METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity against 0.1 M NaOH was measured. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride concentrations and viscosities of Carbolode, Gatorade, High Five, Isostar, Lucozade Sport Lemon, Lucozade Sport Orange, Maxim, and PSP22 were determined. RESULTS: The pH values of the drinks ranged from 4.46 (Maxim) to 2.38 (Isostar) and therefore were below the critical pH value (5.5) for enamel demineralisation. Both Lucozade varieties had high titratable acidities (16.30 ml 0.1M NaOH to neutrality) with Gatorade, High Five, and Isostar displaying intermediate titratable acidity, although Isostar had 74.5 ppm calcium and 63.6 ppm phosphate. The fluoride concentration of all drinks was low, and none of the drinks was particularly viscous (range 3.1-1.4 mPa.s). CONCLUSIONS: The chemicophysical analyses indicate that all the sports drinks in this study have erosive potential. However, drinks with higher pH, lower titratable acidity, and higher concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride will reduce this erosive potential. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9132205

  11. Adolescent consumption of sports and energy drinks: linkages to higher physical activity, unhealthy beverage patterns, cigarette smoking, and screen media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Dewolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Data were drawn from Eating and Activity in Teens, a population-based study. Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN completed classroom-administered surveys. A total of 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6-12. Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only after vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption, to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effectiveness of commercially available sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, J S; Hamilton, K L

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available sports drinks by answering the questions: (i) will consuming a sports drink be beneficial to performance? and (ii) do different sports drinks vary in their effectiveness? To answer these questions we have considered the composition of commercially available sports drinks, examined the rationale for using them, and critically reviewed the vast number of studies that have investigated the effectiveness of sports drinks on performance. The focus is on the drinks that contain low carbohydrate concentrations (10%, which are intended for carbohydrate loading. Our conclusions are 3-fold. First, because of variations in drink composition and research design, much of the sports drinks research from the past cannot be applied directly to the effectiveness of currently available sports drinks. Secondly, in studies where a practical protocol has been used along with a currently available sports beverage, there is evidence to suggest that consuming a sports drinks will improve performance compared with consuming a placebo beverage. Finally, there is little evidence that any one sports drink is superior to any of the other beverages on the market.

  13. Effect of Energy Drink Consumption on Power and Velocity of Selected Sport Performance Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bert H; Hester, Garrett M; Palmer, Ty B; Williams, Kathryn; Pope, Zachary K; Sellers, John H; Conchola, Eric C; Woolsey, Conrad; Estrada, Carlos

    2017-07-17

    Energy drinks comprise a multibillion dollar market focused on younger, active and competitive individuals. Marketing includes claims of improved alertness and performance. The purpose of this study was to assess power (W) and velocity (m·s) of a simulated, isolated forehand stroke (FHS) and a counter movement vertical jump (CVJ) before and after ingestion of a commercially available energy shot (ES) or a placebo (PL). Healthy college-aged male and female (N=36) volunteers were randomly placed in the ES or PL. Before and 30 min after ingesting either the ES or PL, participants performed three FHSs and CVJs. Power and velocity of each performance was measured using a linear velocity transducer and the highest value for each measure was used for subsequent analysis. The ES group demonstrated a significant (p=0.05) increase in velocity and power for the FHS, but not for the CVJ. All measures remained unchanged in the PL group for both, the FHS and CVJ. Females demonstrated a significant increase in velocity over males in FHS, but not in CVJ. It was concluded that while the dose of stimulants in the ES was adequate to improve performance of smaller muscle groups, it may not have been sufficient to affect the larger muscle groups of the lower legs which contribute to the CVJ. While the ES used in the present study contained a caffeine dosage within the NCAA limit and did improve performance for the upper-body, it must be noted that there are health risks associated with energy drink consumption.

  14. Knowledge of sugar content of sports drinks is not associated with sports drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Nonexperimental. Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. 3929 U.S. adults. The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ≥1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form.

  15. HPLC Determination of Taurine in Sports Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Dale L.

    2001-06-01

    The amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a nutritional supplement in many sports drinks. An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in these sports drinks. A pre-column derivatization with Sanger's reagent, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, is followed by an HPLC separation utilizing a gradient elution, and detection at 360 nm.

  16. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase alertness and enhance physical and mental performance. Marketing targeted at young people has been quite effective. ... significantly more often than students who don’t mix them. In 2011, 42 percent of all energy- ...

  17. Truth About Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be tested and controlled. AAFP also is against marketing and selling energy products to kids under 18 ... drinks. It has become “cool” and common to mix them with alcohol. Energy drinks can offset the ...

  18. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 32794 times font size decrease ... held April 8-11 near the... Read more Alcohol Wine for your health: truth and myth Alcohol ...

  19. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Erdemir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different composite resin restorative materials over a 1-month period. Material and Methods: A total of 168 specimens: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise were prepared using a customized cylindrical metal mould and they were divided into six groups (N=42; n=7 per group. For the control groups, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and the water was renewed daily. For the experimental groups, the specimens were immersed in 5 mL of one of the following test solutions: Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull, for two minutes daily for up to a 1-month test period and all the solutions were refreshed daily. Surface hardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument at baseline, after 1-week and 1-month. Data were statistically analyzed using Multivariate repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05. Results: Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the hardness of the restorative materials in different immersion times (p<0.001 in different solutions (p<0.001. The effect of different solutions on the surface hardness values of the restorative materials was tested using Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests, and it was observed that specimens stored in distilled water demonstrated statistically significant lower mean surface hardness reductions when compared to the specimens immersed in sports and energy drinks after a 1-month evaluation period (p<0.001. The compomer was the most affected by an acidic environment, whereas the composite resin materials were the least affected materials. Conclusions: The effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of a restorative material depends on the duration of exposure time, and the composition of the material.

  20. Effects of sports drinks and other beverages on dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fraunhofer, J Anthony; Rogers, Matthew M

    2005-01-01

    A high percentage of people consume soft drinks that contain sugar or artificial sweeteners, flavorings, and various additives. The popularity of sports (energy) drinks is growing and this pilot study compares enamel dissolution in these and a variety of other beverages. Enamel blocks (approximately 7.0 x 5.0 x 2.5 mm) were sectioned from sound extracted human premolars and molars and measured, weighed, and immersed in the selected beverages for a total of 14 days. The pH of all beverages was measured. The enamel sections were weighed at regular intervals throughout the immersion period with the solutions being changed daily; all studies were performed in duplicate. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe testing. Enamel dissolution occurred in all of the tested beverages, with far greater attack occurring in flavored and energy (sports) drinks than previously noted for water and cola drinks. No correlation was found between enamel dissolution and beverage pH. Non-cola drinks, commercial lemonades, and energy/sports drinks showed the most aggressive dissolution effect on dental enamel. Reduced residence times of beverages in the mouth by salivary clearance or rinsing would appear to be beneficial.

  1. Perceptions about energy drinks are associated with energy drink intake among U.S. youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks are growing in popularity among youth because of their stimulant properties. However, they can increase blood pressure and are associated with serious consequences such as cardiac arrest. This study examined the associations between energy drink perceptions and energy drink consumption among youth. The design was a cross-sectional study using the YouthStyles Survey 2011. The online survey was administered at home. Subjects were youths aged 12 to 17 years in the summer of 2011 (n = 779). Energy drink consumption, perceptions about energy drinks, and sociodemographic and behavioral variables were measured. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Overall, 9% of youth drank energy drinks, 19.5% agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens, and 12.5% agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink. The proportion of youth consuming energy drinks once per week or more was highest among youth aged 16 to 17 years and among those who are physically active three to six times a week. The odds for drinking energy drinks once per week or more was higher among youth who agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens (odds ratios [OR] = 7.7, 95% confidence intervals [CI] =3.6, 16.4) and among those who agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.4, 10.7). These findings suggest that many youth may be unaware or misinformed about the potential health effects and nutritional content of energy drinks. Efforts to improve education among youth about the potential adverse effects of consuming energy drinks are needed.

  2. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ugur; Yildiz, Esra; Eren, Meltem Mert; Ozel, Sevda

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different composite resin restorative materials over a 1-month period. A total of 168 specimens: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise were prepared using a customized cylindrical metal mould and they were divided into six groups (N=42; n=7 per group). For the control groups, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and the water was renewed daily. For the experimental groups, the specimens were immersed in 5 mL of one of the following test solutions: Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull, for two minutes daily for up to a 1-month test period and all the solutions were refreshed daily. Surface hardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument at baseline, after 1-week and 1-month. Data were statistically analyzed using Multivariate repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05). Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the hardness of the restorative materials in different immersion times (psports and energy drinks after a 1-month evaluation period (psports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of a restorative material depends on the duration of exposure time, and the composition of the material.

  3. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease.

  4. Knowledge of and attitudes to sports drinks of adolescents living in South Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, R M; Broughton, D; Morgan, M Z

    2017-06-23

    Background The UK sports drinks market has a turnover in excess of £200 million. Adolescents consume 15.6% of total energy as free sugars, much higher than the recommended 5%. Sugar sweetened beverages, including sports drinks, account for 30% of total free sugar intake for those aged 11-18 years.Objective To investigate children's knowledge and attitudes surrounding sports drinks.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales. Children aged 12-14 were recruited to take part. Questions focussed on knowledge of who sports drinks are aimed at; the role of sports drinks in physical activity; and the possible detrimental effects to oral health. Recognition of brand logo and sports ambassadors and the relationship of knowledge to respondents' consumption of sports drinks were assessed.Results There was an 87% (160) response rate and 89.4% (143) claimed to drink sports drinks. 45.9% thought that sports drinks were aimed at everyone; approximately a third (50) viewed teenagers as the target group. Over two thirds recognised the brand logos, yet less than a third could identify brand ambassadors. About half were aware that dental erosion may result from consumption and approximately two thirds knew that they were linked to dental caries and energy provision. Despite this the majority claimed to drink them. As previously reported most of those drinking sports drinks did so because of the taste.Conclusion Whilst most of the respondents had some understanding of the detrimental effects on health the majority of them were drinking them regularly despite this knowledge. Work is therefore needed at a macro level, with soft drink manufacturers, to consider marketing and reformulation of products for adolescent consumers who appear to enjoy them.

  5. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  6. Toxicity of energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Brian J; Ganetsky, Michael; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-04-01

    'Energy drinks', 'energy shots' and other energy products have exploded in popularity in the past several years; however, their use is not without risk. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, and excessive consumption may acutely cause caffeine intoxication, resulting in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death. The effects of chronic high-dose caffeine intake in children and adolescents are unknown. Caffeine may raise blood pressure, disrupt adolescent sleep patterns, exacerbate psychiatric disease, cause physiologic dependence, and increase the risk of subsequent addiction. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors, harm to adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. The toxicity of ingredients often present in energy drinks, such as taurine, niacin, and pyridoxine, is less well defined. Recent and significant literature describing adverse events associated with energy drink use are reviewed. Although prior studies have examined the effects of caffeine in adolescents, energy drinks should be considered a novel exposure. The high doses of caffeine, often in combination with ingredients with unknown safety profiles, mandates urgent research on the safety of energy drink use in children and adolescents. Regulation of pediatric energy drink use may be a necessary step once the health effects are further characterized.

  7. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERDEMİR, Ugur; YİLDİZ, Esra; EREN, Meltem Mert; OZEL, Sevda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different composite resin restorative materials over a 1-month period. Material and Methods: A total of 168 specimens: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise were prepared using a customized cylindrical metal mould and they were divided into six groups (N=42; n=7 per group). For the control groups, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37º C and the water was renewed daily. For the experimental groups, the specimens were immersed in 5 mL of one of the following test solutions: Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull, for two minutes daily for up to a 1-month test period and all the solutions were refreshed daily. Surface hardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument at baseline, after 1-week and 1-month. Data were statistically analyzed using Multivariate repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05). Results: Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the hardness of the restorative materials in different immersion times (phardness values of the restorative materials was tested using Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests, and it was observed that specimens stored in distilled water demonstrated statistically significant lower mean surface hardness reductions when compared to the specimens immersed in sports and energy drinks after a 1-month evaluation period (phardness of a restorative material depends on the duration of exposure time, and the composition of the material. PMID:23739850

  8. Milk: the new sports drink? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Brian D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been growing interest in the potential use of bovine milk as an exercise beverage, especially during recovery from resistance training and endurance sports. Based on the limited research, milk appears to be an effective post-resistance exercise beverage that results in favourable acute alterations in protein metabolism. Milk consumption acutely increases muscle protein synthesis, leading to an improved net muscle protein balance. Furthermore, when post-exercise milk consumption is combined with resistance training (12 weeks minimum, greater increases in muscle hypertrophy and lean mass have been observed. Although research with milk is limited, there is some evidence to suggest that milk may be an effective post-exercise beverage for endurance activities. Low-fat milk has been shown to be as effective, if not more effective, than commercially available sports drinks as a rehydration beverage. Milk represents a more nutrient dense beverage choice for individuals who partake in strength and endurance activities, compared to traditional sports drinks. Bovine low-fat fluid milk is a safe and effective post exercise beverage for most individuals, except for those who are lactose intolerant. Further research is warranted to better delineate the possible applications and efficacy of bovine milk in the field of sports nutrition.

  9. Effects of Acute Consumption of a Sport Drink on Athletic Performance in Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    AA Ghasemnian; A Ghaeini; s Chobineh; b Ghorbanian

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Athletes believe that energy drinks can be used to enhance their performance during training and competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acute ingestion of a sport drink on endurance performance in student athletes. Methods: Ten healthy and trained young male athletes students were selected by systematic randomly sampling and after consuming Sport Drinks (experimental group) or placebo (control group) exercised on a treadmi...

  10. A survey of sports drinks consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, D; Fairchild, R M; Morgan, M Z

    2016-06-24

    Background Sports drinks intended to improve performance and hydrate athletes taking part in endurance sport are being marketed to children, for whom these products are not intended. Popularity among children has grown exponentially. Worryingly they consume them socially, as well as during physical activity. Sports drinks are high in sugar and are acidic. Product marketing ignores the potential harmful effects of dental caries and erosion.Objective To investigate the use of sports drinks by children.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales. Children in high school years 8 and 9 (aged 12-14) were recruited to take part. Questions focused on use of sports drinks, type consumed, frequency of and reason for consumption and where drinks were purchased.Results One hundred and sixty children responded (87% response rate): 89.4% (143) claimed to drink sports drinks, half drinking them at least twice a week. Lucozade Sport(™) was the most popular brand. The main reason for consuming the drinks was attributed to the 'nice taste' (90%, 129/143). Most respondents purchased the drinks from local shops (80.4%, 115) or supermarkets (54.5%, 78). More boys claimed to drink sports drinks during physical activity (77.9% versus 48.6% girls, P drink them socially (51.4% versus 48.5% boys, NS).Conclusion A high proportion of children consumed sports drinks regularly and outside of sporting activity. Dental health professionals should be aware of the popularity of sports drinks with children when giving health education advice or designing health promotion initiatives.

  11. A survey of sports drinks consumption amongst adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Maria Zeta; Fairchild, R.; Broughton, David James

    2016-01-01

    Background Sports drinks intended to improve performance and hydrate athletes taking part in endurance sport are being marketed to children, for whom these products are not intended. Popularity among children has grown exponentially. Worryingly they consume them socially, as well as during physical activity. Sports drinks are high in sugar and are acidic. Product marketing ignores the potential harmful effects of dental caries and erosion.\\ud \\ud Objective To investigate the use of sports dri...

  12. Effects of Acute Consumption of a Sport Drink on Athletic Performance in Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Ghasemnian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Athletes believe that energy drinks can be used to enhance their performance during training and competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acute ingestion of a sport drink on endurance performance in student athletes. Methods: Ten healthy and trained young male athletes students were selected by systematic randomly sampling and after consuming Sport Drinks (experimental group or placebo (control group exercised on a treadmill at the intensity of 81/8% heart rate max %70 VO2 max(until exhaustion. Subjects received 6 ml.kg-1 body weight of Sport Drink or placebo, 40 minutes before starting of exercise bout, and they received 2 ml.kg-1 body weight of Sport Drink or placebo every 15 minutes during each exercise. To evaluate the results, independent T-test was used. Results: Results showed no significant difference between Sport Drink and placebo trials in the total work time to exhaustion, heart rate or RPE (p>0.05. However plasma glucose concentrations were significantly higher in sport drink group compared with the placebo group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ingredient in the this sport drink did not provide any advantages to running endurance performance.

  13. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  14. Energy Drinks: A Contemporary Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita; Deuster, Patricia A; Shearer, Jane

    2018-02-01

    Since their introduction in 1987, energy drinks have become increasingly popular and the energy drink market has grown at record pace into a multibillion-dollar global industry. Young people, students, office workers, athletes, weekend warriors, and service members frequently consume energy drinks. Both health care providers and consumers must recognize the difference between energy drinks, traditional beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, soft drinks/sodas, juices, or flavored water), and sports drinks. The research about energy drinks safety and efficacy is often contradictory, given the disparate protocols and types of products consumed: this makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Also, much of the available literature is industry-sponsored. After reports of adverse events associated with energy drink consumption, concerns including trouble sleeping, anxiety, cardiovascular events, seizures, and even death, have been raised about their safety. This article will focus on energy drinks, their ingredients, side effects associated with their consumption, and suggested recommendations, which call for education, regulatory actions, changes in marketing, and additional research.

  15. Energy-drink consumption in college students and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attila, Sema; Çakir, Banu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in a group of college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hacettepe University (Ankara, Turkey) and included 439 students pursuing a career in medicine, sports, and arts. Only fourth-year students were approached. Data were collected using a self-administered standard questionnaire. In bivariate analyses, frequency of energy-drink consumption was higher in students of arts and sports and in those who did not have breakfast on a regular basis, ever smoked cigarettes, drank alcoholic beverages, and regularly engaged in sports compared with their counterparts. Many students who had "ever" tried an energy drink did so the first time because they wondered about its taste. Of regular users of energy drinks, reasons for using such drinks varied across the three selected groups of students and included obtaining getting energy, staying awake, boosting performance while doing sports, or mixing with alcoholic beverages. About 40% of all current users of energy drinks reported that they mixed those with alcoholic beverages. In multivariate analyses, statistically significant predictors of energy-drink consumption were faculty type, presence of any health insurance, use of alcoholic beverages, and monthly income, controlling for gender. Most students could not correctly define the ingredients of energy drinks or their potential hazardous health effects, and they could not distinguish energy and sports drinks when they were requested to select them from a list of commercial names of various drinks. Consumption of energy drinks, despite the variation in the reason for choosing such drinks, is quite common in college students. Awareness of university students of the ingredients and potential health hazards of energy drinks, in particular in mixing with alcoholic beverages, should be increased. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Alcohol consumption in sport: The influence of sporting idols, friends and normative drinking practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Kolt, Gregory S; Webber, Andrew; Hunter, John A

    2010-11-01

     High-profile sportspeople are posited as role models for others. We examine whether university sportspeople and non-sportspeople's perceptions of high-profile sportspeople's (sports stars) and friends perceived drinking behaviours are related to their own drinking behaviours. Further, we examine the importance of drinking with competitors after sports events.  A convenience sample of 1028 participants (58% females, n=652 sportspeople) from two Australian universities were approached at sporting and university venues. Participants completed a survey booklet containing demographic questions, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, alcohol measure), perceived drinking of high-profile sportspeople and friends (social norms), and for sportspeople only, items assessing the importance of drinking with competitors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess relationships.  Both sporting and non-sporting participants perceived high-profile sportspeople to drink less than themselves and their friends. Small significant bivariate relationships were found between high-profile sportspeople's perceived drinking and self-reported drinking for sportspeople (r=0.20, P Friends' and normative drinking practices were predictors of drinking.[O'Brien KS, Kolt GS, Webber A, Hunter JA. Alcohol consumption in sport: The influence of sporting idols, friends and normative drinking practices. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Effect of carbonated beverages, coffee, sports and high energy drinks, and bottled water on the in vitro erosion characteristics of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Michael; Owens, Barry M

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, bottled and tap water, on the erosive potential of dental enamel with and without fluoride varnish protection. Beverages used in this study included: Coca Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Gatorade sports drink, Red Bull high-energy drink, Starbucks Frappuccino coffee drink, Dasani water (bottled), and tap water (control). Enamel surfaces were coated with Cavity Shield 5% sodium fluoride treatment varnish. Twenty-eight previously extracted human posterior teeth free of hypocalcification and caries were used in this study. The coronal portion of each tooth was removed and then sectioned transverse from the buccal to lingual surface using a diamond coated saw blade. The crown sections were embedded in acrylic resin blocks leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. The enamel surfaces were polished using 600 to 2000 grit abrasive paper and diamond paste. Test specimens were randomly distributed to seven beverage groups and comprised 4 specimens per group. Two specimens per beverage group were treated with a fluoride varnish while 2 specimens did not receive fluoride coating. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline (prior to fluoride treatment and immersion in the beverage) and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 hours/day). The test beverages were changed daily and the enamel specimens were immersed at 37 degrees C. Surface roughness data was evaluated using multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of p<0.05. Results showed that Coca-Cola Classic, Gatorade and Red Bull with/without fluoride revealed the highest post-treatment surface roughness measurements. Coca-Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Gatorade, and Red Bull all showed significantly higher post treatment readings than StarBucks coffee, Dasani water, and tap water. Fluoride varnish was not a significant impact factor; however, beverage (type) and exposure time were significant impact variables. Both carbonated and non

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING BRAND CHOICE OF THE CONSUMERS ON SPORTS DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Andihka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fitness centers in Indonesia has given a very good opportunity to the sports drink industry to grow. In general, a fitness center does not only provide services of sports facilities but also sell supplements and drinks to consumers for their exercises. The type of drinks highly in demand by consumers in the fitness center is sports drinks. The objective of this study was to identify the influences of brand positioning, brand image and perceived value on brand choices of sports drink products on the consumer fitness center. This study used a quantitative approach using a survey method to the customers of the fitness centers, and the data analysis method used was PLS (Partial Least Square. The results of the PLS analysis show that the perceived value, brand image and brand positioning have positive and significant influences on brand choice of drink sports drinks of the consumers of the fitness centers in Bogor. Keywords: perceived value, brand image, brand positioning, brand choice, PLS, sport drink

  19. Sports drink consumption and diet of children involved in organized sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Dona L; Clarke, Shannon K; Day, Meghan; McKay, Heather A; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2013-08-19

    Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children's participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre, fruit, vegetables and non-flavoured milk (p sport children. Children

  20. Mouthguard and sports drinks on tooth surface pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y; Yang, T-C; Miyanaga, H; Tanaka, Y; Ikebe, K; Akimoto, N

    2014-09-01

    The influence of sports drinks and mouthguards on the pH level of tooth surface was examined. A custom-made mouthguard was fabricated for each subject. The pH level was measured by electric pH meter with sensitivity of 0.01 up to 30 min. Sports drinks (pH=3.75) containing 9.4% sugar were used in this study. Measurements were performed on a cohort of 23 female subjects without a mouthguard (control), wearing a mouthguard only (MG), wearing a mouthguard after 30 ml sports drink intake (SD+MG), wearing a mouthguard during a 5-min jogging exercise (MG+EX) and wearing a mouthguard during jogging after sports drink intake (SD+MG+EX). For 7 male subjects, the same measurements were performed while a sports drink was taken over the mouthguard (MG+SD, MD+EX+SD). MG showed statistically higher pH level than control (psports drinks were taken over the mouthguard, no significant differences in pH level were observed among the different conditions.Within the limitations of this study, it was suggested that wearing a mouthguard during exercise is in itself not a possible risk factor for dental caries, while wearing a mouthguard after consuming sports drinks is. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Sport Nutrition Drinks Based on Octopus Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Riyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSport nutrition drinks are well-known in escalating athlete’s performance and endurance. These product developed from whey protein hydrolysates and soybean protein hydrolysates have already been recognized, however expansion from marine product is comparatively rare. Octopus (Octopus cyanea widely acknowledged containing taurine and rich in amino acids is potential to be developed as ingredient for sport nutrition drink. The aims of this study were to create and characterize sport nutrition drinks based on marine peptides through Octopus protein hydrolyzate. Octopus protein hydrolysate has 77.78±2.69% degree of hydrolysis and 751.02±10.63 mg / 100g taurine. Sports nutrition drinks with the addition of 4% Octopus protein hydrolyzate was acceptable sensory panelists, and the serving size of 600 ml contained taurine 726.06±0.82 mg and detected 17 types of amino acids.

  2. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided.

  3. The acidic and erosive potential of five sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Jeremy; Loyn, Theresa; McAndrew, Robert

    2005-12-01

    Sports drinks are becoming increasingly popular as we are all being encouraged to adopt a healthier lifestyle with regular exercise. However, many of these products are based on acidic fruits and may contribute to erosion. The aim of this study was to screen a number of these products for their potential to cause enamel erosion in vitro. The erosive potential of a number of readily available sports drinks was assessed in the laboratory by measuring their pH, neutralisable acidity and their ability to erode enamel. These were compared to a positive control, orange juice and a negative control, water. The pH of the sports drinks ranged from 3.16-3.70 with their neutralisable acidity ranging from 9.74-13.44 mls of 0.1M NaOH. The amount of enamel removed following 1-hour immersion in the sports drinks ranged from 1.18-5.36 microns. In comparison, the orange juice control had a pH of 3.68, a neutralisable acidity of 19.68 mls of 0.1 M NaOH and removed 3.24 microns of enamel. Many of the sports drinks tested were found to be erosive. This information will be of use to clinicians when counselling patients with tooth surface loss who use fruit based sports drinks regularly.

  4. The Research on the Impact of Green Beans Sports Drinks on Relieving Fatigue in Sports Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Ying, Liu

    2015-01-01

    For researching the function of relieving fatigue of green beans sports drinks, this paper selected 60 mice as subjects. They were randomly divided into four groups (low dose group, middle dose group, high dose group and physiological saline group). Each time they were respectively feed 10g 20g/L, 40g/L, 80 g/L green beans sports drinks and 15ml/(kg.d) physiological saline. The experiment lasted for a month. We recorded weight of mice, swimming time and blood urea nitrogen indicators. The results show that green beans sports drinks can significantly prolong swimming time of mice (p beans sports drinks have a certain function of relieving physical fatigue.

  5. A methodology for testing the erosive potential of sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, S M; Hughes, J A; Newcombe, R G; Addy, M; West, N X

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and test a methodology in situ, which simulated the consumption of sports drinks. A secondary aim was to assess the acceptability of the method to sedentary participants. To select the sports drink for the study in situ, five commercially available sports drinks were examined for erosive potential in vitro. The study in situ was a single centre, 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study to compare the erosive effect of a commercially available sports drink (Test), with that of mineral water (Control), over 10 day periods on 10 healthy volunteers. Subjects wore upper removable appliances containing two human enamel specimens from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The regimen of intake of the drinks was 350 ml in 10, 5-min rest, 650 ml in 25, 5-min rest, 500 ml in 10 and 5-min rest. Measurements of enamel loss were made on samples after 5 and 10 days by profilometry. The in situ study showed a statistically significant difference in erosive potential between the test and control beverages. No specimen exposed to the control beverage displayed appreciable erosion. Erosion occurred with the test drink, but to a variable degree between subjects. The subjects unanimously found the drinking regimen unpleasant. The sports drink caused significantly more erosion in situ than water and as seen in other studies, there was marked variation in susceptibility to erosion between subjects. The new drinking regimen was designed to simulate pre, during and post-exercise intake. Although all the sedentary subjects participating in this study reported that they found the volume of fluids consumed over a short period of time excessive it is unlikely that this would prove problematic in the exercise environment.

  6. Should nutritional supplements and sports drinks companies sponsor sport? A short review of the ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Simon M; Stewart, Bob

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes that the sponsorship of sport by nutritional supplements and sport drinks companies should be re-examined in the light of ethical concerns about the closeness of this relationship. A short overview is provided of the sponsorship of sport, arguing that ethical concerns about its appropriateness remain despite the imposition of severe restrictions on tobacco sponsorship. Further, the paper examines the main concerns about supplement use and sports drinks with respect to efficacy, health and the risks of doping. Particular consideration is given to the health implications of these concerns. It is suggested that they, of themselves, do not warrant the restriction of sponsorship by companies producing supplements and sports drinks. Nevertheless, it is argued that sports sponsorship does warrant further ethical examination--above and beyond that afforded to other sponsors of sport--as sport sponsorship is integral to the perceived need for such products. In conclusion, it is argued that sport may have found itself lending unwarranted credibility to products which would otherwise not necessarily be seen as beneficial for participation in sports and exercise or as inherently healthy products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Caffeinated energy drinks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2013-09-01

    A 14-year-old boy came to my office to discuss his frequent consumption of energy drinks to enhance his performance at school and while playing soccer. What is the recommended use of energy drinks in children and is there any harm in consuming them? Energy drinks are beverages with a high concentration of caffeine and additional stimulants. They are sold in numerous places and are easily accessed by children, adolescents, and young adults. Many reports warn about potential adverse effects associated with their consumption, especially in combination with alcohol among adolescents, and in combination with stimulant medications among children treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children and adolescents should avoid energy drinks, and health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks.

  8. The Research on the Impact of Green Beans Sports Drinks on Relieving Fatigue in Sports Training

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Li; Ying, Liu

    2015-01-01

    For researching the function of relieving fatigue of green beans sports drinks, this paper selected 60 mice as subjects. They were randomly divided into four groups (low dose group, middle dose group, high dose group and physiological saline group). Each time they were respectively feed 10g 20g/L, 40g/L, 80 g/L green beans sports drinks and 15ml/(kg.d) physiological saline. The experiment lasted for a month. We recorded weight of mice, swimming time and blood urea nitrogen indicators. The res...

  9. Consumption of energy drinks, alcohol, and alcohol-mixed energy drinks among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotta, Domenico; Micò, Rocco; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that the excessive consumption of energy drinks (EDs) may have serious health consequences, and that may serve as an indicator for substance use and other risky behaviors. The present paper offers a perspective on this topic that remains underexplored on the population of adolescents. Data were collected via self-administered anonymous questionnaires from 870 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were recruited from a random sample of public secondary schools in the geographic area of the Calabria Region, in the South of Italy. A total of 616 participants completed the survey for a response rate of 70.8%. Nearly 68% of respondents had drunk at least a whole can of ED during their life, and about 55% reported consuming EDs during the 30 days before the survey. Only 13% of interviewed adolescents were aware that drinking EDs is the same as drinking coffee, whereas a sizable percentage believed that drinking EDs is the same as drinking carbonated beverages or rehydrating sport drinks. Forty-six percent of adolescents had drunk alcohol-mixed energy drinks (AmEDs) during their life, and 63% of lifetime users admitted drinking AmEDs during the 30 days before the survey. Overall, 210 (63.3%) had drunk alcohol alone not mixed with EDs during their life, and more than half (56.3%) reported having consumed it at least once during the 30 days before the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors independently associated with the consumption of AmEDs were the increasing number of sexual partners, being a current smoker, being male, riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, and having used marijuana. Comprehensive educational programs among youths focusing on potential health effects of EDs, alcohol, and the combination of the two, designed to empower the ability to manage these drinking habits, are strongly advisable. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. What do athletes drink during competitive sporting activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Alison K; Burke, Louise M

    2013-07-01

    Although expert groups have developed guidelines for fluid intake during sports, there is debate about their real-world application. We reviewed the literature on self-selected hydration strategies during sporting competitions to determine what is apparently practical and valued by athletes. We found few studies of drinking practices involving elite or highly competitive athletes, even in popular sports. The available literature revealed wide variability in fluid intake and sweat losses across and within different events with varied strategies to allow fluid intake. Typical drinking practices appear to limit body mass (BM) losses to ~2 % in non-elite competitors. There are events, however, in which mean losses are greater, particularly among elite competitors and in hot weather, and evidence that individual participants fail to meet current guidelines by gaining BM or losing >2 % BM over the competition activity. Substantial (>5 %) BM loss is noted in the few studies of elite competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance events; while this may be consistent with winning outcomes, such observations cannot judge whether performance was optimal for that individual. A complex array of factors influence opportunities to drink during continuous competitive activities, many of which are outside the athlete's control: these include event rules and tactics, regulated availability of fluid, need to maintain optimal technique or speed, and gastrointestinal comfort. Therefore, it is questionable, particularly for top competitors, whether drinking can be truly ad libitum (defined as "whenever and in whatever volumes chosen by the athlete"). While there are variable relationships between fluid intake, fluid balance across races, and finishing times, in many situations it appears that top athletes take calculated risks in emphasizing the costs of drinking against the benefits. However, some non-elite competitors may need to be mindful of the disadvantages of drinking beyond

  11. Erosive potential of energy drinks on the dentine surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Shelon C S; Bandeca, Matheus C; Silva, Carolina N; Cavassim, Rodrigo; Borges, Alvaro H; Sampaio, José E C

    2013-02-19

    Considering the current high consumption of energy drinks, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of energy drinks in removing the smear layer and exposing dentinal tubules on root surface. Dentine root surfaces were exposed using a diamond bur. Forty movements of scaling were performed in the area prepared in order to create a smear layer. One hundred and thirty specimens were obtained from 35 teeth. Specimens were randomly distributed into 12 groups (n = 10) and divided into subgroups according to the application: topical (n = 5) and friction (n = 5). Twelve energy drinks were evaluated: RedBull, Burn, TNT, Flash Power, Flying Horse, Sports Drink, Ionic, Hot Power, Army Power, Gladiator and Bug. Distilled water was used as a control group. The specimens were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. Topical application: a significant influence of energy drinks on smear layer removal was found for FlyingHorse and Bug when compared with the control group. Friction application: significant smear layer removal was found for Burn, FlyingHorse, Gladiator, SportsDrinks, when compared with the control group. Comparing the different application forms, a statistically significant difference was found for Army Power. Considering the significant smear layer removal, energy drinks can be an important etiological factor for cervical dentine hypersensitivity.

  12. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

  13. Sports drinks, exercise training, and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Duvillard, Serge P; Arciero, Paul J; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Alford, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A plethora of investigations examining fluid intake before, during, and after training and competition have suggested that a lack of adequate fluid intake will impair or decrease physical performance. Depending upon the type of training or competition, individuals training for prolonged endurance events should drink fluids containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during and after training or competition. Inadequate hydration will cause significant decrements in performance, increase thermal stress, reduce plasma volume, accelerate fatigue, and possibly cause injuries associated with fluid and sweat loss. However, overdrinking may cause Na+ depletion and in some cases lead to hyponatremia. Maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after training and competition will help reduce fluid loss, maintain performance, lower submaximal exercise heart rate, maintain plasma volume, and reduce heat stress, heat exhaustion, and possibly heat stroke.

  14. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

    2010-01-01

    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

  15. Exposure and perceptions of marketing for caffeinated energy drinks among young Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L

    2018-02-01

    To examine exposure to energy drink marketing among youth and young adults, and test perceptions of energy drink advertisements (ads) regarding target audience age and promoting energy drink use during sports. A between-group experiment randomly assigned respondents to view one of four energy drink ads (sport-themed or control) and assessed perceptions of the ad. Regression models examined marketing exposure and perceptions. Online survey (2014). Canadians aged 12-24 years (n 2040) from a commercial panel. Overall, 83 % reported ever seeing energy drink ads through at least one channel, including on television (60 %), posters/signs in stores (49 %) and online (44 %). Across experimental conditions, most respondents (70·1 %) thought the ad they viewed targeted people their age or younger, including 42·2 % of those aged 12-14 years. Two sport-themed ads were more likely to be perceived as targeting a younger audience (adjusted OR (95 % CI): 'X Games' 36·5 %, 4·16 (3·00, 5·77); 'snowboard' 19·2 %, 1·50 (1·06, 2·13)) v. control (13·3 %). Participants were more likely to believe an ad promoted energy drink use during sports if they viewed any sport-themed ad ('X Games' 69·9 %, 8·29 (6·24, 11·02); 'snowboard' 76·7 %, 11·85 (8·82, 15·92); 'gym' 66·8 %, 7·29 (5·52, 9·64)) v. control (22·0 %). Greater reported exposure to energy drink marketing was associated with perceiving study ads as promoting energy drink use during sports. Energy drink marketing has a high reach among young people. Ads for energy drinks were perceived as targeting youth and promoting use during sports. Such ads may be perceived as making physical performance claims, counter to Canadian regulations.

  16. The effect of a carbohydrate-caffeine sports drink on simulated golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Emma J; Hayes, Philip R; Allison, Sarah J

    2009-08-01

    A round of golf lasts approximately 4 h, during which time homeostasis could be challenged through either hypoglycemia or hypohydration. This might result in impaired motor skill or cognitive performance. Given the high cognitive demand of putting and the potential fatiguing effects from prolonged walking, the combination of a caffeine and carbohydrate drink could be beneficial in offsetting hypoglycemia and hypohydration. This study used a laboratory-simulated round of golf to examine the effect of an isotonic carbohydrate and caffeine sports drink on putting performance during a round of golf. After institutional ethics approval, 20 male golfers (mean +/- standard deviation: age 23 +/- 4 years, stature 176.4 +/- 5.6 cm, mass 72.8 +/- 17.4 kg, handicap 15 +/- 4, daily caffeine consumption 157.3 +/- 47.2 mg) consumed either an isotonic sports drink containing caffeine (6.4 g carbohydrate and 16 mg caffeine per 100 mL) or a no-energy, flavour-matched placebo drink in a double-blind, randomized, counter-balanced crossover design . Drinks were consumed preround (5 mL.kg-1 body mass (BM)) and at holes 6 and 12 (2.5 mL.kg-1 BM). Participants therefore consumed 1.6 mg.kg-1 BM of caffeine and 0.64 g.kg-1 BM of carbohydrate throughout the trial. Five and 2 m putting performance were assessed at each hole. Self-rated mood assessments were carried out every third hole. Putting performance over 5 m and 2 m and self-rated scores for alertness and relaxation showed a main effect for drink (p sports drink containing caffeine prior to and during a round of golf improved putting performance and increased feelings of alertness.

  17. Healthy Drinks for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Parents Kids Teens Caffeine Calcium Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? What Should Preschoolers ... Caffeine Confusion What's a Healthy Alternative to Water? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A Guide ...

  18. Energy Drink Consumption Practices of Young People in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaif, Maryam M; Alobed, Ghufran J J; Alaam, Noor A A; Alderrazi, Abdulla N; Awdhalla, Muyssar S; Vaithinathan, Asokan G

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink (ED) consumption is becoming increasingly popular among young Bahrainis, who may be unaware of the health risks associated with ED consumption. To date, there have been few publications on the consumption of ED in Bahrain, particularly among adolescents. This study seeks to fill a gap in the literature on energy drink consumption practices of Bahraini adolescents. Data were collected using a previously established European Food Safety Authority questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a convenience sample of 262 Bahraini students aged 10 to 18 years. Most participants consumed energy drinks 2 to 3 times per week and consumed two or more cans at a time. Eighty percent of partcipants preferred energy drinks with sugar. Participants in the older age group and higher educational level consumed more ED. The majority (57%) consumed ED at home with friends as part of socialization. Notably, 60% of the parents of the respondents have not consumed energy drinks. Prominent reasons for consumption of energy drinks included: taste (40%), energy (30%), stay awake (13%), augment concentration (4%), and enhance sports performance (6%). Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.

  19. Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p sports drink with sodium.

  20. Perceived energy compensation following various sports: an age and sex comparison. Preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley-Campbell, J L; Moore, M S; Ewen, R E; Williams, C A

    2015-12-01

    Following periods of physical activity, it is not uncommon for exercisers to increase their energy intake as a reward deemed 'earned'. Consumers' awareness of the energy within food and expended from exercise has previously been found to be limited. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether habitual exercisers (50 adults and 49 children from 5 sports clubs) were able to conceptualise the energy expenditure (EE), following 1 h of their regular sports training, into a quantifiable amount of perceived energy compensation (PEC) in the form of food (chocolate) or drink (sports drink). Mean percentage accuracy for the PEC against EE matched sport. Percentage accuracy failed to significantly correlate to age. These findings indicate a necessity to improve nutrition education surrounding the energy costs of exercise relative to the energy contained within foods/drinks for both adults and children.

  1. Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Martha Carmen; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137): 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least once in the last 12 months, 38% at least once in the last month, 39.4% six times or more in the last month, 10.9% 20 times or more in the last month. Justification for consumption: 54% to improve the taste of alcoholic drinks, 27.7% to extend their evening leisure periods, 13.9% to improve sports performance, 9.5% for stimulation, 8.8% enjoy the taste, 6.6% for curiosity and 4.4% to study. Of those who consumed energy drinks, 87.6% mixed it with alcohol, and 25.9% of the students reported they consume more alcohol when it is mixed with energy drinks. the consumption of energy drinks is associated to sports and drinking alcohol.

  2. Effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Kavouras, Stavros A; Koutsari, Christina; Georgakakis, Charalambos; Skenderi, Katerina; Beer, Michael; Sidossis, Labros S

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance. Ten subjects completed 4 trials. Each trial consisted of a glycogen depletion protocol, followed by a 15-min refueling, after which subjects performed an 1-h performance test while consuming one of the experimental drinks (HGlu, glucose; HMal, maltose; MalMix, sucrose, maltose, and maltodextrin; Plac, placebo). Drinks provided 0.65 g/kg body weight carbohydrates during refueling and 0.2 g/kg every 15 min during the performance test. Although no significant differences were found in performance (HGlu: 67.2 +/- 2.0; HMal: 68.6 +/- 1.7; MalMix: 66.7 +/- 2.0; Plac: 69.4 +/- 3.0 min, P> 0.05), subjects completed the MalMix trial 3.9%; faster than the Plac. Carbohydrate drinks caused comparable plasma glucose values that were significantly higher during refueling and at the end of exercise, compared to Plac. The data suggest that although carbohydrate drinks help to maintain plasma glucose at a higher level, no differences in performance could be detected after glycogen-depleting exercise.

  3. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like ...

  4. Effect of two sports drinks on urinary lithogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jeffrey W; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S

    2009-02-01

    The effect of commercial oral rehydration solutions ("sports drinks") relative to water on risk of nephrolithiasis has not been studied previously. We studied the effect of two sports drinks, Performance (Shaklee Corp., Pleasanton, CA, USA) and Gatorade (Gatorade, Chicago, IL, USA) on urinary chemistry and measures of lithogenicity in non-stone formers. Performance has a pH of 4.3, and contains 21 mmol/L of sodium, 5.3 mmol/L of potassium, 0.8 mmol/L of calcium, and 19.5 mmol/L of citrate. Gatorade pH ranges from 2.9 to 3.2, and contains 20 mmol/L of sodium, 3.2 mmol/L of potassium, negligible calcium, and 13.9 mmol/L of citrate. Subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of tap water daily for 3 days, and recorded diet history. This was followed by a second 3-day experimental period during which subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of sports drink daily, duplicating diets from part 1. In each 3-day period, urine was collected for 24 h during days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, and supersaturations of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid were calculated. Nine subjects completed the study using Performance, ten used Gatorade. Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not different during the control and experimental periods. Performance increased mean citrate excretion by 170 mg/day (95% CI 57-284 mg/day; P = 0.01) and increased urine pH by 0.31 (95% CI 0.03-0.59; P = 0.03). Gatorade did not significantly change urinary citrate excretion or pH. Neither drink caused significant differences in the excretion of sodium and calcium or any supersaturation value. Ingestion of Performance, but not Gatorade, led to an increase in mean urinary citrate excretion and pH as compared to water. The increase in citrate is likely to be a clinically significant effect. pH is an important determinant of alkali load in beverages containing organic anions. Performance, with more citrate and a higher pH than Gatorade, could represent a superior alternative to water for

  5. [Risks of energy drinks in youths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigard, A-X

    2010-11-01

    The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy

  6. Energy Drinks: Ergolytic or Ergogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillivent, Joe; Blevins, Jennifer; Peak, Kayla

    Despite the growing popularity of energy drinks, many do not realize the negative effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of energy drink ingestion on estimated VO 2 max, heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP, respectively), rate pressure product (RPP), and RPE at rest and during exercise. Seven healthy adults (age: 24.3 ± 3.5 yrs; body mass: = 66.0 ± 2.2 kg) participated in this randomized double blind, crossover study. Subjects ingested a placebo (PL) or Redline (RL) energy drink (240ml; 250 mg caffeine) 40 minutes before maximal graded exercise test (GXT). Estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) was lower in the RL trial (37.9±5.7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) compared to the PL trial (39.7±6.5 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; P = 0.02). Although no significant differences were noted for the number of ectopic beats (ETB) between the trials, a five to one ratio for the RL and PL existed (RL = 106 total ectopic beats; PL = 21 total ectopic beats). Sub-maximal exercise heart demand (RPP: systolic BP × HR) at the same workload was considerably higher in the RL trial (224.9 ± 39.9 mmHg·bts·min -1 ; P =0.04) compared to PL (195.8 ± 22.9 mmHg·bts·min -1 ). Recovery DBP was significantly higher at one min. in the RL trial (51.6 ± 25.1 mmHg) compared to PL (25.4 ± 33.8 mmHg; P =0.05). Based on the results of this study, it was determined that energy drinks lowered estimated VO 2 max while elevating RPP and recovery DBP.

  7. Relationship between sports drinks and dental erosion in 304 university athletes in Columbus, Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Tanya; Casamassimo, Paul S; Hayes, John R

    2002-01-01

    Acidic soft drinks, including sports drinks, have been implicated in dental erosion with limited supporting data in scarce erosion studies worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental erosion in a sample of athletes at a large Midwestern state university in the USA, and to evaluate whether regular consumption of sports drinks was associated with dental erosion. A cross-sectional, observational study was done using a convenience sample of 304 athletes, selected irrespective of sports drinks usage. The Lussi Index was used in a blinded clinical examination to grade the frequency and severity of erosion of all tooth surfaces excluding third molars and incisal surfaces of anterior teeth. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather details on sports drink usage, lifestyle, health problems, dietary and oral health habits. Intraoral color slides were taken of all teeth with erosion. Sports drinks usage was found in 91.8% athletes and the total prevalence of erosion was 36.5%. Nonparametric tests and stepwise regression analysis using history variables showed no association between dental erosion and the use of sports drinks, quantity and frequency of consumption, years of usage and nonsport usage of sports drinks. The most significant predictor of erosion was found to be not belonging to the African race (p sports drinks and dental erosion. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. What do we know about energy drinks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süber Dikici

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks are popular among young individuals andmarketed to college students, athletes, and active individualsbetween the ages of 21 and 35 years. In the beginningconsumption of energy drinks can significantlyimprove physical and mental performance. Energy drinkscontain a mixture of compounds, of which caffeine, guarana,and herbal supplements such as ginkgo and ginsengare major components. Unfortunately, the body ofliterature is limited and it is not known whether these improvementsare due to the caffeine other herbal ingredients.Severe clinical manifestations may occur after useof energy drinks with alcohol The aim of this article is risingawareness about the ingredients of energy drinks andclinical manifestations that may occur after usage and updateabout knowledge.Key words: Energy drinks, energy drinks ingredients,clinical manifestations

  9. Application of electronic tongue in isotonic sports drinks characterization and differentiation during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Vahčić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic tongue or taste sensor system, comprised of seven potentiometric sensors, was applied as a tool in isotonic sports drinks analyses and characterization. Recently, electronic tongue systems showed large potential in food quality control, and for the first time it was used in isotonic sports drinks differentiation. The ability of the electronic tongue to differentiate between isotonic sports drinks samples and to monitor isotonic sports drinks during shelf life was evaluated by PCA analysis. The obtained results showed that the electronic tongue system was capable of differentiating between differently flavoured isotonic sports drinks samples and was able to monitor the changes in isotonic sports drinks samples during storage. High correlations of the developed PLS models between the observed sensory taste attributes (sweet, sour, bitter taste intensity and chemical senses intensity and physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, refractometric value, pH value and predicted values of sensory taste attributes and physicochemical parameters evaluated by electronic tongue, confirmed the performance of the electronic tongue and also indicate that the electronic tongue system can be used for rapid evaluation of sensory taste attributes and physicochemical parameters of isotonic sports drinks.

  10. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Monica C; Decou, Christopher R; Gonzalez, Vivian M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behavior among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviors such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviors among students of various ethnic groups.

  11. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behaviour among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviours such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviours among students of various ethnic groups.

  12. Health effects of energy drinks on children, adolescents, and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Sara M; Schaechter, Judith L; Hershorin, Eugene R; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2011-03-01

    To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. We searched PubMed and Google using "energy drink," "sports drink," "guarana," "caffeine," "taurine," "ADHD," "diabetes," "children," "adolescents," "insulin," "eating disorders," and "poison control center" to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research.

  13. Are energy Drinks Scapegoats? Decomposing Teenagers' Caffeine intake from Energy Drinks and Soda Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir

    2018-02-22

    Energy drinks have been repeatedly blamed for contributing to caffeine intake among teenagers. This study aimed to estimate and compare the caffeine intake of US teenagers from soda drinks versus energy drinks and shots. Data were taken from a 2015 nationally representative survey (Monitoring the Future) of 8th and 10th graders in the US (47.2% 8th grade; 51.1% female). Participants reported their numbers of consumed sodas, diet sodas, energy drinks, and energy shots per day. These were converted into mg caffeine/day and were contrasted with common guidelines for healthy caffeine intake, stratified by age group and sex. Error-bar charts, ANOVA and ROC curves were used for contrasting caffeine intake from soda drinks and energy drinks, as well as their contribution to exceeding recommended caffeine intake cutoffs. First, in both sexes and grades the intake from soda drinks was significantly higher than the intake from energy drinks. The soda and energy drink intake for males was higher than the intake for females; intake for 8th graders was higher than this of 10th graders. Second, caffeine intake from soda drinks was significantly higher even in those who exceeded the recommended maximum caffeine intake. Third, caffeine intakes from soda and energy drinks were efficacious in explaining the exceeding of the recommended threshold for daily caffeine intake, but the explanatory power of soda drinks was larger. From a caffeine consumption standpoint, health professionals should emphasize reduction in both soda and energy drinks.

  14. Child and Caregiver Attitudes About Sports Drinks and Weekly Sports Drink Intake Among U.S. Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To examine caregiver and youth attitudes about sports drinks (SDs) and the association of those attitudes with youth SD intake. Study design was cross-sectional. The online YouthStyles survey was sent to youth (ages 12-17 years) whose caregivers completed the online Summer ConsumerStyles survey for adults. The 2011 Styles survey data comprised the setting. The sample was composed of 815 U.S. caregiver-youth dyads. The outcome variable is youth SD consumption, and exposure variables are youth and caregivers' attitudes that SDs are healthy for children, and caregivers' attitude that children need SDs for hydration. Covariates are youth demographic and physical activity variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for youth SD consumption one or more times per week after controlling for covariates. About one in five youth consumed SDs one or more times per week. Caregiver attitudes about the healthfulness of SDs and children's need of SDs for hydration both significantly differed by race and caregiver education level. The odds of youth SD consumption one or more times per week were significantly higher among youth of caregivers who agreed that SDs are good, healthy drinks for children (OR, 2.72 vs. disagreed) and among youth of caregivers who agreed that children need SDs for hydration (OR, 3.15 vs. disagreed). Youth attitude about SD healthfulness was not associated with intake. Caregivers, particularly minority and less educated caregivers, may need more education about SD use.

  15. Problematic Drinking Among Postgraduate Students: Binge Drinking, Prepartying, and Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F

    2016-07-02

    Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.

  16. Changes in sensory perception of sports drinks when consumed pre, during and post exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ajmol; Duizer, Lisa; Foster, Kylie; Grigor, John; Wei, Wenqi

    2011-03-28

    The aim of this study was to examine sensory perceptions towards different formulations of sports drinks when consumed before, at various points during, and following exercise. Following familiarization 14 recreational runners underwent four trials in a single blind counterbalanced design. Each trial utilised one of four different solutions: 7.5% carbohydrate, 421 mg L(-1) electrolyte (HiC-HiE); 7.5% carbohydrate, 140 mg L(-1) electrolyte (HiC-LoE); 1.3% carbohydrate, 421 mg L(-1) electrolyte (LoC-HiE) and water. Subjects were provided with 50-ml samples to ingest and then rate (using a 100-mm line scale) the intensity of sweetness, saltiness, thirst-quenching ability and overall liking before (-30 min), during (0, 30 and 60 min) and following (90 and 120 min) treadmill running exercise. Ratings of sweetness for all energy-containing drinks were higher during exercise relative to pre- and post-exercise conditions (Penergy-containing drinks during exercise relative to pre-exercise (Pdrinks (Psports drinks during exercise relative to non-exercise conditions. Temporal changes also occur during exercise itself which leads to enhanced liking of all beverages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pediatrician-recommended use of sports drinks and dental caries in 3-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashita, Y; Fukuda, H; Kawasaki, K; Kitamura, M; Hayashida, H; Furugen, R; Fukumoto, E; Iijima, Y; Saito, T

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether children advised by a pediatrician to take sports drinks consume them more frequently than do other children and whether these children have an increased risk of dental caries. The subjects were 522 mother/child pairs who attended a dental checkup for 3-year-olds at one of ten community health centers in Nagasaki, Japan. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of children with or without dental caries according to child-related variables. Multiple logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between the presence of dental caries and child-related variables taken from a dental checkup and a questionnaire. A high frequency of sports drink consumption was strongly associated with dental caries in children. The highest proportion of mothers answered that they were advised by a pediatrician to give sports drinks to their children. However, these children consumed sports drinks significantly less frequently than did children who did so for reasons other than pediatrician recommendations. In addition, these children were significantly less likely to have dental caries than were children who consumed sports drinks for otherreasons. Pediatrician-recommended consumption of sports drinks does not lead to more frequent consumption of these beverages or to dental caries in 3-year-old children.

  18. Association of sports drinks with weight gain among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Alison E; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Falbe, Jennifer; Flint, Alan; Haines, Jess; Rosner, Bernard; Camargo, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    Sales of regular soda were declining, but sales of other sweetened beverages, such as sports drinks, were increasing. Our objective was to determine the prospective associations between sports drinks and body mass index (BMI) gains among adolescents and young adults. 4121 females and 3438 males in the Growing Up Today Study II, aged 9-16 in 2004, from across the United States were followed prospectively. Data were collected by questionnaire in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011. Servings per day of various beverages were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Among the girls, each serving per day of sports drink predicted an increase of 0.3 BMI units (95% confidence interval (CI) CI 0.03-0.54) more than their peers over the next 2-3 years. Among the males, each serving of sports drinks predicted a 0.33 BMI (95% CI 0.09, 0.66) increase. In addition, boys who increased their intake over the 2-3 year interval gained significantly more than their peers during the same time interval. Intake of sports drinks predicted larger increases in BMI among both females and males. Our results suggest that school policies focused on obesity prevention should be augmented to restrict sports drinks. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  19. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks u...

  20. Energy-drinks and alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    National Committee for Food Safety

    2012-01-01

    The Directorate General for Food Hygiene, Food Safety and Nutrition asked the Committee to deliver an opinion on hazards to health linked with energy- drinks consumption, in particular combined with alcohol. Energy- drinks contain substances whose effects are described as “positive” since are purported to boost mental and physical energy; in most cases, these substances are caffeine, taurine, carnitine, guarana, glucoronolactone, ginseng, ginko biloba etc. If used in moderate amounts these su...

  1. The effect of dilution on the erosive potential of maltodextrin-containing sports drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gomes VIDAL

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The increasing consumption of maltodextrin-containing sports drinks, usually acidic, during physical activity may cause dental erosion. Objective To evaluate the effect of dilution on the erosive potential of maltodextrin-containing sports drinks. Methodology Five samples of five maltodextrin-containing sports drinks [Sports Nutrition (SN, Body Action (BA, New Millen (NM, Athletica Nutrition (AN, Integral Medica (IM] were diluted with distilled water in three different proportions: as recommended by manufacturer (rec, with 20% more powder (20+ and with 20% less powder (20- than recommended. Their pH and titratable acidity (volume of 1N NaOH necessary to raise pH to 5.5 were determined. Result The pH and titratable acidity differed among the products, and pH values differed among the dilutions. All sports drinks showed pH below the critical pH for dental enamel demineralization. There was a significant negative correlation between pH and titratable acidity (p <0.01; r = -0.795. Conclusion Changes in the dilution of maltodextrin-containing sports drinks affected their pH, but not their titratable acidity.

  2. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity.

  3. Effect of an isotonic rehydration sports drink and exercise on urolithiasis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu N.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of physical exercise as well as the influence of hydration with an isotonic sports drink on renal function in male Wistar rats. Four groups were studied over a period of 42 days: 1 control (N = 9; 2 physical exercise (Exe, N = 7; 3 isotonic drink (Drink, N = 8; 4 physical exercise + isotonic drink (Exe + Drink, N = 8. Physical exercise consisted of running on a motor-driven treadmill for 1 h/day, at 20 m/min, 5 days a week. The isotonic sports drink was a commercial solution used by athletes for rehydration after physical activity, 2 ml administered by gavage twice a day. Urine cultures were performed in all animals. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages at the beginning and at the end of the protocol period. Urinary and plasma parameters (sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, calcium did not differ among groups. However, an amorphous material was observed in the bladders of animals in the Exe + Drink and Drink groups. Characterization of the material by Western blot revealed the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein and angiotensin converting enzyme. Physical exercise and the isotonic drink did not change the plasma or urinary parameters measured. However, the isotonic drink induced the formation of intravesical matrix, suggesting a potential lithogenic risk.

  4. Energy Drinks and Binge Drinking Predict College Students' Sleep Quantity, Quality, and Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.

  5. Energy drinks and adolescents: what's the harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R

    2015-04-01

    Concerns about potential dangers from energy drink consumption by youth have been raised by health experts, whereas energy drink manufacturers claim these products are safe and suitable for marketing to teens. This review summarizes the evidence used to support both sides of the debate. Unlike most beverage categories, sales of energy drinks and other highly caffeinated products continue to grow, and marketing is often targeted to youth under the age of 18 years. These products pose a risk of caffeine toxicity when consumed by some young people, and there is evidence of other troubling physiological and behavioral effects associated with their consumption by youth. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated it will reexamine the safety of caffeine in the food supply; however, more research is needed to better understand youth consumption of energy drinks and caffeine in general, as well as the long-term effects on health. Meanwhile, policymakers and physician groups have called on energy drink manufacturers to take voluntary action to reduce the potential harm of their products, including placing restrictions on marketing to youth under the age of 18 years. Additional regulatory and legislative options are also being discussed. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual’s vulnerability to caffeine related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:18809264

  7. Viability of Values and Attitudes Concerning Purchase Intentions and Benefit Attribution for an Organic Sport Drink

    OpenAIRE

    Ameseder, Christoph; Haas, Rainer; Meixner, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The following contribution describes a product development case study for an isotonic organic sport drink in which the value factors of GfK Sinus Milieus have been applied. The underlying research question is, if the prescribed values are a viable tool to differentiate buyers and nonbuyers of organic food in respect to purchase intention in the case of sport beverages. The authors furthermore investigate the importance of “organic” or other product features for fitness oriented consumers. The...

  8. Alcohol Drinking and Low Nutritional Value Food Eating Behavior of Sports Bettors in Gambling Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Hibai; Estévez, Ana; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of sports betting advertising has become a major concern for gambling regulators, particularly since the legalization of online gambling in many European jurisdictions. Although the composition of gambling advertisement narratives has received some limited attention, nothing is known regarding how betting advertisements (often referred to as "adverts" or "commercials") might be associating gambling with other potentially risky behaviors. The present paper examines the representation of alcohol drinking and low nutritional value food eating in sports betting advertising. By means of a mixed-methods approach to content analysis, a sample of British and Spanish soccer betting adverts was analyzed ( N  = 135). The results suggest that betting advertising aligns drinking alcohol with sports culture and significantly associates emotionally charged sporting situations such as watching live games or celebrating goals with alcohol. Additionally, alcohol drinking is more frequent in betting adverts with a higher number of characters, linking friendship bonding and alcohol drinking (especially beer) in the context of sports gambling.

  9. Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Sara M.; Schaechter, Judith L.; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google using “energy drink,” “sports drink,” “guarana,” “caffeine,” “taurine,” “ADHD,” “diabetes,” “children,” “adolescents,” “insulin,” “eating disorders,” and “poison control center” to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. RESULTS: According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research. PMID:21321035

  10. Introduction to an agenda in the laboratory course for applied food science : Preparation and development of sports drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Masako, TAMAKI; Hisashi, MYOUGA

    2004-01-01

    At Musashigaoka College, the "Preparation and Development of Sports Drinks" class is conducted in the laboratory course for applied food science. This paper introduces our approach in this course, and reports student awareness regarding sports drinks, together with the educational effectiveness as well as student's evaluation of the laboratory course.

  11. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  12. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxton Christiana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2% reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6% of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%, to improve performance (9.8% and to reduce fatigue (5.4%. Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  13. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Christiana; Hagan, John E

    2012-03-24

    Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  14. Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggres...

  15. The hydration ability of three commercially available sports drinks and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rebecca J; Bluck, Leslie J C; Davies, Peter S W

    2008-04-01

    This paper compares the hydration ability of three commercially-available sports drinks with water under conditions of rest and exercise, using a deuterium dilution technique. For the rest group, 0.05g/kg of body weight of deuterium, contained in gelatine capsules, was ingested with one of the test solutions and saliva samples were collected every five minutes for an hour while the subject remained seated. The deuterium was administered as above for the exercise group but sample collection was during one hour of exercise on a treadmill at 55% of the subject's maximum heart rate. The enrichment data for each subject were mathematically modelled to describe the kinetics of hydration and the parameters obtained were compared across drinks using a basic Anova. At rest, significant differences were found for t(1), t(1/2), and the percent of drink absorbed at t(1). The differences between drinks were not significant for t(2) or the maximum absorption rate. For the exercise group, the only significant difference was found between water and the sports drinks at t(1). Therefore, we conclude that labelling with a deuterium tracer is a good measure of the relative rate ingested fluids are absorbed by the body. Because of the lack of differences found at t(2), which is indicative of the 100% absorption time, both at rest and during exercise, it may be speculated that, compared to water, the sports drinks studied in this paper did not hydrate the body at a faster rate.

  16. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All of these can drag down a person's sports performance. Plus, taking certain medications — including supplements — can make caffeine's side effects seem even worse. Never drink energy drinks before exercising. These products contain a large ...

  17. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ... t really do you much harm either. Energy drinks have lots of caffeine, though, so no one ...

  18. Adding casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate to sports drinks to eliminate in vitro erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, L; Messer, L B; Reynolds, E C

    2005-01-01

    Enamel erosion can occur with frequent consumption of sports drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine a minimal concentration of casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) which when added to a sports drink would eliminate such erosion in vitro. Human enamel specimens were immersed in: (1) the sports drink Powerade; (2) Poweradeplus 4 concentrations of CPP-ACP (0.063%, 0.09%, 0.125%, 0.25%); or (3) double deionized water. Windows of test and control enamel were profiled, and the enamel surface characteristics were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pH of test solutions increased and the titratable acidity decreased with increasing CPP-ACP concentrations. Erosive step lesions occurred in specimens immersed in Powerade (mean depth=38.70kA +/- 5.60), which were eliminated by the addition of CPP-ACP to Powerade at all test concentrations except 0.063% CPP-ACP. Microscopic surface irregularities on test enamel were observed, apparent as adherent granules or globules. These may represent redeposited mineral phases following mobilization of calcium and phosphate from CPP-ACP. Tasters in a taste panel could not distinguish Powerade from Powerade plus 0.125% CPP-ACP. Adding casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate to the sports drink Powerade significantly reduced the beverage's erosivity without affecting the product's taste.

  19. Isotonic sports drink promotes rehydration and decreases proteinuria following karate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldini, Simone; Cruz, Igor de Freitas; Romero, Alexandre; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Campos, Michelle Parreira de

    2017-01-01

    Adequate hydration status in the sport is essential for good health, yet the relationship between hydration, proteinuria and sports is little studied. To analyze the influence of an isotonic sports drink as rehydration strategy on the hydration status and proteinuria after karate training. Ten athletes participated in this study. In the first session of standard training, called observation training session (STO), the athletes hydrated themselves according to their habits, and in the second session of standard training, called nutritional intervention training session (STIN), an ideal practice of hydration protocol was followed, using an isotonic sports drink as a rehydration liquid during the training. The hydration status was verified by monitoring the body weight before and after training, the urine specific gravity pre-and post-training and the urine volume post-training. To observe the influence of practice of hydration on the renal function post exercise proteinuria was measured. We observed a statistically significant difference in urine density between the samples pre- and post-exercise only on STIN (p = 0.047). When we compare the sessions, there was a lower variation in body weight (p = 0.011) and higher urinary volume (p training. In STO, there was a higher percentage of athletes who showed proteinuria (70%) compared to the STIN (50%) in the urine sample after training. The use of isotonic sports drink as practice of hydration by karate athletes promoted rehydration during one session of training and reduce post-training proteinuria.

  20. Energy drinks: what is all the hype? The dangers of energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Mandy

    2012-02-01

    To describe the adverse effects associated with energy drink consumption among adolescents and young adults. Review of literature utilizing Medscape, the Internet, MD Consult, and CINAHL. The following search terms were used: Energy drinks, caffeine, guarana, taurine, ginseng, sugar, and caffeine toxicity. Search was limited to English language sources from 2005 to 2010. The popularity of energy drinks and the rapid growth of their excessive consumption among adolescents and young adults have brought about great concern in regards to overall health and well-being. Caffeine, which is readily available to minors, is the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world and imposes a potentially harmful influence on health, academic performance, and personal adjustments. Teens and young adults account for nearly $2.3 billion of energy drink sales. Adolescents and young adults are often unaware that various products, such as energy drinks, herbal medications, and various other medications that promote alertness, contain caffeine. When these products are taken together, caffeine toxicity and severe adverse effects can occur. Practitioners need to be aware of the consequences of energy drink consumption and be prepared to provide appropriate patient education. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. The effect of two sports drinks and water on GI complaints and performance during an 18-km run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhoven, M A; Brouns, F; Kovacs, E M R

    2005-05-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are frequently experienced during running. Sports drinks to prevent dehydration and hypoglycemia during exercise are generally used. The aim was to investigate the effect of 3 different drinks on GI complaints and performance during competitive running in a controlled field study. Ninety-eight well-trained subjects (90 M, 8 F, age 41 +/- 8 y) performed a competitive 18-km run three times within 8 days. The study was a controlled, standardized field experiment following a randomized, crossover design. Three different drinks were compared: water, a sports drink (CES), and a sports drink with added 150 mg/l caffeine (CAF). The incidence of GI complaints and the effect of the drinks on performance was studied. Each subject consumed 4 times 150 ml as follows: at the start, after 4.5 km, 9 km, and 13.5 km. Fluid intake was controlled. Incidence and intensity of GI complaints during the run were determined using a 10 points scale questionnaire. There were no significant differences in performance between the 3 drinks. Run time (18 km, mean +/- SD): WAT 1 : 18 : 03 +/- 08 : 30, CES 1 : 18 : 23 +/- 08 : 47, CAF 1 : 18 : 03 +/- 08 : 42. The use of carbohydrate-containing sports drinks led to higher incidences of all types of GI complaints compared to water. Significant differences (p sports drinks used during an 18-km run in cool environmental conditions do not support the performance better than mineral water. The use of sports drinks during an 18-km run leads to a higher incidence of both upper and lower GI complaints compared to water. Addition of caffeine to the sports drink has no effect on either running performance or GI complaints.

  2. [Studies on the determinants of energy drinks intake by students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Agnieszka; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Górnicka, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Energy drinks are among the most popular functional products. They contain bioactive substances which may produce beneficial effects on the body, but excessive consumption of energy drinks or use them in accordance with their intended use may be dangerous to health. The aim of the study was to assess determinants and circumstances of energy drinks consuming in selected group of students, their opinion and knowledge on energy drinks. The study was conducted in March 2011 in Warsaw and included 92 students from Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS) and from University of Physical Education (UPE). The data was collected using diagnostic survey. Energy drinks consumed 67% of the respondents. The most common reason for drinking energy drinks was to stay awake (45.2%). They most often drank them during the examination session (21.0%) and afterwards they experienced stimulation (72.9%), but also palpitations (32.2%) and insomnia (25.8%). Students who consumed energy drinks confirmed that they are effective (88.7%) and tasty (41.9%), but dangerous for health (43.5%). Majority of all users of energy drinks (80.7%) mixed them with alcohol. Every fourth respondent did not read the composition of the consumed beverages. Energy drinks have been a popular food product among students. After energy drinks consumption students often felt agitated but also experienced negative symptoms. Young people have to pay attention to the composition of energy drinks, what proves their consciousness.

  3. Energy drink usage among university students in a Caribbean country: Patterns of use and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Sandra D; Ramsarran, Jonathan; Brathwaite, Rachel; Lyman, Sarika; Baker, Ariane; Cornish, D'Andra C; Ganga, Stefan; Mohammed, Zahrid; Sookdeo, Avinash T; Thapelo, Cathrine K

    2015-06-01

    There has been little inquiry addressing whether or not concerns about adverse effects of energy drink usage are relevant in the Caribbean. This survey investigated energy drink usage and adverse consequences among tertiary level students in Trinidad and Tobago. A cross-sectional survey of 1994 students from eight institutions was conducted using a de novo questionnaire based on findings from a focus group of students. Chi-squared analyses and logistic regression were used to assess relationships between energy drink usage, adverse effects and other factors affecting energy drink use, and to verify predictors of energy drink use. Prevalence of use was 86%; 38% were current users. Males were more likely to use, used more frequently and at an earlier age. Energy drinks were used most commonly to increase energy (50%), combat sleepiness (45%) and enhance academic performance (40%), and occurred during sports (23%) and mixed with alcohol (22.2%). The majority (79.6%) consumed one energy drink per sitting; 62.2% experienced adverse effects, most commonly restlessness (22%), jolt and crash (17.1%) and tachycardia (16.6%). Awareness of adverse effects was associated with no use (p=0.004), but adverse effects were not a deterrent to continued use. Energy drink usage is prevalent among students. The use is not excessive, but associated with high rates of adverse effects and occurs in potentially dangerous situations like during exercise and with alcohol. There is a need to educate students about the potential adverse effects of energy drinks. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of flavor and awareness of kilojoule content of drinks on preference and fluid balance in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minehan, Michelle R; Riley, Malcolm D; Burke, Louise M

    2002-03-01

    A palatable flavor is known to enhance fluid intake during exercise; however, a fear of excessive kilojoule intake may deter female athletes from consuming a sports drink during training sessions. In order to examine this issue, we monitored fluid balance during 9 separate training sessions undertaken by junior elite female netball players (n = 9), female basketball players (n = 7), and male basketball players (n = 8). The beverages tested were water, a regular carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (6.8% CHO, 18.7 mmol/L Na, 3.0 mmol/L K, 1,130 kJ/L), and an identical tasting, low kilojoule electrolyte beverage (1% CHO, 18.7 mmol/L Na, 3.0 mmoI/L K, 170 kJ/L). Each subject received each of the 3 drinks at 3 separate training sessions, in a randomized, balanced order. Subjects were aware of the beverage provided. Change in body mass over the training session was used to estimate body fluid change, while voluntary fluid intake was determined from the change in weight of drink bottles used in each session. The overall fluid balance on drinks classified as regular, low kilojoule, and water was -11.3 ml/h (95%CI -99.6 to 77.0), -29.5 ml/h (95%CI -101.4 to 42.5) and-156.4 ml/h (95%CI-215.1 to-97.6), respectively. Theresults indicate that, overall, better fluid balance was achieved using either of the flavored drinks compared to water. These data confirm that flavored drinks enhance fluid balance in a field situation, and suggest that the energy content of the drink is relatively unimportant in determining voluntary fluid intake.

  5. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Brenda M; Aeby, Victor G; Overton, Reginald F; Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Barber-Heidal, Kimberly

    2007-10-31

    Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general), while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253) reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user). The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%), to increase energy (65%), and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%). The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%). Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one energy drink with a reported frequency of 1 - 4 days per

  6. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter-Aeby Tracy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general, while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Methods Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Results Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253 reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user. The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%, to increase energy (65%, and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%. The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%. Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Conclusion Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one

  7. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 -66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks.

  8. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: misconceptions, myths, and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Aufricht, Christoph; Alford, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol. A literature search was performed using the keywords "energy drink and Red Bull(®)" and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase. There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse. Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The coconsumption of energy drinks being one of the many expressions of that type of lifestyle and personality.

  9. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: misconceptions, myths, and facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Aufricht, Christoph; Alford, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Background Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol. Methods A literature search was performed using the keywords “energy drink and Red Bull®” and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase. Results There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse. Conclusion Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The coconsumption of energy drinks being one of the many expressions of that type of lifestyle and personality. PMID:22399863

  10. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  11. Caffeinated energy drinks: neurological and cardiovascular effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrique, Clara Inés

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy caffeinated beverages are composed mainly of caffeine, carbohydrates and dietary supplements. Although manufacturers claim that these drinks are safe and many consumers perceive that also, there is concern about the possibility that adverse events may occur with their consumption. This led us to review the literature with emphasis on the cardiovascular and neurological risks. It was found that the major health complaints (headache, sleep disorders, irritation and fatigue were more frequent in consumers than in non-consumers. Emergency room visits motivated by the use of energy drinks were more frequent when there was co-ingestion of ethanol and other drugs. The main cause of cardiovascular emergency consultation was arrhythmia and the neurological one, seizure. The evidence found was of poor quality, which prevented establishing a causal link between the consumption of these drinks and such risks. On the other hand, interpretation of the toxicity of these preparations is complicated because several variables should considered such as dose, individual sensibility, consumption habits, smoking, and co-ingestion of other substances, etc., in order to assess their real risk. Despite this, concomitant consumption of these beverages and ethanol seems to be a risk factor for toxicity.

  12. Alcohol Drinking Among Kosovar Adolescents: An Examination of Gender-Specific Sociodemographic, Sport, and Familial Factors Associated With Harmful Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajber, Dorica; Tahiraj, Enver; Zenic, Natasa; Peric, Mia; Sekulic, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol consumption is a significant public-health problem, although there is a lack of studies investigating this issue in Kosovo. The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of alcohol drinking, and the factors associated with harmful drinking (HD) in Kosovar 17-18 years old adolescents. The sample comprised 636 girls and 366 boys (17-18 years old) from Pristina, Kosovo. The independent variables included sociodemographic factors, variables examining familial-monitoring and conflict (familial-variables), and sport-factors. Alcohol-drinking (dependent variable) was measured by means of the alcohol use disorders identification test scale. 39% of the girls and 43% of the boys reported HD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.17; 95% confidence interval = 0.90-1.55). A higher likelihood of HD is found for those girls whose mothers have an advanced education (OR = 1.59), who reported a higher level of conflict with their parents (OR = 1.95), whose parents are frequently absent from home (OR = 1.93), and who reported lower religiosity (OR = 0.90). HD is more frequent among boys who have participated longer in sports (OR = 1.49), whose fathers have an advanced education (OR = 1.80), and who reported higher level of familial conflict (OR = 2.87). The prevalence of HD is high. Knowing the problems related to alcohol drinking in girls (violence, trafficking, etc.), public-health authorities should urgently develop a specific preventive programme (SPP) to combat the misuse of alcohol. In preparing SPP, special attention should be paid to the varying influences of the studied factors on HD in boys and girls.

  13. Bioanalytical Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory: Monitoring Glucose in Sports Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J. Justin; Yang, Wenrong; Situmorang, Manihar

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes two complementary bioanalytical experiments for analyzing the concentration of glucose in sports drinks. The first experiment is a spectrophotometric enzyme assay employing the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The glucose is oxidized by the GOx, producing hydrogen peroxide, which is the substrate for HRP. In the reduction of the H2O2 a chromogen is oxidized, causing a color change. In the partner experiment, the GOx is immobilized on a platinum electrode using a dialysis membrane. The hydrogen peroxide produced in the enzyme reaction is monitored amperometrically by oxidizing the hydrogen peroxide produced. The simple method of preparing the enzyme electrode is useful in demonstrating the important parameters in defining the response of enzyme electrodes. The same sports drinks are analyzed in both experiments. The two experiments together illustrate the advantage of bioanalysis in analyzing complex samples with minimal sample preparation.

  14. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among United States secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; OʼMalley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-01-01

    Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among United States secondary school students in 2010-2011, and associations between such use and substance use. We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use, controlling for individual and school characteristics. Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is widespread and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users.

  15. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among US secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among US secondary school students in 2010–2011, and associations between such use and substance use. Methods We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use controlling for individual and school characteristics. Results Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. Conclusions This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is wide-spread, and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users. PMID:24481080

  16. Isotonic sports drink promotes rehydration and decreases proteinuria following karate training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Geraldini

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Adequate hydration status in the sport is essential for good health, yet the relationship between hydration, proteinuria and sports is little studied. Objective: To analyze the influence of an isotonic sports drink as rehydration strategy on the hydration status and proteinuria after karate training. Methods: Ten athletes participated in this study. In the first session of standard training, called observation training session (STO, the athletes hydrated themselves according to their habits, and in the second session of standard training, called nutritional intervention training session (STIN, an ideal practice of hydration protocol was followed, using an isotonic sports drink as a rehydration liquid during the training. The hydration status was verified by monitoring the body weight before and after training, the urine specific gravity pre-and post-training and the urine volume post-training. To observe the influence of practice of hydration on the renal function post exercise proteinuria was measured. Results: We observed a statistically significant difference in urine density between the samples pre- and post-exercise only on STIN (p = 0.047. When we compare the sessions, there was a lower variation in body weight (p = 0.011 and higher urinary volume (p < 0.001, on nutritional intervention training. In STO, there was a higher percentage of athletes who showed proteinuria (70% compared to the STIN (50% in the urine sample after training. Conclusion: The use of isotonic sports drink as practice of hydration by karate athletes promoted rehydration during one session of training and reduce post-training proteinuria.

  17. Post-exercise rehydration with coconut water: as effective as a sports drink, or better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pérez Idárraga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effectiveness of fresh coconut water as a rehydration beverage with bottled water and a sports drink. Method: eleven participants, 22.0±1.9 years of age and 65.6±13.0 kg body mass (average ± S.D., reported to the laboratory on three separate occasions, each one week apart. Each time they exercised in the heat until they were dehydrated by 1.84 ± 0.2% of initial body mass. They were then rehydrated for one hour with commercial bottled water (BW, a sports drink (SD, or coconut water (CW, using a volume equivalent to 120% of weight loss. Perceived beverage acceptance and tolerance ratings were evaluated, and urine was collected over three hours following rehydration. Results: Urine volumes showed an interaction between beverage and time (p=0.003; BW was statistically different from CW and SD, 30 and 60 minutes after rehydration (p0.05. This resulted in a different fluid conservation percentage for BW (56% compared with CW (71% and SD (71% (p0.05. Perceived sweetness was lower for BW (p= 0.024; SD had higher scores for flavor and overall acceptance (p<0.05. Conclusions: fresh coconut water is as effective as a sports drink in terms of fluid retained following consumption, and it has good tolerance and acceptance; it could be used for rehydration provided it is accessible to the individual and the person finds the flavor pleasing.

  18. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  19. From dehydration to hyperhidration isotonic and diuretic drinks and hyperhydratant aids in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa

    2014-01-01

    The needs of water and electrolytes are quite variants, depending on age, physiological or environmental conditions. In most long-term sports, usual weight loss of 3-6%, affect in athletic performance. The effects of a 6% dehydration could be improved with individualized diet-specific nutritional strategies and allow only a 2-3% dehydration, which affect metabolic efficiency but will not risk the health. On the contrary, hyperhydration can be dangerous and is associated with hyponatremia that can cause cerebral edema or respiratory failure. Sports drinks should moisturize, providing minerals and carbohydrates and increase the absorption of water by an ideal combination of salts and sugars. Therefore, it is important to provide correct hydration -protocols before, during and after physical activity, as well as know possible limitations of the sport.

  20. Energy drinks: Getting wings but at what health cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Iftikhar, Rahila

    2014-01-01

    Energy drink consumption represents a global public health problem, especially among adolescents and young adults. The consumption of energy drinks has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. Although manufacturers of energy drinks claim that these beverages are beneficial in that they can boost energy, physical performance, and improve cognitive performance, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support these claims. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of energy drinks, supplemented with reports of toxicity, raise concern for the potentially severe adverse events linked with energy drink use. Limited numbers of reviews have been published on this important subject..The aim of this review was to identify the major ingredients in energy drinks and to delineate the adverse effects related to their consumption. Electronic databases of PubMed, Clinical Key, and Google and Cochrane library were extensively searched for energy drink articles. More than hundred articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant forty articles were used Conclusion: Energy drinks & its ingredients are potentially dangerous to many aspects of health. Measures should be taken to improve awareness among adolescents and their parents regarding the potential hazards of energy drinks. Furthermore, the sale of energy drinks on college and university campuses and to adolescents below 16 years should be prohibited.

  1. Energy drinks: a review of use and safety for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchan, Erin; Patel, Neil D; Feucht, Cynthia

    2010-06-01

    Energy drinks have increased in popularity in adolescents and young adults; however, concerns have been raised regarding the ingredients in energy drinks and their potential negative effects on health. Caffeine, the most physiologically active ingredient in energy drinks, is generally considered safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), although adverse effects can occur at varying amounts. Guarana, which contains caffeine in addition to small amounts of theobromine, theophylline, and tannins, is also recognized as safe by the FDA, although it may lead to caffeine toxicity when combined with caffeine. The amount of ginseng in energy drinks is typically far below the amount used as a dietary supplement, and is generally considered safe. Taurine, an intracellular amino acid, has been reported to have positive inotropic effects; however, this claim is not supported by research. Most energy drinks also contain sugar in an amount that exceeds the maximum recommended daily amount. Young athletes are increasingly using energy drinks because of the ergogenic effects of caffeine and the other ingredients found in these beverages. Energy drinks combined with alcohol are also gaining popularity in young adults, which poses significant concerns about health risks. Other health concerns related to consumption of energy drinks include case reports of seizures and cardiac arrest following energy drink consumption and dental enamel erosion resulting from the acidity of energy drinks.

  2. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions. PMID:25293540

  3. Desire to Drink Alcohol is Enhanced with High Caffeine Energy Drink Mixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with a variety of risks beyond that observed with alcohol alone. Consumers of AmED beverages are more likely to engage in heavy episodic (binge) drinking. This study was to investigate whether the consumption of high caffeine energy drink mixers with alcohol would increase the desire to drink alcohol compared to the same amount of alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 26) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 6 double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, participants received 1 of 6 possible doses: (i) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 3.63 ml/kg decaffeinated soft drink, (ii) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 3.63 ml/kg energy drink, (iii) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 6.05 ml/kg energy drink, (iv) 3.63 ml/kg decaffeinated soft drink, (v) 3.63 ml/kg energy drink, and (vi) 6.05 ml/kg energy drink. Following dose administration, participants repeatedly completed self-reported ratings on the Desire-for-Drug questionnaire and provided breath alcohol readings. Alcohol alone increased the subjective ratings of "desire for more alcohol" compared to placebo doses. Energy drink mixers with the alcohol increased desire for more alcohol ratings beyond that observed with alcohol alone. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages lead to greater desire to drink alcohol versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. The findings are consistent with results from animal studies indicating that caffeine increases the rewarding and reinforcing properties of alcohol. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. The Desire to Drink Alcohol is Enhanced with High Caffeine Energy Drink Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Stamates, Amy L.; Maloney, Sarah F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with a variety of risks beyond that observed with alcohol alone. Consumers of AmED beverages are more likely to engage in heavy episodic (binge) drinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the consumption of high caffeine energy drink mixers with alcohol would increase the desire to drink alcohol compared to the same amount of alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Methods Participants (n = 26) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 6 double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, participants received 1 of 6 possible doses: 1) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 3.63 ml/kg decaffeinated soft drink, 2) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 3.63 ml/kg energy drink, 3) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 6.05 ml/kg energy drink, 4) 3.36 ml/kg decaffeinated soft drink, 5) 3.36 ml/kg energy drink, and 6) 6.05 ml/kg energy drink. Following dose administration, participants repeatedly completed self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire and provided breath alcohol readings. Results Alcohol alone increased the subjective ratings of “desire for more alcohol” compared to placebo doses. Energy drink mixers with the alcohol increased desire for more alcohol ratings beyond that observed with alcohol alone. Conclusions This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages lead to greater desire to drink alcohol versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. The findings are consistent with results from animal studies indicating that caffeine increases the rewarding and reinforcing properties of alcohol. PMID:27419377

  5. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for short). These supplements can have similar side effects to anabolic steroids. Other sports supplements (like creatine, for example) have not been ... All of these can drag down a person's sports performance. Plus, taking certain ... caffeine's side effects seem even worse. Never drink energy drinks before ...

  6. Energy drinks consumption in Erbil city: A population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin A. Asaad

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective: Energy drinks have become increasingly prevalent among young adults and adolescents in recent years, particularly young students and athletes who see the consumption of energy drinks as an easy and quick way to boost academic and athletic performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of consumption of energy drinks in a sample of adolescent and adults in Erbil city as well as perceived benefits and its health hazards. Methods: A convenience sa...

  7. Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses. Infofacts/Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The February 2003 death of Baltimore Orioles pitcher Steve Bechler, who according to the coroner's report died after taking ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra), has garnered national attention for the topic of nutritional supplements and energy drinks. Energy drinks and energy-enhancing pills, diet aids, muscle-enlargers, and other supplements fall…

  8. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Vitamin B6 in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, Rachel E.; Stankus, John J.; Davis, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography experiment to determine the concentration of caffeine and vitamin B6 in sports energy drinks has been developed. This laboratory activity, which is appropriate for an upper-level instrumental analysis course, illustrates the standard addition method and simultaneous determination of two species. (Contains 1…

  10. POST-EXERCISE REHYDRATION WITH DIFFERENT BEVERAGES: PURE WATER, SPORTS DRINK, AND ROSELLE TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Mayol Soto

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to assess the suitability of roselle tea (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. for post-exercise rehydration, compared with pure water and a sports drink. Roselle tea is a beverage widely consumed in Mexico and highly regarded because of its purported diuretic properties. Sixteen physically active male students from the University of Costa Rica, aged 17 to 23 years old, drank each one of the three treatments on different days, the same day of the week, in random order. They arrived in the laboratory euhydrated and, after a standardized breakfast and a brief rest, exercised intermittently on a stationary bicycle in a climate-controlled room (30-35°C and 85% RH until reaching 2.3% body mass loss dehydration. After a 30-min rest at room temperature, they drank a volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss of the drink assigned to that day, within 45 minutes. At the end of rehydration (0 min urine collection was performed and repeated every 30 min for a total of 3 hours. Each sample was measured for volume, color and density. Sample volumes were analyzed as percentage of ingested fluid. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and  two-way ANOVAs (repeated measures on both factors. While there were no statistically significant differences in total urine output (p = 0.084, an interaction was found between urine output, density, and color, with time (p < 0.001. Post-hoc analysis showed urine output to be higher initially with the sports drink, but it was significantly lower at time points  150 and 180 min. In addition, urine was significantly darker and denser at 0, 150, and 180 min with this drink, suggesting greater fluid conservation. From the results it is possible to conclude that roselle tea did not show a diuretic effect 3 hours after consumption, in exercise-dehydrated subjects. While it seems like rehydration is almost identical with the three drinks, urine composition and output dynamics is

  11. Caffeine Content in Popular Energy Drinks and Energy Shots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipoe, Selasi; Leggit, Jeffrey; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    The use of energy beverages is high among the general population and military personnel. Previous studies have reported discrepancies between the actual amount of caffeine in products and the amount of caffeine on stated labels. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the content of caffeine listed on the labels of various energy drinks and energy shots. Top-selling energy drinks (n = 9) and energy shots (n = 5) were purchased from retail stores. Three of each of the 14 products were purchased and analyzed for caffeine content by an independent laboratory. Of the 14 products tested, 5 did not provide caffeine amounts on their facts panel-of those, 3 listed caffeine as an ingredient and 2 listed caffeine as part of a proprietary blend. The remaining 9 (of 14) products stated the amounts of caffeine on their labels, all of which were within 15% of the amount indicated on the label. In this study, although the energy beverages that indicated the amount of caffeine it contained had values within ±15% of the amount listed on the label, a potentially acceptable range, this finding is not acceptable with regard to current labeling regulations, which require added ingredients to total 100%. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents' consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or "other." Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84-4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.

  13. Effects of Oral Administration of Energy Drinks on Blood Chemistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Energy drinks are canned or bottled carbonated beverages that contain large amounts of caffeine and sugar with additional ingredients, such as BVitamins, amino acids and herbal stimulants. Previous reports have shown that consumption of large amounts of these energy drinks may result in adverse health ...

  14. Identification of the sulphate ion as one of the key components of yeast spoilage of a sports drink through genome-wide expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Tsuge, Keisuke; Suzuki, Akihiro; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Because of the growing market for sports drinks, prevention of yeast contamination of these beverages is of significant concern. This research was performed to achieve insight into the physiology of yeast growing in sports drinks through a genome-wide approach to prevent microbial spoilage of sports drinks. The genome-wide gene expression profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing in the representative sports drink was investigated. Genes that were relevant to sulphate ion starvation response were upregulated in the yeast cells growing in the drink. These results suggest that yeast cells are suffering from deficiency of extracellular sulphate ions during growth in the sports drink. Indeed, the concentration of sulphate ions was far lower in the sports drink than in a medium that allows the optimal growth of yeast. To prove the starvation of sulphate ions of yeast, several ions were added to the beverage and its effects were investigated. The addition of sulphate ions, but not chloride ions or sodium ions, to the beverage stimulated yeast growth in the beverage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the addition of sulphate ions to the sports drink increased the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing amino acids in yeast cells and hydrogen sulphide in the beverage. These results indicate that sulphate ion concentration should be regulated to prevent microbial spoilage of sports drinks.

  15. Combining energy drinks and alcohol - a recipe for trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennay, Amy; Lubman, Dan; Miller, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Combining energy drinks (such as 'Red Bull(®)') with alcohol is becoming increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining the harms associated with this form of drinking. To review current evidence associated with combining energy drinks with alcohol and provide recommendations for addressing this issue within primary care. Combining alcohol with energy drinks can mask the signs of alcohol intoxication, resulting in greater levels of alcohol intake, dehydration, more severe and prolonged hangovers, and alcohol poisoning. It may also increase engagement in risky behaviours (such as drink driving) as well as alcohol related violence. General practitioners should be aware of the harms associated with this pattern of drinking, and provide screening and relevant harm reduction advice.

  16. Association Between Student Body Mass Index and Access to Sports Drinks in Minnesota Secondary Schools, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Davey, Cynthia; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2015-11-12

    This ecologic study evaluated the association between school policy allowing students to purchase sports drinks from school vending machines and school stores and student body mass index (BMI). Data were from surveillance surveys of Minnesota secondary schools (n = 238) and students (n = 59,617), administered in 2012 and 2013, respectively. We used generalized linear models to assess the association between policies and mean age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentile. In adjusted multivariate analysis, school policy was positively associated with BMI percentile (P = .005). School policy restricting student access to sports drinks at school may contribute to decreasing consumption of sport drinks among school-aged youth and improving student weight outcomes in this population.

  17. Energy requirements in top-level DanceSport athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchini, Andrea; Malaguti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Dancesport is a sport of recent history: recognition by the IOC as Olimpic discipline came in 1997. Scientific literature on this new sport is almost nonexistent. The purpose of this study is for define the energy expenditure and the intensity of the two main dancesport disciplines (latinamerican and standard dances) in top-level athletes and verify characteristics and differences of these two dance genres. Twenty dancers, 10 male and 10 female (10 couples,), aged between 19 and 31 years, hav...

  18. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves physical performance in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Salinero, Juan Jose; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Areces, Francisco; Barbero-Alvarez, Jose Carlos; Muñoz, Víctor; Portillo, Luis Javier; Gonzalez-Rave, Jose Maria; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    There is little information about the effects of caffeine intake on female team-sport performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink to improve physical performance in female soccer players during a simulated game. A double-blind, placebo controlled and randomized experimental design was used in this investigation. In two different sessions, 18 women soccer players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg in the form of an energy drink or an identical drink with no caffeine content (placebo). After 60 min, they performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a 7 × 30 m sprint test followed by a simulated soccer match (2 × 40 min). Individual running distance and speed were measured using GPS devices. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the CMJ height (26.6 ± 4.0 vs 27.4 ± 3.8 cm; P 18 km/h (161 ± 99 vs 216 ± 103 m; P caffeine/kg might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance in female soccer players.

  19. Measuring energy expenditure in sports by thermal video analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Larsen, Ryan Godsk; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of human energy expenditure in sports and exercise contributes to performance analyses and tracking of physical activity levels. The focus of this work is to develop a video-based method for estimation of energy expenditure in athletes. We propose a method using thermal video analysis...... of oxygen uptake. These initial experiments indicate a correlation between estimated step frequency and oxygen uptake. Based on the preliminary results we conclude that the proposed method has potential as a future non-invasive approach to estimate energy expenditure during sports....

  20. Effects of pre-exercise, endurance, and recovery designer sports drinks on performance during tennis tournament simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Sébastien L; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie; Metz, Lore; Ennequin, Gael; Aubineau, Nicolas; Lescuyer, Jean-François; Duclos, Martine; Brink, Thibault; Sirvent, Pascal

    2013-11-01

    Sports drinks are often used before, during, and after tennis tournaments, but their ability to influence physiological and psychological variables and the characteristics of tennis match play remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of ingesting specially formulated pre-exercise, endurance, and recovery sports drinks on glycemia and performance indices during a simulated tennis tournament. Eight well-trained male tennis players performed two 3-match round-robin tennis tournaments although ingesting sports drinks (SPDs) or placebos (PLAs) before, during, and after each match (crossover study design). Before the first tournament, match and drink order were randomized (SPDs or PLAs first) and players were placed under controlled nutritional and hydration conditions. Glycemia, heart rate response, rate of perceived exertion, and notational/match analysis were assessed during each match. Sports drinks maintained higher glycemia levels during match 2 and 3 of the tennis tournament compared with PLAs (p < 0.01). Moreover, higher mean heart rates (p < 0.01) and stroke frequencies (p < 0.01) concomitantly with lower rates of perceived exertion (p < 0.01) were recorded throughout the duration of the tournament, when players used the SPDs. During a 3-match tennis tournament, SPDs allow higher stroke frequency during play, with decreased rates of perceived exertion.

  1. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: what are the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  2. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Energy drinks and youth self-reported hyperactivity/inattention symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Deborah L; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Grilo, Stephanie A; McCaslin, Catherine; Schwartz, Marlene; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns in sweetened beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and sex, documenting both the amount and types of sweetened beverages consumed; and to examine the association of sweetened beverage consumption with hyperactivity/inattention symptoms among middle school students in a single urban school district. Middle school students (n = 1649; 47% Hispanic and 38% black, non-Hispanic) from 12 schools, randomly selected out of 27 district schools, completed health behavior surveys in fall 2011. Students reported quantity and types of sweetened beverages consumed in the past 24 hours and completed the 5-item Hyperactivity/Inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms. Amount and variety of reported sweetened beverage consumption (including energy drinks) were greater among boys versus girls and among black and Hispanic versus white students. Risk of hyperactivity/inattention increased by 14% for each additional sweetened beverage consumed, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, sex, school lunch eligibility, family structure, and sugary food consumption. Students reporting consumption of energy drinks were 66% more likely to be at risk for hyperactivity/inattention after adjusting for number of drinks, other types of drinks consumed, and other potential confounders. Results support recommendations to limit consumption of sweetened beverages and to avoid consumption of energy drinks among children. Interventions to reduce sweetened beverage consumption should explicitly focus on energy drinks and other emerging sweetened beverages such as sports and sweetened coffee drinks. More research is needed to understand the direction of effects and the mechanisms behind the association between sweetened beverages and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  6. Energy- Drinks: Composition and Health Benefits | Yunusa | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, from a public health point of view, little seems to be understood of the health benefits and other implications of these drinks by their consumers. Therefore, the understanding that energy drinks have stimulating properties that can boost heart beat rate and blood pressure, dehydrate the body, aggravate the effects ...

  7. Effects of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Bishoy; Kohansieh, Michelle; Makaryus, Amgad N

    2017-11-26

    Throughout the last decade, the use of energy drinks has been increasingly looked upon with caution as potentially dangerous due to their perceived strong concentration of caffeine aside from other substances such as taurine, guarana, and L-carnitine that are largely unknown to the general public. In addition, a large number of energy drink intoxications have been reported all over the world including cases of seizures and arrhythmias. In this paper, we focus on the effect of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system and whether the current ongoing call for the products' sales and regulation of their contents should continue.

  8. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: misconceptions, myths, and facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verster JC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Joris C Verster1, Christoph Aufricht2, Chris Alford31Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Währinger Gürtel, Wien, Austria; 3University of the West of England, Psychology Department, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, UKBackground: Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol.Methods: A literature search was performed using the keywords “energy drink and Red Bull®” and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase.Results: There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse.Conclusion: Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The

  9. Effects of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Bishoy; Kohansieh, Michelle; Makaryus, Amgad N

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the last decade, the use of energy drinks has been increasingly looked upon with caution as potentially dangerous due to their perceived strong concentration of caffeine aside from other substances such as taurine, guarana, and L-carnitine that are largely unknown to the general public. In addition, a large number of energy drink intoxications have been reported all over the world including cases of seizures and arrhythmias. In this paper, we focus on the effect of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system and whether the current ongoing call for the products’ sales and regulation of their contents should continue. PMID:29225735

  10. Mineral Composition and Nutritive Value of Isotonic and Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewicz, Anna; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Several very popular brands of isotonic and energy drinks consumed for fluid and electrolyte supplementation and stimulation of mental or physical alertness were chosen for investigation. Liquid beverages available in polyethylene bottles and aluminum cans as well as products in the form of tablets and powder in sachets were studied. The total concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), both essential and toxic, were simultaneously determined in preconcentrated drink samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) equipped with pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers. Differences between the mineral compositions of isotonic and energy drinks were evaluated and discussed. The highest content of Na was found in both isotonic and energy drinks, whereas quite high concentrations of Mg were found in isotonic drinks, and the highest amount of calcium was quantified in energy drinks. The concentrations of B, Co, Cu, Ni, and P were higher in isotonic drinks, but energy drinks contained greater quantities of Ag, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Mo and toxic elements, as Cd and Pb. A comparison of element contents with micronutrient intake and tolerable levels was performed to evaluate contribution of the investigated beverages to the daily diet. The consumption of 250 cm(3) of an isotonic drink provides from 0.32% (for Mn) up to 14.8% (for Na) of the recommended daily intake. For the energy drinks, the maximum recommended daily intake fulfillment ranged from 0.02% (for V) to 19.4 or 19.8% (for Mg and Na).

  11. Children and young people's perceptions of energy drinks: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelina Visram

    Full Text Available Consumption of soft drinks is declining in many countries, yet energy drink sales continue to increase, particularly amongst young consumers. Little is currently known about the drivers behind these trends. Energy drinks are high in sugar and caffeine, and evidence indicates that regular or heavy use by under 18s is likely to be detrimental to health. This study aimed to explore children and young people's attitudes and perceptions in relation to energy drinks in a UK context.Eight focus groups were conducted with pupils aged 10-11 years (n = 20 and 13-14 years (n = 17 from four schools in northern England. A sub-sample also took part in a mapping exercise to generate further insights. Data were analysed using the constant comparative approach.Energy drinks were reportedly consumed in a variety of public and private places, generally linked to social activities, sports and computer gaming (particularly amongst boys. Participants demonstrated strong brand awareness and preferences that were linked to taste and perceived value for money. The relatively low price of energy drinks and their widespread availability were identified as key factors, along with gendered branding and marketing. Some participants demonstrated a critical approach to manufacturers' claims and many were keen to become better informed, often through school- or peer-based interventions. Other potential interventions included age restrictions, voluntary schemes involving retailers and improved labelling.The lack of a single dominant factor in participants' consumption choices suggests that there is unlikely to be a 'silver bullet' in attempting to address this issue. However, the findings provide support for policy-level interventions that seek to change the behaviours of manufacturers and retailers as well as consumers, and actively involve children and young people where possible.

  12. Children and young people's perceptions of energy drinks: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Shelina; Crossley, Stephen J; Cheetham, Mandy; Lake, Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of soft drinks is declining in many countries, yet energy drink sales continue to increase, particularly amongst young consumers. Little is currently known about the drivers behind these trends. Energy drinks are high in sugar and caffeine, and evidence indicates that regular or heavy use by under 18s is likely to be detrimental to health. This study aimed to explore children and young people's attitudes and perceptions in relation to energy drinks in a UK context. Eight focus groups were conducted with pupils aged 10-11 years (n = 20) and 13-14 years (n = 17) from four schools in northern England. A sub-sample also took part in a mapping exercise to generate further insights. Data were analysed using the constant comparative approach. Energy drinks were reportedly consumed in a variety of public and private places, generally linked to social activities, sports and computer gaming (particularly amongst boys). Participants demonstrated strong brand awareness and preferences that were linked to taste and perceived value for money. The relatively low price of energy drinks and their widespread availability were identified as key factors, along with gendered branding and marketing. Some participants demonstrated a critical approach to manufacturers' claims and many were keen to become better informed, often through school- or peer-based interventions. Other potential interventions included age restrictions, voluntary schemes involving retailers and improved labelling. The lack of a single dominant factor in participants' consumption choices suggests that there is unlikely to be a 'silver bullet' in attempting to address this issue. However, the findings provide support for policy-level interventions that seek to change the behaviours of manufacturers and retailers as well as consumers, and actively involve children and young people where possible.

  13. Chemical Speciation Analysis of Sports Drinks by Acid-Base Titrimetry and Ion Chromatography: A Challenging Beverage Formulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossman, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Students have standardized a sodium hydroxide solution and analyzed commercially available sports drinks by titrimetric analysis of the triprotic citric acid, dihydrogen phosphate, and dihydrogen citrate and by ion chromatography for chloride, total phosphate and citrate. These experiments are interesting examples of analyzing real-world food and…

  14. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of binge drinking and impaired driving when compared with alcohol alone. However, it remains unclear why the risks of use of AmED are heightened compared with alcohol alone even when the doses of alcohol consumed are similar. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate if the rate of self-paced beverage consumption was faster for a dose of AmED versus alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 16) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 4 separate test sessions that involved consumption of alcohol (1.97 ml/kg vodka) and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, the dose assigned was divided into 10 cups. Participants were informed that they would have a 2-h period to consume the 10 drinks. After the self-paced drinking period, participants completed a cued go/no-go reaction time (RT) task and subjective ratings of stimulation and sedation. The results indicated that participants consumed the AmED dose significantly faster (by ∼16 min) than the alcohol dose. For the performance task, participants' mean RTs were slower in the alcohol conditions and faster in the energy-drink conditions. In conclusion, alcohol consumers should be made aware that rapid drinking might occur for AmED beverages, thus heightening alcohol-related safety risks. The fast rate of drinking may be related to the generalized speeding of responses after energy-drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Energy drinks consumption pattern, perceived benefits and associated adverse effects amongst students of University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed A; Badar, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    There are safety concerns about energy drinks alongside marketing claims of physiological and behavioural benefits. There is no scientific data about usage of energy drinks in Saudi Arabia. This study determined consumption patterns of energy drinks as well as perceived benefits and side effects amongst students at a Saudi university. This study was carried out in students of University of Dammam from October to December 2010. A questionnaire about energy drink use, reasons for use, benefits and side effects experienced was distributed amongst the university students. Frequencies of responses and differences between male and female students were analysed. A total of 412 students (282 males and 130 females) responded, out of whom 54.60% males and 26.15% female students were energy drink users. Mean age at first use was significantly (pcompany of friends, to keep awake, for more energy and for better performance in driving, sports or exams. Amongst many the commonest (p<0.05) benefit reported was ability to stay awake longer. The students reported a number of adverse effects. Increased urination and insomnia were the commonest in males and females respectively. Only 36.70% males and 14.28% females never experienced an adverse effect. A significant proportion of students at university of Dammam use energy drinks, they have reported a number of effects (perceived as benefits) along with a variety of adverse effects.

  16. Energy drinks: an emerging public health hazard for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R; Harris, Jennifer L

    2013-05-01

    Energy drinks are emerging as a public health threat and are increasingly consumed by youth internationally. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine, sugar, and novel ingredients, and are often marketed through youth-oriented media and venues. We review these practices and the current inconsistent state of labeling. We also examine international support for regulation of these products, including a survey showing that 85 per cent of United States parents agreed that regulations requiring caffeine content disclosure and warning labels on energy drinks are warranted. We then examine the regulatory structure for energy drinks in the United States, analyzing legal and self-regulatory strategies to protect consumers, especially youth, from these potentially dangerous products. Recommended government interventions include revised labeling requirements, addressing problematic ingredients, and enacting retail restrictions. We conclude by identifying areas for future research.

  17. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of nutritional bang for the buck include trail mix, fresh or dried fruits, and whole-grain cereals. Cutting Through the Hype There's some clever marketing behind energy bars and drinks, and you've ...

  18. Energy Drink Consumption Practices of Young People in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam M. Nassaif

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.

  19. High-energy drinks may provoke aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonjev, Zivojin S; Bala, Gustav

    2013-05-01

    High-energy drinks have become extremely popular after Red Bull's promotion at 1987 in Austria and 1997 in the United States. Since then, we witnessed spectacular increase in different brands, caffeine content and market consumption all over the world. However, there are no reports published in the scientific literature related with detrimental side effects after heavy consumption of high-energy drinks. We report a series of three high-risk cardiovascular patients who had aortic dissection (De Bakey type I and II) following significant consumption of high-energy drinks. All of them required emergency surgical procedure and were remaining stable after surgery. We propose that uncontrolled consumption of high-energy drinks, especially in patients with underlying heart disease, could provoke potentially lethal cardiovascular events as well as acute aortic dissection.

  20. Anaerobic performance when rehydrating with water or commercially available sports drinks during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coso, Juan Del; Estevez, Emma; Baquero, Raúl Antonio; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2008-04-01

    The effects that rehydrating drinks ingested during exercise may have on anaerobic exercise performance are unclear. This study aimed to determine which of four commercial rehydrating drinks better maintains leg power and force during prolonged cycling in the heat. Seven endurance-trained and heat-acclimatized cyclists pedaled for 120 min at 63% maximum oxygen consumption in a hot, dry environment (36 degrees C; 29% humidity, 1.9 m.s-1 airflow). In five randomized trials, during exercise, subjects drank 2.4 +/- 0.1 L of (i) mineral water (WAT; San Benedetto), (ii) 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (Gatorade lemon), (iii) 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (Powerade Citrus Charge), (iv) 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution with lower sodium concentration than other sports drinks (Aquarius orange), or (v) did not ingest any fluid (DEH). Fluid balance, rectal temperature (Trec), maximal cycling power (Pmax), and leg maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) were measured. During DEH, subjects lost 3.7 +/- 0.2% of initial body mass, whereas subjects lost only 0.8% +/- 0.1% in the other trials (p sports drinks during prolonged exercise in the heat preserves leg force, whereas rehydrating with water does not. However, low sodium concentration in a sports drink seems to preclude its ergogenic effects on force.

  1. Unilateral fluid absorption and effects on peak power after ingestion of commercially available hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, David S; Bonetti, Darrell L; Hopkins, Will G

    2011-12-01

    Isotonic sports drinks are often consumed to offset the effects of dehydration and improve endurance performance, but hypotonic drinks may be more advantageous. The purpose of the study was to compare absorption and effects on performance of a commercially available hypotonic sports drink (Mizone Rapid: 3.9% carbohydrate [CHO], 218 mOsmol/kg) with those of an isotonic drink (PowerAde: 7.6% CHO, 281 mOsmol/ kg), a hypertonic drink (Gatorade: 6% CHO, 327 mOsmol/kg), and a noncaloric placebo (8 mOsmol/kg). In a crossover, 11 cyclists consumed each drink on separate days at 250 ml/15 min during a 2-hr preload ride at 55% peak power followed by an incremental test to exhaustion. Small to moderate increases in deuterium oxide enrichment in the preload were observed with Mizone Rapid relative to PowerAde, Gatorade, and placebo (differences of 88, 45, and 42 parts per million, respectively; 90% confidence limits ±28). Serum osmolality was moderately lower with Mizone Rapid than with PowerAde and Gatorade (-1.9, -2.4; mOsmol/L; ±1.2 mOsmol/L) but not clearly different vs. placebo. Plasma volume reduction was small to moderate with Mizone Rapid, PowerAde, and Gatorade relative to placebo (-1.9%, -2.5%, -2.9%; ± 2.5%). Gut comfort was highest with Mizone Rapid but clearly different (8.4% ± 4.8%) only vs PowerAde. Peak power was highest with Mizone Rapid (380 W) vs. placebo and other drinks (1.2-3.0%; 99% confidence limits ±4.7%), but differences were inconclusive with reference to the smallest important effect (~1.2%). The outcomes are consistent with fastest fluid absorption with the hypotonic sports drink. Further research should determine whether the effect has a meaningful impact on performance.

  2. Effects of Energy Drinks on Economy and Cardiovascular Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Willard W; Sanders, Gabe J; Marczinski, Cecile A; Holmer, Brady

    2017-04-01

    Peveler, WW, Sanders, GJ, Marczinski, CA, and Holmer, B. Effects of energy drinks on economy and cardiovascular measures. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 882-887, 2017-The use of energy drinks among athletes has risen greatly. Caffeine and taurine are the 2 primary performance enhancing ingredients found in energy drinks. The number of emergency department visits involving energy drinks doubled over the past 5 years. Reviews of the health complications have highlighted adverse cardiovascular events. The literature reveals that caffeine is known to moderately increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 3 different energy drinks on cardiovascular and performance measures. Fifteen recreational runners completed 5 trials. The first trial consisted of a graded exercise protocol. The 4 remaining trials consisted of 15-minute economy trials at a treadmill speed consistent with 70% of subject's V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. An hour before subjects ingested 1 of the 3 energy drinks or a placebo. HR, BP, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the 15-minute trial. Mean values for dependent measures were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Fifteen-minute systolic BP readings were significantly lower in the placebo trials (156.93 ± 15.50) in relation to the 3 energy drink trials (163.87 ± 13.30, 166.47 ± 13.71, and 165.00 ± 15.23). There were no significant differences in diastolic BP and HR. There were no significant differences found in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE measures. Ingestion of energy drinks demonstrated no change in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE during the economy trials. The findings show no performance benefits under the conditions of this study. However, there does appear to be a significant increase in systolic BP.

  3. A novel hypotonic sports drink containing a high molecular weight polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Limin; Chen, Qiang; Lu, Jike; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Changjiang; Qian, Ping; Yu, Jianyong; Xing, Xinhui

    2014-05-01

    Carbohydrate consumption during exercise can improve performance and delay the onset of fatigue. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sports drink powder, Jxdrink, containing the high molecular weight polysaccharide Jxsac. Animal experiments including digestion and exhaustive swimming experiments were conducted to observe the physiological effects of this beverage. Human experiments involved the participation of 10 healthy male athletes completing a 180 km road cycling test. The osmolality of Jxdrink was 170-175 mosmol kg(-1), lower than that of human blood. Jxdrink was found to prolong the exhaustive swimming time in test animals. Moreover, Jxdrink had a relatively high glycemic index that maintained blood glucose levels during human cycling experiments. Thus, Jxdrink was found to effectively delay the onset of fatigue in both human and animal experiments.

  4. Daily conformity drinking motivations are associated with increased odds of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2018-04-01

    Recent research indicates that individuals drank more heavily and experienced more harms on days they consumed alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs). Limited research, thus far, has examined predictors of AmED use on a daily level. Drinking motives, or reasons for drinking, are shown to discern AmED users from non-users, but the extent to which daily drinking motives covary with AmED use has not been tested. The current study used a daily diary design to determine how motives differ between AmED and other drinking occasions. Participants included 122 college students (73.8% women) with a mean age of 20.39years. Participants completed up to 14 daily surveys, resulting in 389 drinking days (40days involved AmED use). Participants reported on their drinking motives at baseline as well as on each drinking day. Multilevel models revealed that, after controlling for other motives, AmED use was more likely on days where conformity motives were higher than usual and was less likely when enhancement motives were higher. Daily social and coping motives as well as all motives measured at baseline were unassociated with AmED use. Our findings suggest that conformity motives, or drinking to fit in with others, are the most salient drinking motive predicting AmED use on a drinking day. Given that conformity motives are often less associated with alcohol use outcomes in general, these findings highlight AmEDs as a unique alcoholic beverage. Clinicians and interventionists working with frequent AmED users should consider the unique conditions under which AmEDs are consumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Young adolescents' perceptions, patterns, and contexts of energy drink use. A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are purported to increase energy and improve performance, but have been associated with adverse health effects and death. EDs are popular among adolescents and young adults, yet little is known about their use among young adolescents. This study explored perceptions, patterns, and contexts of ED use in six focus groups with 40 adolescents aged 12-15 years from two regional Australian schools. A thematic analysis of the data was used to investigate knowledge about ED brands and content, ED use, reasons for ED use, physiological effects, and influences on ED use. Participants were familiar with EDs and most had used them at least once but had limited knowledge of ED ingredients, and some had difficulty differentiating them from soft and sports drinks. EDs were used as an alternative to other drinks, to provide energy, and in social contexts, and their use was associated with short-term physiological symptoms. Parents and advertising influenced participants' perceptions and use of EDs. These findings suggest young adolescents use EDs without knowing what they are drinking and how they are contributing to their personal risk of harm. The advertising, appeal, and use of EDs by adolescents appear to share similarities with alcohol and tobacco. Further research is needed to replicate and extend the current findings, informed by the lessons learned in alcohol research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Abuse of energy drinks: does it pose a risk?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Energy drinks designate "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid containing a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and liveliness". Their introduction has raised many reluctance and reserves after numerous cardiovascular and neurological injuries among regular consumers. This article attempts to synthesize the existing literature on energy drinks. The review focuses to show that excessive energy drinks consumption cause many complications. The literature review was conducted from 2001 to 2014, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following keywords alone or combined: energy drinks, caffeine, taurine, toxicity, dependence, complications. Occasional or moderate consumption of these cans seem to present little risk to healthy adults. However, their repeated consumption in proportions that far exceed the recommendations for recommended use by the manufacturers, combined with the use of alcohol or illicit drugs consumption increases the risk of occurrence of somatic and psychiatric complications, especially among underage, and subjects with cardiovascular and neurological history. Repeated consumption of energy drinks increases the risk of somatic and psychiatric complications. Further studies must be controlled to improve our understanding of other possible negative consequences on health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629). Results: EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%). Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL) daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. Conclusions: EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine. PMID:26184263

  8. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2015-07-10

    Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629). EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%). Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL) daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine.

  9. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629. Results: EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%. Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. Conclusions: EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine.

  10. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

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    Dariusz Nowak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs. Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%, followed by price (21%. One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour.

  11. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2016-07-29

    Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1-3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour.

  12. Implementation of ISO 50001 Energy Management System in Sports Stadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Byrne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many modern sports stadia around the world consume large amounts of energy during their dayto- day operations. With the cost of this energy constantly on the rise, the challenge of managing this uncontrolled cost has become increasingly more important for the successful and sustainable operation of these facilities. It is essential that some form of energy management system be embraced by these sports stadia. This paper is a case study on Aviva Stadium’s recent implementation of the ISO 50001 Energy Management System. The authors identify the potential challenges and benefits of implementing the ISO 50001 Energy Management System in sports stadia. Final certification to the standard came on the 25th of September 2013 making Aviva Stadium the first stadium in the world to have achieved thirdparty certification to the ISO 50001 standard. This paper can act as a guide for other stadia wishing to adapt ISO 50001 to their venue, especially since it resulted in a €1 million energy cost avoidance over a three-year period.

  13. Adolescent male hazardous drinking and participation in organised activities: involvement in team sports is associated with less hazardous drinking in young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallingberg, Britt; Moore, Simon; Morgan, Joanne; Bowen, Katharine; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2015-02-01

    There is a lack of research investigating organised activity participation and associated alcohol use in vulnerable groups. The purpose of this research was to test and compare associations between participation in organised activities and indicators of hazardous drinking between young offenders and young non-offenders. Two groups of 13-18 year-old males were recruited in Cardiff, UK: 93 young offenders and 53 non-offenders from secondary schools matched on estimated IQ, sex and socioeconomic status. Indicators of hazardous drinking were measured using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). Organised activity participation and externalising behaviour was measured by the Youth Self Report. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence was also administered. Young offenders participated in fewer organised activities and had higher FAST scores than non-offenders. Young offenders and non-offenders significantly differed on mean FAST scores if they participated in no organised activities but not if they participated in at least one team sport. Externalising behaviour problems were unrelated to participation in organised activities. Although young offenders were less likely to have participated in organised activities, for them, participation in a team sport was associated with less hazardous drinking. Vulnerable youths who might benefit most from sporting activities actually access them the least. Future research should identify the different barriers to participation that they face. © 2014 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  15. Energy drinks consumption in Erbil city: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassin A. Asaad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Energy drinks have become increasingly prevalent among young adults and adolescents in recent years, particularly young students and athletes who see the consumption of energy drinks as an easy and quick way to boost academic and athletic performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of consumption of energy drinks in a sample of adolescent and adults in Erbil city as well as perceived benefits and its health hazards. Methods: A convenience sample of 600 individuals from different sectors and social groups of Erbil city was selected. Data was obtained through direct interview. The data was managed through SPSS program version 18, using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The prevalence of energy drinks consumption among the study population was 42.7%, especially adolescents and young adults (those ≤ 25 years and was more common among males than females (55.7% and 29.8%, respectively. The main reasons for its consumption were related to getting energy and improving the mood and performance (66.0% and 30.4%, respectively. 62.7% of participants think that it is harmful and could have adverse effects such as heartbeat irregularity and blood pressure swinging, addiction, and osteoporosis (46.2%, 33.7% and 13.2%, respectively. Televisions were the major source of advertisement (71.45. A significant statistical association had been found between the age, gender and educational status of the participants and consuming energy drinks (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption found to be highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults in Erbil city, which calls for review and regulating the sale of these drinks including adolescents' education, raising community’s awareness, banning selling it in public places and increasing taxes.

  16. Demographics, Health, and Risk Behaviors of Young Adults Who Drink Energy Drinks and Coffee Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Caitlin K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% (“high end”) of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages. PMID:27274417

  17. Energy Drinks Mixed with Alcohol: What are the Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED), the risks associated with AmED, and the objective laboratory data examining how AmED differs from alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that AmED beverages are riskier than alcohol alone and constitute a public health concern. AmED beverage consumption is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers. AmED use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence when compared with alcohol alone. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted. PMID:25293549

  18. Hypertension in a young boy: an energy drink effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Asma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of energy drinks has significantly increased in recent times. Besides athletes, teenagers and students are among the most common consumers. However, popularity is also increasing among the younger and older age groups. Most of the users believe that they are a good source of instant energy and are unaware of its high Caffeine content resulting in harmful effects on health. Case presentation We report the case of a young boy who presented with palpitations and high blood pressure as a result of energy drinks usage. He had been consuming a “Sting” energy drink on regular basis while studying for long hours during his O’ level Exams. His medical examination revealed Sinus tachycardia and high blood pressure. Rest of the examination and lab workup was within normal limits. His pulse and blood pressure returned to normal range after discontinuing Sting usage. Conclusion Several studies have reported numerous health hazards including cardiac effects associated with energy drinks. Warning labeling should be done on these drinks regulating the content of Caffeine and its harmful effects on health.

  19. Legitimacy of concerns about caffeine and energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesensten, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    Whether caffeine and energy drink consumption presents a critical emerging health problem is not currently known. Available evidence suggests that energy drink consumption represents a change in the ways in which individuals in the United States consume caffeine but that the amount of caffeine consumed daily has not appreciably increased. In the present review, the question of whether Americans are sleep deprived (a potential reason for using caffeine) is briefly explored. Reported rates of daily caffeine consumption (based on beverage formulation) and data obtained from both civilian and military populations in the United States are examined, the efficacy of ingredients other than caffeine in energy drinks is discussed, and the safety and side effects of caffeine are addressed, including whether evidence supports the contention that excessive caffeine/energy drink consumption induces risky behavior. The available evidence suggests that the main legitimate concern regarding caffeine and energy drink use is the potential negative impact on sleep but that, otherwise, there is no cause for concern regarding caffeine use in the general population. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Caffeinated energy drinks improve volleyball performance in elite female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Alberto; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Valadés, David; Lara, Beatriz; Hernandez, Cesar; Areces, Francisco; González, Cristina; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on female volleyball players' performance. Thirteen elite female volleyball players ingested 3 mg·kg of caffeine with an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink) in a double-blind and randomized study. Then, participants performed the following: standing spike, jumping spike, spike jump, blocking jump, squat jump, countermovement jump, manual dynamometry, and the agility t-test. A simulated volleyball game was played, videotaped, and notated afterward. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the ball velocity in the standing spike (19.2 ± 2.1 vs 19.7 ± 1.9 m·s, P = 0.023) and in the jumping spike (17.9 ± 2.2 vs 18.8 ± 2.2 m·s, P = 0.038) and the jump height in the squat jump (28.1 ± 3.2 vs 29.4 ± 3.6 cm, P = 0.028), countermovement jump (32.0 ± 4.6 vs 33.1 ± 4.5 cm, P = 0.018), spike jump (43.3 ± 4.7 vs 44.4 ± 5.0 cm, P = 0.025), and block jump (35.2 ± 5.1 vs 36.1 ± 5.1 cm, P = 0.044). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink decreased the time needed to complete the agility t-test (11.1 ± 0.5 vs 10.9 ± 0.3 s, P = 0.036). During the game, the volleyball actions categorized as successful were more frequent with the caffeinated energy drink (34% ± 9% vs 45% ± 9%, P < 0.001), whereas imprecise actions decreased (28% ± 7% vs 14% ± 9%, P < 0.001) when compared with the placebo drink. Commercially available energy drinks can significantly improve physical performance in female volleyball players. Increased physical performance led to improved accuracy during an actual volleyball match.

  1. Energy Drink vs. Coffee: The Effects on Levels of Alertness in Fatigued Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    supplements, and energy drinks . Multiple studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of caffeine to increase alertness and improve cognitive...performance in sleep-deprived individuals. Energy drinks contain caffeine and sugar, similar to a soft drink , but there are additional nonregulated...TERMS Fatigue, alertness, stimulant, caffeine , energy drinks , coffee, aviation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  2. Energy cost models for air supported sports hall in cold climates considering energy efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Natasa; Mathisen, Hans Martin; Cao, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop models for energy planning for an air supported sports hall by analyzing different energy efficiency possibilities. This is a very specific building type suitable for sport activities in cold climates. The observed hall was operated when outdoor temperature was under 5 °C, while the most common measured indoor air temperature was 8 °C during the year. Neither indoor nor outdoor temperature influenced the overpressure. Based on the measurements, the specific...

  3. Psychopathology Related to Energy Drinks: A Psychosis Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hernandez-Huerta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (ED are nonalcoholic beverages that have caffeine as their most common active substance. The rapid expansion of ED consumption has created concern in the scientific community as well as in the public opinion. We report a psychotic episode probably triggered by ED abuse in a young adult without previous psychotic disorders. We have reviewed the literature regarding the relationship between caffeine, energy drinks, and psychopathology. Few articles have been published about mental health effects of energy drinks and caffeine abuse. Nevertheless, this relationship has been suggested, specifically with anxiety disorders, manic episodes, suicide attempts, psychotic decompensation, and substance use disorder. ED consumption could represent a global public health problem because of the potential severe adverse effects in mental and physical health. To our knowledge, this article is probably the first case of psychosis related to ED abuse in an individual without previous psychotic disorders.

  4. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – Decembe...

  5. The effects of the intake of an isotonic sports drink before orienteering competitions on skeletal muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Filiz Fatma; Cayci, Banu; Yaman, Metin; Karacan, Selma; Gonulateş, Suleyman; Ipekoglu, Gökhan; Er, Fatmanur

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the intake of an isotonic sports drink (500 ml water, 32 gr carbonhydrate, 120 mg calcium, 248 mg chloride, 230 mg sodium) the level of the skeletal muscle damage of orienteering athletes. [Subjects and Methods] The study was carried out on 21 male elite orienteering athletes. The athletes were divided into two groups by randomized double-blind selection. The experimental group (n=11) was given the isotonic sports drink, while the placebo group (n=10) was given 500 ml pure water. Blood samples were taken pre-competition, post-competition, 2 hours post-competition and 24 hours post-competition. [Results] The pre-c troponin, myoglobin and creatinine kinase serum levels of the placebo group were significantly lower than the post-competition and 2 hours post-competition values. The 24 hours post-competition levels of the same analyses were also significantly lower than the post-c and 2 hours post-competition. The pre-competition troponin, myoglobin and creatinine kinase levels of the experimental group were found to be significantly lower than the post-competition, 2 hours post-competition 24 hours post-competition values. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the intake of supportive sports drinks before exercising significantly prevents the observed muscle damage. The study showed that serum myoglobin levels between the experimental and the placebo group is significantly different during the 2 hours post-competition period. [Conclusion] The level of serum creatinine kinase and myoglobin accurately shows the extent of the muscle damage. However, further studies on the effect of isotonic sports drink in different training programs on the cell membrane and the muscle damage are needed.

  6. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don

    2013-01-01

    Background An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents’ consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. Methods We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. Results About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or “other.” Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84–4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90–2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. Interpretation The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of

  7. Determination of pesticide residues (> 0.5 microg/L) in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen D; Milne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on a method for the measurement of 19 low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The pesticide residues determined were 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (2,4'-DDD); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4'-DDD); alpha-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; dieldrin; aldrin; ethion; chlorpyrifos; beta-endosulfan; malathion; methyl-parathion; alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH); beta-HCH; delta-HCH; and gamma-HCH. Blind fortification solutions containing 4 different levels of pesticide residues (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/L) were provided to 8 collaborating laboratories who used them to create test samples in 6 matrixes (also provided): 2 colas, a diet cola, a clear lemon-lime soft drink, an orange soft drink, and a sports drink. Reproducibility (RSDR) for all 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 7 to 151% at the 0.1 microg/L level, 11 to 121% at 0.5 microg/L, and 14 to 67% at 1.0 microg/L. Repeatability (RSDr), applicable to the diet cola and the sports drink, ranged from 1 to 76% for the 19 pesticide residues at the 0.1 microg/L level, 9 to 38% at 0.5 microg/L, and 9 to 38% at 1.0 microg/L. Recoveries for the 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 77 to 645% at the 0.1 microg/L level, 60 to 231% at 0.5 microg/L, and 61 to 146% at 1.0 microg/L. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC as Official First Action with a limit of quantification (LOQ) equal to 0.5 microg/L for 4,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDD; 4,4'-DDE; 4,4'-DDD; 2,4'-DDE; aldrin; dieldrin; alpha-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; chlorpyrifos; and ethion, and an LOQ equal to 1.0 microg/L for beta-endosulfan; alpha-HCH; beta-HCH; delta-HCH; gamma-HCH; methyl-parathion; and

  8. Determination of low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen D; Milne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on a method for the measurement of 11 low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The pesticide residues determined in this study were alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Blind fortification solutions containing 3 different levels of pesticide residues were provided to 9 collaborating laboratories to create test samples at concentrations of 0, 0.1, and 0.5 microg/L with a 10-fold concentration for phorate in a total of 6 matrixes (2 colas, 1 diet cola, 1 clear lemon-lime soft drink, 1 orange soft drink, and 1 sports drink). Good qualitative performance of the method was demonstrated for all pesticide residues. Reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) ranged from 7 to 151% for alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-D at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate). At 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate), RSDR ranged from 9 to 57% for alachlor, atrazine, butachlor isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-D in all matrixes. Repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr), applicable to the diet cola and sports drink, ranged from 0 to 124% for the 11 pesticide residues at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate). At 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate), RSDr ranged from 4 to 26%. Recoveries for the 11 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 84 to 300% at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate) and from 66 to 127% at the 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate) level. Coefficients of determination (r2) of the matrix-matched calibration curves were > or = 0.95. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC

  9. Sports Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...

  10. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anxious or jittery. Caffeine can also cause trouble sleeping. All of these can drag down a person's sports performance. Plus, taking certain medications — including supplements — can make caffeine's side effects seem even worse. Never drink energy drinks before ...

  11. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  12. Characteristics of University Students Who Mix Alcohol and Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E.; Green, Michaela R.; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research has identified correlates (e.g., drug use, risky sex, smoking) of using alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMEDs). Few studies have investigated common mental health-related concerns (e.g., depression, sleep). Participants: Alcohol-using college students (n = 380 never used AMEDs, n = 180 used AMEDs) were recruited in the study…

  13. The Effects of Energy Drinks on Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marlon R.

    Fatigue problems have been widespread in the air traffic control industry; in past years a common practice among air traffic controllers has been to consume highly caffeinated beverages to maintain awareness and thwart sleep deprivation. This study sought to examine what impact the consumption of an energy drink had on Air Traffic Control Collegiate Training Initiative students at Middle Tennessee State University to solve Air Traffic Selection and Training Battery Applied Math type test problems. Participants consumed a Red Bull energy drink or a placebo and then were asked to complete speed, time, distance, and rate of climb and descent rates questions in addition to answering questions regarding their perception of energy drinks. An appropriate statistical analysis was applied to compare scores of participants. The experimental group which received the energy drink averaged slightly lower (M=77.27, SD=19.79) than the control group, which consumed the placebo beverage (M=81.5, SD=19.01), but this difference was not statistically significant.

  14. Energy Drink Cocktails: A Dangerous Combination for Athletes and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks (EDs) on college campuses and in communities has become a considerable public health concern. Among college students, intercollegiate athletes have been identified as being particularly at-risk for excessive alcohol consumption and resultant health and behavioral consequences. The main purpose of this…

  15. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  16. Apoptosis of rats’ cardiomyocytes after chronic energy drinks consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawinski Miroslaw Aleksander

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (ED are beverages containing caffeine, taurine, vitamins, herbal extracts, and sugar or sweeteners. They are marketed as capable of improving stamina, athletic performance and concentration, moreover, as serving as a source of energy. Still, there are very few papers describing the impact of ED on cell biology – including cell apoptosis within tissues. Therefore, in our study, we assessed the symptoms of rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis after 8 weeks consumption of ED.

  17. Lactate, fructose and glucose oxidation profiles in sports drinks and the effect on exercise performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Azevedo

    Full Text Available Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation was assessed in 6 male Category 1 and 2 cyclists who consumed CytoMax (C or a leading sports drink (G before and during continuous exercise (CE. C contained lactate-polymer, fructose, glucose and glucose polymer, while G contained fructose and glucose. Peak power output and VO2 on a cycle ergometer were 408+/-13 W and 67.4+/-3.2 mlO2 x kg(-1 x min(-1. Subjects performed 3 bouts of CE with C, and 2 with G at 62% VO2peak for 90 min, followed by high intensity (HI exercise (86% VO(2peak to volitional fatigue. Subjects consumed 250 ml fluid immediately before (-2 min and every 15 min of cycling. Drinks at -2 and 45 min contained 100 mg of [U-(13C]-lactate, -glucose or -fructose. Blood, pulmonary gas samples and 13CO2 excretion were taken prior to fluid ingestion and at 5,10,15,30,45,60,75, and 90 min of CE, at the end of HI, and 15 min of recovery. HI after CE was 25% longer with C than G (6.5+/-0.8 vs. 5.2+/-1.0 min, P<0.05. 13CO2 from the -2 min lactate tracer was significantly elevated above rest at 5 min of exercise, and peaked at 15 min. 13CO2 from the -2 min glucose tracer peaked at 45 min for C and G. 13CO2 increased rapidly from the 45 min lactate dose, and by 60 min of exercise was 33% greater than glucose in C or G, and 36% greater than fructose in G. 13CO2 production following tracer fructose ingestion was greater than glucose in the first 45 minutes in C and G. Cumulative recoveries of tracer during exercise were: 92%+/-5.3% for lactate in C and 25+/-4.0% for glucose in C or G. Recoveries for fructose in C and G were 75+/-5.9% and 26+/-6.6%, respectively. Lactate was used more rapidly and to a greater extent than fructose or glucose. CytoMax significantly enhanced HI.

  18. Lactate, fructose and glucose oxidation profiles in sports drinks and the effect on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, John L; Tietz, Emily; Two-Feathers, Tashena; Paull, Jeff; Chapman, Kenneth

    2007-09-26

    Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation was assessed in 6 male Category 1 and 2 cyclists who consumed CytoMax (C) or a leading sports drink (G) before and during continuous exercise (CE). C contained lactate-polymer, fructose, glucose and glucose polymer, while G contained fructose and glucose. Peak power output and VO2 on a cycle ergometer were 408+/-13 W and 67.4+/-3.2 mlO2 x kg(-1) x min(-1). Subjects performed 3 bouts of CE with C, and 2 with G at 62% VO2peak for 90 min, followed by high intensity (HI) exercise (86% VO(2)peak) to volitional fatigue. Subjects consumed 250 ml fluid immediately before (-2 min) and every 15 min of cycling. Drinks at -2 and 45 min contained 100 mg of [U-(13)C]-lactate, -glucose or -fructose. Blood, pulmonary gas samples and 13CO2 excretion were taken prior to fluid ingestion and at 5,10,15,30,45,60,75, and 90 min of CE, at the end of HI, and 15 min of recovery. HI after CE was 25% longer with C than G (6.5+/-0.8 vs. 5.2+/-1.0 min, P<0.05). 13CO2 from the -2 min lactate tracer was significantly elevated above rest at 5 min of exercise, and peaked at 15 min. 13CO2 from the -2 min glucose tracer peaked at 45 min for C and G. 13CO2 increased rapidly from the 45 min lactate dose, and by 60 min of exercise was 33% greater than glucose in C or G, and 36% greater than fructose in G. 13CO2 production following tracer fructose ingestion was greater than glucose in the first 45 minutes in C and G. Cumulative recoveries of tracer during exercise were: 92%+/-5.3% for lactate in C and 25+/-4.0% for glucose in C or G. Recoveries for fructose in C and G were 75+/-5.9% and 26+/-6.6%, respectively. Lactate was used more rapidly and to a greater extent than fructose or glucose. CytoMax significantly enhanced HI.

  19. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Daily Context of Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2017-04-01

    The link between use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) and alcohol-related harms is well established, but limited research has examined the context in which AmEDs are consumed. Identifying the social and environmental characteristics of use may illuminate whether AmEDs are used in settings that could increase the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors or experiencing harms. This study used a 2-week daily diary assessment to compare days in which AmEDs were consumed ("AmED days") and days where other types of alcohol were used ("non-AmED days") on where, when, and with whom drinking occurred. Participants were 122 (90 women) heavy drinking college students who reported mixing caffeine with alcohol at least once in the past week. Data were collected across 389 drinking days; 40 of these days involved AmED use. Multilevel modeling findings revealed that odds of drinking AmEDs were higher on days where individuals drank at a bar or club and drank at home relative to other locations. In addition, odds of pregaming were higher on AmED days as compared to non-AmED days. AmED use was linked with lower odds of drinking game behavior. Overall, AmEDs appear to be consumed in potentially risky contexts. In combination with prior findings that AmED days are linked with heavier alcohol use and more harms experienced, these findings support the unique nature of AmED consumption in terms of the factors that may predict or maintain potentially hazardous drinking patterns. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. ENERGY- DRINKS: COMPOSITION AND HEALTH BENEFITS 186

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... exercise to prevent dehydration, supply carbohydrates, provide electrolytes and typically do not contain caffeine (Coombes and Hamilton, 2000). Nutraceutical ... after acute sleep loss and doses of 200 to 600 mg after a night or more .... major role as a coenzyme in energy metabolism, fat synthesis, and fat ...

  1. Use and Perceptions of Caffeinated Energy Drinks and Energy Shots in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, Danielle; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Hammond, David

    2017-12-01

    In Canada, energy drinks and energy shots are currently classified and regulated differently (food and drugs versus natural health products, respectively), on the assumption that they are used and perceived differently. The current study examined potential differences in use and perceptions of energy drinks and shots. An online survey was conducted in 2015 using a national commercial online panel of youth and young adults aged 12-24 years (n=2,040 retained for analysis in 2016). Participants were randomized to view an image of an energy shot or drink, and were asked about 14 potential reasons for using the product. Past consumption of each product was also assessed. Chi-square and t-tests were conducted to examine differences in use and perceptions between products. Overall, 15.6% of respondents reported using both energy shots and drinks. Of all respondents, ordering of the reasons for use of each product was comparable. Despite differences in prevalence of ever-use of energy shots and drinks, consumption patterns and perceived reasons for using the products are similar. The findings provide little support for regulating energy shots differently than energy drinks. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of sports drinks on color stability of nanofilled and microhybrid composites after long-term immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ugur; Yildiz, Esra; Eren, Meltem Mert

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of three sports drinks on the color stability of two nanofilled and two microhybrid composite materials after 1-month and 6-month periods. Twenty-eight disc-shaped specimens (diameter: 10mm and thickness: 2mm) each were made from four resin composites (Clearfil Majesty Posterior, Filtek Supreme, Clearfil APX, and Filtek Z250). All the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24h at 37°C. Then, the baseline color values (L*a*b*) of each specimen were measured using a spectrophotometer according to the CIEL*a*b* color scale. Seven randomly selected specimens from each composite material were then immersed in one of the three sports drinks (Powerade, Red Bull, and Burn) or distilled water (control) for 1 and 6 months. After each immersion, the color values of each specimen were remeasured, and the color change value (ΔE) was calculated. The data were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The tested resin composites showed color changes over the 6-month evaluation periods. At 1 month, highest level of color changes was observed in the Clearfil APX specimens immersed in Burn (psports drinks if consumed a longer period of time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Malisova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984, 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001 and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter. Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  4. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  5. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  6. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  7. Acute effects of energy drinks in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Andrés; Romero, César; Arroyave, Cristhian; Giraldo, Fabián; Sánchez, Leidy; Sánchez, Julio

    2017-09-01

    To determine the acute effects of a variety of recognized energy drinks on medical students, based on the hypothesis that these beverages may affect negatively cardiovascular parameters, stress levels and working memory. Eighty young healthy medical students were included in the study. 62.5 % of the participants were male, and the age mean was 21.45 years. Each person was evaluated via measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, oxygen saturation, breath rate, temperature, STAI score (to assess anxiety state), salivary cortisol and N-back task score (to determine cognitive enhancement). These evaluations were performed before and following the intake of either carbonated water or one of three energy drinks containing caffeine in similar concentrations and an undetermined energy blend; A contained less sugar and no taurine. Thirty-minute SBP increased significantly in the A and C groups. The B group exhibited a diminution of the percentage of the 1-h SBP increase, an increase of 1-h DBP and QTc shortening. HR showed an increase in the percent change in the A and C groups. Cortisol salivary levels increased in the B group. The STAI test score decreased in the C group. The percent change in N-back scores increased in the A group. The data reinforce the need for further research on the acute and chronic effects of energy drinks to determine the actual risks and benefits. Consumers need to be more informed about the safety of these energy drinks, especially the young student population.

  8. Effects of sports drinks on the maintenance of physical performance during 3 tennis matches: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink-Elfegoun, Thibault; Ratel, Sébastien; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie; Metz, Lore; Ennequin, Gael; Doré, Eric; Martin, Vincent; Bishop, David; Aubineau, Nicolas; Lescuyer, Jean-François; Duclos, Martine; Sirvent, Pascal; Peltier, Sébastien L

    2014-01-01

    Tennis tournaments often involve playing several consecutive matches interspersed with short periods of recovery. The objective of this study was firstly to assess the impact of several successive tennis matches on the physical performance of competitive players and secondly to evaluate the potential of sports drinks to minimize the fatigue induced by repeated matches. This was a crossover, randomized controlled study. Eight male regionally-ranked tennis players participated in this study. Players underwent a series of physical tests to assess their strength, speed, power and endurance following the completion of three tennis matches each of two hours duration played over three consecutive half-days (1.5 day period for each condition). In the first condition the players consumed a sports drink before, during and after each match; in the second, they drank an identical volume of placebo water. The results obtained were compared with the third 'rest' condition in which the subjects did not play any tennis. Main outcomes measured were maximal isometric strength and fatigability of knee and elbow extensors, 20-m sprint speed, jumping height, specific repeated sprint ability test and hand grip strength. The physical test results for the lower limbs showed no significant differences between the three conditions. Conversely, on the upper limbs the EMG data showed greater fatigue of the triceps brachii in the placebo condition compared to the rest condition, while the ingestion of sports drinks attenuated this fatigue. This study has demonstrated for the first time that, when tennis players are adequately hydrated and ingest balanced meals between matches, then no large drop in physical performance is observed even during consecutive competitive matches. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01353872.

  9. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ... in sweat can usually be made up with sports drinks or food eaten after exercise. Ditch Dehydration Speaking ...

  10. Caffeine content of energy drinks, carbonated sodas, and other beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Goldberger, Bruce A; Cone, Edward J

    2006-03-01

    The caffeine content of 10 energy drinks, 19 carbonated sodas, and 7 other beverages was determined. In addition, the variability of the caffeine content of Coca-Cola fountain soda was evaluated. Caffeine was isolated from the samples by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The caffeine concentration of the caffeinated energy drinks ranged from none detected to 141.1 mg/serving. The caffeine content of the carbonated sodas ranged from none detected to 48.2 mg/serving, and the content of the other beverages ranged from < 2.7 to 105.7 mg/serving. The intra-assay mean, standard deviation, and % coefficient of variation for the Coca-Cola fountain samples were 44.5, 2.95, and 6.64 mg/serving, respectively.

  11. Energy Drinks and the Neurophysiological Impact of Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can in...

  12. Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students

    OpenAIRE

    Ballistreri,Martha Carmen; Corradi-Webster,Clarissa Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137): 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least once in the last 12 months, 38% at least onc...

  13. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  14. Associations between energy drink consumption and alcohol use behaviors among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Poulos, Natalie S; Latimer, Lara A; Pasch, Keryn E

    2012-06-01

    To explore associations between energy drink consumption and alcohol use among college students. Participants included 585 students (m age=18.7; 47.0% White, 21% Hispanic, 25% Asian, 7% other race/ethnicity; 56.0% female). Energy drink behaviors included past month and past week consumption. Alcohol use behaviors included past month and past two week consumption, as well as heavy drinking and quantity of alcohol consumed. Consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol was also measured. Linear and logistic regression analyses between energy drink consumption and alcohol use were run controlling for gender, age, and race/ethnicity. For each one unit increase in past month (i.e., additional day used) energy drink use, the likelihood of past month alcohol use increased by 80%, heavy drinking by 80% and past month energy drinks mixed with alcohol use by 90%. Similar results were found for past week energy drink use. A positive relationship between energy drink use and quantity of alcohol consumed during a single episode of drinking was also found (pconsumption and alcohol use as well as quantity of alcohol consumed were found, with relationships stronger among males than females. There were no significant interactions by race/ethnicity. Energy drinks are readily available to students and pose potential health risks. Students who report greater energy drink consumption also consume more alcohol, are more likely to mix energy drinks and alcohol, and experience heavy episodes of drinking, which is problematic given the potential negative consequences of these drinks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential of Using Solar Energy for Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, S. S.; Batista, J.; Ahmad, S.

    2016-12-01

    Where water is essential to energy generation, energy usage is integral to life cycle processes of water extraction, treatment, distribution and disposal. Increasing population, climate change and greenhouse gas production challenges the water industry for energy conservation of the various water-related operations as well as limiting the associated carbon emissions. One of the ways to accomplish this is by incorporating renewable energy into the water sector. Treatment of drinking water, an important part of water life cycle processes, is vital for the health of any community. This study explores the feasibility of using solar energy for a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) with the long-term goal of energy independence and sustainability. A 10 MGD groundwater DWTP in southwestern US was selected, using the treatment processes of coagulation, filtration and chlorination. Energy consumption in units of kWh/day and kWh/MG for each unit process was separately determined using industry accepted design criteria. Associated carbon emissions were evaluated in units of CO2 eq/MG. Based on the energy consumption and the existing real estate holdings, the DWTP was sized for distributed solar. Results showed that overall the motors used to operate the pumps including the groundwater intake pumps were the largest consumers of energy. Enough land was available around DWTP to deploy distributed solar. Results also showed that solar photovoltaics could potentially be used to meet the energy demands of the selected DWTP, but warrant the use of a large storage capacity, and thus increased costs. Carbon emissions related to solar based design were negligible compared to the original case. For future, this study can be used to analyze unit processes of other DWTP based on energy consumption, as well as for incorporating sustainability into the DWTP design.

  16. Moderated mediation of the relationships between masculinity ideology, outcome expectations, and energy drink use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Parent, Mike C; McCurdy, Eric R; Bradstreet, Tyler C

    2015-11-01

    The consumption of energy drinks is a growing health-risk behavior for young men in the United States. The present study investigated the relationship between masculinity ideology, outcome expectations, energy drink use, and sleep disturbances. The authors recruited 467 adult males from universities and the Internet who provided data on their endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, outcome expectations for use of energy drinks, use of energy drinks, and sleep disturbances. A theoretical model positing moderated mediation was tested using structural equation modeling and conditional process modeling. The results supported the hypothesized model in which endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology was linked with increased outcome expectations for benefits of energy drinks, which in turn was linked with increased energy drink consumption, and which finally was linked with greater sleep disturbance symptoms. The relationship between masculinity ideology and energy drink outcome expectations was moderated by age (significant for younger men but not for older men), and the relationship between energy drink outcome expectations and energy drink use was moderated by race (significant for White men but not for racial minority men). The present study adds to the literature on potential negative health implications of the endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology by offering a link between predictors of energy drink use (masculinity ideology, outcome expectations) and health outcomes of energy drink use (e.g., sleep disturbance). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  18. Cardiovascular complications from consumption of high energy drinks: recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, S G; Chrysant, G S

    2015-02-01

    The energy drinks (ED) are caffeinated beverages that are popular among teenagers and young adults. They are aggressively marketed as providing alertness, energy and sex prowess. The EDs in addition to caffeine contain several plant stimulants and simple sugars, which increase their caloric content. The caffeine concentration in these drinks is high and their overconsumption could lead to insomnia, agitation, tremors and cardiovascular complications including sudden death. Alcohol is often mixed with EDs (AMEDs) in the wrong perception that the caffeine in the EDs will prevent the drowsiness and sleepiness from alcohol and allow the person to consume more alcohol. This false perception, could lead to alcohol intoxication and the taking of risky decisions, like driving under the influence of alcohol and the risk of serious physical harm to themselves and others. To prevent the problem of consumption of EDs and AMEDs, the caring physician could help by advising the parents and his young patients about the serious health risks from the consumption of these drinks. In order to grasp the extend of the problem of ED and AMED consumption, we did a Medline search of the English language literature from January 2010 to December 2013, using the terms EDs and alcohol-mixed EDs. All the findings from the recent studies regarding the cardiovascular complications from the consumption of EDs and AMEDs together with collateral literature will be discussed in this review.

  19. Is the Consumption of Energy Drinks Associated With Academic Achievement Among College Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey. We measured energy drink consumption with two measures: past month consumption by number of drinks usually consumed in 1 month and number consumed during the last occasion of consumption. We used multiple linear regression modeling with energy drink consumption and current GPA, controlling for gender, race, weekend and weekday sleep duration, perceived stress, perceived stress management, media use, and past month alcohol use. We found that past month energy drink consumption quantity by frequency (p energy drinks consumed during the last occasion (p Energy drinks consumed during the last occasion of consumption (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with a lower GPA when controlling for alcohol use. While students report using energy drinks for school-related reasons, our findings suggest that greater energy drink consumption is associated with a lower GPA, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Longitudinal research is needed that addresses whether GPA declines after continued use of energy drinks or if students struggling academically turn to energy drinks to manage their schoolwork.

  20. Comparison the Effect of Consumption of Sports Drinks with Sugary Solution on the Level of Lactic Acid of Students after Anaerobic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ranjbar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: This was a quasi-experimental study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of consumption of sports drinks with sugary solution on the level of lactic acid of male students of Yazd University and comparing it with simple sugar drink. Methods: For this purpose, 10 male students of physical education from Yazd University (mean age 19/35+0/7years, height 171/25+3/13cm, weight average 63/1+ 7 kg were selected on a voluntary basis. volunteered and then put them in one group. The Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST was performed. The test was performed three times with an interval of 48 hours. In this double-blind study, the participants consumed sports drinks (Dynamin, plain sugar solution or placebo 40 minutes before the anaerobic  exercise. To analyze the data dependent t-test was used. Results: The results showed that consuming sports drinks compared with the placebo and plain sugar solution had a meaningful decrease in the level of lactic acid. Conclusion: In general, it seems that consuming sports drinks (Daynamin might decrease the level of lactic acid during anaerobic activities and it could be recommended for those kind of activities.

  1. EFFECT OF ENERGY DRINKS ON SELECTED FINE MOTOR TASKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, B H; Hughes, P P; Conchola, E C; Hester, G M; Woolsey, C L

    2015-08-01

    This study assessed the effect of energy shots on selected fine motor tasks. The participants were college-age male (n=19; M age=20.5 yr., SD=0.7) and female (n=21; M age=21.1 yr., SD=0.7) volunteers who were assessed on hand steadiness, choice reaction time, rotary pursuit, and simple reaction time. The energy shots group scored significantly poorer on the hand steadiness tests and significantly better on choice reaction time and simple reaction time tests. The enhanced reaction time and disruption in hand steadiness afforded by energy shots would not be apparent in many gross motor activities, but it is possible that reaction time improvement could be beneficial in sports that require quick, reflexive movements. However, the potential adverse psychological and physiological effects warrant discretionary use of such products.

  2. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: Associations with risky drinking and functioning in high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Troxel, Wendy M; Ewing, Brett A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    Mixing alcohol with energy drinks is associated with heavier drinking and related problems among college students. However, little is known about how high school drinkers who mix alcohol with energy drinks (AmED) compare to those who do not (AwoED). This study compares high school AmED and AwoED users on their alcohol use during middle and high school, as well as key domains of functioning in high school. Two surveys were conducted three years apart in adolescents initially recruited from 16 middle schools in Southern California. The analytic sample consists of 696 past month drinkers. Multivariable models compared AmED and AwoED users on alcohol use, mental health, social functioning, academic orientation, delinquency and other substance use at age 17, and on their alcohol use and related cognitions at age 14. AmED was reported by 13% of past month drinkers. AmED and AwoED users did not differ on alcohol use or cognitions in middle school, but AmED users drank more often, more heavily, and reported more negative consequences in high school. AmED users were also more likely to report poor grades, delinquent behavior, substance use-related unsafe driving, public intoxication, and drug use than AwoED users in high school. Group differences were not found on mental health, social functioning, or academic aspirations. AmED use is common among high school drinkers. The higher risk behavioral profile of these young AmED users, which includes drug use and substance use-related unsafe driving, is a significant cause for concern and warrants further attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Deliens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm, finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control, being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy, having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling, and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices.

  4. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices. PMID:26258790

  5. Cardiovascular responses to energy drinks in a healthy population: The C-energy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Teri M; Shah, Sachin; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi; Franklin, Teresa T; Connolly, Therese Farrell; Chien, Walter; Charos, George S; Pelter, Michele M

    2016-07-01

    Energy drink consumption has increased significantly over the past decade and is associated with greater than 20,000 emergency department visits per year. Most often these visits are due to cardiovascular complaints ranging from palpitations to cardiac arrest. To determine if energy drinks alter; blood pressure, electrolytes, activated bleeding time (ACT), and/or cardiac responses measured with a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) Holter. Continuous ECG data was collected for five hours (30 minutes baseline and 4 hours post consumption [PC]). Subjects consumed 32 ounces of energy drink within one hour and data (vital signs and blood samples) was collected throughout the study period. Paired students t-test and a corresponding non-parametric test (Wilcoxon signed rank) were used for analysis of the data. Fourteen healthy young subjects were recruited (mean age 28.6 years). Systolic blood pressure (baseline=132, ±7.83; PC=151, ±11.21; P=.001); QTc interval (baseline=423, ±22.74; PC=503, ±24.56; P500 milliseconds PC. Other T-wave changes were noted in 9/14 (64.3%) subjects PC. Energy drinks increased systolic blood pressure, altered electrolytes, and resulted in repolarization abnormalities. These physiological responses can lead to arrhythmias and other abnormal cardiac responses highlighting the importance that emergency room personnel assess for energy drink consumption and potential toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J

    2013-06-01

    While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement.

  7. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Ching-Yi; Lan, Yu-Ching

    2017-08-24

    Background : This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods : Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results : Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%), being curious about the products (32.0%), enjoying the flavor (31.3%), or preparing for school exams (26.7%). Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents' home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink's effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions : In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  8. Food and drink processing: Introducing energy saving opportunities for business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The food and drink processing industry is the fourth highest industrial energy user in the UK. In 2000, it consumed nearly 70TWh (enough energy to power one million homes for nearly 15 years) and emitted around 13 million tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Energy consumption in the sector could be considerably reduced by implementing simple and effective energy saving measures, reducing carbon emissions and cutting the costs for businesses. This publication is aimed at managers in the industry working in all sub-sectors. Focusing on the low and no-cost measures and actions which will have the quickest payback, this overview demonstrates the best energy saving opportunities in the sector. The industry is very diverse with many sub-sectors. Each sub-sector employs a range of industrial processes. This guide concentrates on technologies and management techniques that offer the greatest potential for energy saving and that are common to the widest range of sub-sectors. These are: Refrigeration; Process measurement and control; Compressed air; Motors and drives; Boilers and heat distribution; Cooking; Distillation, drying and evaporation; Energy management. The relative importance of each area will also depend on the sub-sector. For example, refrigeration cost will make up a large proportion of energy bills in the frozen and chilled foods sub-sector. Equally, for a business that produces confectionery, boilers and heat distribution systems will make the largest contribution. (GB)

  9. Use of caffeinated energy drinks among secondary school students in Ontario: Prevalence and correlates of using energy drinks and mixing with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David; McCrory, Cassondra; Dubin, Joel A; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2015-03-12

    Caffeinated energy drinks have become increasingly popular among young people, raising concern about possible adverse effects, including increased alcohol consumption and related risk behaviours. The current study examined consumption of caffeinated energy drinks and use of energy drinks with alcohol, as well as associations with socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, among a sample of secondary school students in Ontario. Survey data from 23,610 grade 9-12 students at 43 purposefully sampled Ontario secondary schools participating in the baseline wave (2012/13) of the COMPASS study were analyzed using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Outcomes were any energy drink use, frequency of use, and use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks; covariates were age, sex, race, spending money, bodymass index (BMI), weight-related efforts and alcohol use. Two-way interactions between sex and other covariates were tested. Nearly one in five students (18.2%) reported consuming energy drinks in a usual week. Use of energy drinks was associated (p < 0.01) with all socio-demographic variables examined and was more common among students who were male, off-reserve Aboriginal, had some spending money, had a BMI outside of "healthy" range, were trying to lose weight, and/or reported a higher intensity of alcohol use. Interactions with sex were observed for age, spending money and weight-related efforts. Use of energy drinks mixed with alcohol in the previous 12 months was reported by 17.3% of the sample, and was associated with race, spending money, and more frequent binge drinking. Regular use of energy drinks was common among this sample of students and strongly linked to alcohol consumption.

  10. Effects of Three Commercially Available Sports Drinks on Substrate Metabolism and Subsequent Endurance Performance in a Postprandial State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lu; Wang, Qi-Rong; Fang, Zi-Long; Wang, Ting; Yu, Ai-Qi; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zheng, Yi; Yi, Mu-Qing

    2017-04-12

    Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the utilization of substrates and subsequent exercise performance. Ten healthy male participants (age 21.70 ± 2.41 years, height 176.60 ± 5.23 cm, weight 66.58 ± 5.38 kg, V̇O 2max 48.1 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min) participated in both study I and study II. Three types of commercially available sports beverage powders were used. The powders consisted primarily of oligosaccharides (low molecular weight carbohydrates, L-CHO), hydrolyzed starch (high molecular weight CHO, H-CHO), and whey protein powder with carbohydrate (CHO-PRO). They were dissolved in purified water with identical CHO concentration of 8% ( w / v ). In study I, each participant underwent two oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and one glycemic response test for each sports drink. In study II, participants cycled for 60 min at 70% V̇O 2max , one hour after consuming a standardized breakfast. One of four prescribed beverages (L-CHO, H-CHO, CHO-PRO, and Placebo control, PLA) was served at 0, 15, 30, 45 min during the exercise. Six hours after the first exercise session, participants came back for a "time to exhaustion test" (TTE). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, and 60 min in the first exercise session, while arterial blood gas analysis was conducted at 0, 30, and 60 min in both sessions. Subjective feelings (rating of perceived exertion and abdominal discomfort) were also evaluated every 30 min during exercise. Results: Compared to the reference standardized glucose solution, the glycemic index of the L-CHO beverage was 117.70 ± 14.25, while H-CHO was 105.50 ± 12.82, and CHO-PRO was 67.23 ± 5.88. During the exercise test, the insulin level at 30 and 60 min was significantly lower than baseline

  11. Energy Drink Use Linked to High-sugar Beverage Intake and BMI among Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Odum, Mary; Rivera, Alissa E

    2017-05-01

    We assessed the relationship of energy drink, high-sugar, and low-sugar beverage consumption. Mann-Whitney U, Cohen's d and effect sizes were used to examine data from 1737 adolescents in the United States who participated in the 2014 FLASHE Study. Secondary analysis examined consumption of energy drinks, high- and low-sugar beverages, and adolescents' BMIs. Among adolescents, 13.7% (N = 239) reported past 7-day energy drink consumption. Participants who did not consume energy drinks in the past 7 days were more likely to consume low-sugar beverages of water (p sugar beverages. Whereas those who report no past 7-day use of energy drinks consume higher rates of low- or no-sugar beverages. Health education and prevention efforts to reduce adolescent energy drink consumption may lead to reductions in other high-sugar beverage intake and have a positive impact on obesity rates among adolescents.

  12. Food and drink sponsorship of children's sport in Australia: who pays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2011-06-01

    The creation of health promoting sports clubs may support the promotion and adoption of healthy behaviours by children. Sponsorship is one aspect of clubs, with potential influence on clubs and their participants. In particular, sponsorship influences brand awareness and attitudes, so that the sponsorship of children's sport by unhealthy food companies may contribute to food preferences and poor eating habits. This study aimed to determine the nature and extent of food and beverage sponsorship of children's sport. Sports clubs (n = 108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5-14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire was developed to determine the extent of sponsorship. Experts from different fields were approached (n = 10) to generate a consensus on the elements of sponsors that are more/less health promoting. The survey response rate was 99%. Of the 347 sponsors identified, 17% were food or beverage companies. Fifty percent of food company sponsorship arrangements did not meet criteria for healthy sponsors. For most clubs, less than a quarter of their income came from sponsorship. A considerable proportion of clubs with food company sponsors had the company's signage on players' uniforms (53%), distributed rewards using the company's name (24%) or gave vouchers to players for the company's products (29%). Any restriction of unhealthy food and beverage company sponsorship of children's sport may not result in major funding difficulties for clubs, as this funding represents a relatively small proportion of their income base, even though it provides major promotional opportunities to sponsors.

  13. Energy Drinks and Myocardial Ischemia: A Review of Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian

    2016-07-01

    The use and abuse of energy drinks (EDs) is constantly increasing worldwide. We performed a systematic search in Medline, Scopus and Web of Science to identify evidence about the potential link between these beverages and myocardial ischemia. Overall, 8 case reports could be detected, all of which described a realistic association between large intake of EDs and episodes of myocardial ischemia. Interestingly, no additional triggers of myocardial ischemia other than energy drinks could be identified in the vast majority of cases. Some plausible explanations can be brought in support of this association. Most of the biological effects of EDs are seemingly mediated by a positive inotropic effect on cardiac function, which entails increase in heart rate, cardiac output and contractility, stroke volume and arterial blood pressure. Additional biological abnormalities reported after EDs intake include increased platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction, hyperglycemia as well as an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although a causal relationship between large consumption of EDs and myocardial ischemia cannot be definitely established so far, concerns about the cardiovascular risk of excessive consumption of these beverages are seemingly justified.

  14. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jung Chang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods: Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results: Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%, being curious about the products (32.0%, enjoying the flavor (31.3%, or preparing for school exams (26.7%. Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents’ home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink’s effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions: In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  15. [The effect of energy drinks on the cognitive performance of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, P; van Diepen, M A C; Nieuwenhuis, L; Boulogne, T L A

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturers of energy drinks claim that their drinks can have a positive effect on cognitive performance. So far, there is little evidence that energy drinks do in fact enhance the cognitive performance of adolescents. To find out, via a series of tests, whether the manufacturers of energy drinks are justified in claiming that their drinks improve the cognitive performance of young people. In a quasi-experimental design a number of young people (aged 15-18) were divided into three groups: a control group, each of whose members drank water beforehand; a placebo group whose members drank a glass of sugar-free lemonade, and an experimental group whose members drank a currently available energy drink (Megaforce). Pencil and paper tests were administered to the members of each group in order to measure attention and concentration, learning ability, memory, verbal and numerical reasoning, numerical aptitude and vocabulary. No significant differences between groups were found that could solely be ascribed to the effect of energy drink. Given the warnings about the potential health-risks of energy drinks and the fact that no evidence was found for positive effects of energy drinks on the cognitive performance of young people, we are of the opinion that youngsters should stay away from such drinks.

  16. ST elevation myocardial infarction in a young patientafter ingestion of caffeinated energy drink and ecstasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan Israelit, Shlomo; Strizevsky, Algxander; Raviv, Bennidor

    2012-01-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks are widely used worldwide. They are associated with a variety of adverse effects and are of concern to health authorities, yet there is still scarce information about their adverse effects and inadequate awareness among medical personnel. Case description and discussion of a patient presenting to the emergency room after overdose of energy drinks in combination with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Despite best medical efforts, the patient died of fatal cardiac arrhythmias. There is a paucity of information about adverse effects of energy drinks. Although energy drinks are widely used, there is a lack of awareness in the population and medical staff about their hazards.

  17. Effects of commercial energy drink consumption on athletic performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Stephanie L; Wellborn-Kim, Jennifer J; Clauson, Kevin A

    2010-04-01

    Energy drinks are frequently marketed to individuals interested in athletics and an active lifestyle. From 2001 to 2008, estimates of energy drink use in adolescent to middle-aged populations ranged from 24% to 56%. Most energy drinks feature caffeine and a combination of other components, including taurine, sucrose, guarana, ginseng, niacin, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin. This article examines the evidence for 2 commonly purported uses of energy drinks: athletic performance enhancement and weight loss. Observed ergogenic benefits of energy drinks are likely attributable to caffeine and glucose content. There is conflicting evidence regarding the impact of energy drinks on weight loss, although some data suggest that combining energy drink use with exercise may enhance body fat reduction. As with any pharmacologically active substance, energy drinks are associated with adverse effects. Combining energy drinks with alcohol exacerbates safety concerns and is an increasingly common practice contributing to toxic jock identity among college-aged male athletes. Practitioners should monitor identified populations likely to consume these loosely regulated beverages.

  18. Increased Energy Drink Use as a Predictor of Illicit Prescription Stimulant Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Jacobson, Bert H; Housman, Jeff M; McDonald, Jason D; Swartz, Julie H; Evans, Marion W; Sather, Thomas E; Barry, Adam E; Davidson, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine energy drink usage patterns and to investigate the relationship between energy drink use and illicit use of prescription stimulants among college students. A sample of 605 undergraduate and graduate students (mean age±SD: 21.96±4.216) from a large midwestern university voluntarily participated in the study. Of the participants, 48.9% (n=296) reported using energy drinks in the past 30 days, whereas 25.3% (n=153) reported using prescription stimulant drugs in the past 30 days. Among prescription stimulant users without a valid medical prescription, Mann-Whitney U tests and logistic regression analysis revealed that the frequency of energy drink consumption was a significant predictor of illicit prescription stimulant use, with the odds for use increasing by 14% with each additional day of energy drink use (odds ratio for using=1.143, P≤.001). Analyses revealed statistically significant differences (Pstimulant users and nonusers for all energy drink use variables, with the strongest predictors of prescription stimulant use being the number of days using energy drinks in the past 30 days and number of energy drink binges in the past 30 days. Results indicate that the frequency of energy drink use was a significant predictor of the illicit use of prescription stimulants.

  19. Improved endurance capacity following chocolate milk consumption compared with 2 commercially available sport drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin; Morris, Penelope; Stevenson, Emma

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the effects of 3 recovery drinks on endurance performance following glycogen-depleting exercise. Nine trained male cyclists performed 3 experimental trials, in a randomized counter-balanced order, consisting of a glycogen-depleting trial, a 4-h recovery period, and a cycle to exhaustion at 70% power at maximal oxygen uptake. At 0 and 2 h into the recovery period, participants consumed chocolate milk (CM), a carbohydrate replacement drink (CR), or a fluid replacement drink (FR). Participants cycled 51% and 43% longer after ingesting CM (32 +/- 11 min) than after ingesting CR (21 +/- 8 min) or FR (23 +/- 8 min). CM is an effective recovery aid after prolonged endurance exercise for subsequent exercise at low-moderate intensities.

  20. A Can of Bull? Do Energy Drinks Really Provide a Source of Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Merle; Urquhart, Gerald R.

    2005-01-01

    This case study involves the biochemical analysis of the components of commonly available energy drinks, which many students purchase at fairly high prices. Students research the ingredients in each product and their physiological role in the human body, and then attempt to match what they learn with the product manufacturers' marketing claims.…

  1. Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paske, Nathan; Berry, Bryan; Schmitz, John; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sponsored by PepsiCo Inc., a method was validated for measurement of 11 pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks. The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, paraoxon-methyl, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) when spiked at 0.100 microg/L (1.00 microg/L for phorate). Samples were filtered (if particulate matter was present), degassed (if carbonated), and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitation was performed with matrix-matched external standard calibration solutions. The standard curve range for this assay was 0.0750 to 10.0 microg/L. The calibration curves for all agricultural residues had coefficient of determination (r2) values greater than or equal to 0.9900 with the exception of 2 values that were 0.9285 and 0.8514. Fortification spikes at 0.100 microg/L (1.00 microg/L for phorate) over the course of 2 days (n=8 each day) for 3 matrixes (7UP, Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi) yielded average percent recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) as follows (n=48): 94.4 (15.2) for alachlor, 98.2 (13.5) for atrazine, 83.1 (41.6) for butachlor, 89.6 (24.5) for isoproturon, 87.9 (24.4) for malaoxon, 96.1 (9.26) for monocrotophos, 101 (25.7) for paraoxon-methyl, 86.6 (20.4) for phorate, 101 (16.5) for phorate sulfone, 93.6 (25.5) for phorate sulfoxide, and 98.2 (6.02) for 2,4-D.

  2. Energy drinks and other dietary supplement use among adolescents attending secondary schools in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babwah, Terence J; Maharaj, Rohan G; Nunes, Paula

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the knowledge and practices among Trinidad and Tobago school-attending adolescents towards energy drinks (ED), alcohol combined with energy drinks (AwED), weight-altering supplements (WAS) and vitamin/mineral supplements (VMS) and their experience of adverse effects associated with such use. A cross-sectional, proportionate, stratified sampling strategy was adopted using a self-administered, de novo questionnaire. Secondary schools throughout Trinidad and Tobago. Students aged 15-19 years. Five hundred and sixty-one students participated, an 84% response rate; 43·0% were male, 40·5% East Indian and 34·1% mixed race. VMS, ED, WAS and anabolic steroids were used by 52·4%, 44·0%, 8·9% and 1·4% of students, respectively, with 51·6% of ED users using AwED. Predictors of use of AwED were males and students who played sport for their school (OR = 1·9; 95% CI 1·2, 3·2 and OR = 2·6; 95% CI 1·4, 4·7, respectively). Predictors of ED use were males and attendees of government secondary schools (OR = 1·7; 95% CI 1·1, 2·4 and OR = 1·7; 95% CI 1·2, 2·4, respectively). Side-effects, mainly palpitations, headaches and sleep disturbances, were reported in 20·7% of dietary supplement users. Many adolescent students in Trinidad and Tobago use dietary supplements, including ED and AwED, and about one-fifth of users experience side-effects. Identification of students at risk for ED, AwED and WAS use and education of students about the dangers of using dietary supplements need to be instituted to prevent potential adverse events.

  3. From dehydration to hyperhidration isotonic and diuretic drinks and hyperhydratant aids in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Aritz Urdampilleta; Saioa Gómez-Zorita

    2014-01-01

    The needs of water and electrolytes are quite variants, depending on age, physiological or environmental conditions. In most long-term sports, usual weight loss of 3-6%, affect in athletic performance. The effects of a 6% dehydration could be improved with individualized diet-specific nutritional strategies and allow only a 2-3% dehydration, which affect metabolic efficiency but will not risk the health. On the contrary, hyperhydration can be dangerous and is associated with hyponatremia that...

  4. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impact of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine, and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  5. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  6. [Health hazards of energy drinks--the situation in Israel and the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Bennidor; Zaidani, Haitam; Israelit, Shlomo Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Since 1987, with the introduction of the first commercial energy drink in Europe, the level of sale of these drinks increased rapidly throughout the western world. These drinks are based on caffeine that is found in them ndependently, and in other ingredients. Other ingredients in these drinks potentiate the effects of caffeine. Caffeine acts in the organism through inhibition and activation of various receptors, and thus affects almost all the body systems. There is an increasing body of evidence about the medical hazards of uncontrolled use of these drinks, with neurologic, psychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic complications. There is a direct link between use of energy drinks and abuse of alcohol and drugs. Due to the above, health authorities in Israel and around the world have started addressing the regulatory, medical and informative aspects of the issue. In spite all of the above, there is lack of awareness of the public and medical teams about the hazards of cousuming these drinks.

  7. Parental modeling, education and children's sports and TV time: the ENERGY-project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Te Velde, Saskia J; Singh, Amika; Jiménez-Pavón, David; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bere, Elling; Manios, Yannis; Kovacs, Eva; Jan, Nataša; Moreno, Luis A; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether differences in children's sports participation and television time according to parental education were mediated by parental modeling. Moreover, we explored the differences between parental and child reports on parental sports participation and television time as potential mediators. 5729 children and 5183 parents participating in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY-project) during 2010 in seven European countries provided information on sports participation and television time using validated self-report questionnaires. Multilevel country-specific mediation models analyzed the potential mediation effect of parental self-reports and child-reports on parental sports participation and television time. Significant mediation effect was found for parental self-reported television time in four countries (Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands and Slovenia), with the highest proportion for Slovenia (40%) and the lowest for Greece (21%). Child-reported parental television time showed mediation effect in Greece only. Parental self-reported sports participation showed significant mediation effect only in Greece. With child-reported parental sports participation, significant mediation was observed in Greece and Norway. Parental behaviors appear to be important in explaining parental educational differences in children's sports participation and television time. However, child reports on parental behavior appear to be more relevant than parents' self-reports as correlates of children's own sports participation and television time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of temporal perspective on college students' energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jarim; Anagondahalli, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Consideration of future consequences (CFC) describes the extent to which individuals consider potential future outcomes of their present behaviors. This personality trait has been found to predict repetitive health behaviors. Research is yet to explore the role of health beliefs, which may mediate the relationship between CFC and self-directed health behaviors. Thus, this study examined how CFC affects energy drink-related health beliefs and consumption behavior. A cross-sectional correlational online survey with 1,050 college students was conducted. Key measures include the CFC Scale, health belief measures, and current energy drink consumption pattern. CFC was associated with energy drink consumption as well as several health beliefs. CFC had indirect effects on energy drink consumption through health beliefs, including perceived severity of consuming energy drinks (indirect effect estimate = -.191, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-.271, -.122]), perceived benefits of avoiding energy drinks (indirect effect estimate = -.108, 95% CI [-.174, -.050]), and perceived barriers in abstaining from energy drinks (energy level-related barriers, indirect effect estimate = -.274, 95% CI [-.387, -.181]; and socialization-related barriers, indirect effect estimate = .152, 95% CI [.078, .249]). As the first study to examine CFC's indirect effects on a self-directed health behavior through health beliefs, this study extended CFC's applicability by examining its role in the context of college students' energy drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Methods Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collec...

  10. The effects of ingestion of sugarcane juice and commercial sports drinks on cycling performance of athletes in comparison to plain water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Kommi; Lal, Priti Rishi; Kusuma, Doddipalli Lakshmi; Khanna, Gulshan Lal

    2013-09-01

    Sugarcane juice (ScJ) is a natural drink popular in most tropical Asian regions. However, research on its effect in enhancing sports performance is limited. The present investigation was to study the effect of sugarcane juice on exercise metabolism and sport performance of athletes in comparison to a commercially available sports drinks. Fifteen male athletes (18-25 yrs) were asked to cycle until volitional exhaustion at 70% VO2 max on three different trials viz. plain water (PW), sports drink (SpD) and ScJ. In each trial 3ml/kg/BW of 6 % of carbohydrate (CHO) fluid was given at every 20 min interval of exercise and a blood sample was taken to measure the hematological parameters. During recovery 200 ml of 9% CHO fluid was given and blood sample was drawn at 5, 10, 15 min of recovery. Ingestion of sugarcane juice showed significant increase (Pdrink than SpD and PW in post exercise as it enhances muscle glycogen resynthesis.

  11. Longitudinal patterns of alcohol mixed with energy drink use among college students and their associations with risky drinking and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Kimberly A; Scaglione, Nichole; Reavy, Racheal; Turrisi, Rob

    2015-05-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) is a form of risky drinking among college students, a population already in danger of heavy drinking and associated consequences. The goals of the current longitudinal study were to (a) identify types of AmED users between the first and second year of college and (b) examine differences among these groups in rates of highrisk drinking and consequences over time. A random sample of college student drinkers (n = 1,710; 57.7% female) completed baseline and 6-month follow-up measures assessing alcohol-related behaviors. AmED use was endorsed by 40% of participants during the course of the study. As anticipated, four distinct groups of AmED users were identified (nonusers, initiators, discontinuers, and continuous users) and were significantly different from one another on drinking and consequence outcomes. Further, significant Time × Group interaction effects were observed for drinking and overall consequences. Generally, across all outcomes and time points, nonusers reported the lowest rates of drinking and consequences, whereas continuous users consistently reported the highest rates of drinking and consequences. Students who initiated AmED use during the course of the study also reported anabrupt increase in alcohol use and reported consequences. Findings suggest students who consistently engage in and initiate AmED use also engage in riskier drinking behaviors and experience higher rates of consequences. Interventions that specifically target AmED use may be warranted and have the potential to reduce alcohol-related consequences.

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of Different Energy Drinks and Coffee on Endothelial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Janos; Somberg, John C

    2015-11-01

    Endothelial function plays an important role in circulatory physiology. There has been differing reports on the effect of energy drink on endothelial function. We set out to evaluate the effect of 3 energy drinks and coffee on endothelial function. Endothelial function was evaluated in healthy volunteers using a device that uses digital peripheral arterial tonometry measuring endothelial function as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Six volunteers (25 ± 7 years) received energy drink in a random order at least 2 days apart. Drinks studied were 250 ml "Red Bull" containing 80 mg caffeine, 57 ml "5-hour Energy" containing 230 mg caffeine, and a can of 355 ml "NOS" energy drink containing 120 mg caffeine. Sixteen volunteers (25 ± 5 years) received a cup of 473 ml coffee containing 240 mg caffeine. Studies were performed before drink (baseline) at 1.5 and 4 hours after drink. Two of the energy drinks (Red Bull and 5-hour Energy) significantly improved endothelial function at 4 hours after drink, whereas 1 energy drink (NOS) and coffee did not change endothelial function significantly. RHI increased by 82 ± 129% (p = 0.028) and 63 ± 37% (p = 0.027) after 5-hour Energy and Red Bull, respectively. The RHI changed after NOS by 2 ± 30% (p = 1.000) and by 7 ± 30% (p = 1.000) after coffee. In conclusion, some energy drinks appear to significantly improve endothelial function. Caffeine does not appear to be the component responsible for these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  14. Energy drinks and alcohol: links to alcohol behaviors and consequences across 56 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-04-01

    To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy Drinks and Alcohol: Links to Alcohol Behaviors and Consequences Across 56 Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. Methods A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Results Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. Conclusions The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. PMID:24309196

  16. Direct Clinical Health Effects of the Consumption of Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drink in Dutch Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, Karin; Van Hoof, Joris J.; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    The direct clinical health effects of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) consumption are largely unknown. Using data from a nationwide questionnaire, two groups were compared: adolescents who consumed an energy drink at the event (ED+) and adolescents who did not (ED–). Blood alcohol

  17. Energy drink usage among university students in a Caribbean country: Patterns of use and adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra D. Reid

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Energy drink usage is prevalent among students. The use is not excessive, but associated with high rates of adverse effects and occurs in potentially dangerous situations like during exercise and with alcohol. There is a need to educate students about the potential adverse effects of energy drinks.

  18. Eat, drink and gamble: marketing messages about 'risky' products in an Australian major sporting series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sophie; Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Westberg, Kate; Moodie, Rob; Jones, Sandra

    2013-08-05

    To investigate the alcohol, gambling, and unhealthy food marketing strategies during a nationally televised, free to air, sporting series in Australia. Using the Australian National Rugby League 2012 State of Origin three-game series, we conducted a mixed methods content analysis of the frequency, duration, placement and content of advertising strategies, comparing these strategies both within and across the three games. There were a total of 4445 episodes (mean = 1481.67, SD = 336.58), and 233.23 minutes (mean = 77.74, SD = 7.31) of marketing for alcoholic beverages, gambling products and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages during the 360 minutes of televised coverage of the three State of Origin 2012 games. This included an average per game of 1354 episodes (SD = 368.79) and 66.29 minutes (SD = 7.62) of alcohol marketing; 110.67 episodes (SD = 43.89), and 8.72 minutes (SD = 1.29) of gambling marketing; and 17 episodes (SD = 7.55), and 2.74 minutes (SD = 0.78) of unhealthy food and beverage marketing. Content analysis revealed that there was a considerable embedding of product marketing within the match play, including within match commentary, sporting equipment, and special replays. Sport is increasingly used as a vehicle for the promotion of range of 'risky consumption' products. This study raises important ethical and health policy questions about the extent and impact of saturation and incidental marketing strategies on health and wellbeing, the transparency of embedded marketing strategies, and how these strategies may influence product consumption.

  19. Snacks and sweetened drinks - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choosing healthy snacks and drinks for your children can be hard. There are many options. ... Encourage children to drink a lot of water. Avoid sodas, sport drinks, and flavored waters. Stay away from drinks made with sugar or ...

  20. Effects of Three Commercially Available Sports Drinks on Substrate Metabolism and Subsequent Endurance Performance in a Postprandial State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Qin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the utilization of substrates and subsequent exercise performance. Ten healthy male participants (age 21.70 ± 2.41 years, height 176.60 ± 5.23 cm, weight 66.58 ± 5.38 kg, V̇O2max 48.1 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min participated in both study I and study II. Three types of commercially available sports beverage powders were used. The powders consisted primarily of oligosaccharides (low molecular weight carbohydrates, L-CHO, hydrolyzed starch (high molecular weight CHO, H-CHO, and whey protein powder with carbohydrate (CHO-PRO. They were dissolved in purified water with identical CHO concentration of 8% (w/v. In study I, each participant underwent two oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and one glycemic response test for each sports drink. In study II, participants cycled for 60 min at 70% V̇O2max, one hour after consuming a standardized breakfast. One of four prescribed beverages (L-CHO, H-CHO, CHO-PRO, and Placebo control, PLA was served at 0, 15, 30, 45 min during the exercise. Six hours after the first exercise session, participants came back for a “time to exhaustion test” (TTE. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, and 60 min in the first exercise session, while arterial blood gas analysis was conducted at 0, 30, and 60 min in both sessions. Subjective feelings (rating of perceived exertion and abdominal discomfort were also evaluated every 30 min during exercise. Results: Compared to the reference standardized glucose solution, the glycemic index of the L-CHO beverage was 117.70 ± 14.25, while H-CHO was 105.50 ± 12.82, and CHO-PRO was 67.23 ± 5.88. During the exercise test, the insulin level at 30 and 60 min was significantly lower than

  1. Consumption of energy drinks among lebanese youth: a pilot study on the prevalence and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P energy drinks consumption among youth. The current results highlight the importance of education to prevent the consumption of energy drinks in excessive quantities and modifying some wrong perceptions regarding the benefits

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2013-11-27

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; Penergy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (Pdrinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.

  3. Hydration and chemical ingredients in sport drinks: food safety in the European context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Soriano, José M; Martínez-Sanz, José M; Medina, Sonia; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-05-01

    Before, during and after physical activity, hydration is a limiting factor in athletic performance. Therefore, adequate hydration provides benefits for health and performance of athletes. Besides, hydration is associated to the intake of carbohydrates, protein, sodium, caffeine and other substances by different dietary aids, during the training and/or competition by athletes. These requirements have led to the development of different products by the food industry, to cover the nutritional needs of athletes. Currently in the European context, the legal framework for the development of products, substances and health claims concerning to sport products is incomplete and scarce. Under these conditions, there are many products with different ingredients out of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) control where claims are wrong due to no robust scientific evidence and it can be dangerous for the health. Further scientific evidence should be constructed by new clinical trials in order to assist to the Experts Commitees at EFSA for obtaining robust scientific opinions concerning to the functional foods and the individual ingredients for sport population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Caffeinated cocktails: energy drink consumption, high-risk drinking, and alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary Claire; McCoy, Thomas P; Rhodes, Scott D; Wagoner, Ashley; Wolfson, Mark

    2008-05-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is popular on college campuses in the United States. Limited research suggests that energy drink consumption lessens subjective intoxication in persons who also have consumed alcohol. This study examines the relationship between energy drink use, high-risk drinking behavior, and alcohol-related consequences. In Fall 2006, a Web-based survey was conducted in a stratified random sample of 4,271 college students from 10 universities in North Carolina. A total of 697 students (24% of past 30-day drinkers) reported consuming AmED in the past 30 days. Students who were male, white, intramural athletes, fraternity or sorority members or pledges, and younger were significantly more likely to consume AmED. In multivariable analyses, consumption of AmED was associated with increased heavy episodic drinking (6.4 days vs. 3.4 days on average; p Students who reported consuming AmED had significantly higher prevalence of alcohol-related consequences, including being taken advantage of sexually, taking advantage of another sexually, riding with an intoxicated driver, being physically hurt or injured, and requiring medical treatment (p student's reported typical alcohol consumption (interaction p = 0.027). Almost one-quarter of college student current drinkers reported mixing alcohol with energy drinks. These students are at increased risk for alcohol-related consequences, even after adjusting for the amount of alcohol consumed. Further research is necessary to understand this association and to develop targeted interventions to reduce risk.

  5. Fluid availability of sports drinks differing in carbohydrate type and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.; Burgess, W.A.; Slentz, C.A.; Bartoli, W.P. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Plasma D2O-accumulation profiles (qualitative indices of fluid-absorption rates) were determined in eight subjects after ingestion of 275 mL of five D2O-labeled beverages: a water placebo (W), 6% maltodextrin (6% M), and three solutions containing a 6%, 8%, and 10% glucose-fructose mix (6% GF, 8% GF, and 10% GF). Except for W all beverages contained 20 mmol sodium/L and 3 mmol potassium/L. No differences in plasma D2O accumulation were found. Plasma glucose increased at 20 and 30 min after ingestion of the carbohydrate drinks and returned to baseline (6% GF and 6% M) or below (8% GF and 10% GF) by 60 min. Insulin responded similarly and, except for a slightly lower value at 30 min for 6% GF, no differences were detected. It appears that fluids in drinks containing less than or equal to 8-10% carbohydrate (simple sugars or maltodextrins) are made available for dilution in body fluids at similar rates and should be similar in replenishing body fluids lost in sweat during exercise.

  6. Fluid availability of sports drinks differing in carbohydrate type and concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Burgess, W.A.; Slentz, C.A.; Bartoli, W.P.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma D2O-accumulation profiles (qualitative indices of fluid-absorption rates) were determined in eight subjects after ingestion of 275 mL of five D2O-labeled beverages: a water placebo (W), 6% maltodextrin (6% M), and three solutions containing a 6%, 8%, and 10% glucose-fructose mix (6% GF, 8% GF, and 10% GF). Except for W all beverages contained 20 mmol sodium/L and 3 mmol potassium/L. No differences in plasma D2O accumulation were found. Plasma glucose increased at 20 and 30 min after ingestion of the carbohydrate drinks and returned to baseline (6% GF and 6% M) or below (8% GF and 10% GF) by 60 min. Insulin responded similarly and, except for a slightly lower value at 30 min for 6% GF, no differences were detected. It appears that fluids in drinks containing less than or equal to 8-10% carbohydrate (simple sugars or maltodextrins) are made available for dilution in body fluids at similar rates and should be similar in replenishing body fluids lost in sweat during exercise

  7. Renewable Energy Initiatives at Canadian Sport Stadiums: A Content Analysis of Web-Site Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Chard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have positioned renewable energy as sustainable and able to mitigate environmental issues associated with fossil fuels. Further, sustainable initiatives have been offered as a point of differentiation for brands. In order to reap the benefits of such differentiation, managers must communicate the initiatives to relevant stakeholders. The research question guiding the current investigation thus was: What is the communication by Canadian sport stadium operators to calls for sustainable initiatives, specifically in the area of renewable energy? The examination included the 15 sport stadiums that hosted a professional team in Canada and their web-based stadium communications on renewable energy (SCORE. Understandings and competencies in renewable energy are proposed as a new function of sport stadium management; communication of these competencies is seen as a key point of differentiation and best practice.

  8. Relationship Between Energy Drink Consumption and Nutrition Knowledge in Student-Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Richard; Kliemann, Nathalie; Evansen, Taylor; Brand, Jefferson

    2017-01-01

    To identify the relationships between energy drink consumption, nutrition knowledge, and socio-demographic characteristics in a convenience sample of student-athletes. Cross-sectional. Online survey. A total of 194 student-athletes (112 female and 82 male). Socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of human nutrition, energy drink consumption habits. Chi-square tests of independence, independent t tests, and hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Most student-athletes in the sample (85.5%) did not consume energy drinks, but those who did tended to be male (P = .004), had lower overall knowledge of nutrition (P = .02), and had a lower grade point average (P energy drink consumption was associated with the overall nutrition knowledge score when adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, with nonusers having greater nutrition knowledge (P = .007) than users. Student-athletes tend to refrain from energy drink use but those who use it have a tendency to have lower nutrition knowledge than do nonusers. Therefore, nutrition education targeted toward student-athletes should encompass the consumption of energy drinks because limited evidence shows the benefits of collegiate athletes consuming energy drinks. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Driver’s Attitudes about the Impact of Caffeine and Energy Drinks on Road Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pešić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of energy drinks and caffeine, which is the main ingredient of energy drinks, produce a negative effect on the drivers, and therefore affect traffic safety.In order to determine the attitudes of drivers toward the impact of energy drinks and caffeine, a research was conducted using a questionnaire form and the targeted group of the survey were drivers. The research was conducted in the City of Belgrade in December 2012. There were 420 survey papers distributed to drivers of different age groups of which 412 were returned. The survey was completely anonymous and consisted of two parts. The first part was related to basic demographic information about the respondents and it had 8 closed type questions. These questions were responded by circling one of the offered answers. The second part of the survey referred to determining the driver’s attitudes about energy drinks and caffeine. The second part consisted of 26 questions and respondents were to use a five-level scale in order to show to what extent they agree or disagree with any of the listed statements.The results show that energy drinks are consumed mostly by young people, less than 25 years old. The effect of caffeine on gender is statistically significant. Headache is the reason why caffeine (25% is consumed more than energy drinks (8%.Major impact of energy drinks and caffeine on road safety indicates a required activity in this area such as education.

  10. Energy drink consumption is associated with anxiety in Australian young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Georgina S A; Allen, Karina; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-05-01

    Energy drinks are predominantly targeted to young adult consumers; however, there has been limited research into their effects on psychological functioning in this demographic group. This study examined cross-sectional associations between energy drink consumption and mental health in a population-based sample of young adults participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. We used self-report questionnaires to assess energy drink consumption and mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. In the regression analyses, we considered associations between energy drink consumption (mL/day) and continuous DASS-21 scores, adjusting for sociodemographic variables, alcohol and drug use, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and dietary intake. Our sample included 502 males and 567 females (mean age 20 ± 3 years). After adjusting for potential confounding factors and controlling for coexisting mental health problems, energy drink consumption (per 100 mL/day) was significantly associated with anxiety (but not depression or stress), and this relationship was found only in males (β = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.58). Our study found that energy drink consumption was associated with increased anxiety in young adult males. Further research into the possible contribution of energy drink use to the development of mental health problems in young adults is needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Energy drinks and escalation in drug use severity: An emergent hazard to adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Wanda E; Jackson, Dylan B

    2017-11-29

    The aim of the current study is to determine whether energy drink consumption contributes to drug use and, more specifically, an escalation in the severity of drug use. We first examine the association between energy drink use and hard drug use, and subsequently investigate whether soft drug use mediates this relationship. Potential moderating influences are also investigated by testing whether the degree of mediation varies by age, gender, and race. The current study uses a nationally representative sample of 8th (ages 13-14), 10th (ages 15-16), and 12th (ages 17-18) grade adolescents from the 2015 Monitoring the Future survey. Negative binomial regression is employed to examine associations between energy drink consumption and soft and hard drug use. Mediation results indicate that energy drink consumption is significantly associated with increased soft drug use, which is, in turn, associated with significant increases in hard drug use. This cascading effect of energy drink consumption on drug use appears to be stronger among younger females and older males. Results for the moderating effect of race are mixed. Energy drinks appear to pose an important threat to adolescent health in the form of soft and hard drug use. The United States may want to consider adopting energy drink policies similar to European countries and Canada, which require warning labels on beverages with high caffeine content. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Survey on Consumption Behaviour of Energy Drink Among University Students: Example of Afyon Kocatepe University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Şen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the consumption behaviour and consumption awareness of energy drink among university students. Data were collected from 750 students in Afyon Kocatepe University by questionnaire which is improved by writers of this article. Tests were done with SPSS end of the research. Chi-square tests were done in %95 confidence interval to determine the relation of consumption and awareness of energy drink among the university students with gender, age range, school which is graduated, monthly expense, smoking and use of alcohol, the most consumed beverage types, and degree of licence. According to search results, it was found that energy drink consumption behaviour did not change with regard to the different age. On the other hand, male college graduates compared to other types of high school, it was determined that 701 TL per month and over spenders in relation to the lower income groups consumed more energy drinks . In addition, it was found that the groups that use alcohol, smokers, coffee drinkers and undergraduate students were consumed much more energy drinks than the others. When the answers measured the energy drink consumption behaviour of the students participated in the survey were considered, it was concluded that the awareness of the energy drink consumption was not high enough.

  13. An emerging adolescent health risk: caffeinated energy drink consumption patterns among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Donald; Asbridge, Mark

    2014-05-01

    To examine the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of energy drink use among adolescents, and determine whether more frequent use of energy drinks is associated with poorer health and behavioral outcomes. Data were from a 2012 cross-sectional survey of 8210 students in grades 7, 9, 10 and 12 attending public schools in Atlantic Canada. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine correlates of energy drink use patterns, including substance use, sensation seeking, risk of depression, and socioeconomic status. Nearly two-thirds of survey respondents (62%) reported consuming energy drinks at least once in the previous year, with about 20% reporting use once or more per month. Sensation seeking, depression, and substance use were all higher among energy drink users relative to non-users, and in higher frequency users relative to lower frequency users. The prevalence of energy drink consumption among high school students was high. The association of energy drinks with other potential negative health and behavioral outcomes suggests that use of these products may represent a marker for other activities that may negatively affect adolescent development, health and well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a Caffeine-Containing Energy Drink on Simulated Soccer Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Muñoz-Fernández, Víctor E.; Muñoz, Gloria; Fernández-Elías, Valentín E.; Ortega, Juan F.; Hamouti, Nassim; Barbero, José C.; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on soccer performance during a simulated game. A second purpose was to assess the post-exercise urine caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. Methodology/Principal Findings Nineteen semiprofessional soccer players ingested 630±52 mL of a commercially available energy drink (sugar-free Red Bull®) to provide 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass, or a decaffeinated control drink (0 mg/kg). After sixty minutes they performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a repeated sprint test (7×30 m; 30 s of active recovery) and played a simulated soccer game. Individual running distance and speed during the game were measured using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. In comparison to the control drink, the ingestion of the energy drink increased mean jump height in the jump test (34.7±4.7 v 35.8±5.5 cm; Pcaffeine concentration was higher after the energy drink than after the control drink (4.1±1.0 v 0.1±0.1 µg · mL−1; Pcaffeine-containing energy drink in a dose equivalent to 3 mg/kg increased the ability to repeatedly sprint and the distance covered at high intensity during a simulated soccer game. In addition, the caffeinated energy drink increased jump height which may represent a meaningful improvement for headers or when players are competing for a ball. PMID:22348079

  15. Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-12-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) contain caffeine and are a new, popular category of beverage. It has been suggested that EDs enhance physical and cognitive performance; however, it is unclear whether the claimed benefits are attributable to components other than caffeine. A typical 235 mL ED provides between 40 and 250 mg of caffeine, equating to doses that improve cognitive and, at the higher levels, physical performance. EDs often contain taurine, guaraná, ginseng, glucuronolactone, B-vitamins, and other compounds. A literature search using PubMed, Psych Info, and Google Scholar identified 32 articles that examined the effects of ED ingredients alone and/or in combination with caffeine on physical or cognitive performance. A systematic evaluation of the evidence-based findings in these articles was then conducted. With the exception of some weak evidence for glucose and guaraná extract, there is an overwhelming lack of evidence to substantiate claims that components of EDs, other than caffeine, contribute to the enhancement of physical or cognitive performance. Additional well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies replicated across laboratories are needed in order to assess claims made for these products. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  16. Energy Drinks and atrial fibrillation in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Anna Vittoria; Pennella, Sonia; Farinetti, Alberto; Manenti, Antonio

    2017-05-06

    The present paper evaluates the association between Energy Drinks (EDs) and occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in young people. Data from three clinical cases of AF after EDs consumption are reported. All patients presented with palpitations, nausea and anxiety. ECG showed AF with high ventricular response (135-170 bpm range frequency). Anamnestic record reported a high consumption of EDs during the previous 8 h from the onset of AF. In one case ED was associated with a moderate quantity of alcohol. Patients were successfully cardioverted both spontaneously and after pharmacological treatment. After cardioversion: the ECG and echocardiogram appeared normal in all patients; the toxicological tests and the laboratory analyses resulted negative. Our experience suggests that larger consumption of EDs, especially when combined with alcoholic beverages, could act as a trigger in the development of AF in young patients. This action may be caused by the synergic effect of caffeine and other substances present in EDs. Following the increasing consumption of EDs in young people, we suggest a careful attention to cardiac complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX) on factors related to maximal aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Allyn; Keith, Susan; Simpson, Warren; Mooneyhan, Andy; Greenwood, Mike

    2010-03-11

    Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX) are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM.PACT) from earlier investigations on factors related to maximal aerobic performance during a graded exercise test. The modification consisted of removing creatine to meet the compliance standards set forth by various athletic organizations that regulate the use of nutritional supplements. Twenty-nine male and female college students varying in levels of aerobic fitness participated in a randomized crossover administration of PRX (containing 14 g/serving of fructose, medium-chain triglycerides, and amino acids mixed with 8 oz. of water) and placebo (PL) 30 minutes prior to performing a treadmill test with approximately one week separation between the trials. VO2max, maximal heart rate (HR), time to exhaustion (Time), and percentage estimated non-protein fat substrate utilization (FA) during two a priori submaximal stages of a graded exercise testing were evaluated. The VO2max mean value of the PRX trial was significantly greater than the PL trial (P performance (specifically VO2max, Time, & FA) during graded exercise testing.

  18. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you a stomachache while you're competing. Never drink energy drinks before exercising. Energy drinks contain a large ... make caffeine's side effects seem even worse. Never drink energy drinks before exercising. These products contain a large ...

  19. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at

  20. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Shelina; Cheetham, Mandy; Riby, Deborah M; Crossley, Stephen J; Lake, Amelia A

    2016-10-08

    To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, involved participants aged 11-18 years, and were conducted in North America or Europe. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people was found to be patterned by gender, with boys consuming more than girls, and also by activity levels, with the highest consumption observed in the most and least sedentary individuals. Several studies identified a strong, positive association between the use of energy drinks and higher odds of health-damaging behaviours, as well as physical health symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity and insomnia. There was some evidence of a dose-response effect. 2 experimental studies involving small numbers of junior athletes demonstrated a positive impact on limited aspects of sports performance. 3 themes emerged from the qualitative studies: reasons for use; influences on use; and perceived efficacy and impact. Taste and energy-seeking were identified as key drivers, and branding and marketing were highlighted as major influences on young people's consumption choices. Awareness of possible negative effects was low. There is growing evidence that consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of adverse outcomes and risk behaviours in terms of children's health and well-being. However, taste, brand loyalty and perceived positive effects combine to ensure their popularity with young consumers. More research is needed to explore the short-term and long-term impacts in all spheres, including health, behaviour and education. CRD42014010192. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  1. Energy Drinks and Their Impact on the Cardiovascular System: Potential Mechanisms12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik Konrad; Charrière, Nathalie; Loonam, Cathríona R; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the popularity of energy drinks is steadily increasing. Scientific interest in their effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in humans is also expanding and with it comes a growing number of case reports of adverse events associated with energy drinks. The vast majority of studies carried out in the general population report effects on blood pressure and heart rate. However, inconsistencies in the current literature render it difficult to draw firm conclusions with regard to the effects of energy drinks on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular variables. These inconsistencies are due, in part, to differences in methodologies, volume of drink ingested, and duration of postconsumption measurements, as well as subject variables during the test. Recent well-controlled, randomized crossover studies that used continuous beat-to-beat measurements provide evidence that cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of energy drinks are best explained by the actions of caffeine and sugar, with little influence from other ingredients. However, a role for other active constituents, such as taurine and glucuronolactone, cannot be ruled out. This article reviews the potentially adverse hemodynamic effects of energy drinks, particularly on blood pressure and heart rate, and discusses the mechanisms by which their active ingredients may interact to adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Research areas and gaps in the literature are discussed with particular reference to the use of energy drinks among high-risk individuals. PMID:27633110

  2. Energy Drinks and Their Impact on the Cardiovascular System: Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik Konrad; Miles-Chan, Jennifer Lynn; Charrière, Nathalie; Loonam, Cathríona R; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Globally, the popularity of energy drinks is steadily increasing. Scientific interest in their effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in humans is also expanding and with it comes a growing number of case reports of adverse events associated with energy drinks. The vast majority of studies carried out in the general population report effects on blood pressure and heart rate. However, inconsistencies in the current literature render it difficult to draw firm conclusions with regard to the effects of energy drinks on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular variables. These inconsistencies are due, in part, to differences in methodologies, volume of drink ingested, and duration of postconsumption measurements, as well as subject variables during the test. Recent well-controlled, randomized crossover studies that used continuous beat-to-beat measurements provide evidence that cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of energy drinks are best explained by the actions of caffeine and sugar, with little influence from other ingredients. However, a role for other active constituents, such as taurine and glucuronolactone, cannot be ruled out. This article reviews the potentially adverse hemodynamic effects of energy drinks, particularly on blood pressure and heart rate, and discusses the mechanisms by which their active ingredients may interact to adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Research areas and gaps in the literature are discussed with particular reference to the use of energy drinks among high-risk individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted legal and illegal substance use at 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Akre, Christina; Surís, Joan-Carles

    2016-11-01

    This study examined whether consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted substance use at 16. We followed 621 youths from an area of Switzerland who completed a longitudinal online survey in both 2012 and 2014 when they were 14 and 16 years of age. At 14, participants, who were divided into nonenergy drink users (n = 262), occasional users (n = 183) and regular users (n = 176), reported demographic, health-related and substance use data. Substance use at 16 was assessed through logistic regression using nonusers as the reference group and controlling for significant variables at 14. At the bivariate level, energy drink consumption was associated with substance use at both 14 and 16. Energy drink consumers were also more likely to be male, older, less academic, sleep less on schooldays and live in an urban area. In the multivariate analysis, smokers, alcohol misusers and cannabis users at the age of 16 were significantly more likely to have been regular energy drink users at the age of 14. Consuming energy drinks at 14 years of age predicted using legal and illegal substances at 16. Health providers should screen young adolescents for energy drink use and closely monitor weekly users. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Energy drinks and their contribution to current health concerns for children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents.

  5. Assessment of physical activity, energy expenditure and energy intakes of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrition and energy intake play key rule during the training period and recovery time. The assessment of athlete's energetic needs should be calculated individually, based on personal energy expenditure and Sense Wear PRO3 Armband (SWA) mobile monitor is a useful tool to achieve this goal. However, there is still few studies conducted with use of this monitor. To assess individual energy needs of athletes by use of SWA and to determine whether their energy intake fulfils the body's energy expenditure. Subjects were 15 male students attending Military University of Technology in Warsaw, aged 19-24 years, practicing aerobic. The average body mass was 80.7 ± 7.7 kg and average height was 186.9 ± 5.2 cm, (BMI 23.09 ± 1.85 kg/m2). Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure (TEE) was established using SWA, which was placed on the back side of dominant hand and worn continuously for 48 hours (during the training and non-training day). The presented results are the average values of these 2 days. Assessment of athletes' physical activity level was established by use of metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and number of steps (NS). Estimation of energy intake was based on three-day dietary recalls (two weekdays and one day of the weekend), evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package. The average TEE of examined athletes was 3877 ± 508 kcal/day and almost half of this energy was spend on physical activity (1898 ± 634 kcal/day). The number of steps was on average 19498 ± 5407 and average MET was 2.05 ± 2.09. The average daily energy intake was 2727 ± 576 kcal. Athletes consumed inadequate amount of energy in comparison to their energy expenditure. Examined group did not have an adequate knowledge about their energy requirement, which shows the need of nutritional consulting and education among these athletes. athletes, aerobic sports, energy expenditure, energy intake.

  6. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H

    2016-10-13

    A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collected from 68,043 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 15.09 ± 1.72 years), were analyzed. Questionnaires were administered to collect information related to dietary behavior including energy drink intake and junk food consumption. Single item measures of sleep dissatisfaction, stress, depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt were also administered. Associations between energy drink intake and sleep dissatisfaction, perceived severe stress, persistent depressive mood, and suicidality were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from demographic and lifestyle factors could be controlled for statistically. Energy drink intake was significantly associated with sleep dissatisfaction (adjusted odd ratios [AORs] = 1.64 and 1.25), severe stress (AORs = 2.23 and 1.38), depressive mood (AOR = 2.59 and 1.51), suicidal ideation (AORs = 3.14 and 1.43), suicide plan (AORs = 4.65 and 1.78), and suicide attempt (AORs = 6.79 and 1.91), with a higher risk for more frequent use of energy drinks (≥5 times/wk) than for less frequent use (1-4 times/wk). The detrimental effect of energy drinks on mental health was particularly prominent in frequent junk food consumers. Our data suggest that energy drink intake had detrimental effects related to stress, sleep dissatisfaction, mood, and suicidality, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional study design

  7. In vitro effect of energy drinks on human enamel surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Sano Suga MATUMOTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Energy drinks (ED possess low pH and citric acid in their composition, making them potentially erosive beverages that can contribute to the high dental erosion rates found currently in the general population and also in young people. Objective To evaluate the mean pH and titratable acidity of commercial ED and the influence of a brand of ED on the superficial microhardness of human enamel. Material and method Ten commercial ED were selected and the pH of two lots of each ED with and without gas was obtained. Acid titration was conducted with the addition of NaOH aliquots until the pH 7 was reached. Eighteen human enamel specimens were allocated in three groups (N=6, Red Bull (RB, Red Bull Light (RBL and distilled water (C, submitted to an acid challenge with the ED, six consecutive times, with 12 hours intervals, during three days. Knoop microhardness was measured before and after the acid challenge. Result All ED brands tested presented low pH levels ranging from 2.1 to 3.2. Regarding titratable acidity, it was found that the amount of base required promoting the neutralization of the solutions ranged from 1200μL to 3750μL. Samples of human enamel in the RB and RBL groups submitted to the acid challenge presented significantly decreased Knoop microhardness when compared with the group C. Conclusion All ED examined have potential to promote mineral loss due to the low pH and high titratable acidity. The ED analyzed promoted significant mineral losses on the dental enamel surface.

  8. A remarkable case of rhabdomyolysis associated with ingestion of energy drink ‘neon volt’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praneet S. Iyer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is defined as a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis and the release of intracellular muscle constituents into the circulation. We present a case of a 35-year-old male who exercised for 2 h after ingesting energy drink and subsequently presented with rhabdomyolysis. After excluding common and uncommon causes of rhabdomyolysis, we reached the conclusion that the likely cause was the ingestion of energy drink ‘NEON VOLT’ in a setting of mild dehydration. Increasing physical activity and intense exercise is becoming a trend in many countries, due to its many health-related benefits such as prevention of obesity. This renewed focus toward optimal fitness has spawned many supplements that aid in improvement of the performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Energy drinks predominantly contain caffeine that is often combined with other supplements to form what manufacturers have termed an ‘energy blend’. Studies have shown that excessive caffeine intake from energy drinks can cause arrhythmias, hypertension, dehydration, sleeplessness, nervousness, and in rare instances, rhabdomyolysis. As per Drug Abuse Warning Network report, there is a sharp increase in the number of emergency department visits involving energy drinks from 1,128 visits in 2005 to 16,053 and 13,114 visits in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Due to emergence of energy drink abuse as a national health problem, Food and Drug Administration has launched a dietary supplement adverse event reporting system for surveillance of any adverse events linked to these agents.

  9. Energy drinks – consumption and awareness among students of Medical University of Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cencek Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (ED, containing caffeine, taurine and another substances, are one of the more frequently used legal stimulants. Still, because these can endanger consumers’ health, it is thought that their marketing should be legally controlled.

  10. Adolescent and young adult perceptions of caffeinated energy drinks. A qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, H; Baggett, A; Grigor, J

    2013-06-01

    Understanding consumer attitudes towards foods remains critically important for manufacturers, retailers and governing bodies. Regulation within the food industry should therefore support food choice whilst protecting members of society. There have been concerns regarding beverages marketed as 'energy drinks' and the levels of caffeine in these drinks. Focus groups were used to assess participants' perceptions and understandings of caffeinated energy drinks across three demographic age groups: 16-21, 22-28 and 29-35 year olds with the narrow age range providing a focused investigation of the demographic group specifically targeted by industry. Thematic analysis revealed a number of differences in participants' perceptions of energy drinks between age groups in relation to themes of advertising, age, alcohol, brand, efficacy, energy seeking, gender, sugar, peer influence, product attributes, safety and taste. Future implications for the use of qualitative research within the health promotion industry are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy drinks consumption practices among medical students of a Private sector University of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Asma; Bhombal, Swaleha Tariq; Jawaid, Ambreen; Zaki, Samar

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular among students and athletes over the past few years. To explore the phenomenon, a cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered pilot-tested questionnaire. Frequency of energy drinks consumption was found to be 121(52%) in a sample of 233 medical students. Red bull was the most common brand consumed 101(43%). The major reasons reported for its usage were to gain/replenish energy by 36(15.4%), and studying for examination by 34(14.6%). Television was reported as the major source of information 153(66%) followed by friends 113(48%). There was a high frequency of energy drinks' consumption among medical students of a private university. There is a strong need to create awareness regarding these drinks, especially among adolescents and teenagers.

  12. Mixing an energy drink with an alcoholic beverage increases motivation for more alcohol in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R

    2013-02-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate whether the consumption of AmEDs would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink [AmED], or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire. The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of "desire" for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmEDs compared with alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paske, Nathan; Berry, Bryan; Schmitz, John; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sponsored by PepsiCo Inc., a method was validated for measurement of 19 pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with mass selective detection The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alpha-benzenehexachloride (BHC); beta-BHC; gamma-BHC; delta-BHC; methyl parathion; malathion; chlorpyrifos; aldrin; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); alpha-endosulfan; 4,4-DDE; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD); dieldrin; ethion; 4,4-DDD; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (DDT); beta-endosulfan; 4,4-DDT; and endosulfan sulfate when spiked into a 200 mL matrix sample at 0.50 microg/L. The samples were diluted with acetonitrile and water, then liquid-liquid phase extracted into petroleum ether. The resulting extract was concentrated to near dryness and diluted with hexane:dichloromethane (50:50). The concentrated samples were purified by gel permeation chromatography. The resulting solution was concentrated and separated on a Florisil substrate. The eluent was concentrated to near dryness, reconstituted to produce a 200-fold concentration, and analyzed using a GC/MS instrument operated in the selective ion monitoring mode. The GC/MS instrument was equipped with a large volume injector capable of injecting 25 microL. External standards prepared in dichloromethane were used for quantification without the need for matrix-matched calibration because the extraction step minimized the matrix effects. The calibration curves for all agricultural residues had coefficients of determination (r2) of greater than or equal to 0.9900, with the exception of one value that was 0.988. Fortification spikes at 0.50 microg/L in 3 matrixes (7UP, Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi) over the course of 2 days (4 days for Gatorade), where n=8 each day, yielded average percent recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) as follows (n=64): 95.6 (24.8) for alpha-BHC; 91.9 (23.6) for beta-BHC; 89.1 (21

  14. Survey on Consumption Behaviour of Energy Drink Among University Students: Example of Afyon Kocatepe University

    OpenAIRE

    Levent Şen; Hurşit Ertuğrul Dere; İlknur Koçak Şen

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the consumption behaviour and consumption awareness of energy drink among university students. Data were collected from 750 students in Afyon Kocatepe University by questionnaire which is improved by writers of this article. Tests were done with SPSS end of the research. Chi-square tests were done in %95 confidence interval to determine the relation of consumption and awareness of energy drink among the university students with gender, age ra...

  15. Energy drink consumption among New Zealand adolescents: Associations with mental health, health risk behaviours and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Teevale, Tasileta; Sheridan, Janie

    2018-03-01

    With the increase in popularity of energy drinks come multiple concerns about the associated health indicators of young people. The current study aims to describe the frequency of consumption of energy drinks in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and health risk behaviours, body size and mental health. Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative survey of high school students in New Zealand (2012). In total, 8500 students answered a comprehensive questionnaire about their health and well-being, including multiple measures of mental well-being, and were weighed and measured for height. More than one-third (35%) of young people consumed energy drinks in the past week, and 12% consumed energy drinks four or more times in the past week. Energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms, greater emotional difficulties and lower general subjective well-being. Frequent energy drink consumption was also associated with binge drinking, smoking, engagement in unsafe sex, violent behaviours, risky motor vehicle use and disordered eating behaviours. There was no association between consumption of energy drinks and student body size. Consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of health risk behaviours for young people. Strategies to limit consumption of energy drinks by young people are warranted. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Energy drink use and its relationship to masculinity, jock identity, and fraternity membership among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, David J; Levant, Ronald F

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined whether previous findings linking masculinity constructs and health behaviors applied to a relatively recent health risk behavior for men, the consumption of energy drinks. In addition, it also examined whether self-identifying as a jock and being a member of a fraternity would moderate the relationships between masculinity constructs and energy drink consumption. A total of 589 men completed measures of three masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, conformity to masculine norms, and gender role conflict), energy drink consumption, jock identity, and fraternity membership, in addition to a demographic questionnaire. Age, endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, and conforming to the masculine norms of risk taking and primacy of work were identified to be significant predictors of energy drink consumption. Furthermore, jock identity moderated the relationship between the endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and energy drink consumption whereas fraternity membership moderated the relationship between conforming to the masculine norm of violence and energy drink consumption. Limitations, implications, and potential future directions are discussed.

  17. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value energy drink consumers. The reasons for increased consumption of energy drinks mainly include giving company to friends (59.4%), better performance in exams (41.2%), and better concentration in studies (39.4%). The most common side effect was headache (32.3%), and the least was identified as allergy (2%). Only 39.4% and 29.9% of students acquired awareness regarding the harmful effects of energy drink consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding respectively. A significant proportion of female students at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  18. Development of mango (Mangifera indica L. energy drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two hydrocolloids, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, was evaluated in mango beverage stability (Mangifera indica L. formulated and developed with caffeine at a concentration of 30 mg/100 mL. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of color, acidity, viscosity, total soluble solids, pH, flavor, aroma and texture were studied every three days over a 12-day period. The beverages were packaged in high-density polyethylene containers with a 250 mL capacity and were stored at 5 °C and 90% RH for the duration of the experimentation period. The drinks with added pectin showed greater stability and lower acidity values than the control, but higher values than those prepared with CMC. The drinks made with CMC had a significantly higher viscosity at a 95% confidence level than those made with pectin or the control beverages. The treatment that showed the lowest browning index was the one added with pectin. Concerning the sensory evaluation, the drinks showed significant differences at a 95% confidence level; the drink made with pectin was the most widely accepted. It was concluded that the most stable drinks were those made with pectin because they presented the lowest height in millimeters of precipitate solids over the storage period. No off-flavors in beverages were perceived by the judges.

  19. Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sport drinks are ubiquitous within the recreational and competitive fitness and sporting world. Most are manufactured and artificially flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages. Recently, attention has been given to coconut water, a natural alternative to manufactured sport drinks, with initial evidence indicating efficacy with regard to maintaining hydration. We compared coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men. Methods Following a 60-minute bout of dehydrating treadmill exercise, 12 exercise-trained men (26.6 ± 5.7 yrs received bottled water (BW, pure coconut water (VitaCoco®: CW, coconut water from concentrate (CWC, or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink (SD [a fluid amount based on body mass loss during the dehydrating exercise] on four occasions (separated by at least 5 days in a random order, single blind (subject and not investigators, cross-over design. Hydration status (body mass, fluid retention, plasma osmolality, urine specific gravity and performance (treadmill time to exhaustion; assessed after rehydration were determined during the recovery period. Subjective measures of thirst, bloatedness, refreshed, stomach upset, and tiredness were also determined using a 5-point visual analog scale. Results Subjects lost approximately 1.7 kg (~2% of body mass during the dehydrating exercise and regained this amount in a relatively similar manner following consumption of all conditions. No differences were noted between coconut water (CW or CWC and SD for any measures of fluid retention (p > 0.05. Regarding exercise performance, no significant difference (p > 0.05 was noted between BW (11.9 ± 5.9 min, CW (12.3 ± 5.8 min, CWC (11.9 ± 6.0 min, and SD (12.8 ± 4.9 min. In general, subjects reported feeling more bloated and experienced greater stomach upset with the CW and CWC conditions. Conclusion All tested beverages are

  20. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX on factors related to maximal aerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooneyhan Andy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM·PACT™ from earlier investigations on factors related to maximal aerobic performance during a graded exercise test. The modification consisted of removing creatine to meet the compliance standards set forth by various athletic organizations that regulate the use of nutritional supplements. Methods Twenty-nine male and female college students varying in levels of aerobic fitness participated in a randomized crossover administration of PRX (containing 14 g/serving of fructose, medium-chain triglycerides, and amino acids mixed with 8 oz. of water and placebo (PL 30 minutes prior to performing a treadmill test with approximately one week separation between the trials. VO2max, maximal heart rate (HR, time to exhaustion (Time, and percentage estimated non-protein fat substrate utilization (FA during two a priori submaximal stages of a graded exercise testing were evaluated. Results The VO2max mean value of the PRX trial was significantly greater than the PL trial (P Conclusions The modified PRX formulation utilized in this investigation supports the findings of the previous investigation and its efficacy for enhancing indices of aerobic performance (specifically VO2max, Time, & FA during graded exercise testing.

  1. Energy expenditure in chronic stroke patients playing Wii Sports: a pilot study

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    Stam Henk J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability in modern western countries. Stroke survivors often have functional limitations which might lead to a vicious circle of reduced physical activity, deconditioning and further physical deterioration. Current evidence suggests that routine moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activity is essential for maintenance and improvement of health among stroke survivors. Nevertheless, long-term participation in physical activities is low among people with disabilities. Active video games, such as Nintendo Wii Sports, might maintain interest and improve long-term participation in physical activities; however, the intensity of physical activity among chronic stroke patients while playing Wii Sports is unknown. We investigated the energy expenditure of chronic stroke patients while playing Wii Sports tennis and boxing. Methods Ten chronic (≥ 6 months stroke patients comprising a convenience sample, who were able to walk independently on level ground, were recruited from a rehabilitation centre. They were instructed to play Wii Sports tennis and boxing in random order for 15 minutes each, with a 10-minute break between games. A portable gas analyzer was used to measure oxygen uptake (VO2 during sitting and during Wii Sports game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs, calculated as VO2 during Wii Sports divided by VO2 during sitting. We classified physical activity as moderate (3-6 METs or vigorous (> 6 METs according to the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association Guidelines. Results Among the 10 chronic stroke patients, 3 were unable to play tennis because they had problems with timing of hitting the ball, and 2 were excluded from the boxing group because of a technical problem with the portable gas analyzer. The mean (± SD energy expenditure during Wii Sports game play was 3.7 (± 0.6 METs for tennis and 4.1 (

  2. Low energy availability in the marathon and other endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Anne B

    2007-01-01

    Energy availability is the amount of dietary energy remaining after exercise training for all other metabolic processes. Excessively low energy availability impairs reproductive and skeletal health, although genetics and age may alter an individual's initial conditions and sensitivity when low energy availability is imposed. Many marathon runners and other endurance athletes reduce energy availability either (i) intentionally to modify body size and composition for improving performance; (ii) compulsively in a psychopathological pattern of disordered eating; or (iii) inadvertently because there is no strong biological drive to match energy intake to activity-induced energy expenditure. Inadvertent low energy availability is more extreme when consuming a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. Low energy availability, reproductive disorders, low bone mineral density and stress fractures are more common in female than male athletes. Functional menstrual disorders caused by low energy availability should be diagnosed by excluding diseases that also disrupt menstrual cycles. To determine energy availability (in units of kilocalories or kilojoules per kilogram of fat-free mass), athletes can record their diets and use diet analysis software to calculate energy intake, measure energy expenditure during exercise using a heart monitor and measure fat-free mass using a bioelectrical impedance body composition scale. All are commercially available at consumer prices.

  3. Methodological and metabolic considerations in the study of caffeine-containing energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks are popular and widely available beverages. Despite large increases in consumption, studies documenting the nutritional, metabolic, and health implications of these beverages are limited. This review provides some important methodological considerations in the examination of these drinks and highlights their potential impact on the gastrointestinal system, liver, and metabolic health. The gastrointestinal system is important as it comes into contact with the highest concentration of energy drink ingredients and initiates a chain of events to communicate with peripheral tissues. Although energy drinks have diverse compositions, including taurine, ginseng, and carnitine, the most metabolically deleterious ingredients appear to be simple sugars (such as glucose and fructose) and caffeine. In combination, these last two ingredients have the greatest metabolic impact and potential influence on overall health. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  4. Alcohol dependence, consumption of alcoholic energy drinks and associated work characteristics in the Taiwan working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chiou-Jong

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between work characteristics and the risk of alcohol dependence across different employment types and occupations, including the pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of energy drinks and its association with alcohol dependence. A total of 13,501 men and 8584 women participated in a national survey in Taiwan. Alcohol dependence was defined as ≥2 points in the CAGE questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire recorded drinking behaviors, consumption of alcoholic energy drinks, employment type, occupation and a number of psychosocial work stressors, namely job demands, job control, employment security and workplace justice. Of the total, 9.4% of men and 0.8% of women were CAGE-positive, and 6.0% of men and 0.7% of women regularly consumed alcoholic energy drinks. In male and female regular consumers of alcoholic energy drinks, 38.7 and 23.3%, respectively, were alcohol-dependent. Multivariate regression analyses showed that male employees in manual skilled occupations, with lower workplace justice, having weekly working hours alcohol dependence. Certain occupational groups and workers with adverse psychosocial work characteristics should be targets for prevention of alcohol dependence. Alcoholic energy drink consumption should be taken into consideration while studying alcohol dependence in the work population in Taiwan.

  5. Effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on simulated soccer performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on soccer performance during a simulated game. A second purpose was to assess the post-exercise urine caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nineteen semiprofessional soccer players ingested 630 ± 52 mL of a commercially available energy drink (sugar-free Red Bull® to provide 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass, or a decaffeinated control drink (0 mg/kg. After sixty minutes they performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a repeated sprint test (7 × 30 m; 30 s of active recovery and played a simulated soccer game. Individual running distance and speed during the game were measured using global positioning satellite (GPS devices. In comparison to the control drink, the ingestion of the energy drink increased mean jump height in the jump test (34.7 ± 4.7 v 35.8 ± 5.5 cm; P<0.05, mean running speed during the sprint test (25.6 ± 2.1 v 26.3 ± 1.8 km · h(-1; P<0.05 and total distance covered at a speed higher than 13 km · h(-1 during the game (1205 ± 289 v 1436 ± 326 m; P<0.05. In addition, the energy drink increased the number of sprints during the whole game (30 ± 10 v 24 ± 8; P<0.05. Post-exercise urine caffeine concentration was higher after the energy drink than after the control drink (4.1 ± 1.0 v 0.1 ± 0.1 µg · mL(-1; P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A caffeine-containing energy drink in a dose equivalent to 3 mg/kg increased the ability to repeatedly sprint and the distance covered at high intensity during a simulated soccer game. In addition, the caffeinated energy drink increased jump height which may represent a meaningful improvement for headers or when players are competing for a ball.

  6. Acute effects of caffeine-containing energy drinks on physical performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Diego B; Del Coso, Juan; Casonatto, Juliano; Polito, Marcos D

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks (EDs) are currently used as ergogenic aids to improve physical performance in a wide variety of sport disciplines. However, the outcomes of previous investigations on this topic are inconclusive due to methodological differences, especially, in the dosage of the active ingredients and the test used to assess performance. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the effects of acute ED intake on physical performance. The search for references was conducted in the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SPORTDiscus until December 2015. Thirty-four studies published between 1998 and 2015 were included in the analysis. Using a random-effects model, effect sizes (ES) were calculated as the standardized mean difference. Overall, ED ingestion improved physical performance in muscle strength and endurance (ES = 0.49; p performance (slope = 0.0001; p = 0.04), but not between caffeine dosage (mg) and performance (slope = 0.0009; p = 0.21). ED ingestion improved performance in muscle strength and endurance, endurance exercise tests, jumping and sport-specific actions. However, the improvement in performance was associated with taurine dosage.

  7. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January - December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43 ± 1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p energy drinks by non-users were "awareness from its side effects" 247 (47.8%) and "have no specific reason" 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever ready to boost their energy level and reduce sleep hours due to stress of exams and projects. This warrants the creation of continued public health awareness about the appropriate use of caffeinated beverages, their

  8. Energy Expenditure and Lactate Concentration in Sports Dancers in a Simulated Final Round of the Standard Style Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilch Wanda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the energy expenditure in dancers and the nature of energy transformations which take place during a simulated final round of sports dance competition in standard style.

  9. Cross-sectional surveys of the amount of sugar, energy and caffeine in sugar-sweetened drinks marketed and consumed as energy drinks in the UK between 2015 and 2017: monitoring reformulation progress

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the sugar, energy and caffeine content of sugar-sweetened drinks marketed and consumed as energy drinks available in the UK. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2015 and 2017 of energy drinks available in the main UK retailers. Methods The sugar (sugars g/100 mL), energy (kcal/100 mL), caffeine (mg/100 mL) and serving size were collected from product packaging and nutrition information panels of energy drinks available in the nine main UK grocery ...

  10. Caffeinated Energy Drinks Improve High-Speed Running in Elite Field Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Areces, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a caffeine-containing energy drink to improve physical performance of elite field hockey players during a game. On 2 days separated by a week, 13 elite field hockey players (age and body mass = 23.2 ± 3.9 years and 76.1 ± 6.1 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants played a simulated field hockey game (2 × 25 min). Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the game were assessed using GPS devices. The total number of accelerations and decelerations was determined by accelerometry. Compared with the placebo drink, the caffeinated energy drink did not modify the total distance covered during the game (6,035 ± 451 m and 6,055 ± 499 m, respectively; p = .87), average heart rate (155 ± 13 beats per min and 158 ± 18 beats per min, respectively; p = .46), or the number of accelerations and decelerations (697 ± 285 and 618 ± 221, respectively; p = .15). However, the caffeinated energy drink reduced the distance covered at moderate-intensity running (793 ± 135 and 712 ± 116, respectively; p = .03) and increased the distance covered at high-intensity running (303 ± 67 m and 358 ± 117 m; p = .05) and sprinting (85 ± 41 m and 117 ± 55 m, respectively; p = .02). Elite field hockey players can benefit from ingesting caffeinated energy drinks because they increase the running distance covered at high-intensity running and sprinting. Increased running distance at high speed might represent a meaningful advantage for field hockey performance.

  11. Alcohol-Induced Impairment of Balance is Antagonized by Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F

    2018-01-01

    The acute administration of alcohol reliably impairs balance and motor coordination. While it is common for consumers to ingest alcohol with other stimulant drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine), little is known whether prototypical alcohol-induced balance impairments are altered by stimulant drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the coadministration of a high-caffeine energy drink with alcohol can antagonize expected alcohol-induced increases in body sway. Sixteen social drinkers (of equal gender) participated in 4 separate double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. Following dose administration, participants completed automated assessments of balance stability (both eyes open and eyes closed) measured using the Biosway Portable Balance System. Participants completed several subjective measures including self-reported ratings of sedation, stimulation, fatigue, and impairment. Blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded repeatedly. The acute administration of alcohol increased body sway, and the coadministration of energy drinks antagonized this impairment. When participants closed their eyes, alcohol-induced body sway was similar whether or not energy drinks were ingested. While alcohol administration increased ratings of sedation and fatigue, energy drink administration increased ratings of stimulation and reduced ratings of fatigue. Modest increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following energy drink administration were also observed. Visual assessment of balance impairment is frequently used to indicate that an individual has consumed too much alcohol (e.g., as part of police-standardized field sobriety testing or by a bartender assessing when someone should no longer be served more alcohol). The current findings suggest that energy drinks can antagonize alcohol-induced increases in body sway, indicating that future work is needed to determine whether this

  12. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included "I like the taste" (58.6%), "To keep me awake" (54.3%), "It gives me energy" (44.3%), "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%), "It increases alertness" (28.8%), "It helps me concentrate better" (20.6%), and "It makes me less sleepy when driving" (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included "I like the taste" (81.1%), "I wanted to drink something else" (35.3%), and "To celebrate a special occasion" (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were observed between the occasions when energy drinks or other nonalcoholic beverages were

  13. Influence of water quality on the embodied energy of drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mark V E; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2014-01-01

    Urban water treatment plants rely on energy intensive processes to provide safe, reliable water to users. Changes in influent water quality may alter the operation of a water treatment plant and its associated energy use or embodied energy. Therefore the objective of this study is to estimate the effect of influent water quality on the operational embodied energy of drinking water, using the city of Tampa, Florida as a case study. Water quality and water treatment data were obtained from the David L Tippin Water Treatment Facility (Tippin WTF). Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) was conducted to calculate treatment chemical embodied energy values. Statistical methods including Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and relative importance were used to determine the influence of water quality on treatment plant operation and subsequently, embodied energy. Results showed that influent water quality was responsible for about 14.5% of the total operational embodied energy, mainly due to changes in treatment chemical dosages. The method used in this study can be applied to other urban drinking water contexts to determine if drinking water source quality control or modification of treatment processes will significantly minimize drinking water treatment embodied energy.

  14. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and pr...

  15. Utilization of high energy electron beam in the treatment of drinking and waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Borrely, S.I.; Morita, D.M.

    1991-08-01

    Samples of drinking water and waste water were irradiated using high energy electron beam with doses from 0.37kGy to 100kGy. Preliminary data show the removal of about 100% tri halomethanes (THM) in drinking water (concentration from 2.7 μg/1 to 45μg/1, 90% of the color of the Public Owned Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent and 87% of oil and grease of the cutting fluid waste water. (author)

  16. Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Among Youth and Young Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Reid, MSc

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing market for caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs has caused concern about excessive caffeine intake and potential adverse effects, particularly among young people. The current study examined patterns of CED consumption among youth and young adults in Canada, using data from a national online survey conducted in October 2014. Data from a non-probability sample of 2040 respondents aged 12–24 from a consumer panel was weighted to national proportions; measures of CED consumption were estimated, including prevalence, excessive daily consumption, and context for use (locations and reasons. Separate logistic regression models for two outcomes, past-week consumption and “ever” exceeding two energy drinks in a day (as per common guidance, were conducted to examine associations with demographic variables (sex, age, geographic region, race/ethnicity, and language. Overall, 73.6% of respondents reported “ever” consuming energy drinks; 15.6% had done so in the past week. Any consumption of energy drinks in the past week was more prevalent among males, Aboriginal respondents (vs. white only or mixed/other, and residents of British Columbia. Among “ever-consumers,” 16.0% reported ever consuming more than two energy drinks in a day. Exceeding two in a day was more prevalent among older respondents (young adults aged 18–24, aboriginal respondents (vs. white only, and British Columbia residents. While the majority of youth and young adults had consumed energy drinks, about half were “experimental” consumers (i.e., consumed ≤5 drinks in their lifetime. Approximately one in six consumers had exceeded the usual guidance for maximum daily consumption, potentially increasing their risk of experiencing adverse effects.

  17. Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Among Youth and Young Adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jessica L; McCrory, Cassondra; White, Christine M; Martineau, Chantal; Vanderkooy, Pat; Fenton, Nancy; Hammond, David

    2017-03-01

    The growing market for caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) has caused concern about excessive caffeine intake and potential adverse effects, particularly among young people. The current study examined patterns of CED consumption among youth and young adults in Canada, using data from a national online survey conducted in October 2014. Data from a non-probability sample of 2040 respondents aged 12-24 from a consumer panel was weighted to national proportions; measures of CED consumption were estimated, including prevalence, excessive daily consumption, and context for use (locations and reasons). Separate logistic regression models for two outcomes, past-week consumption and "ever" exceeding two energy drinks in a day (as per common guidance), were conducted to examine associations with demographic variables (sex, age, geographic region, race/ethnicity, and language). Overall, 73.6% of respondents reported "ever" consuming energy drinks; 15.6% had done so in the past week. Any consumption of energy drinks in the past week was more prevalent among males, Aboriginal respondents (vs. white only or mixed/other), and residents of British Columbia. Among "ever-consumers," 16.0% reported ever consuming more than two energy drinks in a day. Exceeding two in a day was more prevalent among older respondents (young adults aged 18-24), aboriginal respondents (vs. white only), and British Columbia residents. While the majority of youth and young adults had consumed energy drinks, about half were "experimental" consumers (i.e., consumed ≤ 5 drinks in their lifetime). Approximately one in six consumers had exceeded the usual guidance for maximum daily consumption, potentially increasing their risk of experiencing adverse effects.

  18. Potential effect of alcohol content in energy drinks on breath alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutmer, Brian; Zurfluh, Carol; Long, Christopher

    2009-04-01

    Since the advent of energy drinks in the U.S. marketplace, some defendants have claimed that positive breath alcohol test results have occurred due to the ingestion of non-alcoholic energy drinks. A variety of energy drinks were tested by gas chromatography and some 88.9% (24 of 27) were found to contain low concentrations of ethanol (5-230 mg/dL). Drinks were then consumed (24.6-32 oz) by volunteers to determine the extent of reaction that could be achieved on a portable breath-testing instrument. Eleven of 27 (40.7%) beverages gave positive results on a portable breath-testing instrument (0.006-0.015 g/210 L) when samples were taken within 1 min of the end of drinking. All tests taken by portable breath test, DataMaster, and Intox EC/IR II at least 15 min after the end of drinking resulted in alcohol-free readings (0.000 g/210 L). Affording subjects a minimum 15-min observation period prior to breath-alcohol testing eliminates the possibility that a small false-positive alcohol reading will be obtained.

  19. Quantification of taurine in energy drinks using ¹H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Monika; Felbinger, Christine; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Wiest, Johannes; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The consumption of so called energy drinks is increasing, especially among adolescents. These beverages commonly contain considerable amounts of the amino sulfonic acid taurine, which is related to a magnitude of various physiological effects. The customary method to control the legal limit of taurine in energy drinks is LC-UV/vis with postcolumn derivatization using ninhydrin. In this paper we describe the quantification of taurine in energy drinks by (1)H NMR as an alternative to existing methods of quantification. Variation of pH values revealed the separation of a distinct taurine signal in (1)H NMR spectra, which was applied for integration and quantification. Quantification was performed using external calibration (R(2)>0.9999; linearity verified by Mandel's fitting test with a 95% confidence level) and PULCON. Taurine concentrations in 20 different energy drinks were analyzed by both using (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis. The deviation between (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis results was always below the expanded measurement uncertainty of 12.2% for the LC-UV/vis method (95% confidence level) and at worst 10.4%. Due to the high accordance to LC-UV/vis data and adequate recovery rates (ranging between 97.1% and 108.2%), (1)H NMR measurement presents a suitable method to quantify taurine in energy drinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of energy drinks on the surface texture of nanoflled composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samadani, Khalid H

    2013-09-01

    To study the effect of three energy drinks on the surface roughness of nanoflled composite resins after different periods of aging time. Composite resin disks, 6 mm diameter, 3 mm thickness were prepared from Filtec Z350 XT, Tetric EvoCeram and Filtec Z250 XT. Specimens fr/8om each material were tested after aging with Red Bull, Bison and Power Horse energy drinks and distilled water as a control. Specimens were stored at 37°C in dark containers for 1, 3 and 6 months. Surface roughness Ra was assessed using a surface scanning interferometry before and after each storage period. Surface roughness differences ΔRa and Ra among specimens were measured. Mean values were statistically analyzed using multiple repeated measured (ANOVA), variance and multiple comparisons of the mean values were done with Bonferroni test, with p energy drinks was signifcantly different for all tested materials at all three times p Energy drinks used in this study had surface degradation effect on the tested composite resin materials. The surface roughness increased with aging time however, it was clinically acceptable in all test groups after 6 months. The effect of energy drinks solutions on the surface roughness parameter of resin composites depends on type of solution and its acidity contents.

  1. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults’ interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on “digital native” young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults’ consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (aged 18–24) were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups (N = 30 each). Experimental group participants’ attitudes towards and intended purchase and consumption of energy drinks were examined via surveys and semi-structured interviews after their exposure to two popular energy drink brands’ websites and social media sites (exposure time 8 minutes). Exposure to digital marketing contents of energy drinks improved the experimental group participants’ attitudes towards and purchase and consumption intention of energy drinks. This study indicates the influential power of unhealthy online marketing on cognitively mature young adults. This study draws public health attentions to young adults, who to date have been less of a focus of researchers but are influenced by online food advertising. PMID:28152016

  2. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults' interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (aged 18-24) were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups (N = 30 each). Experimental group participants' attitudes towards and intended purchase and consumption of energy drinks were examined via surveys and semi-structured interviews after their exposure to two popular energy drink brands' websites and social media sites (exposure time 8 minutes). Exposure to digital marketing contents of energy drinks improved the experimental group participants' attitudes towards and purchase and consumption intention of energy drinks. This study indicates the influential power of unhealthy online marketing on cognitively mature young adults. This study draws public health attentions to young adults, who to date have been less of a focus of researchers but are influenced by online food advertising.

  3. Energy drinks: psychological effects and impact on well-being and quality of life-a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih William; Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill.

  4. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  5. Estimation of energy and nutritional intake of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Keeping to a balanced diet plays a key role in maximizing the body's efficiency so that sports training becomes more effective. Previous studies have shown that an athletes' diet is often not properly balanced, and can thus negatively affect sporting performance. To assess the energy and nutrient intake in young men practicing aerobic sport and compare them with those recommended. Subjects were 25 male athletes, aged 19-25 years, practicing aerobic sports who were students at two Warsaw Universities; The Military University of Technology and University of Physical Education. The average body mass was 80.6 +/- 9.6 kg and average height was 187.0 +/- 7.6 cm, (BMI thus being 23.01 +/- 1.70 kg/m2). Dietary assessment was based on three-day dietary recalls consisting of two weekdays and one day of the weekend. The energy and macro/ micro-nutrient intake were evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package and compared to recommendations and standards. Supplements were absent from the athletes' diets. The energy value of diets were too low in most instances; average %-age deficiency was 30.22 +/- 13.76%. Total protein intake, (mean 1.41 +/- 0.36 g per kg body weight) was inadequate in 40% of cases, whilst all showed appropriate intakes of animal protein. Most subjects' carbohydrate intake (84%) was deficient; median 3.28 g/kg body weight. Fibre intake, (median 17.17 g) was also insufficient in 76% cases. Total fat intake, (33.9% +/- 5.7 energy) was too high in 32% of cases. The %-age dietary energy obtained from saturated fatty acids was 12.18% +/- 2.53 and 5.72% +/- 1.43 from polyunsaturated fatty acids, where most subjects' diet (64%) was, as well, high in cholesterol. Furthermore, significant deficiencies were observed in the following: Vitamin A (44% of group below EAR), vitamin C (80% below EAR), vitamin D (92% below EAR), foliate (84% below EAR), calcium (52% below EAR) and magnesium (60% below EAR). Vitamin E intake was however higher than the AI level

  6. Energy drinks available in Ireland: a description of caffeine and sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaver, Laura; Gilpin, Susannah; Fernandes da Silva, Joana Caldeira; Buckley, Claire; Foley-Nolan, Cliodhna

    2017-06-01

    To describe the caffeine and sugar content of all energy drinks available on the island of Ireland. Two retail outlets were selected from each of: multinational, convenience and discount stores in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, and all available single-serve energy drinks were purchased. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in February 2015 and brand name, price, volume, caffeine and sugar content were recorded for each product. Descriptive analysis was performed. Seventy-eight products were identified on the island of Ireland (regular, n 59; diet/sugar-free/light, n 19). Caffeine and sugar content was in the range of 14-35 mg and 2·9-15·6 g per 100 ml, respectively. Mean caffeine content of 102·2 mg per serving represents 25·6 % of the maximum intake advised for adults by the European Food Safety Authority. Per serving, mean sugar content of regular energy drinks was 37 g. This exceeds WHO recommendations for maximum daily sugar intake of energy intake (25 g for adults consuming 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) diet). If displaying front-of-pack labelling, fifty-seven of the fifty-nine regular energy drinks would receive a Food Standards Agency 'red' colour-coded label for sugar. Energy drinks are freely available on the island of Ireland and all products surveyed can be defined as highly caffeinated products. This has potential health issues particularly for children and adolescents where safe limits of caffeine have not been determined. Energy drinks surveyed also contained high levels of sugar and could potentially contribute to weight gain and adverse dental health effects.

  7. Energy drinks and their adverse health effects: A systematic review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fahad; Rehman, Hiba; Babayan, Zaruhi; Stapleton, Dwight; Joshi, Divya-Devi

    2015-04-01

    With the rising consumption of so-called energy drinks over the last few years, there has been a growing body of literature describing significant adverse health events after the ingestion of these beverages. To gain further insight about the clinical spectrum of these adverse events, we conducted a literature review. Using PubMed and Google-Scholar, we searched the literature from January 1980 through May 2014 for articles on the adverse health effects of energy drinks. A total of 2097 publications were found. We then excluded molecular and industry-related studies, popular media reports, and case reports of isolated caffeine toxicity, yielding 43 reports. Energy drink consumption is a health issue primarily of the adolescent and young adult male population. It is linked to increased substance abuse and risk-taking behaviors. The most common adverse events affect the cardiovascular and neurological systems. The most common ingredient in energy drinks is caffeine, and it is believed that the adverse events are related to its effects, as well as potentiating effects of other stimulants in these drinks. Education, regulation, and further studies are required.

  8. Taurine, caffeine, and energy drinks: Reviewing the risks to the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christine Perdan; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2017-12-01

    Energy drinks are emerging as a major component of the beverage market with sales projected to top $60 billion globally in the next five years. Energy drinks contain a variety of ingredients, but many of the top-selling brands include high doses of caffeine and the amino acid taurine. Energy drink consumption by children has raised concerns, due to potential caffeine toxicity. An additional risk has been noted among college-aged consumers of energy drinks who appear at higher risk of over-consumption of alcohol when the two drinks are consumed together. The differential and combinatorial effects of caffeine and taurine on the developing brain are reviewed here with an emphasis on the adolescent brain, which is still maturing. Key data from animal studies are summarized to highlight both reported benefits and adverse effects reported following acute and chronic exposures. The data suggest that age is an important factor in both caffeine and taurine toxicity. Although the aged or diseased brain might benefit from taurine or caffeine supplementation, it appears that adolescents are not likely to benefit from supplementation and may, in fact, suffer ill effects from chronic ingestion of high doses. Additional work is needed though to address gaps in our understanding of how taurine affects females, since the majority of animal studies focused exclusively on male subjects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves physical performance of elite rugby players during a simulated match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Ramírez, Juan A; Muñoz, Gloria; Portillo, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz, Víctor; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink in enhancing rugby players' physical performance during a simulated match. A second purpose was to determine the urinary caffeine excretion derived from the energy drink intake. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 26 elite rugby players (mean ± SD for age and body mass, 25 ± 2 y and 93 ± 15 kg) played 2 simulated rugby games (2 × 30 min) 60 min after ingesting (i) 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure, ProEnergetics) or (ii) the same drink without caffeine (placebo). During the matches, the individual running distance and the instantaneous speed were measured, and the number of running actions above 20 km·h(-1) (i.e., sprints) were determined, using global positioning system devices. The number of impacts above 5 g during the matches was determined by accelerometry. The ingestion of the energy drink, compared with the placebo, increased the total distance covered during the match (4749 ± 589 vs 5139 ± 475 m, p caffeine concentration (0.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.4 ± 0.9 μg·mL(-1), p caffeine dose equivalent to 3 mg·kg(-1) considerably enhanced the movement patterns of rugby players during a simulated match.

  10. Effect of energy drink intake before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fares, Maiadah N; Alsunni, Ahmed A; Majeed, Farrukh; Badar, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    To determine the effect of energy drink consumption before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females. This single blind placebo controlled experimental study was carried out at the Physiology Department, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to May 2012, on 32 healthy female students, in a crossover design. They were given either a standardized energy drink or the placebo 45 minutes before the exercise. Time to exhaustion and the stages of Bruce protocol achieved were noted. Heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, and blood lactate were recorded before and after the exercise. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was calculated by formula. Paired sample t-test was used for statistics. The mean age was 19.93±0.8 years, mean height 156.40±3.83 cm, and the mean weight 51.73±3.65 kg. Time to exhaustion in the placebo group was 11.67±1.51 minutes and 11.41±1.56 in the energy drink group (p less than 0.157). The VO2max in the placebo group was 34.06±6.62, while it was 32.89±6.83 in the energy drink group (p less than 0.154). There were no significant differences between the placebo and the energy drinks groups in regards to heart rate, blood pressure, and blood lactate levels, before or after the exercise. However, there were significant differences before, immediately, and 30 minutes post exercise for all parameters between each group. The effects of energy drinks intake on physical performance during the exercise in our small sample does not significantly differ from placebo.

  11. Effect of different energy drinks on physical performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Juscélia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    O primeiro artigo já publicado na Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte, objetivou-se descrever, através de revisão de literatura, os efeitos da taurina (Tau) no desempenho físico aeróbio e anaeróbio, além de apresentar os seus mecanismos de ação. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura na base de dados PubMed/Medline e SportDiscus, tendo como critérios de inclusão estudos com humanos, publicados em língua inglesa, entre 1° de janeiro de 2000 e 1o de setembro de 2011. A forma de ...

  12. Combat sports energy costs evaluation by remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacripanti, A.

    1993-01-01

    The foundation, evolution and related improvements of the new heat and mass transfer equation, used in the joint research of CONI-ENEA (the Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) - FILPJ are shown in this report. Emphasis is given to the experimental history and the changes that are justified in a more formal approach on the basis of theoretical thermodynamics or similarity and dimensional theory. The new form of the equation in the computer code actually utilized in the research is given in the appendix

  13. Effect of Different Energy Drinks on Liver and Heart Enzymes in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wadiah S. Backer; Hanadi M. Baeissa

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen-year-old Irish athlete was died as a result of playing a basketball game after consuming four cans of red bull in 2000. France, Denmark and Norway have banned red bull. Britain issued a warning against red bull use by pregnant women and children in 2001. There was very limited evidence that the consumption of energy drinks have any effect on the enzymes of our body. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of six different types of energy drinks (Red Bull, Power Horse, B...

  14. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    OpenAIRE

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the...

  15. The Associations Between E-Cigarettes and Binge Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Energy Drinks Mixed With Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicic, Sandra; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-03-01

    Use of e-cigarettes by youth is proliferating worldwide, but little is known about the behavioral profile of youth e-cigarette users and the association of e-cigarette use with other health-risky behaviors. This study examines the associations between e-cigarette use and tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use among a large sample of Canadian youth. Using Canadian data from 39,837 grade 9 to 12 students who participated in year 3 (2014-2015) of the COMPASS study, logistic regression models were used to examine how current use of e-cigarettes were associated with tobacco, marijuana, binge drinking, and energy drinks mixed with alcohol. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to examine subgroup differences by sex. Overall, 9.75% of respondents were current e-cigarette users. Current cigarette smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.009), current marijuana users (OR = 5.549), and noncurrent marijuana users (OR = 3.653) were more likely to report using e-cigarettes than noncigarette smokers and nonmarijuana users. Gender differences among males and females showed higher risk of e-cigarette use among female current marijuana users (OR = 7.029) relative to males (OR = 4.931) and female current smokers (OR = 3.284) compared to males (OR = 2.862). Compared to nonbinge drinkers, weekly (OR = 3.253), monthly (OR = 3.113), and occasional (OR = 2.333) binge drinkers were more likely to use e-cigarettes. Similarly, students who consume energy drinks mixed with alcohol (OR = 1.650) were more likely to use e-cigarettes compared to students who do not consume them. We identify that youth who binge drink or use marijuana have a greater increased risk for using e-cigarettes compared to cigarette smokers. These data suggest that efforts to prevent e-cigarette use should not only be discussed in the domain of tobacco control. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Replacing sweetened caloric beverages with drinking water is associated with lower energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Constant, Florence; Gardner, Christopher D; Popkin, Barry M

    2007-12-01

    Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs. Secondary analysis of data from the Stanford A TO Z intervention evaluated change in beverage pattern and total energy intake in 118 overweight women (25 to 50 years) who regularly consumed SCBs (>12 ounces/d) at baseline. At baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months, mean daily beverage intake (SCBs, drinking water, non-caloric diet beverages, and nutritious caloric beverages), food composition (macronutrient, water, and fiber content), and total energy intake were estimated using three 24-hour diet recalls. Beverage intake was expressed in relative terms (percentage of beverages). In fixed effects models that controlled for total beverage intake, non-caloric and nutritious caloric beverage intake (percentage of beverages), food composition, and energy expenditure [metabolic equivalent (MET)], replacing SCBs with drinking water was associated with significant decreases in total energy intake that were sustained over time. The caloric deficit attributable to replacing SCBs with water was not negated by compensatory increases in other food or beverages. Replacing all SCBs with drinking water was associated with a predicted mean decrease in total energy of 200 kcal/d over 12 months. The results suggest that replacing SCBs with drinking water can help lower total energy intake in overweight consumers of SCBs motivated to diet.

  17. Enhancing physical performance in male volleyball players with a caffeine-containing energy drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Pérez-López, Alberto; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Salinero, Juan Jose; Lara, Beatriz; Valadés, David

    2014-11-01

    There are no scientific data about the effects of caffeine intake on volleyball performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink to enhance physical performance in male volleyball players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 15 college volleyball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed volleyball-specific tests: standing spike test, maximal squat jump (SJ), maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), 15-s rebound jump test (15RJ), and agility T-test. Later, a simulated volleyball match was played and recorded. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased ball velocity in the spike test (73 ± 9 vs 75 ± 10 km/h, P volleyball actions more frequently (24.6% ± 14.3% vs 34.3% ± 16.5%, P volleyball players.

  18. CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE CONTENTS IN SOFT AND ENERGY DRINKS AVAILABLE ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Elena Ionică

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is a stimulant that is commonly found in many foods and drinks that we consume. Concerns exist about the potential adverse health effects of high consumption of dietary caffeine, especially in children and pregnant women. Recommended caffeine intakes corresponding to no adverse health effects have been suggested recently for healthy adults (400 – 450 mg/day, for women contemplating pregnancy (300 mg/day, and for young children age 4 – 6 years (45 mg/day. Different brands of soft and energy carbonated beverages available on the Romanian market were analysed for caffeine by HPLC with a diode array UV-VIS detector at 217 nm. The column was a reverse phase C18 and the mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (0.02 mol/L, pH 4.3 and acetonitrile (88:12, v/v. The caffeine contents in energy drink samples ranged from 16.82 mg/100 mL to 39.48 mg/100 mL while the carbonated soft drink group showed caffeine content in the range of 9.79 – 14.38 mg/100 mL. In addition, the concentrations of caffeine have been converted into the daily intake doses based on beverages consumption. The mean values of caffeine daily intakes were 124 mg and 49 mg through the ingestion of energy drinks and soft drinks, respectively.

  19. Combined Alcohol and Energy Drink Use: Hedonistic Motives, Adenosine, and Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (2014) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers chose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  20. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Cardiovascular Effects of Energy Drinks in Familial Long QT Syndrome: A Randomized Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Belinda; Ingles, Jodie; Medi, Caroline; Driscoll, Timothy; Semsarian, Christopher

    2017-03-15

    Caffeinated energy drinks may trigger serious cardiac effects. The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular effects of caffeinated energy drink consumption in patients with familial long QT syndrome (LQTS). From 2014-2016, 24 LQTS patients aged 16-50 years were recruited to a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study of energy drink (ED) versus control (CD) with participants acting as their own controls (one week washout). The primary study outcome was an increase in corrected QT interval (QTc) by >20ms. Secondary outcomes were changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In 24 patients with LQTS (no dropout), mean age was 29±9 years, 13/24 (54%) were female, and 8/24 (33%) were probands. Intention to treat analysis revealed no significant change in QTc with ED compared with CD (12±28ms vs 16±27ms, 3% vs 4%, p=0.71). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly increased with ED compared to CD (peak change 7±16mmHg vs 1±16mmHg, 6% vs 0.8%, p=0.046 and 8±10 vs 2±9mmHg, 11% vs 3% p=0.01 respectively). These changes correlated with significant increases in serum caffeine (14.6±11.3 vs 0.5±0.1μmol/L, penergy drink consumption. Caffeinated energy drinks have significant haemodynamic effects in patients with LQTS, especifically an acute increase in blood pressure. Since dangerous QTc prolongation was seen in some LQTS patients, we recommend caution in young patients with LQTS consuming energy drinks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves sprint performance during an international rugby sevens competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Muñoz, Gloria; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on physical performance during a rugby sevens competition. A second purpose was to investigate the post-competition urinary caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. On two non-consecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish National rugby sevens Team (mean age and body mass = 23 ± 2 years and 66 ± 7 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure(®), ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a 6 × 30 m sprint test, and then played three rugby sevens games against another national team. Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the games were assessed using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Urine samples were obtained pre and post-competition. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the energy drink increased muscle power output during the jump series (23.5 ± 10.1 vs. 25.6 ± 11.8 kW, P = 0.05), running pace during the games (87.5 ± 8.3 vs. 95.4 ± 12.7 m/min, P caffeine concentration than the placebo (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL; P caffeine in the form of a commercially available energy drink considerably enhanced physical performance during a women's rugby sevens competition.

  3. If it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck…: Energy "shots" should be regulated as energy drinks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L

    2016-06-27

    In 2012, Health Canada transitioned caffeinated energy drinks from Natural Health Product to Food and Drug classification and regulations, implementing temporary guidelines with requirements such as caffeine content limits, mandatory cautionary labelling, and restrictions on health claims. "Energy shots" often contain as much or more caffeine compared to energy drinks and have been associated with a similar number of adverse health events. However, current requirements for energy drinks do not apply to energy shots, which remain classified as "natural health products" on the basis that they are "not consumed or perceived as foods" in the same way as energy drinks. An online survey was conducted with Canadian youth and young adults aged 12-24 years (N = 2040) in October 2014 to examine perceptions of energy shots. Respondents viewed an image of a popular energy shot and were asked which term best described it, with six randomly-ordered options. The vast majority (78.8%) perceived the energy shot as an "energy drink" (vs. "supplement", "vitamin drink", "natural health product", "soft drink" or "food product"). Given consumer perceptions and the similarity in product constituents, there is little basis for regulating energy shots differently from energy drinks; these products should be subject to similar labelling and health warning requirements.

  4. Do youth sports prevent pediatric obesity? A systematic review and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F; Stovitz, Steven D; Thomas, Megan; LaVoi, Nicole M; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Sport is a promising setting for obesity prevention among youth, but little is known about whether it prevents obesity. We reviewed research comparing sport participants with nonparticipants on weight status, physical activity, and diet. Among 19 studies, we found no clear pattern of association between body weight and sport participation. Among 17 studies, we found that sport participants are more physically active than those who do not participate. We found seven studies that compared the diet of sport participants with non-participants. These studies reported that youth involved in sport were more likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and milk, and also more likely to eat fast food and drink sugar-sweetened beverages and consume more calories overall. It is unclear from these results whether sports programs, as currently offered, protect youth from becoming overweight or obese. Additional research may foster understanding about how sport, and youth sport settings, can help promote energy balance and healthy body weight.

  5. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ... should provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may ...

  6. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying ... than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ...

  7. Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A. Bawazeer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Pyridoxine and Riboflavin in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Andre´s, P.; Escuder-Gilabert, L.; Martín-Biosca, Y.; Sagrado, S.; Medina-Herna´ndez, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, as familiar consumer products, have been widely used in laboratory courses to help promote student interest, as well as to connect lecture concepts with laboratory work. Energy drinks contain B vitamins: pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) of which amounts are high enough to be of concern. In this work, a fast and…

  9. 75 FR 56556 - In the Matter of Certain Energy Drink Products; Notice of Issuance of a General Exclusion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... prohibiting the unlicensed entry of certain energy drink products that (i) infringe U.S. Trademark... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-678] In the Matter of Certain Energy Drink Products; Notice of Issuance of a General Exclusion; Termination of the Investigation AGENCY: U.S...

  10. 75 FR 28285 - In the Matter of Certain Energy Drink Products; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... sale for importation, or the sale after importation, of certain energy drink products that infringe U.S... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-678] In the Matter of Certain Energy Drink Products; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an Initial Determination of Violation of...

  11. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.

  12. High stress, lack of sleep, low school performance, and suicide attempts are associated with high energy drink intake in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2017-01-01

    Although an association between energy drinks and suicide has been suggested, few prior studies have considered the role of emotional factors including stress, sleep, and school performance in adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the association of energy drinks with suicide, independent of possible confounders including stress, sleep, and school performance. In total, 121,106 adolescents with 13-18 years olds from the 2014 and 2015 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were surveyed for age, sex, region of residence, economic level, paternal and maternal education level, sleep time, stress level, school performance, frequency of energy drink intake, and suicide attempts. Subjective stress levels were classified into severe, moderate, mild, a little, and no stress. Sleep time was divided into 6 groups: sleep time, stress level, and school performance with suicide attempts and the frequency of energy drink intake were analyzed using multiple and ordinal logistic regression analysis, respectively, with complex sampling. The relationship between frequency of energy drink intake and suicide attempts was analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Higher stress levels, lack of sleep, and low school performance were significantly associated with suicide attempts (each P stress level, abnormal sleep time, and low school performance were also proportionally related with higher energy drink intake (P stress, inadequate sleep, and low school performance were related with more energy drink intake and suicide attempts in Korean adolescents. Frequent energy drink intake was positively related with suicide attempts, even after adjusting for stress, sleep time, and school performance.

  13. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed. PMID:27274415

  14. Views of children and parents on limiting unhealthy food, drink and alcohol sponsorship of elite and children's sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2013-01-01

    To determine parents' and children's attitudes towards food, beverage and alcohol sponsorship of elite and children's sports and the acceptability of policies and alternative funding models to limit this sponsorship. Telephone surveys were conducted with parents in February-May 2011. One child from each household was invited to complete an online survey. Surveys assessed parents' perceptions about the influence of sponsorship on children and support for limiting sponsorship, and children's awareness of and attitudes towards sponsors. Randomly sampled households in New South Wales, Australia. Parents (n 825) and children aged 10–16 years (n = 243). Three-quarters of parents supported the introduction of policies to restrict unhealthy food, beverage and alcohol sponsorship of children's and elite sports. More parents (81 %) supported the introduction of alternative funding models to allow these companies to sponsor sport provided there was no visible branding. Two-thirds of children recalled sponsors of their favourite elite sports team/athlete, with 428 sponsors recalled. Of these, 11 % were food/beverage companies and 3 % were alcohol-related. For 39 % of sponsors, children reported feeling better about the company after it had sponsored a team/athlete. Australian parents support restrictions on unhealthy food, beverage and alcohol sport sponsorship. Children's positive associations regarding sponsors are likely to be linked to brand preferences and usage.

  15. Caffeine-containing energy drinks: beginning to address the gaps in what we know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Barbara C; Coates, Paul M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks are relatively new to the United States but are the fastest growing segment of the beverage market. Humans have a long history of consuming caffeine in traditional beverages, such as cocoa, coffee, tea, and yerba maté, but 2 workshops held at the Institute of Medicine (http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Nutrition/PotentialHazardsCaffeineSupplements/2013-AUG-05.aspx) and the NIH (http://ods.od.nih.gov/News/EnergyDrinksWorkshop2013.aspx) in 2013 highlighted many critical gaps in understanding the biologic and behavioral effects of the mixtures of caffeine, vitamins, herbs, sugar or other sweeteners, and other ingredients that typify caffeine-containing energy drinks (CCEDs). For example, different surveys over the same 2010–2012 timeframe report discrepant prevalence of CCED use by teenagers, ranging from 10.3% in 13–17 y olds to >30% of those in grades 10 and 12. Understanding of functional interactions between CCED ingredients, drivers of use, and biologic and behavioral effects is limited. The 4 speakers in the Experimental Biology 2014 symposium titled “Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Research Gaps” described recent progress by their groups in extending our understanding of prevalence of CCED use, sources of caffeine in the United States, drivers of CCED use, and behavioral correlations and effects of CCEDs, including effects on attractiveness of both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

  16. Energy Drinks: Topical Domain in the Emerging Literature and Neglected Areas of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence statistics indicate that consumption of Energy drinks (EDs), often in combination with alcohol, is quite popular in the younger generation and particularly with college students. As literature on this topic is advancing at a rapid pace, it seemed instructive to examine which topics are emphasized in emerging EDs research. To that end, a…

  17. Perceived Stress, Energy Drink Consumption, and Academic Performance among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L.; DeBarr, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored relationships regarding perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students. Participants: Participants included 136 undergraduates attending a large southern plains university. Methods: Participants completed surveys including items from the Perceived Stress Scale and items to…

  18. Energy drinks and their component modulate attention, memory, and antioxidant defences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, M T Costa; Couto-Pereira, N S; Lampert, C; Arcego, D M; Toniazzo, A P; Limberger, R P; Dallegrave, E; Dalmaz, C; Arbo, M D; Leal, M B

    2017-08-12

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the subchronic consumption of energy drinks and their constituents (caffeine and taurine) in male Wistar rats using behavioural and oxidative measures. Energy drinks (ED 5, 7.5, and 10 mL/kg) or their constituents, caffeine (3.2 mg/kg) and taurine (40 mg/kg), either separately or in combination, were administered orally to animals for 28 days. Attention was measured though the ox-maze apparatus and the object recognition memory test. Following behavioural analyses, markers of oxidative stress, including SOD, CAT, GPx, thiol content, and free radicals, were measured in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. The latency time to find the first reward was lower in animals that received caffeine, taurine, or a combination of both (P = 0.003; ANOVA/Bonferroni). In addition, these animals took less time to complete the ox-maze task (P = 0.0001; ANOVA/Bonferroni), and had better short-term memory (P energy drink. This might be related to other components contained in the energy drink, such as vitamins and minerals, which may have altered the ability of caffeine and taurine to modulate memory and attention.

  19. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: methodology and design of the Utrecht Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of the Utrecht Student Survey. This online survey was conducted in June 2011 by 6002 students living in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential impact of mixing alcoholic beverages with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. In contrast to most previous surveys conducted on this topic, the current survey used a more appropriate within-subject design, comparing the alcohol consumption of individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks on occasions. Specifically, a comparison was conducted to examine the occasions during which these individuals consume this mixture versus occasions during which they consume alcohol alone. In addition to energy drinks, the consumption of other non-alcoholic mixers was also assessed when combined with alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, the reasons for consuming energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol were investigated, and were compared to reasons for mixing alcohol with other non-alcoholic beverages. Finally, personality characteristics and the level of risk-taking behavior among the individuals were also assessed to explore their relationship with alcohol consumption. The Utrecht Student Survey will be replicated in the USA, Australia, and the UK. Results will be pooled, but also examined for possible cross-cultural differences.

  20. The effects of energy drinks alone and with alcohol on neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Kim; Stasio, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks-alone or with alcohol-are heavily marketed to young adults, many of whom believe that caffeine counteracts some negative effects of alcohol intoxication. While the effects of caffeine and alcohol have been widely investigated, few studies have examined neuropsychological performance after consumption of a beverage containing both ingredients. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 27 non-caffeine-deprived female participants were randomly assigned to consume a caffeinated energy drink alone, one containing alcohol, or a non-alcoholic, non-caffeinated control beverage. Pre- and post-test assessments were conducted using alternate forms of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Participants who consumed the energy drink plus alcohol evidenced significantly lower post-test performance on a global score of neuropsychological status. Specifically, deficits were found in both visuospatial/constructional and language performance scores. While participants who consumed the caffeinated beverage alone trended toward improved attention scores, neuropsychological status did not show meaningful changes from the pre- to post-test. Consumption of an energy drink containing 6% alcohol by volume negatively influenced performance on a global measure of cognitive functioning. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Morphological effects of long-term consumption of energy drinks on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was therefore concluded that long-term consumption of energy drinks might have an adverse effect on the intra cranial visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. We therefore recommended that further studies aiming at corroborating these ...

  2. Effects of chronic consumption of energy drinks on liver and kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pronounced histopathological changes were observed in hepatic and renal tissues of the ED-treated rats. Conclusion: Oral exposure of rats to ED for 12 weeks produced noticeable hepatic and renal damage, probably due to increased free radical production and oxidative stress. Keywords: Energy drink, Reactive oxygen ...

  3. Effects of chronic consumption of energy drinks on liver and kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts. INTRODUCTION. First appearance of energy drinks (EDs) was in. Europe and Asia in the 1960 as a result of customer requirements for dietary supplements that give ..... reaction of taurine with some other active ED ingredient such ...

  4. The potential adverse effect of energy drinks on executive functions in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; Lee, N.C.; Weeda, W.D.; Krabbendam, L.; Huizinga, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Manufacturers of energy drinks (EDs) claim their products improve cognitive performance. Young adolescents are in a critical developmental phase. The impact of ED intake on their development is not yet clear. Therefore, we studied the associations of both caffeine intake and ED

  5. Real men are made, not born! Incidental exposure to energy drinks may promote men's tolerance of physical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abetkoff, Darren; Karlsson, Torulf; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2015-12-01

    The energy drink market has grown exponentially since the debut of Red Bull. Advertising of energy drinks tends to reinforce an emphasis on masculine identification. However, no previous study has addressed the symbolic effect of energy drinks on pain tolerance, that is, a particular masculine characteristic. We conducted a priming-based experiment to show that energy drink primes elevated men's pain tolerance. Induced conformity to masculinity norms mediated the priming effect of energy drinks on pain tolerance. These findings suggest that mere reminders of masculinity-related products can lead men to behave accordingly in seemingly irrelevant domains (i.e., pain tolerance). Besides distraction and placebo treatment, the connection between a symbolic masculinity prime and greater tolerance of pain may shed lights on an alternative route for pain control. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  7. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: methodology and design of the Utrecht Student Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, The Netherlands; 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAbstract: This paper describes the methodology of the Utrecht Student Survey. This online survey was conducted in June 2011 by 6002 students living in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential impact of mixing alcoholic beverages with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. In contrast to most previous surveys conducted on this topic, the current survey used a more appropriate within-subject design, comparing the alcohol consumption of individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks on occasions. Specifically, a comparison was conducted to examine the occasions during which these individuals consume this mixture versus occasions during which they consume alcohol alone. In addition to energy drinks, the consumption of other non-alcoholic mixers was also assessed when combined with alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, the reasons for consuming energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol were investigated, and were compared to reasons for mixing alcohol with other non-alcoholic beverages. Finally, personality characteristics and the level of risk-taking behavior among the individuals were also assessed to explore their relationship with alcohol consumption. The Utrecht Student Survey will be replicated in the USA, Australia, and the UK. Results will be pooled, but also examined for possible cross-cultural differences.Keywords: energy drink, alcohol, alcohol related consequences, survey, methodology

  8. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  9. Heart rate, blood pressure and repolarization effects of an energy drink as compared to coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, R Matthew; Christmas, Kevin M; Patik, Jordan C; Bhella, Paul S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of energy drinks on haemodynamic and cardiac physiology. Comparisons were made to coffee as well as water consumption. In Protocol #1 the caffeine content was normalized to body weight to represent a controlled environment. Heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac QTc interval were assessed in 15 participants, on 4 days, prior to and for 6·5 h postconsumption of (i) energy drink (2 mg caffeine per kg body weight; low dose), (ii) energy drink (3 mg caffeine per kg body weight; medium dose), (iii) coffee (2 mg caffeine per kg body weight) and (iv) 250 ml water. In Protocol #2, the beverages were consumed in volumes that they are purchased to represent real-life conditions. The aforementioned measurements were repeated in 15 participants following (i) 1 16 oz can of energy drink (16 oz Monster), (ii) 1 24 oz can of energy drink (24 oz Monster), (iii) 1 packet of Keurig K-Cup Starbucks coffee (coffee) and (iv) 250 ml water. The order of the beverages was performed in a randomized double-blinded fashion. For both protocols, QTc interval, heart rate and systolic blood pressure were unchanged in any condition (P>0·05). Diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure were slightly elevated in Protocol #1 (P0·05). These findings suggest that acute consumption of these commonly consumed beverages has no negative effect on cardiac QTc interval. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A caffeinated energy drink improves jump performance in adolescent basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abian-Vicen, Javier; Puente, Carlos; Salinero, Juan José; González-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Muñoz, Gloria; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of a commercially available energy drink on shooting precision, jump performance and endurance capacity in young basketball players. Sixteen young basketball players (first division of a junior national league; 14.9 ± 0.8 years; 73.4 ± 12.4 kg; 182.3 ± 6.5 cm) volunteered to participate in the research. They ingested either (a) an energy drink that contained 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight or (b) a placebo energy drink with the same appearance and taste. After 60 min for caffeine absorption, they performed free throw shooting and three-point shooting tests. After that, participants performed a maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), a repeated maximal jumps test for 15 s (RJ-15), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Urine samples were obtained before and 30 min after testing. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink did not affect precision during the free throws (Caffeine = 70.7 ± 11.8 % vs placebo = 70.3 ± 11.0 %; P = 0.45), the three-point shooting test (39.9 ± 11.8 vs 38.1 ± 12.8 %; P = 0.33) or the distance covered in the Yo-Yo IR1 (2,000 ± 706 vs 1,925 ± 702 m; P = 0.19). However, the energy drink significantly increased jump height during the CMJ (38.3 ± 4.4 vs 37.5 ± 4.4 cm; P basketball shooting precision.

  11. Ultra-violet Spectrophotometric Determination of Caffeine in Soft and Energy Drinks Available in Yenagoa, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Amos-Tautua; W. Bamidele Martin; E.R.E. Diepreye

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the pH and levels of caffeine in eight brands of carbonated and energy drinks available in local market in Yenagoa, Nigeria. Quantitative analysis of caffeine was performed by a simple and fast standard UV spectrophotometric method, using carbon tetrachloride as the extracting solvent. Results showed that the pH of the beverages were slightly acidic ranging from 5.92-6.44. The minimum caffeine level was observed in the carbonated soft drink Coca Cola (4...

  12. Inertial sensors to estimate the energy expenditure of team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emily J; McAinch, Andrew J; Sweeting, Alice; Aughey, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    To quantify the energy expenditure of Australian Football training and matches and the total daily energy expenditure of Australian Football players using tri-axial accelerometers. Cross sectional observation study. An algorithm was developed for the MiniMax 4.0 (Catapult Innovations, Scoresby Australia) using measured oxygen uptake and accelerometer data to estimate energy expenditure of 18 Australian Football players during training and matches. The algorithm was used to validate a metabolic power calculation used by Catapult Innovations (Scoresby Australia) in their proprietary GPS software. The SenseWear™ (Model MF-SW, Bodymedia, Pittsburgh, PA) armband was used to determine non-exercise activity thermogenesis and was worn for 7 days leading into a match. Training, match and non-exercise activity thermogenesis data was summed for total daily energy expenditure. Energy expenditure for field training was estimated to be 2719±666kJ and for matches to be 5745±1468kJ. The estimated energy expenditure in the current study showed a large correlation (r=0.57, 90% CI 0.06-0.84) with the metabolic power calculation. The mean total daily energy expenditure for an in-season main training day was approximately 18,504kJ and match day approximately 19,160kJ with non-exercise activity thermogenesis contributing approximately 85% and 69% on training and match days, respectively. The MiniMax 4.0 and SenseWear™ armband accelerometers provide a practical, non-invasive and an effective method to successfully measure training and match energy expenditure, and non-exercise activity thermogenesis in field sport athletes. Taking methodological limitations into consideration, measuring energy expenditure allows for individualised nutrition programming to enhance performance and achieve body composition goals. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diarrhea and may damage the lining of the stomach. In general, you are better off drinking fluids ... a lot of water sloshing around in your stomach! If you like the taste of sports drinks ...

  14. Who uses alcohol mixed with energy drinks? Characteristics of college student users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Macuada, Carlos; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    To examine characteristics associated with alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) use in a sample of college students. College students (N = 614, 53% female) in their second year of college participated during the fall of 2008. Students completed a cross-sectional survey with questions regarding AmED use. AmED use in the last 30 days was reported by 27% of participants. Logistic regression analyses found that risk factors for AmED included participating in a fraternity/sorority; participating in athletics; living off-campus; having greater fun/social, relax, and image motives for alcohol consumption; and binge drinking. Protective factors included early morning classes, honors program participation, and greater physical/behavioral motives for not drinking. Risk factors for AmED use can identify college students most likely to consume AmEDs and thereby inform screening and intervention efforts to reduce negative AmED-related consequences.

  15. Driving under the influence behaviours among high school students who mix alcohol with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N; Cumming, Tammy; Burkhalter, Robin; Langille, Donald B; Ogilvie, Rachel; Asbridge, Mark

    2017-11-29

    Alcohol and energy drinks are commonly used substances by youth in Canada, and are often mixed (AmED). While several studies have shown that AmED can have dangerous effects, less well understood is how AmED is associated with driving under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. This study sought to determine whether youth who use AmED were more likely to engage in driving, or being a passenger of a driver, under the influence of alcohol or cannabis compared to youth who use either alcohol or energy drinks alone. This study used data from grade 10-12 students who took part in the 2014/2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (N=17,450). The association of past-year AmED use with past-30day: driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, and riding with an alcohol- or cannabis-influenced driver, was assessed using logistic regression. One in four youth had consumed AmED in the previous 12months. AmED users were more likely to engage in all risk behaviours except riding with a drinking driver, relative to youth who only consumed alcohol. No association was observed for youth who consumed alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions. Youth who use AmED demonstrate a higher risk profile for driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, than youth who use alcohol alone. Future research should explore the biopsychosocial pathways that may explain why using energy drinks enhances the already heightened risk posed by alcohol on other health-related behaviours such as driving under the influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A comprehensive review of the effects of mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetin, Rebecca; Coen, Alice; Kaye, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    In response to concern about whether mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol (AED) increases alcohol consumption and related harm, and the role of industry in this debate, we conducted a comprehensive review of the research evidence on the effects of AED and documented industry involvement in this research. A systematic review of 6 databases. Studies must have examined the effect of consuming alcohol with energy drinks (ED) or caffeine on alcohol-related outcomes. 62 studies were identified; 29 were experiments, 9 had industry ties (8 with Red Bull GmbH). Young adults who consumed AED drank more alcohol and experienced more alcohol-related harm than other drinkers. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that AED led to increased alcohol consumption or altered the nature of alcohol-related harm. However, AED consumers reported that AED increased stimulation and alertness, offset fatigue from drinking, and facilitated drinking. Experimental research also found that combining ED or caffeine with alcohol increased stimulation and alertness, offset alcohol-related fatigue and increased the desire to keep drinking. It did not change BAC, perceived intoxication, perceived impairment and it did not reverse alcohol-induced impairment on simple psychomotor tasks. Combining ED/caffeine with alcohol reduced alcohol-induced impairment on some but not all aspects of complex tasks. Although few in number, studies with industry ties presented contrary evidence. A growing body of evidence suggests that AED may facilitate drinking and related harms via its effects on intoxication but a causal link needs to be confirmed. The influence of industry involvement in this area of research needs to be monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial of High-Volume Energy Drink Versus Caffeine Consumption on ECG and Hemodynamic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Emily A; Lacey, Carolyn S; Aaron, Melenie; Kolasa, Mark; Occiano, Andrew; Shah, Sachin A

    2017-04-26

    Caffeine in doses energy drinks. We evaluated the ECG and blood pressure (BP) effects of high-volume energy drink consumption compared with caffeine alone. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover study in 18 young, healthy volunteers. Participants consumed either 946 mL (32 ounces) of energy drink or caffeinated control drink, both of which contained 320 mg of caffeine, separated by a 6-day washout period. ECG, peripheral BP, and central BP measurements were obtained at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours post study drink consumption. The time-matched, baseline-adjusted changes were compared. The change in corrected QT interval from baseline in the energy drink arm was significantly higher than the caffeine arm at 2 hours (0.44±18.4 ms versus -10.4±14.8 ms, respectively; P =0.02). The QTc changes were not different at other time points. While both the energy drink and caffeine arms raised systolic BP in a similar fashion initially, the systolic BP was significantly higher at 6 hours when compared with the caffeine arm (4.72±4.67 mm Hg versus 0.83±6.09 mm Hg, respectively; P =0.01). Heart rate, diastolic BP, central systolic BP, and central diastolic BP showed no evidence of a difference between groups at any time point. Post energy drink, augmentation index was lower at 6 hours. The corrected QT interval and systolic BP were significantly higher post high-volume energy drink consumption when compared with caffeine alone. Larger clinical trials validating these findings and evaluation of noncaffeine ingredients within energy drinks are warranted. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02023723. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. Electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks and Panax ginseng in healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin A; Occiano, Andrew; Nguyen, Tinh An; Chan, Amanda; Sky, Joseph C; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi; O'Dell, Kate M; Shek, Allen; Nguyen, Nancy N

    2016-09-01

    Energy drink usage has been linked to emergency room visits and deaths. The objective of the study is to assess the electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks, Panax ginseng and placebo in healthy individuals. This was a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, crossover study. Young healthy volunteers with no comorbid conditions consumed 32oz of an energy drink, control drink with 800mg of Panax ginseng or matching placebo-control drink over 45min. Primary endpoints were QTc interval and systolic blood pressure. Secondary endpoints included QT interval, PR interval, QRS duration, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure. All endpoints were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 3.5, and 5.5h. A significant increase in QTc interval 2h post energy drink consumption was evident when compared to placebo (3.37±10.7ms and -3.19±11.8ms respectively; p=0.030). Similarly, systolic blood pressure 2h post energy drink consumption increased when compared to placebo (2.00±6.37mmHg and -2.67±5.83mmHg respectively; p=0.014). The PR interval significantly reduced over a 2h period post energy drink use in a clinically non-meaningful manner. Heart rate at 2h was not significantly higher in the energy drink group when compared to others. The QT interval, QRS interval and diastolic blood pressure were not impacted at any time point. Certain energy drinks consumed at a high volume significantly increase the QTc interval and systolic blood pressure by over 6ms and 4mmHg respectively. Panax ginseng does not have a significant impact on ECG or blood pressure parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of water drinking on resting energy expenditure in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, G; Constantini, N W; Yariv, H; Nice, S; Shapira, N

    2011-10-01

    It was previously demonstrated that drinking water significantly elevates the resting energy expenditure (REE) in adults, and that low water intake is associated with obesity and lesser success in weight reduction. This study addressed the potential of water drinking to increase the REE in children, as an additional tool for weight management. To examine the effect of drinking water on the REE of overweight children. A total of 21 overweight, otherwise-healthy children (age 9.9±1.4 years, 11 males) drank 10 ml kg(-1) cold water (4 °C). REE was measured before and after water ingestion, for 66 min. The main outcome measure was the change in mean REE from baseline values. Immediately after drinking water, there was a transient decrease in REE, from a baseline value of 3.32±1.15 kilojoule (kJ) per min to 2.56±0.66 kJ per min at minute 3 (P=0.005). A subsequent rise in REE was then observed, which was significantly higher than baseline after 24 min (3.89±0.78 kJ/min (P=0.021)), and at most time points thereafter. Maximal mean REE values were seen at 57 min after water drinking (4.16±1.43 kJ per min (P=0.004)), which were 25% higher than baseline. REE was significantly correlated with age, height, weight and fat-free mass; the correlations with maximal REE values after water drinking were stronger than with baseline REE values. This study demonstrated an increase of up to 25% in REE following the drinking of 10 ml kg(-1) of cold water in overweight children, lasting for over 40 min. Consuming the recommended daily amount of water for children could result in an energy expenditure equivalent to an additional weight loss of about 1.2 kg per year. These findings reinforce the concept of water-induced REE elevation shown in adults, suggesting that water drinking could assist overweight children in weight loss or maintenance, and may warrant emphasis in dietary guidelines against the obesity epidemic.

  20. Energy drink consumption in Europe: A review of the risks, adverse health effects and policy options to respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Joaquim Breda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe however more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  1. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  2. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were

  3. Induced beliefs about a fictive energy drink influences 200-m sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Ricardo; Alberti, Sara; Ruíz-Barquín, Roberto; Soós, István; Szabo, Attila

    2017-09-01

    Placebo and nocebo effects occur in response to subjective expectations and their subsequent neural actions. Research shows that information shapes expectations that, consequently, influence people's behaviour. In this study, we examined the effects of a fictive and inert green colour energy drink provided for three groups (n = 20/group) with different information. The first group was led to expect that the drink augments running performance (positive information), the second group was led to expect that the drink may or may not improve performance (partial-positive information), while the third group was told that earlier research could not demonstrate that the drink improves performance (neutral/control). At baseline, the three groups did not differ in their 200-m sprint performance (p > .05). One week later, 20-min immediately after ingesting the drink, all participants again ran 200 m. The positive information group increased its performance by 2.41 s, which was statistically significant (p performance (0.97 s) that approached but did not reach statistical significance was also noted in the partial-positive information group, and a lesser change (0.72 s) that was statistically not significant was noted in the neutral information control group. These results reveal that drinking an inert liquid, primed with positive information, changes both the actual and the self-perceived time on a 200-m sprint. The current findings also suggest that the level of certainty of the information might be linked to the magnitude of change in performance.

  4. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF A HPLC ANALYSIS METHOD FOR TAURINE AND CAFFEINE IN ENERGY DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA-IOANA [CHIRITA] TAMPU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization of a rapid, inexpensive, reliable and selective isocratic high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of caffeine and taurine in energy drinks with two common detectors in series: evaporating light scattering detector (ELSD and an ultraviolet (UV detector. Satisfactory analysis results were obtained on an Astec apHera NH2 column using methanol/water (30:70 v/v as mobile phase. The optimized method was used for the analysis of commercial energy drinks containing large amounts of carbohydrates (100 g·L-1 and considerably lower amounts of taurine and caffeine (4 and 0.6 g·L-1, respectively. The advantages of this method consist of its lack of preliminary samples treatment and also the fact that basic LC instrumentation was employed.

  6. Cross-sectional surveys of the amount of sugar, energy and caffeine in sugar-sweetened drinks marketed and consumed as energy drinks in the UK between 2015 and 2017: monitoring reformulation progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2017-12-14

    To investigate the sugar, energy and caffeine content of sugar-sweetened drinks marketed and consumed as energy drinks available in the UK. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2015 and 2017 of energy drinks available in the main UK retailers. The sugar (sugars g/100 mL), energy (kcal/100 mL), caffeine (mg/100 mL) and serving size were collected from product packaging and nutrition information panels of energy drinks available in the nine main UK grocery retailers, three health and beauty retailers and one convenience store. The number of formulations (per 100 mL) and number of products (per serving) have fallen (from 75 to 49 and from 90 to 59) between 2015 and 2017, respectively. Energy drinks surveyed showed a 10% reduction in sugar, from 10.6 to 9.5 g/100 mL (P=0.011) and a 6% reduction in energy content (P=0.005) per 100 mL between 2015 and 2017. The average caffeine content of energy drinks, with a warning label, has remained high at 31.5±0.9 in 2015 and 31.3±1.0 mg/100 mL in 2017. Despite there being reductions, sugar, energy and caffeine content remain at concerning levels in 2017. To reduce the harmful impact of energy drinks, further reduction in sugar and a reduction in caffeine by reformulation are urgently needed. Other measures such as ban on the sale of energy drinks to children and smaller product sizes should also be explored, while warning labels should be kept. A reduction in sugar, energy and caffeine content and overall energy drinks consumption could be beneficial in reducing sugar, energy and caffeine intake of consumers of energy drinks. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Psychometric validation of the Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Melissa M; Newins, Amie R; Mills, Llewellyn; Ham, Lindsay S

    2017-12-01

    Young people are increasingly consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs). As coingestion of these beverages results in greater adverse consequences than from drinking alcohol alone, we need to understand what factors contribute to and deter coingestion. Existing studies in this area have not utilized a theoretically based or empirically validated measure of outcome expectancies for drinking AmEDs. Our study modified Morean, Corbin, and Treat's (2012) Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale to assess the expected effects of drinking AmEDs. We evaluated the factor structure and concurrent validity of the Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks (AEAMEDS) among 549 university students, aged 18-25, who had a lifetime history of consuming alcohol (231 had consumed AmEDs in the past 90 days). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 4-factor structure. Consistent with hypotheses, stronger high arousal/positive expectancies and weaker low arousal/negative expectancies were associated with greater AmED use. At the bivariate level, stronger low arousal/positive expectancies were associated with greater quantities of AmED use, but this relationship disappeared when taking into account other outcome expectancies. Moreover, students expected low arousal/positive expectancies to be less intense when consuming AmEDs than alcohol alone, but ratings for all other AmED expectancies were equivalent to consuming alcohol alone. These findings contribute to our knowledge of risk and protective factors for AmED use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Design and Aesthetic Elements on the Energy Drink Market Case Study: Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Neacºu Nicoleta Andreea; Madar Anca

    2014-01-01

    We live in a society ruled by consumerism and in a fierce market competition which leads (determine) marketers to find the most effective and suitable way to influence consumer behavior. One of this ways of influencing consumer behavior are the design elements and aesthetics of the packaging. Thus, designers and marketers opt for different items depending on the type of product sold. Choosing the best elements of design and aesthetics are essential on the energy drink market as well.

  9. Pattern of Energy Drink Consumption and Associated Adverse Symptoms among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Orimoloye, Adeyinka; Hurlock, Lisa; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Lee, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study estimated the prevalence of energy drink consumption among students at the University of the West Indies (UWI), and describes the frequency of consumption and associated adverse symptoms. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a sex-stratified random sample of students residing in the halls of residence at the UWI, in Jamaica. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Mona campus of UWI, between October 2011 and January 2012. Methodology:...

  10. Quantitative determination and classification of energy drinks using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Anita; Héberger, Károly; Fodor, Marietta

    2016-09-01

    Almost a hundred commercially available energy drink samples from Hungary, Slovakia, and Greece were collected for the quantitative determination of their caffeine and sugar content with FT-NIR spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Calibration models were built with partial least-squares regression (PLSR). An HPLC-UV method was used to measure the reference values for caffeine content, while sugar contents were measured with the Schoorl method. Both the nominal sugar content (as indicated on the cans) and the measured sugar concentration were used as references. Although the Schoorl method has larger error and bias, appropriate models could be developed using both references. The validation of the models was based on sevenfold cross-validation and external validation. FT-NIR analysis is a good candidate to replace the HPLC-UV method, because it is much cheaper than any chromatographic method, while it is also more time-efficient. The combination of FT-NIR with multidimensional chemometric techniques like PLSR can be a good option for the detection of low caffeine concentrations in energy drinks. Moreover, three types of energy drinks that contain (i) taurine, (ii) arginine, and (iii) none of these two components were classified correctly using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Such classifications are important for the detection of adulterated samples and for quality control, as well. In this case, more than a hundred samples were used for the evaluation. The classification was validated with cross-validation and several randomization tests (X-scrambling). Graphical Abstract The way of energy drinks from cans to appropriate chemometric models.

  11. Effect of Energy Drinks on Discoloration of Silorane and Dimethacrylate-Based Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizenouz, Ghazaleh; Esmaeili, Behnaz; Ahangari, Zohreh; Khafri, Soraya; Rahmani, Aghil

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of two energy drinks on color change (ΔE) of two methacrylate-based and a silorane-based composite resin after one week and one month. Thirty cubic samples were fabricated from Filtek P90, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT composite resins. All the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Baseline color values (L*a*b*) of each specimen were measured using a spectrophotometer according to the CIEL*a*b* color system. Ten randomly selected specimens from each composite were then immersed in the two energy drinks (Hype, Red Bull) and artificial saliva (control) for one week and one month. Color was re-assessed after each storage period and ΔE values were calculated. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Filtek Z250 composite showed the highest ΔE irrespective of the solutions at both time points. After seven days and one month, the lowest ΔE values were observed in Filtek Z350XT and Filtek P90 composites immersed in artificial saliva, respectively. The ΔE values of Filtek Z250 and Z350XT composites induced by Red Bull and Hype energy drinks were not significantly different. Discoloration of Filtek P90 was higher in Red Bull energy drink at both time points. Prolonged immersion time in all three solutions increased ΔE values of all composites. However, the ΔE values were within the clinically acceptable range (<3.3) at both time points.

  12. A comparison of the combined-use of alcohol & energy drinks to alcohol-only on high-risk drinking and driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Jacobson, Bert H; Williams, Ronald D; Barry, Adam E; Davidson, Robert T; Evans, Marion W; Beck, Niels C

    2015-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks is an emerging public health issue. This investigation examined differences in drinking and driving behaviors among combined-users (CU) and participants who consumed alcohol-only (AO). This study was specifically designed to investigate potential differences in drinker's perceptions of (a) what it means to them to drive over the .08 Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) driving limit and (b) what it means to drive after knowing they have had too much to drink to drive safely. College students (N = 355) were surveyed to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between the AO (n = 174) and CU (n = 107) groups. CU were more likely than AO to drive over the .08 BAC driving limit (53% vs. 38%; p = .009) and after knowing they were too drunk to drive (57% vs. 44%; p = .025). CU were also more likely (56% vs. 35%; p = .000) to ride with an intoxicated driver while knowing it was unsafe. Conclusions/Importance: Combined-users are more likely to drive after drinking, drive while knowingly drunk, and participate in other high-risk behaviors such as heavy drinking that increase the potential for injury. Public policy makers and health professionals should focus prevention efforts to reduce high-risk combined-use behavior.

  13. Factors influencing young people's use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Jones, Sandra C; Stafford, Julia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Daube, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A growing evidence base demonstrates the negative health outcomes associated with the consumption of energy drinks (ED) and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED), especially among young people. Work to date has focused on the physiological effects of ED and AMED use and the motivations associated with consumption, typically among college students. The present study adopted an exploratory, qualitative approach with a community sample of 18-21 year olds to identify relevant barriers, motivators, and facilitators to AMED use and to explicate the decision-making processes involved. The sensitisation method was used to collect data from a cohort of 60 young adult drinkers over a period of six months via individual interviews, focus groups, and introspections. The findings indicate that there may be a general understanding of the negative consequences of AMED use, and that these consequences can constitute barriers that serve to discourage frequent consumption among young people. This outcome suggests the potential application of positive deviance and social norms approaches in interventions designed to reduce AMED use among this population segment. The results are promising in the identification of a large number of concerns among young adults relating to AMED use. These concerns can constitute the focus of future communications with this target group. The results are likely to have relevance to other countries, such as the US and the UK, that share similar alcohol cultures and where energy drinks have achieved comparable market penetration rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved cycling time-trial performance after ingestion of a caffeine energy drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, John L; Kammer, Lynne; Ding, Zhenping; Wang, Bei; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Liao, Yi-Hung; Hwang, Jungyun

    2009-02-01

    Not all athletic competitions lend themselves to supplementation during the actual event, underscoring the importance of preexercise supplementation to extend endurance and improve exercise performance. Energy drinks are composed of ingredients that have been found to increase endurance and improve physical performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a commercially available energy drink, ingested before exercise, on endurance performance. The study was a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. After a 12-hr fast, 6 male and 6 female trained cyclists (mean age 27.3 +/- 1.7 yr, mass 68.9 +/- 3.2 kg, and VO2 54.9 +/- 2.3 ml x kg-1 x min-1) consumed 500 ml of either flavored placebo or Red Bull Energy Drink (ED; 2.0 g taurine, 1.2 g glucuronolactone, 160 mg caffeine, 54 g carbohydrate, 40 mg niacin, 10 mg pantothenic acid, 10 mg vitamin B6, and 10 microg vitamin B12) 40 min before a simulated cycling time trial. Performance was measured as time to complete a standardized amount of work equal to 1 hr of cycling at 70% Wmax. Performance improved with ED compared with placebo (3,690 +/- 64 s vs. 3,874 +/- 93 s, p performance and that this improvement might be in part the result of increased effort without a concomitant increase in perceived exertion.

  15. Quantitative on-chip determination of taurine in energy and sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Sebastian; Revermann, Tobias; Karst, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    A new method for the quantitative determination of taurine in beverages by microchip electrophoresis was developed. A rapid and simple sample preparation procedure, only including two dilution steps and the addition of the fluorogenic labeling reagent NBD-Cl (4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan), is applied. Using a home-built wavelength-resolved fluorescence detector, the separation and determination of the taurine derivative could be achieved in only 12 s, while the additional spectral information was utilized to ensure peak purity. Spanning from 0.1 to 50 mmol L(-1), the linear dynamic range of the applied method was adapted to the apparent contents in common taurine containing beverages. The smallest detectable amount of the taurine derivative actually injected into the separation channel was as low as 60 amol. The method was successfully validated by an independent liquid chromatographic method.

  16. Quantitative on-chip determination of taurine in energy and sports drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, S.; Revermann, T.; Karst, U.

    2007-01-01

    A new method for the quantitative determination of taurine in beverages by microchip electrophoresis was developed. A rapid and simple sample preparation procedure, only including two dilution steps and the addition of the fluorogenic labeling reagent NBD-Cl (4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan), is

  17. [Alcohol and energy drink--can combined consumption of both beverages modify automobile driving fitness?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesselmann, B; Rosenbaum, F; Schneider, V

    1996-07-01

    Various fitness drinks under the designation of "energy or power drinks" or "brain or athletic food" are very popular among young people. For those entrusted with rendering expert opinions that poses the question of whether consumption of these beverages is of any importance when a person's ability to drive or mental capacity has to be assessed, especially in combination with alcoholic beverages imbibed at the same time. In the case discussed here-both the 20-year-old car driver and his passenger suffered not inconsiderable injuries-an alcohol concentration of 1.2 per mille was found at the time a blood sample was taken. Furthermore, a caffeine content of 1.5 micrograms/ml was noted. A value also reached after drinking a cup of filter coffee. In contrast, values of 2 to 10 micrograms/ml are reached when caffeine is used for therapeutic purposes. Values of more than 15 micrograms/ml are considered toxic. The measured caffeine content was thus fully insignificant. The same also applies to the "active ingredients" (taurine, glucuronolactone) contained in the beverage "Red Bull". Another assumption that, namely, the effect of alcohol can be offset by such beverages could lead to a situation in which young people incorrectly assess their ability to drive after imbibing alcohol and fitness drinks. That is naturally given support by corresponding tributes by the manufacturers ("improves performance", "invigorates the mind and body").

  18. Eat, drink and gamble: marketing messages about ‘risky’ products in an Australian major sporting series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the alcohol, gambling, and unhealthy food marketing strategies during a nationally televised, free to air, sporting series in Australia. Methods/approach Using the Australian National Rugby League 2012 State of Origin three-game series, we conducted a mixed methods content analysis of the frequency, duration, placement and content of advertising strategies, comparing these strategies both within and across the three games. Results There were a total of 4445 episodes (mean = 1481.67, SD = 336.58), and 233.23 minutes (mean = 77.74, SD = 7.31) of marketing for alcoholic beverages, gambling products and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages during the 360 minutes of televised coverage of the three State of Origin 2012 games. This included an average per game of 1354 episodes (SD = 368.79) and 66.29 minutes (SD = 7.62) of alcohol marketing; 110.67 episodes (SD = 43.89), and 8.72 minutes (SD = 1.29) of gambling marketing; and 17 episodes (SD = 7.55), and 2.74 minutes (SD = 0.78) of unhealthy food and beverage marketing. Content analysis revealed that there was a considerable embedding of product marketing within the match play, including within match commentary, sporting equipment, and special replays. Conclusions Sport is increasingly used as a vehicle for the promotion of range of ‘risky consumption’ products. This study raises important ethical and health policy questions about the extent and impact of saturation and incidental marketing strategies on health and wellbeing, the transparency of embedded marketing strategies, and how these strategies may influence product consumption. PMID:23914917

  19. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at Six-Month Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Gareth eRichards; Andrew Paul Smith

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Que...

  20. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Que...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Promotion Strategies in the Industry of Energy Drinks in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks remain one of the most dynamic segments of soft drinks. Recent developments indicate that companies are extending their activities. The fact that the category of energy drinks is so successful is leading to a highly competitive environment. Therefore, to increase profit and to create a firm position in such a competitive market, promotion policies and its strategies and forms by companies should be properly understood and implemented.  To this end, this part of the paper will review literature from various authors for purposes of understanding the role of drafting and implementing promotion strategies and marketing itself in companies in general. Data from theoretical aspect have served as guidance in conducting the practical part of this paper on the ground.  In the second part of the paper, a practical research was conducted; a survey questionnaire with owners of two energy drink producers in Kosovo was carried out, i.e., “Golden Eagle” and “Red Rain”. As a result of primary data we have obtained from the survey, we established the extent of the basic knowledge of these companies. At first, regarding marketing in general, but also on promotion and promotion strategies in particular. Also, there were selected 30 customers of these two companies from the random sample to see whether there was an impact of promotion forms that these companies used on their choosing of products.  Finally, from the data obtained from primary and secondary sources we managed to come to certain specific and meaningful conclusions both in terms of the companies we studied, but also about other companies of the same or other similar sectors.

  2. Correlates of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among youth across 10 US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shivani R; Cottler, Linda B; Striley, Catherine W

    2016-06-01

    Predictors of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) among youth have been understudied. The current analyses investigated the prevalence of and correlates for use of AmED among alcohol users from a national study of stimulant use among youth. The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) assessed behaviors and risk factors for stimulant use from 11,048 youth, 10-18 years of age recruited from entertainment venues across 10 US cities. Of the four cross sections, two had questions on having alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in the past 30 days along with sociodemographic characteristics, current tobacco and marijuana use and current nonmedical use of prescription opioids, anxiolytics, and stimulants. Only 13 to18 year olds and those who reported alcohol use were included in the analyses. Overall, 28.4% (1392 out of 4905) of the 13 to18 year olds reported past 30-day alcohol use. Among alcohol users, 27% reported having alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the past 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that use of AmED was significantly associated with tobacco and marijuana use and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Underage drinking is common among youth and more than a quarter of these drinkers use AmED. Use of AmED is significantly associated with tobacco and marijuana use and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Drug and alcohol intervention programs should educate on the risks of AmED, as the same population is at high-risk for use of AmED and alcohol/drug use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Arinc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or those P-waves and QT intervals unavailable in at least eight ECG leads were excluded. Subjects having insomnia, lactose intolerance, caffeine allergy, recurrent headaches, depression, any psychiatric condition, and history of alcohol or drug abuse, pregnant or lactating women were also excluded from participation. 12 lead ECG was obtained before and after consumption of 250 cc enegry drink. QT and P-wave dispersion was calculated. RESULTS: No significant difference have occurred in heart rate (79 ± 14 vs.81 ±13, p=0.68, systolic pressure (114 ± 14 vs.118 ± 16,p=0.38, diastolic blood pressure (74 ± 12 vs.76 ± 14, p=0.64, QT dispersion (58 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 22, p= 0.785 and P-wave dispersion (37 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 13, p= 0.755 between before and 2 hours after consumption of energy drink. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Consumption of single dose energy drink doesn't affect QT dispersion and P-wave dispersion, heart rate and blood pressure in healthy adults.

  4. Celiac trunk and branches dissection due to energy drink consumption and heavy resistance exercise: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks.

  5. Investigation of Cost and Energy Optimization of Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Carla; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Gordon, Matthew; Bunn, Simon; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-11-17

    Holistic management of water and energy resources through energy and water quality management systems (EWQMSs) have traditionally aimed at energy cost reduction with limited or no emphasis on energy efficiency or greenhouse gas minimization. This study expanded the existing EWQMS framework and determined the impact of different management strategies for energy cost and energy consumption (e.g., carbon footprint) reduction on system performance at two drinking water utilities in California (United States). The results showed that optimizing for cost led to cost reductions of 4% (Utility B, summer) to 48% (Utility A, winter). The energy optimization strategy was successfully able to find the lowest energy use operation and achieved energy usage reductions of 3% (Utility B, summer) to 10% (Utility A, winter). The findings of this study revealed that there may be a trade-off between cost optimization (dollars) and energy use (kilowatt-hours), particularly in the summer, when optimizing the system for the reduction of energy use to a minimum incurred cost increases of 64% and 184% compared with the cost optimization scenario. Water age simulations through hydraulic modeling did not reveal any adverse effects on the water quality in the distribution system or in tanks from pump schedule optimization targeting either cost or energy minimization.

  6. Comparison of the effects of energy drink versus caffeine supplementation on indices of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Amy M; Schmidt, Julia M; McCain, Keith R; Fraer, Mony

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular events associated with energy drink consumption have been reported, but few data exist to delineate the hemodynamic effects of energy drinks. To compare the effects of an energy drink versus caffeine supplementation on blood pressure (BP) indices as measured by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Healthy, nonsmoking, normotensive volunteers (aged 18-45 years) taking no medications were enrolled in a single-center, open-label, 2-period crossover pilot study. During each study period, subjects received either an energy drink (Red Bull Energy Drink, each dose containing 80 mg of caffeine and 1000 mg of taurine in an 8.3-oz serving) or a control (compounded caffeine solution, each dose containing 80 mg of caffeine solution in 8 oz of bottled water) at 0800, 1100, 1500, and 1900 hours and underwent 24-hour ABPM. The study periods were separated by a washout period (4-30 days). Mean 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) BP; BP load; and percent nocturnal dipping were compared between study periods. Nine subjects (5 females, mean [SD] age 27.7 [5.0] years) completed the study. Mean 24-hour SBP (123.2 vs 117.4 mm Hg, p = 0.04), DBP (73.6 vs 68.2 mm Hg, p = 0.02), and MAP (90.1 vs 84.8 mm Hg, p = 0.03) were significantly higher during energy drink supplementation versus caffeine supplementation. Daytime DBP (77.0 vs 72.0 mm Hg, p = 0.04) also was significantly higher with the energy drink versus caffeine supplementation. Trends in higher daytime SBP (127.0 vs 121.9 mm Hg, p = 0.05) and MAP (93.6 vs 88.6 mm Hg, p = 0.05) were recorded with energy drink supplementation versus caffeine supplementation. Nighttime SBP and DBP loads were significantly higher with the energy drink, but nocturnal dipping did not differ significantly between study periods. Single-day energy drink supplementation increased mean 24-hour and daytime BP compared to caffeine control in this pilot study. Additional research is

  7. Do the noncaffeine ingredients of energy drinks affect metabolic responses to heavy exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Robert W; Niemeyer, JoLynne D; Sexton, Patrick J; Lipetzky, Amanda; Murray, Steven R

    2013-07-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) such as Red Bull (RB) are marketed to enhance metabolism. Secondary ingredients of EDs (e.g., taurine) have been purported to improve time trial performance; however, little research exists on how such secondary ingredients affect aerobic metabolism during heavy exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the secondary ingredients of RB on aerobic metabolism during and subsequent to heavy exercise. In double-blind, counterbalanced, and crossover fashion, 8 recreationally trained individuals completed a graded exercise test to determine the gas exchange threshold (GET). Subjects returned on 2 separate occasions and ingested either a 245 ml serving of RB or a control (CTRL) drink with the equivalent caffeine before engaging in two 10-minute constant-load cycling bouts, at an intensity equivalent to GET, with 3 minutes of rest between bouts. Accumulated liters of O2 (10 minutes) were higher for the first bout (17.1 ± 3.5 L) vs. the second bout (16.7 ± 3.5 L) but did not differ between drinks. Similarly, excess postexercise oxygen consumption was higher after the initial bout (RB mean, 2.6 ± 0.85 L; CTRL mean, 2.9 ± 0.90 L) vs. the second bout (RB mean, 1.5 ± 0.85 L; CTRL mean, 1.9 ± 0.87 L) but did not differ between drinks. No differences occurred between drinks for measures of heart rate or rating of perceived exertion. These results indicate that the secondary ingredients contained in a single serving of RB do not augment aerobic metabolism during or subsequent to heavy exercise.

  8. Sports Dehydration Safety Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sports Dehydration Safety Tips Everything you need to know to keep your kids safe from dehydration when playing sports. To keep kids in top ... to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. Dehydration occurs when a body loses more water than ...

  9. Caffeinated energy drink intake modulates motor circuits at rest, before and after a movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerto, Carmen; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Chusid, Eileen; Coira, Diego; Babayev, Jacqueline; Metwaly, Rowan; Naenifard, Hesam; Aguglia, Eugenio; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2017-10-01

    Energy drinks are thought to improve certain aspects of athletic and cognitive performances. Moreover, less is understood about physiological mechanisms that might underlie these effects. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of sugar-free energy drink (SFED) ingestion on corticomotor excitability and plasticity. Fourteen college students consumed a commercially available SFED or a "dummy" drink. By using Transcranial magnetic Stimulation (TMS) we investigated resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and cortical silent period (CSP). Paired-pulse stimulation was used to assess short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Sensorimotor integration was investigated with the short- and long-afferent inhibition paradigms (SAI and LAI). Cortical plasticity was studied with the paired associative stimulation (PAS) paradigm. In addition, we examined the effect of SFED on simple reaction time (RT), pre-movement facilitation and post-exercise facilitation (PEF). SFED consumption decreased ICF, shortened RT, increased pre-movement facilitation and PEF of the motor evoked potentials. These results demonstrate that SFED consumption induced a shorter RT that is paralleled by changes in cortical excitability at rest, prior and after a non-fatiguing muscle contraction. These acute changes in brain function might be of relevance in understanding the mechanisms underlying the enhancement of psychomotor performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral and physiologic adverse effects in adolescent and young adult emergency department patients reporting use of energy drinks and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Deidrya A E; Cotter, Bradford V; Merchant, Roland C; Babu, Kavita M; Baird, Janette R; Nirenberg, Ted; Linakis, James G

    2013-08-01

    This pilot study assessed the prevalence of physiologic and behavioral adverse effects among adolescent (13-17 years) and adult (18-25 years) emergency department patients who reported energy drink and/or caffeinated-only beverage use within the 30 days prior to emergency department presentation. It was hypothesized that energy drink users would report more adverse effects than those who used only traditional caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, or soft drinks. This cross-sectional pilot study was conducted in two urban emergency departments, one adult and one pediatric. Eligible patients were enrolled during a 6-week period between June and August 2010. Participants completed a tablet computer-based, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire about their past 30-day energy drink and/or caffeinated-only beverage use, substance use, and experience of 10 physiologic and 10 behavioral symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression and negative binomial regression models, adjusted for age, gender, and substance use, were created to compare the occurrence of each adverse effect between energy drink and caffeinated-only beverage users. Odds ratios (ORs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated. Of those enrolled, 53.3% reported consuming energy drinks, 39.1% caffeinated-only beverages, and 7.6% no energy drinks or caffeinated-only beverages within the past 30 days. In multivariable logistic regression models, energy drink users were more likely than caffeinated-only beverage users to report having "gotten into trouble at home, school, or work" in the past 30 days (OR: 3.12 [1.24-7.88]). In the negative binomial regression multivariable models, more behavioral effects were reported among drug users (IRR: 1.50 [1.18-1.93]), and more physiologic effects were reported among tobacco users (IRR: 1.42 [1.13-1.80]) and females (IRR: 1.48 [1.21-1.80]), but not among energy drink users. Energy drink users and substance users are more likely to report specific physiologic

  11. Caffeine Concentrations in Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, and Energy Drink Flavored E-liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G.; Lee, Grace E.; Kimbrell, J. Brett; Rybak, Michael E.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Most electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) contain a solution of propylene glycol/glycerin and nicotine, as well as flavors. E-cigarettes and their associated e-liquids are available in numerous flavor varieties. A subset of the flavor varieties include coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink, which, in beverage form, are commonly recognized sources of caffeine. Recently, some manufacturers have begun marketing e-liquid products as energy enhancers that contain caffeine as an additive. Methods A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantitation of caffeine in e-liquids was developed, optimized and validated. The method was then applied to assess caffeine concentrations in 44 flavored e-liquids from cartridges, disposables, and refill solutions. Products chosen were flavors traditionally associated with caffeine (ie, coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink), marketed as energy boosters, or labeled as caffeine-containing by the manufacturer. Results Caffeine was detected in 42% of coffee-flavored products, 66% of tea-flavored products, and 50% of chocolate-flavored e-liquids (limit of detection [LOD] – 0.04 μg/g). Detectable caffeine concentrations ranged from 3.3 μg/g to 703 μg/g. Energy drink-flavored products did not contain detectable concentrations of caffeine. Eleven of 12 products marketed as energy enhancers contained caffeine, though in widely varying concentrations (31.7 μg/g to 9290 μg/g). Conclusions E-liquid flavors commonly associated with caffeine content like coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink often contained caffeine, but at concentrations significantly lower than their dietary counterparts. Estimated daily exposures from all e-cigarette products containing caffeine were much less than ingestion of traditional caffeinated beverages like coffee. Implications This study presents an optimized and validated method for the measurement of caffeine in e-liquids. The method is applicable to all e

  12. Caffeine Concentrations in Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, and Energy Drink Flavored E-liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G; Lee, Grace E; Kimbrell, J Brett; Rybak, Michael E; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-04-01

    Most electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) contain a solution of propylene glycol/glycerin and nicotine, as well as flavors. E-cigarettes and their associated e-liquids are available in numerous flavor varieties. A subset of the flavor varieties include coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink, which, in beverage form, are commonly recognized sources of caffeine. Recently, some manufacturers have begun marketing e-liquid products as energy enhancers that contain caffeine as an additive. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantitation of caffeine in e-liquids was developed, optimized and validated. The method was then applied to assess caffeine concentrations in 44 flavored e-liquids from cartridges, disposables, and refill solutions. Products chosen were flavors traditionally associated with caffeine (ie, coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink), marketed as energy boosters, or labeled as caffeine-containing by the manufacturer. Caffeine was detected in 42% of coffee-flavored products, 66% of tea-flavored products, and 50% of chocolate-flavored e-liquids (limit of detection [LOD] - 0.04 µg/g). Detectable caffeine concentrations ranged from 3.3 µg/g to 703 µg/g. Energy drink-flavored products did not contain detectable concentrations of caffeine. Eleven of 12 products marketed as energy enhancers contained caffeine, though in widely varying concentrations (31.7 µg/g to 9290 µg/g). E-liquid flavors commonly associated with caffeine content like coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink often contained caffeine, but at concentrations significantly lower than their dietary counterparts. Estimated daily exposures from all e-cigarette products containing caffeine were much less than ingestion of traditional caffeinated beverages like coffee. This study presents an optimized and validated method for the measurement of caffeine in e-liquids. The method is applicable to all e-liquid matrices and could potentially be used to ensure regulatory

  13. Guaraná's Journey from Regional Tonic to Aphrodisiac and Global Energy Drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K., Sapindaceae is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Guaraná has long been used as a tonic and to treat various disorders in Brazil and abroad and became a national soda in Brazil about a century ago. In the last two decades or so, guaraná has emerged as a key ingredient in various ‘sports’ and energy drinks as well as concoctions that allegedly boost one's libido. For some time, guaraná's high caffeine content was thought to be a detriment because of health concerns about excessive intake of caffeine-rich drinks. But it is precisely this quality, and the fact that it has a mysterious name and comes from an exotic land, that has propelled guaraná into a global beverage.

  14. Water-induced thermogenesis reconsidered: the effects of osmolality and water temperature on energy expenditure after drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clive M; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    A recent study reported that drinking 500 ml of water causes a 30% increase in metabolic rate. If verified, this previously unrecognized thermogenic property of water would have important implications for weight-loss programs. However, the concept of a thermogenic effect of water is controversial because other studies have found that water drinking does not increase energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to test whether water drinking has a thermogenic effect in humans and, furthermore, determine whether the response is influenced by osmolality or by water temperature. This was a randomized, crossover design. The study was conducted at a university physiology laboratory. Participants included healthy young volunteer subjects. Intervention included drinking 7.5 ml/kg body weight (approximately 518 ml) of distilled water or 0.9% saline or 7% sucrose solution (positive control) on different days. In a subgroup of subjects, responses to cold water (3 C) were tested. Resting energy expenditure, assessed by indirect calorimetry for 30 min before and 90 min after the drinks, was measured. Energy expenditure did not increase after drinking either distilled water (P = 0.34) or 0.9% saline (P = 0.33). Drinking the 7% sucrose solution significantly increased energy expenditure (P water that had been cooled to 3 C caused a small increase in energy expenditure of 4.5% over 60 min (P water at room temperature did not increase energy expenditure. Cooling the water before drinking only stimulated a small thermogenic response, well below the theoretical energy cost of warming the water to body temperature. These results cast doubt on water as a thermogenic agent for the management of obesity.

  15. "High" motivation for alcohol: what are the practical effects of energy drinks on alcohol priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo

    2013-02-01

    While several researchers have proposed a causal relationship between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption and subsequent alcohol intake, there is a dearth of research exploring the potential mechanisms underpinning this association. Marczinski and colleagues (in press) report the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-groups study assessing whether an initial AmED dose primes an increased motivation to drink relative to alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) received either alcohol (0.91 ml/kg vodka), energy drink (ED; 1.82 ml/kg Red Bull(®) ), AmED, or a placebo beverage and then self-reported their motivation to drink via the Desire-for-Drug scale. Subjective ratings of "desire more alcohol" were significantly higher than predrink in the placebo, alcohol, and AmED conditions, with this effect apparent at more time points in the AmED condition. While it was concluded that EDs may increase alcohol priming, between-condition analyses revealed that ratings did not differ significantly in AmED and alcohol conditions, with moderate magnitude treatment effects at most, and ratings of desire generally closer to 0 (absence of desire) than 100 (very much desire). While the study by Marczinski and colleagues fills an important gap in the literature, direct measurement of AmED priming's effect on subsequent alcohol consumption using a within-subjects design and appropriate statistical comparison is required to (i) establish the practical implications of these results for AmED consumers and (ii) discount any individual differences in such priming effects. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. High stress, lack of sleep, low school performance, and suicide attempts are associated with high energy drink intake in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available Although an association between energy drinks and suicide has been suggested, few prior studies have considered the role of emotional factors including stress, sleep, and school performance in adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the association of energy drinks with suicide, independent of possible confounders including stress, sleep, and school performance.In total, 121,106 adolescents with 13-18 years olds from the 2014 and 2015 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were surveyed for age, sex, region of residence, economic level, paternal and maternal education level, sleep time, stress level, school performance, frequency of energy drink intake, and suicide attempts. Subjective stress levels were classified into severe, moderate, mild, a little, and no stress. Sleep time was divided into 6 groups: < 6 h; 6 ≤ h < 7; 7 ≤ h < 8; 8 ≤ h < 9; and ≥ 9 h. School performance was classified into 5 levels: A (highest, B (middle, high, C (middle, D (middle, low, and E (lowest. Frequency of energy drink consumption was divided into 3 groups: ≥ 3, 1-2, and 0 times a week. The associations of sleep time, stress level, and school performance with suicide attempts and the frequency of energy drink intake were analyzed using multiple and ordinal logistic regression analysis, respectively, with complex sampling. The relationship between frequency of energy drink intake and suicide attempts was analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling.Higher stress levels, lack of sleep, and low school performance were significantly associated with suicide attempts (each P < 0.001. These variables of high stress level, abnormal sleep time, and low school performance were also proportionally related with higher energy drink intake (P < 0.001. Frequent energy drink intake was significantly associated with suicide attempts in multiple logistic regression analyses (AOR for frequency of energy intake ≥ 3 times a week = 3.03, 95

  17. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research. PMID:22824297

  18. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennay, Amy; Lubman, Dan I

    2012-07-23

    Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research.

  19. Comparative effects of selected non-caffeinated rehydration sports drinks on short-term performance following moderate dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Peter G; Ward, Robert; Kandaswami, Chithan; Stohs, Sidney J

    2010-08-22

    The effect of moderate dehydration and consequent fluid replenishment on short-duration maximal treadmill performance was studied in eight healthy, fit (VO2max = 49.7 +/- 8.7 mL kg-1 min-1) males aged 28 +/- 7.5 yrs. The study involved a within subject, blinded, crossover, placebo design. Initially, all subjects performed a baseline exercise test using an individualized treadmill protocol structured to induce exhaustion in 7 to 10 min. On each of the three subsequent testing days, the subjects exercised at 70-75% VO2max for 60 min at 29-33 degrees C, resulting in a dehydration weight loss of 1.8-2.1% body weight. After 60 min of rest and recovery at 22 C, subjects performed the same treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion, which resulted in a small reduction in VO2max and a decline in treadmill performance by 3% relative to the baseline results. Following another 60 min rest and recovery, subjects ingested the same amount of fluid lost in the form of one of three lemon-flavored, randomly assigned commercial drinks, namely Crystal Light (placebo control), Gatorade(R) and Rehydrate Electrolyte Replacement Drink, and then repeated the treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion. VO2max returned to baseline levels with Rehydrate, while there was only a slight improvement with Gatorade and Crystal Light. There were no changes in heart rate or ventilation with all three different replacement drinks. Relative to the dehydrated state, a 6.5% decrease in treadmill performance time occurred with Crystal Light, while replenishment with Gatorade, which contains fructose, glucose, sodium and potassium, resulted in a 2.1% decrease. In contrast, treatment with Rehydrate, which comprises fructose, glucose polymer, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, amino acids, thiols and vitamins, resulted in a 7.3% increase in treadmill time relative to that of the dehydrated state. The results indicate that constituents other than water, simple transportable monosaccharides and sodium are

  20. Comparative effects of selected non-caffeinated rehydration sports drinks on short-term performance following moderate dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snell Peter G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of moderate dehydration and consequent fluid replenishment on short-duration maximal treadmill performance was studied in eight healthy, fit (VO2max = 49.7 ± 8.7 mL kg-1 min-1 males aged 28 ± 7.5 yrs. Methods The study involved a within subject, blinded, crossover, placebo design. Initially, all subjects performed a baseline exercise test using an individualized treadmill protocol structured to induce exhaustion in 7 to 10 min. On each of the three subsequent testing days, the subjects exercised at 70-75% VO2max for 60 min at 29-33°C, resulting in a dehydration weight loss of 1.8-2.1% body weight. After 60 min of rest and recovery at 22 C, subjects performed the same treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion, which resulted in a small reduction in VO2max and a decline in treadmill performance by 3% relative to the baseline results. Following another 60 min rest and recovery, subjects ingested the same amount of fluid lost in the form of one of three lemon-flavored, randomly assigned commercial drinks, namely Crystal Light (placebo control, Gatorade® and Rehydrate Electrolyte Replacement Drink, and then repeated the treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion. Results VO2max returned to baseline levels with Rehydrate, while there was only a slight improvement with Gatorade and Crystal Light. There were no changes in heart rate or ventilation with all three different replacement drinks. Relative to the dehydrated state, a 6.5% decrease in treadmill performance time occurred with Crystal Light, while replenishment with Gatorade, which contains fructose, glucose, sodium and potassium, resulted in a 2.1% decrease. In contrast, treatment with Rehydrate, which comprises fructose, glucose polymer, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, amino acids, thiols and vitamins, resulted in a 7.3% increase in treadmill time relative to that of the dehydrated state. Conclusions The results indicate that constituents other than water

  1. Perceptions and Knowledge of Caffeinated Energy Drinks: Results of Focus Groups With Canadian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cassondra; White, Christine M; Bowman, Carolyn; Fenton, Nancy; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David

    2017-04-01

    To examine use, knowledge, and perceptions of caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) among youth. Qualitative research using focus group discussions (n = 4). Two Canadian cities (Toronto and Montreal). Youth aged 12-18 years (n = 41). Perceived definitions of CEDs, reasons for use, knowledge of health effects, use with alcohol, marketing perceptions, and use and understanding of cautionary statements on packaging. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth identified CEDs as products that provide energy and contain caffeine and sugar. Compared with mainstream CED brands and energy shots, youth were less likely to perceive Gatorade, Coca-Cola, and a Starbucks beverage as energy drinks, despite some ambiguity. The majority of participants believed that CEDs, including mixed with alcohol, were not necessarily harmful in moderation and that marketing was targeted toward older youth and young adults. Awareness of cautionary statements on CEDs was low; cautionary statements were perceived as difficult to find and read owing to the design and small font. Findings suggest a need to increase public education regarding the potential risks of CED consumption, including enhancements to the mandated cautionary statements, with greater attention to the impact of CED marketing on youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... won't really do you much harm either. Energy drinks have lots of caffeine, though, so no one should drink them before ... re competing. Never drink energy drinks before exercising. Energy drinks contain a large amount of caffeine and other ingredients that have caffeine-like effects. ...

  3. 'High' risk? A systematic review of the acute outcomes of mixing alcohol with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Amy; Pennay, Amy; Droste, Nicolas; Bruno, Raimondo; Lubman, Dan I

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is a relatively new consumption trend generating increasing concern regarding potential adverse effects. Despite the political and health imperative, there has been no systematic and independent synthesis of the literature to determine whether or not AmED offers additional harms relative to alcohol. The aim of this study was to review the evidence about whether co-consumption of energy drinks and alcohol, relative to alcohol alone, alters: (i) physiological, psychological, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes; (ii) hazardous drinking practices; and (iii) risk-taking behaviour. Pubmed, PsycInfo and Embase databases were searched until May 2013 for papers outlining descriptive, observational analytical and human experimental studies which compared target outcomes for AmED versus alcohol consumers (between-subjects), or AmED versus alcohol consumption (within-subjects). Odds ratios were calculated for target outcomes following screening, data extraction and quality assessment. Data were extracted from 19 papers. Analyses typically revealed increased odds of self-reported stimulation-based outcomes and decreased odds of sedation-based physiological and psychological outcomes relative to when alcohol was consumed alone, as indicated by rigorous cross-sectional descriptive research. These findings typically have not been reflected in experimental research, due possibly to the low doses administered relative to typical self-reported 'real-life' intake. AmED consumers generally report more hazardous alcohol consumption patterns and greater engagement in risk-taking behaviour than alcohol consumers. While most studies had equivocal findings, two studies showed lower odds of risk-taking behaviour for AmED relative to alcohol drinking sessions but limitations with respect to the outcome measures used restrict conclusions with regard to the behavioural outcomes of AmED use. Mixing alcohol with energy drinks may exert a dual effect

  4. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Consumption Patterns and Motivations for Use in U.S. College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile A. Marczinski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED. However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers, 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.

  5. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: consumption patterns and motivations for use in U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2011-08-01

    Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.

  6. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Consumption Patterns and Motivations for Use in U.S. College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2011-01-01

    Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking. PMID:21909303

  7. Gold Standard or Fool's Gold? The Efficacy of Displacement Variables as Indicators of Energy Expenditure in Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; Peeling, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, the use of player tracking technology to monitor physical work output has become established practice in many team sports. Early tracking systems were manual in nature, relying on subjective assessments and arbitrary classifications of movement intensity. Poor spatial and temporal resolution meant that only gross displacement measures could be used to infer energy demands. However, the advent and evolution of automated systems, with higher sampling rates and improved accuracy, have enabled data collection to occur on a mass scale, and served as a catalyst for extensive research into the demands of team sport activity, including comparisons between different groups of athletes, and the effects of various interventions on performance. The inherent assumption with this research is that, based on steady-state models where energy cost is independent of speed, total distance and average speed are indicative of the amount and rate of work done, respectively. This assumption could be justified if the activity was performed at a constant speed in a straight line. However, team sport movement involves continual changes in both speed and direction, both of which increase energy cost. Accordingly, new models have emerged that incorporate both speed and acceleration to determine metabolic power. This provides a more complete measure of energy expenditure in intermittent activity, and is potentially more suitable than displacement variables for research into the demands of team sports.

  8. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  9. The multiplicative effect of combining alcohol with energy drinks on adolescent gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Canale, Natale; Potente, Roberta; Scalese, Marco; Griffiths, Mark D; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2018-07-01

    There has been increased concern about the negative effects of adolescents consuming a combination of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). To date, few studies have focused on AmED use and gambling. The present study analyzed the multiplicative effect of AmED consumption, compared to alcohol alone, on the likelihood of at-risk or problem gambling during adolescence. Data from the ESPAD®Italia 2015 study, a cross-sectional survey conducted in a nationally representative sample of students (ages 15 to 19years) were used to examine the association between self-reported AmED use (≥6 times,≥10 times, and ≥20 times during the last month) and self-reported gambling severity. Multivariate models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios to evaluate the association between alcohol use, AmED use, and gambling among a representative sample of adolescents who reported gambling in the last year and completed a gambling severity scale (n=4495). Among the 19% students classed as at-risk and problem gamblers, 43.9% were classed as AmED consumers, while 23.6% were classed as alcohol consumers (i.e. did not mix alcohol with energy drinks). In multivariate analyses that controlled for covariates, AmED consumers were three times more likely to be at-risk and problem gamblers (OR=3.05) compared to non-consuming adolescents, while the effect became less pronounced with considering those who consumed alcohol without the addition of energy drinks (OR=1.37). The present study clearly established that consuming AmED might pose a significantly greater risk of experiencing gambling-related problems among adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  11. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi J D

    2016-01-02

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  12. [Fill it up...! Combined consumption of alcohol with energy drinks and its correlation with risk taking behaviour among young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradvohl, Edina; Vida, Katalin; Rácz, József

    2015-07-05

    In Hungary and all around the world the incidence of consumption of energy drinks together with alcohol has increased among adolescents and young adults. The foremost aim of this survey was to find out whether alcohol mixed with energy drinks can enhance the appearance of other forms of risky behaviour among young adults. In spring 2013 the authors carried out a quantitative sociological survey at three faculties of two major universities in Budapest, Hungary. The survey showed that 1) consumers, who mixed alcohol with energy drinks, were likely to drink more alcohol both at parties and on ordinary days, and they took part in binge drinking more frequently than those consuming only alcohol; 2) students drank significantly less alcohol when they mixed it with energy drink. The conflicts of the results showed that even at the starting point there was a clear distinction between the two groups, moreover, it is not yet clear what interactions the combined effect of caffeine and alcohol can trigger in the behaviour of the individual.

  13. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy

  14. Thrombocytopenia induced by a taurine-containing energy drink: an adverse reaction to herbal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pasin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia is a well-recognized adverse effect of many drugs. The association of thrombocytopenia with herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods and beverages, complementary or alternative medicines, has been rarely described. There are reports of thrombocytopenia caused by quinine-containing beverages, cow�s milk, cranberry juice, Jui, a Chinese herbal tea, Lupinus termis bean and tahini. A definite evidence of a causal association with thrombocytopenia is warranted; nevertheless not always there is provided probable or possible evidence in the association with thrombocytopenia. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of thrombocytopenia induced by taurine, present in an energy drink prescribed to our patient as tonic treatment.

  15. Energy drinks: review of performance benefits, health concerns, and use by military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lucas A; Foster, David; McDowell, Jackie C

    2014-04-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are highly caffeinated beverages usually containing herbal ingredients promoted and consumed for purported improvements in attention and athletic performance. The popularity of EDs among adolescents and young adults has steadily increased for more than a decade. Reports suggest U.S. military populations consume EDs with greater frequency as compared to age-matched civilian populations. This article reviews the literature and outlines the current body of evidence evaluating the human performance benefits and potential harms associated with ED use. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Comparison of caffeine disposition following administration by oral solution (energy drink) and inspired powder (AeroShot) in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizure, S Casey; Meibohm, Bernd; Nelson, Kembral; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Parker, Robert B

    2017-12-01

    To determine the disposition and effects of caffeine after administration using a new dosage form (AeroShot) that delivers caffeine by inspiration of a fine powder into the oral cavity and compare it to an equivalent dose of an oral solution (energy drink) as the reference standard. Healthy human subjects (n = 17) inspired a 100 mg caffeine dose using the AeroShot device or consumed an energy drink on separate study days. Heart rate, blood pressure and subject assessments of effects were measured over an 8-h period. Plasma concentrations o